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Sample records for achieve effective control

  1. The Longitudinal Effects of Achievement Goals and Perceived Control on University Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Lia M.; Perry, Raymond P.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Stewart, Tara L.; Newall, Nancy E. G.; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2014-01-01

    In the area of achievement motivation, students' beliefs pertaining to achievement goals and perceived control have separately guided a large amount theoretical and empirical research. However, limited research has considered the simultaneous effects of goals and control on achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine primary and…

  2. THE EFFECT OF ACUTE TREADMILL WALKING ON COGNITIVE CONTROL AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Charles H.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hall, Eric E.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included twenty preadolescent participants (Age = 9.5 ± 0.5 years; 8 female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 minutes of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e., walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further supports the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan. PMID:19356688

  3. The Effect of Inhibitory Control on General Mathematics Achievement and Fraction Comparison in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez, David Maximiliano; Jiménez, Abelino; Bobadilla, Roberto; Reyes, Cristián; Dartnell, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in inhibitory control have been shown to relate to general mathematics achievement, but whether this relation varies for specific areas within mathematics is a question that remains open. Here, we evaluate if inhibitory processes play a specific role in the particular case of fraction comparison, where learners must ignore…

  4. Achieving a new controllable male contraception by the photothermal effect of gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-qing; Sun, Chun-yang; Wang, Feng; Wang, Yu-cai; Zhai, Yi-wen; Liang, Meng; Liu, Wen-jing; Liu, Zhi-min; Wang, Jun; Sun, Fei

    2013-06-12

    During the process of human civilization, owning household pets has become increasingly popular. However, dogs and cats may be reservoirs or vectors of transmissible diseases to humans. Confronted with the overpopulation of pets, traditional contraception methods, surgical methods of sterilization, for animals are used, namely, ovariohysterectomy and orchidectomy. Therefore, a simple, nonsurgical, controllable, more effective and less expensive contraception method is highly desirable. In this study, we show that in situ testicular injection of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-modified gold nanorods with near-infrared irradiation in male mice can achieve short-lived or permanent male infertility. In a lower hyperthermia treatment, the morphology of testes and seminiferous tubules is only partly injured, and fertility indices are decreased to 10% at day 7, then recovered to 50% at day 60. In a higher hyperthermia treatment, the morphology of testes and seminiferous tubules are totally destroyed, and fertility indices are decreased to 0 at day 7. Overall, our results indicate a potential application of plasmonic nanomaterials for male contraception. PMID:23688274

  5. Effects of an Emotion Control Treatment on Academic Emotions, Motivation and Achievement in an Online Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ChanMin; Hodges, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    We designed and developed an emotion control treatment and investigated its effects on college students' academic emotions, motivation, and achievement in an online remedial mathematics course. The treatment group showed more positive emotions of enjoyment and pride than the control group. The treatment group also showed a higher level of…

  6. The Effects of Diagnosis, Remediation and Locus of Control on Achievement, Retention, and Attitudes of Middle School Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Ramona L.; Yeany, Russell H.

    Reported is a study designed to determine the effects of diagnostic testing followed by prescribed remediation on the immediate and retained science achievement of middle school students, and to determine if effects of treatment were consistent across students' race and locus of control (LOC) levels. Three intact seventh-grade science classes were…

  7. A Randomized Controlled Design Investigating the Effects of Classroom-Based Physical Activity on Children's Fluid Intelligence and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedewa, Alicia L.; Ahn, Soyeon; Erwin, Heather; Davis, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Existing literature shows promising effects of physical activity on children's cognitive outcomes. This study assessed via a randomized, controlled design whether additional curricular physical activity during the school day resulted in gains for children's fluid intelligence and standardized achievement outcomes. Participants were children…

  8. The Effects of Formal Reasoning Ability, Locus of Control and Student Engagement on Science Process Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Kenneth G.; Capie, William

    This study investigated student variables likely to influence process skill learning. Specifically, relationships were explored concerning the following variables: (1) student engagement and science process achievement, (2) formal reasoning ability and student engagement, (3) formal reasoning ability and science process achievement, (4) student…

  9. Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Cognition, Academic Achievement, and Psychosocial Function in Children: A Systematic Review of Randomized Control Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although the effects of aerobic physical activity (APA) on children’s physical health is well characterized, the effect of aerobic physical activity on cognition, academic achievement, and psychosocial function has not yet been established. This systematic review provides an overview of research elucidating the relationship between aerobic physical activity and children’s cognition, academic achievement, and psychosocial function. Methods A systematic review of English articles was performed in April 2013 using MEDLINE, Cochrane, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and EMBASE. Additional studies were identified through back-searching bibliographies. Only randomized control trials with an intervention of aerobic physical activity in children younger than 19 years that measured psychological, behavioral, cognitive, or academic outcomes were included. Results We found 8 relevant randomized control trials that met our inclusion criteria and extracted relevant data and evaluated the methodologic quality of the studies. Of the 8 studies identified, 2 studies were crossover randomized control trials studying the effects of acute aerobic physical activity on cognitive performance. Six studies were parallel-group randomized control studies, of which only 2 had a follow-up period of longer than 6 months. All studies showed that APA had a generally positive impact on children’s cognition and psychosocial function. However, this relationship was found to be minimal in many studies and in some measures, no significant improvement was seen at all. There was no documentation of APA having any negative impact on children’s cognition and psychosocial health, even in cases where school curriculum time was reassigned from classroom teaching to aerobic physical activity. Conclusion APA is positively associated with cognition, academic achievement, behavior, and psychosocial functioning outcomes. More rigorous trials with adequate sample sizes assessing the impact of APA on

  10. School Effects on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Robert C.

    The New York State Education Department conducts a Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) in which each year all third, sixth, and ninth grade students in the state are given a series of achievement tests in reading and mathematics. The data accumulated by the department includes achievement test scores, teacher characteristics, building and curriculum…

  11. Ebola: a holistic approach is required to achieve effective management and control.

    PubMed

    Roca, Anna; Afolabi, Muhammed O; Saidu, Yauba; Kampmann, Beate

    2015-04-01

    The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa has already caused substantial mortality and dire human and economic consequences. It continues to represent an alarming public health threat in the region and beyond and jeopardizes the provision of health care and other services in the affected countries. The scale of the epidemic has accelerated research efforts for diagnostics, treatment, and prevention galvanized through increased availability of funding. Our knowledge relating to the virus, disease pathogenesis, risk factors, dynamics of transmission, and epidemic control is increasing, and sociocultural factors have emerged as critical determinants for the success and failure of control efforts. However, there is a long way to go. In this review we summarize the current knowledge, examine the sociocultural context in West Africa, and outline priority areas for future research.

  12. Ebola: A holistic approach is required to achieve effective management and control

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Anna; Afolabi, Muhammed O.; Saidu, Yauba; Kampmann, Beate

    2015-01-01

    The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa has already caused substantial mortality and dire human and economic consequences. It continues to represent an alarming public health threat in the region and beyond and jeopardizes the provision of health care and other services in the affected countries. The scale of the epidemic has accelerated research efforts for diagnostics, treatment, and prevention galvanized through increased availability of funding. Our knowledge relating to the virus, disease pathogenesis, risk factors, dynamics of transmission, and epidemic control is increasing, and sociocultural factors have emerged as critical determinants for the success and failure of control efforts. However, there is a long way to go. In this review we summarize the current knowledge, examine the sociocultural context in West Africa, and outline priority areas for future research. PMID:25843598

  13. Achieving effective supervision.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, David J; Spence, Susan H; Wilson, Jill; Crow, Natasha

    2002-09-01

    Supervision probably does have benefits both for the maintenance and improvement of clinical skills and for job satisfaction, but the data are very thin and almost non-existent in the area of alcohol and other drugs services. Because of the potential complexity of objectives and roles in supervision, a structured agreement appears to be an important part of the effective supervision relationship. Because sessions can degenerate easily into unstructured socialization, agendas and session objectives may also be important. While a working alliance based on mutual respect and trust is an essential base for the supervision relationship, procedures for direct observation of clinical skills, demonstration of new procedures and skills practice with detailed feedback appear critical to supervision's impact on practice. To ensure effective supervision, there needs not only to be a minimum of personnel and resources, but also a compatibility with the values and procedures of management and staff, access to supervision training and consultation and sufficient incentives to ensure it continues. PMID:12270075

  14. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-Student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-Risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to…

  15. Smoking control: challenges and achievements

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luiz Carlos Corrêa; de Araújo, Alberto José; de Queiroz, Ângela Maria Dias; Sales, Maria da Penha Uchoa; Castellano, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases.

  16. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies. PMID:24820250

  17. Malaria control: achievements, problems and strategies.

    PubMed

    Nájera, J A

    2001-06-01

    scale was steered by the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations and greatly supported by the Rockefeller Foundation. Perhaps the most important contribution of this period was the development of malaria epidemiology, including the study of the genesis of epidemics and their possible forecasting and prevention. Although the great effectiveness of DDT was perhaps the main determinant for proposing the global eradication of the disease in the 1950s, it was the confidence in the epidemiological knowledge and the prestige of malariology, which gave credibility to the proposal at the political level. The second part deals with the global malaria eradication campaign of the 1950s and 1960s. It recognises the enormous impact of the eradication effort in the consolidation of the control successes of the first half of the century, as well as its influence in the development of planning of health programmes. Nevertheless, it also stresses the negative influence that the failure to achieve its utopian expectations had on the general disappointment and slow progress of malaria control, which characterised the last third of the century. The paper then analyses the evolution of malaria control funding, which often appears out of tune with political statements. The fourth part is devoted to the search for realistic approaches to malaria control, leading to the adoption of the global malaria control strategy in Amsterdam in 1992, and the challenge, at the end of the century, to rally forces commensurate with the magnitude of the problem, while aiming at realistic objectives. After discussing the conflicting views on the relations between malaria and socio-economic development and the desirable integration of malaria control into sustainable development, the paper ends with some considerations on the perspectives of malaria control, as seen by the author in early 1998, just before the launching of the current Roll Back Malaria initiative by WHO. PMID:11921521

  18. The Effects of Teaching Numerical Control Concepts Via Simulator Versus Non-Simulator Activities on the Achievement, Programming Proficiency and Attitude of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Douglas Taylor

    This study utilized 120 metalworking students and six teachers from Columbus, Ohio area high schools to ascertain the effects of teaching numerical control to industrial arts students by means of simulator-aided activities versus nonsimulator aided activities. Scores obtained from an achievement test, attitude inventory, and word address…

  19. Residential Mobility, Inhibitory Control, and Academic Achievement in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool children (49% female)…

  20. Residential Mobility, Inhibitory Control, and Academic Achievement in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool…

  1. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  2. Locus of Control in Underachieving and Achieving Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Robert; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study, with 87 underachieving and 77 achieving gifted students in grades 6-9, found that general locus of control measures did not differentiate between the 2 groups, that both scored significantly higher on positive internal than on negative internal locus of control, and that there were no gender or grade effects. (Author/DB)

  3. Enriching the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…

  4. Effectiveness of Music Education for the Improvement of Reading Skills and Academic Achievement in Young Poor Readers: A Pragmatic Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; de Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão; Ploubidis, George B.; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age) with reading difficulties. Method 235 children with reading difficulties in 10 schools participated in a five-month, randomized clinical trial in cluster (RCT) in an impoverished zone within the city of São Paulo to test the effects of music education intervention while assessing reading skills and academic achievement during the school year. Five schools were chosen randomly to incorporate music classes (n = 114), and five served as controls (n = 121). Two different methods of analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention: The standard method was intention-to-treat (ITT), and the other was the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) estimation method, which took compliance status into account. Results The ITT analyses were not very promising; only one marginal effect existed for the rate of correct real words read per minute. Indeed, considering ITT, improvements were observed in the secondary outcomes (slope of Portuguese = 0.21 [p<0.001] and slope of math = 0.25 [p<0.001]). As for CACE estimation (i.e., complier children versus non-complier children), more promising effects were observed in terms of the rate of correct words read per minute [β = 13.98, p<0.001] and phonological awareness [β = 19.72, p<0.001] as well as secondary outcomes (academic achievement in Portuguese [β = 0.77, p<0.0001] and math [β = 0.49, p<0.001] throughout the school year). Conclusion The results may be seen as promising, but they are not, in themselves

  5. Exploring Differential Effects of Mathematics Courses on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; McIntyre, Laureen J.

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Mathematics Participation (N = 1,518 students from 34 schools), we investigated the effects of pure and applied mathematics courses on mathematics achievement, controlling for prior mathematics achievement. Results of multilevel modelling showed that the effects of pure mathematics were significant after…

  6. The Effects of Ethnicity Upon School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, James G.

    The study examined the effects of ethnicity, family income, adult education level, and unemployment rates on school achievement. Data were obtained from 85 public school districts in New Mexico which enrolled primarily Spanish-surnamed pupils. The composite achievement scores from the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS) for grades 5 and 8…

  7. Estimates of Savings Achievable from Irrigation Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham

    2014-03-28

    This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.

  8. The Effects of Learning Strategy Instruction on Achievement, Attitude, and Achievement Motivation in a Physics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin Selçuk, Gamze; Sahin, Mehmet; Açıkgöz, Kamile Ün

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the influence of learning strategy instruction on student teachers' physics achievement, attitude towards physics, and achievement motivation. A pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design with matching control group was used in the study. Two groups of student teachers ( n = 75) who were enrolled in an introductory physics course participated in the study. In the experimental group, questioning, summarizing, and graphic organizers were taught. The control group did not receive any presentation on strategy learning. Data were collected via the pre- and post-administration of the Physics Course Achievement Test, the Scale of Attitudes towards Physics, and the Achievement Motivation Scale. Univariate and multivariate analyses of variance on the data revealed no significant differences in the attitude and achievement motivation between the strategy and control groups. However, the strategy group students were observed to have a tendency of more positive attitude and motivation than the control group students. Results also showed that explicit learning strategy instruction was more effective than traditional instruction in improving physics achievement of the participating students. The implications of these results for physics education are discussed.

  9. Effects of Ability Grouping on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, James A.; Kulik, Chen-Lin C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the effect of within-class and between-class ability groupings on the academic achievement of gifted elementary and secondary level students. Results showed that gifted students gained more academically than they would have if they had been taught in heterogeneous classes. (PS)

  10. Soft commitment: self-control achieved by response persistence.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, E; Rachlin, H

    1995-01-01

    With reinforcement contingent on a single peck on either of two available keys (concurrent continuous reinforcement schedules) 4 pigeons, at 80% of free-feeding weights, preferred a smaller-sooner reinforcer (2.5 s of mixed grain preceded by a 0.5-s delay) to a larger-later reinforcer (4.5 s of mixed grain preceded by a 3.5-s delay). However, when the smaller-sooner and larger-later reinforcers were contingent on a concurrent fixed-ratio 31 schedule (the first 30 pecks distributed in any way on the two keys), all pigeons obtained the larger-later reinforcer much more often than they did when only a single peck was required. This "self-control" was achieved by beginning to peck the key leading to the larger-later reinforcer and persisting on that key until reinforcement occurred. We call this persistence "soft commitment" to distinguish it from strict commitment, in which self-control is achieved by preventing changeovers. Soft commitment also effectively achieved self-control when a brief (1-s) signal was inserted between the 30th and 31st response of the ratio and with concurrent fixed-interval 30-s schedules (rather than ratio schedules) of reinforcement. In a second experiment with the same subjects, the fixed ratio was interrupted by darkening both keys and lighting a third (center) key on which pecking was required for various fractions of the fixed-ratio count. The interruption significantly reduced self-control. When interruption was complete (30 responses on the center key followed by a single choice response), pigeons chose the smaller-sooner reinforcer as frequently as they did when only a single choice response was required. PMID:7561671

  11. Effects of Learning Approaches, Locus of Control, Socio-Economic Status and Self-Efficacy on Academic Achievement: A Turkish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suphi, Nilgun; Yaratan, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effects of learning approaches, locus of control (LOC), socio-economic status and self-efficacy on undergraduate students in North Cyprus was investigated. Four questionnaires were administered on 99 students in order to collect data regarding the learning approaches, LOC, self-efficacy and demographic factors. High cumulative…

  12. Interrelationships of Study Habits and Attitudes, Locus of Control, Motivation Achievement Tendencies and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others

    The study investigated (a) relationships between measures on study habits and attitudes, locus of control, achieving tendency, and semester grade-point averages (SGPA), (b) differences between the sexes on the above mentioned variables, and (c) best predictor of SGPA. The subjects were 39 males and 81 females. There were a number of significant…

  13. Quasi-experimental nonequivalent (pretest and posttest) control-group study of the effects of microcomputer-based laboratory systems on academic achievement in high school chemistry students at two South Carolina high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venables, Jeffrey M.

    The literature on microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) lacks quantitative studies that measure the effect of MBL on student achievement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of MBL systems on the achievement of high school chemistry students. The first research question examined the effect of MBL systems on student achievement in high school chemistry laboratories. The second question analyzed the effect of MBL systems on the academic achievement of students of different genders, ethnicities, and socioeconomic backgrounds. This quasi-experimental quantitative research study evaluated the effects of MBL on student achievement in high school chemistry. The sample consisted of 124 college preparatory chemistry students at two high schools in a South Carolina school district. There were 42 participants in the experimental group and 82 participants in the control group. Both experimental and groups completed a pre- and post-test with MBL being the independent variable. The mean difference score for the experimental group was compared to that of the control group using an independent-measures t test and an analysis of variance. For the second research question, results were analyzed using a two-factor analysis of variance. Participant scores were broken down by gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status in order to identify potential differences. The results revealed no significant differences between the experimental and control groups, and no significant differences in effects of MBL on different segments of the population. Future studies should examine students using MBL for longer durations than one unit of study. As society continues to make technological advances, the effective assessment and implementation of technology resources for the classroom are becoming increasingly important.

  14. Effect of Cooperative Learning on Academic Achievement of Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keramati, Mohammadreza

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation on the effect of cooperative learning on academic achievement of physics course. Cooperative learning was employed to experimental group and conventional teaching method was used for control group. Sampling of the study consists of 15-16 years old 220 students at high school in Iran. The progress…

  15. The use of a remote-controlled minivalve, carried by freely moving animals on their head, to achieve instant pharmacological effects in intracerebral drug-perfusion studies.

    PubMed

    Ludvig, Nandor; Kovacs, Lorant; Kando, Laszlo; Medveczky, Geza; Tang, Hai M; Eberle, Lawrence P; Lemon, Charles R

    2002-02-01

    Intracerebral drug-perfusion studies in animals can be very efficiently performed with the 'reverse-dialysis' procedure. In this procedure, drugs are delivered into the brain via an intracerebrally implanted microdialysis probe. Traditionally, in reverse-dialysis studies the flow of control and drug solutions in the microdialysis site is alternated by large and heavy valves placed far from the experimental animal. In this arrangement, the drugs travel from the fluid-alternating device for a long (20--60 min) period before reaching the brain. This can obscure the onset of drug action, makes it difficult to deliver drugs into the extracellular space during short-lasting behavioral episodes, and considerably limits the number of drug solutions that can be perfused within an experimental session. This report describes the use of a miniature (15 mm long and 8 mm diameter), lightweight (1.4 g) minivalve (patent pending) for combined neuronal recording--intracerebral microdialysis studies in freely moving rats. The device is activated remotely and carried by the animals on their head. This allows the experimenter to alternate the control and drug solutions in the intracerebral recording/dialysis site rapidly and to detect the drug-induced neuronal firing pattern changes instantly, without interfering with the animal's behavior. It is demonstrated that with this novel device the onset of drug actions on hippocampal neurons can be clearly defined and that these actions occur within 2 min after minivalve activation. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the minivalve allows one to test a large number of drug solutions, successively, within the same experimental session. The described protocol offers a high-throughput method for testing the neuron-specific pharmacological effects of intracerebrally perfused drugs during various behaviors.

  16. The purposes, achievements, and priorities of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.S.

    1987-09-01

    Arms control purposes include strengthening the framework of deterrence and reducing the threat of the use of nuclear weapons, reducing the dangers of attack and accidental nuclear war, and allowing more resources for the civilian economy. The paper briefly describes achievements in arms control since World War II. These include the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABMT)-SALT I, SALT II, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), and Nuclear-Free Zones treaties. The author also discusses his views on what the priorities of arms control activities should be. (ACR)

  17. Method of achieving the controlled release of thermonuclear energy

    DOEpatents

    Brueckner, Keith A.

    1986-01-01

    A method of achieving the controlled release of thermonuclear energy by illuminating a minute, solid density, hollow shell of a mixture of material such as deuterium and tritium with a high intensity, uniformly converging laser wave to effect an extremely rapid build-up of energy in inwardly traveling shock waves to implode the shell creating thermonuclear conditions causing a reaction of deuterons and tritons and a resultant high energy thermonuclear burn. Utilizing the resulting energy as a thermal source and to breed tritium or plutonium. The invention also contemplates a laser source wherein the flux level is increased with time to reduce the initial shock heating of fuel and provide maximum compression after implosion; and, in addition, computations and an equation are provided to enable the selection of a design having a high degree of stability and a dependable fusion performance by establishing a proper relationship between the laser energy input and the size and character of the selected material for the fusion capsule.

  18. Effects of Individualized Assignments on Biology Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer, Philip L.

    1983-01-01

    Compared detailed (favoring field dependence and induction) and nondetailed (favoring field dependence and deduction) assignments on biology achievement of grade 10 male students (N=95) over a seven-month period. Detailed assignments, employing pictorial and verbal block diagrams and high structure, significantly enhanced learning among some…

  19. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J; Catford, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  20. A Long-Term Experimental Case Study of the Ecological Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness of Invasive Plant Management in Achieving Conservation Goals: Bitou Bush Control in Booderee National Park in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmayer, David B.; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J.; Catford, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  1. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J; Catford, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  2. Injecting nation: achieving control of hepatitis C in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wodak, A

    1997-09-01

    Since Australia banned heroin in 1953 consumption of illicit drugs, deaths, crime and corruption related to drugs have steadily increased. Injecting drug use (IDU) in Australia is now a significant public health problem linked each year to approximately 500 overdose deaths and more than 6000 hepatitis C infections. At least 85% of prevalent and incident hepatitis C cases in Australia are injecting drug users (IDUs) with annual incidence estimated at 15%. Although poorly documented, increasing numbers of patients with end-stage liver disease from hepatitis C now appear to present in Australia. This reflects a heroin-injecting epidemic commencing a quarter of a century ago, the close association between drug injecting and hepatitis C and the long delay between hepatitis C infection and complications. The overall health and economic burden of hepatitis C may soon exceed HIV. Control is far more difficult to achieve for hepatitis C than HIV because of much higher baseline prevalence levels and far greater infectiousness by blood to blood spread. Transmission appears to follow minimal breaches of infection control guidelines. Hepatitis C has not yet become a priority public health issue in Australia. No national prevention strategy has been proposed. Prevention strategies (such as needle exchange or methadone) which controlled HIV among IDUs should be expanded, with the expectation of some useful reduction of spread but without achieving control of hepatitis C. Other options for control must be considered. Eradicating illicit drug use in Australia is unachievable. Virtually eradicating injecting drug use by facilitating a switch to non-injecting routes of administration (NIROA) is achievable (although difficult) and this could control hepatitis C. NIROA will have the probable additional benefit of reducing drug overdose deaths. NIROA has begun recently to replace injecting in several countries without government intervention. Powerful cultural, pharmacological and

  3. Reciprocal Effects between Adolescent Externalizing Problems and Measures of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Schütte, Kerstin; Taskinen, Päivi; Köller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Student misbehavior is a pervasive problem and may seriously affect academic achievement. Previous research hints at different effects depending on whether achievement tests or achievement judgments are used as academic outcomes. Previous research also indicates that low achievement can conversely contribute to problem behavior and that low…

  4. On the Relation of Locus of Control and L2 Reading and Writing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Shirvan, Majid Elahi

    2011-01-01

    Locus of control, a psychological construct, has been the focus of attention in recent decades. Psychologists have discussed the effect of locus of control on achieving life goals in social/psychological interactions. While learning a foreign language involves both social interactions and psychological processes, the role and relation of locus of…

  5. An active control strategy for achieving weak radiator structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naghshineh, K. . Acoustics and Radar Technology Lab.); Koopmann, G.H. . Center for Acoustics and Vibration)

    1994-01-01

    A general control strategy is presented for active suppression of total radiated sound power from harmonically excited structures based on the measurement of their response. Using the measured response of the structure together with knowledge of its structural mobility, and equivalent primary excitation force is found at discrete points along the structure. Using this equivalent primary force and performing a quadratic optimization of the power radiated form the structure, a set of control forces is found at selected points on the structure that results in minimum radiated sound power. A numerical example of this strategy is presented for a simply supported beam in a rigid baffle excited by a harmonic plane wave incident at an oblique angle. A comparison of the response of the beam with and without control forces shows a large reduction in the controlled response displacement magnitude. In addition, as the result of the action of the control forces, the magnitude of the wave number spectrum of the beam's response in the supersonic region is decreased substantially. The effect of the number and location of the actuators on reductions in sound power level is also studied. The actuators located at the anti-nodes of structural modes within the supersonic region together with those located near boundaries are found to be the most effective in controlling the radiation of sound from a structure.

  6. Improving College Effectiveness: Raising Quality and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somekh, Bridget; Convery, Andy; Delaney, Jean; Fisher, Roy; Gray, John; Gunn, Stan; Henworth, Andrew; Powell, Loraine

    1999-01-01

    Work undertaken to improve the effectiveness of the United Kingdom's schools and further education (FE) sectors was identified and assessed in a study entailing four data collection methods: literature review; questionnaire administered to all FE college principals in England and Wales; expert seminar and face-to-face interviews with high-level…

  7. Katrina Effect on Mathematics Achievement in Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, John; Lewis, Mark; Gross, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina caused severe physical damage to the Gulf Coast states of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Homes and businesses were destroyed. Natural habitats were annihilated, and many Americans were displaced for days, weeks, and even years. This study investigated the within-subject effects and contrasts of poverty, rurality, and…

  8. Parental Behavioural Control and Academic Achievement: Striking the Balance between Control and Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Karen Z.

    2012-01-01

    Using a longitudinal US dataset (N = 6,134) we examine the relationship between parental behavioural control and academic achievement and explore the moderating role of parental involvement and parental warmth. Analyses using multiple hierarchical regression with clustering controls shows that parental behavioural control is negatively associated…

  9. Critical pathways: effectiveness in achieving patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ireson, C L

    1997-06-01

    Refining the clinical care process to produce high-quality patient outcomes is becoming increasingly important as health care administrators strive for success in a mature managed care environment. This study examines the effect of structuring interventions and the evaluation of patient response, inherent in the critical pathway process, on clinical, length-of-hospital-stay, and financial patient outcomes. This study differs from previous critical pathway trials in that an objective measure of quality was used and the critical pathways were not introduced concurrently with a case management delivery model. The results show that critical pathways may be a significant determinant of improved quality in a managed care environment. The findings also suggest ways to improve nursing practice, nursing education, and nursing informatics.

  10. Longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on adolescents' academic achievements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun-Shia; Cheng, Ying-Yao; Chen, Yi-Ling; Wu, Yuh-Yih

    2009-01-01

    This study used nationwide data from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS) to examine the longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on the academic achievements of adolescents. The sample included 2,000 Taiwanese secondary school students, each of whom completed three waves of questionnaires and cognitive tests: the first in grade 7 (in 2001), the second in grade 9 (in 2003), and the third in grade 11 (in 2005). Through multilevel longitudinal analysis, the results showed: (1) educational expectations accounted for a moderate amount of the variance in academic achievements; (2) students with high educational expectations and effort attribution exhibited higher growth rates in their academic achievements; and (3) studentswith lower educational expectations and those attributing success to others showed significantly fewer academic achievements and significantly lower growth rates in such achievements. The results demonstrated that adolescents' educational expectations and achievement attributions play crucial roles in the long-term course of academic accomplishments. Implications for educational practice and further studies are also discussed.

  11. Effects of General and Broad Cognitive Abilities on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Floyd, Randy G.; Mcgrew, Kevin S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the direct and indirect effects of general intelligence and 7 broad cognitive abilities on mathematics achievement. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the simultaneous effects of both general and broad cognitive abilities on students' mathematics achievement. A hierarchical model of intelligence derived…

  12. Examining Perceived Control Level and Instability as Predictors of First-Year College Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.; Hall, Nathan C.; Guay, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the intraindividual level and instability of perceived academic control (PC) among first-year college students, and their predictive effects on academic achievement. Two studies were conducted measuring situational (state) PC on different schedules: Study 1 (N = 242) five times over a 6-month period and…

  13. Computer Assisted Project-Based Instruction: The Effects on Science Achievement, Computer Achievement and Portfolio Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Yavuz; Dede, Dinçer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of computer assisted project-based instruction on learners' achievement in a science and technology course, in a computer course and in portfolio development. With this aim in mind, a quasi-experimental design was used and a sample of 70 seventh grade secondary school students from Org. Esref…

  14. Malaria in Turkey: successful control and strategies for achieving elimination.

    PubMed

    Özbilgina, Ahmet; Topluoglu, Seher; Es, Saffet; Islek, Elif; Mollahaliloglu, Salih; Erkoc, Yasin

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is located in the middle of Asia, Africa and Europe, close to Caucasia, Balkans and Middle East in subtropical climate zone. Malaria has been known since the early ages of human history and it was one of the leading diseases in Anatolian history, as well. Today, chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium vivax is the only agent of autochthonous malaria cases in Turkey. The other Plasmodium species identified are isolated from imported cases of malaria. The most common vector of malaria in Turkey is Anopheles sacharovi followed by An. superpictus, An. maculipennis and An. subalpinus. In 2009, pre-elimination stage of Malaria Program was started due to dramatic decline in the number of malaria cases in Turkey (Total, 84; 38 autochthonous cases only in 26 foci in south-eastern Anatolia, and 46 imported cases; incidence: 0.1/100,000). As there were no detected cases of new autochthonous malaria in the first 8 months of 2010, elimination stage was started. The role of the persistent policies and successful applications of the Ministry of Health, such as the strict control of the patients using anti-malarial drugs especially chloroquine, avoidance of resistant insecticides, facilitation of access to patients via Health Transformation Program (HTP), establishment of close contact with the patients' families, and improvement of reporting and surveillance system, was essential. In addition, improvement maintained in the motivations and professional rights of malaria workers, as well in the coordination of field studies and maintenance of a decline or termination in vector-to-person transmission were all achieved with the insistent policies of the Ministry of Health. Other factors that probably contributed to elimination studies include lessening of military operations in south-eastern Anatolia and the lowering of malaria cases in neighbouring countries in recent years. Free access to health services concerning malaria is still successfully conducted throughout the country

  15. Examining Charter Student Achievement Effects across Seven States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Ron; Gill, Brian; Booker, Kevin; Lavertu, Stephane; Witte, John

    2012-01-01

    Since their inception, charter schools have been a lighting rod for controversy, with much of the debate revolving around their effectiveness in improving student achievement. Previous research has shown mixed results for student achievement; this could be the consequence of different policy environments or varying methodological approaches with…

  16. Effectiveness of High Schools in Australia: Holding Power and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, John; Sheret, Michael

    High schools in Australia are increasingly expected to be effective in holding students at school to year 12 as well as in promoting achievement. Analysis of quantitative data gathered as part of a longitudinal study of 22 New South Wales (Australia) schools shows that schools differ in their holding power as well as in the achievement levels of…

  17. The Effect of a Summer Academy on Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, William

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a summer enrichment math program on mathematics achievement and academic achievement in a comprehensive suburban high school. The program was designed to remediate the mathematical shortcomings of at-risk 9th graders. The students who experienced success in the summer program were placed in…

  18. Effects of an Intervention Program on Reading and Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anthony C.

    2010-01-01

    This action research project examined the effects of an intervention program on student reading and math achievement. TCAP reading and math assessments and ThinkLink Learning reading and math assessments were used for the measures on student achievement. Student perceptions and attitudes were measured with a questionnaire and four open-ended…

  19. Achievement Effects of Sustained Silent Reading in a Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Mary Pinson

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reading achievement effects of a school-year-long program of sustained silent reading in a middle school. Students' scores on the Stanford Achievement Test, Ninth Edition across three years (2006, 2007, and 2008) were analyzed to test eleven null hypotheses. A 3 x 3 repeated measures factorial ANOVA…

  20. Automated Writing Evaluation Program's Effect on Student Writing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lester Donnie

    2011-01-01

    In an ex post facto causal-comparative research design, this study investigated the effectiveness of Automated Writing Evaluation (AWE) programs on raising the student writing achievement. Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) writing achievement scores from the 2010 administration were utilized for this study. The independent variable…

  1. The Effects of Academic Optimism on Elementary Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevel, Raymona K.; Mitchell, Roxanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between academic optimism (AO) and elementary reading achievement (RA). Design/methodology/approach: Using correlation and hierarchical linear regression, the authors examined school-level effects of AO on fifth grade reading achievement in 29 elementary schools in Alabama.…

  2. Effective Teaching Results in Increased Science Achievement for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.; Kahle, Jane Butler; Fargo, Jamison D.

    2007-01-01

    This study of teacher effectiveness and student achievement in science demonstrated that effective teachers positively impact student learning. A general linear mixed model was used to assess change in student scores on the Discovery Inquiry Test as a function of time, race, teacher effectiveness, gender, and impact of teacher effectiveness in…

  3. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  4. Purpose Plus: Supporting Youth Purpose, Control, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Kanny, Mary Allison

    2011-01-01

    Research in the past decade suggests that a persistent achievement gap between students from low-income minority backgrounds and higher-income white backgrounds may be rooted in theories of student motivation and youth purpose. Yet limited research exists regarding the role of purpose on positive youth development as it pertains to academic…

  5. Controlling open quantum systems: tools, achievements, and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Christiane P.

    2016-06-01

    The advent of quantum devices, which exploit the two essential elements of quantum physics, coherence and entanglement, has sparked renewed interest in the control of open quantum systems. Successful implementations face the challenge of preserving relevant nonclassical features at the level of device operation. A major obstacle is decoherence, which is caused by interaction with the environment. Optimal control theory is a tool that can be used to identify control strategies in the presence of decoherence. Here we review recent advances in optimal control methodology that allow typical tasks in device operation for open quantum systems to be tackled and discuss examples of relaxation-optimized dynamics. Optimal control theory is also a useful tool to exploit the environment for control. We discuss examples and point out possible future extensions.

  6. Debris control design achievements of the booster separation motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The stringent debris control requirements imposed on the design of the Space Shuttle booster separation motor are described along with the verification program implemented to ensure compliance with debris control objectives. The principal areas emphasized in the design and development of the Booster Separation Motor (BSM) relative to debris control were the propellant formulation and nozzle closures which protect the motors from aerodynamic heating and moisture. A description of the motor design requirements, the propellant formulation and verification program, and the nozzle closures design and verification are presented.

  7. The Effect of Metacognitive Scaffolds on Low Achievers' Laboratory Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sufen; Huang, Chih-Chi; Chou, Te-Lien

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the influence of experimental goal setting and planning on the attitudes toward science, self-efficacy, inquiry performance, and achievement of students with low academic performance. A total of 71 students aged 16-18 were randomly divided into a treatment group (with goal setting and planning) and a control group (without goal…

  8. Endorsing Achievement Goals Exacerbates the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect on Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Sofie; Colpin, Hilde; Van Damme, Jan; Verschueren, Karine

    2015-01-01

    The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) model predicts students' academic self-concept to be negatively predicted by the achievement level of their reference group, controlling for individual achievement. Despite an abundance of empirical evidence supporting the BFLPE, there have been relatively few studies searching for possible moderators.…

  9. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Student Achievement and Motivation in a High School Geometry Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Joe D.; Hall, Neff

    In this study, the effects of a form of cooperative group instruction (Student Teams Achievement Divisions) on student motivation and achievement in a high school geometry class were examined. Ninety (mostly 10th-grade) students were randomly assigned to either a control group receiving traditional instruction or one of two treatment groups…

  10. Effect of Cooperative Learning on Achievement of Students in General Science at Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parveen, Qaisara; Batool, Sadia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of cooperative learning on General Science achievement among 9th class students. Based upon previous research literature it was hypothesized that significant difference existed between the mean posttest scores of General Science achievement of experimental group and control group. The pretest…

  11. Effects of Activity Based Blended Learning Strategy on Prospective of Teachers' Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelraheem, Ahmed Yousif; Ahmed, Abdelrahman Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the effect of Activity based Blended Learning strategy and Conventional Blended Learning strategy on students' achievement and motivation. Two groups namely, experimental and control group from Sultan Qaboos University were selected randomly for the study. To assess students' achievement in the different groups, pre- and…

  12. The Effects of Chess Instruction on the Mathematics Achievement of Southern, Rural, Black Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James P.; Cage. Bob N.

    2000-01-01

    Studied the effects of 120 hours of chess instruction on the mathematics achievement of southern, rural, black secondary students. Analysis of covariance results show the treatment group (11 females, 9 males) scored significantly higher than the control group (10 females, 10 males) in mathematics achievement. Discusses results in terms of altering…

  13. Achieving Control of Occupational Exposures to Engineered Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Juric, Amanda; Meldrum, Richard; Liberda, Eric N

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposures resulting from Engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs) can pose a challenge for applying traditional risk assessment, control, or evaluation standards. This article discusses the limitations in traditional risk management approaches when it comes to ENM exposures, reviews current monitoring options, and suggests an interim management framework until research can meet the standard of evidence required by legislators. The proposed Nanomaterial Occupational Exposure Management Model (NOEM) offers a pragmatic approach that integrates resources from current academic research to provide a framework that can be applied by both industry and regulators. The NOEM Model focuses on addressing three concerns to exposure management: Risk Assessment, Exposure Control, and Exposure Monitoring. The resources supported for meeting these three components involve the integration of the Control Banding Nanotool and Nano Reference Values, both of which have been piloted and accepted through peer-reviewed processes and industry consultation.

  14. Teacher Perceptions on the Effect of Collaboration on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Lori Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    At the school site for this study, students have performed below acceptable district goals in math. Although research has indicated that effective collaboration can contribute to teacher learning, research on collaboration has often failed to address its effect on student achievement; therefore, the purpose of this project study was to examine…

  15. The Cost Effectiveness of 22 Approaches for Raising Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2010-01-01

    Review of cost-effectiveness studies suggests that rapid assessment is more cost effective with regard to student achievement than comprehensive school reform (CSR), cross-age tutoring, computer-assisted instruction, a longer school day, increases in teacher education, teacher experience or teacher salaries, summer school, more rigorous math…

  16. Cognitive Control Predicts Academic Achievement in Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldren, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Children's ability to shift behavior in response to changing environmental demands is critical for successful intellectual functioning. While the processes underlying the development of cognitive control have been thoroughly investigated, its functioning in an ecologically relevant setting such as school is less well understood. Given the alarming…

  17. Achievement Goals and Emotions: The Mediational Roles of Perceived Progress, Control, and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Nathan C.; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Muis, Krista R.; Ranellucci, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: The link between achievement goals and achievement emotions is well established; however, research exploring potential mediators of this relationship is lacking. The control-value theory of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2006, "Educational Psychology Review," 18, 315) posits that perceptions of control and value mediate the…

  18. Achieving the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's potential by investing in national capacity

    PubMed Central

    Wipfli, H; Stillman, F; Tamplin, S; da Costa, e Silva V L.; Yach, D; Samet, J

    2004-01-01

    May 2003 marked a critical achievement in efforts to stem the global tobacco epidemic, as the member states of the World Health Organization unanimously endorsed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). However, the adoption of the FCTC signifies only the end of the beginning of effective global action to control tobacco. Over the next several years the utility of the FCTC process and the treaty itself will be tested as individual countries seek to ratify and implement the treaty's obligations. Significant barriers to the treaty's long term success exist in many countries. It is crucial that the international tobacco control community now refocuses its efforts on national capacity building and ensures that individual countries have the knowledge, tools, data, people, and organisations needed to implement the convention and develop sustained tobacco control programmes. This paper provides a model of national tobacco control capacity and offers a prioritised agenda for action. PMID:15564631

  19. [Strategy of tuberculosis control and achievement in Okinawa].

    PubMed

    2001-10-01

    After fierce battles in World War II, Okinawa was occupied by military of U.S.A. and consequently was administrated by USCAR (United States Civil Administration of Ryukyus). During 27 years from April 1945 to May 1972, reversion to Japan, the public Health Activities including T.B. control were performed by Ryukyus Government indirectly controlled by USCAR. The first issue of T.B. statistics was made in 1950. It revealed remarkable reduction of T.B. death rate, a quarter of that before the war. The main reasons of the reduction were considered due to the over-death in battles. But epidemic of T.B. had increased rapidly, especially since the Korean War occurred in 1950. Constructions of the military base were booming, and T.B. infection was spread among laborers, employees, and also their families. Then, Ryukyus Government enacted a temporary law of T.B. prevention and control in 1954. Home-care treatment of T.B. patient was started with registration and management in newly constructed Public Health Centers. Because of shortage of government budget, man-power including doctor and poor institutes, a system of short-termed admission treatment (6 months) and home cared chemotherapy were started. Public Health Nurses (PHN) took care the patient at home, and medical fee of T.B. treatment was free in charge to patients. So activities of PHN were very important. In 1962, Dr. Shoukou Imamura, from JATA, came to study the system of home care treatment. And 7,000 cases under supervision of Public Health Center were investigated. He reported that this system was fairly efficacious in Okinawa. In 1976, after reversion to Japan, study of T.B. surveillance control system was advised and introduced by Dr. Masakazu Aoki and Dr. Tooru Mori (JATA). By this modern system of surveillance, T.B. control is improved progressively in Okinawa. PMID:11712390

  20. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2015-11-01

    After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world.

  1. Control of invasive meningococcal disease: is it achievable?

    PubMed

    Marshall, Helen; Wang, Bing; Wesselingh, Steve; Snape, Matthew; Pollard, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Neisseria meningitidis still leads to deaths and severe disability in children, adolescents and adults. Six different capsular groups of N. meningitidis cause invasive meningococcal disease in the form of meningitis and septicaemia in humans. Although conjugate meningococcal vaccines have been developed to provide protection against four of the capsular groups causing most diseases in humans, vaccines against capsular group B, which causes 85% of cases in Australia and the United Kingdom, have only recently been developed. A capsular group B meningococcal vaccine - 4CMenB (Bexsero) - has recently been licensed in the European Union, Canada and Australia. In Australia, a submission for inclusion of 4CMenB in the funded national immunization programme has recently been rejected. The vaccine will now be introduced into the national immunization programme in the United Kingdom following negotiation of a cost-effective price. With the current low incidence of invasive meningococcal disease in many regions, cost-effectiveness of a new capsular group B meningococcal vaccine is borderline in both the United Kingdom and Australia. Cost-effectiveness of an infant programme is determined largely by the direct protection of those vaccinated and is driven by the higher rate of disease in this age group. However, for an adolescent programme to be cost-effective, it must provide both long-term protection against both disease and carriage. The potential of vaccination to reduce the rate of severe invasive disease is a real possibility. A dual approach using both an infant and adolescent immunization programme to provide direct protection to those age groups at highest risk of meningococcal disease and to optimize the potential herd immunity effects is likely to be the most effective means of reducing invasive meningococcal disease. This commentary aims to describe the known disease burden and consequences of meningococcal disease, and the development and potential effectiveness of

  2. Longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's negative emotions, effortful control, and math achievement in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = .39 year) across kindergarten through second grade. Parents reported their reactions and children's EC. Math achievement was assessed with a standardized achievement test. First-grade EC mediated the relation between parents' reactions at kindergarten and second-grade math achievement, beyond stability in constructs across study years. Panel mediation model results suggested that socialization of EC may be one method of promoting math achievement in early school; however, when all omitted time-invariant covariates of EC and math achievement were controlled, first-grade EC no longer predicted second-grade math achievement.

  3. Longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's negative emotions, effortful control, and math achievement in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = .39 year) across kindergarten through second grade. Parents reported their reactions and children's EC. Math achievement was assessed with a standardized achievement test. First-grade EC mediated the relation between parents' reactions at kindergarten and second-grade math achievement, beyond stability in constructs across study years. Panel mediation model results suggested that socialization of EC may be one method of promoting math achievement in early school; however, when all omitted time-invariant covariates of EC and math achievement were controlled, first-grade EC no longer predicted second-grade math achievement. PMID:24916765

  4. Scaling up interventions to achieve global tuberculosis control: progress and new developments.

    PubMed

    Raviglione, Mario; Marais, Ben; Floyd, Katherine; Lönnroth, Knut; Getahun, Haileyesus; Migliori, Giovanni B; Harries, Anthony D; Nunn, Paul; Lienhardt, Christian; Graham, Steve; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Weyer, Karin; Cole, Stewart; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2012-05-19

    Tuberculosis is still one of the most important causes of death worldwide. The 2010 Lancet tuberculosis series provided a comprehensive overview of global control efforts and challenges. In this update we review recent progress. With improved control efforts, the world and most regions are on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of decreasing tuberculosis incidence by 2015, and the Stop TB Partnership target of halving 1990 mortality rates by 2015; the exception is Africa. Despite these advances, full scale-up of tuberculosis and HIV collaborative activities remains challenging and emerging drug-resistant tuberculosis is a major threat. Recognition of the effect that non-communicable diseases--such as smoking-related lung disease, diet-related diabetes mellitus, and alcohol and drug misuse--have on individual vulnerability, as well as the contribution of poor living conditions to community vulnerability, shows the need for multidisciplinary approaches. Several new diagnostic tests are being introduced in endemic countries and for the first time in 40 years a coordinated portfolio of promising new tuberculosis drugs exists. However, none of these advances offer easy solutions. Achievement of international tuberculosis control targets and maintenance of these gains needs optimum national health policies and services, with ongoing investment into new approaches and strategies. Despite growing funding in recent years, a serious shortfall persists. International and national financial uncertainty places gains at serious risk. Perseverance and renewed commitment are needed to achieve global control of tuberculosis, and ultimately, its elimination. PMID:22608339

  5. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Han

    2015-01-01

    After the Korean War (1950–1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea’s population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world. PMID:26485188

  6. Muscle function in avian flight: achieving power and control

    PubMed Central

    Biewener, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Flapping flight places strenuous requirements on the physiological performance of an animal. Bird flight muscles, particularly at smaller body sizes, generally contract at high frequencies and do substantial work in order to produce the aerodynamic power needed to support the animal's weight in the air and to overcome drag. This is in contrast to terrestrial locomotion, which offers mechanisms for minimizing energy losses associated with body movement combined with elastic energy savings to reduce the skeletal muscles' work requirements. Muscles also produce substantial power during swimming, but this is mainly to overcome body drag rather than to support the animal's weight. Here, I review the function and architecture of key flight muscles related to how these muscles contribute to producing the power required for flapping flight, how the muscles are recruited to control wing motion and how they are used in manoeuvring. An emergent property of the primary flight muscles, consistent with their need to produce considerable work by moving the wings through large excursions during each wing stroke, is that the pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscles shorten over a large fraction of their resting fibre length (33–42%). Both muscles are activated while being lengthened or undergoing nearly isometric force development, enhancing the work they perform during subsequent shortening. Two smaller muscles, the triceps and biceps, operate over a smaller range of contractile strains (12–23%), reflecting their role in controlling wing shape through elbow flexion and extension. Remarkably, pigeons adjust their wing stroke plane mainly via changes in whole-body pitch during take-off and landing, relative to level flight, allowing their wing muscles to operate with little change in activation timing, strain magnitude and pattern. PMID:21502121

  7. Effect of language of instruction on physics achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kwok K.

    This study investigated the relationship between physics achievement and language of instruction in a situation where instruction was in the second language of both students and teachers. One hundred and seventy-six grade ten physics students (first language was Chinese) were selected from four classes of two secondary schools in Hong Kong. For three months (with four lessons per week), two classes of students learned the content material (light and sound) in Chinese and two classes learned the material in English. Group differences were controlled by using individual aptitude scores as covariates in the analysis. There were no differences in achievement, students' motivation, and effort spent in physics in that controlled teaching period. This was probably because the Anglo-Chinese group was sufficiently proficient in English so they did not encounter additional difficulty in learning physics when compared with the Chinese group.

  8. Maternal Employment and Adolescent Achievement: Effects of Demandingness, Responsiveness, and Commitment to Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Sharon E.; Slavin, Lesley A.

    This study examined the influences of three parenting variables on children's school achievement: commitment to children's school achievement, demandingness, and responsiveness. The study also examined the influence of maternal employment and satisfaction with employment on the three parenting variables and on children's achievement.…

  9. Use a linear model to achieve stable composition control in a naphtha splitter

    SciTech Connect

    Karpe, P.

    1997-01-01

    The following two points using dual composition control in a naphtha splitter are emphasized: while literature provides general guidelines for design of control systems for distillation columns, each column is unique in terms of dynamic and steady state behavior. Multivariable control analytical tools, such as RGA and SVD, coupled with rigorous steady state simulations, can be effectively employed to achieve stable control in columns beset with severe loop interactions, and often in the absence of on-line analyzers, linear models representing the first order approximations of distillation columns can yield significant benefits. Such models are simple to understand, readily acceptable to operators, do not require special expertise to maintain, and therefore, offer high degree of reliability.

  10. Effects of Curriculum Reform on Mathematics Achievement in Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moray, Joseph

    This investigation measured effects of the modern mathematics on achievement in traditional arithmetic and in modern mathematics. Material on Sets, Variables, and Statistics was taught as a separate subject to an experimental group of 207 sixth-grade students. Instruction in the new mathematics content was given over a four-month period, using…

  11. The Effect of Contiguity on Informational Achievement and Psychomotor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Donald W.

    Using a randomized block design and involving the participation of 73 fifth, sixth, and seventh grade pupils, this study sought to ascertain the relative effects of traditional, varied and integrated contiguity on the achievement of information content and the performance of a psychomotor task. The informational content selected for the study…

  12. The Effects of Write Score Formative Assessment on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    In an "ex post facto" causal-comparative research design, this study investigated the effectiveness of a formative writing assessment program, Write Score, on increasing student writing achievement. Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) reading language arts and writing scores from 2012 were utilized for this study. The…

  13. Effective Board Leadership: Factors Associated with Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the content, construct, and predictive validity of the Effective Board Leadership Practices Survey (EBLPS). The EBLPS was designed to measure the leadership practices of boards of education that support student achievement. A literature review identified 12 board leadership practices supportive of student…

  14. Effects of Teacher Professional Learning Activities on Student Achievement Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko; Liang, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of six types of teacher professional learning activities on student achievement growth over 4 years using statewide longitudinal survey data collected from 467 middle school mathematics teachers in 91 schools merged with 11,192 middle school students' mathematics scores in a standardized assessment in Missouri. The…

  15. The Effects of School Mobility on Scholastic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehana, Majida; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    This study investigated the predictors of school mobility and the influence of mobility on grade 6 math and reading achievement. The sample included 988 urban, low-economic status black children participating in a longitudinal study of the effects of preschool intervention. Fifty-eight percent of the students changed schools at least once.…

  16. Teacher Effectiveness: Making "The" Difference to Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines shifts in emphasis in Australian education from expectations and belief that teachers not only make a difference to student achievement, but they are the difference. In moving from social class relations accounts to self-managing school accounts, latest shifts (teacher effectiveness accounts) over-emphasize teacher…

  17. The Effect of Primary School Size on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershenson, Seth; Langbein, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on optimal school size is mixed. We estimate the effect of transitory changes in school size on the academic achievement of fourth-and fifth-grade students in North Carolina using student-level longitudinal administrative data. Estimates of value-added models that condition on school-specific linear time trends and a variety of…

  18. The Effectiveness of CASAs in Achieving Positive Outcomes for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litzelfelner, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of court-appointed special advocates (CASAs) in achieving positive outcomes for children in the child welfare system, using data from court and CASA program files on 200 children. Found that CASAs may have reduced the number of placements and court continuances children experienced. More services were provided to children…

  19. The Effects of Grouping Practices and Curricular Adjustments on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieso, Carol

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of curricular (textbook, revised, and differentiated) and grouping (whole, between, and within-class) practices on intermediate students' achievement in mathematics. A pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental design using a stratified random sample of 31 teachers and their students (N = 645) was…

  20. Feingold Diet Effect on Reading Achievement and Classroom Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernick, Eleanor

    The effect of the Feingold diet (elimination of artificial colors, flavors, or foods with natural salicylates to reduce hyperactivity) on the reading achievement scores, behavior, and impulsivity/reflectivity of 13 children (ages 6 to 12 years) was evaluated. Six months after the experimental group adopted the Feingold diet there were no…

  1. The Effects of Fiscal and Human Capital on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koligian, Sarah Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of per-pupil funding, the amount allocated to fund students in K-12 public education, and how this funding related to student achievement. This is one of the most contentious issues in education, especially in light of the current economy in California, where the state budget crisis has…

  2. Effective Teachers = Student Achievement: What the Research Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that there is no greater influence on a student's success than the quality of his or her teacher. This book presents the research findings which demonstrate the connection between teacher effectiveness and student achievement. We've always known, at least intuitively, that teachers matter, but this book proves that teachers are…

  3. Personality as a Moderator of Context Effects on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Kuyper, Hans; Lubbers, Miranda J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether personality moderates group influence of classmates on academic achievement and whether these so-called context effects can be attributed to peer pressure. The sample consisted of 2498 students in their first year of Dutch secondary education. The data were analyzed by a two-level (students within classes) analysis,…

  4. The Effect of Preschool Education on Math Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vondrak, Maripatricia

    A study examined the effects of preschool attendance on third graders' mathematics achievement. The subjects for the study were randomly selected from 111 third graders from a predominantly low socioeconomic neighborhood in Chicago. All students were from minority groups. The experimental group was comprised of 21 students who had attended…

  5. A Curriculum Focus Intervention's Effects on Prealgebra Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, David; Rehberger, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses a pilot study of the effects of a curriculum focus intervention on students' prealgebra achievement. Elements of the intervention include identification of high-priority learning objective; structured repeatable testing; and a coherent, rubric-based feedback component. This research differs from traditional mastery learning…

  6. Sociodemographic Moderators of Middle School Transition Effects on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akos, Patrick; Rose, Roderick A.; Orthner, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The academic impact of the transition from elementary to middle school has significant consequences for many early adolescents. This study examines academic growth across the transition, as well as sociodemographic moderators. Rather than defining the transition effect as a decline in student achievement between fifth and sixth grade, these data…

  7. Students as Web Site Authors: Effects on Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brett D.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a Web site design project on students' motivation and achievement. Tenth-grade biology students worked together in teams on an ecology project that required them to locate relevant information on the Internet, decide which information should be included on their Web site, organize the information into Web pages,…

  8. Growth mindset tempers the effects of poverty on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Claro, Susana; Paunesku, David; Dweck, Carol S

    2016-08-01

    Two largely separate bodies of empirical research have shown that academic achievement is influenced by structural factors, such as socioeconomic background, and psychological factors, such as students' beliefs about their abilities. In this research, we use a nationwide sample of high school students from Chile to investigate how these factors interact on a systemic level. Confirming prior research, we find that family income is a strong predictor of achievement. Extending prior research, we find that a growth mindset (the belief that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed) is a comparably strong predictor of achievement and that it exhibits a positive relationship with achievement across all of the socioeconomic strata in the country. Furthermore, we find that students from lower-income families were less likely to hold a growth mindset than their wealthier peers, but those who did hold a growth mindset were appreciably buffered against the deleterious effects of poverty on achievement: students in the lowest 10th percentile of family income who exhibited a growth mindset showed academic performance as high as that of fixed mindset students from the 80th income percentile. These results suggest that students' mindsets may temper or exacerbate the effects of economic disadvantage on a systemic level. PMID:27432947

  9. Growth mindset tempers the effects of poverty on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Claro, Susana; Paunesku, David; Dweck, Carol S

    2016-08-01

    Two largely separate bodies of empirical research have shown that academic achievement is influenced by structural factors, such as socioeconomic background, and psychological factors, such as students' beliefs about their abilities. In this research, we use a nationwide sample of high school students from Chile to investigate how these factors interact on a systemic level. Confirming prior research, we find that family income is a strong predictor of achievement. Extending prior research, we find that a growth mindset (the belief that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed) is a comparably strong predictor of achievement and that it exhibits a positive relationship with achievement across all of the socioeconomic strata in the country. Furthermore, we find that students from lower-income families were less likely to hold a growth mindset than their wealthier peers, but those who did hold a growth mindset were appreciably buffered against the deleterious effects of poverty on achievement: students in the lowest 10th percentile of family income who exhibited a growth mindset showed academic performance as high as that of fixed mindset students from the 80th income percentile. These results suggest that students' mindsets may temper or exacerbate the effects of economic disadvantage on a systemic level.

  10. High school students' perceptions of EFL teacher control orientations and their English academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh

    2011-09-01

    ' perceptions. The results of multi-level analyses indicated that a relatively large amount of variance was explained by the control variables and student variables, and teacher control had a statistically significant effect on student outcomes. Students' English achievement was lowest when they felt control was their teachers' prerogative, higher when they themselves exerted their own control (low teacher control), and highest under shared (mid) control behaviours. PMID:21770916

  11. High school students' perceptions of EFL teacher control orientations and their English academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh

    2011-09-01

    ' perceptions. The results of multi-level analyses indicated that a relatively large amount of variance was explained by the control variables and student variables, and teacher control had a statistically significant effect on student outcomes. Students' English achievement was lowest when they felt control was their teachers' prerogative, higher when they themselves exerted their own control (low teacher control), and highest under shared (mid) control behaviours.

  12. Children's effortful control and academic achievement: do relational peer victimization and classroom participation operate as mediators?

    PubMed

    Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Berger, Rebecca H

    2014-08-01

    Given that early academic achievement is related to numerous developmental outcomes, understanding processes that promote early success in school is important. This study was designed to clarify how students' (N=291; M age in fall of kindergarten=5.66 years, SD=0.39 year) effortful control, relational peer victimization, and classroom participation relate to achievement, as students progress from kindergarten to first grade. Effortful control and achievement were assessed in kindergarten, classroom participation and relational peer victimization were assessed in the fall of first grade, and achievement was reassessed in the spring of first grade. Classroom participation, but not relational peer victimization, mediated relations between effortful control and first grade standardized and teacher-rated achievement, controlling for kindergarten achievement. Findings suggest that aspects of classroom participation, such as the ability to work independently, may be useful targets of intervention for enhancing academic achievement in young children. PMID:25107413

  13. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Christofides, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level <1.0 ng/mL and age- and sex-normalized levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]) through timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment provides an opportunity to improve patient outcomes. Diagnosis of acromegaly is challenging because it is rooted in observing subtle clinical manifestations, and it is typical for acromegaly to evolve for up to 10 years before it is recognized. This results in chronic exposure to elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. PMID:27471378

  14. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Christofides, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level <1.0 ng/mL and age- and sex-normalized levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]) through timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment provides an opportunity to improve patient outcomes. Diagnosis of acromegaly is challenging because it is rooted in observing subtle clinical manifestations, and it is typical for acromegaly to evolve for up to 10 years before it is recognized. This results in chronic exposure to elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. PMID:27471378

  15. Why achievement motivation predicts success in business but failure in politics: the importance of personal control.

    PubMed

    Winter, David G

    2010-12-01

    Several decades of research have established that implicit achievement motivation (n Achievement) is associated with success in business, particularly in entrepreneurial or sales roles. However, several political psychology studies have shown that achievement motivation is not associated with success in politics; rather, implicit power motivation often predicts political success. Having versus lacking control may be a key difference between business and politics. Case studies suggest that achievement-motivated U.S. presidents and other world leaders often become frustrated and thereby fail because of lack of control, whereas power-motivated presidents develop ways to work with this inherent feature of politics. A reevaluation of previous research suggests that, in fact, relationships between achievement motivation and business success only occur when control is high. The theme of control is also prominent in the development of achievement motivation. Cross-national data are also consistent with this analysis: In democratic industrialized countries, national levels of achievement motivation are associated with strong executive control. In countries with low opportunity for education (thus fewer opportunities to develop a sense of personal control), achievement motivation is associated with internal violence. Many of these manifestations of frustrated achievement motivation in politics resemble authoritarianism. This conclusion is tested by data from a longitudinal study of 113 male college students, showing that high initial achievement motivation combined with frustrated desires for control is related to increases in authoritarianism (F-scale scores) during the college years. Implications for the psychology of leadership and practical politics are discussed.

  16. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect

    PubMed Central

    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful non-native reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the non-native lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good non-native reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization. PMID:25999899

  17. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect.

    PubMed

    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful non-native reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the non-native lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good non-native reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization.

  18. The effect of technology on student science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, June Kraft

    2003-10-01

    Prior research indicates that technology has had little effect on raising student achievement. Little empirical research exists, however, studying the effects of technology as a tool to improve student achievement through development of higher order thinking skills. Also, prior studies have not focused on the manner in which technology is being used in the classroom and at home to enhance teaching and learning. Empirical data from a secondary school representative of those in California were analyzed to determine the effects of technology on student science achievement. The quantitative analysis methods for the school data study included a multiple linear path analysis, using final course grade as the ultimate exogenous variable. In addition, empirical data from a nationwide survey on how Americans use the Internet were disaggregated by age and analyzed to determine the relationships between computer and Internet experience and (a) Internet use at home for school assignments and (b) more general computer use at home for school assignments for school age children. Analysis of data collected from the a "A Nation Online" Survey conducted by the United States Census Bureau assessed these relationships via correlations and cross-tabulations. Finally, results from these data analyses were assessed in conjunction with systemic reform efforts from 12 states designed to address improvements in science and mathematics education in light of the Third International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS). Examination of the technology efforts in those states provided a more nuanced understanding of the impact technology has on student achievement. Key findings included evidence that technology training for teachers increased their use of the computer for instruction but students' final science course grade did not improve; school age children across the country did not use the computer at home for such higher-order cognitive activities as graphics and design or spreadsheets

  19. Design of PI controllers for achieving time and frequency domain specifications simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Hamamci, Serdar Ethem; Tan, Nusret

    2006-10-01

    This paper deals with the design of PI controllers which achieve the desired frequency and time domain specifications simultaneously. A systematic method, which is effective and simple to apply, is proposed. The required values of the frequency domain performance measures namely the gain and phase margins and the time domain performance measures such as settling time and overshoot are defined prior to the design. Then, to meet these desired performance values, a method which presents a graphical relation between the required performance values and the parameters of the PI controller is given. Thus, a set of PI controllers which attain desired performances can be found using the graphical relations. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the benefits of the method presented.

  20. [Implementation of precision control to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-nong

    2016-02-01

    The integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, which has been implemented since 2004, accelerated the progress towards schistosomiasis control in China, and achieved transmission control of the disease across the country by the end of 2015, which achieved the overall objective of the Mid- and Long-term National Plan for Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis (2004-2015) on schedule. Then, the goal of schistosomiasis elimination by 2025 was proposed in China in 2014. To achieve this new goal on schedule, we have to address the key issues, and implement precision control measures with more precise identification of control targets, so that we are able to completely eradicate the potential factors leading to resurgence of schistosomiasis transmission and enable the achievement of schistosomiasis elimination on schedule. Precision schistosomiasis control, a theoretical innovation of precision medicine in schistosomiasis control, will provide new insights into schistosomiasis control based on the conception of precision medicine. This paper describes the definition, interventions and the role of precision schistosomiasis control in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China, and demonstrates that sustainable improvement of professionals and integrated control capability at grass-root level is a prerequisite to the implementation of schistosomiasis control, precision schistosomiasis control is a key to the further implementation of the integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, and precision schistosomiasis control is a guarantee of curing schistosomiasis patients and implementing schistosomiasis control program and interventions. PMID:27356396

  1. [Implementation of precision control to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-nong

    2016-02-01

    The integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, which has been implemented since 2004, accelerated the progress towards schistosomiasis control in China, and achieved transmission control of the disease across the country by the end of 2015, which achieved the overall objective of the Mid- and Long-term National Plan for Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis (2004-2015) on schedule. Then, the goal of schistosomiasis elimination by 2025 was proposed in China in 2014. To achieve this new goal on schedule, we have to address the key issues, and implement precision control measures with more precise identification of control targets, so that we are able to completely eradicate the potential factors leading to resurgence of schistosomiasis transmission and enable the achievement of schistosomiasis elimination on schedule. Precision schistosomiasis control, a theoretical innovation of precision medicine in schistosomiasis control, will provide new insights into schistosomiasis control based on the conception of precision medicine. This paper describes the definition, interventions and the role of precision schistosomiasis control in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China, and demonstrates that sustainable improvement of professionals and integrated control capability at grass-root level is a prerequisite to the implementation of schistosomiasis control, precision schistosomiasis control is a key to the further implementation of the integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, and precision schistosomiasis control is a guarantee of curing schistosomiasis patients and implementing schistosomiasis control program and interventions.

  2. Relations among Peer Acceptance, Inhibitory Control, and Math Achievement in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined relations among peer acceptance, inhibitory control, and math achievement in ninety-nine 4th and 5th grade early adolescents. Teachers rated students on peer acceptance and students completed a computerized executive function task assessing inhibitory control. Math achievement was assessed via end of year math grades. Results…

  3. Criterion-Related Validity of the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale with Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, Gary D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the relationships between student locus of control and academic achievement in grades five through eight. The Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale (NSLOCS) was used to measure motivation, and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) to assess academic achievement. Results indicated moderate inverse relationships between level of…

  4. Before or after the Bell? School Context and Neighborhood Effects on Student Achievement. Working Paper 28

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jargowsky, Paul A.; El Komi, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the relative effects of school and neighborhood characteristics on student achievement. Previous empirical studies have estimated one of these effects in the absence of controls for the other, leading to potentially misleading results. Results show school variables are more robust and explain a greater degree of the variance in…

  5. The Effects of Visual Training on the Reading Achievement of Fifth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Roberta A.

    A study examined what effect, if any, vision training exercises had on reading achievement. It was hypothesized that training students to control more accurately the speed and direction of their eye movements would improve their visual skills. However, it was also hypothesized that a more efficient visual system would have no effect on reading…

  6. Moving the Achievement Goal Approach One Step Forward: Toward a Systematic Examination of the Autonomous and Controlled Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Elliot, Andrew J.; Soenens, Bart; Mouratidis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    An important recent development in the achievement goal literature is to define achievement goals strictly as aims. In this overview, we argue that this restrictive definition of achievement goals paves the way for a systematic consideration of the autonomous and controlled reasons underlying individuals' achievement goals, a distinction…

  7. The effect of post-discharge educational intervention on patients in achieving objectives in modifiable risk factors six months after discharge following an episode of acute coronary syndrome, (CAM-2 Project): a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We investigated whether an intervention mainly consisting of a signed agreement between patient and physician on the objectives to be reached, improves reaching these secondary prevention objectives in modifiable cardiovascular risk factors six-months after discharge following an acute coronary syndrome. Background There is room to improve mid-term adherence to clinical guidelines' recommendations in coronary heart disease secondary prevention, specially non-pharmacological ones, often neglected. Methods In CAM-2, patients discharged after an acute coronary syndrome were randomly assigned to the intervention or the usual care group. The primary outcome was reaching therapeutic objectives in various secondary prevention variables: smoking, obesity, blood lipids, blood pressure control, exercise and taking of medication. Results 1757 patients were recruited in 64 hospitals and 1510 (762 in the intervention and 748 in the control group) attended the six-months follow-up visit. After adjustment for potentially important variables, there were, between the intervention and control group, differences in the mean reduction of body mass index (0.5 vs. 0.2; p < 0.001) and waist circumference (1.6 cm vs. 0.6 cm; p = 0.05), proportion of patients who exercise regularly and those with total cholesterol below 175 mg/dl (64.7% vs. 56.5%; p = 0.001). The reported intake of medications was high in both groups for all the drugs considered with no differences except for statins (98.1% vs. 95.9%; p = 0.029). Conclusions At least in the short term, lifestyle changes among coronary heart disease patients are achievable by intensifying the responsibility of the patient himself by means of a simple and feasible intervention. PMID:21092191

  8. Stereotype threat's effect on women's achievement in chemistry: The interaction of achievement goal orientation for women in science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For women, the negative stereotype that exists in our culture states that women are typically not as capable as men in mathematics or science subjects. This study specifically explored the potential impact of stereotype threat on women who have chosen a science-based college major. They were tested in the domain of chemistry, which is related to mathematics and often involves high level of mathematics skills. I attempted to generate a stereotype threat in the participants through describing a chemistry challenge exam as either one that had consistently shown a gender bias against women and to create a nullification effect by describing the exam as one that had shown no gender bias in the past. In the third experimental condition acting as a control, participants received only generic instructions related to taking the test itself. The second part of this study investigated whether stereotype threat effects could impact women's achievement goal orientations. In previous studies performance avoidance goal orientations have been associated with individuals placed in a stereotype threat environment. The findings on the stereotype threat effect were not significant for the chemistry challenge test achievement scores. This may be due to several factors. One factor may be the design of the chemistry challenge test and the instructions for the test. The other factor may be the women in this study. As individuals who have chosen a science based major, they may have developed coping skills and strategies that reduced the impact of a stereotype threat. It is also possible that the testing environment itself generated an implicit stereotype

  9. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2016-08-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.

  10. The Effect of Thinking Maps on Fifth Grade Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Darlene

    Informational texts, such as those found in science education, have historically been reserved for secondary students. With the increased emphasis on elementary students' academic accountability, these high impact instructional strategies must also be utilized to support subject matter comprehension for younger students. This causal-comparative study, grounded in cognitive learning theory, sought to discover if 2 years of implementation and use of Thinking Maps, a visual tool program, had an effect on student achievement in elementary science as measured by Georgia's statewide assessment known as the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). Achievement data of 2 groups that received Thinking Maps instruction for 2 years was compared to 1 group that did not. An analysis of covariance was used to analyze the assessment data. The findings suggest that the students who did not use Thinking Maps performed significantly better than those who did use Thinking Maps, even though both groups showed positive mean score gains from 2010 to 2012 on the science portion of the CRCT. Limitations of the study, such as the lack of randomization and manipulation of the independent variable, suggest that further research is needed to fairly evaluate the program and its effectiveness. Also, the instructional setting and amount of time used for science instruction in the elementary classroom warrants additional investigation. Findings related to the implementation and use of graphic tools such as Thinking Maps will help school systems choose professional learning opportunities and effective instructional strategies to develop content literacy.

  11. Achieving a Strongly Temperature-Dependent Casimir Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Woolf, David; Capasso, Federico; McCauley, Alexander P.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2010-08-06

    We propose a method of achieving large temperature T sensitivity in the Casimir force that involves measuring the stable separation between dielectric objects immersed in a fluid. We study the Casimir force between slabs and spheres using realistic material models, and find large >2 nm/K variations in their stable separations (hundreds of nanometers) near room temperature. In addition, we analyze the effects of Brownian motion on suspended objects, and show that the average separation is also sensitive to changes in T. Finally, this approach also leads to rich qualitative phenomena, such as irreversible transitions, from suspension to stiction, as T is varied.

  12. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P. Craig; Buyon, Lucas E.; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the “big three” diseases—namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria—has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda

  13. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P Craig; Buyon, Lucas E; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the "big three" diseases--namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria--has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda. PMID

  14. The Effects of Different Approaches to Reading Instruction on Letter Detection Tasks in Normally Achieving and Low Achieving Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Kandelshine-Waldman, Osnat

    2011-01-01

    The present study used two letter detection tasks, the classic missing letter effect paradigm and a single word versus familiar word compound version of this paradigm, to study bottom-up and top-down processes involved in reading in normally achieving as compared to low achieving elementary school readers. The research participants were children…

  15. The Effect of Kindergarten Entry Age on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buten, Nicole A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of kindergarten entry age on the scores of the eighth grade Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) math and reading scores, while controlling for the demographic variables of gender and socioeconomic status. The subjects included 1,197 students who participated in the randomized, long-term STAR (Student-Teacher…

  16. Colour and Light Effects on Students' Achievement, Behavior and Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlfarth, H.

    A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was used to investigate the effects of full-spectrum light, prescribed color and light/color combinations, ultra-violet light, and electromagnetic radiation in an elementary school environment. Four schools in the Wetaskiwin School District, Alberta, were involved in the study; three served…

  17. Development of Independence: Locus of Control, Achievement Motivation and Self vs. Adult Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickie, Jane R.; Mast, Vicki A.

    The development and interrelationship of various measures of independence in children ages 3-12 are examined. Subjects were scored on measures of locus of control and achievement motivation and were rated by teachers on independence and achievement. Subjects were also scored on reliance on adult evaluation and self-evaluation. The results showed…

  18. Social Axioms and Achievement across Cultures: The Influence of Reward for Application and Fate Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Fan; Leung, Kwok; Bond, Michael Harris

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the relationships between two social axiom dimensions, reward for application and fate control, with various achievement-related indexes across a wide range of cultures. Results showed that there was no relationship between reward for application and academic achievement or economic competitiveness, but reward for…

  19. Parental Warmth, Control, and Involvement in Schooling: Predicting Academic Achievement among Korean American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyoungho; Rohner, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement of Korean American adolescents, investigating the influence of perceived parental warmth and control and improvement in schooling. Survey data indicated that authoritative paternal parenting related to optimal academic achievement. Differences in maternal parenting styles…

  20. A Model of Parental Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control in Academically Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated achievement-oriented parent socialization as it pertains to school avoidance in a sample of gifted students. A serial mediation model examining relationships among parental achievement-oriented psychological control (APC), fear of academic failure, academic amotivation, and school avoidance was tested. The sample included…

  1. Effects of Cloze Instructional Approach on Senior Secondary School Students' Achievement in Igbo Language Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eze, Nneka Justina

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of cloze instructional approach on senior secondary school students' achievement in Igbo language reading comprehension. The study utilized a quasi experimental research design of the pretest posttest non-equivalent control group design. The study was conducted in Abakaliki education zone of Ebonyi State of Nigeria.…

  2. The Effects of an ICT-Based Reading Intervention on Students' Achievement in Grade Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Deborah; Chambers, Alex; Mather, Nancy; Bauschatz, Retina; Bauer, Meredyth; Doan, Lesli

    2016-01-01

    A controlled quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the use of MindPlay Virtual Reading Coach on participants' reading and spelling achievement. After attrition, participants included 170 students enrolled in eight second-grade classrooms (four classrooms in each school) in two public elementary schools in the southwestern…

  3. Effect of Problem-Based Learning on Senior Secondary School Students' Achievements in Further Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatade, Alfred Olufemi; Mogari, David; Arigbabu, Abayomi Adelaja

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of Problem-based learning (PBL) on senior secondary school students' achievements in Further Mathematics (FM) in Nigeria within the blueprint of pretest-post-test non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental design. Intact classes were used and in all, 96 students participated in the study (42 in the…

  4. The Effect of Using Activities Improving Scientific Literacy on Students' Achievement in Science and Technology Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gucluer, Efe; Kesercioglu, Teoman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is examining the effect of the using scientific literacy development activities on students' achievement. The study was carried out in a primary school in Buca Izmir for 2010-2011 academic years. System of our body was chosen as a study topic in our search which took 6 weeks. Pre-post test semi experimental control model was…

  5. The Effect of Metacognitive Strategy Training on Mathematical Problem Solving Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozsoy, Gokhan; Ataman, Aysegul

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using metacognitive strategy training on mathematical problem solving achievement. The study took place over a nine-week period with 47 fifth grade students. The experimental group (n = 24) instructed to improve their metacognitive skills. At the same time the students in the control group…

  6. THE EFFECT OF A SUMMER TELEVISION READING PROGRAM ON THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF CHILDREN. INTERIM REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evansville-Vanderburgh School Corp., IN.

    THROUGH A COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROJECT CONTRACT, THE EVANSVILLE-VANDERBURGH SCHOOL CORPORATION IN INDIANA DEVELOPED A SUMMER EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION PROGRAM ACCOMPANIED BY WORKBOOKS FOR PUPILS WHO HAD JUST COMPLETED THE FIRST GRADE AND STUDIED THE PROGRAM'S EFFECT ON THEIR READING ACHIEVEMENT. CONTROL-GROUP TESTING WAS DONE IN 1965, AND…

  7. Effects of Developed Electronic Instructional Medium on Students' Achievement in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinna, Nsofor Caroline; Dada, Momoh Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of developed electronic instructional medium (video DVD instructional package) on students' achievement in Biology. It was guided by two research questions and two hypotheses, using a quasi-experimental, pretest-postest control group design. The sample comprised of 180 senior secondary, year two students from six…

  8. The Effect of Brain Based Instruction on Student Achievement in Algebra I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Melissa G.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative quasi-experimental study examined the effect of brain-based instruction compared to teacher-centered instruction on student achievement in algebra I. A pre-test and post-test were given to a control group of 30 and experimental group of 42 before and after a unit if study in algebra I, which was taught using the two instructional…

  9. Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Secondary School Students' Achievement in Ecological Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkemdilim, Egbunonu Roseline; Okeke, Sam O. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on students' achievement in ecological concepts. Quasi-experimental design, specifically the pre-test post test non-equivalent control group design was adopted. The sample consisted of sixty-six (66) senior secondary year two (SS II) biology students, drawn from two…

  10. The Effects of Teachers' In-Class Motivational Intervention on Learners' EFL Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrabai, Fakieh

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a controlled quasi-experimental study investigating the effects of motivational strategies on learner motivation and achievement in English language classes in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, the most important motivational strategies were identified. In the second…

  11. The Effects of Using an Interactive Whiteboard on the Academic Achievement of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbas, Oktay; Pektas, Huseyin Mirac

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of the use of an interactive whiteboard on the academic achievement of university students on the topic of electricity in a science and technology laboratory class. The study was designed as a pretest/posttest control group experimental study. Mean, standard deviation and t- tests were used for…

  12. The Effect of Manipulatives on Mathematics Achievement and Attitudes of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontas, Hakki

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of manipulatives (concrete learning materials) both on the academic achievement of secondary school students in mathematics and on their attitudes towards mathematics. Pretest-posttest control group experimental model, which is one of the quasi-experimental research designs, was used in the…

  13. The Effect of Scientific Process Skills Education on Students' Scientific Creativity, Science Attitudes and Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktamis, Hilal; Ergin, Omer

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of teaching scientific process skills education to students to promote their scientific creativity, attitudes towards science, and achievements in science. The research includes a pre-test post-test research model with a control group. The subjects of the research consist of 40 students reading…

  14. Effects of Concept Mapping Instruction Approach on Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogonnaya, Ukpai Patricia; Okafor, Gabriel; Abonyi, Okechukwu S.; Ugama, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of concept mapping on students' achievement in basic science. The study was carried out in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Specifically the pretest posttest non-equivalent control group research design was used. The sample was 122 students selected from two secondary…

  15. The Effect of an Embedded Pedagogical Agent on the Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kizilkaya, Gonca; Askar, Petek

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of an embedded pedagogical agent into a tutorial on achievement. Design/methodology/approach: Research methodology is designed according to the post test control group model in which the experimental group (69 students) was exposed to a tutorial with an embedded pedagogical agent;…

  16. Examining the Effects of Notetaking Format on Achievement When Students Construct and Study Computerized Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katayama, Andrew D.; Crooks, Steven M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes two experiments conducted to investigate the effects of notetaking format on achievement. Students constructed and studied different types of notes: partial (framework and partial notes), skeletal (framework with no notes), and control (no framework and no notes). Found that, based on an application test, students who completed and…

  17. Effect of a Combined Repeated Reading and Question Generation Intervention on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therrien, William J.; Wickstrom, Katherine; Jones, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Research was conducted to ascertain if a combined repeated reading and question generation intervention was effective at improving the reading achievement of fourth through eighth grade students with learning disabilities or who were at risk for reading failure. Students were assigned to a treatment or control group via a stratified random…

  18. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science…

  19. Goals, Data Use, and Instruction: The Effect of a Teacher Professional Development Program on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kuijk, Mechteld F.; Deunk, Marjolein I.; Bosker, Roel J.; Ritzema, Evelien S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated whether student reading comprehension could be improved with help of a teacher Professional Development (PD) program targeting goals, data use, and instruction. The effect of this PD program on 2nd- and 3rd-grade student achievement was examined using a pretest-posttest control group design. Applying propensity score…

  20. Effects of Jigsaw II Technique on Academic Achievement and Attitudes to Written Expression Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of a cooperative technique Jigsaw II (experimental group, n=42) and instructional teacher-centered teaching method (control group, n=38) on Turkish language teacher education department students' attitudes to written expression course (a course in which writing skills were taught), their academic achievement,…

  1. Effect of Computer-Aided Perspective Drawings on Spatial Orientation and Perspective Drawing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtulus, Aytac

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of computer-aided Perspective Drawings on eighth grade primary school students' achievement in Spatial Orientation and Perspective Drawing. The study made use of pre-test post-test control group experimental design. The study was conducted with thirty 8th grade students attending a primary school…

  2. The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Chinese Reading Comprehension among Hong Kong Low Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kit-ling; Chan, David W.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive strategy instruction (CSI) on Chinese reading comprehension of Hong Kong low achieving students. A total of 88 Grade 7 students from four intact Chinese language remedial groups were randomly assigned to treatment and control conditions. Students in the treatment group received a…

  3. Instruction of Statistics via Computer-Based Tools: Effects on Statistics' Anxiety, Attitude, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciftci, S. Koza; Karadag, Engin; Akdal, Pinar

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of statistics instruction using computer-based tools, on statistics anxiety, attitude, and achievement. This study was designed as quasi-experimental research and the pattern used was a matched pre-test/post-test with control group design. Data was collected using three scales: a Statistics…

  4. Effects of Mastery Learning Approach on Secondary School Students' Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wambugu, Patriciah W.; Changeiywo, Johnson M.

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at finding out the effects of Mastery Learning Approach (MLA) on students' achievement in Physics. The study was Quasi-experimental and Solomon Four Non-equivalent Control Group Design was used. The target population comprised of secondary school students in Kieni East Division of Nyeri District. The accessible population was Form…

  5. The Effect of Teaching Strategy Based on Multiple Intelligences on Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali; Laei, Susan; Ahmadyan, Hamze

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Teaching Strategy based on Multiple Intelligences on students' academic achievement in sciences course. Totally 40 students from two different classes (Experimental N = 20 and Control N = 20) participated in the study. They were in the fifth grade of elementary school and were selected…

  6. Children's Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Maternal Restrictive Control

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Muñoz, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g., such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation) and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children's behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children's behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children's self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children's behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children's school achievement. PMID:27303318

  7. Children's Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Maternal Restrictive Control.

    PubMed

    Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Muñoz, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g., such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation) and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children's behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children's behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children's self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children's behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children's school achievement. PMID:27303318

  8. Indirect Effects of Child Reports of Teacher-Student Relationship on Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jan N.; Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-man; Villarreal, Victor; Johnson, Audrea Y.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of student-reported teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ) on academic motivation and achievement was investigated among a sample of 690 academically at risk elementary students (52.8% male). Measures of TSRQ, achievement, and motivation were collected annually for 3 consecutive years, beginning when participants were in grade 2 (24.8%) or grade 3 (74.6%). Child-reported conflict was stable across the 3 years, whereas warmth declined. Boys and African American students reported greater conflict than did girls and Caucasian and Hispanic students. Girls and African American students reported higher warmth than boys and non-African American students. Using path analysis, the authors tested the hypothesis that measures of student motivation in Year 2 mediated the effects of conflict and warmth in Year 1 on reading and math achievement in Year 3. Child-perceived conflict predicted cross-year changes in teacher-rated behavioral engagement, which, in turn, predicted cross-year changes in reading and math achievement. Math competence beliefs also mediated the effect of child- perceived warmth on math achievement. Effects controlled for stability of measures across time, the within-wave association between measures, and baseline measures of IQ and economic adversity. Implications of findings for improving the academic achievement of students at-risk for school failure are discussed. PMID:23226873

  9. Locus of Control or Self-Esteem; Which One is the Best Predictor of Academic Achievement in Iranian College Students

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyyed Nasrollah; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi; Karami Matin, Behzad; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Ashtarian, Hossein; Jalilian, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-esteem and behavioral consequences, which are due to external or internal locus of control, are effective on academic achievement of students. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prediction of locus of control and self-esteem in academic achievement among the students. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 college students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Data collection tools were in three sections: demographic, Rotter internal-external locus of control scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 21. Results Results showed that 29.8% and 76.2% of the participants had internal locus of control, and high self-esteem, respectively. There was a significant correlation between self-esteem, locus of control and academic achievement of the students. Self-esteem accounted for 39.5% of the variation in academic achievement. Conclusions It seems that interventions to increase self-esteem among student can help improve academic achievement among them. PMID:27284277

  10. Effects of Simulated Interventions to Improve School Entry Academic Skills on Socioeconomic Inequalities in Educational Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lynch, John W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%. PMID:25327718

  11. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  12. A Pilot Study on the Congruency of Locus of Control and Field Dependence as Related to Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, C. William; Cole, Ernest G.

    A pilot study was conducted at two middle schools to investigate the relationship among student locus of control, field dependency, self-esteem, and achievement. A relationship between self-esteem and achievement has already been identified by research; another variable considered as a possible effect on a person's predisposition to achieve was…

  13. How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children's mathematics achievement?

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Fuentes, Luis J; Pina, Violeta; López-López, Jose A; González-Salinas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC) -attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control- to children's mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9-12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent's report); math achievement was measured via teacher's report and through the standard Woodcock-Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children's mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children's self-regulation abilities in the context of school.

  14. How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children's mathematics achievement?

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Fuentes, Luis J; Pina, Violeta; López-López, Jose A; González-Salinas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC) -attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control- to children's mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9-12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent's report); math achievement was measured via teacher's report and through the standard Woodcock-Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children's mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children's self-regulation abilities in the context of school. PMID:26441758

  15. Locus of control, test anxiety, academic procrastination, and achievement among college students.

    PubMed

    Carden, Randy; Bryant, Courtney; Moss, Rebekah

    2004-10-01

    114 undergraduates completed the Internal-External Locus of Control scale, the Procrastination Scale, and the Achievement Anxiety Test. They also provided a self-report of their cumulative GPA. Students were divided into two groups by a median-split of 10.5, yielding an internally oriented group of 57 and an externally oriented group of 57. The former students showed significantly lower academic procrastination, debilitating test anxiety, and reported higher academic achievement than the latter.

  16. The Effects of Family Size, Birth Order, Sibling Separation and Crowding on the Academic Achievement of Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Ena Vazquez; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Family constellation variables such as family size, birth order, spacing of children, and crowding were significantly associated with academic achievement when IQ was controlled. The effects of family constellation variables were found to be sex specific. (RC)

  17. Effective Practices: The Role of Accreditation in Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Higher Education Accreditation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) has focused on the role of accreditation in student achievement since the publication of its 2001 "Accreditation and Student Learning Outcomes: A Proposed Point of Departure." Student achievement has remained central to CHEA research and policy analysis, as well as interviews and surveys with…

  18. The Effect of Guided Reading Instruction on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Vanda Lea

    2010-01-01

    Although reading achievement correlates highly with a student's ability to do well in school, not all children achieve in reading. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to investigate whether reading instruction provided in small groups at the child's own reading level, known as "guided reading instruction," would result in significant…

  19. Flipping College Algebra: Effects on Student Engagement and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ichinose, Cherie; Clinkenbeard, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study compared student engagement and achievement levels between students enrolled in a traditional college algebra lecture course and students enrolled in a "flipped" course. Results showed that students in the flipped class had consistently higher levels of achievement throughout the course than did students in the traditional…

  20. The Effect of Constructivist Mathematics on Achievement in Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Michael; Watkins, Sandra; Montalvo, Greg

    2012-01-01

    International assessment data indicate American students are not competing with their counterparts in other countries. The mathematics curriculum and pedagogy are not preparing students to compete in a global economy. This study compared student achievement using sixth grade mathematics results from the Illinois Standards Achievement Test.…

  1. Effect of Tax Ratification Elections on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groppel, Lance

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact a Tax Ratification Election has on student achievement in Texas. Texas schools continue to struggle with shrinking budgets and increasing standards of student achievement (Equity Center, 2011). This study will provide greater insight into whether school districts that have completed a TRE have created a…

  2. The Effect of Integrating Interactive Whiteboards on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sheila Denise

    2012-01-01

    While it is known that instructional technology improves academic achievement, there is little research about the integration of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) during Success For All (SFA) reading instruction. The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in reading achievement between third…

  3. The effects of controversy, concurrence seeking, and individualistic learning on achievement and attitude change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Roger; Brooker, Charlotte; Stutzman, James; Hultman, Donald; Johnson, David W.

    The effects of cooperative-controversy, cooperative-concurrence seeking, and individualistic learning were compared on motivation, achievement, and attitudes toward the science subject being studied. Eighty-four fifth-grade students were assigned to conditions on a stratified random basis controlling for sex and reading ability. In all three conditions students studied whether wolves should or should not be a protected species. The results indicate that cooperative-controversy resulted in the highest achievement, greatest motivation to learn more about wolves, more positive attitudes toward the wolf, and more positive attitudes toward controversy.

  4. The Effect of Social and Token Economy Reinforcements on Academic Achievement of Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Ashoori, Mohammad; Sereshki, Narges Adib

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the effect of social and token economy reinforcements on academic achievement of 9th grade boy students with intellectual disabilities in an experimental science class in Tehran Province. Method The method used for this study was experimental by pre-test, post- test with a control group. The boy students with intellectual disabilities from three junior high schools participated in this study. The sample consisted of thirty, 9th grade boy students with intellectual disabilities in the selected schools; the schools were chosen by the multi-stage cluster method. To measure the progress of students in the science class, a teacher made test and the Wechsler intelligence test for matching the groups for IQ were used. To ensure validity, the content validity criteria depended tests calculated by the Lashe method and teachers' perspective were used. The reliability coefficient was obtained by the reliability coefficient of related tests; the percent agreement method and the obtained data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis and Shefe prosecution test. Results The results showed that there was a significant increase in academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities when using token economy than using social reinforcements compared with the control group. Also, when using social reinforcements, the academic achievement of students was more than the control group. Conclusion Token economy and social reinforcements increased the academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities in the science class; and also the effect of token economy reinforcements was more than social reinforcements on the subjects. PMID:22952517

  5. Stereotype Threat's Effect on Women's Achievement in Chemistry: The Interaction of Achievement Goal Orientation for Women in Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For…

  6. Effectiveness of Computer Animation and Geometrical Instructional Model on Mathematics Achievement and Retention among Junior Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, A. I.; Falode, C. O.; Adegbenro, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer animation and geometry instructional model on mathematics achievement and retention on Junior Secondary School Students in Minna, Nigeria. It also examined the influence of gender on students' achievement and retention. The research was a pre-test post-test experimental and control group…

  7. Peer Victimization and Effortful Control: Relations to School Engagement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyer, Roopa V.; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Eisenberg, Nancy; Thompson, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    The relations among peer victimization, effortful control, school engagement, and academic achievement were examined in a group of 390 (212 boys and 178 girls) racially diverse (38.20% Latino and 46.70% White) 6- to 10-year-old children. Specifically, a multimethod, multi-informant approach was used in which data were gathered using self-report,…

  8. Effortful Control and Impulsivity as Concurrent and Longitudinal Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Haugen, Rg; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Kupfer, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test if both effortful control (EC) and impulsivity, a reactive index of temperament, uniquely predict adolescents' academic achievement, concurrently and longitudinally (Time 1: "N" = 168, X-bar[subscript age] = 12 years). At Time 1, parents and teachers reported on students' EC and impulsivity.…

  9. On-Line Tutoring for Math Achievement Testing: A Controlled Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Carole R.; Walles, Rena; Arroyo, Ivon; Woolf, Beverly P.

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of a controlled evaluation of an interactive on-line tutoring system for high school math achievement test problem solving. High school students (N = 202) completed a math pre-test and were then assigned by teachers to receive interactive on-line multimedia tutoring or their regular classroom instruction. The on-line tutored…

  10. Autonomy Support versus Psychological Control, Perfectionism, and Taiwanese Adolescents' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2013-01-01

    The author attempted to explore potential antecedents of achievement goals and relations of teacher and parental autonomy support versus psychological control to Taiwanese adolescents' perfectionistic tendencies. A total of 512 eighth-grade students completed self-reported questionnaires assessing variables of interest. Results indicated that…

  11. Predicting Learned Helplessness and Achievement: The Role of Locus on Control and Motivational Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Diane; Barrett, Marty

    This 2-year study examined the relative potency of locus of control (LOC) and motivational orientation (MO) as predictors of standardized achievement scores and learned helplessness. Also tested was the prediction that children with an extrinsic MO would be prone to adopt an external LOC over time. In the first year of the study, subjects were 158…

  12. Relations between shyness-sensitivity and internalizing problems in Chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Yang, Fan; Wang, Li

    2013-07-01

    Shy-sensitive children are likely to develop adjustment problems in today's urban China as the country has evolved into an increasingly competitive, market-oriented society. The main purpose of this one-year longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between shyness-sensitivity and later internalizing problems in Chinese children. A sample of 1171 school-age children (591 boys, 580 girls) in China, initially at the age of 9 years, participated in the study. Data on shyness, academic achievement, and internalizing problems were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness positively and uniquely predicted later loneliness, depression, and teacher-rated internalizing problems, with the stability effect controlled, for low-achieving children, but not for high-achieving children. The results indicate that, consistent with the stress buffering model, academic achievement may be a buffering factor that serves to protect shy-sensitive children from developing psychological problems. PMID:23318940

  13. Role of Parenting Style in Achieving Metabolic Control in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shorer, Maayan; David, Ravit; Schoenberg-Taz, Michal; Levavi-Lavi, Ifat; Phillip, Moshe; Meyerovitch, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the role of parenting style in achieving metabolic control and treatment adherence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Parents of 100 adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed assessments of their parenting style and sense of helplessness. Parents and patients rated patient adherence to the treatment regimen. Glycemic control was evaluated by HbA1c values. RESULTS An authoritative paternal parenting style predicted better glycemic control and adherence in the child; a permissive maternal parenting style predicted poor adherence. A higher sense of helplessness in both parents predicted worse glycemic control and lesser adherence to treatment. Parental sense of helplessness was a significant predictor of diabetes control after correcting for other confounders (patient age, sex, and treatment method). CONCLUSIONS An authoritative nonhelpless parenting style is associated with better diabetes control in adolescents. Paternal involvement is important in adolescent diabetes management. These results have implications for psychological interventions. PMID:21788643

  14. Classroom Effects on Children's Achievement Trajectories in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pianta, Robert C.; Belsky, Jay; Vandergrift, Nathan; Houts, Renate; Morrison, Fred J.

    2008-01-01

    This nonexperimental, longitudinal field study examines the extent to which variation in observed classroom supports (quality of emotional and instructional interactions and amount of exposure to literacy and math activities) predicts trajectories of achievement in reading and math from 54 months to fifth grade. Growth mixture modeling detected…

  15. The Effect of Preschool on Reading Achievement among Kindergarten Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Reisha Monique

    2013-01-01

    As early childhood education continues to move to the forefront of public policy debate, more attention is being paid to early literacy. Strickland and Riley-Ayers (2006) indicated that early literacy and early learning opportunities play a vital role in academic achievement. This study invested whether there were statistically significant…

  16. Response to Intervention (RTI) Effectiveness in Kindergarten Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether kindergarten-reading achievement could be increased by implementing Response to Intervention (RtI) strategies. Kindergarten children (N = 290) who were identified as at-risk for reading difficulties were assigned to receive intervention through a) small reading groups (SRG), b)…

  17. Formal Teacher Competence and Its Effect on Pupil Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Stefan; Myrberg, Eva; Rosén, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of formal teacher competence on pupils' reading achievement. The data comes from the Swedish participation in PIRLS 2001 in grade 3. Information was obtained from pupils (n = 5271) and teachers (n = 351). The analyses were conducted using 2-level structural equation modeling. Teacher…

  18. The Psychological Effect of Pet-Ownership on Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamtil, Rosemary

    A study examined the possible influence that pets may have on children's reading achievement. Subjects, 61 students from three third-grade classes in an urban school, completed a questionnaire about pet ownership. Responses were compiled and score values established to recognize the length of time the child had owned the pet and how much…

  19. An Effective Way to Improve Mathematics Achievement in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Taik

    2010-01-01

    The local Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEARUP) partnership serves 11 K-8 schools with the lowest achievement scores and the highest poverty rates in a large Midwestern urban district. Recently, GEARUP launched a specially designed teaching program, Mathematics Enhancement Group (MEG), for underachievers in…

  20. Effects of Orientations to Happiness on Vocational Identity Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschi, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased interest in vocational psychology and career counseling regarding the link between career development and well-being, yet, little is known about how different ways to achieve well-being or happiness relate to career development. This study explored the relationship between 3 orientations to happiness (meaning, pleasure, and…

  1. Educational Achievement and Effective Schools: Examples of Best Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Ortega, Magdalena; Ballesteros-Velazquez, Belen; Malik-Lievano, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present key aspects of a research project entitled "Students' Cultural Diversity and School Efficacy: A Repertory of Best Practice in Compulsory Learning Centers." First, we present our concept of cultural diversity and a reflection regarding "best school practices" and the notion of "student achievement at school." In the…

  2. The Effects of Participation in Marching Band on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitucci, Mary Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    As schools face tough decisions regarding budget cuts and program elimination, research regarding the importance of extracurricular activities is increasingly important. This study focused on the impact of involvement in band on student achievement as defined by GPA and attendance. Because students were only involved in band extracurricularly…

  3. An Analysis of Alternative School Effectiveness on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moger, Scott Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis investigating student achievement, attendance rates, grade point average and credit earned by at-risk students attending an alternative high school of choice, at-risk students attending a traditional high school and at-risk students attending a Disciplinary Alternative Education Placement Campus within the same…

  4. The Effect of Instructional Approach on Mathematics Anxiety and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Karen S.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of covariance of pre- and posttest scores on mathematics anxiety and arithmetic achievement tests of (n=123) college students taught arithmetic using two different instructional approaches (rule oriented versus concept oriented) found a significant difference between the posttest anxiety scores of the two groups. (22 references)…

  5. On the Effect of Learning Style on Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Rahmatullah; Bart, William M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the influence of learning styles on scholastic achievement levels. The participants in this study were undergraduate students studying social sciences at a Division 1 research university. The frequencies of the participants in the four learning style categories are the following: Convergent ("n"…

  6. Improving Literacy Achievement: An Effective Approach to Continuous Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Carolyn E.

    2007-01-01

    Billions of dollars are spent searching for programs and strategic plans that will prove to be the panacea for improving literacy achievement. With all of the experimental and researched programs implemented in school districts, the overall results are still at a minimum and many improvement gains have been short term. This book focuses on…

  7. Effects of Motivational and Situational Variables on Achievement Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boker, John R.; Games, Paul A.

    Problem-solving performance and goal-setting behavior were investigated in 156 undergraduates who, on Mehrabian's Achievement Scales, demonstrated either the motive to approach success or the motive to avoid failure. Different expectations of success or failure were induced by fictitious preperformance information. The degree of success or failure…

  8. Effects of Classroom Sociometric Status on Achievement Prediction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peper, John B.

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relative importance of: (1) generalized ability; (2) prior specific learning; (3) self concept; (4) peer esteem; and (5) teacher esteem for pupils on the prediction of arithmetic achievement. The study included proportional numbers of fifth grade students from four community classification strata…

  9. The Effects of Math Intervention on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulichnie, Staci

    2015-01-01

    Within diverse classrooms, sometimes teachers need extra assistance to reach all students. This quantitative research design was used to determine the affects of math intervention on student achievement. Students in this study were selected by their "Not Met" PASS scores from their 3rd grade year. A survey assessing student attitudes…

  10. The Effects of Integrated Transformational Leadership on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boberg, John Eric; Bourgeois, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Greater understanding about how variables mediate the relationship between leadership and achievement is essential to the success of reform efforts that hold leaders accountable for student learning. The purpose of this paper is to test a model of integrated transformational leadership including three important school mediators.…

  11. Dyad Composition Effects on Cognitive Elaboration and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denessen, Eddie; Veenman, Simon; Dobbelsteen, Janine; van Schilt, Josie

    2008-01-01

    The authors addressed the following research question: Does composition of dyads in terms of gender and ability affect student participation, the level of cognitive elaborations during a collaborative activity, and individual student achievement? The study involved 24 6th-grade dyads paired as follows: a low-ability student with a medium-ability…

  12. Depressive Mood and Social Maladjustment: Differential Effects on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel

    2004-01-01

    The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) is a multidimensional instrument that includes items of social withdrawal, anhedonia, asthenia, low self-esteem (internalized) and behavioral problems (externalized). Child depression has been related with low academic achievement, neurotic and introverted personality traits and social maladjustment defined…

  13. Teacher Effects on Student Achievement and Height: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Corcoran, Sean P.; Domina, Thurston; Penner, Emily K.

    2014-01-01

    The growing availability of data linking students to classroom teachers has made it possible to estimate the contribution teachers make to student achievement. While there is a growing consensus that teacher quality is important and current evaluation systems are inadequate, many have expressed concerns over the use of value-added measures (VAMs)…

  14. Effects of Cochlear Implants on Children's Reading and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, Marc; Rhoten, Cathy; Fabich, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a critical analysis of empirical studies assessing literacy and other domains of academic achievement among children with cochlear implants. A variety of recent studies have demonstrated benefits to hearing, language, and speech from implants, leading to assumptions that early implantation and longer periods of implant should…

  15. Dot Display Affects Approximate Number System Acuity and Relationships with Mathematical Achievement and Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jade Eloise; Castronovo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated the relationship between the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement, with continued debate surrounding the existence of such a link. The use of different stimulus displays may account for discrepancies in the findings. Indeed, closer scrutiny of the literature suggests that studies supporting a link between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement in adults have mostly measured the ANS using spatially intermixed displays (e.g. of blue and yellow dots), whereas those failing to replicate a link have primarily used spatially separated dot displays. The current study directly compared ANS acuity when using intermixed or separate dots, investigating how such methodological variation mediated the relationship between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement. ANS acuity was poorer and less reliable when measured with intermixed displays, with performance during both conditions related to inhibitory control. Crucially, mathematical achievement was significantly related to ANS accuracy difference (accuracy on congruent trials minus accuracy on incongruent trials) when measured with intermixed displays, but not with separate displays. The findings indicate that methodological variation affects ANS acuity outcomes, as well as the apparent relationship between the ANS and mathematical achievement. Moreover, the current study highlights the problem of low reliabilities of ANS measures. Further research is required to construct ANS measures with improved reliability, and to understand which processes may be responsible for the increased likelihood of finding a correlation between the ANS and mathematical achievement when using intermixed displays. PMID:27195749

  16. High-Achieving High School Students and Not so High-Achieving College Students: A Look at Lack of Self-Control, Academic Ability, and Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honken, Nora B.; Ralston, Patricia A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among lack of self-control, academic ability, and academic performance for a cohort of freshman engineering students who were, with a few exceptions, extremely high achievers in high school. Structural equation modeling analysis led to the conclusion that lack of self-control in high school, as measured by…

  17. An alternate method for achieving temperature control in the -130 C to 75 C range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kenneth R.; Anderson, Mark R.; Lane, Robert W.; Cortez, Maximo G.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal vacuum testing often requires temperature control of chamber shrouds and heat exchangers within the -130 C to 75 C range. There are two conventional methods which are normally employed to achieve control through this intermediate temperature range: (1) single-pass flow where control is achieved by alternately pulsing hot gaseous nitrogen (GN2) and cold LN2 into the feed line to yield the setpoint temperature; and (2) closed-loop circulation where control is achieved by either electrically heating or LN2 cooling the circulating GN2 to yield the setpoint temperature. A third method, using a mass flow ratio controller along with modulating control valves on GN2 and LN2 lines, provides excellent control but equipment for this method is expensive and cost-prohibitive for all but long-term continuous processes. The single-pass method provides marginal control and can result in unexpected overcooling of the test article from even a short pulse of LN2. The closed-loop circulation method provides excellent control but requires an expensive blower capable of operating at elevated pressures and cryogenic temperatures. Where precise control is needed (plus or minus 2 C), single-pass flow systems typically have not provided the precision required, primarily because of overcooling temperature excursions. Where several individual circuits are to be controlled at different temperatures, the use of expensive cryogenic blowers for each circuit is also cost-prohibitive, especially for short duration of one-of-a-kind tests. At JPL, a variant of the single-pass method was developed that was shown to provide precise temperature control in the -130 C to 75 C range while exhibiting minimal setpoint overshoot during temperature transitions. This alternate method uses a commercially available temperature controller along with a GN2/LN2 mixer to dampen the amplitude of cold temperature spikes caused by LN2 pulsing. The design of the GN2/LN2 mixer, the overall control system

  18. Nanomechanical control of properties of biological membranes achieved by rodlike magnetic nanoparticles in a superlow-frequency magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovin, Yu. I.; Klyachko, N. L.; Gribanovskii, S. L.; Golovin, D. Yu.; Samodurov, A. A.; Majouga, A. G.; Sokolsky-Papkov, M.; Kabanov, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    It is proposed to use single-domain rodlike magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as mediators for nanomechanical control of properties of biological membranes and cells on the molecular or cellular level by exposing them to a homogeneous nonheating low-frequency magnetic field (AC MF). The trigger effect is achieved due to rotatory-oscillatory motion of MNPs in the AC MF, which causes the needed deformations in macromolecules of the membrane interacting with these MNPs.

  19. Effects of Learning Style Accommodation on Achievement of Second Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Carol Bugg; Halpin, Gerald; Halpin, Glennelle

    1996-01-01

    Whether grades earned in reading, mathematics, and language by 158 second graders when learning environmental accommodations were made in the areas of light, sound, temperature, design, and mobility differed from grades of control group students without these accommodations was studied. Control group students had higher mathematics and language…

  20. Working memory and executive functions: effects of training on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Titz, Cora; Karbach, Julia

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this review is to illustrate the role of working memory and executive functions for scholastic achievement as an introduction to the question of whether and how working memory and executive control training may improve academic abilities. The review of current research showed limited but converging evidence for positive effects of process-based complex working-memory training on academic abilities, particularly in the domain of reading. These benefits occurred in children suffering from cognitive and academic deficits as well as in healthy students. Transfer of training to mathematical abilities seemed to be very limited and to depend on the training regime and the characteristics of the study sample. A core issue in training research is whether high- or low-achieving children benefit more from cognitive training. Individual differences in terms of training-related benefits suggested that process-based working memory and executive control training often induced compensation effects with larger benefits in low performing individuals. Finally, we discuss the effects of process-based training in relation to other types of interventions aimed at improving academic achievement. PMID:24389706

  1. Robust adaptive feedforward control and achievable tracking for systems with time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehner, Michael R.; Young, Peter M.

    2015-04-01

    A feedback/feedforward controller architecture is developed that characterises the achievable reference tracking of real time inputs for both minimum phase and non-minimum phase systems with time delays, when there are no modelling errors or external disturbances. This characterisation is obtained by factoring the plant into its minimum phase, non-minimum phase, and time delay components, which are used to design two feedforward controllers that inject signals into two points of the feedback loop. Design constraints are provided that determine both the types of signals that may be achieved, and the feedforward controllers that will generate that output. Of course, in practice, both modelling errors and external disturbances will be present. In this case, we develop robust analysis tools that both guide the feedback controller design process, and provide rigorous robust tracking performance that guarantees for the overall resulting closed-loop system. Robust methods for designing the feedforward controllers are presented, and numerical examples are provided. The performance of this architecture depends strongly on the choice of design parameters, and the accuracy of the plant model used. Hence, the use of adaptation methods is also considered, and it is shown that they can readily be employed to improve the performance of this control methodology.

  2. The achievements and challenges of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC).

    PubMed

    Sékétéli, A; Adeoye, G; Eyamba, A; Nnoruka, E; Drameh, P; Amazigo, U V; Noma, M; Agboton, F; Aholou, Y; Kale, O O; Dadzie, K Y

    2002-03-01

    The main strategy of APOC, of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), has enabled the programme to reach, empower and bring relief to remote and under-served, onchocerciasis-endemic communities. With CDTI, geographical and therapeutic coverages have increased substantially, in most areas, to the levels required to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public-health problem. Over 20 million people received treatment in 2000. APOC has also made effective use of the combination of the rapid epidemiological mapping of onchocerciasis (REMO) and geographical information systems (GIS), to provide information on the geographical distribution and prevalence of the disease. This has led to improvements in the identification of CDTI-priority areas, and in the estimates of the numbers of people to be treated. A unique public-private-sector partnership has been at the heart of APOC's relative success. Through efficient capacity-building, the programme's operations have positively influenced and strengthened the health services of participating countries. These laudable achievements notwithstanding, APOC faces many challenges during the second phase of its operations, when the full impact of the programme is expected to be felt. Notable among these challenges are the sustainability of CDTI, the strategy's effective integration into the healthcare system, and the full exploitation of its potential as an entry point for other health programmes. The channels created for CDTI, could, for example, help efforts to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (which will feature on the agenda of many participating countries during APOC's Phase 2). However, these other programmes need to be executed without compromising the onchocerciasis-control programme itself. Success in meeting these challenges will depend on the continued, wholehearted commitment of all the partners involved, particularly that of the governments of the participating countries. PMID:12081247

  3. Professional training in the workplace: the role of achievement motivation and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Campillo-Álvarez, Angela; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Muñiz, José

    2013-01-01

    The core objective of the present work is to explore the reasons why workers from different employment sectors join training courses to improve their job. To this end we assessed achievement motivation, locus of control and professional qualifications according to the participants' employment sector. The final sample consisted of 1460 active Spanish workers from four different employment sectors: services, catering, metal construction, and others. Of the sample, 40.1% were male and 59.9% female, with a mean age of 33.3 years (SD = 9.7). The results show that the new scale developed to assess achievement motivation, locus of control and workers' qualifications presents adequate psychometric characteristics. Statistically significant differences were found in relation to employment sector. The areas studied showed satisfactory levels of workers' effort and achievement motivation to perform their jobs, though their attitudes toward the training courses as a basis for improving their employability are varied. Workers in the catering sector had higher levels of external attribution and the lowest interest in training. Those in the service sector had higher levels of achievement motivation and effort at work. Future research should develop a joint program covering the public and private sectors for the modification of these beliefs, attitudes and attributions.

  4. How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children’s mathematics achievement?

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Fuentes, Luis J.; Pina, Violeta; López-López, Jose A.; González-Salinas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC) -attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control- to children’s mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9–12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent’s report); math achievement was measured via teacher’s report and through the standard Woodcock–Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children’s mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children’s self-regulation abilities in the context of school. PMID:26441758

  5. Midterm peer feedback in problem-based learning groups: the effect on individual contributions and achievement.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Rachelle J A; van Berkel, Henk J M; Popeijus, Herman E; Leppink, Jimmie; Schmidt, Henk G; Dolmans, Diana H J M

    2014-03-01

    Even though peer process feedback is an often used tool to enhance the effectiveness of collaborative learning environments like PBL, the conditions under which it is best facilitated still need to be investigated. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of individual versus shared reflection and goal setting on students' individual contributions to the group and their academic achievement. In addition, the influence of prior knowledge on the effectiveness of peer feedback was studied. In this pretest-intervention-posttest study 242 first year students were divided into three conditions: condition 1 (individual reflection and goal setting), condition 2 (individual and shared reflection and goal setting), and condition 3 (control group). Results indicated that the quality of individual contributions to the tutorial group did not improve after receiving the peer feedback, nor did it differ between the three conditions. With regard to academic achievement, only males in conditions 1 and 2 showed better academic achievement compared with condition 3. However, there was no difference between both ways of reflection and goal setting with regard to achievement, indicating that both ways are equally effective. Nevertheless, it is still too early to conclude that peer feedback combined with reflection and goal setting is not effective in enhancing students' individual contributions. Students only had a limited number of opportunities to improve their contributions. Therefore, future research should investigate whether an increase in number of tutorial group meetings can enhance the effectiveness of peer feedback. In addition, the effect of quality of reflection and goal setting could be taken into consideration in future research.

  6. Birds achieve high robustness in uneven terrain through active control of landing conditions.

    PubMed

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V; Daley, Monica A

    2012-06-15

    We understand little about how animals adjust locomotor behaviour to negotiate uneven terrain. The mechanical demands and constraints of such behaviours likely differ from uniform terrain locomotion. Here we investigated how common pheasants negotiate visible obstacles with heights from 10 to 50% of leg length. Our goal was to determine the neuro-mechanical strategies used to achieve robust stability, and address whether strategies vary with obstacle height. We found that control of landing conditions was crucial for minimising fluctuations in stance leg loading and work in uneven terrain. Variation in touchdown leg angle (θ(TD)) was correlated with the orientation of ground force during stance, and the angle between the leg and body velocity vector at touchdown (β(TD)) was correlated with net limb work. Pheasants actively targeted obstacles to control body velocity and leg posture at touchdown to achieve nearly steady dynamics on the obstacle step. In the approach step to an obstacle, the birds produced net positive limb work to launch themselves upward. On the obstacle, body dynamics were similar to uniform terrain. Pheasants also increased swing leg retraction velocity during obstacle negotiation, which we suggest is an active strategy to minimise fluctuations in peak force and leg posture in uneven terrain. Thus, pheasants appear to achieve robustly stable locomotion through a combination of path planning using visual feedback and active adjustment of leg swing dynamics to control landing conditions. We suggest that strategies for robust stability are context specific, depending on the quality of sensory feedback available, especially visual input.

  7. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Increasing Academic Learning Time for College Undergraduate Students' Achievement in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shammari, Zaid; Mohammad, Anwar; Al-Shammari, Bandar

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of increasing ALT for college students' achievement in Kuwait. In Phase 1, 37 students participated (22, experimental; 15, control); in Phase 2, 19 students participated (8, sub-experimental; 11, sub-control). Several experimental research methods used in conducting this study, including development of a…

  8. The Influences of Parental Acceptance and Parental Control on School Adjustment and Academic Achievement for South Korean Children: The Mediation Role of Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jungyoon; Yu, Heekeun; Choi, Sumi

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parental acceptance, psychological control, and behavioral control on children's school adjustment and academic achievement, as well as the possible mediation effect of children's self-regulation in those processes. To do so, we examined 388 upper-level elementary school students (mean age = 11.38 years) in South…

  9. Connecting scales: achieving in-field pest control from areawide and landscape ecology studies.

    PubMed

    Schellhorn, Nancy A; Parry, Hazel R; Macfadyen, Sarina; Wang, Yongmo; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-02-01

    Areawide management has a long history of achieving solutions that target pests, however, there has been little focus on the areawide management of arthropod natural enemies. Landscape ecology studies that show a positive relationship between natural enemy abundance and habitat diversity demonstrate landscape-dependent pest suppression, but have not yet clearly linked their findings to pest management or to the suite of pests associated with crops that require control. Instead the focus has often been on model systems of single pest species and their natural enemies. We suggest that management actions to capture pest control from natural enemies may be forth coming if: (i) the suite of response and predictor variables focus on pest complexes and specific management actions; (ii) the contribution of "the landscape" is identified by assessing the timing and numbers of natural enemies immigrating and emigrating to and from the target crop, as well as pests; and (iii) pest control thresholds aligned with crop development stages are the benchmark to measure impact of natural enemies on pests, in turn allowing for comparison between study regions, and generalizations. To achieve pest control we will need to incorporate what has been learned from an ecological understanding of model pest and natural enemy systems and integrate areawide landscape management with in-field pest management.

  10. The Effects of Web-Based/Non-Web-Based Problem-Solving Instruction and High/Low Achievement on Students' Problem-Solving Ability and Biology Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wen-Feng; She, Hsiao-Ching; Lee, Yu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two factors: the mode of problem-solving instruction (i.e. Web-based versus non-Web-based) and the level of academic achievement (i.e. high achievers versus low achievers) on students' problem-solving ability and biology achievement. A quasi-experimental design was used, in which the experimental group…

  11. Teaching for All? Teach for America's Effects across the Distribution of Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Emily K.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the effect of Teach For America (TFA) on the distribution of student achievement in elementary school. It extends previous research by estimating quantile treatment effects (QTE) to examine how student achievement in TFA and non-TFA classrooms differs across the broader distribution of student achievement. It also updates…

  12. The Effects of School Bonding on High School Seniors' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Julia; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Gaenzle, Stacey; Kim, Jungnam; Lin, Chia-Huei; Na, Goeun

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of school bonding on academic achievement (measured by math achievement scores) in a sample of 12th graders from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (Ingels, Pratt, Rogers, Siegel, & Stutts, 2005). Components of school bonding have proximal and distal effects on academic achievement. Attachment to school and…

  13. Performance Trajectories and Performance Gaps as Achievement Effect-Size Benchmarks for Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Hill, Carolyn J.; Black, Alison Rebeck; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    Two complementary approaches to developing empirical benchmarks for achievement effect sizes in educational interventions are explored. The first approach characterizes the natural developmental progress in achievement made by students from one year to the next as effect sizes. Data for seven nationally standardized achievement tests show large…

  14. Effectiveness of Problem Solving Method In Dynamics And Academic Achievement of High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, F.; Hamidi, F.; Mohammadzadeh, A.; Ahmadi, M. K. A.

    2010-07-01

    The present research as a per and post tests design with control group investigates the effectiveness of problem solving method as independent variable on academic achievement of students in the second grade of high school in the physics topic of dynamics. The sample consists of four random groups as experimental and control groups which were chosen from the students of the second grade of high school. Each sample consists of 25 participants. The experimental groups were taught in problem solving method without any changing in method for control groups. Data was analyzed using Mixed Analysis Of Variance (MANOVA). Result showed a significant difference between two methods of learning (P<0.05). Further the evaluation of their attitude about problem solving method has been showed that a significant percentage of participants in experimental group were interested to continue that method in other physical topics.

  15. Academic task persistence of normally achieving ADHD and control boys: performance, self-evaluations, and attributions.

    PubMed

    Hoza, B; Pelham, W E; Waschbusch, D A; Kipp, H; Owens, J S

    2001-04-01

    The authors examined academic task persistence, pretask expectancies, self-evaluations, and attributions of boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as compared with control boys. Participants were 83 ADHD boys and 66 control boys, all normally achieving. Prior to the task, performance expectancies were assessed. After a success-failure manipulation with find-a-word puzzles, performance on subsequent trials, self-evaluations, and attributions were evaluated. Compared with controls, ADHD boys solved fewer test puzzles, quit working more often, and found fewer words on a generalization task. Consistent with these behavioral findings, research assistants rated ADHD boys as less effortful and less cooperative than control boys. Although ADHD boys did not differ significantly from controls in their posttask self-evaluations, they did differ significantly from controls in some aspects of their attributions. Attributional data indicated that ADHD boys endorsed luck as a reason for success more strongly and lack of effort as a reason for failure less strongly than controls. PMID:11393604

  16. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  17. Study of a Simulation Tool to Determine Achievable Control Dynamics and Control Power Requirements with Perfect Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a study of two methods for use in a generic nonlinear simulation tool that could be used to determine achievable control dynamics and control power requirements while performing perfect tracking maneuvers over the entire flight envelope. The two methods are NDI (nonlinear dynamic inversion) and the SOFFT(Stochastic Optimal Feedforward and Feedback Technology) feedforward control structure. Equivalent discrete and continuous SOFFT feedforward controllers have been developed. These equivalent forms clearly show that the closed-loop plant model loop is a plant inversion and is the same as the NDI formulation. The main difference is that the NDI formulation has a closed-loop controller structure whereas SOFFT uses an open-loop command model. Continuous, discrete, and hybrid controller structures have been developed and integrated into the formulation. Linear simulation results show that seven different configurations all give essentially the same response, with the NDI hybrid being slightly different. The SOFFT controller gave better tracking performance compared to the NDI controller when a nonlinear saturation element was added. Future plans include evaluation using a nonlinear simulation.

  18. Individual differences in inhibitory control, not non-verbal number acuity, correlate with mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Camilla; Attridge, Nina; Clayton, Sarah; Cragg, Lucy; Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil; Simms, Victoria; Inglis, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Given the well-documented failings in mathematics education in many Western societies, there has been an increased interest in understanding the cognitive underpinnings of mathematical achievement. Recent research has proposed the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS) which allows individuals to represent and manipulate non-verbal numerical information. Evidence has shown that performance on a measure of the ANS (a dot comparison task) is related to mathematics achievement, which has led researchers to suggest that the ANS plays a critical role in mathematics learning. Here we show that, rather than being driven by the nature of underlying numerical representations, this relationship may in fact be an artefact of the inhibitory control demands of some trials of the dot comparison task. This suggests that recent work basing mathematics assessments and interventions around dot comparison tasks may be inappropriate.

  19. Individual Differences in Inhibitory Control, Not Non-Verbal Number Acuity, Correlate with Mathematics Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Camilla; Attridge, Nina; Clayton, Sarah; Cragg, Lucy; Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil; Simms, Victoria; Inglis, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Given the well-documented failings in mathematics education in many Western societies, there has been an increased interest in understanding the cognitive underpinnings of mathematical achievement. Recent research has proposed the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS) which allows individuals to represent and manipulate non-verbal numerical information. Evidence has shown that performance on a measure of the ANS (a dot comparison task) is related to mathematics achievement, which has led researchers to suggest that the ANS plays a critical role in mathematics learning. Here we show that, rather than being driven by the nature of underlying numerical representations, this relationship may in fact be an artefact of the inhibitory control demands of some trials of the dot comparison task. This suggests that recent work basing mathematics assessments and interventions around dot comparison tasks may be inappropriate. PMID:23785521

  20. The Effects of a Diagnostic-Prescriptive Teaching Strategy on the Achievement and Attitudes of High School Biology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Joe C.; And Others

    This study investigated the effects of three types of diagnostic-prescriptive learning assistance, aptitude, and locus of control on the cognitive and affective biology achievement of high school students. The study also determined whether the effects of treatment (diagnostic-prescriptive teaching) were consistent across levels of student aptitude…

  1. The Effects of Classroom Competition on Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Yim, Pui-shan; Law, Josephine S. F.; Cheung, Rebecca W. Y.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of competition on learning motivation among Chinese students in a classroom setting. The participants (N=52) were 7th-grade students from 2 Hong Kong secondary schools in a middle-lower class neighborhood. The students were randomly assigned to either competitive or non-competitive…

  2. Effects of TRIAD on Mathematics Achievement: Long-Term Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie; Layzer, Carolyn; Unlu, Fatih; Wolfe, Christopher B.; Spitler, Mary Elaine; Weiss, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although some research-based educational practices have shown promise, many fail to be implemented at a scale that affects more than a small proportion of children. Further, research on interventions for young children includes mixed results, with most documenting "fadeout" of effects after several years, but some showing lasting…

  3. Effect of Cognitive Load and Animation on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Francis; Dwyer, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Animation continues to be used extensively in learning environments; however, research regarding its effectiveness in facilitating different kinds of learning objectives remains inconclusive. Systematically designed content, four individual criterion measures assessing different kinds of learning outcomes, and a variety of animation and…

  4. Interactive Computer Software: The Effects on Young Children's Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee-Moore, Marilyn E.; Smith, Lawrence L.

    A study investigated the effects of interactive CD-ROM software on children's reading comprehension. It explored whether 31 fourth-grade children in an elementary school in a suburban school district in the Midwest comprehended narratives better when reading from the printed page or from the same text displayed by the computer. One class read each…

  5. Assessing Teacher Quality: Understanding Teacher Effects on Instruction and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sean, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Recent educational reforms have promoted accountability systems which attempt to identify "teacher effects" on student outcomes and hold teachers accountable for producing learning gains. But in the complex world of classrooms, it may be difficult to attribute "success" or "failure" to teachers. In this timely collection, leading education…

  6. Testing Theories of Learning: Effects on High School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Cool, Valerie A.

    Theories of school learning consistently point to variables such as ability, time (e.g., homework), quality of instruction, motivation, and academic coursework as important influences on learning. In this study, path analysis was used to test the direct and indirect effects of these variables on high school learning, with learning measured by both…

  7. Achieving glycemic control in special populations in hospital: perspectives in practice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Alice Y Y

    2014-04-01

    Achieving and maintaining glycemic control in patients with diabetes admitted to hospital is challenging because of the many competing factors of nutrition, pharmacotherapy and other patient-related and systemic factors. For patients receiving enteral or parenteral feeding, eating irregularly or receiving glucocorticoid therapy, the challenges are even greater. The basic principles to follow when managing glycemia in these populations are as follows: 1) Recognition of those at risk for hyperglycemia; 2) frequent bedside glucose monitoring; 3) a proactive approach with routine insulin administration based on the predicted glucose patterns; 4) constant reassessment of the glycemic status and titration of the routine insulin accordingly.

  8. The effects of modeling instruction on high school physics academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an ex post facto , quasi-experimental research methodology. The independent variables in this study were the instructional methods of teaching. The treatment variable was Modeling Instruction and the control variable was traditional lecture instruction. The Treatment Group consisted of participants in Physical World Concepts who received Modeling Instruction. The Control Group consisted of participants in Physical Science who received traditional lecture instruction. The dependent variable was gains scores on the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI). The participants for this study were 133 students each in both the Treatment and Control Groups (n = 266), who attended a public, high school in rural middle Tennessee. The participants were administered the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) prior to being taught the mechanics of physics. The FCI data were entered into the computer-based Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Two independent samples t-tests were conducted to answer the research questions. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups concerning the instructional method. Modeling Instructional methods were found to be effective in increasing the academic achievement of students in high school physics. There was no statistically significant difference between FCI gains scores for gender. Gender was found to have no effect on the academic achievement of students in high school physics classes. However, even though there was not a statistically significant difference, female students' gains scores were higher than male students' gains scores when Modeling Instructional methods of teaching were used. Based on these findings, it is recommended

  9. The Impact of Achieve3000 on Elementary Literacy Outcomes: Evidence from a Two-Year Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Darryl V.; Lenard, Matthew A.; Page, Lindsay Coleman

    2016-01-01

    School districts are increasingly adopting technology-based resources in an attempt to improve student achievement. This paper reports the two-year results from randomized control trial of Achieve3000 in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) in Raleigh, North Carolina. Achieve3000 is an early literacy program that differentiates non-fiction…

  10. Effects of Improvements in Interval Timing on the Mathematics Achievement of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Keith, Timothy Z.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effect of improvements in timing/rhythmicity on mathematics achievement. A total of 86 participants attending 1st through 4th grades completed pre- and posttest measures of mathematics achievement from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Students in the experimental group participated in a 4-week intervention…

  11. Evaluating the Effects of Programs for Reducing Achievement Gaps: A Case Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Tseng, Fen-Lan; Kuo, Nien-Ping; Chang, Tien-Ying; Chiou, Jia-Min

    2014-01-01

    Considering that achievement gaps have become a serious educational problem worldwide, the Ministry of Education in Taiwan has been addressing a series of policies to reduce achievement gaps, but the effect of these policies has not yet been carefully examined. Therefore, the present study investigated current educational policies, achievement gap…

  12. The Effects of Two Parent Counseling Programs on Rural Low-Achieving Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esters, Peter; Levant, Ronald F.

    1983-01-01

    Compared two methods of parent counseling in enhancing the self-esteem and academic achievement of 33 low-achieving rural elementary school students. Results indicated both the Systematic Training for Effective Parenting and the Self-Esteem Method improved academic achievement, but the SEM resulted in more significant gains in self-esteem. (JAC)

  13. The Effects of Concealing Academic Achievement Information on Adolescents' Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Baoshan; Wang, Mo; Li, Juan; Yu, Guoliang; Bi, Yan-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Using an experimental design, the effect of concealing academic achievement information on adolescents' self-concept was examined in the current study. Specifically, adolescents with low academic achievement and adolescents with average to high academic achievement (N = 129) were randomly assigned to different interview contexts wherein…

  14. Heritability and Educational Policy: Genetic and Environmental Effects on IQ, Aptitude and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarr, Sandra

    The effects of family background on adolescents' IQ, aptitude, and school achievement test scores challenge some of the usual beliefs about the fairness of achievement rather than IQ tests, and the role of genetic differences among individuals and social class groups in academic achievements. Subjects included 115 adoptive families with adolescent…

  15. Impatience versus achievement strivings in the Type A pattern: Differential effects on students' health and academic achievement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Pred, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    Psychometric analyses of college students' responses to the Jenkins Activity Survey, a self-report measure of the Type A behavior pattern, revealed the presence of two relatively independent factors. Based on these analyses, two scales, labeled Achievement Strivings (AS) and Impatience and Irritability (II), were developed. In two samples of male and female college students, scores on AS but not on II were found to be significantly correlated with grade point average. Responses to a health survey, on the other hand, indicated that frequency of physical complaints was significantly correlated with II but not with AS. These results suggest that there are two relatively independent factors in the Type A pattern that have differential effects on performance and health. Future research on the personality factors related to coronary heart disease and other disorders might more profitably focus on the syndrome reflected in the II scale than on the Type A pattern.

  16. The effects of early grade retention: Effect modification by prior achievement and age.

    PubMed

    Vandecandelaere, Machteld; Vansteelandt, Stijn; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the effects of early grade retention and different effects according to prior achievement and age. Within a population of children at risk of early retention, we compared the development throughout primary school in mathematics achievement after kindergarten retention, first-grade retention, and continuous promotion. Analyzing data from a large-scale longitudinal study using covariate balancing propensity score weighting, the findings revealed that early grade repeaters would score higher in mathematics if they were promoted each year instead. However, the effects diminished or even disappeared in the long term. Compared to kindergarten retention, first-grade retention was found to be more harmful for the mathematics development of younger children specifically. PMID:26790704

  17. Parental Involvement, Homework, and TV Time: Direct and Indirect Effects on High School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A set of High School and Beyond data was used to study the effect of three variables on academic achievement. Homework had a positive effect, TV a negative, and parental involvement no direct effect on seniors' achievement scores, but influenced the amount of time students spent on homework. (Author/JAZ)

  18. Growing minds: The effect of school gardening programs on the science achievement of elementary students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemmer, Cynthia Davis

    Science literacy refers to a basic knowledge and understanding of science concepts and processes needed to consider issues and make choices on a daily basis in an increasingly technology-driven society. A critical precursor to producing science literate adults is actively involving children in science while they are young. National and state (TX) science standards advocate the use of constructivist methods including hands-on, experiential activities that foster the development of science process skills through real-world investigations. School gardens show promise as a tool for implementing these guidelines by providing living laboratories for active science. Gardens offer opportunities for a variety of hands-on investigations, enabling students to apply and practice science skills. School gardens are increasing in popularity; however, little research data exists attesting to their actual effectiveness in enhancing students' science achievement. The study used a quasi-experimental posttest-only research design to assess the effects of a school gardening program on the science achievement of 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade elementary students. The sample consisted of 647 students from seven elementary schools in Temple, Texas. The experimental group participated in school gardening activities as part of their science curriculum. The control group did not garden and were taught using traditional classroom-based methods. Results showed higher scores for students in the experimental group which were statistically significant. Post-hoc tests using Scheffe's method revealed that these differences were attributed to the 5th grade. No statistical significance was found between girls and boys in the experimental group, indicating that gardening was equally effective for both genders. Within each gender, statistical significance was found between males in the experimental and control groups at all three grade levels, and for females in the 5 th grade. This research indicated that

  19. Establishing Causality Using Longitudinal Hierarchical Linear Modeling: An Illustration Predicting Achievement From Self-Control

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Tsukayama, Eli; May, Henry

    2010-01-01

    The predictive validity of personality for important life outcomes is well established, but conventional longitudinal analyses cannot rule out the possibility that unmeasured third-variable confounds fully account for the observed relationships. Longitudinal hierarchical linear models (HLM) with time-varying covariates allow each subject to serve as his or her own control, thus eliminating between-individual confounds. HLM also allows the directionality of the causal relationship to be tested by reversing time-lagged predictor and outcome variables. We illustrate these techniques through a series of models that demonstrate that within-individual changes in self-control over time predict subsequent changes in GPA but not vice-versa. The evidence supporting a causal role for self-control was not moderated by IQ, gender, ethnicity, or income. Further analyses rule out one time-varying confound: self-esteem. The analytic approach taken in this study provides the strongest evidence to date for the causal role of self-control in determining achievement. PMID:20976121

  20. Longitudinal, reciprocal effects of social skills and achievement from kindergarten to eighth grade.

    PubMed

    Caemmerer, Jacqueline M; Keith, Timothy Z

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggests that students' social skills and achievement are interrelated, and some findings support bi-directional effects between the two constructs. The purpose of this research study was to estimate the possible longitudinal and reciprocal effects of social skills and achievement for kindergarten through eighth grade students. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study program were analyzed; teachers' ratings of students' social skills and students' standardized math and reading achievement performance were collected 4 and 5 times, respectively. Latent variable structural equation modeling was used to test a panel model of reciprocal, longitudinal effects of social skills and achievement. The results suggest that the effects of students' social skills and achievement are bi-directional, but the effects of students' achievement on their later social skills are stronger than the effects of social skills on achievement. The significant effects of students' social skills on their later achievement are mostly indirect. These findings suggest that the future social skills of students who struggle academically may be of particular concern to educators, and intervention and prevention efforts aimed to address both social and achievement skills may help remediate the other skill in the future. PMID:26270272

  1. Effectiveness of Blended Teaching Strategy on the Achievement of Third Grade Students in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaghmour, Kholoud Subhi

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the Blended Education strategy in the achievement of the third grade students in mathematics. The study sample consisted of (97) male and female students distributed on four classes: (47) male and female students in the experimental group and (50) male and female students in the control group. To achieve the…

  2. Effects of Mathematical Vocabulary Instruction on Students' Achievement in Mathematics in Secondary Schools of Murang'a County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanjiru, Benson; O-Connor, Miheso

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on a study whose main objective was to determine the effects of mathematical vocabulary instruction on students' achievement in Mathematics in Secondary schools in Murang'a County, Kenya. The study was a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design and was conducted in the two purposively selected…

  3. Effect of Self-Instruction Strategy on the Achievement in Algebra of Students with Learning Difficulty in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adani, Anthony; Eskay, Michael; Onu, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined the effect of self-instruction strategy on the achievement in algebra of students with learning difficulty in mathematics. Two research questions and one null hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a non-randomized pre-test and post-test control group design with one experimental…

  4. Effects of Reflective Inquiry Instructional Technique on Students' Academic Achievement and Ability Level in Electronic Work Trade in Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbuanya, T. C.; Owodunni, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of reflective inquiry instructional technique on achievement of students in Technical Colleges. The study adopted a pre-test, post-test, non-equivalent control group, quasi-experimental research design which involved groups of students in their intact class assigned to experimental group and control…

  5. Effects of a Haptic Augmented Simulation on K-12 Students' Achievement and Their Attitudes Towards Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civelek, Turhan; Ucar, Erdem; Ustunel, Hakan; Aydin, Mehmet Kemal

    2014-01-01

    The current research aims to explore the effects of a haptic augmented simulation on students' achievement and their attitudes towards Physics in an immersive virtual reality environment (VRE). A quasi-experimental post-test design was employed utilizing experiment and control groups. The participants were 215 students from a K-12 school in…

  6. Effects of Problem-Solving Method on Secondary School Students' Achievement and Retention in Social Studies, in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdu-Raheem, B. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of problem-solving method of teaching on secondary school students' achievement and retention in Social Studies. The study adopted the quasi-experimental, pre-test, post-test, control group design. The sample for the study consisted of 240 Junior Secondary School Class II students randomly selected from six…

  7. Effects of Screencasting on the Turkish Undergraduate Students' Achievement and Knowledge Acquisitions in Spreadsheet Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekinarslan, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of screencasts on the Turkish undergraduate students' achievement and knowledge acquisitions in spreadsheet applications. The methodology of the study is based on a pretest-posttest experimental design with a control group. A total of 66 undergraduate students in two groups (n = 33 in…

  8. Prospective Teachers' Comprehension Levels of Special Relativity Theory and the Effect of Writing for Learning on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the comprehension levels of special relativity theory in prospective teachers who take the Introduction to Modern Physics lesson in the faculty of education science teaching department and the effect of writing for learning on their achievement is researched. In the research, a control group pre-test post-test…

  9. The Effect of Curriculum for Developing Efficient Studying Skills on Academic Achievements and Studying Skills of Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Semra; Kilinc, Mehmet; Dogan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to examine the effect of "Development of Efficient Studying Skills Curriculum" on academic achievements and studying skills of 7th grade primary school students. In this study, pre-test post-test from experiment models and semi-experimental model with control group were preferred. The reason for the preference is…

  10. Effects of Computer Course on Computer Self-Efficacy, Computer Attitudes and Achievements of Young Individuals in Siirt, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Halil Coskun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of computer courses on young individuals' computer self-efficacy, attitudes and achievement. The study group of this research included 60 unemployed young individuals (18-25 ages) in total; 30 in the experimental group and 30 in the control group. An experimental research model with…

  11. Effects of the Know-Want-Learn Strategy on Students' Mathematics Achievement, Anxiety and Metacognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tok, Sükran

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine the effects of the Know-Want-Learn (KWL) strategy on 6th graders' mathematics achievement, metacognitive skills and mathematics anxiety. A pretest-post test control group quasi- experimental design was used in the study. The sample of the study was composed of 55 6th graders attending public…

  12. Effects of the Problem Solving Approach on Achievement, Retention, and Attitudes of High School Vocational Agriculture Students in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Jim

    A study compared the effects on student achievement and retention between the problem-solving approach and the subject-matter approach in teaching a selected problem area in vocational agriculture. A quasi-experimental design, a variation of a nonequivalent control group design, was used. Treatments were randomly assigned to classes enrolled in…

  13. Effects of Extracurricular Activities and Their Quality on Primary School-Age Students' Achievement in Mathematics in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuepbach, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the development of mathematics achievement in children attending extracurricular activities intensively in comparison with the development in a control group of children attending only the obligatory hours of school instruction. In addition, we investigated the question of possible effects of intensity of attendance and…

  14. The Effect of Using Metacognitive Strategies for Solving Geometry Problems on Students' Achievement and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandaci Sahin, Seher; Kendir, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of using metacognitive strategies for problem solving in "geometry" on fifth grade students' achievement, metacognitive skills and attitude. Experimental method was used with a pretest/posttest control group design. Firstly, both groups were subject to a pretest that was comprised…

  15. The Effect of Mastery Learning Model with Reflective Thinking Activities on Medical Students' Academic Achievement: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mastery learning model supported with reflective thinking activities on the fifth grade medical students' academic achievement. Mixed methods approach was applied in two samples (n = 64 and n = 6). Quantitative part of the study was based on a pre-test-post-test control group design with an experiment…

  16. Effects of a Gluten-Free Diet on Rate of Achievement in Autistic Children in an Applied Behavioral Analysis Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemmell, Melissa; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study used both between-subjects and within-subjects analyses to examine the effects of a gluten-free diet on the academic achievement of autistic children. The between-subjects analysis included data from eight autistic children (ages 5 to 7) with four on a gluten-free diet and four serving as controls. The number of attempts needed before…

  17. The Effects of Self-Regulated Learning Training on Community College Students' Metacognition and Achievement in Developmental Math Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bol, Linda; Campbell, Karen D. Y.; Perez, Tony; Yen, Cherng-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    The effects of training in self-regulation on metacognition and math achievement were investigated. The participants were 116 community college students enrolled in developmental math courses. Students enrolled in 16 classrooms were randomly assigned to the treatment and control groups. Participants in the treatment group completed four…

  18. The Effect of Blended Learning Model on High School Students' Biology Achievement and on Their Attitudes towards the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yapici, I.Umit; Akbayin, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the effect of the blended learning model on high school students' biology achievement and on their attitudes towards the Internet. Among the experimental models, the pretest-posttest control group model was used in the study. The study was carried out with 107 students (47 of whom were in the experimental group,…

  19. The Effects of Problem-Based Active Learning in Science Education on Students' Academic Achievement, Attitude and Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinoglu, Orhan; Tandogan, Ruhan Özkardes

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of problem-based active learning in science education on students' academic achievement and concept learning. In the study, both quantitative and qualitative research methods were utilized. Quantitative data were obtained via the pre/post-test, treatment-control groups test model. Qualitative data…

  20. Evaluating Effect of Students' Academic Achievement on Identified Difficult Concepts in Senior Secondary School Biology in Delta State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agboghoroma, Tim E.; Oyovwi, E. O.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of students' academic achievement on identified difficult concepts or topics in Senior Secondary School Biology in Delta State, Nigeria. The study was quasi-experimental and the design was a 2X2 factorial non-randomized pretest-posttest control group design. The sample was drawn from intact classes from four…

  1. Effect of Task-Centered Instructional Programs on Hypertensives' Ability to Achieve and Maintain Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Karen V.; Sullivan, Patricia L.

    This study sought to determine the effectiveness of systematically designed instructional programs in helping adult hypertensives to achieve and maintain dietary sodium intake. Sixty-six subjects were randomly allocated to one of three groups: task-centered instruction; task-centered instruction plus goal-setting and self-monitoring; or control.…

  2. The Effects of Preschool Experiences on Academic Achievement of First Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohart, Rebecca; Nickell, Kathryn

    Although current research has not shown prevailing effects of the preschool experience on overall achievement scores, it does indicate a positive effect on language related skills, particularly for males. This study examined the relationship between language related achievement test scores between those first graders with preschool experience and…

  3. An Application Model of Reality Therapy to Develop Effective Achievement Goals in Tier Three Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunawan; Xiong, Junmei

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an application of reality therapy to developing effective achievement goals for students in tier three of a tiered response to intervention approach. The roles of teachers and school counselors, to improve effective achievement goals, are briefly discussed as a frame for applying reality therapy. The application model…

  4. The Effect of Vocabulary Instruction on the Reading Achievement of at Risk Third-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Linda D.

    2009-01-01

    In this quantitative research study the researcher investigated the effect of vocabulary instruction on the reading achievement of at risk students. A quasi-experimental design was used to determine the effect that vocabulary instruction had on the reading achievement of the at risk students. The sample used in the study was purposive, because…

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of Comprehensive School Reform in Low Achieving Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Sibbald, Tim M.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of Struggling Schools, a user-generated approach to Comprehensive School Reform implemented in 100 low achieving schools serving disadvantaged students in a Canadian province. The results show that while Struggling Schools had a statistically significant positive effect on Grade 3 Reading achievement, d = 0.48…

  6. The Effect of General Objectives Defined by Behavioral Objectives on Achievement in a College Zoology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushin, John W.; Baller, William

    1981-01-01

    Tests the effect of developmental level objectives on student achievement and efficiency in a zoology course. These objectives were found to have no significant effect on achievement, but they did significantly increase student efficiency in learning the content material of the module. (Author)

  7. Review of "Charter Schools in Eight States: Effects on Achievement, Attainment, Integration and Competition"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.

    2009-01-01

    "Charter Schools in Eight States" uses longitudinal data from eight states to evaluate the effects of charter schools on achievement, attainment, integration, and competition. The findings are mixed. "Achievement": The study examines seven jurisdictions and finds insignificant effects on reading and math performance in five, and small negative…

  8. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) over Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Seda; Basol, Gülsah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to determine the overall effects of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) on academic achievement. After an extensive review of the literature, studies using Turkish samples and observing the effects of Computer-Assisted Education (CAE) on mathematics achievement were examined. As a result of this…

  9. The Effect of Direct Instruction Model on Intermediate Class Achievement and Attitudes toward English Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kousar, Rubina

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the effect of the direct instruction model on intermediate class achievement and attitudes toward English grammar. It was an experimental study and the purpose was to explore the relative effectiveness of instructional methodology (independent variable) on students' achievement and attitude (dependent…

  10. Class Size Effects on Fourth-Grade Mathematics Achievement: Evidence from TIMSS 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wei; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    Class size reduction policies have been widely implemented around the world in recent years. However, findings about the effects of class size on student achievement have been mixed. This study examines class size effects on fourth-grade mathematics achievement in 14 European countries using data from TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and…

  11. Is the Black-White Achievement Gap a Public Sector Effect? An Examination of Student Achievement in the Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has suggested private school education in middle school and high school as a solution for the Black-White achievement gap. However, more recent research calls this solution into question. Additionally, research increasingly implicates third grade as being of preeminent importance in driving students' subsequent academic achievement.…

  12. Effects of Partner's Ability on the Achievement and Conceptual Organization of High-Achieving Fifth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Glenda; Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Investigates high-achieving fifth-grade students' achievement gains and conceptual reorganization on convection. Features an instructional sequence of three dyadic inquiry investigations related to convection currents as well as pre- and post-assessment consisting of a multiple-choice test, a card sorting task, construction of a concept map, and…

  13. Target Achievement Control Test: evaluating real-time myoelectric pattern-recognition control of multifunctional upper-limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ann M; Hargrove, Levi J; Lock, Blair A; Kuiken, Todd A

    2011-01-01

    Despite high classification accuracies (~95%) of myoelectric control systems based on pattern recognition, how well offline measures translate to real-time closed-loop control is unclear. Recently, a real-time virtual test analyzed how well subjects completed arm motions using a multiple-degree of freedom (DOF) classifier. Although this test provided real-time performance metrics, the required task was oversimplified: motion speeds were normalized and unintended movements were ignored. We included these considerations in a new, more challenging virtual test called the Target Achievement Control Test (TAC Test). Five subjects with transradial amputation attempted to move a virtual arm into a target posture using myoelectric pattern recognition, performing the test with various classifier (1- vs 3-DOF) and task complexities (one vs three required motions per posture). We found no significant difference in classification accuracy between the 1- and 3-DOF classifiers (97.2% +/- 2.0% and 94.1% +/- 3.1%, respectively; p = 0.14). Subjects completed 31% fewer trials in significantly more time using the 3-DOF classifier and took 3.6 +/- 0.8 times longer to reach a three-motion posture compared with a one-motion posture. These results highlight the need for closed-loop performance measures and demonstrate that the TAC Test is a useful and more challenging tool to test real-time pattern-recognition performance.

  14. Learning anatomy via mobile augmented reality: Effects on achievement and cognitive load.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Sevda; Kapakin, Samet; Göktaş, Yüksel

    2016-10-01

    Augmented reality (AR), a new generation of technology, has attracted the attention of educators in recent years. In this study, a MagicBook was developed for a neuroanatomy topic by using mobile augmented reality (mAR) technology. This technology integrates virtual learning objects into the real world and allow users to interact with the environment using mobile devices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of learning anatomy via mAR on medical students' academic achievement and cognitive load. The mixed method was applied in the study. The random sample consisted of 70 second-year undergraduate medical students: 34 in an experimental group and 36 in a control group. Academic achievement test and cognitive load scale were used as data collection tool. A one-way MANOVA test was used for analysis. The experimental group, which used mAR applications, reported higher achievement and lower cognitive load. The use of mAR applications in anatomy education contributed to the formation of an effective and productive learning environment. Student cognitive load decreased as abstract information became concrete in printed books via multimedia materials in mAR applications. Additionally, students were able to access the materials in the MagicBook anytime and anywhere they wanted. The mobile learning approach helped students learn better by exerting less cognitive effort. Moreover, the sensory experience and real time interaction with environment may provide learning satisfaction and enable students to structure their knowledge to complete the learning tasks. Anat Sci Educ 9: 411-421. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Learning anatomy via mobile augmented reality: Effects on achievement and cognitive load.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Sevda; Kapakin, Samet; Göktaş, Yüksel

    2016-10-01

    Augmented reality (AR), a new generation of technology, has attracted the attention of educators in recent years. In this study, a MagicBook was developed for a neuroanatomy topic by using mobile augmented reality (mAR) technology. This technology integrates virtual learning objects into the real world and allow users to interact with the environment using mobile devices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of learning anatomy via mAR on medical students' academic achievement and cognitive load. The mixed method was applied in the study. The random sample consisted of 70 second-year undergraduate medical students: 34 in an experimental group and 36 in a control group. Academic achievement test and cognitive load scale were used as data collection tool. A one-way MANOVA test was used for analysis. The experimental group, which used mAR applications, reported higher achievement and lower cognitive load. The use of mAR applications in anatomy education contributed to the formation of an effective and productive learning environment. Student cognitive load decreased as abstract information became concrete in printed books via multimedia materials in mAR applications. Additionally, students were able to access the materials in the MagicBook anytime and anywhere they wanted. The mobile learning approach helped students learn better by exerting less cognitive effort. Moreover, the sensory experience and real time interaction with environment may provide learning satisfaction and enable students to structure their knowledge to complete the learning tasks. Anat Sci Educ 9: 411-421. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26950521

  16. Cognition, academic achievement, and epilepsy in school-age children: a case-control study in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Melbourne Chambers, R; Morrison-Levy, N; Chang, S; Tapper, J; Walker, S; Tulloch-Reid, M

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 33 Jamaican children 7 to 12years old with uncomplicated epilepsy and 33 of their classroom peers matched for age and gender to determine whether epilepsy resulted in differences in cognitive ability and school achievement and if socioeconomic status or the environment had a moderating effect on any differences. Intelligence, language, memory, attention, executive function, and mathematics ability were assessed using selected tests from NEPSY, WISCR, TeaCh, WRAT3 - expanded, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The child's environment at home was measured using the Middle Childhood HOME inventory. Socioeconomic status was determined from a combination of household, crowding, possessions, and sanitation. We compared the characteristics of the cases and controls and used random effects regression models (using the matched pair as the cluster) to examine the relationship between cognition and epilepsy. We found that there was no significant difference in IQ, but children with epilepsy had lower scores on tests of memory (p<0.05), language (p<0.05), and attention (p<0.01) compared with their controls. In random effects models, epilepsy status had a significant effect on memory (coefficient=-0.14, CI: -0.23, -0.05), language (coefficient=-0.13, CI: -0.23, -0.04), and mathematics ability (coefficient=-0.01, CI: -0.02, -0.00). Adjustment for the home environment and socioeconomic status and inclusion of interaction terms for these variables did not alter these effects. In conclusion, we found that epilepsy status in Jamaican children has a significant effect on performance on tests of memory, language, and mathematics and that this effect is not modified or explained by socioeconomic status or the child's home environment. PMID:24632351

  17. Cognition, academic achievement, and epilepsy in school-age children: a case-control study in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Melbourne Chambers, R; Morrison-Levy, N; Chang, S; Tapper, J; Walker, S; Tulloch-Reid, M

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 33 Jamaican children 7 to 12years old with uncomplicated epilepsy and 33 of their classroom peers matched for age and gender to determine whether epilepsy resulted in differences in cognitive ability and school achievement and if socioeconomic status or the environment had a moderating effect on any differences. Intelligence, language, memory, attention, executive function, and mathematics ability were assessed using selected tests from NEPSY, WISCR, TeaCh, WRAT3 - expanded, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The child's environment at home was measured using the Middle Childhood HOME inventory. Socioeconomic status was determined from a combination of household, crowding, possessions, and sanitation. We compared the characteristics of the cases and controls and used random effects regression models (using the matched pair as the cluster) to examine the relationship between cognition and epilepsy. We found that there was no significant difference in IQ, but children with epilepsy had lower scores on tests of memory (p<0.05), language (p<0.05), and attention (p<0.01) compared with their controls. In random effects models, epilepsy status had a significant effect on memory (coefficient=-0.14, CI: -0.23, -0.05), language (coefficient=-0.13, CI: -0.23, -0.04), and mathematics ability (coefficient=-0.01, CI: -0.02, -0.00). Adjustment for the home environment and socioeconomic status and inclusion of interaction terms for these variables did not alter these effects. In conclusion, we found that epilepsy status in Jamaican children has a significant effect on performance on tests of memory, language, and mathematics and that this effect is not modified or explained by socioeconomic status or the child's home environment.

  18. The effects of a formal notebook on learning achievement of tenth grade biology students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, Sabine Korpus

    Despite the national agenda for achieving scientific literacy for all American students, there appears to be a paucity of research on the role of writing and, more specifically, on the organization of students' notes. The use of student notebooks as an ongoing record of both the process function and product function of notetaking has received little attention in the American research literature reviewed. The purposes of this study were to investigate if (a) the use of a formal notebook has a positive effect on learning achievement by high school biology students, (b) the gender of the biology student makes a difference with regard to the effect of keeping a formal notebook, (c) students perceive notetaking skills as an important set of study skills, and (d) students regard keeping a formal notebook as a valuable tool for improving learning outcomes. A quasi-experimental study was conducted, using a matching-only posttest control group design. A purposive cluster sample of four intact tenth grade biology classes with a total of 126 students from two Brevard County public high schools was used. The design resulted in two experimental conditions for the independent variable: (a) notebook treatment and (b) no notebook control. In each school, one class was randomly assigned to either the treatment or control group. A Study Skills Questionnaire was pilot-tested, revised, and administered to all students as a pre-assessment to determine if notetaking was regarded as important. One teacher-made posttest was used to measure learning achievement in biology as a consequence of the experimental conditions. A researcher-developed six-item postquestionnaire was only administered to the students of the treatment groups to determine if students perceive the requirement of keeping a formal notebook as a valuable learning tool. A factorial independent measures analysis of variance (2 x 2 x 2 ANOVA) was used to determine the effects of experimental group, school, gender, and their

  19. Boredom in Achievement Settings: Exploring Control-Value Antecedents and Performance Outcomes of a Neglected Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Daniels, Lia M.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.

    2010-01-01

    The linkages of achievement-related boredom with students' appraisals and performance outcomes were examined in a series of 5 exploratory, cross-sectional, and predictive investigations. Studies 1 and 2 assessed students' boredom in a single achievement episode (i.e., state achievement boredom); Studies 3, 4, and 5 focused on their habitual…

  20. Effective organizational control: implications for academic medicine.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Michael S; Srinivasan, Malathi; Flamholtz, Eric

    2005-11-01

    This article provides a framework for understanding the nature, role, functioning, design, and effects of organizational oversight systems. Using a case study with elements recognizable to an academic audience, the authors explore how a dean of a fictitious School of Medicine might use organizational control structures to develop effective solutions to global disarray within the academic medical center. Organizational control systems are intended to help influence the behavior of people as members of a formal organization. They are necessary to motivate people toward organizational goals, to coordinate diverse efforts, and to provide feedback about problems. The authors present a model of control to make this process more visible within organizations. They explore the overlap among academic medical centers and large businesses-for instance, each is a billion-dollar enterprise with complex internal and external demands and multiple audiences. The authors identify and describe how to use the key components of an organization's control system: environment, culture, structure, and core control system. Elements of the core control system are identified, described, and explored. These closely articulating elements include planning, operations, measurement, evaluation, and feedback systems. Use of control portfolios is explored to achieve goal-outcome congruence. Additionally, the authors describe how the components of the control system can be used synergistically by academic leadership to create organizational change, congruent with larger organizational goals. The enterprise of medicine is quickly learning from the enterprise of business. Achieving goal-action congruence will better position academic medicine to meet its multiple missions.

  1. The Effects of Controversy, Concurrence Seeking, and Individualistic Learning on Achievement and Attitude Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compared effects of cooperative learning activities (with and without structured controversy) and individualistic learning activities on the achievement and attitudes of fifth graders (N=84) toward wolves. Results show that cooperative-controversy resulted in the highest achievement, greatest motivation to learn about wolves, and more positive…

  2. The Effects of Reading Recovery™ on the American Indian/Non-American Indian Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the attention being paid to the achievement gap of minorities, the regulations and laws being enacted, the research being conducted, and the funding made available to narrow the achievement gap, there is evidence that shows it still exists for American Indians. This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery, an early literacy…

  3. Effects of Cooperative Learning on Achievement and Attitude among Students of Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Winston

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of cooperative learning on achievement in and attitudes toward mathematics among fifth graders of color in a culture different from that of the United States (Bermuda). Participants completed parts of the California Achievement Test and Penelope Peterson's Attitude Toward Mathematics Scale. Pre-test and post-test data…

  4. Effects of Homework Motivation and Worry Anxiety on Homework Achievement in Mathematics and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Mason, Elsa; Peng, Yun; Lee, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Direct and mediating effects of homework worry anxiety on homework effort and homework achievement and the differences in the structural relations among homework motivation constructs and homework achievement across mathematics and English homework were examined in 268 tenth graders in China. Homework motivation included task value, homework…

  5. Examining the Effects of Digital Feedback on Student Engagement and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yaoying

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using Tablet PC to provide feedback on student engagement and achievement in hybrid special education courses. Student engagement was determined by the number of hits and postings in online discussions. Student achievements were compared through pre- and post-tests on course content areas,…

  6. Class Size Effects on Mathematics Achievement in Cyprus: Evidence from TIMSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Shen, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Class size reduction has been viewed as one school mechanism that can improve student achievement. Nonetheless, the literature has reported mixed findings about class size effects. We used 4th- and 8th-grade data from TIMSS 2003 and 2007 to examine the association between class size and mathematics achievement in public schools in Cyprus. We…

  7. The Effect of the Time Management Art on Academic Achievement among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zoubi, Maysoon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the effect of the Time Management Art on academic achievement among high school students in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The researcher employed the descriptive-analytic research to achieve the purpose of the study where he chose a sample of (2000) high school female and male students as respondents to the…

  8. The Effect of Gender on the Achievement of Students in Biology Using the Jigsaw Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amedu, Odagboyi Isaiah

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined the effect of gender on the achievement of students in biology using the jigsaw method. The sample was made up of 87 students in SS1 in a secondary school. The study utilized an intact class because the study took place in a normal school term. There were 39 males and 49 females. The Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was…

  9. Principal Readiness and Professional Development to Conduct Effective Teacher Evaluations That Lead to Improved Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunziker, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    Education reform is the focus of many of the political agendas today. The research is clear that the best way to increase student achievement is by having highly effective teachers in the classroom. As a result of prior research, both the state and federal governments have created mandates and legislation aimed at achieving that goal. One of the…

  10. The Impact of the Developmental Discipline Management System on Teaching Effectiveness and Student Achievement in Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, J'Anne; Monahan, Alicia K.

    This study analyzed the impact of the Developmental Discipline Management System (DD) on teaching effectiveness and student achievement in special needs classrooms. DD was developed as a human centered, systems approach to education. Its core philosophy was to help each child achieve self mastery and mastery of subjects and to help teachers feel…

  11. The Effect of a State Department of Education Mentoring Program for Teachers on Science Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Gilda Darlene

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the Georgia Department of Education Science Specialist teacher-mentoring program on student achievement on science standardized tests. This study analyzed the impact this program has had on student achievement in participating high schools when compared with high schools across the state where…

  12. The Effect of Using Concept Maps as Study Tools on Achievement in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma; Attieh, May

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) examine whether or not the construction of concept maps by students improves their achievement and ability to solve higher order questions in chemistry, (2) investigate the differential effect of the treatment by gender and achievement level, and (3) explore the relationships between performance on concept…

  13. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted STAD Cooperative Learning Strategy on Physics Problem Solving, Achievement and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-assisted Students' Team Achievement Division (STAD) cooperative learning strategy on physics problem solving, students' achievement and retention. It also examined if the student performance would vary with gender. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two senior secondary schools…

  14. An Empirical Study on the Effect of School Consolidation in Rural Areas on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Dong; Fang, Chang; Yuanyan, Bai

    2013-01-01

    With Shaanxi province as an example, this study presents empirical evidence on the effect of primary school consolidation in rural areas on student achievement, using the difference-in-differences method. The results show no significant differences in student achievement between consolidated schools and nonconsolidated schools. If student…

  15. The Causal Ordering of Self-Concept and Academic Motivation and Its Effect on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jasmine; Nelson, Genevieve; Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herb

    2006-01-01

    Critical questions in educational psychology research to be addressed in this paper concern the casual relationship between academic self-concept, academic motivation and its effect on academic achievement. Do changes in academic self-concept and academic motivation lead to changes in subsequent academic achievement? Various studies have attempted…

  16. Effective Strategies Urban Superintendents Utilize That Improve the Academic Achievement for African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prioleau, Lushandra

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effective strategies, resources, and programs urban superintendents utilize to improve the academic achievement for African-American males. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to answer the following research questions regarding urban superintendents and the academic achievement for African-American males: What…

  17. Effects of Teacher Certification on the Educational Achievement of African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler-Davenport, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this nonexperimental quantitative study was to explore the effects of teachers' certification on the achievement of African American students. The impetus for this exploration resided in the reading achievement disparities between African American and Caucasian students in the study district. Guided by the principles of total…

  18. Effects of Attractiveness and Gender on the Perception of Achievement-Related Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, R. C.; Allred, L. J.; Grossnickle, W. F.; Lee, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the effects of physical attractiveness and gender on perceptions of academic success, achievement-related traits, intelligence, initiative, and attributions of ability and effort in relation to academic success. Finds that being perceived as physically attractive created positive impressions of achievement-related traits for men but…

  19. The Effects of the Interactive Student Notebook on Fifth Grade Math and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of using the interactive student notebook versus the use of traditional note-taking methods on math and science achievement for fifth grade students. The researcher hypothesized that the ISN would have a significant positive impact on math and science student achievement. Multiple regression…

  20. Effects of Teacher Educational Background and Experience on Student Achievement in the Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leak, James Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the relationship between teacher educational background, teacher experience, and student achievement in preschool, kindergarten, and first grade. The first essay of this dissertation, "Effects of Teacher Degree Level, Coursework, and Certification on Student Achievement in Math and Reading in Kindergarten,"…

  1. Achievement Effects of Five Comprehensive School Reform Designs Implemented in Los Angeles Unified School District. Dissertation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Bryce

    2005-01-01

    Achievement effects as measured by the Stanford Achievement Test 9 were estimated for students in grades 1-11 that participated in America's Choice, Co-nect, Different Ways of Knowing, Success for All (SFA), and Urban Learning Centers comprehensive school reform (CSR) designs implemented in Los Angeles Unified School District between 1999 and…

  2. Examining the Effects of School Composition on North Carolina Student Achievement over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southworth, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effects of school-level characteristics on North Carolina students' reading and math achievement from fourth through eighth grade, focusing on the relationships between achievement and the racial and poverty composition of schools. After creating race-by-poverty cohorts of schools, I use multilevel models to examine math…

  3. Using Shocks to School Enrollment to Estimate the Effect of School Size on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuziemko, Ilyana

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies of the connection between school enrollment size and student achievement use cross-sectional econometric models and thus do not account for unobserved heterogeneity across schools. To address this concern, I utilize school-level panel data, and generate first-differences estimates of the effect of school size on achievement.…

  4. The Effects of Sustained Silent Reading on Reading Achievement and Reading Attitudes of Fourth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Holly Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a Sustained Silent Reading program on reading achievement and reading attitude. The study accessed scores from the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (Good, Kaminski, & Dill, 2007) to measure reading achievement. This measure was given before and after a twelve week period, during which the treatment group…

  5. Exploring the Effect of a Non-Residential Learning Community on Academic Achievement and Institutional Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Patrick Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine what effect the Freshmen Interest Group (FIG) program, a variation of a non-residential learning community had on academic achievement scores and institutional rates of persistence. Study variables included: gender; race; pre-collegiate academic achievement (GPA scores); educational preferences (major…

  6. Indirect Effects of Child Reports of Teacher-Student Relationship on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-Man; Villarreal, Victor; Johnson, Audrea Y.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of student-reported teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ) on academic motivation and achievement was investigated among a sample of 690 academically at-risk elementary students (52.8% male). Measures of TSRQ, achievement, and motivation were collected annually for 3 consecutive years, beginning when participants were in Grade 2…

  7. The Effects of Gender and Attributions on Achievement Motivation and Subsequent Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Sibylle J.; Latta, R. Michael

    One attributional model of achievement proposes that individuals attribute their own and others' performance outcomes to one or more of four causes, i.e., ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck, and that such attributions have motivational significance for subsequent achievement-related behavior. The effects of gender, level of resultant…

  8. The Effects of Differentiated Instruction Support Inclusion Services on Fifth Grade Reading/Language Arts Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Stephanie L.

    2012-01-01

    Using a causal-comparative research design, this study investigated the effectiveness of Differentiated Instruction Support Inclusion Services on fifth grade regular education and gifted students' Reading/Language Arts achievement. The study analyzed and compared the achievement of the regular education students who received no inclusion…

  9. The Effect of Paraprofessional Assistance on the Academic Achievement of Migrant Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veaco, Lelia

    The study investigated the effect of guided paraprofessional assistance on the academic achievement of lower achieving intermediate grade migrant children. It examined one possible means of overcoming some of the overwhelming handicaps experienced by migrant children by using indigenous paraprofessionals as a humanizing, tutorial factor. Eighty…

  10. Students' Achievement in Human Circulatory System Unit: The Effect of Reasoning Ability and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effect of gender and reasoning ability on the human circulatory system concepts achievement and attitude toward biology. Reports a statistically significant mean difference between concrete and formal students with regard to achievement and attitude toward biology. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/YDS)

  11. A meta-analysis of morphological interventions: effects on literacy achievement of children with literacy difficulties.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Amanda P; Ahn, Soyeon

    2010-12-01

    This study synthesizes 79 standardized mean-change differences between control and treatment groups from 17 independent studies, investigating the effect of morphological interventions on literacy outcomes for students with literacy difficulties. Average total sample size ranged from 15 to 261 from a wide range of grade levels. Overall, morphological instruction showed a significant improvement on literacy achievement (d = 0.33). Specifically, its effect was significant on several literacy outcomes such as phonological awareness (d = 0.49), morphological awareness (d = 0.40), vocabulary (d = 0.40), reading comprehension (d = 0.24), and spelling (d = 0.20). Morphological instruction was particularly effective for children with reading, learning, or speech and language disabilities, English language learners, and struggling readers, suggesting the possibility that morphological instruction can remediate phonological processing challenges. Other moderators were also explored to explain differences in morphological intervention effects. These findings suggest students with literacy difficulties would benefit from morphological instruction. PMID:20799003

  12. A procedure to achieve fine control in MW processing of foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccurullo, G.; Cinquanta, L.; Sorrentino, G.

    2007-01-01

    A two-dimensional analytical model for predicting the unsteady temperature field in a cylindrical shaped body affected by spatially varying heat generation is presented. The dimensionless problem is solved analytically by using both partial solutions and the variation of parameters techniques. Having in mind industrial microwave heating for food pasteurization, the easy-to-handle solution is used to confirm the intrinsic lack of spatial uniformity of such a treatment in comparison to the traditional one. From an experimental point of view, a batch pasteurization treatment was realized to compare the effect of two different control techniques both based on IR thermography readout: the former assured a classical PID control, while the latter was based on a "shadowing" technique, consisting in covering portions of the sample which are hot enough with a mobile metallic screen. A measure of the effectiveness of the two control techniques was obtained by evaluating the thermal death curves of a strain Lactobacillus plantarum submitted to pasteurization temperatures. Preliminary results showed meaningful increases in the microwave thermal inactivation of the L. plantarum and similar significant decreases in thermal inactivation time with respect to the traditional pasteurization thermal treatment.

  13. The effect of inquiry-based, hands-on labs on achievement in middle school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Donna Kaye Green

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to measure the difference in science achievement between students who had been taught with an inquiry-based, hands-on pedagogical approach and those who had not. Improving student academic achievement and standardized test scores is the major objective of teachers, parents, school administrators, government entities, and students themselves. One major barrier to this academic success in Georgia, and the entire United States, has been the paucity of success in middle level science classes. Many studies have been conducted to determine the learning approaches that will best enable students to not only acquire a deeper understanding of science concepts, but to equip them to apply that new knowledge in their daily activities. Inquiry-based, hands-on learning involves students participating in activities that reflect methods of scientific investigation. The effective utilization of the inquiry-based learning approach demands inclusion of learners in a self-directed learning environment, the ability to think critically, and an understanding of how to reflect and reason scientifically. The treatment group using an inquiry-based, hands-on program did score slightly higher on the CRCT. However, the results revealed that there was not a significant difference in student achievement. This study showed that the traditionally instructed control group had slightly higher interest in science than the inquiry-based treatment group. The findings of this research study indicated that the NCLB mandates might need to be altered if there are no significant academic gains that result from the use of inquiry-based strategies.

  14. Effects of Conceptual Systems and Instructional Methods on General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Lance E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three instructional methods and conceptual systems orientation on achievement in a freshman general chemistry laboratory course. Traditional approach, learning cycle, and computer simulations are discussed. (KR)

  15. The Effects of Manifest Anxiety on the Reading Achievement of Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryman, Edward P.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what effects manifest anxiety has on the achievement of selected reading variables (also tasks or skills) of children who, according to their CMAS scores, vary in general drive or anxiety levels. (Author)

  16. The Effect of the Texas Instrument Interactive Instructional Environment on the Mathematical Achievement of Eleventh Grade Low Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Teaching and learning mathematics with technology poses a unique dilemma. If technology is to enhance mathematical achievement (NCTM, 2000), why do documented studies indicate that this may not be the case (Waxman, Connell, & Gray, 2002)? This study looks at the learning environment used when teaching with technology. What in the instructional…

  17. Analysis of alternatives for insulinizing patients to achieve glycemic control and avoid accompanying risks of hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    GAO, JIALIN; XIONG, QIANYIN; MIAO, JUN; ZHANG, YAO; XIA, LIBING; LU, MEIQIN; ZHANG, BINHUA; CHEN, YUEPING; ZHANG, ANSU; YU, CUI; WANG, LI-ZHUO

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to explore the efficacy of glycemic control and the risks of hypoglycemia with different methods of insulin therapy, and to provide reference data for the clinical treatment of diabetes. In this retrospective study, hospitalized patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between March and December 2014, in the Department of Endocrinology in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College, were divided into three groups, including an intensive insulin analogue therapy group, a premixed insulin analogue treatment group and a premixed human insulin therapy group. The efficacy of glycemic control and the incidence of hypoglycemia were determined in each of the insulin treatment groups. Compared with the other treatment groups, the intensive insulin analogue therapy group was associated with superior blood glucose control, shorter time to reach standard insulin regimen, shorter hospitalization time, fewer fluctuations in blood glucose levels and lower insulin dosage on discharge from hospital. However, this treatment was also associated with a high risk of hypoglycemia. In conclusion, when combined with the effective prevention of hypoglycemia and appropriate nursing care (especially in hospital care), intensive insulin analogue therapy may provide the greatest benefit to patients. PMID:26137223

  18. Meta-Analysis of the Research on Response Cards: Effects on Test Achievement, Quiz Achievement, Participation, and Off-Task Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Justus J.

    2007-01-01

    In this meta-analysis, the author analyzed 18 response card articles, theses, or dissertations to determine the magnitude of effect that response card strategies have on test achievement, quiz achievement, class participation, and intervals of off-task behavior. The author also determined whether the type of response cards used or the presence or…

  19. High school students' science academic achievement: The effect of the Lemov positive framing trust-building technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigliette, Linda Marie

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of a trust-building technique called "positive-framing" (Lemov, 2010, p. 204) on the level of student-teacher trust and students' science academic achievement. The existing literature was reviewed under the constructs of trust, types of trust, trust-building strategies, and student academic achievement. The identified problem is a lack of research into the effect of trust from the high school student perspective and the effect of trust on student academic achievement in science. In addition, there is no empirical evidence to support the effectiveness of the "positive-framing" (Lemov, 2010, p. 204) trust-building intervention. The study involved a volunteer, convenience sample of 9th-grade science students at one high school in Northern California (N=240). The study employed a quasi-experimental, pretest, posttest non-equivalent control group design to examine the level of student trust in the teacher, using the "Student trust in faculty scale" (Forsyth, Adams, & Hoy, 2011, p. 180), and the students' academic achievement, according to the Integrated Process Skills Test II (Okey, Wise, & Burns, 1982). The independent variable was the "positive-framing" (Lemov, 2010, p. 204) trust-building intervention; the two dependent variables were the level of student-teacher trust and student academic achievement. The composite data from the "Student trust in faculty scale" and the academic achievement test were evaluated by a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results of this study indicated that the null hypothesis was accepted. The "positive-framing" (Lemov, 2010, p. 204) trust-building intervention did not have a significant effect on either the student-teacher trust level or academic achievement in science.

  20. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  1. The Effect of Brain Based Learning on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gozuyesil, Eda; Dikici, Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    This study's aim is to measure the effect sizes of the quantitative studies that examined the effectiveness of brain-based learning on students' academic achievement and to examine with the meta-analytical method if there is a significant difference in effect in terms of the factors of education level, subject matter, sampling size, and…

  2. The Effects of After-School Program Participation on Mathematics Achievement: The Case of LA's BEST

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinen, Marjorie Harue

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation studies the short-term effects of attending an after-school program (i.e., LA's BEST) on student mathematic achievement. The effects of one, two and three years of participation are studied, as well as the extent to which the magnitude of these effects varies across grades in which participation occurs, and the extent to which…

  3. Effect of bead and illustrations models on high school students' achievement in molecular genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotbain, Yosi; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Stavy, Ruth

    2006-05-01

    Our main goal in this study was to explore whether the use of models in molecular genetics instruction in high school can contribute to students' understanding of concepts and processes in genetics. Three comparable groups of 11th and 12th graders participated: The control group (116 students) was taught in the traditional lecture format, while the others received instructions which integrated a bead model (71 students), or an illustration model (71 students). Similar instructions and the same guiding questions accompanied the two models. We used three instruments: a multiple-choice and an open-ended written questionnaire, as well as personal interviews. Five of the multiple-choice questions were also given to students before receiving their genetics instruction (pretest). We found that students who used one of the two types of models improved their knowledge in molecular genetics compared to the control group. However, the open-ended questions revealed that bead model activity was significantly more effective than illustration activity. On the basis of these findings we conclude that, though it is advisable to use a three-dimensional model, such as the bead model, engaging students in activities with illustrations can still improve their achievement in comparison to traditional instruction.

  4. Effects of metacognitive instruction on the academic achievement of students in the secondary sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Gregory A.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of reflective assessment in the form of situated metacognitive prompts on student achievement in the secondary sciences. A second goal was to determine whether specific gender differences existed in terms of student responsiveness to the metacognitive interventions. Participants in the study consisted of a convenience sample from a population of ninth-grade honors biology students in a large suburban school district located near Seattle, Washington. Beyond answering the specific research questions raised in this study, an additional aim was to broaden the growing body of research pertaining to the effect of metacognition on student achievement. A quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design was employed in this study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were computed to address the specific research questions raised. Specifically, a three-way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed. For this purpose, a single within-subjects factor, termed Testing, was defined. Three levels were allocated to this factor, and quantitative data from the Pretest, Posttest, and Retention Test were assigned to the levels, respectively. Group and Gender were defined as between-subjects factors, and both were allocated two levels; the two Group levels were Reflective and Non-Reflective. The effects of Group and Gender on each of the three quantitative measures were examined singly and in interaction with each other. Tests of statistical significance were analyzed at the .05 level. There was a statistically significant effect for Group (Reflective, Non-Reflective) by Testing (Pretest, Posttest, Retention Test). A three-way repeated-measures ANOVA procedure revealed that students in the Reflective group outperformed students in the Non-Reflective group (F = 10.258, p = .002, Partial eta 2 = .088). According to the effect size estimate, almost 9% of variance in the Testing variable was attributable to the Group variable

  5. The Impact of Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of African American and European American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.

    2003-01-01

    Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…

  6. Advanced Math Course Taking: Effects on Math Achievement and College Enrollment

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Bell, Bethany A.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002–2006 (ELS:02/06), this study investigated the effects of advanced math course taking on math achievement and college enrollment and how such effects varied by socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity. Results from propensity score matching and sensitivity analyses showed that advanced math course taking had positive effects on math achievement and college enrollment. Results also demonstrated that the effect of advanced math course taking on math achievement was greater for low SES students than for high SES students, but smaller for Black students than for White students. No interaction effects were found for college enrollment. Limitations, policy implications, and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26508803

  7. Using confirmatory factor analysis to understand executive control in preschool children: sources of variation in emergent mathematic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Rebecca; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Sheffield, Tiffany D.; Nelson, Jennifer Mize

    2010-01-01

    Latent variable modeling methods have demonstrated utility for understanding the structure of executive control (EC) across development. These methods are utilized to better characterize the relation between EC and mathematics achievement in the preschool period, and to understand contributing sources of individual variation. Using the sample and battery of laboratory tasks described in Wiebe, Espy and Charak (2008), latent EC was related strongly to emergent mathematics achievement in preschool, and was robust after controlling for crystallized intellectual skills. The relation between crystallized skills and emergent mathematics differed between girls and boys, although the predictive association between EC and mathematics did not. Two dimensions of the child’s social environment contributed to mathematics achievement: social network support through its relation to EC and environmental stressors through its relation with crystallized skills. These findings underscore the need to examine the dimensions, mechanisms, and individual pathways that influence the development of early competence in basic cognitive processes that underpin early academic achievement. PMID:21676089

  8. Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals during Task Engagement: Their Relation to Intrinsic Motivation and Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir Oz, Ayse; Lane, Jennie F.; Michou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of autonomous and controlling reasons underlying an endorsed achievement goal to intrinsic motivation and cheating. The endorsement of the achievement goal was ensured by involving 212 (M(subscript age) = 19.24, SD = 0.97) freshman students in a spatial task and asking them to report their most…

  9. Hypersonic jet control effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D.; Stollery, J. L.; Smith, A. J.

    The present study aims to identify some of the parameters which determine the upstream extent and the lateral spreading of the separation front around an under-expanded transverse jet on a slender blunted cone. The tests were conducted in the Cranfield hypersonic facility at M∞ = 8.2, Re∞ /cm = 4.5 to 9.0 × 104 and at M∞ = 12.3, Re∞ /cm = 3.3 × 104. Air was used as the working gas for both the freestream and the jet. Schlieren pictures were used for the visualisation of the three-dimensional structures around the jet. Pressure, normal force and pitching moment measurements were conducted to quantitatively study the interaction region and its effects on the vehicle. An analytical algorithm has been developed to predict the shape of the separation front around the body.

  10. A quantitative integrated assessment of pollution prevention achieved by integrated pollution prevention control licensing.

    PubMed

    Styles, David; O'Brien, Kieran; Jones, Michael B

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative, quantitative assessment of pollution avoidance attributable to environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing, using Ireland's pharmaceutical-manufacturing sector as a case study. Emissions data reported by pharmaceutical installations were aggregated into a pollution trend using an Environmental Emissions Index (EEI) based on Lifecycle Assessment methodologies. Complete sectoral emissions data from 2001 to 2007 were extrapolated back to 1995, based on available data. Production volume data were used to derive a sectoral production index, and determine 'no-improvement' emission trends, whilst questionnaire responses from 20 industry representatives were used to quantify the contribution of integrated licensing to emission avoidance relative to these trends. Between 2001 and 2007, there was a 40% absolute reduction in direct pollution from 27 core installations, and 45% pollution avoidance relative to hypothetical 'no-improvement' pollution. It was estimated that environmental regulation avoided 20% of 'no-improvement' pollution, in addition to 25% avoidance under business-as-usual. For specific emissions, avoidance ranged from 14% and 30 kt a(-1) for CO(2) to 88% and 598 t a(-1) for SO(x). Between 1995 and 2007, there was a 59% absolute reduction in direct pollution, and 76% pollution avoidance. Pollution avoidance was dominated by reductions in emissions of VOCs, SO(x) and NO(x) to air, and emissions of heavy metals to water. Pollution avoidance of 35% was attributed to integrated licensing, ranging from between 8% and 2.9 t a(-1) for phosphorus emissions to water to 49% and 3143 t a(-1) for SO(x) emissions to air. Environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing has been the major driver of substantial pollution avoidance achieved by Ireland's pharmaceutical sector - through emission limit values associated with Best Available Techniques, emissions monitoring and reporting requirements, and

  11. The Effect of Navigation Tools on Learners' Achievement and Attitude in a Hypermedia Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Inez H.; Moore, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study of eighth-grade middle school students that was conducted to determine whether varying the amount of learner control and interactivity through the use of different navigation tools (linear, menu, and search engine) would influence the achievement and attitude of learners of different academic abilities. (Author/LRW)

  12. A Study of the Effect of All Day Kindergarten on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffler, Darwin J.

    2010-01-01

    This causal/comparative study answered: Does the attainment of year-end kindergarten reading benchmark status vary between students enrolled in half-day kindergarten and those enrolled in full-day kindergarten after controlling for differences in initial instructional recommendations? The researcher analyzed the 2005-2006 achievement of 906…

  13. Leading Schools of Excellence and Equity: Documenting Effective Strategies in Closing Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kathleen M.; Benkovitz, Jen; Muttillo, A. J.; Urban, Thad

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: In the Fall 2006 issue of AERJ, Hoy, Tarter, and Woolfolk Hoy identified the new construct of academic optimism as a general latent concept related to student achievement even after controlling for SES, previous performance, and other demographic variables. Through structural equation modeling, they found that the collective…

  14. The Effect of Teaching and Learning with Texas Instruments Handheld Devices on Student Achievement in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyublinskaya, Irina; Tournaki, Nelly

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the respective achievement of students in an integrated algebra course taught with two different types of handhelds over a period of one year. The experimental group was taught with TI-Nspire[TM] handhelds and was compared to the control group taught with TI-84 Plus graphing calculators. The teachers of each group received…

  15. Educational Seduction: The Effect of Instructor Expressiveness and Lecture Content on Student Ratings and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Raymond P.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Previous "educational seduction" research suggested that teacher differences in expressiveness controlled the degree to which lecture content affected student ratings differently from student achievement. We attempted to replicate this Expressiveness x Content x Measures interaction in four simulated college classes. Student incentive and study…

  16. The effect of workshop groups on achievement goals and performance in biology: An outcome evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Wendi Kay

    This two-year quasi-experiment evaluated the effect of peer-led workshop groups on performance of minority and majority undergraduate biology students in a three-course series and investigated motivational explanations for performance differences. The workshop intervention used was modeled after a program pioneered by Treisman (1992) at the University of California. Majority volunteers randomly assigned to workshops (n = 61) performed between 1/2 and 1 standard deviation better than those assigned to the control group (n = 60; p < .05) in each quarter without spending more time studying. During Quarter 1, workshop minority students (n = 25) showed a pattern of increasing exam performance in comparison to historic control minority students (n = 21), who showed a decreasing pattern (p < .05). Although sex differences in biology performance were a focus of investigation, none were detected. Motivational predictions derived from the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation (Elliot & Church, 1997) were partially supported. Self-report survey measures of achievement goals, modeled after those used by Elliot and colleagues, were requested from all enrolled students. Volunteers (n = 121) reported higher average levels of approach and avoidance goals than nonvolunteers (n = 439; p < .05) and the relationship of goals to performance was moderated by volunteer status. Performance of volunteers was negatively related to avoidance of failure goals (r = .41, p < .01) and unrelated to performance approach goals. Performance of nonvolunteers was unrelated to avoidance of failure goals and positively related to performance approach goals (r = .28, p < .01). Mastery goals were unrelated to performance for all students. Results were inconsistent with Dweck and Leggett's (1988) theory of mastery vs. performance orientation, but were similar to results found by Elliot and colleagues. Contrary to hypotheses, motivational goals did not mediate performance for

  17. Effects of Explicit Teaching and Peer Tutoring on the Reading Achievement of Learning-Disabled and Low-Performing Students in Regular Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Deborah C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined effects of explicit teaching and peer tutoring on reading achievement of learning-disabled students and nondisabled, low-performing readers in academically integrated classrooms. Found that explicit-teaching students did not achieve reliably better than controls; students in the explicit teaching plus peer tutoring condition scored higher…

  18. Notetaking and Reviewing Matrix Notes: Effects on Learning Achievement and Instructional Time with Interactive Videodisc Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Arthur P.

    1993-01-01

    This experiment (83 undergraduates) used an interactive videodisc (IVD) lesson, "Cardiac Output: A Live Animal Physiology Laboratory," to measure the effects of notetaking on achievement and instructional time. Compared the efficacy of subjects' notes with matrix notes as review materials for IVD. Results indicated IVD was more effective than…

  19. The Effect of Block Scheduling on Middle School Students' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattox, Kim; Hancock, Dawson R.; Queen, J. Allen

    2005-01-01

    To address the nations' ongoing interest in student achievement, some researchers have focused on the effect of block scheduling--a model in which students take fewer classes for longer periods of time. Although block scheduling has demonstrated its viability in high schools, little research has explored its effect at the middle level. Because the…

  20. The Effect of the Developed Differentiation Approach on the Achievements of the Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altintas, Esra; Özdemir, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: The present study is of importance for designing a differentiation approach, which enables gifted students to use their present potential in mathematics effectively and enables them to develop their achievement, while looking at the effect of the approach on both gifted and non-gifted students. Within the scope of the developed…

  1. The Effects of Color vs. Black and White Learning Materials on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Verletta M.

    This paper examines and summarizes the findings of recent research literature on the effects of color versus black and white learning materials on academic achievement in order to determine if the effect of the color variable is significant enough to warrant the added expense of purchasing colored instructional materials for primary school…

  2. What Is the Effect of Small-Scale Schooling on Student Achievement? ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.

    This digest reviews recent evidence of the positive effects of small-scale schooling on student achievement. Historically, larger school size has been viewed as an important educational reform producing cost-effectiveness and educational efficiency. Today, small-scale schooling is found primarily in rural areas and small towns. A 1964 study…

  3. The Effects of Mathematics Anxiety on Matriculation Students as Related to Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakaria, Effandi; Nordin, Norazah Mohd

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of mathematics anxiety on matriculation students as related to motivation and achievement. Subjects included 88 students who were at the end of their second semester of study. Anxiety and motivation were measured using the Fennema-Sherman Math Anxiety Scale (MAS) and Effectance Motivation Scale (EMS)…

  4. The Effects of Online Homework on Achievement and Self-Efficacy of College Algebra Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, David Shane

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness, in terms of mathematical achievement and mathematics self-efficacy, of online homework to textbook homework over an entire semester for 145 students enrolled in multiple sections of college algebra at a large community college. A quasi-experimental, posttest design was used to analyze the effect on…

  5. High School Success: An Effective Intervention for Achievement and Dropout Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowder, Christopher Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-design study was to use quantitative and qualitative research to explore the effects of High School Success (a course for at-risk ninth graders) and its effectiveness on student achievement, attendance, and dropout prevention. The research questions address whether there is a significant difference between at-risk ninth…

  6. Effects of Family Orientation Within Socioeconomic Strata Upon Basic Skill Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smidchens, Uldis; Thompson, Eugene

    This research examines the effects of family organization upon student achievement. The authors are particularly concerned with teacher expectations and beliefs regarding single parenting and its effects upon skill acquisition. The sample is made up of over 400 fifth graders in the public schools of a middle sized midwestern city. Data regarding…

  7. The Effects of Alcohol Use on Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Giuliano, Laura M.; French, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's grade point average (GPA) abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that…

  8. Academic Self-Concept and Learning Strategies: Direction of Effect on Student Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…

  9. Reading Recovery: Exploring the Effects on First-Graders' Reading Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Celeste C.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Gambrell, Linda; Xu, Meling

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery on children's motivational levels, and how motivation may contribute to the effect of the intervention on literacy achievement. Prior studies concluded that Reading Recovery was positively associated with increased student motivation levels, but most of those studies were limited…

  10. An Examination of South Carolina School Boards' Effectiveness and Its Influence on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Marty S.

    2009-01-01

    In the era of school accountability, school boards are under scrutiny for their effectiveness in improving student achievement. It has become more than obvious that school boards play an important role in the effectiveness, ineffectiveness, successes and failures of school districts. However, to what degree of importance was the premise for this…

  11. Advanced Math Course Taking: Effects on Math Achievement and College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Bell, Bethany A.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002-2006, the authors investigated the effects of advanced math course taking on math achievement and college enrollment and how such effects varied by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. Results from propensity score matching and sensitivity analyses showed that advanced math course…

  12. Class Size Effects on Reading Achievement Using PIRLS Data: Evidence from Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Traynor, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: The effects of class size on student achievement have gained considerable attention in education research and policy, especially over the last 30 years. Perhaps the best evidence about the effects of class size thus far has been produced from analyses of Project STAR data, a large-scale experiment where students and teachers…

  13. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Students' Achievement in Taiwan: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Yuen-kuang Cliff

    2007-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to synthesize existing research comparing the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) versus traditional instruction (TI) on students' achievement in Taiwan. Fifty-two studies were located from four sources, and their quantitative data was transformed into effect size (ES). The overall grand mean of the…

  14. Effect of Feedback and Remediation on Students' Achievement in Junior Secondary School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Ajogbeje Oke; Folorunso, Alonge Micheal

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of feedback and remediation as instructional strategies on junior secondary school students' achievement in mathematics. The effects of gender and socio economic status on these learning outcomes were also examined. The sample for the study consisted of 240 junior secondary two (JSS II) students in intact classes…

  15. The Effect of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at finding out the effectiveness of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement. In other words, the objective of this study was to find out if there was a significant effect of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)…

  16. Relationship between Teachers' Effective Communication and Students' Academic Achievement at the Northern Border University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Madani, Feras Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication between faculty members and students is one of the concerns of the educational stakeholders at the Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia. This study investigates the relationship between teachers' effective communication and students' academic achievement at the Northern Border University. The survey questionnaire…

  17. The Effect of Foster Care Experience and Characteristics on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calix, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of foster care experience and characteristics on educational outcomes. The typical strategy in examining the effect foster care has on educational outcomes is to compare the educational achievement of youth with foster care experience to that of their peers or to national norms. This strategy fails to take selection…

  18. The Effect of Applying Podcast Multimedia Teaching System on Motivational Achievement and Learning Among the Boy Students

    PubMed Central

    Nozari, Ali Yazdanpanah; Siamian, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traditional education classes are no more effective because they are tied to a particular place and time. Podcast complete the defection of other educational resources. In this study we aimed to address whether utilizing podcast multimedia training system has an effect on the motivational achievement and students learning of the Arabic course in high school. Methods: In this practical-purposed, descriptive and quasi-experimental study, pre- and post-test method in control and experiment groups was used. Researchers used simple random sampling method to form the groups. Results: The results showed the normal distribution of data according to the value of z (0.09) in the pre- and post-tests in both control and experiment groups. Therefore, the data distribution was normal (P>0.925). Significant differences between experimental and control groups in terms of academic level were not observed in the pre-test. There was no significant difference between the motivational achievement of education in post-test of control and experiment group (p>0.89). Conclusion: The results showed that teaching with podcast multimedia systems significantly increased learning of Arabic in the high school level. But of motivation reinforcement between traditional method and system for multimedia podcasts, showed no significant differences. Each variety of multimedia techniques can be beneficial for a specific course. Therefore, more studies on the effectiveness of podcast method in different courses to determine its effects are necessary. PMID:25870488

  19. An observer based approach for achieving fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control of systems modeled as hybrid Petri nets.

    PubMed

    Renganathan, K; Bhaskar, VidhyaCharan

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach for achieving detection and identification of faults, and provide fault tolerant control for systems that are modeled using timed hybrid Petri nets. For this purpose, an observer based technique is adopted which is useful in detection of faults, such as sensor faults, actuator faults, signal conditioning faults, etc. The concepts of estimation, reachability and diagnosability have been considered for analyzing faulty behaviors, and based on the detected faults, different schemes are proposed for achieving fault tolerant control using optimization techniques. These concepts are applied to a typical three tank system and numerical results are obtained.

  20. Population control of an overabundant species achieved through consecutive anthropogenic perturbations.

    PubMed

    Payo-Payo, Ana; Oro, Daniel; Igual, José Manuel; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carolina; Tavecchia, Giacomo

    2015-12-01

    The control of overabundant vertebrates is often problematic. Much work has focused on population-level responses and overabundance due to anthropogenic subsidies. However, far less work has been directed at investigating responses following the removal of subsidies. We investigate the consequences of two consecutive perturbations, the closure of a landfill and an inadvertent poisoning event, on the trophic ecology (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S), survival, and population size of an overabundant generalist seabird species, the Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis). We expected that the landfill closure would cause a strong dietary shift and the inadvertent poisoning a decrease in gull population size. As a long-lived species, we also anticipated adult survival to be buffered against the decrease in food availability but not against the inadvertent poisoning event. Stable isotope analysis confirmed the dietary shift towards marine resources after the disappearance of the landfill. Although the survival model was inconclusive, it did suggest that the perturbations had a negative effect on survival, which was followed by a recovery back to average values. Food limitation likely triggered dispersal to other populations, while poisoning may have increased mortality; these two processes were likely responsible for the large fall in population size that occurred after the two consecutive perturbations. Life-history theory suggests that perturbations may encourage species to halt existing breeding investment in order to ensure future survival. However, under strong perturbation pulses the resilience threshold might be surpassed and changes in population density can arise. Consecutive perturbations may effectively manage overabundant species. PMID:26910951

  1. Herbicides as Weed Control Agents: State of the Art: II. Recent Achievements[C

    PubMed Central

    Kraehmer, Hansjoerg; van Almsick, Andreas; Beffa, Roland; Dietrich, Hansjoerg; Eckes, Peter; Hacker, Erwin; Hain, Ruediger; Strek, Harry John; Stuebler, Hermann; Willms, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    In response to changing market dynamics, the discovery of new herbicides has declined significantly over the past few decades and has only seen a modest upsurge in recent years. Nevertheless, the few introductions have proven to be interesting and have brought useful innovation to the market. In addition, herbicide-tolerant or herbicide-resistant crop technologies have allowed the use of existing nonselective herbicides to be extended into crops. An increasing and now major challenge is being posed by the inexorable increase in biotypes of weeds that are resistant to herbicides. This problem is now at a level that threatens future agricultural productivity and needs to be better understood. If herbicides are to remain sustainable, then it is a must that we adopt diversity in crop rotation and herbicide use as well as increase the use of nonchemical measures to control weeds. Nevertheless, despite the difficulties posed by resistant weeds and increased regulatory hurdles, new screening tools promise to provide an upsurge of potential herbicide leads. Our industry urgently needs to supply agriculture with new, effective resistance-breaking herbicides along with strategies to sustain their utility. PMID:25104721

  2. Herbicides as weed control agents: state of the art: II. Recent achievements.

    PubMed

    Kraehmer, Hansjoerg; van Almsick, Andreas; Beffa, Roland; Dietrich, Hansjoerg; Eckes, Peter; Hacker, Erwin; Hain, Ruediger; Strek, Harry John; Stuebler, Hermann; Willms, Lothar

    2014-11-01

    In response to changing market dynamics, the discovery of new herbicides has declined significantly over the past few decades and has only seen a modest upsurge in recent years. Nevertheless, the few introductions have proven to be interesting and have brought useful innovation to the market. In addition, herbicide-tolerant or herbicide-resistant crop technologies have allowed the use of existing nonselective herbicides to be extended into crops. An increasing and now major challenge is being posed by the inexorable increase in biotypes of weeds that are resistant to herbicides. This problem is now at a level that threatens future agricultural productivity and needs to be better understood. If herbicides are to remain sustainable, then it is a must that we adopt diversity in crop rotation and herbicide use as well as increase the use of nonchemical measures to control weeds. Nevertheless, despite the difficulties posed by resistant weeds and increased regulatory hurdles, new screening tools promise to provide an upsurge of potential herbicide leads. Our industry urgently needs to supply agriculture with new, effective resistance-breaking herbicides along with strategies to sustain their utility.

  3. Tobacco control efforts in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hassounah, S; Rawaf, D; Khoja, T; Rawaf, S; Hussein, M S; Qidwai, W; Majeed, A

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports a review into the current state of tobacco use, governance and national commitment for control, and current intervention frameworks in place to reduce the use of tobacco among the populations of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) member states and Yemen. It further reviews structured policy-oriented interventions (in line with the MPOWER package of 6 evidence-based tobacco control measures) that represent government actions to strengthen, implement and manage tobacco control programmes and to address the growing epidemic of tobacco use. Our findings show that tobacco control in the GCC countries has witnessed real progress over the past decades. These are still early days but they indicate steps in the right direction. Future investment in implementation and enforcement of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, production of robust tobacco control legislation and the establishment of universally available tobacco cessation services are essential to sustain and strengthen tobacco control in the GCC region. PMID:25150358

  4. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  5. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building occupants and

  6. The effect of teacher education level, teaching experience, and teaching behaviors on student science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Danhui

    Previous literature leaves us unanswered questions about whether teaching behaviors mediate the relationship between teacher education level and experience with student science achievement. This study examined this question with 655 students from sixth to eighth grade and their 12 science teachers. Student science achievements were measured at the beginning and end of 2006-2007 school year. Given the cluster sampling of students nested in classrooms, which are nested in teachers, a two-level multilevel model was employed to disentangle the effects from teacher-level and student-level factors. Several findings were discovered in this study. Science teachers possessing of advanced degrees in science or education significantly and positively influenced student science achievement. However, years of teaching experience in science did not directly influence student science achievement. A significant interaction was detected between teachers possessing an advanced degree in science or education and years of teaching science, which was inversely associated to student science achievement. Better teaching behaviors were also positively related to student achievement in science directly, as well as mediated the relationship between student science achievement and both teacher education and experience. Additionally, when examined separately, each teaching behavior variable (teacher engagement, classroom management, and teaching strategies) served as a significant intermediary between both teacher education and experience and student science achievement. The findings of this study are intended to provide insights into the importance of hiring and developing qualified teachers who are better able to help students achieve in science, as well as to direct the emphases of ongoing teacher inservice training.

  7. Gender differences in science achievement: Do school effects make a difference?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Deidra J.; Fraser, Barry J.

    The problem of the underrepresentation of girls in science in Australian schools is often attributed to their poor performance. Yet the role of both the home and the school in affecting female science achievement is rarely examined empirically. The comprehensiveness of the Second International Science Study database provided an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of gender differences in science achievement. Although previous studies of gender differences in science achievement have relied on methodology that has not adequately accounted for the school effects, this study used the design effect and hierarchical linear modeling (multilevel analysis) to explore whether there were significant gender differences. The relative contribution of schools to student achievement was examined, and school-level differences were found to contribute significantly toward explaining variations in student performance. Although statistically significant sex differences were found in physics achievement for 10-year-old, 14-year-old, and year-12 students, school effects were much more powerful in explaining student differences (9-19%) when compared with gender (3%).

  8. A study: Effect of Students Peer Assisted Learning on Magnetic Field Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueanploy, Wannapa

    2016-04-01

    This study is the case study of Physic II Course for students of Pathumwan Institute of Technology. The purpose of this study is: 1) to develop cooperative learning method of peer assisted learning (PAL), 2) to compare the learning achievement before and after studied magnetic field lesson by cooperative learning method of peer assisted learning. The population was engineering students of Pathumwan Institute of Technology (PIT’s students) who registered Physic II Course during year 2014. The sample used in this study was selected from the 72 students who passed in Physic I Course. The control groups learning magnetic fields by Traditional Method (TM) and experimental groups learning magnetic field by method of peers assisted learning. The students do pretest before the lesson and do post-test after the lesson by 20 items achievement tests of magnetic field. The post-test higher than pretest achievement significantly at 0.01 level.

  9. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from…

  10. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  11. Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Understand Executive Control in Preschool Children: Sources of Variation in Emergent Mathematic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Rebecca; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Sheffield, Tiffany D.; Nelson, Jennifer Mize

    2011-01-01

    Latent variable modeling methods have demonstrated utility for understanding the structure of executive control (EC) across development. These methods are utilized to better characterize the relation between EC and mathematics achievement in the preschool period, and to understand contributing sources of individual variation. Using the sample and…

  12. High-School Students' Need for Cognition, Self-Control Capacity, and School Achievement: Testing a Mediation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrams, Alex; Dickhauser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    In the present article, we examine the hypothesis that high-school students' motivation to engage in cognitive endeavors (i.e., their need for cognition; NFC) is positively related to their dispositional self-control capacity. Furthermore, we test the prediction that the relation between NFC and school achievement is mediated by self-control…

  13. Using Valid and Invalid Experimental Designs to Teach the Control of Variables Strategy in Higher and Lower Achieving Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Robert F., Jr.; Lorch, Elizabeth P.; Freer, Benjamin Dunham; Dunlap, Emily E.; Hodell, Emily C.; Calderhead, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Students (n = 1,069) from 60 4th-grade classrooms were taught the control of variables strategy (CVS) for designing experiments. Half of the classrooms were in schools that performed well on a state-mandated test of science achievement, and half were in schools that performed relatively poorly. Three teaching interventions were compared: an…

  14. Effects of attractiveness and gender on the perception of achievement-related variables.

    PubMed

    Chia, R C; Allred, L J; Grossnickle, W F; Lee, G W

    1998-08-01

    The present study was an examination of the effects of physical attractiveness and gender on perceptions of academic success, achievement-related traits, intelligence, initiative, and attributions of ability and effort in relation to academic success. It was hypothesized that attractive persons and men would be rated more favorably along these dimensions than would unattractive persons and women. The participants were 144 U.S. undergraduates who observed photographs of attractive and unattractive men and women and then rated the persons in the photographs on the aforementioned dimensions. Physical attractiveness had a differential effect on the dimensions within achievement. Also, being perceived as physically attractive created positive impressions of achievement-related traits for men but negative impressions for women.

  15. Controlling surface enrichment in polymeric hole extraction layers to achieve high-efficiency organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hun; Lim, Kyung-Geun; Park, Jong Hyeok; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2012-10-01

    Hole extraction in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) can be modulated by a surface-enriched layer formed on top of the conducting polymer-based hole extraction layer (HEL). This tunes the surface work function of the HEL to better align with the ionization potential of the polymeric photoactive layer. Results show noticeable improvement in device power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in OPVs. We achieved a 6.1 % PCE from the OPV by optimizing the surface-enriched layer.

  16. Achievement of a low-outgassing white paint system for spacecraft thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidenberg, B.; Park, J. J.; Clatterbuck, C.

    1972-01-01

    Test results and data for achieving a low-outgassing polymer resin suitable for potting or a paint pigment are presented. The resin, prepared in 0.5-kg (1-lb) batches, is acceptable for spacecraft use; its weight loss is less than 0.5 percent, and the volatile condensable materials are less than 0.05 percent. The paint adheres to a primed fiber glass or aluminum substrate. Results of UV irradiation, electron and proton radiation, and thermal cycling are presented.

  17. Interdisciplinary mathematics and science: Characteristics, forms, and related effect sizes for student achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Marlene M.

    1999-12-01

    This study provides an analytic description of quasi-experimental studies that may either support or deny the wisdom of educational reform through interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Interdisciplinarity is examined on two dimensions, the philosophic and the pedagogic, and by two methodologies, meta-analytic and qualitative, in a search for greater understanding of the definitions, forms, characteristics, and effects from studies of interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Thirty-four studies were collected from a search of the literature that spanned the century, the grade levels, and included many forms of interdisciplinarity. Several research questions were asked: (1) What forms of interdisciplinarity, philosophically and practically, are represented by the studies? (2) What are their qualitative effects in school settings? (3) What are the characteristics of interdisciplinary quasi-experimental research? (4) What achievement effects typify the interdisciplinary comparative studies? (5) What factors account for variation in these achievement effects? (6) What claims or criticisms regarding interdisciplinarity are supported or refuted by the qualitative analysis of forms and effects and the quantitative meta-analytic study? Results from this study support the concerns that terms of interdisciplinarity are used without regard for context and that there is a trend toward a great diversity of ideas regarding the nature of interdisciplinary education. Student achievement data were provided by the 34 studies for mathematics and/or science. The mean effect sizes for student achievement were computed as: mathematics achievement, .27 (SE = .09); science achievement, .37 (SE = .12). Curricular materials developed by teachers were significantly less related to student achievement than materials developed by researchers or commercially. The methods of integration employed by the 34 studies formed a continuum from sequenced instructional integration to total

  18. Intergenerational Effects of Parents' Math Anxiety on Children's Math Achievement and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Erin A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-09-01

    A large field study of children in first and second grade explored how parents' anxiety about math relates to their children's math achievement. The goal of the study was to better understand why some students perform worse in math than others. We tested whether parents' math anxiety predicts their children's math achievement across the school year. We found that when parents are more math anxious, their children learn significantly less math over the school year and have more math anxiety by the school year's end-but only if math-anxious parents report providing frequent help with math homework. Notably, when parents reported helping with math homework less often, children's math achievement and attitudes were not related to parents' math anxiety. Parents' math anxiety did not predict children's reading achievement, which suggests that the effects of parents' math anxiety are specific to children's math achievement. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of low math achievement and high math anxiety. PMID:26253552

  19. Intergenerational Effects of Parents' Math Anxiety on Children's Math Achievement and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Erin A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-09-01

    A large field study of children in first and second grade explored how parents' anxiety about math relates to their children's math achievement. The goal of the study was to better understand why some students perform worse in math than others. We tested whether parents' math anxiety predicts their children's math achievement across the school year. We found that when parents are more math anxious, their children learn significantly less math over the school year and have more math anxiety by the school year's end-but only if math-anxious parents report providing frequent help with math homework. Notably, when parents reported helping with math homework less often, children's math achievement and attitudes were not related to parents' math anxiety. Parents' math anxiety did not predict children's reading achievement, which suggests that the effects of parents' math anxiety are specific to children's math achievement. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of low math achievement and high math anxiety.

  20. High Self-Control Predicts More Positive Emotions, Better Engagement, and Higher Achievement in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ronnel B.; Gaerlan, Marianne Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    The control-value theory of academic emotions has emerged as a useful framework for studying the antecedents and consequences of different emotions in school. This framework focuses on the role of control-related and value-related appraisals as proximal antecedents of emotions. In this study, we take an individual differences approach to examine…

  1. Effects of Single-Gender Middle School Classes on Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Tanisha

    Many girls continue to achieve below their male counterparts and portray negative attitudes towards science classes. Some school districts are using single-gender education as a way to shrink the gender gap in school achievement and science related attitude. The purpose of this study was to compare achievement and science-related attitudes of 7th grade girls in single-gender education to 7th grade girls in mixed-gender education. The theoretical base for this study included knowledge from brain-based learning and assimilation, accommodation and age factors of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. The 12-week study included 48 7th grade girls, 21 in the single-gender classroom and 14 in each mixed-gender classroom. This quantitative randomized posttest only control group design utilized the TerraNova Science Assessment and the Test of Science Related Attitudes. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine if significant differences existed in the achievement and attitudes of girls in single and mixed-gender science classes. ANOVA analyses revealed that the girls in the single-gender classroom showed a significantly higher achievement level when compared to girls in the mixed-gender classrooms. Results showed no significant difference in attitude between the two groups. The results of this study contribute to social change by raising awareness about gender issues in science achievement and attitude, addressing a deficiency in the single-gender science education literature, and assisting educational systems in decision making to address achievement gaps while moving toward adequate yearly progress and meeting the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.

  2. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed. PMID:24072936

  3. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Quinn, Patrick D; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-05-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed. PMID:24072936

  4. Blood pressure telemonitoring is useful to achieve blood pressure control in inadequately treated patients with arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Neumann, C L; Menne, J; Rieken, E M; Fischer, N; Weber, M H; Haller, H; Schulz, E G

    2011-12-01

    Failing to reach blood pressure (BP) goals is one of the main problems in hypertension management. Especially in high-risk patients, intensive monitoring including frequently office visits or new techniques to monitor home BP is required. A total of 60 patients with uncontrolled hypertension were included and randomized into a group with telemetric BP monitoring (TBPM) (n=30) and a control group receiving standard care (n=30). During the 3-month study period, patients received in addition to their antihypertensive pre-treatment up to 2 × 300 mg irbesartan to achieve the required target BP. All patients were instructed to measure their BP once daily in the morning. In the TBPM group automatic alerts were generated by the central database server using pre-defined algorithms and patients were subsequently contacted by the physician. At baseline mean 24-h ambulant BP monitoring (ABPM) was 143.3±11.1/82.6±9.9 mm Hg in the TBPM group and 141.4±12.6/82.1±6.5 mm Hg in the standard care group. During treatment mean systolic BP showed a more intensive decrease in the TBPM vs control group (-17.0±11.1 mm Hg vs -9.8±13.7 mm Hg; P=0.032). Patients in the TBPM group had a more pronounced night dipping and a higher reduction of mean pulse pressure than controls (-8.1±5.9 mm Hg vs -2.8±7.4 mm Hg, P=0.004). After 3 months, TBPM-treated patients were given a higher mean daily dose of irbesartan (375±187 mg vs 222±147 mg in controls; P=<0.001). We demonstrated that with TBPM a more effective and faster titration of the antihypertensive agent is possible. The alarm criteria chosen were useful to improve BP control. PMID:21228822

  5. Evaluation Study of the Effects of Promethean ActivClassroom on Student Achievement. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Haystead, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    During the 2009-2010 school year, Marzano Research Laboratory (MRL) was commissioned by Promethean Ltd. to conduct a second year evaluation study of the effects of Promethean ActivClassroom on student academic achievement. This report describes the findings from the second year study along with aggregate findings from the first and second year…

  6. Teacher Attitudes toward Dyslexia: Effects on Teacher Expectations and the Academic Achievement of Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornstra, Lisette; Denessen, Eddie; Bakker, Joep; van den Bergh, Linda; Voeten, Marinus

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined teacher attitudes toward dyslexia and the effects of these attitudes on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia compared to students without learning disabilities. The attitudes of 30 regular education teachers toward dyslexia were determined using both an implicit measure and an…

  7. Performance-Approach Goal Effects on Achievement under Low versus High Challenge Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Durik, Amanda M.; Patel, Lily; Lovejoy, Chelsea M.; Valentiner, David

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the effects of university students' achievement goals on performance under low versus high challenge conditions. The first was a laboratory experiment in which participants were assigned goals to pursue on a novel mathematics task alleged to be simple or complex to use. The second was a survey study in which students set goals…

  8. Peer Effects in Urban Schools: Assessing the Impact of Classroom Composition on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of classroom peers on standardized testing achievement for all third- and fourth-grade students in the Philadelphia School District over 6 school years. With a comprehensive individual-and multilevel data set of all students matched to teachers, classrooms, and schools, two empirical strategies are employed. The…

  9. The Effects of Modeling Instruction on High School Physics Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an "ex post facto," quasi-experimental research methodology. The…

  10. Effects of Teachers on Minority and Disadvantaged Students' Achievement in the Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2009-01-01

    The study reported in this article investigated the differential effects of teachers on female, minority, and low-socioeconomic-status (SES) students' achievement. I used data from a 4-year, large-scale, randomized experiment (Project STAR) that was conducted between 1985 and 1989 in Tennessee, in which students and teachers were randomly assigned…

  11. New Empirical Evidence on the Effect of Educational Tracking on Social Inequalities in Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavrijsen, Jeroen; Nicaise, Ides

    2015-01-01

    One of the major imperatives behind the comprehensivisation of secondary education was the belief that postponing the age at which students are tracked in different educational routes would mitigate the effect of social background on educational outcomes. Comparative investigations of large-scale international student achievement tests in…

  12. Teacher Effects on Student Achievement in First Grade: Which Aspects Matter Most?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonen, Tinneke; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of teachers (background qualifications, attitudes and beliefs, and instructional practices) on student achievement in mathematics, reading, and spelling in 1st grade. Its theoretical framework and methodology are based on recent work by Palardy and Rumberger (2008). Data from the SiBO Project, a…

  13. Relevant Prior Knowledge Moderates the Effect of Elaboration during Small Group Discussion on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion about thunder and lightning. In the video, a teacher asked…

  14. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on the Academic Achievement and Knowledge Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Van Dat

    2014-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the effects of cooperative learning on the achievement and knowledge retention of 110 first-year primary education students toward the psychology subject over the eight weeks of instruction at An Giang University. These tertiary students were divided into two matched groups of 55 to be taught by the same…

  15. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Elementary Students' Science Achievement and Social Skills in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahim, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the effects of two methods of teaching--teacher-centered and cooperative learning--on students' science achievement and use of social skills. The sample consists of 163 female elementary science students in 8 intact grade 5 classes who were assigned to 2 instructional methods and were taught an identical science unit by 4…

  16. An Elaboration on the Effect of Reading Anxiety on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpur, Bijan; Ghafournia, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    The present study was an elaboration on the effect of foreign language anxiety on reading comprehension achievement of Iranian EFL learners. The participants comprised 100 BA students, doing General English Course in different academic fields at Islamic University of Neyshabur. The participants took a reading proficiency test of TOEFL and answered…

  17. Missing Data and Mixed Results: The Effects of Teach For America on Student Achievement Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Emily K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits existing experimental work on Teach For America (TFA) and extends it by examining treatment effects across the distribution of student achievement. TFA is a rapidly expanding teacher preparation program that currently serves over half a million students in low-income districts across the country. Previous research results did…

  18. Effects of an Elementary Dual Language Immersion School Program on Junior High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Brian; Vega, Diego; Kronauge, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a two-way immersion elementary school program on academic achievement at the end of the elementary school and the end of the first year of junior high school. Longitudinal high stakes test data in reading, writing, and mathematics were collected on native English speakers and native Spanish…

  19. The Effectiveness of the SSHA in Improving Prediction of Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikoff, Richard L.; Kafka, Gene F.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of the Survey of Study Habits (SSHA) in improving prediction of achievement. The American College Testing Program English and mathematics subtests were good predictors of gradepoint average. The SSHA subtests accounted for an additional 3 percent of the variance. Sex differences were noted. (Author)

  20. Effects of Modality and Pace on Achievement, Mental Effort, and Positive Affect in Multimedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izmirli, Serkan; Kurt, Adile Askim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of instruction given with different multimedia modalities (written text + animation or narration + animation) on the academic achievement, cognitive load, and positive affect in different paces (learner-paced or system-paced); 97 freshmen university students divided into four groups taught in…

  1. Effectiveness of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment in Biology Teaching: Classroom Community Sense, Academic Achievement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yapici, I. Ümit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment (BCLE) in biology teaching on students' classroom community sense, their academic achievement and on their levels of satisfaction. In the study, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together. The study was carried out with 30 students in…

  2. An Integrated Assessment of the Effects of Title I on School Behavior, Resources, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsudaira, Jordan D.; Hosek, Adrienne; Walsh, Elias

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of Title I on school behavior, resources, and academic performance using a rich set of school finance and student-level achievement data from one large urban school district using a regression discontinuity design. We find that Title I eligibility raises Federal revenues of schools by about $460 per student. This is…

  3. The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Students' Achievement and Views on the Science and Technology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altun, Sertel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of learning plan implementation prepared with the cooperative learning method. In particular, the study addresses the effect of cooperative learning on students' achievement and their views regarding the "Systems in Our Body" unit of the 6th grade Science and Technology lesson.…

  4. Technology's Effect on Achievement in Higher Education: A Stage I Meta-Analysis of Classroom Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Richard F.; Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Tamim, Rana; Abrami, Philip C.; Wade, C. Anne; Surkes, Michael A.; Lowerison, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Stage I meta-analysis exploring the achievement effects of computer-based technology use in higher education classrooms (non-distance education). An extensive literature search revealed more than 6,000 potentially relevant primary empirical studies. Analysis of a representative sample of 231 studies (k = 310)…

  5. The Effectiveness of Education Technology for Enhancing Reading Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Slavin, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    The present review examines research on the effects of technology use on reading achievement in K-12 classrooms. Unlike previous reviews, this review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards. In addition, methodological and substantive features of the studies are investigated to examine the…

  6. Effects of Group Size on Students Mathematics Achievement in Small Group Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enu, Justice; Danso, Paul Amoah; Awortwe, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    An ideal group size is hard to obtain in small group settings; hence there are groups with more members than others. The purpose of the study was to find out whether group size has any effects on students' mathematics achievement in small group settings. Two third year classes of the 2011/2012 academic year were selected from two schools in the…

  7. Effects of Grade Retention on Achievement and Self-Concept in Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehmke, Timo; Drechsel, Barbara; Carstensen, Claus H.

    2010-01-01

    The study analyzes the effects of grade repetition on science and mathematics achievement and on self-concept in mathematics using longitudinal data from a representative sample of 9th graders in Germany. Same-age comparisons were applied between three groups: (a) the retained students, (b) a matched group of promoted students, and (c) the entire…

  8. The Effect of Multiple Intelligences Strategies on EFL Ninth Graders' Achievement in Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jallad, Nasreen Y.; Bani Abdelrahman, Abdallah A.

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of multiple intelligences strategies comprising logical-mathematical intelligence, verbal-linguistic intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence and interpersonal intelligence on ninth grade students' reading comprehension achievement in an EFL setting. The population of the study consisted of all ninth…

  9. A Modeling-Based College Algebra Course and Its Effect on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Aimee J.

    2005-01-01

    In Fall 2004, Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) piloted a modeling-based approach to college algebra. This paper describes the course and an assessment that was conducted to determine the effect of this approach on student achievement in comparison to a traditional approach to college algebra. The results show that compared with their…

  10. The Effects of Using PBWorks in a Hybrid Collaborative Class Environment on Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Abdullah Y. A. A. A.

    2011-01-01

    E-learning plays an important role in higher education, especially with the appearance of web 2.0. The study investigated the effects of using PBWorks, as a free web 2.0 wiki, on students' academic achievement, and students' attitudes toward collaborative learning. The study was designed as an experimental study. There was comparison between two…

  11. Academic Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of School Psychological Climate on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Høigaard, Rune; Kovac, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth-and tenth-grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic…

  12. Multilevel Effects of Student and Classroom Factors on Elementary Science Achievement in Five Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Sibel; Rice, Diana C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of individual student factors and classroom factors on elementary science achievement within and across five countries. The student-level factors included gender, self-confidence in science and home resources. The classroom-level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom…

  13. Summary of Effects of Biological Factors on Sex-Related Differences in Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Julia

    Critically reviewed evidence relevant to hypotheses of biological sources of sex-related cognitive differences as they relate to mathematics achievement include the following: explanations based on the assumption of greater variability in male cognitive performance; sex-related differences in serum urate; effects of estrogens compared to androgens…

  14. The Effect of an Instructional Intervention on Middle School English Learners' Science and English Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Tong, Fuhui; Irby, Beverly J.; Guerrero, Cindy; Huerta, Maggie; Fan, Yinan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a quasi-experimental project on fifth grade English learners' achievement in state-mandated standards-based science and English reading assessment. A total of 166 treatment students and 80 comparison students from four randomized intermediate schools participated in the current project. The intervention consisted…

  15. The Effects of 3D Computer Simulation on Biology Students' Achievement and Memory Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elangovan, Tavasuria; Ismail, Zurida

    2014-01-01

    A quasi experimental study was conducted for six weeks to determine the effectiveness of two different 3D computer simulation based teaching methods, that is, realistic simulation and non-realistic simulation on Form Four Biology students' achievement and memory retention in Perak, Malaysia. A sample of 136 Form Four Biology students in Perak,…

  16. Interaction Effects of Socio-economic Status, Intelligence and Reading Program on Beginning Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Ching; Eiszler, Charles F.

    An investigation is being made of the effects of the interaction between differing socioeconomic backgrounds and two beginning reading programs on the reading achievement of pupils at three ability levels. This report gives the results of data that have been collected for grades 1 and 2 only. Participating were 754 pupils in a small city school…

  17. Reading for Success: The Effectiveness of Literacy Interventions for Increasing Student Achievement in Core Academic Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to utilize quantitative and qualitative data to measure the effects of Tier 2 and Tier 3 literacy interventions as they affect student achievement in the secondary school setting. The research questions addressed performance of students who were enrolled in Reading for Success as compared to a cohort…

  18. The Effect of Metacognitive Strategy Instruction on Student Achievement in a Hybrid Developmental English Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Ra Shaunda Vernee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore what effect instruction in metacognitive strategy (MS) use had on student achievement in a hybrid developmental English course at a community college. The study examined whether the addition of teacher-led or peer-led instruction in MS use would result in improved writing ability for the student…

  19. The Effect of Origami-Based Instruction on Spatial Visualization, Geometry Achievement, and Geometric Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arici, Sevil; Aslan-Tutak, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the effect of origami-based geometry instruction on spatial visualization, geometry achievement, and geometric reasoning of tenth-grade students in Turkey. The sample ("n" = 184) was chosen from a tenth-grade population of a public high school in Turkey. It was a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design. A…

  20. The Effect of Web-Based Homework on University Students' Physics Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Neset

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effect of web-based homework on university students' physics achievement was compared. One of the two identical sections of introductory physics course students received pen-and-paper homework done in groups while the other received web-based online homework performed individually. And then both groups' homework performance and…

  1. The Effectiveness of Web Assisted English Language Instruction on the Achievement and Attitude of the Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzunboylu, Huseyin

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the exercises of English language grammar instruction on the achievement of the students when it is applied on web assisted. The study had been executed in accordance with the experimental study model. The experiment group of the study has used a web site that was prepared and they…

  2. The Effects of Manuscript-Cursive Combinations of Instructional Treatments on Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, Lois Ann

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of four presentation-practice combinations of manuscript and cursive writing on the spelling achievement of fourth-grade subjects. Factors included in the investigation were initial spelling accuracy, visual memory and sex. The experimental subjects in the investigation were 120 fourth-grade…

  3. The Effect of Peer Teaching on Mathematics Academic Achievement of the Undergraduate Students in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelkarim, Ra'ed; Abuiyada, Reem

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effects of peer teaching on mathematics academic achievement of the undergraduate students in Oman. The sample of this study composed of (32) undergraduate female students enrolled in the course, "Mathematics for Social Sciences I" in Mathematics and Sciences Unit in Dhofar University in spring semester 2014-2015.…

  4. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  5. The Effective Behaviors and Practices of Administrators in Urban Charter Schools Relating to Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Prima N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this basic qualitative study was to analyze and identify the leadership styles that directly influence student achievement that were used by the school leaders sustaining the schools. A basic qualitative research study was appropriate to acknowledge the leadership style of the principal in demonstrating effective practices that link…

  6. Reflections on Effects of Blogging on Students' Achievement and Knowledge Acquisition in Issues of Instructional Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekinarslan, Erkan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of blogging on Turkish undergraduate students' achievement levels in issues of instructional technology in a computer course. Moreover, this study reflects the observations of the instructor and the opinions of the students regarding contributions of blogging to their knowledge acquisition and…

  7. Cooperative Learning Instruction: Effects of Wanting or Not Wanting To Participate on Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Katherine S.; Kerrins, Judith A.

    This study was designed to investigate differential achievement effects of cooperative learning instruction in mathematics on students who seek group membership and on those who do not. The study was conducted in a suburban school district in Colorado. Participants were 3 classes of 5th-grade students (N=56) along with teachers who had received…

  8. The Effects of Learning Strategies on Mathematical Literacy: A Comparison between Lower and Higher Achieving Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen-Nagar, Noga

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to explore the effects of learning strategies on Mathematical Literacy (ML) of students in higher and lower achieving countries. To address this issue, the study utilizes PISA2002 data to conduct a multi-level analysis (HLM) of Hong Kong and Israel students. In PISA2002, Israel was rated 31st in Mathematics,…

  9. Effects of Computer Based Learning on Students' Attitudes and Achievements towards Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcay, Hüsamettin; Durmaz, Asli; Tüysüz, Cengiz; Feyzioglu, Burak

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of computer-based learning and traditional method on students' attitudes and achievement towards analytical chemistry. Students from Chemistry Education Department at Dokuz Eylul University (D.E.U) were selected randomly and divided into three groups; two experimental (Eg-1 and Eg-2) and a control…

  10. Effect of Self Regulated Learning Approach on Junior Secondary School Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwafor, Chika E.; Obodo, Abigail Chikaodinaka; Okafor, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the effect of self-regulated learning approach on junior secondary school students' achievement in basic science. Quasi-experimental design was used for the study.Two co-educational schools were drawn for the study through simple random sampling technique. One school was assigned to the treatment group while the other was…

  11. Effects of Graphic Organiser on Students' Achievement in Algebraic Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owolabi, Josiah; Adaramati, Tobiloba Faith

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of graphic organiser and gender on students' academic achievement in algebraic word problem. Three research questions and three null hypotheses were used in guiding this study. Quasi experimental research was employed and Non-equivalent pre and post test design was used. The study involved the Senior Secondary…

  12. The Effect of School-Specific Parenting Processes on Academic Achievement in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mellissa S.; Cui, Ming

    2012-01-01

    There is inconsistency in the current literature regarding the association between dimensions of parenting processes and academic achievement for adolescents. Further, few studies have extended such an association into young adulthood. In this study, we examined the effect of three dimensions of parenting processes, including school-specific…

  13. Effects of Eclectic Learning Approach on Students' Academic Achievement and Retention in English at Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleman, Qaiser; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the research paper was to investigate the effect of eclectic learning approach on the academic achievement and retention of students in English at elementary level. A sample of forty students of 8th grade randomly selected from Government Boys High School Khurram District Karak was used. It was an experimental study and that's why…

  14. The Effects of Multimedia and Learning Style on Student Achievement in Online Electronics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surjono, Herman Dwi

    2015-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the effects of multimedia preferences and learning styles on undergraduate student achievement in an adaptive e-learning system for electronics course at the Yogyakarta State University Indonesia. The findings showed that students in which their multimedia preferences and learning style matched with the way the…

  15. The Effects of Two Intervention Programs on Teaching Quality and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azkiyah, S. N.; Doolaard, Simone; Creemers, Bert P. M.; Van Der Werf, M. P. C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the effectiveness of two interventions aimed to improve teaching quality and student achievement in Indonesia. The first intervention was the use of education standards, while the second one was the combination of education standards with a teacher improvement program. The study involved 50 schools, 52 teachers, and 1660…

  16. Effect of Three Instructional Strategies on Students' Attitudes and Cognitive Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Dennis R.; Purohit, Anal

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different instructional strategies upon the attitudes and cognitive achievement of nursing students. The major conclusions were: (a) fewer students were manifesting philosophies supportive of independent study strategies, and (b) significant interaction between students' attitudes,…

  17. The Effect of Foreign Language Study in Tennessee Middle Schools on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Keith S.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative method, quasi-experimental design study examined the possible effect of foreign language study in Tennessee middle schools on mathematics achievement. The population was 1,708 historical student test scores of a single cohort spanning 6th through 8th Grades from the same schools within a large urban public school district. NCLB…

  18. English Language Learners and Kindergarten Entry Age: Achievement and Social-Emotional Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating the role of kindergarten entry age, previous researchers have not examined the entry-age effects for English language learners (ELL). Additionally, little work has assessed the role of entry age on both achievement and social-emotional outcomes. This study is the first to do both simultaneously. The authors used data from a…

  19. Effectiveness of a Metacognitive Reading Strategies Program for Improving Low Achieving EFL Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Nasrah Mahmoud; Tawalbeh, Tha'er Issa

    2015-01-01

    As the training of language learners was a main concern of EFL teachers, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of metacognitive reading strategies instruction (MRSI) on Taif University EFL students who achieved low results in reading. The final sample of this study was (21) female university students. The sample was divided into two groups;…

  20. Gender and Capacity Effects on Achievement before and after CPC Way of Individualizing Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furukawa, James M.

    This study considered the effects of gender and cognitive processing capacity on achievement of students at an intermediate school. The capacity test developed by J. M. Furukawa (1970, 1977), which requires examinees to recall word pairs immediately after a brief exposure, was modified for use with these students. The test was adopted because it…

  1. The Effect of Creative Drama on Student Achievement in the Course of Information Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özek, Müzeyyen Bulut

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of creative drama on student achievement in the Information Technologies course. The study was carried out for the unit "Tomorrow's Technology" which is the first unit of Information Technologies course. For this study, 89 sixth grade students were selected from primary school in…

  2. The Effects of Response to Intervention on the Mathematics Achievement of Seventh and Eighth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Annette Sargent

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the effectiveness of a system-wide Response to Intervention (RTI) program on the mathematical achievement of seventh and eighth grade students. The study consisted of five district schools with a total of 502 participants. The students were identified as belonging to one of two tiers, which…

  3. Effects of Ability Grouping on Math Achievement of Third Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Emily; Feng, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of heterogeneous and homogeneous grouping on the mathematical achievement of students in third grade. Participants were 16 third graders in a self-contained classroom, assigned to either small homogeneous or heterogeneous group for math instruction for 7 weeks. Pretest-posttest scores and growth…

  4. Effects of Consistency Management(R) on Student Mathematics Achievement in Seven Chapter I Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiberg, H. Jerome; Connell, Michael L.; Lorentz, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the additive effect of teachers' training in Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline (CMCD) on a constructivist mathematics program in Chapter I elementary schools. Upper elementary school students of teachers skilled in both CMCD and constructivist mathematics showed higher achievement gains than students from schools with…

  5. Effects of Single-Sex and Coeducational Schooling on the Gender Gap in Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Sheree J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of single-sex and coeducational schooling on the gender gap in educational achievement to age 25. Data were drawn from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 individuals born in 1977 in Christchurch, New Zealand. After adjustment for a series of covariates…

  6. Gender Peer Effects in School: Does the Gender of School Peers Affect Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabezas, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses gender peer effects in education and their impact on student achievement in Chile. We address the topic from three different level of analysis: (a) whether the proportion of girls in a cohort influences students' educational outcomes (b) whether assignment to a classroom with a higher proportion of girls influences…

  7. Effects of Feedback on Achievement Goals and Perceived Motivational Climate in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effects of teacher's positive and negative feedback on high school students' perceived motivational climate and achievement goals in a physical education setting. Forty seven ninth grade students participated in the study. The design was a 2 x 2 between subjects factorial crossing feedback…

  8. The Effects of the Constructivist Learning Approach on Student's Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayaz, Mehmet Fatih; Sekerci, Hanifi

    2015-01-01

    In this research, a meta-analysis study was conducted in order to determine the effects of constructivist learning approach on students' academic achievement. Master's thesis, doctoral dissertation and articles in national and international databases, which are realized between the years of 2003-2014, appropriate to the problem and which can be…

  9. The Effects of Different Applications on Creativity Regarding Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elaldi, Senel; Batdi, Veli

    2016-01-01

    In this study, through a meta-analysis of 20 studies, it is aimed to compare the effectiveness of various forms of learning methods including creativity based learning, problem based learning, and differentiated instruction on creativity in terms of the academic achievement of students and to find out other study characteristics, related to the…

  10. The Effect of Peer-Based Instruction on Rhythm Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of peer-based instruction on rhythm reading achievement of instrumental and choral music students attending a large urbanfringe high school in a major metropolitan area. Participants (N = 131) included band (n = 71) and choir (n = 60) students whose backgrounds reflected extensive economic (78%…

  11. An Examination of Effective Practice: Moving toward Elimination of Achievement Gaps in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study of middle school science teachers explored the relationship between effective science instruction, as defined by the National Science Education Standards (NRC in National science education standards. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1996), and student achievement in science. Eleven teachers participated in a three…

  12. Effectiveness of CAI Package on Achievement in Physics of IX Standard Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheswari, I. Uma; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is an experimental one in nature, to find out the effectiveness of CAI package on in Physics of IX std. students. For this purpose a CAI package was developed and validated. The validated CAI package formed an independent variable of this study. The dependent variable is students' achievements in physics content. In order to find…

  13. Effects of Parental Separation on the Academic Achievement of Children of Military Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gauge the effects of parental separation on the academic achievement and social/emotional behavior of children of military personnel. The research design was descriptive-exploratory in nature, utilizing both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The Teacher's Perception of Social Attributes (TPSA)…

  14. Effects of Music Instruction with Bamboo Xylophone Accompaniment on Singing Achievement among Second-Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simeon, Jinky Jane C.; Ku, Agnes Chun Moi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of music instruction with bamboo xylophone as harmonic accompaniment on the singing achievement of second-grade children. Eighty children (N = 80) from four randomly selected classes in two different public schools in the city of Kota Kinabalu participated in this study and they were assigned to…

  15. The Effect of Web-Based Portfolio Use on Academic Achievement and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzeller, Cem Oktay

    2012-01-01

    The web-based portfolio emerged as a result of the influence of technological developments on educational practices. In this study, the effect of the web-based portfolio building process on academic achievement and retention is explored. For this purpose, a study platform known as a computer-assisted personal development portfolio was designed for…

  16. Examining the Effects of Turkish Education Reform on Students' TIMSS 2007 Science Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atar, Hakan Yavuz; Atar, Burcu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of some of the changes such as student centered learning (i.e. inquiry science instruction), outfitting classrooms with latest technology and computers that the reform movement has brought about on students' TIMSS 2007 science achievements. Two-staged stratified sampling was used in the selection…

  17. Cooperative Learning in Small Groups: Recent Methods and Effects on Achievement, Attitudes, and Ethnic Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharan, Shlomo

    1980-01-01

    Three peer tutoring methods and two group investigation approaches are examined for effects on academic achievement, students' attitudes, and ethnic relations. The five methods are: Jigsaw classroom (Aronson), Teams-Games-Tournaments (DeVries), Student Teams and Academic Division (Slavin), cooperative learning approach (Johnson), and small-group…

  18. Effect of Further Mathematics on Students' Achievement in Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatoye, R. Ademola

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Further Mathematics on students' achievement in mathematics, biology, chemistry and physics in Ogun State, Nigeria. Two Local Government Areas (LGAs) were judgmentally selected from the state. Ten secondary schools were also purposively selected from the two LGAs (Five schools from each LGA). At least twenty…

  19. The Effects of Repeated Readings on Third Grade Students' Reading Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheriff, Tennille Joie Natasha

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a reading strategy, repeated readings, on third grade students' reading achievement and attitudes. One hundred sixteen third grade students as members of six classrooms in one elementary school participated in this 10 week study. Using a quasi-experimental pretest posttest design, students' mean…

  20. The Effects of Response to Intervention on Third Graders' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Marlon Demetrius

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the effects of the Response to Intervention Three Tier Model on third graders' reading achievement. Two hundred forty-three students participated in this study. Students were from an elementary school in the southeastern region of the United States. The data on the students was collected…

  1. Comparative Effects of Two Modes of Computer-Assisted Instructional Package on Solid Geometry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Isiaka Amosa; Ezenwa, Victoria Ifeoma; Anyanwu, Romanus Chogozie

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effects of two modes of computer-assisted instructional package on solid geometry achievement amongst senior secondary school students in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI(AT) and CAI(AN) packages were examined. This study adopted a pretest-posttest…

  2. Effect of Cuisenaire Rods' Approach on Some Nigeria Primary Pupils' Achievement in Decimal Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurumeh, M. S. C.; Achor, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    This study determined the effect of Cuisenaire Rods' approach on some Nigeria primary pupils' achievement in decimal fractions. Three hypotheses guided the study. A total of 200 Primary six pupils (that is, 6th grade) from randomly selected schools in Makurdi metropolis of Benue State of Nigeria served as the sample for the study. A Mathematics…

  3. Action Research: Effects of Self-Efficacy Training on Low Achieving Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselden, Polly G.; Sanders, Marla; Sturkie, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    This action research project investigated the effects of self-efficacy training on low achieving high school freshman who were considered to be at risk for academic failure. Six students participated in psycho-educational group counseling sessions for forty-five minutes weekly over the course of a nine-week reporting period. Findings indicated…

  4. Low (Linear) Teacher Effect on Student Achievement in Pre-Academic Physics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottaar, Alice

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of physics education on students' achievement in a large-scale quantitative study of pre-academic high school students throughout the Netherlands. Two aspects of teacher characteristics as perceived by their students are included: "pleasantness" principally defined by their perceived friendliness and positive…

  5. The Effects of Diagnostic Testing and Remediation on Science Achievement and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Joe C.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to provide students with differing types of learning needs instruction following diagnostic testing; also examined were the effects of the instruction on science achievement and retention. A total of 154 seventh-grade students from six classes completed a five-week block of instruction in earth science composed of…

  6. Examining the Effects of Differential Instructional Methods on the Model of Foreign Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Tae-Il; Shin, Sang-Keun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of differential instructional methods on the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motivations (IM and EM, respectively), self-confidence, motivation, and English as a foreign language (EFL) achievement for a sample of Korean university students and their teachers. To this end,…

  7. SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT AND EFFECT OF TYPE SIZE ON READING IN VISUALLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BIRCH, JACK W.; AND OTHERS

    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VISUAL DEFICITS AND ACHIEVEMENT WAS STUDIED. PARTIALLY SEEING CHILDREN (424) FROM THE FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADES WERE ADMINISTERED FIVE EQUIVALENT FORMS OF A STANDARDIZED TEST CONTAINING SCHOOL-LIKE READING TASKS. A LATIN SQUARE DESIGN WAS USED TO SPREAD THE EFFECTS OF TEACHERS' SKILL IN TEST ADMINISTRATION, PRACTICE, LEVELS…

  8. The Effectiveness of Contract Learning Strategy on Special Diploma Students' Achievement and Attitudes Towards English Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of using the contract learning strategy on special diploma students' achievement and attitudes towards English language; a strategy that has been used in the field of education in general and teaching English language in particular. The subjects of the present study consisted of 41 graduate students…

  9. Effects of a Language Arts Service-Learning Project on Sixth-Grade Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Although the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001 created new instructional intervention practices, reading and writing scores across K-12 and postsecondary levels continue to reflect stagnant achievement outcomes. The research questions in this study concerned the effect of a northern Michigan middle school language arts…

  10. Effects of Remarriage Following Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeynes, William H.

    1999-01-01

    Used data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey to study the effects of remarriage following divorce on children's academic achievement. Results indicate that children from reconstituted families score no higher, and often lower than children of divorce from single-parent families. (SLD)

  11. The Effect of Inquiry-Based Learning Method on Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of inquiry-based learning method on students' academic achievement in sciences lesson. A total of 40 fifth grade students from two different classes were involved in the study. They were selected through purposive sampling method. The group which was assigned as experimental group was…

  12. Effect of Learning Cycle Approach-Based Science Teaching on Academic Achievement, Attitude, Motivation and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uyanik, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of learning cycle approach-based teaching on academic achievement, attitude, motivation and retention at primary school 4th grade science lesson. It was conducted pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design in this study. The study was conducted on a total of 65 students studying in two different…

  13. Examining the Effect of Academic Procrastination on Achievement Using LMS Data in E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Ji Won

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of academic procrastination on e-learning course achievement. Because all of the interactions among students, instructors, and contents in an e-learning environment were automatically recorded in a learning management system (LMS), procrastination such as the delays in weekly scheduled learning and late…

  14. Effects of Interim Assessments across the Achievement Distribution: Evidence From an Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei; Miller, Shazia R.; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a large-scale experiment conducted in Indiana in 2009-2010 to examine the impact of two interim assessment programs (mCLASS and Acuity) across the mathematics and reading achievement distributions. Specifically, we focus on whether the use of interim assessments has a particularly strong effect on improving outcomes for low…

  15. Academic Achievement, Self-Concept and Depression in Taiwanese Children: Moderated Mediation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Shin-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to utilize a multidimensional perspective to examine whether children's self-concept served as a mediator between academic achievement and depression, and to further investigate whether this mediation effect was moderated by the ages of children. The participants consisted of 632 Taiwanese children in the…

  16. Effects of Secondary School Students' Perceptions of Mathematics Education Quality on Mathematics Anxiety and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çiftçi, S. Koza

    2015-01-01

    The two aims of this study are as follows: (1) to compare the differences in mathematics anxiety and achievement in secondary school students according to their perceptions of the quality of their mathematics education via a cluster analysis and (2) to test the effects of the perception of mathematics education quality on anxiety and achievement…

  17. The Effect of Mobile Learning on Students' Achievement and Conversational Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfeky, Abdellah Ibrahim Mohammed; Masadeh, Thouqan Saleem Yakoub

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of Mobile Learning, which is a kind of E-learning that uses mobile devices, on the development of the academic achievement and conversational skills of English language specialty students at Najran University. The study used the quasi-experimental approach. Participants consisted of (50) students who…

  18. The Effects of the Classroom Performance System on Student Participation, Attendance, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Termos, Mohamad Hani

    2013-01-01

    The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology that increases student performance and promotes active learning. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes, where students' first spoken language is not…

  19. Effectiveness of fish habitat compensation in Canada in achieving no net loss.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Jason T; Harper, David J

    2006-03-01

    Fish habitat loss has been prevalent over the last century in Canada. To prevent further erosion of the resource base and ensure sustainable development, Fisheries and Oceans Canada enacted the habitat provisions of the Fisheries Act in 1976. In 1986, this was articulated by a policy that a "harmful alteration, disruption, or destruction to fish habitat" (HADD) cannot occur unless authorised with legally binding compensatory habitat to offset the HADD. Despite Canada's progressive conservation policies, the effectiveness of compensation habitat in replicating ecosystem function has never been tested on a national scale. The effectiveness of habitat compensation projects in achieving no net loss of habitat productivity (NNL) was evaluated at 16 sites across Canada. Periphyton biomass, invertebrate density, fish biomass, and riparian vegetation density were used as indicators of habitat productivity. Approximately 63% of projects resulted in net losses in habitat productivity. These projects were characterised by mean compensation ratios (area gain:area loss) of 0.7:1. Twenty-five percent of projects achieved NNL and 12% of projects achieved a net gain in habitat productivity. These projects were characterised by mean ratios of 1.1:1 and 4.8:1, respectively. We demonstrated that artificially increasing ratios to 2:1 was not sufficient to achieve NNL for all projects. The ability to replicate ecosystem function is clearly limited. Improvements in both compensation science and institutional approaches are recommended to achieve Canada's conservation goal. PMID:16456631

  20. The effects on interest, instruction, and achievement on the science question level of middle school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccio Schirripa, Santine

    The effects of instruction in writing researchable questions, science topic interest, and achievement (science, reading, and mathematics) on science question level in seventh grade students were investigated experimentally. The hypotheses were: students instructed in researchable questioning in science would outperform students who were not instructed on a measure of science question level; students interested in science topics would score higher on a measure of science question level, than when they are not interested; and high achieving students in mathematics, reading or science would outperform students who are not high achievers on a measure of science question level. Eight classes of normally achieving seventh graders (n = 106 students), from a middle school in west central Florida, were randomly assigned to two treatments. One group received instruction in writing researchable questions in science, the other group did not receive instruction. Each student in each of the eight classes completed "The Middle School Students' Science Topic Interest Rating Scale", developed for this study (test-retest reliability, rsbs =.84), rating each of the thirteen topics from one to three. All students selected two topics in which they were least interested, and two topics in which they were most interested. They then wrote researchable questions for each topic. All students took the Scholastic Aptitude Tests (SAT) in reading, mathematics and science. The questions were rated using the four levels described by "The Middle School Students' Science Question Rating Scale", developed for this study (inter-rater reliability, rsbs =.96). The scores for each question were averaged for two raters then summed for each interest level for each student The means and standard deviations were computed for questions generated at a low level of interest, questions generated at a high level of interest, reading SAT scores, mathematics SAT scores, and science SAT scores. The data were