Cicek, Fatma Gozalan; Taspinar, Mehmet
Problem Statement: The current study investigates whether the learning environment designed based on the laboratory control system affects the academic achievement, the attitude toward the learning-teaching process and the retention of the students in computer education. Purpose of Study: The study aims to identify the laboratory control system…
BOOS, ROBERT W.; HILLERICH, ROBERT L.
TWO DISPARATE STUDIES WERE REPLICATED WITH A PUBLIC SCHOOL POPULATION USED BY HILLERICH IN A 4-YEAR STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF HANDEDNESS AND EYEDNESS. SUBJECTS WERE 273 SEVENTH AND EIGHTH GRADERS WHO REMAINED FROM AN ORIGINAL POPULATION OF 400. TESTS WERE ADMINISTERED TO DETERMINE EYE DOMINANCE, HANDEDNESS, CONTROLLING EYE, READING ACHIEVEMENT,…
Hillman, C H; Pontifex, M B; Raine, L B; Castelli, D M; Hall, E E; Kramer, A F
The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indexes of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included 20 preadolescent participants (age=9.5+/-0.5 years; eight female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 min of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e. walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further support the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan.
Gómez, David Maximiliano; Jiménez, Abelino; Bobadilla, Roberto; Reyes, Cristián; Dartnell, Pablo
Individual differences in inhibitory control have been shown to relate to general mathematics achievement, but whether this relation varies for specific areas within mathematics is a question that remains open. Here, we evaluate if inhibitory processes play a specific role in the particular case of fraction comparison, where learners must ignore…
Hofferber, Natalia; Eckes, Alexander; Wilde, Matthias
Grolnick and Ryan (1987) assume that an autonomy supportive environment leads to higher learner engagement and thus to greater achievements and deeper understanding of content. In school, knowledge acquisition (rote learning as well as conceptual learning) are regarded as most important. In this study, we examined the effects of teachers' autonomy…
Kim, ChanMin; Hodges, Charles B.
We designed and developed an emotion control treatment and investigated its effects on college students' academic emotions, motivation, and achievement in an online remedial mathematics course. The treatment group showed more positive emotions of enjoyment and pride than the control group. The treatment group also showed a higher level of…
Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N
The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to be academically at-risk at entry to first grade. Analyses accounted for clustering effects, covariates, baselines of effortful control measures, and prior levels of achievement. Even with such conservative statistical controls, interactive effects were found for task accuracy and positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement. Results suggest that task accuracy served as a protective factor so that children with high task accuracy performed well academically despite not having positive teacher-student relationships. Further, positive teacher-student relationships served as a compensatory factor so that children with low task accuracy performed just as well as those with high task accuracy if they were paired with a positive and supportive teacher. Importantly, results indicate that the influence of positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement was most pronounced for students with low effortful control on tasks that require fine motor skills, accuracy, and attention-related skills. Study results have implications for narrowing achievement disparities for academically at-risk children.
Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.
The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to be academically at-risk at entry to first grade. Analyses accounted for clustering effects, covariates, baselines of effortful control measures, and prior levels of achievement. Even with such conservative statistical controls, interactive effects were found for task accuracy and positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement. Results suggest that task accuracy served as a protective factor so that children with high task accuracy performed well academically despite not having positive teacher-student relationships. Further, positive teacher-student relationships served as a compensatory factor so that children with low task accuracy performed just as well as those with high task accuracy if they were paired with a positive and supportive teacher. Importantly, results indicate that the influence of positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement was most pronounced for students with low effortful control on tasks that require fine motor skills, accuracy, and attention-related skills. Study results have implications for narrowing achievement disparities for academically at-risk children. PMID:20161421
Fedewa, Alicia L.; Ahn, Soyeon; Erwin, Heather; Davis, Matthew C.
Existing literature shows promising effects of physical activity on children's cognitive outcomes. This study assessed via a randomized, controlled design whether additional curricular physical activity during the school day resulted in gains for children's fluid intelligence and standardized achievement outcomes. Participants were children…
Introduction Although the effects of aerobic physical activity (APA) on children’s physical health is well characterized, the effect of aerobic physical activity on cognition, academic achievement, and psychosocial function has not yet been established. This systematic review provides an overview of research elucidating the relationship between aerobic physical activity and children’s cognition, academic achievement, and psychosocial function. Methods A systematic review of English articles was performed in April 2013 using MEDLINE, Cochrane, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and EMBASE. Additional studies were identified through back-searching bibliographies. Only randomized control trials with an intervention of aerobic physical activity in children younger than 19 years that measured psychological, behavioral, cognitive, or academic outcomes were included. Results We found 8 relevant randomized control trials that met our inclusion criteria and extracted relevant data and evaluated the methodologic quality of the studies. Of the 8 studies identified, 2 studies were crossover randomized control trials studying the effects of acute aerobic physical activity on cognitive performance. Six studies were parallel-group randomized control studies, of which only 2 had a follow-up period of longer than 6 months. All studies showed that APA had a generally positive impact on children’s cognition and psychosocial function. However, this relationship was found to be minimal in many studies and in some measures, no significant improvement was seen at all. There was no documentation of APA having any negative impact on children’s cognition and psychosocial health, even in cases where school curriculum time was reassigned from classroom teaching to aerobic physical activity. Conclusion APA is positively associated with cognition, academic achievement, behavior, and psychosocial functioning outcomes. More rigorous trials with adequate sample sizes assessing the impact of APA on
Roca, Anna; Afolabi, Muhammed O.; Saidu, Yauba; Kampmann, Beate
The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa has already caused substantial mortality and dire human and economic consequences. It continues to represent an alarming public health threat in the region and beyond and jeopardizes the provision of health care and other services in the affected countries. The scale of the epidemic has accelerated research efforts for diagnostics, treatment, and prevention galvanized through increased availability of funding. Our knowledge relating to the virus, disease pathogenesis, risk factors, dynamics of transmission, and epidemic control is increasing, and sociocultural factors have emerged as critical determinants for the success and failure of control efforts. However, there is a long way to go. In this review we summarize the current knowledge, examine the sociocultural context in West Africa, and outline priority areas for future research. PMID:25843598
interventions and recognized the value of sustaining their use. Thus, sustaining high effective coverage of vector control interventions, which is crucial for reaching malaria elimination in Zanzibar, can be achieved by maintaining effective delivery of these interventions. PMID:23360479
Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.
The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to…
da Silva, Luiz Carlos Corrêa; de Araújo, Alberto José; de Queiroz, Ângela Maria Dias; Sales, Maria da Penha Uchoa; Castellano, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira
ABSTRACT Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases. PMID:27832238
Silva, Luiz Carlos Corrêa da; Araújo, Alberto José de; Queiroz, Ângela Maria Dias de; Sales, Maria da Penha Uchoa; Castellano, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira
Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases. RESUMO O tabagismo é o fator de risco mais prevenível e controlável em saúde e, por isso, precisa ter a máxima atenção e ser muito mais enfocado por todos os profissionais da saúde. O tabaco é um produto de alta rentabilidade pela sua grande produção e pelo elevado número de consumidores. As políticas de controle e os recursos terapêuticos para o tabagismo avançaram muito nos últimos anos e têm mostrado resultados altamente satisfatórios, particularmente no Brasil. Entretanto, ainda resta um longo caminho a ser percorrido para que se possa considerar o tabagismo como uma doença controlada sob o ponto de vista da saúde pública. Já se observam modificações do comportamento da sociedade com relação ao tabagismo, mas ainda em escala muito lenta, de modo que os pneumologistas têm nesse setor um campo
Respondek, Lisa; Seufert, Tina; Stupnisky, Robert; Nett, Ulrike E
The present study addressed concerns over the high risk of university students' academic failure. It examined how perceived academic control and academic emotions predict undergraduate students' academic success, conceptualized as both low dropout intention and high achievement (indicated by GPA). A cross-sectional survey was administered to 883 undergraduate students across all disciplines of a German STEM orientated university. The study additionally compared freshman students (N = 597) vs. second-year students (N = 286). Using structural equation modeling, for the overall sample of undergraduate students we found that perceived academic control positively predicted enjoyment and achievement, as well as negatively predicted boredom and anxiety. The prediction of dropout intention by perceived academic control was fully mediated via anxiety. When taking perceived academic control into account, we found no specific impact of enjoyment or boredom on the intention to dropout and no specific impact of all three academic emotions on achievement. The multi-group analysis showed, however, that perceived academic control, enjoyment, and boredom among second-year students had a direct relationship with dropout intention. A major contribution of the present study was demonstrating the important roles of perceived academic control and anxiety in undergraduate students' academic success. Concerning corresponding institutional support and future research, the results suggested distinguishing incoming from advanced undergraduate students.
Respondek, Lisa; Seufert, Tina; Stupnisky, Robert; Nett, Ulrike E.
The present study addressed concerns over the high risk of university students' academic failure. It examined how perceived academic control and academic emotions predict undergraduate students' academic success, conceptualized as both low dropout intention and high achievement (indicated by GPA). A cross-sectional survey was administered to 883 undergraduate students across all disciplines of a German STEM orientated university. The study additionally compared freshman students (N = 597) vs. second-year students (N = 286). Using structural equation modeling, for the overall sample of undergraduate students we found that perceived academic control positively predicted enjoyment and achievement, as well as negatively predicted boredom and anxiety. The prediction of dropout intention by perceived academic control was fully mediated via anxiety. When taking perceived academic control into account, we found no specific impact of enjoyment or boredom on the intention to dropout and no specific impact of all three academic emotions on achievement. The multi-group analysis showed, however, that perceived academic control, enjoyment, and boredom among second-year students had a direct relationship with dropout intention. A major contribution of the present study was demonstrating the important roles of perceived academic control and anxiety in undergraduate students' academic success. Concerning corresponding institutional support and future research, the results suggested distinguishing incoming from advanced undergraduate students. PMID:28326043
Considerations in designing an effective control strategy related to air quality, controlling pollution sources, need for regional or national controls, steps to developing a control strategy, and additional EPA resources.
Nájera, J A
scale was steered by the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations and greatly supported by the Rockefeller Foundation. Perhaps the most important contribution of this period was the development of malaria epidemiology, including the study of the genesis of epidemics and their possible forecasting and prevention. Although the great effectiveness of DDT was perhaps the main determinant for proposing the global eradication of the disease in the 1950s, it was the confidence in the epidemiological knowledge and the prestige of malariology, which gave credibility to the proposal at the political level. The second part deals with the global malaria eradication campaign of the 1950s and 1960s. It recognises the enormous impact of the eradication effort in the consolidation of the control successes of the first half of the century, as well as its influence in the development of planning of health programmes. Nevertheless, it also stresses the negative influence that the failure to achieve its utopian expectations had on the general disappointment and slow progress of malaria control, which characterised the last third of the century. The paper then analyses the evolution of malaria control funding, which often appears out of tune with political statements. The fourth part is devoted to the search for realistic approaches to malaria control, leading to the adoption of the global malaria control strategy in Amsterdam in 1992, and the challenge, at the end of the century, to rally forces commensurate with the magnitude of the problem, while aiming at realistic objectives. After discussing the conflicting views on the relations between malaria and socio-economic development and the desirable integration of malaria control into sustainable development, the paper ends with some considerations on the perspectives of malaria control, as seen by the author in early 1998, just before the launching of the current Roll Back Malaria initiative by WHO.
Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.
Research Findings: The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool children…
Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.
The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool children (49% female)…
This short survey attempted to highlight some achievements of the latest active control applications. Except for the active control of a one-dimensional sound field in ducts and active headphones, the applications for active control technology are still being developed. Although the principles of active control are simple, their applications still require substantial research and modeling of the sound fields to find optimal solutions. There is no doubt that active control of sound field triggered extensive research of the fundamental properties of the sound field which goes beyond the textbook simplifications. Also, new hardware, particularly actuators, are under development. As more realism is brought into assessment of applicability of active control, we will see in the future increasing confidence of industry to adopt this new technology.
Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores
This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation.
Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores
This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423
Gorton, Delvina; Turley, Maria; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John
Background Free school breakfast programmes (SBPs) exist in a number of high-income countries, but their effects on educational outcomes have rarely been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. Methods A 1-year stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 14 New Zealand schools in low socioeconomic resource areas. Participants were 424 children, mean age 9±2 years, 53% female. The intervention was a free daily SBP. The primary outcome was children's school attendance. Secondary outcomes were academic achievement, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, behaviour, short-term hunger, breakfast habits and food security. Results There was no statistically significant effect of the breakfast programme on children's school attendance. The odds of children achieving an attendance rate <95% was 0.76 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.02) during the intervention phase and 0.93 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.31) during the control phase, giving an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.11), p=0.19. There was a significant decrease in children's self-reported short-term hunger during the intervention phase compared with the control phase, demonstrated by an increase of 8.6 units on the Freddy satiety scale (95% CI 3.4 to 13.7, p=0.001). There were no effects of the intervention on any other outcome. Conclusions A free SBP did not have a significant effect on children's school attendance or academic achievement but had significant positive effects on children's short-term satiety ratings. More frequent programme attendance may be required to influence school attendance and academic achievement. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR)—ACTRN12609000854235. PMID:23043203
Ge, Tian; Tian, Xiaoying; Kurths, Jürgen; Feng, Jianfeng; Lin, Wei
In this paper, we develop an approach to achieve either frequency or amplitude modulation of an oscillator merely through feedback control. We present and implement a unified theory of our approach for any finite-dimensional continuous dynamical system that exhibits oscillatory behavior. The approach is illustrated not only for the normal forms of dynamical systems but also for representative biological models, such as the isolated and coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo model. We demonstrate the potential usefulness of our approach to uncover the mechanisms of frequency and amplitude modulations experimentally observed in a wide range of real systems.
Ge, Tian; Tian, Xiaoying; Kurths, Jürgen; Feng, Jianfeng; Lin, Wei
In this paper, we develop an approach to achieve either frequency or amplitude modulation of an oscillator merely through feedback control. We present and implement a unified theory of our approach for any finite-dimensional continuous dynamical system that exhibits oscillatory behavior. The approach is illustrated not only for the normal forms of dynamical systems but also for representative biological models, such as the isolated and coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo model. We demonstrate the potential usefulness of our approach to uncover the mechanisms of frequency and amplitude modulations experimentally observed in a wide range of real systems.
Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy
Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…
Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Kanny, Mary Allison
Research in the past decade suggests that a persistent achievement gap between students from low-income minority backgrounds and higher-income white backgrounds may be rooted in theories of student motivation and youth purpose. Yet limited research exists regarding the role of purpose on positive youth development as it pertains to academic achievement. Using a sample of 209 high school students, this study examines the effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote purpose development and internal control over academic success in high school students from a low-socioeconomic-status community. Findings reveal that a short-term intervention was effective in significantly increasing internal control over academic success and purpose in life for students participating in the intervention group. In addition, analysis of academic achievement for students who experienced positive gains in internal control and purpose demonstrates significant gains in academic achievement as measured by grade point average. Implications are made for further study of internal control and life purpose as a means of academic intervention in the effort to address the achievement gap.
Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; de Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão; Ploubidis, George B.; Mari, Jair de Jesus
Introduction Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age) with reading difficulties. Method 235 children with reading difficulties in 10 schools participated in a five-month, randomized clinical trial in cluster (RCT) in an impoverished zone within the city of São Paulo to test the effects of music education intervention while assessing reading skills and academic achievement during the school year. Five schools were chosen randomly to incorporate music classes (n = 114), and five served as controls (n = 121). Two different methods of analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention: The standard method was intention-to-treat (ITT), and the other was the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) estimation method, which took compliance status into account. Results The ITT analyses were not very promising; only one marginal effect existed for the rate of correct real words read per minute. Indeed, considering ITT, improvements were observed in the secondary outcomes (slope of Portuguese = 0.21 [p<0.001] and slope of math = 0.25 [p<0.001]). As for CACE estimation (i.e., complier children versus non-complier children), more promising effects were observed in terms of the rate of correct words read per minute [β = 13.98, p<0.001] and phonological awareness [β = 19.72, p<0.001] as well as secondary outcomes (academic achievement in Portuguese [β = 0.77, p<0.0001] and math [β = 0.49, p<0.001] throughout the school year). Conclusion The results may be seen as promising, but they are not, in themselves
Gama, Elizabeth Maria Pinheiro
Assigned 139 Brazilian women to neutral, affiliation arousal, and achievement arousal conditions based on their levels of achievement (Ach) and affiliative (Aff) needs. Results of story analyses revealed that achievement arousal increased scores of high Ach subjects and that high Aff subjects obtained higher scores than low Aff subjects. (BL)
Bryant, Napoleon, Jr.; Anderson, Hans A.
Effects of performance objectives on achievement of black inner city pupils were studied. Two groups of trained and untrained teachers in preparing performance objectives were formed. Results showed positive effects of teachers trained in the use of performance objectives. (PS)
Ma, Xin; McIntyre, Laureen J.
Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Mathematics Participation (N = 1,518 students from 34 schools), we investigated the effects of pure and applied mathematics courses on mathematics achievement, controlling for prior mathematics achievement. Results of multilevel modelling showed that the effects of pure mathematics were significant after…
Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham
This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.
Tracz, Susan M.; Gibson, Sherri
Teacher efficacy is a critical variable in teacher and school effectiveness. The Teacher Efficacy Scale was used to assess teacher efficacy and investigate its relationship to teacher use of time, student time on task, and student achievement. Classroom observations were gathered from 14 teachers, grades 4-6, at two schools. Teacher allocation of…
Sun, Jingping; Leithwood, Kenneth
Based on a synthesis of unpublished transformational school leadership (TSL) research completed during the last 14 years, this study inquired into the nature of TSL and its effects on student achievement using review methods including standard meta-analysis and vote-counting techniques. Results identify a wider range of TSL practices than…
Katayama, Andrew D.; Crooks, Steven M.; Nelson, Charles E.
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of notetaking on achievement while studying electronic text. In the first experiment, 83 students studied 1 of 3 sets of notes (partial, skeletal, and control) for the effects on posttest performance (on fact, structure, and transfer tests). No differences were found between groups on the…
Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards (MACTs) are applicable requirements under the Title V operating permit program. This is a resource for permit writers and reviewers to learn about the rules and explore other helpful tools.
This July 2006 document is intended to help owners and operators of ethylene processes understand and comply with EPA's maximum achievable control technology standards promulgated on July 12, 2002, as amended on April 13, 2005 and April 20, 2006.
Suphi, Nilgun; Yaratan, Huseyin
In this study the effects of learning approaches, locus of control (LOC), socio-economic status and self-efficacy on undergraduate students in North Cyprus was investigated. Four questionnaires were administered on 99 students in order to collect data regarding the learning approaches, LOC, self-efficacy and demographic factors. High cumulative…
Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others
The study investigated (a) relationships between measures on study habits and attitudes, locus of control, achieving tendency, and semester grade-point averages (SGPA), (b) differences between the sexes on the above mentioned variables, and (c) best predictor of SGPA. The subjects were 39 males and 81 females. There were a number of significant…
Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani
This study hypothesized that students' loci of control affected their language achievement. 198 (N = 198) EFL students took the Rotter's (1966) locus of control test and were classified as locus-internal (ni = 78), and locus-external (ne = 120). They then took their ordinary courses and at the end of the semester, they were given their exams.…
A study examined the effects of peer tutoring on the achievement of fourth grade remedial readers. Subjects (N=30) were randomly assigned to a control or an experimental group, both of which were pretested using the "Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests" and both received regular classroom instruction. The experimental group received tutoring for ten…
This paper reports the results of an investigation on the effect of cooperative learning on academic achievement of physics course. Cooperative learning was employed to experimental group and conventional teaching method was used for control group. Sampling of the study consists of 15-16 years old 220 students at high school in Iran. The progress…
Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Haugen, Rg; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Liew, Jeffrey; Kupfer, Anne
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to test the premise that children's effortful control (EC) is prospectively related to their academic achievement and to specify mechanisms through which EC is related to academic success. We used data from 214 children (M age at Time 1 [T1] = 73 months) to test whether social functioning (e.g.,…
Arms control purposes include strengthening the framework of deterrence and reducing the threat of the use of nuclear weapons, reducing the dangers of attack and accidental nuclear war, and allowing more resources for the civilian economy. The paper briefly describes achievements in arms control since World War II. These include the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABMT)-SALT I, SALT II, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), and Nuclear-Free Zones treaties. The author also discusses his views on what the priorities of arms control activities should be. (ACR)
Leithwood, Kenneth; Mascall, Blair
Purpose: This study aimed to estimate the impact of collective, or shared, leadership on key teacher variables and on student achievement. As well, it inquired about the relative contribution of different sources of such leadership and whether differences among patterns of collective leadership were related to differences in student achievement.…
Brueckner, Keith A.
A method of achieving the controlled release of thermonuclear energy by illuminating a minute, solid density, hollow shell of a mixture of material such as deuterium and tritium with a high intensity, uniformly converging laser wave to effect an extremely rapid build-up of energy in inwardly traveling shock waves to implode the shell creating thermonuclear conditions causing a reaction of deuterons and tritons and a resultant high energy thermonuclear burn. Utilizing the resulting energy as a thermal source and to breed tritium or plutonium. The invention also contemplates a laser source wherein the flux level is increased with time to reduce the initial shock heating of fuel and provide maximum compression after implosion; and, in addition, computations and an equation are provided to enable the selection of a design having a high degree of stability and a dependable fusion performance by establishing a proper relationship between the laser energy input and the size and character of the selected material for the fusion capsule.
Pinxten, Maarten; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan; D'Haenens, Ellen
Background: The relation between academic self-concept and achievement has been examined in a large number of studies. The majority of these studies have found evidence for a reciprocal effects model. However, there is an ongoing debate on how students' achievement should be measured and whether the type of achievement indicator (grades, tests,…
Sterbin, Allan; Rakow, Ernest
The direct effects of locus of control and self-esteem on standardized test scores were studied. The relationships among the standardized test scores and measures of locus of control and self-esteem for 12,260 students from the National Education Longitudinal Study 1994 database were examined, using the same definition of locus of control and…
Reported is a study of the relationship between degree of concept relatedness of an instructional sequence and a person's locus of control orientation. Locus of control orientation for the 541 high school biology students involved in the study was evaluated as measured by the adult Nowicki-Strickland scale. The experimental instructional treatment…
Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin; Sahin, Mehmet; Acikgoz, Kamile Un
This article reports on the influence of learning strategy instruction on student teachers' physics achievement, attitude towards physics, and achievement motivation. A pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design with matching control group was used in the study. Two groups of student teachers (n = 75) who were enrolled in an introductory physics…
Smith , a career foreign service officer and former Deputy Chief ofMission, the strength ofDOS is its ability to operate with minimal guidance.28 The...DOS’s five-year strategic plan may offer the minimal guidance Mr. Smith suggests. This five- year plan, which is provided by the Secretary of State...outlines the departments overall strategy, which ~ves the latitude required to achieve its mission goals. Mr. Smith also recognizes that, "Most State
A Long-Term Experimental Case Study of the Ecological Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness of Invasive Plant Management in Achieving Conservation Goals: Bitou Bush Control in Booderee National Park in Eastern Australia
Lindenmayer, David B.; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J.; Catford, Jane A.
Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at
A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.
Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J; Catford, Jane A
Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at
Zimmermann, Friederike; Schütte, Kerstin; Taskinen, Päivi; Köller, Olaf
Student misbehavior is a pervasive problem and may seriously affect academic achievement. Previous research hints at different effects depending on whether achievement tests or achievement judgments are used as academic outcomes. Previous research also indicates that low achievement can conversely contribute to problem behavior and that low…
Ghonsooly, Behzad; Shirvan, Majid Elahi
Locus of control, a psychological construct, has been the focus of attention in recent decades. Psychologists have discussed the effect of locus of control on achieving life goals in social/psychological interactions. While learning a foreign language involves both social interactions and psychological processes, the role and relation of locus of…
Recombinant vaccines are available for the control of the tick Boophilus microplus, while progress has been made in the development of vaccines against Lucilia cuprina and Chrysomya bezziana. Literature suggests that the control of other ectoparasites is feasible, either through the duplication in a vaccine of naturally acquired immunity or through 'concealed' antigen vaccines. Major deficiencies in our current knowledge however point to possible research opportunities for the future. The identification of protective antigens from all species is proceeding slowly, particularly for the antigens of naturally acquired immunity. Our capacity to produce effective recombinant antigens has progressed greatly, though there remains a major difficulty where some or all of the protective effect is due to immunogenic oligosaccharide. Our understanding of protective mechanisms is limited. The delivery of the appropriate immunological response remains difficult. Nevertheless, some of the most critical areas of ignorance are in basic biological issues: factors which affect the susceptibility of particular pest species to immunological attack and the implications of vaccine-induced effects for pest and disease control under field conditions. Increasingly too, effective pest control is likely to demand the integration of a variety of control technologies. The study of this integration is in its infancy.
Lamb, John; Lewis, Mark; Gross, Sarah
Hurricane Katrina caused severe physical damage to the Gulf Coast states of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Homes and businesses were destroyed. Natural habitats were annihilated, and many Americans were displaced for days, weeks, and even years. This study investigated the within-subject effects and contrasts of poverty, rurality, and…
Van der Weijden, Fridus A; Van der Sluijs, Eveline; Ciancio, Sebastian G; Slot, Dagmar E
Also note that structured abstracts are not allowed per journal style: What is the effect of a mouthwash containing various active chemical ingredients on plaque control and managing gingivitis in adults based on evidence gathered from existing systematic reviews? The summarized evidence suggests that mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine(CHX) and essential oils (EO) had a large effect supported by a strong body of evidence. Also there was strong evidence for a moderate effect of cetylpyridinium chloride(CPC). Evidence suggests that a CHX mouthwash is the first choice, the most reliable alternative is EO. No difference between CHX and EO with respect to gingivitis was observed.
Haughney, John; Price, David; Kaplan, Alan; Chrystyn, Henry; Horne, Rob; May, Nick; Moffat, Mandy; Versnel, Jennifer; Shanahan, Eamonn R; Hillyer, Elizabeth V; Tunsäter, Alf; Bjermer, Leif
Achieving asthma control remains an elusive goal for the majority of patients worldwide. Ensuring a correct diagnosis of asthma is the first step in assessing poor symptom control; this requires returning to the basics of history taking and physical examination, in conjunction with lung function measurement when appropriate. A number of factors may contribute to sub-optimal asthma control. Concomitant rhinitis, a common co-pathology and contributor to poor control, can often be identified by asking a simple question. Smoking too has been identified as a cause of poor asthma control. Practical barriers such as poor inhaler technique must be addressed. An appreciation of patients' views and concerns about maintenance asthma therapy can help guide discussion to address perceptual barriers to taking maintenance therapy (doubts about personal necessity and concerns about potential adverse effects). Further study into, and a greater consideration of, factors and patient characteristics that could predict individual responses to asthma therapies are needed. Finally, more clinical trials that enrol patient populations reflecting the real world diversity of patients seen in clinical practice, including wide age ranges, presence of comorbidities, current smoking, and differing ethnic origins, will contribute to better individual patient management.
Kramer, Karen Z.
Using a longitudinal US dataset (N = 6,134) we examine the relationship between parental behavioural control and academic achievement and explore the moderating role of parental involvement and parental warmth. Analyses using multiple hierarchical regression with clustering controls shows that parental behavioural control is negatively associated…
Liu, Kun-Shia; Cheng, Ying-Yao; Chen, Yi-Ling; Wu, Yuh-Yih
This study used nationwide data from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS) to examine the longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on the academic achievements of adolescents. The sample included 2,000 Taiwanese secondary school students, each of whom completed three waves of questionnaires and cognitive tests: the first in grade 7 (in 2001), the second in grade 9 (in 2003), and the third in grade 11 (in 2005). Through multilevel longitudinal analysis, the results showed: (1) educational expectations accounted for a moderate amount of the variance in academic achievements; (2) students with high educational expectations and effort attribution exhibited higher growth rates in their academic achievements; and (3) studentswith lower educational expectations and those attributing success to others showed significantly fewer academic achievements and significantly lower growth rates in such achievements. The results demonstrated that adolescents' educational expectations and achievement attributions play crucial roles in the long-term course of academic accomplishments. Implications for educational practice and further studies are also discussed.
Weir, Nargues A.; Levine, Stewart J.
Disease severity in asthma can be classified as mild, moderate or severe based upon the frequency of symptoms or the severity of airflow obstruction. This review will focus on the treatment of youths greater than 12 years of age and adults with moderate persistent asthma. Moderate asthmatics may have daily symptoms that cause some limitation with normal daily activities and require use of a rescue inhaled short-acting beta2-agonist inhaler or experience nocturnal awakenings secondary to asthma that occur more than once per week. Furthermore, spirometry may reveal airflow obstruction with a reduction in FEV1 to between 60% and 80% of predicted. Although inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the primary controller medication used to modify symptoms in moderate asthmatics, additional controller medications, such as inhaled long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA), leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA) or theophylline, are often needed to obtain optimal disease control. While the addition of an inhaled LABA to an ICS is very effective at improving disease control in moderate asthma, concerns have arisen over the safety of LABAs, in particular the risk of asthma-related death. Therefore, consideration may be given to initially adding a LTRA, rather than a LABA, to ICS when asthma symptoms are not adequately controlled by ICS alone. Furthermore, individualization of medication regimens, treatment of co-morbid conditions, and patient education are crucial to optimizing compliance with therapy, improving disease control, and reducing the risk of exacerbations. Lastly, the development of new asthma treatments, perhaps based upon personalized medicine, may revolutionize the future treatment of moderate asthma. PMID:22259262
Sulvetta, M B
The rapid growth in outpatient expenditures and the congressional mandate for development of a prospective payment system (PPS) for these expenditures are discussed. Extension of diagnosis-related groups to outpatient care is shown to be infeasible. Alternative patient classification schemes and options for defining the unit of payment and establishing weights and rates are discussed. A PPS primarily controls price and can only address volume by defining a broad unit of payment, such as an episode of care. Therefore, adoption of a volume performance standard approach could be effective. Outpatient payment policies must be integrated with those of other ambulatory care providers.
Erdogan, Yavuz; Dede, Dinçer
The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of computer assisted project-based instruction on learners' achievement in a science and technology course, in a computer course and in portfolio development. With this aim in mind, a quasi-experimental design was used and a sample of 70 seventh grade secondary school students from Org. Esref…
Boggiano, Ann K.; Katz, Phyllis
Summarizes research concerning the long-range effects of teachers' controlling strategies and children's motivational orientations on achievement-related behaviors. Evidence suggests that children with an extrinsic motivation toward schoolwork suffer from important deficits that are influenced by teaching strategy. Research findings are discussed…
Maruf, Fatai A; Salako, Babatunde L; Akinpelu, Aderonke O
Achieving adequate blood pressure (BP) control with antihypertensive medication remains an elusive goal for many patients. The advances in knowledge of hypertension and the increasingly improved upon therapeutic strategies seem not to guarantee even sustainable control rates at the population level. In addition, patients who either discontinue their medications or are non-adherent to drug therapy run the risk of developing uncontrolled BP. Number of daily tablets more than two and number of daily drug administration at least three have been associated with poor adherence with drug therapy. However, BP control seems to go beyond adherence with drug therapy as there are other associated factors. Studies have demonstrated beneficial effect of aerobic exercise in the prevention and management of hypertension. It appears, however, that the majority of these studies failed to explore the possible additive or synergistic effect of aerobic exercise on antihypertensive drugs such that fewer drugs would be required to achieve BP control or that the BP control rate would be increased with the same number of drugs. This review presents the evidence for poor BP control in the general population, and the possible means and process of aerobic exercise complementing antihypertensive drug therapy in order to achieve higher BP control rates.
Zimmer, Ron; Gill, Brian; Booker, Kevin; Lavertu, Stephane; Witte, John
Since their inception, charter schools have been a lighting rod for controversy, with much of the debate revolving around their effectiveness in improving student achievement. Previous research has shown mixed results for student achievement; this could be the consequence of different policy environments or varying methodological approaches with…
Holman, Lester Donnie
In an ex post facto causal-comparative research design, this study investigated the effectiveness of Automated Writing Evaluation (AWE) programs on raising the student writing achievement. Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) writing achievement scores from the 2010 administration were utilized for this study. The independent variable…
This article describes the control-value theory of achievement emotions and its implications for educational research and practice. The theory provides an integrative framework for analyzing the antecedents and effects of emotions experienced in achievement and academic settings. It is based on the premise that appraisals of control and values are…
Johnson, Carla C.; Kahle, Jane Butler; Fargo, Jamison D.
This study of teacher effectiveness and student achievement in science demonstrated that effective teachers positively impact student learning. A general linear mixed model was used to assess change in student scores on the Discovery Inquiry Test as a function of time, race, teacher effectiveness, gender, and impact of teacher effectiveness in…
Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Kanny, Mary Allison
Research in the past decade suggests that a persistent achievement gap between students from low-income minority backgrounds and higher-income white backgrounds may be rooted in theories of student motivation and youth purpose. Yet limited research exists regarding the role of purpose on positive youth development as it pertains to academic…
Wuensch, Karl L.; Lao, Rosina C.
Nine groups of undergraduate students were formed on the basis of one-third splits of the distributions of their scores on an internality-externality measure and on an achievement motive measure. Academic performance was measured by obtaining grade point averages for all subjects. Analysis of variance showed that internal students made higher…
Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna
Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.
This report tests the assumption that teachers have an impact on how much students learn. The results of this study indicate that teachers have an effect on average class achievement scores, and that this effect can be broken down into a stable component attributed to the teachers' consistency, and an unstable effect which varies from year to…
A wind tunnel experiment was performed to further investigate the potential of the dynamic manipulation of forebody vortices as a means of supplementing directional control of fighter aircraft at high angles of attack. Tests were conducted on a 65-deg delta-wing model fitted with a slender, pointed tangent-ogive forebody of circular cross-section and 12.8 deg semi-apex angle. Forward-blowing nozzles located near the apex of the forebody served as the means of manipulating the forebody vortices. As expected, forward blowing was very effective, i.e., little blowing effort was required to cause the forebody vortex on the blown side to assume the 'high' position. However, the magnitudes of yawing moment and side force developed by the slender forebody with blowing do not differ significantly from that of the no-blowing, baseline case. Moreover, blowing above a certain threshold value produced an unexpected reversal, with blowing causing the vortex on the blown side to assume the 'low' position instead and the yawing moment and side force to change sense. The results have shown that the dynamic manipulation scheme is very successful in producing a linear variation of time-average yawing moment with a duty-cycle parameter, even with sideslip, for the aircraft-like model. The results also show that, by switching the vortex pattern rapidly, the linearity can be maintained up to a reduced frequency of at least 0.32, which is expected to be very satisfactory for practical applications. A subsequent water tunnel experiment with the forebody alone was undertaken to conduct off-surface flow visualizations that confirmed the vortex reversal phenomenon. Based on the flow visualization studies, a hypothesis was formed regarding the cause of the reversal phenomenon; it postulates that at the reversal threshold the nozzle flux interrupts the formation of the high forebody vortex on the blowing side and encourages the shear layer to form a replacement vortex that lies close to the
Koch, Christiane P.
The advent of quantum devices, which exploit the two essential elements of quantum physics, coherence and entanglement, has sparked renewed interest in the control of open quantum systems. Successful implementations face the challenge of preserving relevant nonclassical features at the level of device operation. A major obstacle is decoherence, which is caused by interaction with the environment. Optimal control theory is a tool that can be used to identify control strategies in the presence of decoherence. Here we review recent advances in optimal control methodology that allow typical tasks in device operation for open quantum systems to be tackled and discuss examples of relaxation-optimized dynamics. Optimal control theory is also a useful tool to exploit the environment for control. We discuss examples and point out possible future extensions.
Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.
The stringent debris control requirements imposed on the design of the Space Shuttle booster separation motor are described along with the verification program implemented to ensure compliance with debris control objectives. The principal areas emphasized in the design and development of the Booster Separation Motor (BSM) relative to debris control were the propellant formulation and nozzle closures which protect the motors from aerodynamic heating and moisture. A description of the motor design requirements, the propellant formulation and verification program, and the nozzle closures design and verification are presented.
Chen, Sufen; Huang, Chih-Chi; Chou, Te-Lien
This study explored the influence of experimental goal setting and planning on the attitudes toward science, self-efficacy, inquiry performance, and achievement of students with low academic performance. A total of 71 students aged 16-18 were randomly divided into a treatment group (with goal setting and planning) and a control group (without goal…
I estimate the impact of attending a magnet school on student achievement in mathematics in a moderately large Southern district. Admission to magnet schools is through lotteries. Actual attendance by lottery winners is of course voluntary. I use lottery outcomes as instruments to control for bias due to self-selection of enrollees. Because…
Din, Feng S.; Calao, Josephine
Investigated whether kindergarten students who played Sony PlayStation educational video games for 40 minutes daily for 11 weeks learned better than peers who did not play such games. Found that the experimental group gained significantly more than the control group in spelling and decoding on the Wide Range Achievement Test-R3. Found no…
Abdelraheem, Ahmed Yousif; Ahmed, Abdelrahman Mohammed
The study investigates the effect of Activity based Blended Learning strategy and Conventional Blended Learning strategy on students' achievement and motivation. Two groups namely, experimental and control group from Sultan Qaboos University were selected randomly for the study. To assess students' achievement in the different groups, pre- and…
Wouters, Sofie; Colpin, Hilde; Van Damme, Jan; Verschueren, Karine
The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) model predicts students' academic self-concept to be negatively predicted by the achievement level of their reference group, controlling for individual achievement. Despite an abundance of empirical evidence supporting the BFLPE, there have been relatively few studies searching for possible moderators.…
Ding, Cody; Sherman, Helene
This article examines the relationship between teacher effectiveness and students' achievement as measured by test scores. A strong belief among policymakers and public as well as private funding agencies is that test scores are directly related to the quality of teaching effectiveness. This relationship implies that there could be a direct…
Kane, Thomas J.; Taylor, Eric S.; Tyler, John H.; Wooten, Amy L.
Research continues to find large differences in student achievement gains across teachers' classrooms. The variability in teacher effectiveness raises the stakes on identifying effective teachers and teaching practices. This paper combines data from classroom observations of teaching practices and measures of teachers' ability to improve student…
Yeh, Stuart S.
Review of cost-effectiveness studies suggests that rapid assessment is more cost effective with regard to student achievement than comprehensive school reform (CSR), cross-age tutoring, computer-assisted instruction, a longer school day, increases in teacher education, teacher experience or teacher salaries, summer school, more rigorous math…
Eshel, Yohanan; Kohavi, Revital
Investigates classroom control, self-regulation strategies, and academic achievement of sixth-grade students (n=302). Hypothesizes that a combination of teacher and student control affects student mathematics achievement. Finds that achievement and self-regulation depended upon classroom processes. Includes references. (CMK)
Hall, Nathan C.; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Muis, Krista R.; Ranellucci, John
Background: The link between achievement goals and achievement emotions is well established; however, research exploring potential mediators of this relationship is lacking. The control-value theory of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2006, "Educational Psychology Review," 18, 315) posits that perceptions of control and value mediate the…
Coldren, Jeffrey T.
Children's ability to shift behavior in response to changing environmental demands is critical for successful intellectual functioning. While the processes underlying the development of cognitive control have been thoroughly investigated, its functioning in an ecologically relevant setting such as school is less well understood. Given the alarming…
Stäbler, Franziska; Dumont, Hanna; Becker, Michael; Baumert, Jürgen
Empirical studies have demonstrated that students who are taught in a group of students with higher average achievement benefit in terms of their achievement. However, there is also evidence showing that being surrounded by high-achieving students has a negative effect on students' academic self-concept, also known as the big-fish--little-pond…
Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon
After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world.
Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D
Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = .39 year) across kindergarten through second grade. Parents reported their reactions and children's EC. Math achievement was assessed with a standardized achievement test. First-grade EC mediated the relation between parents' reactions at kindergarten and second-grade math achievement, beyond stability in constructs across study years. Panel mediation model results suggested that socialization of EC may be one method of promoting math achievement in early school; however, when all omitted time-invariant covariates of EC and math achievement were controlled, first-grade EC no longer predicted second-grade math achievement.
Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra; Frisco, Michelle
In this study, the authors explore English as a Second Language (ESL) placement as a measure of how schools label and process immigrant students. Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimate the effect of ESL placement on immigrant achievement. In schools with more immigrant students, the authors find that ESL placement results in higher levels of academic performance; in schools with few immigrant students, the effect reverses. This is not to suggest a one-size-fits-all policy; many immigrant students, regardless of school composition, generational status, or ESL placement, struggle to achieve at levels sufficient for acceptance to a 4-year university. This study offers several factors to be taken into consideration as schools develop policies and practices to provide immigrant students opportunities to learn.
Marschark, Marc; Rhoten, Cathy; Fabich, Megan
This article presents a critical analysis of empirical studies assessing literacy and other domains of academic achievement among children with cochlear implants. A variety of recent studies have demonstrated benefits to hearing, language, and speech from implants, leading to assumptions that early implantation and longer periods of implant should be associated with higher reading and academic achievement. This review, however, reveals that although there are clear benefits of cochlear implantation to achievement in young deaf children, empirical results have been somewhat variable. Examination of the literature with regard to reading achievement suggests that the lack of consistent findings might be the result of frequent failures to control potentially confounding variables such as age of implantation, language skills prior to implantation, reading ability prior to implantation, and consistency of implant use. Studies of academic achievement beyond reading are relatively rare, and the extent to which performance in such domains is mediated by reading abilities or directly influenced by hearing, language, and speech remains unclear. Considerations of methodological shortcomings in existing research as well as theoretical and practical questions yet to be addressed provide direction for future research.
Ho, Kwok K.
This study investigated the relationship between physics achievement and language of instruction in a situation where instruction was in the second language of both students and teachers. One hundred and seventy-six grade ten physics students (first language was Chinese) were selected from four classes of two secondary schools in Hong Kong. For three months (with four lessons per week), two classes of students learned the content material (light and sound) in Chinese and two classes learned the material in English. Group differences were controlled by using individual aptitude scores as covariates in the analysis. There were no differences in achievement, students' motivation, and effort spent in physics in that controlled teaching period. This was probably because the Anglo-Chinese group was sufficiently proficient in English so they did not encounter additional difficulty in learning physics when compared with the Chinese group.
Klemm, Vera; Mitchell, Jye; Cortez-Jugo, Christina; Cavalieri, Francesca; Symonds, Geoff; Caruso, Frank; Kelleher, Anthony Dominic; Ahlenstiel, Chantelle
HIV-1 infection has been transformed by combined anti-retroviral therapy (ART), changing a universally fatal infection into a controllable infection. However, major obstacles for an HIV-1 cure exist. The HIV latent reservoir, which exists in resting CD4+ T cells, is not impacted by ART, and can reactivate when ART is interrupted or ceased. Additionally, multi-drug resistance can arise. One alternate approach to conventional HIV-1 drug treatment that is being explored involves gene therapies utilizing RNA-directed gene regulation. Commonly known as RNA interference (RNAi), short interfering RNA (siRNA) induce gene silencing in conserved biological pathways, which require a high degree of sequence specificity. This review will provide an overview of the silencing pathways, the current RNAi technologies being developed for HIV-1 gene therapy, current clinical trials, and the challenges faced in progressing these treatments into clinical trials. PMID:27941595
Biewener, Andrew A.
Flapping flight places strenuous requirements on the physiological performance of an animal. Bird flight muscles, particularly at smaller body sizes, generally contract at high frequencies and do substantial work in order to produce the aerodynamic power needed to support the animal's weight in the air and to overcome drag. This is in contrast to terrestrial locomotion, which offers mechanisms for minimizing energy losses associated with body movement combined with elastic energy savings to reduce the skeletal muscles' work requirements. Muscles also produce substantial power during swimming, but this is mainly to overcome body drag rather than to support the animal's weight. Here, I review the function and architecture of key flight muscles related to how these muscles contribute to producing the power required for flapping flight, how the muscles are recruited to control wing motion and how they are used in manoeuvring. An emergent property of the primary flight muscles, consistent with their need to produce considerable work by moving the wings through large excursions during each wing stroke, is that the pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscles shorten over a large fraction of their resting fibre length (33–42%). Both muscles are activated while being lengthened or undergoing nearly isometric force development, enhancing the work they perform during subsequent shortening. Two smaller muscles, the triceps and biceps, operate over a smaller range of contractile strains (12–23%), reflecting their role in controlling wing shape through elbow flexion and extension. Remarkably, pigeons adjust their wing stroke plane mainly via changes in whole-body pitch during take-off and landing, relative to level flight, allowing their wing muscles to operate with little change in activation timing, strain magnitude and pattern. PMID:21502121
Claro, Susana; Paunesku, David; Dweck, Carol S
Two largely separate bodies of empirical research have shown that academic achievement is influenced by structural factors, such as socioeconomic background, and psychological factors, such as students' beliefs about their abilities. In this research, we use a nationwide sample of high school students from Chile to investigate how these factors interact on a systemic level. Confirming prior research, we find that family income is a strong predictor of achievement. Extending prior research, we find that a growth mindset (the belief that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed) is a comparably strong predictor of achievement and that it exhibits a positive relationship with achievement across all of the socioeconomic strata in the country. Furthermore, we find that students from lower-income families were less likely to hold a growth mindset than their wealthier peers, but those who did hold a growth mindset were appreciably buffered against the deleterious effects of poverty on achievement: students in the lowest 10th percentile of family income who exhibited a growth mindset showed academic performance as high as that of fixed mindset students from the 80th income percentile. These results suggest that students' mindsets may temper or exacerbate the effects of economic disadvantage on a systemic level.
Claro, Susana; Paunesku, David; Dweck, Carol S.
Two largely separate bodies of empirical research have shown that academic achievement is influenced by structural factors, such as socioeconomic background, and psychological factors, such as students’ beliefs about their abilities. In this research, we use a nationwide sample of high school students from Chile to investigate how these factors interact on a systemic level. Confirming prior research, we find that family income is a strong predictor of achievement. Extending prior research, we find that a growth mindset (the belief that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed) is a comparably strong predictor of achievement and that it exhibits a positive relationship with achievement across all of the socioeconomic strata in the country. Furthermore, we find that students from lower-income families were less likely to hold a growth mindset than their wealthier peers, but those who did hold a growth mindset were appreciably buffered against the deleterious effects of poverty on achievement: students in the lowest 10th percentile of family income who exhibited a growth mindset showed academic performance as high as that of fixed mindset students from the 80th income percentile. These results suggest that students’ mindsets may temper or exacerbate the effects of economic disadvantage on a systemic level. PMID:27432947
Mehana, Majida; Reynolds, Arthur J.
This study investigated the predictors of school mobility and the influence of mobility on grade 6 math and reading achievement. The sample included 988 urban, low-economic status black children participating in a longitudinal study of the effects of preschool intervention. Fifty-eight percent of the students changed schools at least once.…
Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra; Frisco, Michelle
In this study, the authors explore English as a Second Language (ESL) placement as a measure of how schools label and process immigrant students. Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimate the effect of ESL…
Evaluated effectiveness of court-appointed special advocates (CASAs) in achieving positive outcomes for children in the child welfare system, using data from court and CASA program files on 200 children. Found that CASAs may have reduced the number of placements and court continuances children experienced. More services were provided to children…
Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Kuyper, Hans; Lubbers, Miranda J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.
We investigated whether personality moderates group influence of classmates on academic achievement and whether these so-called context effects can be attributed to peer pressure. The sample consisted of 2498 students in their first year of Dutch secondary education. The data were analyzed by a two-level (students within classes) analysis,…
Hudson, Donald W.
Using a randomized block design and involving the participation of 73 fifth, sixth, and seventh grade pupils, this study sought to ascertain the relative effects of traditional, varied and integrated contiguity on the achievement of information content and the performance of a psychomotor task. The informational content selected for the study…
Charuk, John Michael
The purpose of this study was to determine whether an intermodal training technique known as visual-haptic had any effect on the reading achievement of a group of disabled readers. The technique itself did not teach reading. Used in conjunction with a conventional remedial reading program, visual-haptic training was expected to serve as an…
Plony, Doreen A.
The purpose of this ex post facto study was to analyze archive data to investigate the effects of Read 180, a computer-based supplemental reading intervention, on students' academic achievement for the academic school year 2011-2012. Further analyses examined if influences existed in variables such as grade level, gender, and ethnicity of the…
Akiba, Motoko; Liang, Guodong
The authors examined the effects of six types of teacher professional learning activities on student achievement growth over 4 years using statewide longitudinal survey data collected from 467 middle school mathematics teachers in 91 schools merged with 11,192 middle school students' mathematics scores in a standardized assessment in Missouri. The…
Koligian, Sarah Lynne
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of per-pupil funding, the amount allocated to fund students in K-12 public education, and how this funding related to student achievement. This is one of the most contentious issues in education, especially in light of the current economy in California, where the state budget crisis has…
A study examined the effects of preschool attendance on third graders' mathematics achievement. The subjects for the study were randomly selected from 111 third graders from a predominantly low socioeconomic neighborhood in Chicago. All students were from minority groups. The experimental group was comprised of 21 students who had attended…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of leadership on student achievement and sustained school success, especially in challenging, high-poverty schools. Design/methodology/approach: The paper combines a review of the leadership literature with findings drawn from longitudinal studies of the International Successful School…
Hannafin, Robert D.; Truxaw, Mary P.; Vermillion, Jennifer R.; Liu, Yingjie
The authors investigated the effects of student spatial ability, as measured by Raven's Progressive Colored Matrices (J. C. Raven, 1938) and type of instructional program on geometry achievement. Sixth-grade students worked through either 6 instructional activities in Geometer's Sketchpad (Key Curriculum Press, 1993), a dynamic geometry program,…
This investigation measured effects of the modern mathematics on achievement in traditional arithmetic and in modern mathematics. Material on Sets, Variables, and Statistics was taught as a separate subject to an experimental group of 207 sixth-grade students. Instruction in the new mathematics content was given over a four-month period, using…
Akos, Patrick; Rose, Roderick A.; Orthner, Dennis
The academic impact of the transition from elementary to middle school has significant consequences for many early adolescents. This study examines academic growth across the transition, as well as sociodemographic moderators. Rather than defining the transition effect as a decline in student achievement between fifth and sixth grade, these data…
Stronge, James H.
Research has shown that there is no greater influence on a student's success than the quality of his or her teacher. This book presents the research findings which demonstrate the connection between teacher effectiveness and student achievement. We've always known, at least intuitively, that teachers matter, but this book proves that teachers are…
This paper critically examines shifts in emphasis in Australian education from expectations and belief that teachers not only make a difference to student achievement, but they are the difference. In moving from social class relations accounts to self-managing school accounts, latest shifts (teacher effectiveness accounts) over-emphasize teacher…
Kelly, Karen; Posternak, Michael; Jonathan, E. Alpert
The safety and tolerability of antidepressants have improved considerably over the past two decades, Nevertheless, antidepressant side effects are still common and problematic. The majority of patients treated with contemporary agents experience one or more bothersome side effects. These side effects often create barriers to achieving depressive remission, as well as to preventing relapse and recurrence. Clinicians tend to underestimate the prevalence of side effects, and as many as one quarter of patients discontinue their antidepressants because of difficult-to-tolerate side effects; others may continue on antidepressant therapy but experience diminished quality of life related to troublesome side effects. This article reviews the prevalence of side effects, the impact of side effects on treatment adherence, and methodological issues including the challenge of distinguishing side effects from residual depressive symptoms, discontinuation effects, and general medical problems. In addition, we address the most common side effects such as sexual dysfunction, gastrointestinal problems, sleep disturbance, apathy, and fatigue, and offer strategies for management that may help patients achieve optimal response to pharmacotherapy. PMID:19170398
Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh
' perceptions. The results of multi-level analyses indicated that a relatively large amount of variance was explained by the control variables and student variables, and teacher control had a statistically significant effect on student outcomes. Students' English achievement was lowest when they felt control was their teachers' prerogative, higher when they themselves exerted their own control (low teacher control), and highest under shared (mid) control behaviours.
Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Berger, Rebecca H
Given that early academic achievement is related to numerous developmental outcomes, understanding processes that promote early success in school is important. This study was designed to clarify how students' (N=291; M age in fall of kindergarten=5.66 years, SD=0.39 year) effortful control, relational peer victimization, and classroom participation relate to achievement, as students progress from kindergarten to first grade. Effortful control and achievement were assessed in kindergarten, classroom participation and relational peer victimization were assessed in the fall of first grade, and achievement was reassessed in the spring of first grade. Classroom participation, but not relational peer victimization, mediated relations between effortful control and first grade standardized and teacher-rated achievement, controlling for kindergarten achievement. Findings suggest that aspects of classroom participation, such as the ability to work independently, may be useful targets of intervention for enhancing academic achievement in young children.
Turk, Halime Samur; Akyuz, Didem
This study investigates the effects of dynamic geometry based computer instruction on eighth grade students' achievement in geometry and their attitudes toward geometry and technology compared to traditional instruction. Central to the study was a controlled experiment, which contained experimental and control groups both instructed by the same…
Winter, David G
Several decades of research have established that implicit achievement motivation (n Achievement) is associated with success in business, particularly in entrepreneurial or sales roles. However, several political psychology studies have shown that achievement motivation is not associated with success in politics; rather, implicit power motivation often predicts political success. Having versus lacking control may be a key difference between business and politics. Case studies suggest that achievement-motivated U.S. presidents and other world leaders often become frustrated and thereby fail because of lack of control, whereas power-motivated presidents develop ways to work with this inherent feature of politics. A reevaluation of previous research suggests that, in fact, relationships between achievement motivation and business success only occur when control is high. The theme of control is also prominent in the development of achievement motivation. Cross-national data are also consistent with this analysis: In democratic industrialized countries, national levels of achievement motivation are associated with strong executive control. In countries with low opportunity for education (thus fewer opportunities to develop a sense of personal control), achievement motivation is associated with internal violence. Many of these manifestations of frustrated achievement motivation in politics resemble authoritarianism. This conclusion is tested by data from a longitudinal study of 113 male college students, showing that high initial achievement motivation combined with frustrated desires for control is related to increases in authoritarianism (F-scale scores) during the college years. Implications for the psychology of leadership and practical politics are discussed.
Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A
Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful non-native reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the non-native lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good non-native reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization.
Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A.
Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful non-native reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the non-native lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good non-native reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization. PMID:25999899
Hilton, June Kraft
Prior research indicates that technology has had little effect on raising student achievement. Little empirical research exists, however, studying the effects of technology as a tool to improve student achievement through development of higher order thinking skills. Also, prior studies have not focused on the manner in which technology is being used in the classroom and at home to enhance teaching and learning. Empirical data from a secondary school representative of those in California were analyzed to determine the effects of technology on student science achievement. The quantitative analysis methods for the school data study included a multiple linear path analysis, using final course grade as the ultimate exogenous variable. In addition, empirical data from a nationwide survey on how Americans use the Internet were disaggregated by age and analyzed to determine the relationships between computer and Internet experience and (a) Internet use at home for school assignments and (b) more general computer use at home for school assignments for school age children. Analysis of data collected from the a "A Nation Online" Survey conducted by the United States Census Bureau assessed these relationships via correlations and cross-tabulations. Finally, results from these data analyses were assessed in conjunction with systemic reform efforts from 12 states designed to address improvements in science and mathematics education in light of the Third International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS). Examination of the technology efforts in those states provided a more nuanced understanding of the impact technology has on student achievement. Key findings included evidence that technology training for teachers increased their use of the computer for instruction but students' final science course grade did not improve; school age children across the country did not use the computer at home for such higher-order cognitive activities as graphics and design or spreadsheets
Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Elliot, Andrew J.; Soenens, Bart; Mouratidis, Athanasios
An important recent development in the achievement goal literature is to define achievement goals strictly as aims. In this overview, we argue that this restrictive definition of achievement goals paves the way for a systematic consideration of the autonomous and controlled reasons underlying individuals' achievement goals, a distinction…
The integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, which has been implemented since 2004, accelerated the progress towards schistosomiasis control in China, and achieved transmission control of the disease across the country by the end of 2015, which achieved the overall objective of the Mid- and Long-term National Plan for Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis (2004-2015) on schedule. Then, the goal of schistosomiasis elimination by 2025 was proposed in China in 2014. To achieve this new goal on schedule, we have to address the key issues, and implement precision control measures with more precise identification of control targets, so that we are able to completely eradicate the potential factors leading to resurgence of schistosomiasis transmission and enable the achievement of schistosomiasis elimination on schedule. Precision schistosomiasis control, a theoretical innovation of precision medicine in schistosomiasis control, will provide new insights into schistosomiasis control based on the conception of precision medicine. This paper describes the definition, interventions and the role of precision schistosomiasis control in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China, and demonstrates that sustainable improvement of professionals and integrated control capability at grass-root level is a prerequisite to the implementation of schistosomiasis control, precision schistosomiasis control is a key to the further implementation of the integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, and precision schistosomiasis control is a guarantee of curing schistosomiasis patients and implementing schistosomiasis control program and interventions.
Singh, Kusum; Chang, Mido; Dika, Sandra
The authors explored the effects of part-time work on school achievement during high school. To estimate the true effects of part-time work on school grades, the authors included family background, students' educational aspirations, and school engagement as controls. Although a substantial literature exists on the relationship of part-time work…
Lynch, Roberta A.
A study examined what effect, if any, vision training exercises had on reading achievement. It was hypothesized that training students to control more accurately the speed and direction of their eye movements would improve their visual skills. However, it was also hypothesized that a more efficient visual system would have no effect on reading…
Nunn, Gary D.; And Others
Investigated the relationships between student locus of control and academic achievement in grades five through eight. The Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale (NSLOCS) was used to measure motivation, and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) to assess academic achievement. Results indicated moderate inverse relationships between level of…
Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie
"Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For women, the negative stereotype that exists in our culture states that women are typically not as capable as men in mathematics or science subjects. This study specifically explored the potential impact of stereotype threat on women who have chosen a science-based college major. They were tested in the domain of chemistry, which is related to mathematics and often involves high level of mathematics skills. I attempted to generate a stereotype threat in the participants through describing a chemistry challenge exam as either one that had consistently shown a gender bias against women and to create a nullification effect by describing the exam as one that had shown no gender bias in the past. In the third experimental condition acting as a control, participants received only generic instructions related to taking the test itself. The second part of this study investigated whether stereotype threat effects could impact women's achievement goal orientations. In previous studies performance avoidance goal orientations have been associated with individuals placed in a stereotype threat environment. The findings on the stereotype threat effect were not significant for the chemistry challenge test achievement scores. This may be due to several factors. One factor may be the design of the chemistry challenge test and the instructions for the test. The other factor may be the women in this study. As individuals who have chosen a science based major, they may have developed coping skills and strategies that reduced the impact of a stereotype threat. It is also possible that the testing environment itself generated an implicit stereotype
The AOTA Centennial Vision outlined in 2007 challenged the occupational therapy profession to become a “powerful, widely recognized, science-driven, and evidence-based” profession that could adapt to changing societal and cultural needs and flourish well into the future. That challenge can be met by simply being effective at what we do; this will increase our value and validate our worth. Neurorehabilitation in occupational therapy can also thrive if we verify that the interventions we use and the strategies we implement are grounded in evidence. Professional effectiveness will emerge by (1) increasing the dissemination of research that supports the methods we use and informs others of the successful patient outcomes we achieve and (2) expanding development and validation of instruments that quantitatively and qualitatively measure functional outcomes. Occupational therapists can individually develop professional effectiveness by fostering greater academic–clinical alliances, objectifying evaluation and intervention methods, and preparing future practitioners appropriately for evidence-driven practice. PMID:23968801
Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali
This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.
Informational texts, such as those found in science education, have historically been reserved for secondary students. With the increased emphasis on elementary students' academic accountability, these high impact instructional strategies must also be utilized to support subject matter comprehension for younger students. This causal-comparative study, grounded in cognitive learning theory, sought to discover if 2 years of implementation and use of Thinking Maps, a visual tool program, had an effect on student achievement in elementary science as measured by Georgia's statewide assessment known as the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). Achievement data of 2 groups that received Thinking Maps instruction for 2 years was compared to 1 group that did not. An analysis of covariance was used to analyze the assessment data. The findings suggest that the students who did not use Thinking Maps performed significantly better than those who did use Thinking Maps, even though both groups showed positive mean score gains from 2010 to 2012 on the science portion of the CRCT. Limitations of the study, such as the lack of randomization and manipulation of the independent variable, suggest that further research is needed to fairly evaluate the program and its effectiveness. Also, the instructional setting and amount of time used for science instruction in the elementary classroom warrants additional investigation. Findings related to the implementation and use of graphic tools such as Thinking Maps will help school systems choose professional learning opportunities and effective instructional strategies to develop content literacy.
Faust, Miriam; Kandelshine-Waldman, Osnat
The present study used two letter detection tasks, the classic missing letter effect paradigm and a single word versus familiar word compound version of this paradigm, to study bottom-up and top-down processes involved in reading in normally achieving as compared to low achieving elementary school readers. The research participants were children…
The effect of post-discharge educational intervention on patients in achieving objectives in modifiable risk factors six months after discharge following an episode of acute coronary syndrome, (CAM-2 Project): a randomized controlled trial
Objectives We investigated whether an intervention mainly consisting of a signed agreement between patient and physician on the objectives to be reached, improves reaching these secondary prevention objectives in modifiable cardiovascular risk factors six-months after discharge following an acute coronary syndrome. Background There is room to improve mid-term adherence to clinical guidelines' recommendations in coronary heart disease secondary prevention, specially non-pharmacological ones, often neglected. Methods In CAM-2, patients discharged after an acute coronary syndrome were randomly assigned to the intervention or the usual care group. The primary outcome was reaching therapeutic objectives in various secondary prevention variables: smoking, obesity, blood lipids, blood pressure control, exercise and taking of medication. Results 1757 patients were recruited in 64 hospitals and 1510 (762 in the intervention and 748 in the control group) attended the six-months follow-up visit. After adjustment for potentially important variables, there were, between the intervention and control group, differences in the mean reduction of body mass index (0.5 vs. 0.2; p < 0.001) and waist circumference (1.6 cm vs. 0.6 cm; p = 0.05), proportion of patients who exercise regularly and those with total cholesterol below 175 mg/dl (64.7% vs. 56.5%; p = 0.001). The reported intake of medications was high in both groups for all the drugs considered with no differences except for statins (98.1% vs. 95.9%; p = 0.029). Conclusions At least in the short term, lifestyle changes among coronary heart disease patients are achievable by intensifying the responsibility of the patient himself by means of a simple and feasible intervention. PMID:21092191
Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P. Craig; Buyon, Lucas E.; McFarland, Deborah
In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the “big three” diseases—namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria—has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda
Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P Craig; Buyon, Lucas E; McFarland, Deborah
In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the "big three" diseases--namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria--has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda.
Lopuch, Jeremy Jon
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of diagnostic formative assessment feedback on early literacy skills. The participants were 12 first-grade general education teachers and 51 of their students who were assigned to the following treatments, diagnostic feedback and skills feedback (control) which lasted for 10 weeks. During the…
A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was used to investigate the effects of full-spectrum light, prescribed color and light/color combinations, ultra-violet light, and electromagnetic radiation in an elementary school environment. Four schools in the Wetaskiwin School District, Alberta, were involved in the study; three served…
Buten, Nicole A.
This study examined the effect of kindergarten entry age on the scores of the eighth grade Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) math and reading scores, while controlling for the demographic variables of gender and socioeconomic status. The subjects included 1,197 students who participated in the randomized, long-term STAR (Student-Teacher…
Kuzin, Alexander V.; Holmes, Michael L.; Behrouzjou, Roxana; Trumper, David L.
The results of the analysis of the achievable disturbance attenuation to get an Angstrom motion control resolution and macroscopic travel in a precision magnetically-suspended motion control system are presented in this paper. Noise sources in the transducers, electronics, and mechanical vibrations are used to develop the control design.
Physics students graduate with a huge array of transferrable skills, which are extremely useful to employers (particularly in the private sector, which is the largest employment base of physicists at all degree levels). However, the key to successfully connecting with these opportunities lies in how well graduates are able to communicate their skills and abilities to potential employers. The ability to communicate effectively is a key professional skill that serves scientists in many contexts, including interviewing for jobs, applying for grants, or speaking with law and policy makers. In this interactive workshop, Crystal Bailey (Careers Program Manager at APS) and Gregory Mack (Government Relations Specialist at APS) will lead activities to help attendees achieve their goals through better communication. Topics will include writing an effective resume, interviewing for jobs, and communicating to different audiences including Congress, among others. Light refreshments will be served.
Kizkapan, Oktay; Bektas, Oktay
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is a significant effect of project based learning approach on seventh grade students' academic achievement in the structure and properties of matter. In the study, according to the characteristics of quantitative research methods, pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design was…
Tunaboylu, Ceren; Demir, Ergül
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of using the interactive whiteboard in mathematics teaching process on the 7th-grade students' achievement. This study was conducted as experimental design. Experimental and control groups were composed of 58 7th-grade students from one school in the 2015-2016 educational year in Ankara. As a…
Chinna, Nsofor Caroline; Dada, Momoh Gabriel
The study investigated the effects of developed electronic instructional medium (video DVD instructional package) on students' achievement in Biology. It was guided by two research questions and two hypotheses, using a quasi-experimental, pretest-postest control group design. The sample comprised of 180 senior secondary, year two students from six…
Akbas, Oktay; Pektas, Huseyin Mirac
The aim of this study was to identify the effects of the use of an interactive whiteboard on the academic achievement of university students on the topic of electricity in a science and technology laboratory class. The study was designed as a pretest/posttest control group experimental study. Mean, standard deviation and t- tests were used for…
Civelek, Turhan; Ucar, Erdem; Ustunel, Hakan; Aydin, Mehmet Kemal
The current research aims to explore the effects of a haptic augmented simulation on students' achievement and their attitudes towards Physics in an immersive virtual reality environment (VRE). A quasi-experimental post-test design was employed utilizing experiment and control groups. The participants were 215 students from a K-12 school in…
Aktamis, Hilal; Ergin, Omer
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of teaching scientific process skills education to students to promote their scientific creativity, attitudes towards science, and achievements in science. The research includes a pre-test post-test research model with a control group. The subjects of the research consist of 40 students reading…
Nkemdilim, Egbunonu Roseline; Okeke, Sam O. C.
This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on students' achievement in ecological concepts. Quasi-experimental design, specifically the pre-test post test non-equivalent control group design was adopted. The sample consisted of sixty-six (66) senior secondary year two (SS II) biology students, drawn from two…
Katayama, Andrew D.; Crooks, Steven M.
Describes two experiments conducted to investigate the effects of notetaking format on achievement. Students constructed and studied different types of notes: partial (framework and partial notes), skeletal (framework with no notes), and control (no framework and no notes). Found that, based on an application test, students who completed and…
The purpose of the study is to compare the effects of Jigsaw-IV and the conventional teaching on the academic achievement of Turkish pre-service teachers as for the language teaching methods and techniques. In this study "pretest-post test with the control group model" was used. The subjects of the study are 62 undergraduate students at…
Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryilmaz, Ali
This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science…
Garcia, SantaPaula Gama; Jones, Don; Holland, Glenda; Mundy, Marie-Anne
The purpose of this study was to compare two middle schools in one school district in south Texas to determine if presence or absence of instructional coaches has an effect on student achievement. The research design was a quantitative pre experimental study: a nonequivalent (posttest only) control group design in which the experimental group and…
Ciftci, S. Koza; Karadag, Engin; Akdal, Pinar
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of statistics instruction using computer-based tools, on statistics anxiety, attitude, and achievement. This study was designed as quasi-experimental research and the pattern used was a matched pre-test/post-test with control group design. Data was collected using three scales: a Statistics…
Abdi, Ali; Laei, Susan; Ahmadyan, Hamze
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Teaching Strategy based on Multiple Intelligences on students' academic achievement in sciences course. Totally 40 students from two different classes (Experimental N = 20 and Control N = 20) participated in the study. They were in the fifth grade of elementary school and were selected…
Gucluer, Efe; Kesercioglu, Teoman
The aim of this study is examining the effect of the using scientific literacy development activities on students' achievement. The study was carried out in a primary school in Buca Izmir for 2010-2011 academic years. System of our body was chosen as a study topic in our search which took 6 weeks. Pre-post test semi experimental control model was…
Ogonnaya, Ukpai Patricia; Okafor, Gabriel; Abonyi, Okechukwu S.; Ugama, J. O.
The study investigated the effects of concept mapping on students' achievement in basic science. The study was carried out in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Specifically the pretest posttest non-equivalent control group research design was used. The sample was 122 students selected from two secondary…
This article reports the findings of a controlled quasi-experimental study investigating the effects of motivational strategies on learner motivation and achievement in English language classes in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, the most important motivational strategies were identified. In the second…
Schneider, Deborah; Chambers, Alex; Mather, Nancy; Bauschatz, Retina; Bauer, Meredyth; Doan, Lesli
A controlled quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the use of MindPlay Virtual Reading Coach on participants' reading and spelling achievement. After attrition, participants included 170 students enrolled in eight second-grade classrooms (four classrooms in each school) in two public elementary schools in the southwestern…
This study aims to explore the effects of a cooperative technique Jigsaw II (experimental group, n=42) and instructional teacher-centered teaching method (control group, n=38) on Turkish language teacher education department students' attitudes to written expression course (a course in which writing skills were taught), their academic achievement,…
Sen, Senol; Oskay, Ozge Ozyalcin
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 5E inquiry learning activities on students' achievement, attitude toward chemistry. A non-equivalent control group design was used to the quasi-experimental research in this study. A total of 34 (8 males and 26 females) undergraduates in Turkey voluntarily participated in the study. The…
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of computer-aided Perspective Drawings on eighth grade primary school students' achievement in Spatial Orientation and Perspective Drawing. The study made use of pre-test post-test control group experimental design. The study was conducted with thirty 8th grade students attending a primary school…
Ozsoy, Gokhan; Ataman, Aysegul
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using metacognitive strategy training on mathematical problem solving achievement. The study took place over a nine-week period with 47 fifth grade students. The experimental group (n = 24) instructed to improve their metacognitive skills. At the same time the students in the control group…
van Kuijk, Mechteld F.; Deunk, Marjolein I.; Bosker, Roel J.; Ritzema, Evelien S.
In this paper, we investigated whether student reading comprehension could be improved with help of a teacher Professional Development (PD) program targeting goals, data use, and instruction. The effect of this PD program on 2nd- and 3rd-grade student achievement was examined using a pretest-posttest control group design. Applying propensity score…
Hansen, Karsten; Heckman, James J.; Mullen, Kathleen J.
This study developed two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. The methods were applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in…
Günter, Tugçe; Alpat, Sibel Kilinç
This study investigates the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) on students' academic achievements in studying "Electrochemistry" within a course on Analytical Chemistry. The research was of a pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design and it was conducted with second year students in the Chemistry Teaching Program at…
Dickie, Jane R.; Mast, Vicki A.
The development and interrelationship of various measures of independence in children ages 3-12 are examined. Subjects were scored on measures of locus of control and achievement motivation and were rated by teachers on independence and achievement. Subjects were also scored on reliance on adult evaluation and self-evaluation. The results showed…
Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.
This study investigated achievement-oriented parent socialization as it pertains to school avoidance in a sample of gifted students. A serial mediation model examining relationships among parental achievement-oriented psychological control (APC), fear of academic failure, academic amotivation, and school avoidance was tested. The sample included…
Kim, Kyoungho; Rohner, Ronald P.
Explored the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement of Korean American adolescents, investigating the influence of perceived parental warmth and control and improvement in schooling. Survey data indicated that authoritative paternal parenting related to optimal academic achievement. Differences in maternal parenting styles…
Bian, Wei; Zhang, Shuyan; Zhang, Yanzhuo; Li, Wenjing; Kan, Ruizhe; Wang, Wenxiao; Zheng, Zhaoming; Li, Jun
A ratio control strategy was implemented in a continuous moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) to investigate the response to different temperatures. The control strategy was designed to maintain a constant ratio between dissolved oxygen (DO) and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations. The results revealed that a stable nitritation in a biofilm reactor could be achieved via ratio control, which compensated the negative influence of low temperatures by stronger oxygen-limiting conditions. Even with a temperature as low as 6°C, stable nitritation could be achieved when the controlling ratio did not exceed 0.17. Oxygen-limiting conditions in the biofilm reactor were determined by the DO/TAN concentrations ratio, instead of the mere DO concentration. This ratio control strategy allowed the achievement of stable nitritation without complete wash-out of NOB from the reactor. Through the ratio control strategy full nitritation of sidestream wastewater was allowed; however, for mainstream wastewater, only partial nitritation was recommended.
Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Muñoz, Lorena
Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g., such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation) and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children's behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children's behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children's self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children's behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children's school achievement. PMID:27303318
Background While consensus on malaria vector control policy and strategy has stimulated unprecedented political-will, backed by international funding organizations and donors, vector control interventions are expansively being implemented based on assumptions with unequaled successes. This manuscript reports on the strategies, achievements and challenges of the past and contemporary malaria vector control efforts in Zambia. Case description All available information and accessible archived documentary records on malaria vector control in Zambia were reviewed. Retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS), data from population-based household surveys and various operations research reports was conducted to assess the status in implementing policies and strategies. Discussion and evaluation Empirical evidence is critical for informing policy decisions and tailoring interventions to local settings. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages the adoption of the integrated vector management (IVM) strategy which is a rational decision making process for optimal use of available resources. One of the key features of IVM is capacity building at the operational level to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate vector control and its epidemiological and entomological impact. In Zambia, great progress has been made in implementing WHO-recommended vector control policies and strategies within the context of the IVM Global Strategic framework with strong adherence to its five key attributes. Conclusions The country has solid, consistent and coordinated policies, strategies and guidelines for malaria vector control. The Zambian experience demonstrates the significance of a coordinated multi-pronged IVM approach effectively operationalized within the context of a national health system. PMID:23298401
Hughes, Jan N; Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-Man; Villarreal, Victor; Johnson, Audrea Y
The effect of student-reported teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ) on academic motivation and achievement was investigated among a sample of 690 academically at risk elementary students (52.8% male). Measures of TSRQ, achievement, and motivation were collected annually for 3 consecutive years, beginning when participants were in grade 2 (24.8%) or grade 3 (74.6%). Child-reported conflict was stable across the 3 years, whereas warmth declined. Boys and African American students reported greater conflict than did girls and Caucasian and Hispanic students. Girls and African American students reported higher warmth than boys and non-African American students. Using path analysis, the authors tested the hypothesis that measures of student motivation in Year 2 mediated the effects of conflict and warmth in Year 1 on reading and math achievement in Year 3. Child-perceived conflict predicted cross-year changes in teacher-rated behavioral engagement, which, in turn, predicted cross-year changes in reading and math achievement. Math competence beliefs also mediated the effect of child- perceived warmth on math achievement. Effects controlled for stability of measures across time, the within-wave association between measures, and baseline measures of IQ and economic adversity. Implications of findings for improving the academic achievement of students at-risk for school failure are discussed.
Hughes, Jan N.; Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-man; Villarreal, Victor; Johnson, Audrea Y.
The effect of student-reported teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ) on academic motivation and achievement was investigated among a sample of 690 academically at risk elementary students (52.8% male). Measures of TSRQ, achievement, and motivation were collected annually for 3 consecutive years, beginning when participants were in grade 2 (24.8%) or grade 3 (74.6%). Child-reported conflict was stable across the 3 years, whereas warmth declined. Boys and African American students reported greater conflict than did girls and Caucasian and Hispanic students. Girls and African American students reported higher warmth than boys and non-African American students. Using path analysis, the authors tested the hypothesis that measures of student motivation in Year 2 mediated the effects of conflict and warmth in Year 1 on reading and math achievement in Year 3. Child-perceived conflict predicted cross-year changes in teacher-rated behavioral engagement, which, in turn, predicted cross-year changes in reading and math achievement. Math competence beliefs also mediated the effect of child- perceived warmth on math achievement. Effects controlled for stability of measures across time, the within-wave association between measures, and baseline measures of IQ and economic adversity. Implications of findings for improving the academic achievement of students at-risk for school failure are discussed. PMID:23226873
Diaz, Anjolii; Berger, Rebecca; Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah; Tao, Chun; Spinrad, Tracy L; Doane, Leah D; Thompson, Marilyn S; Silva, Kassondra M; Southworth, Jody
Poor sleep is thought to interfere with children's learning and academic achievement (AA). However, existing research and theory indicate there are factors that may mitigate the academic risk associated with poor sleep. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating role of children's effortful control (EC) on the relation between sleep and AA in young children. One hundred and three 4.5- to 7-year-olds (M = 5.98 years, SD = 0.61) wore a wrist-based actigraph for five continuous weekday nights. Teachers and coders reported on children's EC. EC was also assessed with a computer-based task at school. Additionally, we obtained a standardized measure of children's AA. There was a positive main effect of sleep efficiency to AA. Several relations between sleep and AA were moderated by EC and examination of the simple slopes indicated that the negative relation between sleep and AA was only significant at low levels of EC.
Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lynch, John W
Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%.
Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lynch, John W
Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%. PMID:25327718
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unified operation may be achieved without common control or common ownership. 779.219 Section 779.219 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.219 Unified operation...
Hosseini, Seyyed Nasrollah; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi; Karami Matin, Behzad; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Ashtarian, Hossein; Jalilian, Farzad
Background Self-esteem and behavioral consequences, which are due to external or internal locus of control, are effective on academic achievement of students. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prediction of locus of control and self-esteem in academic achievement among the students. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 college students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Data collection tools were in three sections: demographic, Rotter internal-external locus of control scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 21. Results Results showed that 29.8% and 76.2% of the participants had internal locus of control, and high self-esteem, respectively. There was a significant correlation between self-esteem, locus of control and academic achievement of the students. Self-esteem accounted for 39.5% of the variation in academic achievement. Conclusions It seems that interventions to increase self-esteem among student can help improve academic achievement among them. PMID:27284277
Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby
An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.
Garner, C. William; Cole, Ernest G.
A pilot study was conducted at two middle schools to investigate the relationship among student locus of control, field dependency, self-esteem, and achievement. A relationship between self-esteem and achievement has already been identified by research; another variable considered as a possible effect on a person's predisposition to achieve was…
Conant, David A.; Chu, William
Conventional methods for achieving broadband, variable sound absorption in large halls normally include heavy application of sound-absorptive drapery and/or thick fibrous panels, applied near available surfaces below, at, and in volumes above the catwalk plane. Occasionally, direct adjustments to room air volume are also provided to effect double-sloped decays. The novel method described here combines carefully located, broad scattering and absorption in singular architectural elements and was applied to a new, 1200-seat concert hall. A change of 0.70 s RT60 in midfrequency is achieved in a visually dramatic manner while neither materially changing room volume nor introducing often-maligned drapery. The aggregate of reverberation control methodologies employed reduces the unoccupied RT60 at midfrequencies from about 3.2 to 1.7 s in this space programed principally for music, including pipe organ. Results of MLS measurements including binaural measurements and binaural recordings of anechoic material and CATT-acoustic modeling and auralizations are discussed.
Johnson, Kenneth R. (Inventor)
A single-pass method for accurate and precise temperature control in the -160 to +90 C range is discussed. The method exhibited minimal set-point overshoot during temperature transitions. Control to +/-2 C with transitions between set-points of 7 C per minute were achieved. The method uses commercially available temperature controllers and a gaseous nitrogen/liquid nitrogen mixer to dampen the amplitude of cold temperature spikes caused by liquid nitrogen pulsing.
Carden, Randy; Bryant, Courtney; Moss, Rebekah
114 undergraduates completed the Internal-External Locus of Control scale, the Procrastination Scale, and the Achievement Anxiety Test. They also provided a self-report of their cumulative GPA. Students were divided into two groups by a median-split of 10.5, yielding an internally oriented group of 57 and an externally oriented group of 57. The former students showed significantly lower academic procrastination, debilitating test anxiety, and reported higher academic achievement than the latter.
This dissertation examines the impact a Tax Ratification Election has on student achievement in Texas. Texas schools continue to struggle with shrinking budgets and increasing standards of student achievement (Equity Center, 2011). This study will provide greater insight into whether school districts that have completed a TRE have created a…
Cinotti, Gina; Gutmore, Daniel
The study described the influence, if any, AchieveNJ might have on superintendents' hiring decisions of principals. According to superintendents, there is not one accepted standard in principal leadership characteristics, although there are commonalities regarding traits associated with improving student achievement. The significance of this study…
Johnson, Sheila Denise
While it is known that instructional technology improves academic achievement, there is little research about the integration of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) during Success For All (SFA) reading instruction. The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in reading achievement between third…
Ichinose, Cherie; Clinkenbeard, Jennifer
This study compared student engagement and achievement levels between students enrolled in a traditional college algebra lecture course and students enrolled in a "flipped" course. Results showed that students in the flipped class had consistently higher levels of achievement throughout the course than did students in the traditional…
Clark, Shawn Berry
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between National Board Certification and student achievement in mathematics and reading as measured by an achievement test used in South Carolina. Using the Northwest Evaluation Association's Measures of Academic Progress (MAP), the study examined the RIT (Rasch Unit) scores of third…
Grady, Michael; Watkins, Sandra; Montalvo, Greg
International assessment data indicate American students are not competing with their counterparts in other countries. The mathematics curriculum and pedagogy are not preparing students to compete in a global economy. This study compared student achievement using sixth grade mathematics results from the Illinois Standards Achievement Test.…
DeVaney, Thomas A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between classroom instructional practices and computation and geometry achievement. Relationships between mathematics achievement and classroom characteristics were also explored. The sample of 1,032 students and their teachers (n=147) was selected from the 1992 Trial State Mathematics…
Bunns, Sandra D.
The use of student achievement data to improve teaching and learning is a national concern driven by accountability requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002. Research studies that examine how schools use student achievement data document the need for teachers to connect data to instructional practices. Bruner's social constructivist…
Otto, Paul B.; Schuck, Robert F.
The use of questions in the classroom has been employed throughout the recorded history of teaching. One still hears the term Socratic method during discussions of questioning procedures. The use of teacher questions is presently viewed as a viable procedure for effective instruction. This study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of training teachers in the use of a questioning technique and the resultant effect upon student learning. The Post-Test Only Control Group Design was used in randomly assigning teachers and students to experimental and control groups. A group of teachers was trained in the use of a specific questioning technique. Follow-up periodic observations were made of questioning technique behavior while teaching science units to groups of students. Post-unit achievement tests were administered to the student groups to obtain evidence of a relationship between the implementation of specific types of teacher questions and student achievement and retention. Analysis of observation data indicated a higher use of managerial and rhetorical questions by the control group than the experimental group. The experimental group employed a greater number of recall and data gathering questions as well as higher order data processing and data verification type questions. The student posttest achievement scores for both units of instruction were greater for the experimental groups than for the control groups. The retention scores for both units were Beater for the experimental groups than for the control groups.
Tobin, Kenneth G.; Capie, William
Twelve pupils from each of thirteen middle school science classes participated in the study. Measures were obtained for each pupil on nine engagement modes. Two engagement measures, attending and generalizing, together with formal reasoning ability, were related to process skill achievement and retention. Formal reasoning ability was the strongest predictor of process skill achievement and retention, accounting for approximately 36% of the variance in each case. Formal reasoning ability and locus of control were each correlated with specific engagement modes. Formal reasoning ability was positively related with rates of generalizing and comprehending. Locus of control was significantly related with rates of attending and total engagement.
Gambari, A. I.; Falode, C. O.; Adegbenro, D. A.
This study investigated the effectiveness of computer animation and geometry instructional model on mathematics achievement and retention on Junior Secondary School Students in Minna, Nigeria. It also examined the influence of gender on students' achievement and retention. The research was a pre-test post-test experimental and control group…
Christensen, Clay Benjamin; Shawl, James Robert
A third volume of a highly articulated set of language materials defines achievement level 2 in the control of Spanish syntax while providing descriptions and interrelationships of vital syntactic structures and expected student performance. The noun phrase, predicate phrase, verbal aspects, adverbials, relativization, noun modification,…
Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Haugen, Rg; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Kupfer, Anne
The goal of this study was to test if both effortful control (EC) and impulsivity, a reactive index of temperament, uniquely predict adolescents' academic achievement, concurrently and longitudinally (Time 1: "N" = 168, X-bar[subscript age] = 12 years). At Time 1, parents and teachers reported on students' EC and impulsivity.…
Childers, John; Lao, Rosina C.
The Multidimensional-Multiattributional Causality Scale (MMCS) is a goal-specific scale developed to assess locus of control in the areas of achievement and affiliation. The relationship between the MMCS and feelings of depression, hopelessness, and perceived stress was examined to validate the MMCS and determine if specific expectancies take…
Diaz, Anjolii; Berger, Rebecca; Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Tao, Chun; Spinrad, Tracy; Doane, Leah D.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Silva, Kassondra M.; Southworth, Jody
Poor sleep is thought to interfere with children's learning and academic achievement (AA). However, existing research and theory indicate there are factors that may mitigate the academic risk associated with poor sleep. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating role of children's effortful control (EC) on the relation between sleep…
Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef
In the preschool years, there are marked improvements in theory of mind (ToM) and executive functions. And, children's competence in these two core cognitive domains is associated with their academic achievement. Therefore, training ToM and executive control could be a valuable tool for improving children's success in school. This article reviews…
Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad
The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from three…
Chen, Xinyin; Yang, Fan; Wang, Li
Shy-sensitive children are likely to develop adjustment problems in today's urban China as the country has evolved into an increasingly competitive, market-oriented society. The main purpose of this one-year longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between shyness-sensitivity and later internalizing problems in Chinese children. A sample of 1171 school-age children (591 boys, 580 girls) in China, initially at the age of 9 years, participated in the study. Data on shyness, academic achievement, and internalizing problems were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness positively and uniquely predicted later loneliness, depression, and teacher-rated internalizing problems, with the stability effect controlled, for low-achieving children, but not for high-achieving children. The results indicate that, consistent with the stress buffering model, academic achievement may be a buffering factor that serves to protect shy-sensitive children from developing psychological problems.
Lambert, Edna Earl White
In the wake of No Child Left Behind, schools continue to be evaluated according to standardized test results. Researchers suggest that technology can assist students with development and school achievement. While laptop initiative (LI) technology was being implemented by South Carolina districts in the middle schools classrooms, educational…
Geoghegan, Noel; Mitchelmore, Michael
Assuming that young children's involvement in music programs provides a conceptual foundation for subjects such as mathematics, this study examined the impact of music education on mathematics achievement in preschool children. A pseudo-experimental design was used in which 35 preschool children involved in a music program treatment were compared…
Haley, Carolyn E.
Billions of dollars are spent searching for programs and strategic plans that will prove to be the panacea for improving literacy achievement. With all of the experimental and researched programs implemented in school districts, the overall results are still at a minimum and many improvement gains have been short term. This book focuses on…
Boberg, John Eric; Bourgeois, Steven J.
Purpose: Greater understanding about how variables mediate the relationship between leadership and achievement is essential to the success of reform efforts that hold leaders accountable for student learning. The purpose of this paper is to test a model of integrated transformational leadership including three important school mediators.…
The local Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEARUP) partnership serves 11 K-8 schools with the lowest achievement scores and the highest poverty rates in a large Midwestern urban district. Recently, GEARUP launched a specially designed teaching program, Mathematics Enhancement Group (MEG), for underachievers in…
Morsch, Joseph E.; And Others
Using an eight-day hydraulics maintenance course taught by 121 instructors on a regular basis to classes of about 14 students using the same classrooms and materials, the Air Force conducted a study designed to determine instructor measures which correlate with, and are therefore predictive of, student achievement. The study report first discusses…
Moger, Scott Douglas
This study is a comparative analysis investigating student achievement, attendance rates, grade point average and credit earned by at-risk students attending an alternative high school of choice, at-risk students attending a traditional high school and at-risk students attending a Disciplinary Alternative Education Placement Campus within the same…
A study examined the possible influence that pets may have on children's reading achievement. Subjects, 61 students from three third-grade classes in an urban school, completed a questionnaire about pet ownership. Responses were compiled and score values established to recognize the length of time the child had owned the pet and how much…
Bitler, Marianne P.; Corcoran, Sean P.; Domina, Thurston; Penner, Emily K.
The growing availability of data linking students to classroom teachers has made it possible to estimate the contribution teachers make to student achievement. While there is a growing consensus that teacher quality is important and current evaluation systems are inadequate, many have expressed concerns over the use of value-added measures (VAMs)…
Francom, Jeff; Ryan, Thomas G.; Kariuki, Mumbi
In this mixed methods study, weekly podcasts written and recorded by course instructors to summarize college course content, were used to study the impact, if any, on student achievement and attitudes. Specifically, weekly summative podcasts were posted on an Internet website in Windows Media format and downloaded by college students. After 4…
O'Bannon, Blanche W.; Lubke, Jennifer K.; Beard, Jeffrey L.; Britt, Virginia G.
This study examined achievement when podcasts were used in place of lecture in the core technology course required for all students seeking teacher licensure at a large research-intensive university in the Southeastern United States. Further, it examined the listening preferences of the podcast group and the barriers to podcast use. The results…
Bhatti, Rahmatullah; Bart, William M.
The present study was designed to explore the influence of learning styles on scholastic achievement levels. The participants in this study were undergraduate students studying social sciences at a Division 1 research university. The frequencies of the participants in the four learning style categories are the following: Convergent ("n"…
Matlock, Ki; Song, Joon Jin; Goering, Christian Z.
This study investigated the influences of district-related variables on a district's academic performance. Arkansas augmented benchmark examination scores were used to measure a district's scholastic achievement. Spatial analysis fit each district's performance to its geographical location; spatial autocorrelation measured the amount of influence…
The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether kindergarten-reading achievement could be increased by implementing Response to Intervention (RtI) strategies. Kindergarten children (N = 290) who were identified as at-risk for reading difficulties were assigned to receive intervention through a) small reading groups (SRG), b)…
Pianta, Robert C.; Belsky, Jay; Vandergrift, Nathan; Houts, Renate; Morrison, Fred J.
This nonexperimental, longitudinal field study examines the extent to which variation in observed classroom supports (quality of emotional and instructional interactions and amount of exposure to literacy and math activities) predicts trajectories of achievement in reading and math from 54 months to fifth grade. Growth mixture modeling detected…
Johansson, Stefan; Myrberg, Eva; Rosén, Monica
The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of formal teacher competence on pupils' reading achievement. The data comes from the Swedish participation in PIRLS 2001 in grade 3. Information was obtained from pupils (n = 5271) and teachers (n = 351). The analyses were conducted using 2-level structural equation modeling. Teacher…
Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel
The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) is a multidimensional instrument that includes items of social withdrawal, anhedonia, asthenia, low self-esteem (internalized) and behavioral problems (externalized). Child depression has been related with low academic achievement, neurotic and introverted personality traits and social maladjustment defined…
The purpose of this quantitative correlational research was to study the relationship between class size and students' academic achievement. Citywide language arts and math test scores for third and fifth grade students in four New York City public schools were examined using a variety of variables including (a) gender, (b) ethnicity, (c) grade…
McKinney, Reisha Monique
As early childhood education continues to move to the forefront of public policy debate, more attention is being paid to early literacy. Strickland and Riley-Ayers (2006) indicated that early literacy and early learning opportunities play a vital role in academic achievement. This study invested whether there were statistically significant…
Within diverse classrooms, sometimes teachers need extra assistance to reach all students. This quantitative research design was used to determine the affects of math intervention on student achievement. Students in this study were selected by their "Not Met" PASS scores from their 3rd grade year. A survey assessing student attitudes…
Norris, Jade Eloise; Castronovo, Julie
Much research has investigated the relationship between the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement, with continued debate surrounding the existence of such a link. The use of different stimulus displays may account for discrepancies in the findings. Indeed, closer scrutiny of the literature suggests that studies supporting a link between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement in adults have mostly measured the ANS using spatially intermixed displays (e.g. of blue and yellow dots), whereas those failing to replicate a link have primarily used spatially separated dot displays. The current study directly compared ANS acuity when using intermixed or separate dots, investigating how such methodological variation mediated the relationship between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement. ANS acuity was poorer and less reliable when measured with intermixed displays, with performance during both conditions related to inhibitory control. Crucially, mathematical achievement was significantly related to ANS accuracy difference (accuracy on congruent trials minus accuracy on incongruent trials) when measured with intermixed displays, but not with separate displays. The findings indicate that methodological variation affects ANS acuity outcomes, as well as the apparent relationship between the ANS and mathematical achievement. Moreover, the current study highlights the problem of low reliabilities of ANS measures. Further research is required to construct ANS measures with improved reliability, and to understand which processes may be responsible for the increased likelihood of finding a correlation between the ANS and mathematical achievement when using intermixed displays. PMID:27195749
Honken, Nora B.; Ralston, Patricia A. S.
This study investigated the relationship among lack of self-control, academic ability, and academic performance for a cohort of freshman engineering students who were, with a few exceptions, extremely high achievers in high school. Structural equation modeling analysis led to the conclusion that lack of self-control in high school, as measured by…
Fan, Yan Liang; Hou, Han Wei; Tay, Hui Min; Guo, Wei Mei; Berggren, Per-Olof; Loo, Say Chye Joachim
Rapamycin is commonly used in chemotherapy and posttransplantation rejection suppression, where sustained release is preferred. Conventionally, rapamycin has to be administered in excess due to its poor solubility, and this often leads to cytotoxicity and undesirable side effects. In addition, rapamycin has been shown to be hydrolytically unstable, losing its bioactivity within a few hours. The use of drug delivery systems is hypothesized to preserve the bioactivity of rapamycin, while providing controlled release of this otherwise potent drug. This paper reports on the use of microparticles (MP) as a means to tune and sustain the delivery of bioactive rapamycin for up to 30 days. Rapamycin was encapsulated (100% efficiency) in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polycaprolactone (PCL), or a mixture of both via an emulsion method. The use of different polymer types and mixture was shown to achieve a variety of release kinetics and profile. Released rapamycin was subsequently evaluated against breast cancer cell (MCF-7) and human lymphocyte cell (Jurkat). Inhibition of cell proliferation was in good agreement with in vitro release profiles, which confirmed the intact bioactivity of rapamycin. For Jurkat cells, the suppression of cell growth was proven to be effective up to 20 days, a duration significantly longer than free rapamycin. Taken together, these results demonstrate the ability to tune, sustain, and preserve the bioactivity of rapamycin using MP formulations. The sustained delivery of rapamycin could lead to better therapeutic effects than bolus dosage, at the same time improving patient compliance due to its long-acting duration.
evolved into the first Joint Target Group , which possessed the single point responsibility for the collection and analysis of all intelligence data...Office of Air Force History, 1986) 21-22. 7 Targeting Group did not always achieve success. The nomination of major industrial production...East Command assumed responsibility for targeting in Korea and established the General Headquarters Target Group . The General Headquarters Target
van Evera, William C.
Formative assessment feedback is increasingly viewed as essential to learning. Yet, existing studies on feedback have focused heavily on knowledge of results (KR) feedback rather than information-rich formative assessment feedback that is more commonly used to encourage and guide learning. This study was designed to investigate the effects of information-rich formative assessment feedback on performance and motivation of middle school science students. Using a within subjects crossover design, treatment students received written formative assessment feedback on all homework and class-work assignments. Control students received completion scores for their work but no feedback. Dependent measures included two multiple-choice unit tests and a multipart motivation survey which assessed self-efficacy, goal orientation, affective responses, and preferences regarding feedback. Results indicated effects sizes of .7 for low achievers and .4 for middle level achievers on the performance measure as a result of the feedback intervention. These students also experienced a significant increase in self-efficacy. High achievers experienced reduced performance following the feedback intervention with an effect size of -.7. Survey analysis revealed no improvement in motivation-related variables for high achievers.
Johnson, Kenneth R.; Anderson, Mark R.; Lane, Robert W.; Cortez, Maximo G.
Thermal vacuum testing often requires temperature control of chamber shrouds and heat exchangers within the -130 C to 75 C range. There are two conventional methods which are normally employed to achieve control through this intermediate temperature range: (1) single-pass flow where control is achieved by alternately pulsing hot gaseous nitrogen (GN2) and cold LN2 into the feed line to yield the setpoint temperature; and (2) closed-loop circulation where control is achieved by either electrically heating or LN2 cooling the circulating GN2 to yield the setpoint temperature. A third method, using a mass flow ratio controller along with modulating control valves on GN2 and LN2 lines, provides excellent control but equipment for this method is expensive and cost-prohibitive for all but long-term continuous processes. The single-pass method provides marginal control and can result in unexpected overcooling of the test article from even a short pulse of LN2. The closed-loop circulation method provides excellent control but requires an expensive blower capable of operating at elevated pressures and cryogenic temperatures. Where precise control is needed (plus or minus 2 C), single-pass flow systems typically have not provided the precision required, primarily because of overcooling temperature excursions. Where several individual circuits are to be controlled at different temperatures, the use of expensive cryogenic blowers for each circuit is also cost-prohibitive, especially for short duration of one-of-a-kind tests. At JPL, a variant of the single-pass method was developed that was shown to provide precise temperature control in the -130 C to 75 C range while exhibiting minimal setpoint overshoot during temperature transitions. This alternate method uses a commercially available temperature controller along with a GN2/LN2 mixer to dampen the amplitude of cold temperature spikes caused by LN2 pulsing. The design of the GN2/LN2 mixer, the overall control system
Knight, Carol Bugg; Halpin, Gerald; Halpin, Glennelle
Whether grades earned in reading, mathematics, and language by 158 second graders when learning environmental accommodations were made in the areas of light, sound, temperature, design, and mobility differed from grades of control group students without these accommodations was studied. Control group students had higher mathematics and language…
Buehner, Michael R.; Young, Peter M.
A feedback/feedforward controller architecture is developed that characterises the achievable reference tracking of real time inputs for both minimum phase and non-minimum phase systems with time delays, when there are no modelling errors or external disturbances. This characterisation is obtained by factoring the plant into its minimum phase, non-minimum phase, and time delay components, which are used to design two feedforward controllers that inject signals into two points of the feedback loop. Design constraints are provided that determine both the types of signals that may be achieved, and the feedforward controllers that will generate that output. Of course, in practice, both modelling errors and external disturbances will be present. In this case, we develop robust analysis tools that both guide the feedback controller design process, and provide rigorous robust tracking performance that guarantees for the overall resulting closed-loop system. Robust methods for designing the feedforward controllers are presented, and numerical examples are provided. The performance of this architecture depends strongly on the choice of design parameters, and the accuracy of the plant model used. Hence, the use of adaptation methods is also considered, and it is shown that they can readily be employed to improve the performance of this control methodology.
Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Campillo-Álvarez, Angela; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Muñiz, José
The core objective of the present work is to explore the reasons why workers from different employment sectors join training courses to improve their job. To this end we assessed achievement motivation, locus of control and professional qualifications according to the participants' employment sector. The final sample consisted of 1460 active Spanish workers from four different employment sectors: services, catering, metal construction, and others. Of the sample, 40.1% were male and 59.9% female, with a mean age of 33.3 years (SD = 9.7). The results show that the new scale developed to assess achievement motivation, locus of control and workers' qualifications presents adequate psychometric characteristics. Statistically significant differences were found in relation to employment sector. The areas studied showed satisfactory levels of workers' effort and achievement motivation to perform their jobs, though their attitudes toward the training courses as a basis for improving their employability are varied. Workers in the catering sector had higher levels of external attribution and the lowest interest in training. Those in the service sector had higher levels of achievement motivation and effort at work. Future research should develop a joint program covering the public and private sectors for the modification of these beliefs, attitudes and attributions.
Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Fuentes, Luis J.; Pina, Violeta; López-López, Jose A.; González-Salinas, Carmen
This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC) -attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control- to children’s mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9–12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent’s report); math achievement was measured via teacher’s report and through the standard Woodcock–Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children’s mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children’s self-regulation abilities in the context of school. PMID:26441758
Huang, Jingyu; Xiao, Yihan; Xu, Ting
Nanocomposite thin films containing well-ordered nanoparticle (NP) assemblies are ideal candidates for the fabrication of metamaterials. Achieving 3-D assembly of NPs in nanocomposite thin films is thermodynamically challenging as the particle size gets similar to that of a single polymer chain. The entropic penalties of polymeric matrix upon NP incorporation leads to NP aggregation on the film surface or within the defects in the film. Controlling the kinetic pathways of assembly process provides an alternative path forward by arresting the system in nonequilibrium states. Here, we report the thin film 3-D hierarchical assembly of 20 nm NPs in supramolecules withmore » a 30 nm periodicity. By mediating the NP diffusion kinetics in the supramolecular matrix, surface aggregation of NPs was suppressed and NPs coassemble with supramolecules to form new 3-D morphologies in thin films. Lastly, the present studies opened a viable route to achieve designer functional composite thin films via kinetic control.« less
The present research examined the protective role played by perceived control in the relation between depressive symptoms and academic achievement in adolescence. A sample of 218 adolescents aged 11 to 16 filled in questionnaires to assess self-reported depressive symptoms and three factors tied with Perceived Control (PC): self-regulated learning strategies use, effort attribution, and perceived competence. Grade Point Average (GPA) was considered as a measure of academic achievement. A path model showed that the relation between GPA and depressive symptoms is mediated by PC (p<.05), and became non-significant when PC is considered. The discussion stresses the need to take into account the strategic and motivational factors favouring learning in planning programmes to prevent and treat depressive symptoms in adolescence.
Al-Shammari, Zaid; Mohammad, Anwar; Al-Shammari, Bandar
The study investigated the effectiveness of increasing ALT for college students' achievement in Kuwait. In Phase 1, 37 students participated (22, experimental; 15, control); in Phase 2, 19 students participated (8, sub-experimental; 11, sub-control). Several experimental research methods used in conducting this study, including development of a…
Blankert, Tim; Hamstra, Melvyn R. W.
ABSTRACT Imagery (richly imagining carrying out a task successfully) is a popular performance-enhancement tool in many domains. This experiment sought to test whether pursuing two achievement goals (vs. one) benefits performance after an imagery exercise. We examined mastery goals (aiming to improve skill level) and performance goals (aiming to outperform others) among 65 tennis players who were assigned to a mastery goal condition, a performance goal condition, or a mastery goal and performance goal condition. After reading instructions for a service task, which included the goal manipulation, participants completed 20 tennis services. They then completed an imagery exercise and, finally, completed another 20 services. Postimagery service performance was better in the dual-goal condition than in the other conditions. PMID:28366970
Kosten, Lora Bechard
The literature suggests that parental involvement in schools results in positive changes in students and that schools need to provide opportunities for parents to share in the learning process. Workshops are an effective method of engaging parents in the education of their children. This dissertation studies the effects of voluntary Family Science and Technology Workshops on elementary children's science interest and achievement, as well as on parents' collaboration in their child's education. The study involved 35 second and third-grade students and their parents who volunteered to participate. The parental volunteers were randomly assigned to either the control group (children attending the workshops without a parent) or the treatment group (children attending the workshops with a parent). The study was conducted in the Fall of 1995 over a four-week period. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to determine the effects of the workshops on children's science achievement and science curiosity, as well as on parents' involvement with their child's education. The study revealed that there was no significant statistical difference at the.05 level between the treatment/control groups in children's science achievement or science curiosity, or in parent's involvement with their children's education. However, the study did focus parental attention on effective education and points the way to more extensive research in this critical learning area. This dual study, that is, the effects of teaching basic technology to young students with the support of their parents, reflects the focus of the Salve Regina University Ph.D. program in which technology is examined in its effects on humans. In essence, this program investigates what it means to be human in an age of advanced technology.
Bonczar, Thomas P.; Easton, John Q.
For 10 years or more, teachers at the City Colleges of Chicago have used mastery learning, a teaching technique that focuses on the use of a corrective/feedback process to improve student learning. Early studies of mastery learning at the colleges comparing student grades in mastery learning classes to control classes in which these techniques…
Yu, Wen-Feng; She, Hsiao-Ching; Lee, Yu-Mei
This study investigates the effects of two factors: the mode of problem-solving instruction (i.e. Web-based versus non-Web-based) and the level of academic achievement (i.e. high achievers versus low achievers) on students' problem-solving ability and biology achievement. A quasi-experimental design was used, in which the experimental group…
Henry, Gary T.; Purtell, Kelly M.; Bastian, Kevin C.; Fortner, C. Kevin; Thompson, Charles L.; Campbell, Shanyce L.; Patterson, Kristina M.
The current teacher workforce is younger, less experienced, more likely to turnover, and more diverse in preparation experiences than the workforce of two decades ago. Research shows that inexperienced teachers are less effective, but we know little about the effectiveness of teachers with different types of preparation. In this study, we classify…
Bryan, Julia; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Gaenzle, Stacey; Kim, Jungnam; Lin, Chia-Huei; Na, Goeun
The authors examine the effects of school bonding on academic achievement (measured by math achievement scores) in a sample of 12th graders from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (Ingels, Pratt, Rogers, Siegel, & Stutts, 2005). Components of school bonding have proximal and distal effects on academic achievement. Attachment to school and…
Penner, Emily K.
This article examines the effect of Teach For America (TFA) on the distribution of student achievement in elementary school. It extends previous research by estimating quantile treatment effects (QTE) to examine how student achievement in TFA and non-TFA classrooms differs across the broader distribution of student achievement. It also updates…
Bloom, Howard S.; Hill, Carolyn J.; Black, Alison Rebeck; Lipsey, Mark W.
Two complementary approaches to developing empirical benchmarks for achievement effect sizes in educational interventions are explored. The first approach characterizes the natural developmental progress in achievement made by students from one year to the next as effect sizes. Data for seven nationally standardized achievement tests show large…
Schellhorn, Nancy A; Parry, Hazel R; Macfadyen, Sarina; Wang, Yongmo; Zalucki, Myron P
Areawide management has a long history of achieving solutions that target pests, however, there has been little focus on the areawide management of arthropod natural enemies. Landscape ecology studies that show a positive relationship between natural enemy abundance and habitat diversity demonstrate landscape-dependent pest suppression, but have not yet clearly linked their findings to pest management or to the suite of pests associated with crops that require control. Instead the focus has often been on model systems of single pest species and their natural enemies. We suggest that management actions to capture pest control from natural enemies may be forth coming if: (i) the suite of response and predictor variables focus on pest complexes and specific management actions; (ii) the contribution of "the landscape" is identified by assessing the timing and numbers of natural enemies immigrating and emigrating to and from the target crop, as well as pests; and (iii) pest control thresholds aligned with crop development stages are the benchmark to measure impact of natural enemies on pests, in turn allowing for comparison between study regions, and generalizations. To achieve pest control we will need to incorporate what has been learned from an ecological understanding of model pest and natural enemy systems and integrate areawide landscape management with in-field pest management.
Stewart, John; Henderson, Rachel
Gender differences on the Conceptual Survey in Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) have been extensively studied. Ten semesters (N=1621) of CSEM data is presented showing male students outperform female students on the CSEM posttest by 5 % (p < . 001). Male students also outperform female students on qualitative in-semester test questions by 3 % (p = . 004), but no significant difference between male and female students was found on quantitative test questions. Male students enter the class with superior prior preparation in the subject and score 4 % higher on the CSEM pretest (p < . 001). If the sample is restricted to students with little prior knowledge who answer no more than 8 of the 32 questions correctly (N=822), male and female differences on the CSEM and qualitative test questions cease to be significant. This suggests no intrinsic gender bias exists in the CSEM itself and that gender differences are the result of prior preparation measured by CSEM pretest score. Gender differences between male and female students increase with pretest score. Regression analyses are presented to further explore interactions between preparation, gender, and achievement.
Cotter, T G; Dinneen, S F; Healy, D A; Bell, M J; Cunningham, A; O'Shea, P M; Dunne, F; O'Brien, T; Finucane, F M
We sought to determine the attainment of targets for glycaemic control and vascular risk reduction in an Irish cohort of T1DM adults. Of 797 patients (53% male, mean age 40.3 ± 14.8 years, HbA1c 8.5 ± 1.6% (69.6 ± 17.8 mmol mol(-1))), 15%, 68% and 62% achieved targets for HbA1c, blood pressure and LDL cholesterol, respectively.
Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.
Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.
Gilmore, Camilla; Attridge, Nina; Clayton, Sarah; Cragg, Lucy; Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil; Simms, Victoria; Inglis, Matthew
Given the well-documented failings in mathematics education in many Western societies, there has been an increased interest in understanding the cognitive underpinnings of mathematical achievement. Recent research has proposed the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS) which allows individuals to represent and manipulate non-verbal numerical information. Evidence has shown that performance on a measure of the ANS (a dot comparison task) is related to mathematics achievement, which has led researchers to suggest that the ANS plays a critical role in mathematics learning. Here we show that, rather than being driven by the nature of underlying numerical representations, this relationship may in fact be an artefact of the inhibitory control demands of some trials of the dot comparison task. This suggests that recent work basing mathematics assessments and interventions around dot comparison tasks may be inappropriate.
To determine short-run effects of experimentally imposed leadership roles, a sample of 221 Boy Scouts (aged 10 to 17) was formed into (usually) 4-man teams that competed in 3 skill games. One member of each team was randomly designated as captain, with power to administer and reward. Captains who were leaders in their troops responded to becoming…
Kelly, Sean, Ed.
Recent educational reforms have promoted accountability systems which attempt to identify "teacher effects" on student outcomes and hold teachers accountable for producing learning gains. But in the complex world of classrooms, it may be difficult to attribute "success" or "failure" to teachers. In this timely…
The objective of this paper is to compare the Jigsaw III technique (of cooperative learning) with the instructional teacher-centered teaching method in six graders in terms of the effect of written expression on their academic success. The universe of the study consists of 71 sixth-grade students studying during 2009-2010 academic term in a…
Sivaram, R. T.; Ramar, R.
The present experimental study was undertaken with three objectives in view, (i) to identify students with language learning disabilities (ii) to develop CAI software to teach LD students through computer-assisted instruction and (iii) to measure the effectiveness of CAI with special reference to LD students. Two matched groups of LD students were…
Gilbert, Darryl L.
Reading teachers are faced with the challenge of providing instruction to a population of diverse students with various abilities and styles of learning within local and state school districts. In an effort to improve student performance on high-stake examinations in reading, teachers continue to seek the most effective instructional strategies.…
Tatli, Zeynep; Ayas, Alipasa
It is well known that laboratory applications are of significant importance in chemistry education. However, laboratory applications have generally been neglected in recent educational environments for a variety of reasons. In order to address this gap, this study examined the effect of a virtual chemistry laboratory (VCL) on student achievement…
Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie; Layzer, Carolyn; Unlu, Fatih; Wolfe, Christopher B.; Spitler, Mary Elaine; Weiss, Daniel
Although some research-based educational practices have shown promise, many fail to be implemented at a scale that affects more than a small proportion of children. Further, research on interventions for young children includes mixed results, with most documenting "fadeout" of effects after several years, but some showing lasting…
Ostroff, Aaron J.
This paper contains a study of two methods for use in a generic nonlinear simulation tool that could be used to determine achievable control dynamics and control power requirements while performing perfect tracking maneuvers over the entire flight envelope. The two methods are NDI (nonlinear dynamic inversion) and the SOFFT(Stochastic Optimal Feedforward and Feedback Technology) feedforward control structure. Equivalent discrete and continuous SOFFT feedforward controllers have been developed. These equivalent forms clearly show that the closed-loop plant model loop is a plant inversion and is the same as the NDI formulation. The main difference is that the NDI formulation has a closed-loop controller structure whereas SOFFT uses an open-loop command model. Continuous, discrete, and hybrid controller structures have been developed and integrated into the formulation. Linear simulation results show that seven different configurations all give essentially the same response, with the NDI hybrid being slightly different. The SOFFT controller gave better tracking performance compared to the NDI controller when a nonlinear saturation element was added. Future plans include evaluation using a nonlinear simulation.
Wright, Tiffanie L.
The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an ex post facto , quasi-experimental research methodology. The independent variables in this study were the instructional methods of teaching. The treatment variable was Modeling Instruction and the control variable was traditional lecture instruction. The Treatment Group consisted of participants in Physical World Concepts who received Modeling Instruction. The Control Group consisted of participants in Physical Science who received traditional lecture instruction. The dependent variable was gains scores on the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI). The participants for this study were 133 students each in both the Treatment and Control Groups (n = 266), who attended a public, high school in rural middle Tennessee. The participants were administered the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) prior to being taught the mechanics of physics. The FCI data were entered into the computer-based Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Two independent samples t-tests were conducted to answer the research questions. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups concerning the instructional method. Modeling Instructional methods were found to be effective in increasing the academic achievement of students in high school physics. There was no statistically significant difference between FCI gains scores for gender. Gender was found to have no effect on the academic achievement of students in high school physics classes. However, even though there was not a statistically significant difference, female students' gains scores were higher than male students' gains scores when Modeling Instructional methods of teaching were used. Based on these findings, it is recommended
Cheng, Alice Y Y
Achieving and maintaining glycemic control in patients with diabetes admitted to hospital is challenging because of the many competing factors of nutrition, pharmacotherapy and other patient-related and systemic factors. For patients receiving enteral or parenteral feeding, eating irregularly or receiving glucocorticoid therapy, the challenges are even greater. The basic principles to follow when managing glycemia in these populations are as follows: 1) Recognition of those at risk for hyperglycemia; 2) frequent bedside glucose monitoring; 3) a proactive approach with routine insulin administration based on the predicted glucose patterns; 4) constant reassessment of the glycemic status and titration of the routine insulin accordingly.
Hill, Darryl V.; Lenard, Matthew A.; Page, Lindsay Coleman
School districts are increasingly adopting technology-based resources in an attempt to improve student achievement. This paper reports the two-year results from randomized control trial of Achieve3000 in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) in Raleigh, North Carolina. Achieve3000 is an early literacy program that differentiates non-fiction…
DeWeese, Sean Vincent
This study was conducted to examine the differences in high school biology achievement and student affect towards teacher and content from the use of individualized correctives as part of mastery learning. An experimental pretest-posttest with control group design was used during the fall 2011 semester. Over a thirteen-week period, 99 students in five general-level biology classes received mastery learning instruction covering several state standards. Of the 99 students, 50 received individualized correctives based on the results of formative assessment. The other 49 students received a non-individualized study guide after the formative assessment. A written summative examination was used to measure achievement. The Instructional Affect Assessment Instrument (IAAI) was used to measure student affect. The written summative evaluation and the IAAI were administered as a pretest to assure the independence of the covariate and treatment effect. Data were analyzed with a multivariate repeated measures test and ANCOVAs. No differences were found between the individualized corrective group and the general study guide group in terms of achievement or student affect toward content or teacher. Results indicate that individualized correctives were not the key factor in mastery learning for this population and type of science content. Further study on the impact of individualized correctives in different subject areas and populations is recommended as well as additional research on the effect of repeated testing.
Mashburn, Andrew J; Justice, Laura M; Downer, Jason T; Pianta, Robert C
This study examined associations between peers' expressive language abilities and children's development of receptive and expressive language among 1,812 four-year olds enrolled in 453 classrooms in 11 states that provide large-scale public pre-kindergarten (pre-k) programs. Higher peer expressive language abilities were positively associated with children's development of receptive and expressive language during pre-k. The positive association between peers' expressive language abilities and children's receptive language development was stronger for children who began pre-k with higher receptive language skills and within classrooms characterized by better classroom management. Implications of these findings for understanding ecological inputs to children's language development and for designing effective pre-k programs are discussed.
Schare, B L; Dunn, S C; Clark, H M; Soled, S W; Gilman, B R
The purpose of this experimentally designed study was to determine the effects of an interactive videodisc program, entitled "Diabetic Health Assessment," versus traditional lecture on cognitive learning and affective behaviors of baccalaureate nursing students. It was hypothesized that: 1) there would be no significant difference in the cognitive achievement scores between those students taught by an interactive videodisc program (experimental group) compared to those students taught by a traditional lecture method (control group), and 2) there would be a statistically significant difference in student attitude toward learning between those students taught by an interactive videodisc program compared to students taught by a traditional lecture method. Eighty-three third-year baccalaureate nursing students at a major urban university served as subjects and were randomly assigned to either a control (n = 41) or an experimental group (n = 42). The multivariate analysis of covariance with two criteria and the pretest as the covariate was significant (p = .000, df = 4, 140) indicating that the adjusted posttest scores on the two measures were significantly different for the experimental group compared to the control group. The univariate F for the cognitive measure was nonsignificant (p = .283, df = 2, 72) indicating that students' achievement under interactive video is not significantly different than under traditional lecture. The univariate F for the affective measure was significant (p = .000, df = 2, 72) indicating that the students learning by interactive video possessed a more positive attitude toward learning than those learning by traditional lecture method of instruction.
Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Keith, Timothy Z.
This article examines the effect of improvements in timing/rhythmicity on mathematics achievement. A total of 86 participants attending 1st through 4th grades completed pre- and posttest measures of mathematics achievement from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Students in the experimental group participated in a 4-week intervention…
The effects of family background on adolescents' IQ, aptitude, and school achievement test scores challenge some of the usual beliefs about the fairness of achievement rather than IQ tests, and the role of genetic differences among individuals and social class groups in academic achievements. Subjects included 115 adoptive families with adolescent…
Zhang, Baoshan; Wang, Mo; Li, Juan; Yu, Guoliang; Bi, Yan-Ling
Using an experimental design, the effect of concealing academic achievement information on adolescents' self-concept was examined in the current study. Specifically, adolescents with low academic achievement and adolescents with average to high academic achievement (N = 129) were randomly assigned to different interview contexts wherein…
Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Pred, Robert S.
Psychometric analyses of college students' responses to the Jenkins Activity Survey, a self-report measure of the Type A behavior pattern, revealed the presence of two relatively independent factors. Based on these analyses, two scales, labeled Achievement Strivings (AS) and Impatience and Irritability (II), were developed. In two samples of male and female college students, scores on AS but not on II were found to be significantly correlated with grade point average. Responses to a health survey, on the other hand, indicated that frequency of physical complaints was significantly correlated with II but not with AS. These results suggest that there are two relatively independent factors in the Type A pattern that have differential effects on performance and health. Future research on the personality factors related to coronary heart disease and other disorders might more profitably focus on the syndrome reflected in the II scale than on the Type A pattern.
Shayer, Michael; Adey, Philip S.
A one-year lag was found between the effect of an intervention intended to promote formal operational thinking in students initially 11 or 12 years of age and the appearance of substantial science achievement in the experimental groups. A one-year lag was also reported on cognitive development: Whereas at the end of the two-year intervention the experimental groups were up to 0.9 ahead of the control groups, one year later the differential on Piagetian measures had disappeared, but the experimentals now showed better science achievement of even greater magnitude. Although the control groups showed normal distribution both on science achievement and cognitive development, the experimental groups showed bi- or trimodal distribution. Between one-half and one-quarter of the students involved in the experiment in different groups showed effects of the order of 2 both on cognitive development and science achievement; some students appeared unaffected (compared with the controls), and others demonstrated modest effects on science achievement. An age/gender interaction is reported: the most substantial effects were found in boys initially aged 12+ and girls initially 11+. The only group to show no effects was boys initially aged 11+. It is suggested that the intervention methods may have favored the abstract analytical learning style as described by Cohen 1986.
Klemmer, Cynthia Davis
Science literacy refers to a basic knowledge and understanding of science concepts and processes needed to consider issues and make choices on a daily basis in an increasingly technology-driven society. A critical precursor to producing science literate adults is actively involving children in science while they are young. National and state (TX) science standards advocate the use of constructivist methods including hands-on, experiential activities that foster the development of science process skills through real-world investigations. School gardens show promise as a tool for implementing these guidelines by providing living laboratories for active science. Gardens offer opportunities for a variety of hands-on investigations, enabling students to apply and practice science skills. School gardens are increasing in popularity; however, little research data exists attesting to their actual effectiveness in enhancing students' science achievement. The study used a quasi-experimental posttest-only research design to assess the effects of a school gardening program on the science achievement of 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade elementary students. The sample consisted of 647 students from seven elementary schools in Temple, Texas. The experimental group participated in school gardening activities as part of their science curriculum. The control group did not garden and were taught using traditional classroom-based methods. Results showed higher scores for students in the experimental group which were statistically significant. Post-hoc tests using Scheffe's method revealed that these differences were attributed to the 5th grade. No statistical significance was found between girls and boys in the experimental group, indicating that gardening was equally effective for both genders. Within each gender, statistical significance was found between males in the experimental and control groups at all three grade levels, and for females in the 5 th grade. This research indicated that
Vandecandelaere, Machteld; Vansteelandt, Stijn; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan
This study examines the effects of early grade retention and different effects according to prior achievement and age. Within a population of children at risk of early retention, we compared the development throughout primary school in mathematics achievement after kindergarten retention, first-grade retention, and continuous promotion. Analyzing data from a large-scale longitudinal study using covariate balancing propensity score weighting, the findings revealed that early grade repeaters would score higher in mathematics if they were promoted each year instead. However, the effects diminished or even disappeared in the long term. Compared to kindergarten retention, first-grade retention was found to be more harmful for the mathematics development of younger children specifically.
Wadleigh, Linda L.
Student academic achievement in junior high mathematics is an ongoing mission for educational leaders. To achieve that undertaking, teacher effectiveness plays an important role. The purpose of this study was to examine the combined effects of teacher effectiveness on student achievement. The study was conducted in a suburban school district in…
De Allegri, Manuela; Louis, Valérie R; Tiendrébeogo, Justin; Souares, Aurelia; Yé, Maurice; Tozan, Yesim; Jahn, Albrecht; Mueller, Olaf
This paper reports on a study, which assessed coverage with malaria control interventions in rural Burkina Faso, namely insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITN) ownership, intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) for pregnant women and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for under-five children. The study also addressed the distributional impact of such interventions, with specific reference to equity. The study used data from a representative household survey conducted on 1106 households in the Nouna Health District in 2010. Findings indicated that 59% of all households owned at least one ITN, 66% of all pregnant women received IPT at least once and 34% of under-five children reporting a malaria case were treated with ACT. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that higher socio-economic status, ownership of at least one radio and living in a village within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System were significantly positively associated with ITN, IPTp and ACT coverage. ITN coverage was higher among households in villages, which had previously hosted an ITN trial and/or the most favourable arm of a trial. Comparing current findings with previous estimates suggests that the country has made substantial progress towards scaling up malaria control interventions but that current coverage rates are still far from achieving the universal coverage targets set by the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. In addition, current coverage patterns reveal the existence of multiple inequities across groups, suggesting that current policies are inadequate to achieve equitable scaling up. Future planning of malaria control interventions ought to take into consideration current inadequacies and lead to programmes better designed to overcome them.
Job, Veronika; Langens, Thomas A; Brandstätter, Veronika
This research is based on the theoretical conception of motives and goals as distinct motivational concepts. Previous research has demonstrated that discrepancies between implicit motives and goals have negative consequences for well-being. The authors have extended these findings to the explicit motive system, with four studies investigating the moderating role of the explicit achievement motive on the relationship between achievement goal striving and well-being. In line with their expectations, achievement goal striving was accompanied by high positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and a high number of positive affective experiences (Study 3) only when the explicit achievement motive was high. Longitudinal Study 4 showed that the interaction between the explicit achievement motive and achievement goal commitment predicts changes in subjective well-being and health measured over a 3-month period.
Yaghmour, Kholoud Subhi
The study aimed to investigate the Blended Education strategy in the achievement of the third grade students in mathematics. The study sample consisted of (97) male and female students distributed on four classes: (47) male and female students in the experimental group and (50) male and female students in the control group. To achieve the…
Rushin, John W.; Baller, William
Tests the effect of developmental level objectives on student achievement and efficiency in a zoology course. These objectives were found to have no significant effect on achievement, but they did significantly increase student efficiency in learning the content material of the module. (Author)
Other Financial Benefits Statement of Gene L. Dodaro Comptroller General of the United States Testimony Before the Committee on Oversight and...Efficiency and Effectiveness: Opportunities to Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other Financial Benefits 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...GOVERNMENT EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS Opportunities to Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other Financial Benefits Why
Slavin, Robert E.; And Others
Describes two studies investigating the effects of Team-Assisted Individualization (TAI), a combination of cooperative learning and individually programed instruction, on third-, fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students' achievement, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that the TAI approach had positive effects on mathematics achievement,…
Li, Wei; Konstantopoulos, Spyros
Class size reduction policies have been widely implemented around the world in recent years. However, findings about the effects of class size on student achievement have been mixed. This study examines class size effects on fourth-grade mathematics achievement in 14 European countries using data from TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and…
Sunawan; Xiong, Junmei
This article describes an application of reality therapy to developing effective achievement goals for students in tier three of a tiered response to intervention approach. The roles of teachers and school counselors, to improve effective achievement goals, are briefly discussed as a frame for applying reality therapy. The application model…
Akinsola, Mojeed K.; Awofala, Adeneye O. A.
This study investigated the effect of personalized print-based instruction on the achievement and self-efficacy regarding mathematics word problems of 320 senior secondary students in Nigeria. The moderator effect of gender was also examined on independent variable (personalization) and dependent variables (mathematics word problem achievement and…
Demir, Seda; Basol, Gülsah
The aim of the current study is to determine the overall effects of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) on academic achievement. After an extensive review of the literature, studies using Turkish samples and observing the effects of Computer-Assisted Education (CAE) on mathematics achievement were examined. As a result of this…
This study was aimed at investigating the effect of the direct instruction model on intermediate class achievement and attitudes toward English grammar. It was an experimental study and the purpose was to explore the relative effectiveness of instructional methodology (independent variable) on students' achievement and attitude (dependent…
Agboghoroma, Tim E.; Oyovwi, E. O.
This study evaluated the effect of students' academic achievement on identified difficult concepts or topics in Senior Secondary School Biology in Delta State, Nigeria. The study was quasi-experimental and the design was a 2X2 factorial non-randomized pretest-posttest control group design. The sample was drawn from intact classes from four…
This study aimed to determine the effect of mastery learning model supported with reflective thinking activities on the fifth grade medical students' academic achievement. Mixed methods approach was applied in two samples (n = 64 and n = 6). Quantitative part of the study was based on a pre-test-post-test control group design with an experiment…
Çelik, Halil Coskun
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of computer courses on young individuals' computer self-efficacy, attitudes and achievement. The study group of this research included 60 unemployed young individuals (18-25 ages) in total; 30 in the experimental group and 30 in the control group. An experimental research model with pretest…
Gemmell, Melissa; Chambliss, Catherine
This study used both between-subjects and within-subjects analyses to examine the effects of a gluten-free diet on the academic achievement of autistic children. The between-subjects analysis included data from eight autistic children (ages 5 to 7) with four on a gluten-free diet and four serving as controls. The number of attempts needed before…
Yapici, I.Umit; Akbayin, Hasan
The present study aims to determine the effect of the blended learning model on high school students' biology achievement and on their attitudes towards the Internet. Among the experimental models, the pretest-posttest control group model was used in the study. The study was carried out with 107 students (47 of whom were in the experimental group,…
Adibsereshki, Narges; Abkenar, Somaye Jalil; Ashoori, Mohammad; Mirzamani, Mahmood
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two kinds of reinforcements, tangible reinforcements and social reinforcements, on the academic achievement of eighth-grade female students with intellectual disabilities in the science subject. The study was an experimental method by pretest, with a control group. The participants of…
Celikoz, Nadir; Gursoy, Fatma
The aim of this study is to find out the effect of distance education applications based on smart board in teaching pattern preparation techniques and its contribution to students' achievement and skills. An experimental model with a pretest-posttest experimental and control group was used with 34 students who attended the department of Ready-Made…
Adani, Anthony; Eskay, Michael; Onu, Victoria
This quasi-experimental study examined the effect of self-instruction strategy on the achievement in algebra of students with learning difficulty in mathematics. Two research questions and one null hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a non-randomized pre-test and post-test control group design with one experimental…
In this study, we examined the development of mathematics achievement in children attending extracurricular activities intensively in comparison with the development in a control group of children attending only the obligatory hours of school instruction. In addition, we investigated the question of possible effects of intensity of attendance and…
Wanjiru, Benson; O-Connor, Miheso
This article is based on a study whose main objective was to determine the effects of mathematical vocabulary instruction on students' achievement in Mathematics in Secondary schools in Murang'a County, Kenya. The study was a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design and was conducted in the two purposively selected…
In the present study, the comprehension levels of special relativity theory in prospective teachers who take the Introduction to Modern Physics lesson in the faculty of education science teaching department and the effect of writing for learning on their achievement is researched. In the research, a control group pre-test post-test…
Bol, Linda; Campbell, Karen D. Y.; Perez, Tony; Yen, Cherng-Jyh
The effects of training in self-regulation on metacognition and math achievement were investigated. The participants were 116 community college students enrolled in developmental math courses. Students enrolled in 16 classrooms were randomly assigned to the treatment and control groups. Participants in the treatment group completed four…
Mann, Karen V.; Sullivan, Patricia L.
This study sought to determine the effectiveness of systematically designed instructional programs in helping adult hypertensives to achieve and maintain dietary sodium intake. Sixty-six subjects were randomly allocated to one of three groups: task-centered instruction; task-centered instruction plus goal-setting and self-monitoring; or control.…
Ogbuanya, T. C.; Owodunni, A. S.
This study was designed to determine the effect of reflective inquiry instructional technique on achievement of students in Technical Colleges. The study adopted a pre-test, post-test, non-equivalent control group, quasi-experimental research design which involved groups of students in their intact class assigned to experimental group and control…
Kuhn, Deanna; Iordanou, Kalypso; Pease, Maria; Wirkala, Clarice
We identify three aspects of scientific thinking beyond the control-of-variables strategy that we claim are essential for students to master as a foundation for skilled scientific thinking. The first is strategic and involves the ability to coordinate effects of multiple causal influences on an outcome. The second is a mature understanding of the…
Carter, Glenda; Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa
Investigates high-achieving fifth-grade students' achievement gains and conceptual reorganization on convection. Features an instructional sequence of three dyadic inquiry investigations related to convection currents as well as pre- and post-assessment consisting of a multiple-choice test, a card sorting task, construction of a concept map, and…
Burnham-Massey, Laurie; Pina, Marilyn
Examines the effects of bilingual instruction on English academic achievement of limited English proficient (LEP) students. Finds that bilingual education is an effective instructional program for LEP students. (MG)
Liew, Jeffrey; McTigue, Erin; Barrois, Lisa; Hughes, Jan
The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across three years in 733 children beginning at 1(st) grade (M = 6.57 years, SD = .39 at 1(st) grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from one year prior) and for influences of child's age, gender, IQ, ethnicity and economic adversity on achievement, results indicate that adaptive/effortful control at 1(st) grade contributed to both academic self-efficacy beliefs at 2(nd) grade, and reading (but not math) achievement at 3(rd) grade. Although academic self-efficacy did not partially mediate the linkage between adaptive/effortful control and achievement, academic self-efficacy beliefs were positively correlated with reading and math. Results support the notion that early efforts to promote children's self-regulatory skills would enhance future academic self-beliefs and achievement, particularly in literacy.
Küçük, Sevda; Kapakin, Samet; Göktaş, Yüksel
Augmented reality (AR), a new generation of technology, has attracted the attention of educators in recent years. In this study, a MagicBook was developed for a neuroanatomy topic by using mobile augmented reality (mAR) technology. This technology integrates virtual learning objects into the real world and allow users to interact with the environment using mobile devices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of learning anatomy via mAR on medical students' academic achievement and cognitive load. The mixed method was applied in the study. The random sample consisted of 70 second-year undergraduate medical students: 34 in an experimental group and 36 in a control group. Academic achievement test and cognitive load scale were used as data collection tool. A one-way MANOVA test was used for analysis. The experimental group, which used mAR applications, reported higher achievement and lower cognitive load. The use of mAR applications in anatomy education contributed to the formation of an effective and productive learning environment. Student cognitive load decreased as abstract information became concrete in printed books via multimedia materials in mAR applications. Additionally, students were able to access the materials in the MagicBook anytime and anywhere they wanted. The mobile learning approach helped students learn better by exerting less cognitive effort. Moreover, the sensory experience and real time interaction with environment may provide learning satisfaction and enable students to structure their knowledge to complete the learning tasks. Anat Sci Educ 9: 411-421. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.
Simon, Ann M; Hargrove, Levi J; Lock, Blair A; Kuiken, Todd A
Despite high classification accuracies (~95%) of myoelectric control systems based on pattern recognition, how well offline measures translate to real-time closed-loop control is unclear. Recently, a real-time virtual test analyzed how well subjects completed arm motions using a multiple-degree of freedom (DOF) classifier. Although this test provided real-time performance metrics, the required task was oversimplified: motion speeds were normalized and unintended movements were ignored. We included these considerations in a new, more challenging virtual test called the Target Achievement Control Test (TAC Test). Five subjects with transradial amputation attempted to move a virtual arm into a target posture using myoelectric pattern recognition, performing the test with various classifier (1- vs 3-DOF) and task complexities (one vs three required motions per posture). We found no significant difference in classification accuracy between the 1- and 3-DOF classifiers (97.2% +/- 2.0% and 94.1% +/- 3.1%, respectively; p = 0.14). Subjects completed 31% fewer trials in significantly more time using the 3-DOF classifier and took 3.6 +/- 0.8 times longer to reach a three-motion posture compared with a one-motion posture. These results highlight the need for closed-loop performance measures and demonstrate that the TAC Test is a useful and more challenging tool to test real-time pattern-recognition performance.
Melbourne Chambers, R; Morrison-Levy, N; Chang, S; Tapper, J; Walker, S; Tulloch-Reid, M
We conducted a case-control study of 33 Jamaican children 7 to 12years old with uncomplicated epilepsy and 33 of their classroom peers matched for age and gender to determine whether epilepsy resulted in differences in cognitive ability and school achievement and if socioeconomic status or the environment had a moderating effect on any differences. Intelligence, language, memory, attention, executive function, and mathematics ability were assessed using selected tests from NEPSY, WISCR, TeaCh, WRAT3 - expanded, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The child's environment at home was measured using the Middle Childhood HOME inventory. Socioeconomic status was determined from a combination of household, crowding, possessions, and sanitation. We compared the characteristics of the cases and controls and used random effects regression models (using the matched pair as the cluster) to examine the relationship between cognition and epilepsy. We found that there was no significant difference in IQ, but children with epilepsy had lower scores on tests of memory (p<0.05), language (p<0.05), and attention (p<0.01) compared with their controls. In random effects models, epilepsy status had a significant effect on memory (coefficient=-0.14, CI: -0.23, -0.05), language (coefficient=-0.13, CI: -0.23, -0.04), and mathematics ability (coefficient=-0.01, CI: -0.02, -0.00). Adjustment for the home environment and socioeconomic status and inclusion of interaction terms for these variables did not alter these effects. In conclusion, we found that epilepsy status in Jamaican children has a significant effect on performance on tests of memory, language, and mathematics and that this effect is not modified or explained by socioeconomic status or the child's home environment.
Collie, Rebecca J.; Martin, Andrew J.; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Hall, James; Ginns, Paul
Background: Previous research has indicated that although academic buoyancy and student's achievement are associated, the relationship is relatively modest. Aims: We sought to determine whether another construct might link academic buoyancy and student's achievement. Based on prior theoretical and empirical work, we examined a sense of control as…
Hughes, Jan N; Dyer, Nicole; Luo, Wen; Kwok, Oi-Man
Participants were 664 relatively low achieving children who were recruited into a longitudinal study when in first grade. Measures of peer academic reputation (PAR), peer acceptance, teacher-rated academic engagement and achievement, and reading and math achievement were obtained in Year 2, when the majority of students were in second grade, and 1 year later. Measures of academic self concept were obtained in Year 1 and in Year 3. As young as second grade, children's perceptions of classmates' academic competence are distinct from their perceptions of peers' other social and behavioral characteristics. SEM analyses found that Year 2 PAR predicted Year 3 teacher-rated academic engagement and reading (but not math) achievement test scores, above the effects of prior scores on these outcomes and other covariates. Furthermore, the effect of PAR on academic engagement and achievement was partially mediated by the effect of PAR on children's academic self concept. Implications of these findings for educational practice and future research are discussed.
This study aimed at recognizing the effect of the Time Management Art on academic achievement among high school students in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The researcher employed the descriptive-analytic research to achieve the purpose of the study where he chose a sample of (2000) high school female and male students as respondents to the…
This experimental study aims to investigate the effects of using collaborative learning to enhance students' speaking achievement. The study using a pre-test and post-test design was conducted with 35 undergraduate students enrolled in a fundamental English course at Bangkok University to examine their speaking achievement on an English oral test…
This study investigated the effects of a collaborative science intervention on high achieving students' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. Thirty-seven eighth-grade high achieving students (16 boys and 21 girls) were selected as an experimental group who joined a 20-week collaborative science intervention, which integrated and utilized…
Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Shen, Ting
Class size reduction has been viewed as one school mechanism that can improve student achievement. Nonetheless, the literature has reported mixed findings about class size effects. We used 4th- and 8th-grade data from TIMSS 2003 and 2007 to examine the association between class size and mathematics achievement in public schools in Cyprus. We…
Helm, Maricela Robledo
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CSCOPE curriculum on student achievement. CSCOPE is a curriculum management system used in 750 of the 1,039 school districts in the state of Texas. Student achievement is based on the results acquired from the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) and the new version of the state…
Seabi, Joseph; Payne, Jarrod
Purpose: Academic achievement of first year university students in the international arena, as well as in South Africa, has been a point of concern for all stakeholders because of high failure and dropout rates. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of identity processing styles on academic achievement in first year university…
Green, Jasmine; Nelson, Genevieve; Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herb
Critical questions in educational psychology research to be addressed in this paper concern the casual relationship between academic self-concept, academic motivation and its effect on academic achievement. Do changes in academic self-concept and academic motivation lead to changes in subsequent academic achievement? Various studies have attempted…
Eamon, Mary Keegan
A mediation model was used to test effects of poverty on the mathematics and reading achievement of young adolescents. A revised model indicated that poverty was associated with mathematics and reading achievement indirectly. Associations depended upon level of cognitively stimulating home environments, emotionally supportive home environments,…
Aidoo, Benjamin; Boateng, Sampson Kwadwo; Kissi, Philip Siaw; Ofori, Isaac
The study investigated the effect of problem-based learning (PBL) on students' achievement in chemistry. Learners' low achievement in Science in South Africa has been a concern to government, stakeholders, school principals and parents over the years as a result of poor teaching techniques, students' attitudes, lack of teaching and learning…
Gray, Holly Lynn
This study tested the effects of a Sustained Silent Reading program on reading achievement and reading attitude. The study accessed scores from the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (Good, Kaminski, & Dill, 2007) to measure reading achievement. This measure was given before and after a twelve week period, during which the treatment group…
Leak, James Alexander
This dissertation examines the relationship between teacher educational background, teacher experience, and student achievement in preschool, kindergarten, and first grade. The first essay of this dissertation, "Effects of Teacher Degree Level, Coursework, and Certification on Student Achievement in Math and Reading in Kindergarten,"…
This study examined the effective strategies, resources, and programs urban superintendents utilize to improve the academic achievement for African-American males. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to answer the following research questions regarding urban superintendents and the academic achievement for African-American males: What…
Gambari, Isiaka Amosa; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere
This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted Jigsaw II cooperative strategy on physics achievement and retention. The study also determined how moderating variables of achievement levels as it affects students' performance in physics when Jigsaw II cooperative learning is used as an instructional strategy. Purposive sampling technique…
Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere
This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-assisted Students' Team Achievement Division (STAD) cooperative learning strategy on physics problem solving, students' achievement and retention. It also examined if the student performance would vary with gender. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two senior secondary schools…
BouJaoude, Saouma; Attieh, May
The purposes of this study were to: (1) examine whether or not the construction of concept maps by students improves their achievement and ability to solve higher order questions in chemistry, (2) investigate the differential effect of the treatment by gender and achievement level, and (3) explore the relationships between performance on concept…
Parker, Verilette; Gerber, Brian
Examines the effectiveness of a standards-based science intervention program on the science achievement and attitudes of middle-grade students attending a five-week academic enrichment program. Finds that students' achievement and attitudes were higher following participation in the program. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/WRM)
Slavin, Robert E.; Karweit, Nancy L.
This research evaluated mathematics achievement and attitudinal effects of three instructional methods directed in varying degrees toward accommodating diversity in students' prior achievement. Two randomized field experiments of 16 and 18 weeks' duration, respectively, compared an individualized model, Team Assisted Individualization (TAI); an…
Datteri, Stacie L.
Several school districts around the United States are concerned with low literacy achievement among elementary students. This study was an investigation of the effectiveness of academic coaching on student achievement results in literacy and took place in a district of approximately 400 teachers and 9,000 elementary students. The purpose of the…
Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren
Investigates the effect of gender and reasoning ability on the human circulatory system concepts achievement and attitude toward biology. Reports a statistically significant mean difference between concrete and formal students with regard to achievement and attitude toward biology. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/YDS)
Collins, Mary L.
Despite the attention being paid to the achievement gap of minorities, the regulations and laws being enacted, the research being conducted, and the funding made available to narrow the achievement gap, there is evidence that shows it still exists for American Indians. This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery, an early literacy…
This study explores the effects of school-level characteristics on North Carolina students' reading and math achievement from fourth through eighth grade, focusing on the relationships between achievement and the racial and poverty composition of schools. After creating race-by-poverty cohorts of schools, I use multilevel models to examine math…
Carlson, Sibylle J.; Latta, R. Michael
One attributional model of achievement proposes that individuals attribute their own and others' performance outcomes to one or more of four causes, i.e., ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck, and that such attributions have motivational significance for subsequent achievement-related behavior. The effects of gender, level of resultant…
Amedu, Odagboyi Isaiah
This paper examined the effect of gender on the achievement of students in biology using the jigsaw method. The sample was made up of 87 students in SS1 in a secondary school. The study utilized an intact class because the study took place in a normal school term. There were 39 males and 49 females. The Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was…
The purpose of this nonexperimental quantitative study was to explore the effects of teachers' certification on the achievement of African American students. The impetus for this exploration resided in the reading achievement disparities between African American and Caucasian students in the study district. Guided by the principles of total…
Ravenel, Jessica; Lambeth, Dawn T.; Spires, Bob
The purpose of the research study was to identify the effects of computer-based programs on mathematical achievement, perceptions, and engagement of fourth-grade students. The 31 student participants were divided into two intervention groups, as a hands-on group and a computer-based group. Student achievement was measured by comparing the pretest…
Kebritchi, Mansureh; Hirumi, Atsusi; Bai, Haiyan
This study examined the effects of a computer game on students' mathematics achievement and motivation, and the role of prior mathematics knowledge, computer skill, and English language skill on their achievement and motivation as they played the game. A total of 193 students and 10 teachers participated in this study. The teachers were randomly…
Heaton, Patrick Michael
The purpose of this study was to examine what effect the Freshmen Interest Group (FIG) program, a variation of a non-residential learning community had on academic achievement scores and institutional rates of persistence. Study variables included: gender; race; pre-collegiate academic achievement (GPA scores); educational preferences (major…
Ross, John A.; Gray, Peter
Principals are held accountable for student achievement although most studies find that they have no direct effect on it. In this study we tested a model hypothesizing that principals contribute to student achievement indirectly through teacher commitment and beliefs about their collective capacity. Path analysis of data from 205 elementary…
Wilkins, Cynthia W.
Early research has shown that using practicing mathematics teachers as mentors results in increased teacher self-respect, improved teaching skills, and renewed enthusiasm for teaching. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a resident mentor teacher on student achievement in mathematics. Measures of achievement were obtained…
Hong, Eunsook; Mason, Elsa; Peng, Yun; Lee, Nancy
Direct and mediating effects of homework worry anxiety on homework effort and homework achievement and the differences in the structural relations among homework motivation constructs and homework achievement across mathematics and English homework were examined in 268 tenth graders in China. Homework motivation included task value, homework…
Dan, Yongjun; Todd, Reese
Research into the effect of interest consistently indicated that interest positively related to students' achievement; however, the mechanism through which it affected the learning result remained an open question. This study intended to examine how learning strategies mediated the relationship between interest and achievement in the domain of…
Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee Anne
Examined the effects of gender on academic achievement for 138 mono- and 125 dizygotic twin pairs, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years. Results suggested that individual differences in academic achievement may be more influenced by genetic than environmental variance in females, and by environmental than genetic variance in males. (BC)
Lee, Woogul; Kim, Sung-il
We conducted behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research to investigate the effects of two types of achievement goals--mastery goals and performance-approach goals--on challenge seeking and feedback processing. The results of the behavioral experiment indicated that mastery goals were associated with a tendency to seek challenge, both before and after experiencing difficulty during task performance, whereas performance-approach goals were related to a tendency to avoid challenge after encountering difficulty during task performance. The fMRI experiment uncovered a significant decrease in ventral striatal activity when participants received negative feedback for any task type and both forms of achievement goals. During the processing of negative feedback for the rule-finding task, performance-approach-oriented participants showed a substantial reduction in activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the frontopolar cortex, whereas mastery-oriented participants showed little change. These results suggest that performance-approach-oriented participants are less likely to either recruit control processes in response to negative feedback or focus on task-relevant information provided alongside the negative feedback. In contrast, mastery-oriented participants are more likely to modulate aversive valuations to negative feedback and focus on the constructive elements of feedback in order to attain their task goals. We conclude that performance-approach goals lead to a reluctant stance towards difficulty, while mastery goals encourage a proactive stance.
Goodwin, Amanda P; Ahn, Soyeon
This study synthesizes 79 standardized mean-change differences between control and treatment groups from 17 independent studies, investigating the effect of morphological interventions on literacy outcomes for students with literacy difficulties. Average total sample size ranged from 15 to 261 from a wide range of grade levels. Overall, morphological instruction showed a significant improvement on literacy achievement (d = 0.33). Specifically, its effect was significant on several literacy outcomes such as phonological awareness (d = 0.49), morphological awareness (d = 0.40), vocabulary (d = 0.40), reading comprehension (d = 0.24), and spelling (d = 0.20). Morphological instruction was particularly effective for children with reading, learning, or speech and language disabilities, English language learners, and struggling readers, suggesting the possibility that morphological instruction can remediate phonological processing challenges. Other moderators were also explored to explain differences in morphological intervention effects. These findings suggest students with literacy difficulties would benefit from morphological instruction.
Herring, Rita L.
The purposes of this research study were to (a) compare the effectiveness of years of traditional textbook instruction with the effectiveness of kinesthetic-based instruction in science on student test scores on the IOWA: Test of Basic Skills (ITBS), (b) compare the effectiveness of traditional and kinesthetic science teaching on teacher and student experiences in science through interviews with teachers and students, and (c) assess the opinions of students receiving kinesthetic-based and text-based book instruction in science. The study group involved students in fifth grade who had experienced kinesthetic-based instruction for 4 years, two classroom teachers per grade level who provided textbook-based instruction in science, and one classroom teacher per grade level who provided kinesthetic-based instruction in science. The same science curriculum was studied in all classrooms. The IOWA Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) scores from 1999 and 2000 for second and third grade were analyzed to compare the effects of kinesthetic-based and textbook-based instruction on student academic achievement in science. No significant differences were found between study and control groups. In addition, interviews were conducted with students and teachers. Themes that emerged from the data were (a) kinesthetic teaching of science is more fun for teachers and students than traditionally taught science, (b) there are differences in learning styles for students and teachers, and (c) experiences in science class can be rewarding. One recommendation for practice would include using a larger sample.
Miller, Donna Kaye Green
The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to measure the difference in science achievement between students who had been taught with an inquiry-based, hands-on pedagogical approach and those who had not. Improving student academic achievement and standardized test scores is the major objective of teachers, parents, school administrators, government entities, and students themselves. One major barrier to this academic success in Georgia, and the entire United States, has been the paucity of success in middle level science classes. Many studies have been conducted to determine the learning approaches that will best enable students to not only acquire a deeper understanding of science concepts, but to equip them to apply that new knowledge in their daily activities. Inquiry-based, hands-on learning involves students participating in activities that reflect methods of scientific investigation. The effective utilization of the inquiry-based learning approach demands inclusion of learners in a self-directed learning environment, the ability to think critically, and an understanding of how to reflect and reason scientifically. The treatment group using an inquiry-based, hands-on program did score slightly higher on the CRCT. However, the results revealed that there was not a significant difference in student achievement. This study showed that the traditionally instructed control group had slightly higher interest in science than the inquiry-based treatment group. The findings of this research study indicated that the NCLB mandates might need to be altered if there are no significant academic gains that result from the use of inquiry-based strategies.
Zhang, Shizhen; Zhou, Peizhi; Jiang, Shu; Wang, Wei; Li, Peng
Abstract Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for advanced Parkinson disease (PD). However, achieving ideal outcomes by conventional programming can be difficult in some patients, resulting in suboptimal control of PD symptoms and stimulation-induced adverse effects. Interleaving stimulation (ILS) is a newer programming technique that can individually optimize the stimulation area, thereby improving control of PD symptoms while alleviating stimulation-induced side effects after conventional programming fails to achieve the desired results. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed PD patients who received DBS programming during the previous 4 years in our hospital. We collected clinical and demographic data from 12 patients who received ILS because of incomplete alleviation of PD symptoms or stimulation-induced adverse effects after conventional programming had proven ineffective or intolerable. Appropriate lead location was confirmed with postoperative reconstruction images. The rationale and clinical efficacy of ILS was analyzed. Results: We divided our patients into 4 groups based on the following symptoms: stimulation-induced dysarthria and choreoathetoid dyskinesias, gait disturbance, and incomplete control of parkinsonism. After treatment with ILS, patients showed satisfactory improvement in PD symptoms and alleviation of stimulation-induced side effects, with a mean improvement in Unified PD Rating Scale motor scores of 26.9%. Conclusions: ILS is a newer choice and effective programming strategy to maximize symptom control in PD while decreasing stimulation-induced adverse effects when conventional programming fails to achieve satisfactory outcome. However, we should keep in mind that most DBS patients are routinely treated with conventional stimulation and that not all patients benefit from ILS. ILS is not recommended as the first choice of programming, and it is recommended only when patients have
Cuccurullo, G.; Cinquanta, L.; Sorrentino, G.
A two-dimensional analytical model for predicting the unsteady temperature field in a cylindrical shaped body affected by spatially varying heat generation is presented. The dimensionless problem is solved analytically by using both partial solutions and the variation of parameters techniques. Having in mind industrial microwave heating for food pasteurization, the easy-to-handle solution is used to confirm the intrinsic lack of spatial uniformity of such a treatment in comparison to the traditional one. From an experimental point of view, a batch pasteurization treatment was realized to compare the effect of two different control techniques both based on IR thermography readout: the former assured a classical PID control, while the latter was based on a "shadowing" technique, consisting in covering portions of the sample which are hot enough with a mobile metallic screen. A measure of the effectiveness of the two control techniques was obtained by evaluating the thermal death curves of a strain Lactobacillus plantarum submitted to pasteurization temperatures. Preliminary results showed meaningful increases in the microwave thermal inactivation of the L. plantarum and similar significant decreases in thermal inactivation time with respect to the traditional pasteurization thermal treatment.
Martin, Roy P.; Gaddis, Lena
The relatively long-term effects of temperament on classroom achievement were studied in a cohort of elementary students while accounting for variation in cognitive ability, previous achievement, and gender. The existence of long-term effects would support the hypothesis that indirect genetic effects on learning are mediated by temperament.…
Bowen, Craig W.
Describes meta-analysis, a quantitative approach to conducting literature reviews. Illustrates the power of this technique by reporting the quantitative effects of cooperative learning on chemistry achievement in high school and college classes. (Contains 32 references.) (WRM)
Aalbers, René; Vogelmeier, Claus; Kuna, Piotr
Maintenance treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) is recommended for patients whose asthma is not controlled with a low-to-moderate dose of ICS alone; a separate reliever medication is used on an as-needed basis. The Gaining Optimal Asthma ControL (GOAL) study demonstrated that salmeterol/fluticasone maintenance treatment can improve asthma control and reduce future risk compared with fluticasone alone, although the dose escalation design of this study meant that most patients treated with salmeterol/fluticasone were receiving the highest dose of ICS at the end of the study. Similarly, budesonide/formoterol maintenance therapy improved asthma control and reduced future risk compared with budesonide alone in the Formoterol and Corticosteroids Establishing Therapy (FACET) study. An alternative approach to asthma management is to use an ICS/LABA for both maintenance and reliever therapy. A large body of clinical evidence has shown that the use of budesonide/formoterol in this way improves both current control and reduces future risk compared with ICS/LABA plus as-needed short-acting β2-agonist (SABA), even when patients receive lower maintenance doses of ICS as part of the maintenance and reliever therapy regimen. In addition, one study has shown that beclometasone/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy reduces exacerbations more effectively than beclometasone/formoterol plus as-needed SABA. The use of ICS/LABA as both maintenance and reliever therapy ensures that an increase in reliever use in response to worsening symptoms is automatically matched by an increase in ICS.
Wilkes, Michael S; Srinivasan, Malathi; Flamholtz, Eric
This article provides a framework for understanding the nature, role, functioning, design, and effects of organizational oversight systems. Using a case study with elements recognizable to an academic audience, the authors explore how a dean of a fictitious School of Medicine might use organizational control structures to develop effective solutions to global disarray within the academic medical center. Organizational control systems are intended to help influence the behavior of people as members of a formal organization. They are necessary to motivate people toward organizational goals, to coordinate diverse efforts, and to provide feedback about problems. The authors present a model of control to make this process more visible within organizations. They explore the overlap among academic medical centers and large businesses-for instance, each is a billion-dollar enterprise with complex internal and external demands and multiple audiences. The authors identify and describe how to use the key components of an organization's control system: environment, culture, structure, and core control system. Elements of the core control system are identified, described, and explored. These closely articulating elements include planning, operations, measurement, evaluation, and feedback systems. Use of control portfolios is explored to achieve goal-outcome congruence. Additionally, the authors describe how the components of the control system can be used synergistically by academic leadership to create organizational change, congruent with larger organizational goals. The enterprise of medicine is quickly learning from the enterprise of business. Achieving goal-action congruence will better position academic medicine to meet its multiple missions.
Nie, Sen; Wang, Xu-Wen; Wang, Bing-Hong; Jiang, Luo-Luo
The network control problem has recently attracted an increasing amount of attention, owing to concerns including the avoidance of cascading failures of power-grids and the management of ecological networks. It has been proven that numerical control can be achieved if the number of control inputs exceeds a certain transition point. In the present study, we investigate the effect of degree correlation on the numerical controllability in networks whose topological structures are reconstructed from both real and modeling systems, and we find that the transition point of the number of control inputs depends strongly on the degree correlation in both undirected and directed networks with moderately sparse links. More interestingly, the effect of the degree correlation on the transition point cannot be observed in dense networks for numerical controllability, which contrasts with the corresponding result for structural controllability. In particular, for directed random networks and scale-free networks, the influence of the degree correlation is determined by the types of correlations. Our approach provides an understanding of control problems in complex sparse networks.
Gigliette, Linda Marie
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of a trust-building technique called "positive-framing" (Lemov, 2010, p. 204) on the level of student-teacher trust and students' science academic achievement. The existing literature was reviewed under the constructs of trust, types of trust, trust-building strategies, and student academic achievement. The identified problem is a lack of research into the effect of trust from the high school student perspective and the effect of trust on student academic achievement in science. In addition, there is no empirical evidence to support the effectiveness of the "positive-framing" (Lemov, 2010, p. 204) trust-building intervention. The study involved a volunteer, convenience sample of 9th-grade science students at one high school in Northern California (N=240). The study employed a quasi-experimental, pretest, posttest non-equivalent control group design to examine the level of student trust in the teacher, using the "Student trust in faculty scale" (Forsyth, Adams, & Hoy, 2011, p. 180), and the students' academic achievement, according to the Integrated Process Skills Test II (Okey, Wise, & Burns, 1982). The independent variable was the "positive-framing" (Lemov, 2010, p. 204) trust-building intervention; the two dependent variables were the level of student-teacher trust and student academic achievement. The composite data from the "Student trust in faculty scale" and the academic achievement test were evaluated by a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results of this study indicated that the null hypothesis was accepted. The "positive-framing" (Lemov, 2010, p. 204) trust-building intervention did not have a significant effect on either the student-teacher trust level or academic achievement in science.
Shaw, Ralph L.; Uhl, Norman P.
This study investigates the effect of socio-economic level (lower and upper-middle), race (black and white), and sex on locus of control of reinforcement scores, and the relationship between the latter scores and reading achievement in a sample of 211 second grade children. A stratified random sampling technique insured adequate levels of each…
Gao, Jialin; Xiong, Qianyin; Miao, Jun; Zhang, Yao; Xia, Libing; Lu, Meiqin; Zhang, Binhua; Chen, Yueping; Zhang, Ansu; Yu, Cui; Wang, Li-Zhuo
The aims of the present study were to explore the efficacy of glycemic control and the risks of hypoglycemia with different methods of insulin therapy, and to provide reference data for the clinical treatment of diabetes. In this retrospective study, hospitalized patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between March and December 2014, in the Department of Endocrinology in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College, were divided into three groups, including an intensive insulin analogue therapy group, a premixed insulin analogue treatment group and a premixed human insulin therapy group. The efficacy of glycemic control and the incidence of hypoglycemia were determined in each of the insulin treatment groups. Compared with the other treatment groups, the intensive insulin analogue therapy group was associated with superior blood glucose control, shorter time to reach standard insulin regimen, shorter hospitalization time, fewer fluctuations in blood glucose levels and lower insulin dosage on discharge from hospital. However, this treatment was also associated with a high risk of hypoglycemia. In conclusion, when combined with the effective prevention of hypoglycemia and appropriate nursing care (especially in hospital care), intensive insulin analogue therapy may provide the greatest benefit to patients.
Heck, Ronald H.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show how increasing teacher effectiveness is central to school efforts to improve student outcomes. This study aims to examine successive teachers' effects on student achievement. The premise advanced is that teacher effectiveness is an individual resource that varies across classrooms within schools, as…
Youse, Keith Edward
The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…
Bianchi, Gregory A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of reflective assessment in the form of situated metacognitive prompts on student achievement in the secondary sciences. A second goal was to determine whether specific gender differences existed in terms of student responsiveness to the metacognitive interventions. Participants in the study consisted of a convenience sample from a population of ninth-grade honors biology students in a large suburban school district located near Seattle, Washington. Beyond answering the specific research questions raised in this study, an additional aim was to broaden the growing body of research pertaining to the effect of metacognition on student achievement. A quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design was employed in this study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were computed to address the specific research questions raised. Specifically, a three-way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed. For this purpose, a single within-subjects factor, termed Testing, was defined. Three levels were allocated to this factor, and quantitative data from the Pretest, Posttest, and Retention Test were assigned to the levels, respectively. Group and Gender were defined as between-subjects factors, and both were allocated two levels; the two Group levels were Reflective and Non-Reflective. The effects of Group and Gender on each of the three quantitative measures were examined singly and in interaction with each other. Tests of statistical significance were analyzed at the .05 level. There was a statistically significant effect for Group (Reflective, Non-Reflective) by Testing (Pretest, Posttest, Retention Test). A three-way repeated-measures ANOVA procedure revealed that students in the Reflective group outperformed students in the Non-Reflective group (F = 10.258, p = .002, Partial eta 2 = .088). According to the effect size estimate, almost 9% of variance in the Testing variable was attributable to the Group variable
Hisama, Toshiaki; Hotchkiss, James
The study investigated achievement motivation of children with learning and behavior problems and examined effects of various types of verbal instruction on performance tasks and the resulting relationships of these verbal instructions to achievement motivation. The subjects were 48 third and fourth grade children diagnosed as having learning…
Hornstra, Lisette; Denessen, Eddie; Bakker, Joep; van den Bergh, Linda; Voeten, Marinus
The present study examined teacher attitudes toward dyslexia and the effects of these attitudes on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia compared to students without learning disabilities. The attitudes of 30 regular education teachers toward dyslexia were determined using both an implicit measure and an explicit, self-report measure. Achievement scores for 307 students were also obtained. Implicit teacher attitudes toward dyslexia related to teacher ratings of student achievement on a writing task and also to student achievement on standardized tests of spelling but not math for those students with dyslexia. Self-reported attitudes of the teachers toward dyslexia did not relate to any of the outcome measures. Neither the implicit nor the explicit measures of teacher attitudes related to teacher expectations. The results show implicit attitude measures to be a more valuable predictor of the achievement of students with dyslexia than explicit, self-report attitude measures.
Rae, Charlotte L; Hughes, Laura E; Anderson, Michael C; Rowe, James B
Communication between the prefrontal cortex and subcortical nuclei underpins the control and inhibition of behavior. However, the interactions in such pathways remain controversial. Using a stop-signal response inhibition task and functional imaging with analysis of effective connectivity, we show that the lateral prefrontal cortex influences the strength of communication between regions in the frontostriatal motor system. We compared 20 generative models that represented alternative interactions between the inferior frontal gyrus, presupplementary motor area (preSMA), subthalamic nucleus (STN), and primary motor cortex during response inhibition. Bayesian model selection revealed that during successful response inhibition, the inferior frontal gyrus modulates an excitatory influence of the preSMA on the STN, thereby amplifying the downstream polysynaptic inhibition from the STN to the motor cortex. Critically, the strength of the interaction between preSMA and STN, and the degree of modulation by the inferior frontal gyrus, predicted individual differences in participants' stopping performance (stop-signal reaction time). We then used diffusion-weighted imaging with tractography to assess white matter structure in the pathways connecting these three regions. The mean diffusivity in tracts between preSMA and the STN, and between the inferior frontal gyrus and STN, also predicted individual differences in stopping efficiency. Finally, we found that white matter structure in the tract between preSMA and STN correlated with effective connectivity of the same pathway, providing important cross-modal validation of the effective connectivity measures. Together, the results demonstrate the network dynamics and modulatory role of the prefrontal cortex that underpin individual differences in inhibitory control.
Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.
Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…
Bull, Rebecca; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wiebe, Sandra A; Sheffield, Tiffany D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize
Latent variable modeling methods have demonstrated utility for understanding the structure of executive control (EC) across development. These methods are utilized to better characterize the relation between EC and mathematics achievement in the preschool period, and to understand contributing sources of individual variation. Using the sample and battery of laboratory tasks described in Wiebe, Espy and Charak (2008), latent EC was related strongly to emergent mathematics achievement in preschool, and was robust after controlling for crystallized intellectual skills. The relation between crystallized skills and emergent mathematics differed between girls and boys, although the predictive association between EC and mathematics did not. Two dimensions of the child 's social environment contributed to mathematics achievement: social network support through its relation to EC and environmental stressors through its relation with crystallized skills. These findings underscore the need to examine the dimensions, mechanisms, and individual pathways that influence the development of early competence in basic cognitive processes that underpin early academic achievement.
Kendall-Tackett, K A; Eckenrode, J
The present study examines the effect of child neglect, alone and in combination with abuse, on academic achievement and school disciplinary problems for elementary, junior high, and senior high students. The sample included 324 neglected children and adolescents, and a matched nonmaltreated sample of 420 children and adolescents. All subjects were in grades K through 12 in a small city in New York state. The results revealed that neglected children did perform more poorly than their nonmaltreated counterparts, having lower grades, more suspensions, more disciplinary referrals, and more grade repetitions, even when controlling for gender of child and SES. Neglect alone and neglect in combination with physical or sexual abuse was related to lower grades and more suspensions. The combination of abuse and neglect had a particularly strong effect on the number of disciplinary referrals and grade repetitions. Abused/neglected students in junior high had the highest number of grade repetitions. The number of disciplinary referrals continued to increase through senior high for both neglected and abused/neglected students. Interestingly, the academic performance of all subjects dropped during junior high. Neglect and neglect in combination with abuse appeared to exacerbate a decline in academic performance that occurs as children enter junior high school.
Høigaard, Rune; Kovač, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy
This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth- and tenth- grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic achievement. The results of a bootstrapping technique used to analyze relationships between the constructs indicated that school-goal orientations and organizational citizenship predicted academic self-efficacy. Furthermore, school-goal orientation, organizational citizenship, and academic self-efficacy explained 46% of the variance in academic achievement. Mediation analyses revealed that academic self-efficacy mediated the effects of perceived task goal structure, perceived ability structure, civic virtue, and sportsmanship on adolescents' academic achievements. The results are discussed in reference to current scholarship, including theories underlying our hypothesis. Practical implications and directions for future research are suggested.
Ozdemir Oz, Ayse; Lane, Jennie F.; Michou, Aikaterini
The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of autonomous and controlling reasons underlying an endorsed achievement goal to intrinsic motivation and cheating. The endorsement of the achievement goal was ensured by involving 212 (M(subscript age) = 19.24, SD = 0.97) freshman students in a spatial task and asking them to report their most…
Brown, Kathleen M.; Benkovitz, Jen; Muttillo, A. J.; Urban, Thad
Background/Context: In the Fall 2006 issue of AERJ, Hoy, Tarter, and Woolfolk Hoy identified the new construct of academic optimism as a general latent concept related to student achievement even after controlling for SES, previous performance, and other demographic variables. Through structural equation modeling, they found that the collective…
Farrell, Inez H.; Moore, David M.
Describes a study of eighth-grade middle school students that was conducted to determine whether varying the amount of learner control and interactivity through the use of different navigation tools (linear, menu, and search engine) would influence the achievement and attitude of learners of different academic abilities. (Author/LRW)
Odubunmi, Olagunju; Balogun, T. A.
A sample of 210 class-two (grade 8) students from six randomly selected classes from six Nigerian schools was divided into two (experimental and control) groups. Using materials from some units of the Nigerian Integrated Science Project (NISP), the experimental group was taught by a laboratory method while the control group was taught by the lecture method. Data were collected using an Achievement Test for Integrated Science Students developed by the authors and student ability was measured by tests secured from the Department of Teacher Education, University of Ibadan. In analyzing the data, an analysis of covariance was employed. T-test statistics were also used to determine significant difference between means of different groups.High achievers of both groups had identical achievement, but the low achievers in the experimental group performed better than their counterparts in the control group. While the study showed that males in this study prefer laboratory method to lecture method when compared with their female counterparts, the study also revealed that females in the control classes performed better than males of the same group.
Perry, Raymond P.; And Others
Previous "educational seduction" research suggested that teacher differences in expressiveness controlled the degree to which lecture content affected student ratings differently from student achievement. We attempted to replicate this Expressiveness x Content x Measures interaction in four simulated college classes. Student incentive…
Olori, Abiola Lateef; Igbosanu, Adekunle Olusegun
The study was carried out to determine the use of computer-based multimedia presentation on Senior Secondary School Students' Achievement in Agricultural Science. The study was a quasi-experimental, pre-test, post-test control group research design type, using intact classes. A sample of eighty (80) Senior Secondary School One (SS II) students was…
Coleman, James S.
Comments upon a 1981 article by Alexander, Pallas, and Cook. Discusses whether particular standardized tests measure achievement or ability and the implications of this issue for school effects research. (GC)
Styles, David; O'Brien, Kieran; Jones, Michael B
This paper presents an innovative, quantitative assessment of pollution avoidance attributable to environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing, using Ireland's pharmaceutical-manufacturing sector as a case study. Emissions data reported by pharmaceutical installations were aggregated into a pollution trend using an Environmental Emissions Index (EEI) based on Lifecycle Assessment methodologies. Complete sectoral emissions data from 2001 to 2007 were extrapolated back to 1995, based on available data. Production volume data were used to derive a sectoral production index, and determine 'no-improvement' emission trends, whilst questionnaire responses from 20 industry representatives were used to quantify the contribution of integrated licensing to emission avoidance relative to these trends. Between 2001 and 2007, there was a 40% absolute reduction in direct pollution from 27 core installations, and 45% pollution avoidance relative to hypothetical 'no-improvement' pollution. It was estimated that environmental regulation avoided 20% of 'no-improvement' pollution, in addition to 25% avoidance under business-as-usual. For specific emissions, avoidance ranged from 14% and 30 kt a(-1) for CO(2) to 88% and 598 t a(-1) for SO(x). Between 1995 and 2007, there was a 59% absolute reduction in direct pollution, and 76% pollution avoidance. Pollution avoidance was dominated by reductions in emissions of VOCs, SO(x) and NO(x) to air, and emissions of heavy metals to water. Pollution avoidance of 35% was attributed to integrated licensing, ranging from between 8% and 2.9 t a(-1) for phosphorus emissions to water to 49% and 3143 t a(-1) for SO(x) emissions to air. Environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing has been the major driver of substantial pollution avoidance achieved by Ireland's pharmaceutical sector - through emission limit values associated with Best Available Techniques, emissions monitoring and reporting requirements, and
This study examined the effect of achievement goals and achievement emotions on sport satisfaction, performance and effort among competitive athletes. Participants were 200 athletes. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effect of mastery-approach goals on satisfaction with sport experience and performance, the direct effect of mastery-approach goals on enjoyment and effort, the direct effect of performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals on performance, and the direct effect of mastery-avoidance goals on effort. Results showed a positive direct effect of mastery-approach goals on enjoyment and an indirect effect, through enjoyment, on satisfaction, performance, and effort. We did not find support for the hypothesized effect of performance-approach or performance-avoidance goals on performance. The applied implications of endorsing mastery-approach goals are discussed.
Born, Wendi Kay
This two-year quasi-experiment evaluated the effect of peer-led workshop groups on performance of minority and majority undergraduate biology students in a three-course series and investigated motivational explanations for performance differences. The workshop intervention used was modeled after a program pioneered by Treisman (1992) at the University of California. Majority volunteers randomly assigned to workshops (n = 61) performed between 1/2 and 1 standard deviation better than those assigned to the control group (n = 60; p < .05) in each quarter without spending more time studying. During Quarter 1, workshop minority students (n = 25) showed a pattern of increasing exam performance in comparison to historic control minority students (n = 21), who showed a decreasing pattern (p < .05). Although sex differences in biology performance were a focus of investigation, none were detected. Motivational predictions derived from the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation (Elliot & Church, 1997) were partially supported. Self-report survey measures of achievement goals, modeled after those used by Elliot and colleagues, were requested from all enrolled students. Volunteers (n = 121) reported higher average levels of approach and avoidance goals than nonvolunteers (n = 439; p < .05) and the relationship of goals to performance was moderated by volunteer status. Performance of volunteers was negatively related to avoidance of failure goals (r = .41, p < .01) and unrelated to performance approach goals. Performance of nonvolunteers was unrelated to avoidance of failure goals and positively related to performance approach goals (r = .28, p < .01). Mastery goals were unrelated to performance for all students. Results were inconsistent with Dweck and Leggett's (1988) theory of mastery vs. performance orientation, but were similar to results found by Elliot and colleagues. Contrary to hypotheses, motivational goals did not mediate performance for
Bevel, Raymona King
The purpose of the research was to determine the effects of academic optimism on student academic achievement through measuring the individual and collective effects of academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust in clients. Data for this study were obtained from the School Academic Optimism Scale and the reading section of the…
James, Ajogbeje Oke; Folorunso, Alonge Micheal
The study investigated the effects of feedback and remediation as instructional strategies on junior secondary school students' achievement in mathematics. The effects of gender and socio economic status on these learning outcomes were also examined. The sample for the study consisted of 240 junior secondary two (JSS II) students in intact classes…
Bates, Celeste C.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Gambrell, Linda; Xu, Meling
This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery on children's motivational levels, and how motivation may contribute to the effect of the intervention on literacy achievement. Prior studies concluded that Reading Recovery was positively associated with increased student motivation levels, but most of those studies were limited…
Altintas, Esra; Özdemir, Ahmet S.
Problem Statement: The present study is of importance for designing a differentiation approach, which enables gifted students to use their present potential in mathematics effectively and enables them to develop their achievement, while looking at the effect of the approach on both gifted and non-gifted students. Within the scope of the developed…
Smidchens, Uldis; Thompson, Eugene
This research examines the effects of family organization upon student achievement. The authors are particularly concerned with teacher expectations and beliefs regarding single parenting and its effects upon skill acquisition. The sample is made up of over 400 fifth graders in the public schools of a middle sized midwestern city. Data regarding…
Owoh, Titus M.
This study sought to find out the relationship between students perception of their teacher effectiveness and academic achievement in Basic Technology. Teacher's personality, teaching techniques/classroom management strategy and appearance, all integrate to make for teacher effectiveness. To carry out this research, two research questions and one…
Brewer, David Shane
This study compared the effectiveness, in terms of mathematical achievement and mathematics self-efficacy, of online homework to textbook homework over an entire semester for 145 students enrolled in multiple sections of college algebra at a large community college. A quasi-experimental, posttest design was used to analyze the effect on…
Balsa, Ana I.; Giuliano, Laura M.; French, Michael T.
This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's grade point average (GPA) abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that…
This study examined the effect of foster care experience and characteristics on educational outcomes. The typical strategy in examining the effect foster care has on educational outcomes is to compare the educational achievement of youth with foster care experience to that of their peers or to national norms. This strategy fails to take selection…
Mattox, Kim; Hancock, Dawson R.; Queen, J. Allen
To address the nations' ongoing interest in student achievement, some researchers have focused on the effect of block scheduling--a model in which students take fewer classes for longer periods of time. Although block scheduling has demonstrated its viability in high schools, little research has explored its effect at the middle level. Because the…
Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Bell, Bethany A.
Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002-2006, the authors investigated the effects of advanced math course taking on math achievement and college enrollment and how such effects varied by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. Results from propensity score matching and sensitivity analyses showed that advanced math course…
Zakaria, Effandi; Nordin, Norazah Mohd
The study investigated the effects of mathematics anxiety on matriculation students as related to motivation and achievement. Subjects included 88 students who were at the end of their second semester of study. Anxiety and motivation were measured using the Fennema-Sherman Math Anxiety Scale (MAS) and Effectance Motivation Scale (EMS)…
Conner, Marty S.
In the era of school accountability, school boards are under scrutiny for their effectiveness in improving student achievement. It has become more than obvious that school boards play an important role in the effectiveness, ineffectiveness, successes and failures of school districts. However, to what degree of importance was the premise for this…
Gajar, Anna H.; And Others
The research analyzed the effects of peer tutoring and teacher presentations about handicaps on the social acceptance of 16 mainstreamed educable mentally retarded (EMR) children (10 from primary and 6 from intermediate level classes). In addition, the effect of peer tutoring on reading achievement of EMR students was examined. Results showed that…
Arnold, Thomas C.; Dwyer, Francis M.
In order to investigate the relative effectiveness of specific media attributes on student performance on criterion tests, a comparison was made of the effectiveness of two levels of stimulus explicitness in visuals in facilitating student achievement on criterion tests of knowledge, comprehension, and total understanding. Subjects were 171…
Liao, Yuen-kuang Cliff
A meta-analysis was performed to synthesize existing research comparing the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) versus traditional instruction (TI) on students' achievement in Taiwan. Fifty-two studies were located from four sources, and their quantitative data was transformed into effect size (ES). The overall grand mean of the…
This study was aimed at finding out the effectiveness of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement. In other words, the objective of this study was to find out if there was a significant effect of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)…
Al-Madani, Feras Mohammed
Effective communication between faculty members and students is one of the concerns of the educational stakeholders at the Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia. This study investigates the relationship between teachers' effective communication and students' academic achievement at the Northern Border University. The survey questionnaire…
McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap
This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…
Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Traynor, Anne
Background/Context: The effects of class size on student achievement have gained considerable attention in education research and policy, especially over the last 30 years. Perhaps the best evidence about the effects of class size thus far has been produced from analyses of Project STAR data, a large-scale experiment where students and teachers…
Garaga, Mounesha Nagendrachar; Aguilera, Luis; Yaghini, Negin; Matic, Aleksandar; Persson, Michael; Martinelli, Anna
We report a strategy to enhance the ionic mobility in an emerging class of gels, based on robust nanoporous silica micro-particles, by chemical functionalization of the silica surface. Two very different ionic liquids are used to fill the nano-pores of silica at varying pore filling factors, namely one aprotic imidazolium based (1-methyl-3-hexylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, C6C1ImTFSI), and one protic ammonium based (diethylmethylammonium methanesulfonate, DEMAOMs) ionic liquid. Both these ionic liquids display higher ionic mobility when confined in functionalized silica as compared to untreated silica nano-pores, an improvement that is more pronounced at low pore filling factors (i.e. in the nano-sized pore domains) and observed in the whole temperature window investigated (i.e. from -10 to 140 °C). Solid-state NMR, diffusion NMR and dielectric spectroscopy concomitantly demonstrate this effect. The origin of this enhancement is explained in terms of weaker intermolecular interactions and a consequent flipped-ion effect at the silica interface strongly supported by 2D solid-state NMR experiments. The possibility to significantly enhance the ionic mobility by controlling the nature of surface interactions is extremely important in the field of materials science and highlights these structurally tunable gels as promising solid-like electrolytes for use in energy relevant devices. These include, but are not limited to, Li-ion batteries and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells.
Nozari, Ali Yazdanpanah; Siamian, Hasan
Background: Traditional education classes are no more effective because they are tied to a particular place and time. Podcast complete the defection of other educational resources. In this study we aimed to address whether utilizing podcast multimedia training system has an effect on the motivational achievement and students learning of the Arabic course in high school. Methods: In this practical-purposed, descriptive and quasi-experimental study, pre- and post-test method in control and experiment groups was used. Researchers used simple random sampling method to form the groups. Results: The results showed the normal distribution of data according to the value of z (0.09) in the pre- and post-tests in both control and experiment groups. Therefore, the data distribution was normal (P>0.925). Significant differences between experimental and control groups in terms of academic level were not observed in the pre-test. There was no significant difference between the motivational achievement of education in post-test of control and experiment group (p>0.89). Conclusion: The results showed that teaching with podcast multimedia systems significantly increased learning of Arabic in the high school level. But of motivation reinforcement between traditional method and system for multimedia podcasts, showed no significant differences. Each variety of multimedia techniques can be beneficial for a specific course. Therefore, more studies on the effectiveness of podcast method in different courses to determine its effects are necessary. PMID:25870488
Renganathan, K; Bhaskar, VidhyaCharan
In this paper, we propose an approach for achieving detection and identification of faults, and provide fault tolerant control for systems that are modeled using timed hybrid Petri nets. For this purpose, an observer based technique is adopted which is useful in detection of faults, such as sensor faults, actuator faults, signal conditioning faults, etc. The concepts of estimation, reachability and diagnosability have been considered for analyzing faulty behaviors, and based on the detected faults, different schemes are proposed for achieving fault tolerant control using optimization techniques. These concepts are applied to a typical three tank system and numerical results are obtained.
Barbadoro, P; Martini, E; Gioia, M G; Stoico, R; Savini, S; Manso, E; Serafini, G; Prospero, E; D'Errico, M M
The objective of this investigation was to analyze the effectiveness of a quality improvement initiative in limiting the spread of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in the hospital setting. During the period 2011-2013, a multimodal intervention was activated at a tertiary care center in Italy. The intervention included: laboratory-based surveillance, interdisciplinary training sessions, monitoring the adoption of isolation precautions and daily supervision provided by infection control nurses, and a monthly feedback. Time series analysis was used to evaluate the trends and correlations between the MDROs rate, intensity of checking rounds, and hospital-wide data (i.e., transfer of patients, patients' days, site of isolation, etc.). A total of 149,251 patients were included in the study. The proportion of patients undergoing transmission-based isolation precautions within 24 h from a positive laboratory finding increased from 83% in 2011 to 99% in 2013 (p < 0.05). The wards appropriately adopting the correct isolation precaution increased from 83% in 2011 to 97.6% in 2013 (p < 0.05). The frequency of controls was significantly reduced after the observation of compliance in the appropriate wards (p < 0.05). After three years, the incidence rate changed from 5.8/1000 days of stay [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.6-6.1] in 2011 to 4.7 (95% CI 4.4-4.9) in 2013 (p < 0.0001). Moreover, microorganisms isolated from different types of specimens showed variable potential for transmission (i.e., skin as the most potential and urine the least). The results demonstrate the efficacy of the multimodal intervention, with sustained reduction of MDROs rate, besides check reduction, and highlight the long-term efficacy of checking rounds in changing professionals' behaviors.
Emery, Clifton R; Thapa, Sirjana; Wu, Shali
We argue that the concept of power has been inadvertently sidelined in recent theory and research on husband violence. Three types of relationship power may matter with respect to husband violence: attempted power, actual power, and achieved power. Analyses of a randomly selected representative sample of 270 married or partnered women in Kathmandu showed that actual power was related to husband violence prevalence, severity, and injury. Achieved power was related to husband violence prevalence and severity, and attempted power was related to husband violence injury. Implications are discussed.
Previous literature leaves us unanswered questions about whether teaching behaviors mediate the relationship between teacher education level and experience with student science achievement. This study examined this question with 655 students from sixth to eighth grade and their 12 science teachers. Student science achievements were measured at the beginning and end of 2006-2007 school year. Given the cluster sampling of students nested in classrooms, which are nested in teachers, a two-level multilevel model was employed to disentangle the effects from teacher-level and student-level factors. Several findings were discovered in this study. Science teachers possessing of advanced degrees in science or education significantly and positively influenced student science achievement. However, years of teaching experience in science did not directly influence student science achievement. A significant interaction was detected between teachers possessing an advanced degree in science or education and years of teaching science, which was inversely associated to student science achievement. Better teaching behaviors were also positively related to student achievement in science directly, as well as mediated the relationship between student science achievement and both teacher education and experience. Additionally, when examined separately, each teaching behavior variable (teacher engagement, classroom management, and teaching strategies) served as a significant intermediary between both teacher education and experience and student science achievement. The findings of this study are intended to provide insights into the importance of hiring and developing qualified teachers who are better able to help students achieve in science, as well as to direct the emphases of ongoing teacher inservice training.
Hashimoto, Ken; Yoshioka, Kota
As an evaluation scheme, we propose certifying for “control”, as alternative to “interruption”, of Chagas disease transmission by native vectors, to project a more achievable and measurable goal and sharing good practices through an “open online platform” rather than “formal certification” to make the key knowledge more accumulable and accessible. PMID:25317713
Kraehmer, Hansjoerg; van Almsick, Andreas; Beffa, Roland; Dietrich, Hansjoerg; Eckes, Peter; Hacker, Erwin; Hain, Ruediger; Strek, Harry John; Stuebler, Hermann; Willms, Lothar
In response to changing market dynamics, the discovery of new herbicides has declined significantly over the past few decades and has only seen a modest upsurge in recent years. Nevertheless, the few introductions have proven to be interesting and have brought useful innovation to the market. In addition, herbicide-tolerant or herbicide-resistant crop technologies have allowed the use of existing nonselective herbicides to be extended into crops. An increasing and now major challenge is being posed by the inexorable increase in biotypes of weeds that are resistant to herbicides. This problem is now at a level that threatens future agricultural productivity and needs to be better understood. If herbicides are to remain sustainable, then it is a must that we adopt diversity in crop rotation and herbicide use as well as increase the use of nonchemical measures to control weeds. Nevertheless, despite the difficulties posed by resistant weeds and increased regulatory hurdles, new screening tools promise to provide an upsurge of potential herbicide leads. Our industry urgently needs to supply agriculture with new, effective resistance-breaking herbicides along with strategies to sustain their utility. PMID:25104721
Kraehmer, Hansjoerg; van Almsick, Andreas; Beffa, Roland; Dietrich, Hansjoerg; Eckes, Peter; Hacker, Erwin; Hain, Ruediger; Strek, Harry John; Stuebler, Hermann; Willms, Lothar
In response to changing market dynamics, the discovery of new herbicides has declined significantly over the past few decades and has only seen a modest upsurge in recent years. Nevertheless, the few introductions have proven to be interesting and have brought useful innovation to the market. In addition, herbicide-tolerant or herbicide-resistant crop technologies have allowed the use of existing nonselective herbicides to be extended into crops. An increasing and now major challenge is being posed by the inexorable increase in biotypes of weeds that are resistant to herbicides. This problem is now at a level that threatens future agricultural productivity and needs to be better understood. If herbicides are to remain sustainable, then it is a must that we adopt diversity in crop rotation and herbicide use as well as increase the use of nonchemical measures to control weeds. Nevertheless, despite the difficulties posed by resistant weeds and increased regulatory hurdles, new screening tools promise to provide an upsurge of potential herbicide leads. Our industry urgently needs to supply agriculture with new, effective resistance-breaking herbicides along with strategies to sustain their utility.
Yokoyama, Takahiro; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Haga, Hitoshi; Shibata, Junji
In this paper, we propose a method for the digital control of IPM motors in order to achieve a high power factor in single-phase to three-phase power converters without reactors or electrolytic capacitors. For achieving the unity power factor under any load condition and any speed condition, we propose a new digital control method that involves the use of a new feedback technique and a new feedforward technique on the source-current regulator side. The proposed digital control system is constructed by using DSP devices. In this paper, we also propose a new method for the compensation of one sampling delay time. The superior performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by experimental results. The experimental results were obtained using 1.5[kW] inverter system, which consists of a vector control system with a 14[μF] dc-link capacitor. The maximum power factor obtained in the experiments was 96.8[%].
Hassounah, S; Rawaf, D; Khoja, T; Rawaf, S; Hussein, M S; Qidwai, W; Majeed, A
This paper reports a review into the current state of tobacco use, governance and national commitment for control, and current intervention frameworks in place to reduce the use of tobacco among the populations of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) member states and Yemen. It further reviews structured policy-oriented interventions (in line with the MPOWER package of 6 evidence-based tobacco control measures) that represent government actions to strengthen, implement and manage tobacco control programmes and to address the growing epidemic of tobacco use. Our findings show that tobacco control in the GCC countries has witnessed real progress over the past decades. These are still early days but they indicate steps in the right direction. Future investment in implementation and enforcement of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, production of robust tobacco control legislation and the establishment of universally available tobacco cessation services are essential to sustain and strengthen tobacco control in the GCC region.
Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu
We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building occupants and
This study is the case study of Physic II Course for students of Pathumwan Institute of Technology. The purpose of this study is: 1) to develop cooperative learning method of peer assisted learning (PAL), 2) to compare the learning achievement before and after studied magnetic field lesson by cooperative learning method of peer assisted learning. The population was engineering students of Pathumwan Institute of Technology (PIT’s students) who registered Physic II Course during year 2014. The sample used in this study was selected from the 72 students who passed in Physic I Course. The control groups learning magnetic fields by Traditional Method (TM) and experimental groups learning magnetic field by method of peers assisted learning. The students do pretest before the lesson and do post-test after the lesson by 20 items achievement tests of magnetic field. The post-test higher than pretest achievement significantly at 0.01 level.
Bull, Rebecca; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Sheffield, Tiffany D.; Nelson, Jennifer Mize
Latent variable modeling methods have demonstrated utility for understanding the structure of executive control (EC) across development. These methods are utilized to better characterize the relation between EC and mathematics achievement in the preschool period, and to understand contributing sources of individual variation. Using the sample and…
Bertrams, Alex; Dickhauser, Oliver
In the present article, we examine the hypothesis that high-school students' motivation to engage in cognitive endeavors (i.e., their need for cognition; NFC) is positively related to their dispositional self-control capacity. Furthermore, we test the prediction that the relation between NFC and school achievement is mediated by self-control…
Holloway, Ian D; Ansari, Daniel
Although it is often assumed that abilities that reflect basic numerical understanding, such as numerical comparison, are related to children's mathematical abilities, this relationship has not been tested rigorously. In addition, the extent to which symbolic and nonsymbolic number processing play differential roles in this relationship is not yet understood. To address these questions, we collected mathematics achievement measures from 6- to 8-year-olds as well as reaction times from a numerical comparison task. Using the reaction times, we calculated the size of the numerical distance effect exhibited by each child. In a correlational analysis, we found that the individual differences in the distance effect were related to mathematics achievement but not to reading achievement. This relationship was found to be specific to symbolic numerical comparison. Implications for the role of basic numerical competency and the role of accessing numerical magnitude information from Arabic numerals for the development of mathematical skills and their impairment are discussed.
Capa, Rémi L; Audiffren, Michel; Ragot, Stéphanie
The interactive effect of achievement motivation and task difficulty on invested mental effort, postulated by Humphreys and Revelle [Humphreys, M.S., Revelle, W., 1984. Personality, motivation, and performance: a theory of the relationship between individual differences and information processing. Psychol. Rev. 91, 153-184], was examined using behavioral, subjective, and effort-related physiological measures. Eighteen approach-driven participants and 18 avoidance-driven participants were selected based on their motive to achieve success scores and their motive to avoid failure scores. A 2x3 factorial design was used, with three levels of task difficulty. As expected, approach-driven participants performed better and had a stronger decrease of midfrequency band of heart rate variability than avoidance-driven participants, especially during the difficult task. These results support the interactive effect of achievement motivation and task difficulty on invested mental effort.
Hurley, Marlene M.
This study provides an analytic description of quasi-experimental studies that may either support or deny the wisdom of educational reform through interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Interdisciplinarity is examined on two dimensions, the philosophic and the pedagogic, and by two methodologies, meta-analytic and qualitative, in a search for greater understanding of the definitions, forms, characteristics, and effects from studies of interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Thirty-four studies were collected from a search of the literature that spanned the century, the grade levels, and included many forms of interdisciplinarity. Several research questions were asked: (1) What forms of interdisciplinarity, philosophically and practically, are represented by the studies? (2) What are their qualitative effects in school settings? (3) What are the characteristics of interdisciplinary quasi-experimental research? (4) What achievement effects typify the interdisciplinary comparative studies? (5) What factors account for variation in these achievement effects? (6) What claims or criticisms regarding interdisciplinarity are supported or refuted by the qualitative analysis of forms and effects and the quantitative meta-analytic study? Results from this study support the concerns that terms of interdisciplinarity are used without regard for context and that there is a trend toward a great diversity of ideas regarding the nature of interdisciplinary education. Student achievement data were provided by the 34 studies for mathematics and/or science. The mean effect sizes for student achievement were computed as: mathematics achievement, .27 (SE = .09); science achievement, .37 (SE = .12). Curricular materials developed by teachers were significantly less related to student achievement than materials developed by researchers or commercially. The methods of integration employed by the 34 studies formed a continuum from sequenced instructional integration to total
Stephens, Mark W.
Four experiments were designed to identify socioeconomic differences in preschool locus of control, develop a measurement technique for differentiating between internal and external locus of control in preschoolers, and study the effect of four kinds of preschool programs on locus of control. During the first experiment, the Stephens-Delys…
Kitayama, Tomoya; Kagota, Satomi; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Kanae; Miura, Takeshi; Yasui, Naomi; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Nakabayashi, Toshikatsu
The Pharmaceutical Education Support Center was established in the Department of Pharmacy at the School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science of Mukogawa Women's University in 2014. We started teaching first and second years students according to proficiency from the 2014 academic year. Students were divided into two classes: the regular class (high proficiency class) and the basic class (low proficiency class), based on achievement in several basic subjects related to the study of pharmacy. The staffs in the Pharmaceutical Education Support Center reinforce what is taught to students in the basic class. In this reinforcement method of education, the class size is small, consisting of about 15 students, a quiz to review the previous lesson is given at the beginning of each lecture, and an additional five lectures are conducted, compared to the high proficiency class, which receives 15 lectures. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the reinforcement method of physiology education on achievement in pharmacology that was not conducted in the proficiency-dependent teaching method. The students in the basic class in physiology education were chosen based on achievement levels in anatomy. Achievement levels of pharmacology students in the basic class of physiology improved compared with those of students who had the same achievement levels in physiology but were not taught according to proficiency-dependent teaching in the 2013 academic year. These results suggest that the reinforcement method for education in basic subjects in pharmacy, such as physiology, can improve achievement in more advanced subjects, such as pharmacology.
Maloney, Erin A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L
A large field study of children in first and second grade explored how parents' anxiety about math relates to their children's math achievement. The goal of the study was to better understand why some students perform worse in math than others. We tested whether parents' math anxiety predicts their children's math achievement across the school year. We found that when parents are more math anxious, their children learn significantly less math over the school year and have more math anxiety by the school year's end-but only if math-anxious parents report providing frequent help with math homework. Notably, when parents reported helping with math homework less often, children's math achievement and attitudes were not related to parents' math anxiety. Parents' math anxiety did not predict children's reading achievement, which suggests that the effects of parents' math anxiety are specific to children's math achievement. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of low math achievement and high math anxiety.
Tyrrell, Diann Marie
The National Science Foundation predicts a shortage of scientists and engineers within the next 15 years. Some agree that the participation of women in science will be required to help meet the future demand for scientists (Malcom, 1990). Consequently, conscientious teachers search for learning strategies that provide opportunities for young women to achieve success with others in their science classes. This research concerns a note taking and teaching strategy that involves seventh grade science students. The investigation measured student achievement under three prescribed conditions. The treatment conditions were reviewing, guided notes, and guided notes with reviewing. For this experiment, the Solomon four-group design was utilized. This 2 x 2 factorial design tested for treatment effect and pretest sensitivity. Data was collected on seventh grade boys (n = 119) and seventh grade girls (n = 139) in science. Comparisons were made between the boys and girls groups. The results showed that achievement improved significantly when reviewing car using guided notes independently. The results also shower that significant improvements in achievement were not observed when participants used guided notes and reviewing together. Analysis was completed to measure how well the participants performed according to gender. This research showed that both boys and girls significantly improved their achievement in science equally well for all treatment conditions. This research went a step further by factoring in cognitive ability test scores and comparing them to the treatment results. This provided the researcher with information on which treatment condition worked best for high or low achieving students.
Many girls continue to achieve below their male counterparts and portray negative attitudes towards science classes. Some school districts are using single-gender education as a way to shrink the gender gap in school achievement and science related attitude. The purpose of this study was to compare achievement and science-related attitudes of 7th grade girls in single-gender education to 7th grade girls in mixed-gender education. The theoretical base for this study included knowledge from brain-based learning and assimilation, accommodation and age factors of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. The 12-week study included 48 7th grade girls, 21 in the single-gender classroom and 14 in each mixed-gender classroom. This quantitative randomized posttest only control group design utilized the TerraNova Science Assessment and the Test of Science Related Attitudes. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine if significant differences existed in the achievement and attitudes of girls in single and mixed-gender science classes. ANOVA analyses revealed that the girls in the single-gender classroom showed a significantly higher achievement level when compared to girls in the mixed-gender classrooms. Results showed no significant difference in attitude between the two groups. The results of this study contribute to social change by raising awareness about gender issues in science achievement and attitude, addressing a deficiency in the single-gender science education literature, and assisting educational systems in decision making to address achievement gaps while moving toward adequate yearly progress and meeting the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.
Seidenberg, B.; Park, J. J.; Clatterbuck, C.
Test results and data for achieving a low-outgassing polymer resin suitable for potting or a paint pigment are presented. The resin, prepared in 0.5-kg (1-lb) batches, is acceptable for spacecraft use; its weight loss is less than 0.5 percent, and the volatile condensable materials are less than 0.05 percent. The paint adheres to a primed fiber glass or aluminum substrate. Results of UV irradiation, electron and proton radiation, and thermal cycling are presented.
THREE: UW AND SENGE’S LEARNING DISABILITIES , AN ANALYSIS....... 27 CHAPTER FOUR: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..........Error! Bookmark not defined...legitimacy and relevancy of unconventional warfare in achieving the nation’s goals. The Seven Learning Disabilities from Peter Senge’s The Fifth Discipline...the Seven Learning Disabilities . The book describes seven deficiencies that might identify whether or not an organization is a learning
Leasa, Marleny; Duran Corebima, Aloysius
Learning models and academic ability may affect students’ achievement in science. This study, thus aimed to investigate the effect of numbered heads together (NHT) cooperative learning model on elementary students’ cognitive achievement in natural science. This study employed a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group with 2 x 2 factorial. There were two learning models compared NHT and the conventional, and two academic ability high and low. The results of ana Cova test confirmed the difference in the students’ cognitive achievement based on learning models and general academic ability. However, the interaction between learning models and academic ability did not affect the students’ cognitive achievement. In conclusion, teachers are strongly recommended to be more creative in designing learning using other types of cooperative learning models. Also, schools are required to create a better learning environment which is more cooperative to avoid unfair competition among students in the classroom and as a result improve the students’ academic ability. Further research needs to be conducted to explore the contribution of other aspects in cooperative learning toward cognitive achievement of students with different academic ability.
Hill, Kristina K.; Bicer, Ali; Capraro, Robert M.
MathForward™, developed in 2004-2005 in cooperation with the Richardson (TX) Independent School District, was implemented nationwide in 2007. The program integrates TI technology and professional development while focusing on student achievement and teacher efficacy. This study investigated the effect of the MathForward™ program on student…
Pae, Tae-Il; Shin, Sang-Keun
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of differential instructional methods on the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motivations (IM and EM, respectively), self-confidence, motivation, and English as a foreign language (EFL) achievement for a sample of Korean university students and their teachers. To this end,…
You, Ji Won
This study aimed to investigate the effect of academic procrastination on e-learning course achievement. Because all of the interactions among students, instructors, and contents in an e-learning environment were automatically recorded in a learning management system (LMS), procrastination such as the delays in weekly scheduled learning and late…
Elaldi, Senel; Batdi, Veli
In this study, through a meta-analysis of 20 studies, it is aimed to compare the effectiveness of various forms of learning methods including creativity based learning, problem based learning, and differentiated instruction on creativity in terms of the academic achievement of students and to find out other study characteristics, related to the…
Kitchens, Vivian D.; Deris, Aaron R.; Simon, Marilyn K.
Students with learning disabilities score lower than other at-risk groups on state standardized assessment tests. Educators are searching for intervention strategies to improve math achievement for students with learning disabilities. The study examined the effects of a mathematics intervention known as Cover, Copy, and Compare for learning basic…
Elfeky, Abdellah Ibrahim Mohammed; Masadeh, Thouqan Saleem Yakoub
The present study aimed to examine the effect of Mobile Learning, which is a kind of E-learning that uses mobile devices, on the development of the academic achievement and conversational skills of English language specialty students at Najran University. The study used the quasi-experimental approach. Participants consisted of (50) students who…
McMillan, James H.; Venable, Jessica C.; Varier, Divya
Kingston and Nash (2011) recently presented a meta-analysis of studies showing that the effect of formative assessment on K-12 student achievement may not be as robust as widely believed. This investigation analyzes the methodology used in the Kingston and Nash meta-analysis and provides further analyses of the studies included in the study. These…
Izmirli, Serkan; Kurt, Adile Askim
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of instruction given with different multimedia modalities (written text + animation or narration + animation) on the academic achievement, cognitive load, and positive affect in different paces (learner-paced or system-paced); 97 freshmen university students divided into four groups taught in…
Simeon, Jinky Jane C.; Ku, Agnes Chun Moi
The aim of this research is to determine the effect of music instruction with bamboo xylophone as harmonic accompaniment on the singing achievement of second-grade children. Eighty children (N = 80) from four randomly selected classes in two different public schools in the city of Kota Kinabalu participated in this study and they were assigned to…
Roseth, Cary J.; Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.
Emphasizing the developmental need for positive peer relationships, in this study the authors tested a social-contextual view of the mechanisms and processes by which early adolescents' achievement and peer relationships may be promoted simultaneously. Meta-analysis was used to review 148 independent studies comparing the relative effectiveness of…
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that community partnerships could have on school climate and, ultimately, student achievement. Specifically, community partnerships that were formed through the PENCIL (Public Education Needs Community Involvement and Leadership) Foundation in Nashville, Tennessee were researched to determine…
Harris, Jennifer L.; Al-Bataineh, Mohammed T.; Al-Bataineh, Adel
This research was a quantitative study using 4th grade participants from a Title 1 elementary school in Central Illinois. This study set out to determine whether one to one technology (1:1 will be used hereafter) truly impacts and effects the academic achievement of students. This study's second goal was to determine whether 1:1 Technology also…
Cheung, Alan C. K.; Slavin, Robert E.
The present review examines research on the effects of technology use on reading achievement in K-12 classrooms. Unlike previous reviews, this review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards. In addition, methodological and substantive features of the studies are investigated to examine the…
Elangovan, Tavasuria; Ismail, Zurida
A quasi experimental study was conducted for six weeks to determine the effectiveness of two different 3D computer simulation based teaching methods, that is, realistic simulation and non-realistic simulation on Form Four Biology students' achievement and memory retention in Perak, Malaysia. A sample of 136 Form Four Biology students in Perak,…
Gottfried, Michael; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Datar, Ashlesha
In evaluating the role of kindergarten entry age, previous researchers have not examined the entry-age effects for English language learners (ELL). Additionally, little work has assessed the role of entry age on both achievement and social-emotional outcomes. This study is the first to do both simultaneously. The authors used data from a…
Kane, Thomas J.; Taylor, Eric S.; Tyler, John H.; Wooten, Amy L.
Recent research has confirmed both the importance of teachers in producing student achievement growth and in the variability across teachers in the ability to do that. Such findings raise the stakes on our ability to identify effective teachers and teaching practices. This paper combines information from classroom-based observations and measures…
Wu, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Shin-Ting
The primary purpose of this study was to utilize a multidimensional perspective to examine whether children's self-concept served as a mediator between academic achievement and depression, and to further investigate whether this mediation effect was moderated by the ages of children. The participants consisted of 632 Taiwanese children in the…
Achor, Emmanuel E.; Imoko, Benjamin I.; Uloko, Emmanuel S.
This study determined the effectiveness of ethnomathematics teaching approach, ETA on students' achievement and retention in Locus. The study was carried out in education zone B of Benue State of Nigeria using a sample size of 253 Senior Secondary 2 (SS 2) students. It was a non equivalent quasi-experimental study which was guided by two research…
Azkiyah, S. N.; Doolaard, Simone; Creemers, Bert P. M.; Van Der Werf, M. P. C.
This paper compares the effectiveness of two interventions aimed to improve teaching quality and student achievement in Indonesia. The first intervention was the use of education standards, while the second one was the combination of education standards with a teacher improvement program. The study involved 50 schools, 52 teachers, and 1660…
Mandal, Rebecca L.; Olmi, D. Joe; Edwards, Ron P.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Benoit, Denise A.
Preschool children (N=4) from a university-based school psychology clinic were studied to assess whether increases in compliance could be obtained in clinical settings by using only positive procedures such as effective instruction delivery and time-in. Both procedures alone achieved increases in compliance over baseline levels, and additional…
A study explores the concurrent and longitudinal effects of parenting practice on children's academic achievement in 2,247 African American families using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Results show that parental expectations of children's highest educational attainment and parental beliefs in…
Lauen, Douglas Lee
This study examines the incentive effects of North Carolina's practice of awarding performance bonuses on test score achievement on the state tests. Bonuses were awarded based solely on whether a school exceeds a threshold on a continuous performance metric. The study uses a sharp regression discontinuity design, an approach with strong internal…
Akcay, Hüsamettin; Durmaz, Asli; Tüysüz, Cengiz; Feyzioglu, Burak
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of computer-based learning and traditional method on students' attitudes and achievement towards analytical chemistry. Students from Chemistry Education Department at Dokuz Eylul University (D.E.U) were selected randomly and divided into three groups; two experimental (Eg-1 and Eg-2) and a control…
There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…
Crain, Fredrick Scott
The purpose of this study was to examine the different types of leadership styles of public school administrators of Title I elementary schools in order to determine how these different types of leadership styles may affect student academic achievement. Specifically, the leadership style behaviors of flexibility and effectiveness were considered.…
Schmid, Richard F.; Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Tamim, Rana; Abrami, Philip C.; Wade, C. Anne; Surkes, Michael A.; Lowerison, Gretchen
This paper reports the findings of a Stage I meta-analysis exploring the achievement effects of computer-based technology use in higher education classrooms (non-distance education). An extensive literature search revealed more than 6,000 potentially relevant primary empirical studies. Analysis of a representative sample of 231 studies (k = 310)…
Matsudaira, Jordan D.; Hosek, Adrienne; Walsh, Elias
We examine the effects of Title I on school behavior, resources, and academic performance using a rich set of school finance and student-level achievement data from one large urban school district using a regression discontinuity design. We find that Title I eligibility raises Federal revenues of schools by about $460 per student. This is…
Munoz, Marco A.; Portes, Pedro R.
This study examined the effect of specified demographic and psychological variables on the academic achievement of high school students from urban and rural settings (n=177). Psychosocial variables considered in this study were familism (perceived closeness of the family), perceived discrimination, time management, and home and school factors.…
Myers, Brenda Gail
Using a quantitative ex post facto causal comparative research design, this study analyzed the effects of the Academy of Reading software program on students' reading achievement. Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) reading scale scores of students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades from 2013-2014 were utilized in this study. The…
Scheriff, Tennille Joie Natasha
This study investigated the effects of a reading strategy, repeated readings, on third grade students' reading achievement and attitudes. One hundred sixteen third grade students as members of six classrooms in one elementary school participated in this 10 week study. Using a quasi-experimental pretest posttest design, students' mean…
Hornstra, Lisette; Denessen, Eddie; Bakker, Joep; van den Bergh, Linda; Voeten, Marinus
The present study examined teacher attitudes toward dyslexia and the effects of these attitudes on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia compared to students without learning disabilities. The attitudes of 30 regular education teachers toward dyslexia were determined using both an implicit measure and an…
Quick, Custer R., Jr.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of three different types of reinforcement strategies on spelling achievement among a sample of disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged fourth grade public school pupils. The three reinforcement strategies employed involved a concrete reward (candy), a token or symbolic reward…
Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei; Miller, Shazia; van der Ploeg, Arie
Motivated by the passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, all states operate accountability systems that measure and report school and student performance annually. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of interim assessments on the achievement gap. The authors examine the impact of interim assessments throughout the…
Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei; Miller, Shazia R.; van der Ploeg, Arie
We use data from a large-scale experiment conducted in Indiana in 2009-2010 to examine the impact of two interim assessment programs (mCLASS and Acuity) across the mathematics and reading achievement distributions. Specifically, we focus on whether the use of interim assessments has a particularly strong effect on improving outcomes for low…
Termos, Mohamad Hani
The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology that increases student performance and promotes active learning. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes, where students' first spoken language is not English.…
Cornelius, Annette Sargent
The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the effectiveness of a system-wide Response to Intervention (RTI) program on the mathematical achievement of seventh and eighth grade students. The study consisted of five district schools with a total of 502 participants. The students were identified as belonging to one of two tiers, which…
Özek, Müzeyyen Bulut
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of creative drama on student achievement in the Information Technologies course. The study was carried out for the unit "Tomorrow's Technology" which is the first unit of Information Technologies course. For this study, 89 sixth grade students were selected from primary school in…
Wright, Tiffanie L.
The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an "ex post facto," quasi-experimental research methodology. The…
Critically reviewed evidence relevant to hypotheses of biological sources of sex-related cognitive differences as they relate to mathematics achievement include the following: explanations based on the assumption of greater variability in male cognitive performance; sex-related differences in serum urate; effects of estrogens compared to androgens…
Forshey, Amy L.
No Child Left Behind (2001) and Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004) has put pressure on all teachers to develop proficient readers. In order to do just this, develop proficient readers, teachers must understand the effects that reading attitude has on reading achievement for all students. Research states that individuals with a…
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the exercises of English language grammar instruction on the achievement of the students when it is applied on web assisted. The study had been executed in accordance with the experimental study model. The experiment group of the study has used a web site that was prepared and they…
This study explored the effects of teacher commitment on student achievement. Three teacher commitment dimensions of organizational, professional, and student commitment were derived. The three-dimensional teacher commitment measurement model was tested by a confirmatory factor analysis. Then, the relationships among individual and organizational…
Ehmke, Timo; Drechsel, Barbara; Carstensen, Claus H.
The study analyzes the effects of grade repetition on science and mathematics achievement and on self-concept in mathematics using longitudinal data from a representative sample of 9th graders in Germany. Same-age comparisons were applied between three groups: (a) the retained students, (b) a matched group of promoted students, and (c) the entire…
Yapici, I. Ümit
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment (BCLE) in biology teaching on students' classroom community sense, their academic achievement and on their levels of satisfaction. In the study, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together. The study was carried out with 30 students in…
Jeynes, William H.
Used data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey to study the effects of remarriage following divorce on children's academic achievement. Results indicate that children from reconstituted families score no higher, and often lower than children of divorce from single-parent families. (SLD)
Van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.
This study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion about thunder and lightning. In the video, a teacher asked…
Mohammadpur, Bijan; Ghafournia, Narjes
The present study was an elaboration on the effect of foreign language anxiety on reading comprehension achievement of Iranian EFL learners. The participants comprised 100 BA students, doing General English Course in different academic fields at Islamic University of Neyshabur. The participants took a reading proficiency test of TOEFL and answered…
Long, Joe C.; And Others
The purpose of this study was to provide students with differing types of learning needs instruction following diagnostic testing; also examined were the effects of the instruction on science achievement and retention. A total of 154 seventh-grade students from six classes completed a five-week block of instruction in earth science composed of…
In this study, the effect of web-based homework on university students' physics achievement was compared. One of the two identical sections of introductory physics course students received pen-and-paper homework done in groups while the other received web-based online homework performed individually. And then both groups' homework performance and…
Guzeller, Cem Oktay
The web-based portfolio emerged as a result of the influence of technological developments on educational practices. In this study, the effect of the web-based portfolio building process on academic achievement and retention is explored. For this purpose, a study platform known as a computer-assisted personal development portfolio was designed for…
Owolabi, Josiah; Adaramati, Tobiloba Faith
This study investigated the effects of graphic organiser and gender on students' academic achievement in algebraic word problem. Three research questions and three null hypotheses were used in guiding this study. Quasi experimental research was employed and Non-equivalent pre and post test design was used. The study involved the Senior Secondary…
Soled, Suzanne Wegener; And Others
The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the effects of interactive video versus traditional lecture on cognitive learning and affective behaviors of undergraduate nursing students. It was hypothesized that there would be no significant differences in the cognitive achievement scores of students taught by an interactive videodisk…
Atwell, Prima N.
The purpose of this basic qualitative study was to analyze and identify the leadership styles that directly influence student achievement that were used by the school leaders sustaining the schools. A basic qualitative research study was appropriate to acknowledge the leadership style of the principal in demonstrating effective practices that link…
Li, Xiaojie; Yang, Xianmin
Learning concentration deserves in-depth investigation in the field of mobile learning. Therefore, this study examined the interaction effects of learning styles and interest on the learning concentration and academic achievement of students who were asked to learn conceptual knowledge via their mobile phones in a classroom setting. A total of 92…
Ismail, Nasrah Mahmoud; Tawalbeh, Tha'er Issa
As the training of language learners was a main concern of EFL teachers, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of metacognitive reading strategies instruction (MRSI) on Taif University EFL students who achieved low results in reading. The final sample of this study was (21) female university students. The sample was divided into two groups;…
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the analogy-based teaching on students' achievement and students' views about analogies. In this research, Solomon group design which is one of the experimental designs, was implemented. The sample of the research consists of 108 students in four 6th grade classes in Turkey. The achievement…
Hash, Phillip M.
This study examined the effect of pullout instrumental lessons on the academic achievement of eighth-grade band students. Participants (N = 353) included 292 nonband students and 61 band students pulled once per week for music lessons in a single suburban K-8 school district in Midwestern United States. Data indicated that eighth-grade band…
Ayaz, Mehmet Fatih; Sekerci, Hanifi
In this research, a meta-analysis study was conducted in order to determine the effects of constructivist learning approach on students' academic achievement. Master's thesis, doctoral dissertation and articles in national and international databases, which are realized between the years of 2003-2014, appropriate to the problem and which can be…
Chen, Vivien W.; Pong, Suet-Ling
Using a propensity score matching method, and regression modeling based on the 2002 Education Longitudinal Study, this study found a significant Catholic school, mathematics achievement effect among those 12th graders who were least likely to attend Catholic school. This result is evident within districts after we used the School District…
This article investigates the effects of the maintenance of Japanese as a heritage language on English and overall academic achievement. The interrelationships among Japanese oral and writing proficiency, SAT I Verbal, SAT I, and high school grade point average (GPA) were examined. The participants were 31 second generation Japanese-American…
Tran, Van Dat
This experimental study investigated the effects of cooperative learning on the achievement and knowledge retention of 110 first-year primary education students toward the psychology subject over the eight weeks of instruction at An Giang University. These tertiary students were divided into two matched groups of 55 to be taught by the same…
Enu, Justice; Danso, Paul Amoah; Awortwe, Peter K.
An ideal group size is hard to obtain in small group settings; hence there are groups with more members than others. The purpose of the study was to find out whether group size has any effects on students' mathematics achievement in small group settings. Two third year classes of the 2011/2012 academic year were selected from two schools in the…
Myers, Ron York, Sr.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the use of technology on students' mathematics achievement, particularly the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) mathematics results. Eleven schools within the Miami-Dade County Public School System participated in a pilot program on the use of Geometers Sketchpad (GSP). Three of…
This study aims to compare the effects of Jigsaw I technique from the cooperative learning methods and traditional teaching method on academic achievement and retrieval of Turkish teacher candidates in the matter of written expression. The sample of the study consists of 70 students studying at the Department of Turkish teaching in the academic…
Pruitt, Stephen L.; Wallace, Carolyn S.
This study investigated the effectiveness of a southern state's department of education program to improve science achievement through embedded professional development of science teachers in the lowest performing schools. The Science Mentor Program provided content and inquiry-based coaching by teacher leaders to science teachers in their own…
Pepin, Gina M.
Although the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001 created new instructional intervention practices, reading and writing scores across K-12 and postsecondary levels continue to reflect stagnant achievement outcomes. The research questions in this study concerned the effect of a northern Michigan middle school language arts…
ALPERT, HARVEY; TANYZER, HAROLD J.
BASAL READER SYSTEMS FOR BEGINNERS WERE ANALYZED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF SPECIFIC SYSTEM FEATURES ON THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT SEX AND LEVELS OF INTELLIGENCE. THE PROJECT COVERED THE FOLLOWING SYSTEMS--(1) THE LIPPINCOTT "BASIC READING" SERIES, (2) THE "EARLY-TO-READ…
King, Marlon Demetrius
The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the effects of the Response to Intervention Three Tier Model on third graders' reading achievement. Two hundred forty-three students participated in this study. Students were from an elementary school in the southeastern region of the United States. The data on the students was collected…
Rastovac, John J.
The effectiveness of audiotutorial and teacher-directed inquiry in promoting school achievement was explored. High school biology students from two dissimilar populations were administered ten Piagetian-styled tasks to determine the student's operational level. Analysis of data on operational level and age determined that inner-city students…
Tobias, Keith S.
This quantitative method, quasi-experimental design study examined the possible effect of foreign language study in Tennessee middle schools on mathematics achievement. The population was 1,708 historical student test scores of a single cohort spanning 6th through 8th Grades from the same schools within a large urban public school district. NCLB…
Zhang, James J.; Lam, Eddie T. C.; Smith, Dennis W.; Fleming, David S.; Connaughton, Dan P.
The purpose of this study was to develop the Scale for Program Facilitators (SPF) to assess the effectiveness of after school achievement programs through four steps: (a) identification of a theoretical framework, (b) formulation of the initial scale, (c) test of content validity, and (d) conducting confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). A…
The aim of the study is to determine the effects of teacher's positive and negative feedback on high school students' perceived motivational climate and achievement goals in a physical education setting. Forty seven ninth grade students participated in the study. The design was a 2 x 2 between subjects factorial crossing feedback condition…
Gambari, Isiaka Amosa; Ezenwa, Victoria Ifeoma; Anyanwu, Romanus Chogozie
The study examined the effects of two modes of computer-assisted instructional package on solid geometry achievement amongst senior secondary school students in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI(AT) and CAI(AN) packages were examined. This study adopted a pretest-posttest…
Haselden, Polly G.; Sanders, Marla; Sturkie, Lindsay
This action research project investigated the effects of self-efficacy training on low achieving high school freshman who were considered to be at risk for academic failure. Six students participated in psycho-educational group counseling sessions for forty-five minutes weekly over the course of a nine-week reporting period. Findings indicated…
Boonen, Tinneke; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick
The present study investigates the effects of teachers (background qualifications, attitudes and beliefs, and instructional practices) on student achievement in mathematics, reading, and spelling in 1st grade. Its theoretical framework and methodology are based on recent work by Palardy and Rumberger (2008). Data from the SiBO Project, a…
Kaya, Sibel; Rice, Diana C.
This study examined the effects of individual student factors and classroom factors on elementary science achievement within and across five countries. The student-level factors included gender, self-confidence in science and home resources. The classroom-level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom…
The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of learning plan implementation prepared with the cooperative learning method. In particular, the study addresses the effect of cooperative learning on students' achievement and their views regarding the "Systems in Our Body" unit of the 6th grade Science and Technology lesson.…
Batdi, Veli; Batdi, Hacer
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of creative drama on achievement through the use of quantitative and qualitative research methods. In the quantitative section of the research, the meta-analytic method was used and an attempt was made to include all studies of creative drama carried out between 2000 and 2014 at the national and…
Gordon, Mellissa S.; Cui, Ming
There is inconsistency in the current literature regarding the association between dimensions of parenting processes and academic achievement for adolescents. Further, few studies have extended such an association into young adulthood. In this study, we examined the effect of three dimensions of parenting processes, including school-specific…
Maheswari, I. Uma; Ramakrishnan, N.
The present study is an experimental one in nature, to find out the effectiveness of CAI package on in Physics of IX std. students. For this purpose a CAI package was developed and validated. The validated CAI package formed an independent variable of this study. The dependent variable is students' achievements in physics content. In order to find…
Wikoff, Richard L.; Kafka, Gene F.
Investigated the effectiveness of the Survey of Study Habits (SSHA) in improving prediction of achievement. The American College Testing Program English and mathematics subtests were good predictors of gradepoint average. The SSHA subtests accounted for an additional 3 percent of the variance. Sex differences were noted. (Author)
Martin, Larry G.
A study was conducted to identify psychosocial needs of Adult Basic Education (ABE)/Adult Secondary Education (ASE) students by using the Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ). A second purpose was to test effectiveness of Achievement Motivation Training (AMT) as a technique to counterbalance the negative impact of these students' former…
Christmann, Edwin P.
This study compared the effects of microcomputer-based statistical software and hand-held calculators on the statistics achievement of university males and females. The subjects, 73 graduate students enrolled in univariate statistics classes at a public comprehensive university, were randomly assigned to groups that used either microcomputer-based…
Mandeville, Garrett K.; Liu, Qiduan
This study examined the interaction effect of teachers' mathematics preparation and the thinking level of mathematics problems on student performance. Achievement scores of students whose teachers differed on level of mathematics preparation indicated that students performed better on higher level thinking tasks when teachers had advanced…