Science.gov

Sample records for achieve environmental sustainability

  1. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  2. Achieving Our Environmental Sustainability Goals: The Opportunities and Pitfalls of Applying Life Cycle Thinking

    EPA Science Inventory

    An increasing number of people around the world are beginning to realize that a systems approach, such as life cycle thinking, is necessary to truly achieve environmental sustainability. Without the holistic perspective that life cycle thinking provides, our actions risk leading ...

  3. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies. PMID:26601127

  4. Addressing China’s grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C.; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J.; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    China’s increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies. PMID:26601127

  5. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  6. Achieving sustainable cultivation of potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Every phase of the production cycle impacts the sustainability of potato. Potato physiology determines how genetically encoded developmental attributes interact with local environmental conditions as modified through agricultural practice to produce a perishable crop. In this chapter we highlight ho...

  7. Going Green: A Comparative Case Study of How Three Higher Education Institutions Achieved Progressive Measures of Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    Leal Filho, MacDermot, and Padgam (1996) contended that post-secondary institutions are well suited to take on leadership responsibilities for society's environmental protection. Higher education has the unique academic freedom to engage in critical thinking and bold experimentation in environmental sustainability (Cortese, 2003). Although…

  8. Regional Sustainable Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional sustainable environmental management is an interdisciplinary effort to develop a sufficient understanding of the interactions between ecosystems, the economy, law, and technology to formulate effective long-term management strategies on a regional scale. Regional sustai...

  9. Environmental Education and Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the fall of 2013, Inverness Associates conducted a comprehensive national survey of environmental education and sustainability among private independent schools. The National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) and 14 regional and state associations supported the research. The survey sought to understand how schools' environmental…

  10. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy. PMID:10123422

  11. RESTORATION PLUS: A COLLABORATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY RESEARCH PROGRAM TO DEVELOP AND EVALUATE ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS TO ACHIEVE ECOLOGICALLY AND ECONOMICALLY SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is evaluating ecosystem restoration and management techniques to ensure they create sustainable solutions for degraded watersheds. The ORD/NRMRL initiated the Restoration Plus (RePlus) program in 2002, which emphasizes collabora...

  12. Environmental Management for Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept of sustainability is widely associated with the statement from the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: “… development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs…” Hence, sustai...

  13. Innovative strategies for environmental sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Rouhani, S. |

    1995-12-31

    Since the early 1980s our preception of sustainability has fundamentally changed. History sustainability was primarily concerned with the scarcity of natural resources in the face of a growing world population. Awareness of ecological and environmental degradations has come gradually. At first the solution to environmental problems such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, and hazardous waste appeared to require a halt in global economic growth. However creative solutions which address environmental issues and produce economic growth have come to the fore. This paper focuses this with respect to the clean-up of contaminated sites - remediation and case studies.

  14. ACHIEVING SUSTAINABILITY - FINAL STEPS IN A DYNAMIC DANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Achieving sustainability relies upon adequate metrics to evaluate the environment and guide decisions. Although adequate assessment is important to prescribing remedies, achieving a sustainable environment cannot be delayed. It must be achieved today as well as tomorrow so that t...

  15. Promoting obesity prevention together with environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Skouteris, Helen; Cox, Rachael; Huang, Terry; Rutherford, Leonie; Edwards, Susan; Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy

    2014-09-01

    There is mounting evidence that current food production, transport, land use and urban design negatively impact both climate change and obesity outcomes. Recommendations to prevent climate change provide an opportunity to improve environmental outcomes and alter our food and physical activity environments in favour of a 'healthier' energy balance. Hence, setting goals to achieve a more sustainable society offers a unique opportunity to reduce levels of obesity. In the case of children, this approach is supported with evidence that even from a young age they show emerging understandings of complex environmental issues and are capable of both internalizing positive environmental values and influencing their own environmental outcomes. Given young children's high levels of environmental awareness, it is easy to see how environmental sustainability messages may help educate and motivate children to make 'healthier' choices. The purpose of this paper is to highlight a new approach to tackling childhood obesity by tapping into existing social movements, such as environmental sustainability, in order to increase children's motivation for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours and thus foster more wholesome communities. We contend that a social marketing framework may be a particularly useful tool to foster behaviour change beneficial to both personal and environmental health by increasing perceived benefits and reducing perceived costs of behaviour change. Consequently, we propose a new framework which highlights suggested pathways for helping children initiate and sustain 'healthier' behaviours in order to inform future research and potentially childhood obesity intervention strategies. PMID:23392756

  16. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22753040

  17. Environmental valuation under sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B.; Norgaard, R.B. )

    1992-05-01

    Environmentalism has evolved since the 1960's from a concern with the preservation of wilderness in the American experience to a concern over pollution of human habitat throughout the industrialized world. Northern anxiety spread to the loss of tropical rainforests and biodiversity in the South, where environmentalism evolved further in an encounter with indigenous interpretations, conditions, and priorities. By the late 1980's, climate change emerged as a central issue in a now global discourse on the relationship between environment and development. The principle of sustainable development - that current needs are to be met as fully as possible while ensuring that the life opportunities of future generations are undiminished relative to present - is now widely accepted. This paper illustrates that incorporating environmental values per se in decision-making will not bring about sustainability unless each generation is committed to transferring to the next sufficient natural resources and capital assets to make development sustainable. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  18. [Health and environmental governance for sustainable development].

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet; Gallo, Edmundo; Magalhães, Danielly de Paiva; Setti, Andréia Faraoni Freitas; Franco Netto, Francisco de Abreu; Buss, Daniel Forsin

    2012-06-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20, will address the challenges for sustainable development (SD), 'green economy and poverty eradication' and the 'institutional structure of sustainable development'. Therefore it will address the governance needed to achieve such goals. This paper discusses the structure of global, regional and national governance of and for health and environment in the context of SD. Among other global actions, the Millenium Development Goals were a significant recent political effort, but despite its advances, it fails when ignores the structural causes of production and consumption patterns and the unequal distribution of power, which are responsible for inequities and impede true development. To achieve SD, proposals must avoid reductionism, advancing conceptually and methodologically to face the challenges of the socio-environmental determinants of health through intersectoral action, including social participation and all levels of government. It is paramount to continue the implementation of Agenda 21, to meet the MDGs and to create 'Sustainable Development Goals'. Regarding the health field, Rio+20 Summit must reassure the connection between health and sustainability - as a part of the Social pillar of sustainable development - inspiring politics and actions in multiple levels. PMID:22699639

  19. Graphitic Carbon Nitride (g-C3N4)-Based Photocatalysts for Artificial Photosynthesis and Environmental Remediation: Are We a Step Closer To Achieving Sustainability?

    PubMed

    Ong, Wee-Jun; Tan, Lling-Lling; Ng, Yun Hau; Yong, Siek-Ting; Chai, Siang-Piao

    2016-06-22

    at the forefront of this research platform. It is anticipated that this review can stimulate a new research doorway to facilitate the next generation of g-C3N4-based photocatalysts with ameliorated performances by harnessing the outstanding structural, electronic, and optical properties for the development of a sustainable future without environmental detriment. PMID:27199146

  20. INTEGRATING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE, ECOLOGY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current agricultural practices are contributing to environmental degradation, which also threatens the sustainability of agricultural production. cology has the potential to contribute significantly to the development of a sustainable and environmentally sound agriculture. owever...

  1. Sustainability and Environmental Economics: Some Critical Foci

    EPA Science Inventory

    I present five seminal concepts of environmental economic thought and discuss their applicability to the idea of sustainability. These five, Maximum Sustainable Yield and Steady-state, The Environmental Kuznet’s curve, Substitutability, Discount rate and Intergenerational equity...

  2. Perspectives on achieving sustainable energy production and use

    EPA Science Inventory

    The traditional definition of sustainability calls for polices and strategies that meet society's present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Achieving operational sustainability requires three critical elements: advances in scien...

  3. NASA Ames Environmental Sustainability Report 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Ann H.

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Ames Environmental Sustainability Report is the second in a series of reports describing the steps NASA Ames Research Center has taken toward assuring environmental sustainability in NASA Ames programs, projects, and activities. The Report highlights Center contributions toward meeting the Agency-wide goals under the 2011 NASA Strategic Sustainability Performance Program.

  4. Achieving and Maintaining Existing Building Sustainability Certification at Georgetown University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payant, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is the promotion of high performance, healthful, energy-efficient, and environmentally stable buildings. Buildings intended for sustainable certification must meet guidelines developed by the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) of the U.S. Green Building Council. The problem is that LEED certification often fails to…

  5. Personal Achievement Mathematics: Environmental Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baenziger, Betty

    Utilizing word problems relevant to the field of environmental health, this workbook presents a concept-oriented approach to competency development in 14 areas of basic mathematics: (1) the expression of numbers as figures and words; (2) the addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers, fractions, and decimals; (3)…

  6. Language Teacher Action Research: Achieving Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Emily; Burns, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Action research (AR) is becoming increasingly popular in ELT contexts as a means of continuous professional development. The positive impacts of AR on language teacher development are well documented, but the important question of how those impacts can be sustained over time is virtually unexplored. Drawing on findings from a study of teachers in…

  7. ACHIEVING SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH LIFE CYCLE STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is, of course, not a recent concept. But our understanding of what it means and what we need to do to meet the challenge it presents continues to grow. Throughout the ages, nations have had to address the issue of harmony between the environment, society and the e...

  8. OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY FOR SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    With growing world population, diminishing resources, and realization of the harmful effects of various pollutants, research focus in environmental management has shifted towards sustainability. The goal of a sustainable management strategy is to promote the structure and operati...

  9. Achieving consensus in environmental programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kurstedt, Jr., H. A.; Jones, R. M.; Walker, J. A.; Middleman, L. I.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new research effort on consensus tied to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) within the US Department of Energy's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). We define consensus and explain why consensus decisions are not merely desirable but necessary in furthering ERP activities. As examples of our planned applied research, we first discuss Nominal Group Technique as a representative consensus-generating tool, and we conclude by describing the consensus-related mission of the Waste Management Review Group, established at Virginia Tech to conduct independent, third-party review of DWTM/ERP plans and activities. 10 refs.

  10. Achieving sustainable biomaterials by maximising waste recovery.

    PubMed

    Glew, David; Stringer, Lindsay C; McQueen-Mason, Simon

    2013-06-01

    The waste hierarchy of 'reduce, reuse, recycle, recover' can be followed to improve the sustainability of a product, yet it is not applied in any meaningful way in the biomaterials industry which focuses more on sustainable sourcing of inputs. This paper presents the results of industry interviews and a focus group with experts to understand how waste recovery of biomaterials could become more widespread. Interview findings were used to develop three scenarios: (1) do nothing; (2) develop legislation; and (3) develop certification standards. These scenarios formed the basis for discussions at an expert focus group. Experts considered that action was required, rejecting the first scenario. No preference was apparent for scenarios (2) and (3). Experts agreed that there should be collaboration on collection logistics, promotion of demand through choice editing, product 'purity' could be championed though certification and there should be significant investment and research into recovery technologies. These considerations were incorporated into the development of a model for policy makers and industry to help increase biomaterial waste recovery. PMID:23562447

  11. Learning for Sustainability: NSW Environmental Education Plan, 2002-05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document is the first three-year environmental education plan for New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The plan is guided by a vision to achieve effective and integrated environmental education which builds the capacity of the people of NSW to be informed and active participants in moving society towards sustainability. The plan's priority…

  12. Sustaining School Achievement in California's Elementary Schools after State Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Molly

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the Academic Performance Index (API) and Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) achievement trends between 2004 and 2006 of 58 California public elementary schools after exiting state monitoring and investigated practices for sustaining consistent achievement growth. Statistical methods were used to analyze statewide achievement trends…

  13. Environmental sustainability of cellulosic energy cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental sustainability of bioenergy production depends on both direct and indirect effects of the production systems to produce bioenergy feedstocks. This chapter evaluates what is known about the environmental sustainability of cellulosic bioenergy crop production for the types of produc...

  14. Testing for sustainable development through environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    George, C.

    1999-03-01

    The potential of environmental assessment as a sustainability instrument has long been recognized, but the criteria against which development proposals traditionally are judged are not necessarily criteria for sustainable development. Meanwhile, Agenda 21 identified the need for indicators of sustainable development for use in decision-making, but those that have been developed are not easy to apply in project level environmental assessment. These problems are addressed by returning to the fundamental principles of sustainable development and relating them to the principles of environmental assessment. In this way, 18 criteria have been derived, all of which must be satisfied if a development proposal is to be classified as sustainable development. These criteria have been tested against a number of actual environmental assessments to identify the likely consequences for project approval.

  15. SEMS: System for Environmental Monitoring and Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this project was to establish a computational and data management system, SEMS, building on our existing system and MTPE-related research. We proposed that the new system would help support Washington University's efforts in environmental sustainability through use in: (a) Problem-based environmental curriculum for freshmen and sophomores funded by the Hewlett Foundation that integrates scientific, cultural, and policy perspectives to understand the dynamics of wetland degradation, deforestation, and desertification and that will develop policies for sustainable environments and economies; (b) Higher-level undergraduate and graduate courses focused on monitoring the environment and developing policies that will lead to sustainable environmental and economic conditions; and (c) Interdisciplinary research focused on the dynamics of the Missouri River system and development of policies that lead to sustainable environmental and economic floodplain conditions.

  16. Environmental Sustainability - Including Land and Water Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments of environmental sustainability can be conducted in many ways with one of the most quantitative methods including Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). While historically LCIA has included a comprehensive list of impact categories including: ozone depletion, global c...

  17. Sustainable Environmental Management in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability means meeting the needs of the present population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This means different things to different disciplines. From the Sustainability Research Strategy (2007) of the U.S. Environmental Protec...

  18. Challenges to achievement of metal sustainability in our high-tech society

    SciTech Connect

    Izatt, Reed M.; Izatt, Steven R.; Bruening, Ronald L.; Izatt, Neil; Moyer, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Achievement of sustainability in metal life cycles from mining of virgin ore to consumer and industrial devices to end-of-life products requires greatly increased recycling and improved processing of metals. Electronic and other high-tech products containing precious, toxic, and specialty metals usually have short lifetimes and low recycling rates. Products containing these metals generally are incinerated, discarded as waste in landfills, or dismantled in informal recycling using crude and environmentally irresponsible procedures. Low metal recycling rates coupled with increasing demand for products containing them necessitate increased mining with attendant environmental, health, energy, water, and carbon-footprint consequences. In this tutorial review, challenges to achieving metal sustainability in present high-tech society are presented; health, environmental, and economic incentives for various stakeholders to improve metal sustainability are discussed; a case for technical improvements in separations technology, especially employing molecular recognition, is given; and global consequences of continuing on the present path are examined.

  19. Environmental Sustainability Change Management in SMEs: Learning from Sustainability Champions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadee, Doren; Wiesner, Retha; Roxas, Banjo

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies the change management processes involved in undertaking environmental sustainability (ES) initiatives within Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) and relate these to the main attributes of learning organisations. Using case study techniques, the study draws from the change management experiences of a sample of 12 ES…

  20. Integrating Environmental Sustainability into Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralph, Meredith; Stubbs, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Universities play a fundamental role in addressing global environmental challenges as their education, research and community involvement can produce long-lasting environmental effects and societal change. By demonstrating best practice in their operations, research and teaching, universities have both multiple and multiplier effects on society.…

  1. Education for Environmental Sustainability. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haury, David L.

    Sustainable development has had many definitions; however, all definitions have a core meaning characterized by three elements: (1) consideration of environmental issues and objectives interdependently with economic issues and objectives; (2) a commitment to social equity and the fair distribution of environmental benefits and costs both…

  2. Environmental Education for Sustainable Development in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasimov, N. S.; Malkhazova, S. M.; Romanova, E. P.

    2005-01-01

    The conceptual underpinning and the organizational structure of the existing system of higher environmental education in Russia are analysed. The system, embracing 129 universities, has been created in the last 10 years. At present there is a shift from general environmental education to education for sustainable development. The new system is…

  3. Leadership Effects on Student Achievement and Sustained School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of leadership on student achievement and sustained school success, especially in challenging, high-poverty schools. Design/methodology/approach: The paper combines a review of the leadership literature with findings drawn from longitudinal studies of the International Successful School…

  4. Do Intelligence and Sustained Attention Interact in Predicting Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Ziegler, Mattias; Trauble, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Research in clinical samples suggests that the relationship between intelligence and academic achievement might be moderated by sustained attention. The present study aimed to explore whether this interaction could be observed in a non-clinical sample. We investigated a sample of 11th and 12th grade students (N = 231). An overall performance score…

  5. Is environmental management an economically sustainable business?

    PubMed

    Gotschol, Antje; De Giovanni, Pietro; Esposito Vinzi, Vincenzo

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates whether environmental management is an economically sustainable business. While firms invest in green production and green supply chain activities with the primary purpose of reducing their environmental impact, the reciprocal relationships with economic performance need to be clarified. Would firms and suppliers adjust their environmental strategies if the higher economic value that environmental management generates is reinvested in greening actions? We found out that environmental management positively influences economic performance as second order (long term) target, to be reached conditioned by higher environmental performance; in addition, firms can increase their performance if they reinvest the higher economic value gained through environmental management in green practices: While investing in environmental management programs is a short term strategy, economic rewards can be obtained only with some delays. Consequently, environmental management is an economically sustainable business only for patient firms. In the evaluation of these reciprocal relationships, we discovered that green supply chain initiatives are more effective and more economically sustainable than internal actions. PMID:24921964

  6. QUEST: Qualifying Environmentally Sustainable Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Over the years, pollution prevention has proven to be a means to comply with environmental regulations, improve product performance and reduce costs. The NASA Acquisition Pollution Prevention (AP2) Program was created to help individual NASA Centers and programs work together to evaluate and adopt environmentally preferable technologies and practices. The AP2 Program accomplishes its mission using a variety of tools such as networking, information/technology exchange and partnering. Due to its extensive network of contacts, the AP2 Program is an excellent resource for finding existing solutions to problems. If no solution is readily known, the AP2 Program works to identify potential solutions and partners for demonstration/ validation projects. Partnering to prevent pollution is a cornerstone of NASA's prime mission and the One NASA Initiative. This annual newsletter highlights some of our program's collaborative efforts. I believe you will discover how the AP2 Program is responsive in meeting the Agency's environmental management strategic plans.

  7. Environmental sustainability in European public healthcare.

    PubMed

    Chiarini, Andrea; Vagnoni, Emidia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to enlarge the debate concerning the influence of leadership on environmental sustainability implementation in European public healthcare organisations. Design/methodology/approach - This paper is a viewpoint. It is based on preliminary analysis of European standards dedicated to environmental sustainability and their spread across Europe in public healthcare organisations. Viewpoints concerning leadership are then discussed and asserted. Findings - This paper found a limited implementation of standards such as Green Public Procurement criteria, Eco-Management and Audit Scheme and ISO 14001 in public healthcare. Some clues indicate that the lack of implementation is related to leadership and management commitment. Originality/value - For the first time, this paper investigates relationships between leadership and environmental sustainability in European public healthcare opening further avenues of research on the subject. PMID:26764957

  8. Sustaining earth: Response to the environmental threats

    SciTech Connect

    Angell, D.J.R.; Comer, J.D.; Wilkinson, M.L.N.

    1993-01-01

    This collection of 17 essays has a common theme of examining how politicians, industrialists, scientists, and the public are responding to the recommendations of the 1987 report by World Commission on Environment and Development and to the environmental degradation it highlighted. The book has six sections: background; threats to the environment; individuals, society, and sustainable development; national governments and sustainable development; the international community and sustainable development; conclusions. Insights into the ways in which members of the international political and scientific establishments define and seek to address global environments are best represented.

  9. Developing a validation for environmental sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adewale, Bamgbade Jibril; Mohammed, Kamaruddeen Ahmed; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Aziz, Zulkifli

    2016-08-01

    One of the agendas for addressing environmental protection in construction is to reduce impacts and make the construction activities more sustainable. This important consideration has generated several research interests within the construction industry, especially considering the construction damaging effects on the ecosystem, such as various forms of environmental pollution, resource depletion and biodiversity loss on a global scale. Using Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling technique, this study validates environmental sustainability (ES) construct in the context of large construction firms in Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was carried out where data was collected from Malaysian large construction firms using a structured questionnaire. Results of this study revealed that business innovativeness and new technology are important in determining environmental sustainability (ES) of the Malaysian construction firms. It also established an adequate level of internal consistency reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity for each of this study's constructs. And based on this result, it could be suggested that the indicators for organisational innovativeness dimensions (business innovativeness and new technology) are useful to measure these constructs in order to study construction firms' tendency to adopt environmental sustainability (ES) in their project execution.

  10. Environmental education: Ensuring a sustainable future

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, D.P.; Lee, J.C.

    1997-12-31

    It is important to remember that personal actions and decisions have a significant impact on the environment. Although they may sometimes forget, today`s school children are the policy and decision makers of tomorrow. Today`s students must be exposed to factual information about the environment so they will be able to make responsible and informed ecological decisions. Since the National Environmental Education Act was signed into law in 1990, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has taken an active role in ensuring a sustainable future through environmental education. Through its education programs, the EPA strives to increase environmental literacy throughout the country and encourages young people to pursue careers in math, science, engineering, communications, and other fields essential to a sustainable environment. The US Environmental Protection Agency`s Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS), located in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, is an international center for air quality research and information. One of the ways OAQPS invests in the environmental preservation of the Nation is through unique environmental education programs that target teachers and students of all ages. To be sure that environmental education programs incorporate a complete look at the environment, including issues associated with air quality, the EPA works with North Carolina teachers and students through the Education and Outreach Group`s Environmental Education Program. The EPA recognizes that the key to a sustainable future is engaging teachers and others in significant environmental education experiences. They will in turn instill a sense of environmental stewardship in America`s young people. There is hope that by the year 2000, every citizen will be fluent in the principles of ecology.

  11. An Environmentally Sustainable Development in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    The future Kelvin Grove Urban Village in Queensland, Australia, is an example of how principles of environmentally sustainable design have translated into practice. Those responsible for the new project recognise the importance of building design that respects the environment by using resources efficiently and minimising pollution. The site's…

  12. Creating Culturally Sustainable Agri-Environmental Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Rob J. F.; Paragahawewa, Upananda Herath

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is emerging from across Europe that contemporary agri-environmental schemes are having only limited, if any, influence on farmers' long-term attitudes towards the environment. In this theoretical paper we argue that these approaches are not "culturally sustainable," i.e. the actions are not becoming embedded within farming cultures as…

  13. OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY FOR SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable management of the human and natural systems, taking into account their interactions, has become paramount. To achieve this complex multidisciplinary objective, systems theory based techniques prove useful. The proposed work is a step in that direction. Taking a food w...

  14. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  15. Environmental Education and Sustainable Consumption: The Case of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales-Gaudiano, Edgar

    1999-01-01

    Argues that sustainability is a process that links social equity, economic growth, and environmental protection; therefore, sustainable consumption is a mode of consumption congruent with this meaning of sustainability. (Author/CCM)

  16. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF PLANNING PROCESS TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concepts of sustainability are numerous, widely discussed, and necessary, but sustainability needs to be applied to development projects to succeed. However, few applications are made and their measures are unclear. Sustainability indicators are typically used as measures, but ...

  17. Is a healthy diet an environmentally sustainable diet?

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2013-02-01

    The concept of a healthy and environmentally sustainable diet is not new, but with increasing concern about future global food security and climate change there is a renewed interest in this topic. Dietary intakes in UK accounts for approximately 20-30% of total annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), with the greatest contributions coming from high intakes of meat and dairy products. Dietary proposals to help mitigate climate change (i.e. reduce GHGE) have focused on reducing consumption of meat and dairy products, but this must be considered in the context of the whole diet, alongside any possible nutritional consequences for health. Bringing together health and environmental impact of the diet raises the question of whether a healthy diet can also be an environmentally sustainable diet. While recent research showed that it is possible to achieve a realistic diet that meets dietary requirement for health and has lower GHGE, it cannot be assumed that a healthy diet will always have lower GHGE. With different combinations of food it is possible to consume a diet that meets dietary requirements for health, but has high GHGE. It is important to understand what constitutes a sustainable diet, but this then needs to be communicated effectively to try and change well-established dietary intakes of the population. Studies show that understanding of sustainable diets is poor and there are many misconceptions (e.g. the overestimation of the protein requirements for a healthy diet), which could contribute to the barriers towards changing dietary intakes. PMID:23186839

  18. Solar energy solutions for an environmentally sustainable world

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The United Nations Conference of Environment and Development has focused the world's attention on the complex relationship between the environment and economic development. The essence of this relationship, and the emerging theme of UNCED, is the concept of sustainability. Sustainable economic development improves quality of life and raises standards of living by using the Earth's resources in a way that ensures that they are continually renewed, and will continue to support future generations. This is the subject of this report. While energy resources are essential to economic development, the authors current patterns of energy use are not sustainable. Reliance on fossil fuels, nuclear energy, and large-scale hydroelectric projects has contributed to serious environmental problems, including atmospheric pollution, loss of land productivity, loss of biological diversity, ocean and fresh water pollution, and hazardous waste generation. Thus, if they are to achieve sustainability in their patterns of energy consumption, it is imperative that they bring about a rapid and widespread transition to the utilization of environmentally sound energy sources and technologies. Solar energy technologies are environmentally sound, socially beneficial, and economically practical. They have been proven in a wide variety of applications around the world. The barriers to the widespread implementation of solar technologies are no longer technical, but rather social, economic, and political. These barriers can and must be removed.

  19. Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship for Los Angeles Unified School District

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, A.; Beattie, D.; Thomas, K.; Davis, K.; Sim, M.; Jhaveri, A.

    2007-11-01

    This Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship states goals, measures progress toward goals and how actions are monitored to achieve continuous improvement for the Los Angeles Unified School District.

  20. Sustainability as Environmental Framework May Be Outdated, Lawyers Argue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-07-01

    Goals based on sustainability "are no longer the best framework" for thinking about environmental law, governance systems, and socioecological dynamics in a world that is rapidly changing due to climate change and other forces. That is according to Melinda Harm Benson, assistant professor in the Department of Geography and Environmental Studies at the University of New Mexico, who challenged the long-held concept of environmental sustainability at an 8 July discussion entitled "The End of Sustainability?" sponsored by the Environmental Law Institute.

  1. Commitment to Environmental Sustainability in the UK Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Debby R. E.; Alcock, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is an increasingly important issue in higher education, both in the UK and internationally. Although environmental sustainability is the most frequently identified of the three pillars of sustainability (social and economic sustainability being less widely understood), there has been little previous research which has quantitatively…

  2. Framework for Assessing Environmental, Social, and Economic Sustainability of ICT Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odeh, Khuloud

    2013-01-01

    Key challenges that confront the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry today in defining and achieving social, environmental, and economic sustainability goals include identifying sustainable operating standards and best practices and measuring and assessing performance against those practices. The industry lacks a framework for…

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION: A BLUEPRINT FOR ACHIEVEMENT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present national effort devoted to Environmental Education (EE) is examined and indexed to other current events and their support levels. E efforts are embedded in Science, Mathematics and Engineering Programs (SME) and the relationships to these other areas are discussed. he...

  4. Environmental education: A blueprint for achievement?

    SciTech Connect

    McErlean, A.J.; Williams, E.; Wittwer, F.

    1995-09-01

    The present national effort devoted to environmental education (EE), particularly as it relates to K-12 education, is examined and indexed to other current events and their support levels. For the most part, EE efforts are embedded in science, mathematics, and engineering programs (SME), and the relationships to these other areas are discussed. In the present context, many aspects such as social, ethical, and religious consideration of EE are not addressed. The relationships between EE and the expectation for scientific literacy (SL) and improved environmental decision-making in both short- and long-term contexts are also examined. Under existing programs, the prognosis for serious, effective accomplishment, or credible impact on universal EE literacy or enhanced decision-making, is doubtful.

  5. Environmental Justice, Sustainability and Education at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some of the supporting statutes and executive orders, current plans, recent research and tools, and training programs relating to sustainability, environmental justice and environmental education are presented.

  6. Development of Impact Assessment Methodologies for Environmental Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability has been discussed for many years, with no consensus on how to ensure that environmental sustainability is reached or even that progress is made in the right direction. The Brundtland Commission statement that sustainability “meets the needs of the present without...

  7. Environmental Education in Costa Rica: Building a Framework for Sustainable Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Environmental education is commonly claimed to be at the centre of efforts to achieve sustainable development. Since the 1980s, Costa Rica has been one of the acknowledged leaders in efforts to promote environmental learning, and national policy includes a three-fold national development strategy which simultaneously promotes education,…

  8. Student Motivation for Pursuing a Minor in Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Luanne Woods

    2013-01-01

    Environmental sustainability dominates the global conversation seeking to increase awareness and change the culture of thinking concerning the relationship between humans and the Earth. Because many universities offer programs relative to environmental sustainability, a need exists to understand why students pursue these programs. This study…

  9. GIS-mapping of environmental assessment of the territories in the region of intense activity for the oil and gas complex for achievement the goals of the Sustainable Development (on the example of Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yermolaev, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    The uniform system of complex scientific-reference ecological-geographical should act as a base for the maintenance of the Sustainable Development (SD) concept in the territories of the Russian Federation subjects or certain regions. In this case, the assessment of the ecological situation in the regions can be solved by the conjugation of the two interrelated system - the mapping and the geoinformational. The report discusses the methodological aspects of the Atlas-mapping for the purposes of SD in the regions of Russia. The Republic of Tatarstan viewed as a model territory where a large-scale oil-gas complex "Tatneft" PLC works. The company functions for more than 60 years. Oil fields occupy an area of more than 38 000 km2; placed in its territory about 40 000 oil wells, more than 55 000 km of pipelines; more than 3 billion tons of oil was extracted. Methods for to the structure and requirements for the Atlas's content were outlined. The approaches to mapping of "an ecological dominant" of SD conceptually substantiated following the pattern of a large region of Russia. Several trends of thematically mapping were suggested to be distinguished in the Atlas's structure: • The background history of oil-fields mine working; • The nature preservation technologies while oil extracting; • The assessment of natural conditions of a humans vital activity; • Unfavorable and dangerous natural processes and phenomena; • The anthropogenic effect and environmental surroundings change; • The social-economical processes and phenomena. • The medical-ecological and geochemical processes and phenomena; Within these groups the other numerous groups can distinguished. The maps of unfavorable and dangerous processes and phenomena subdivided in accordance with the types of processes - of endogenous and exogenous origin. Among the maps of the anthropogenic effects on the natural surroundings one can differentiate the maps of the influence on different nature's spheres

  10. Achieving sustainable plant disease management through evolutionary principles.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jiasui; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J

    2014-09-01

    Plants and their pathogens are engaged in continuous evolutionary battles and sustainable disease management requires novel systems to create environments conducive for short-term and long-term disease control. In this opinion article, we argue that knowledge of the fundamental factors that drive host-pathogen coevolution in wild systems can provide new insights into disease development in agriculture. Such evolutionary principles can be used to guide the formulation of sustainable disease management strategies which can minimize disease epidemics while simultaneously reducing pressure on pathogens to evolve increased infectivity and aggressiveness. To ensure agricultural sustainability, disease management programs that reflect the dynamism of pathogen population structure are essential and evolutionary biologists should play an increasing role in their design. PMID:24853471

  11. Urban environmental management in Shanghai: achievements, problems, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wei; Shi, Chun

    2006-03-01

    This article critically reviews the evolution of urban environmental management in Shanghai since 1978. Established in a transitional post-socialist economy and shaped by a spectacular urban redevelopment process, the current environmental management framework of Shanghai has succeeded in mitigating major industrial pollution and improving urban amenities with unprecedented pace and magnitude. However, it generally failed to take social equity and environmental justice issues into consideration. Based on Haughton's models of sustainable urban development, this article proposes four priorities and five principles within the framework of a fair shares cities model for the future environmental management of Shanghai and briefly discusses their policy implications and implementation issues. The authors argue that Haughton's approach is relevant to Shanghai's case because the essence of his argument-the multidimensional equity principles-is the core of the concept of sustainable development. PMID:16456635

  12. Sustaining College Students' Persistence and Achievement through Exemplary Instructional Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    A "take it or leave it" attitude has no place in higher education. Society needs an educated citizenry to sustain and advance its technological and global mission. Too few students are entering college and even fewer than might reasonably be expected are graduating. Retention and graduation rates serve as key indicators of performance…

  13. Energy and Environmental Consequences of Transportation: Indicators of Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1997-07-01

    The rapid motorization of world transportation systems puts growing emphasis on controlling transportation`s direct and indirect impacts on the global environment, in other words, on achieving sustainability in transport. In 1950, the world contained 70 million motor vehicles, of which 70% were in the United States. Today the world`s motor vehicle fleet exceeds 600 million,of which less than one-third are in the U.S. Outside of the U.S., motor vehicle stocks are growing twice as fast (Davis & McFarlin, 1996, tables 1.1 & 1.2). With this explosive growth of motorized transport comes a compelling need to control its concomitant pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and fossil fuel consumption. Large scale indicators of transportation`s performance with respect to sustainability are therefore becoming increasingly important for monitoring trends and evaluating the effectiveness of policies at national and international scales. A recent survey by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (U. S. DOT/BTS, 1 996) of data on transportation`s environmental consequences in the U.S., found that reasonable indicators exist for energy use and for certain of transportation`s environmental impacts. Statistics on air pollutant emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy use are adequate for developing rigorous indicators of at least emissions and energy use. Much less is known about noise generation, water and groundwater pollution, solid waste,land-use and habitat impacts.

  14. Is Sustainability Achievable? Exploring the Limits of Sustainability with Model Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Successful implementation of sustainability ideas in ecosystem management requires a basic understanding of the often nonlinear and non-intuitive relationships amongst different dimensions of sustainability, particularly the systemwide implications of human actions. This basic un...

  15. ON SUSTAINABILITY METRICS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept of sustainability is associated with the statement from the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: “… development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs…” Sustainability is, t...

  16. Sustainable Education: Community Colleges as Environmental Champions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wylie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how community colleges, as educational institutions, play a central role in the sustainability movement and in the battle against climate change. Across the country, two-year institutions are creating sustainability programs, such as recycling garbage or composting food waste. They are building new green buildings, upgrading…

  17. Review: Balancing Limiting Factors and Economic Drivers to Achieve Sustainable Midwestern US Agricultural Residue Feedstock Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Wally W. Wilhelm; J. Richard Hess; Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth; Jane M. F. Johnson; John M. Baker; Hero T. Gollany; Jeff M. Novak; Diane E. Stott; Gary E. Varvel

    2010-10-01

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading soil resources. This review examines six agronomic factors that collectively define many of the limits and opportunities for harvesting crop residue for biofuel feedstock. These six “limiting factors” are discussed in relationship to economic drivers associated with harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a potential cellulosic feedstock. The limiting factors include soil organic carbon, wind and water erosion, plant nutrient balance, soil water and temperature dynamics, soil compaction, and off-site environmental impacts. Initial evaluations using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2.0 (RUSLE2) show that a single factor analysis based on simply meeting tolerable soil loss might indicate stover could be harvested sustainably, but the same analysis based on maintaining soil organic carbon shows the practice to be non-sustainable. Modifying agricultural management to include either annual or perennial cover crops is shown to meet both soil erosion and soil carbon requirements. The importance of achieving high yields and planning in a holistic manner at the landscape scale are also shown to be crucial for balancing limitations and drivers associated with renewable bioenergy production.

  18. Farming with Grass: Achieving Sustainable Mixed Agricultural Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Grassla...

  19. An Environmental Sustainability Course for Design and Merchandising Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Huantian; Frey, Lisa Vogel; Farr, Cheryl A.; Gam, Haejin

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a science-based course, "Environmental Sustainability Issues for Designers and Merchandisers". The course emphasis was on scientific concepts underlying textile-related environmental problems; the focus was on the "cradle to cradle" design model as an approach for eliminating environmental problems during…

  20. EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS: ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES WITH MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss emerging contaminants that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other agencies are currently concerned...

  1. Environmental indicators of biofuel sustainability : What about context?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indicators of the environmental sustainability of biofuel production, distribution, and use should be selected, measured, and interpreted with respect to the context in which they are used. These indicators include measures of soil quality, water quality and quantity, greenhouse...

  2. Environmental Sustainability, Ecosystem Services, and Human Well-being

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article examines environmental sustainability from several perspectives. First we offer definitions and some historical background. Then through case studies of marine fisheries, agricultural systems, and urban environments, we illustrate contrasts between unsustainable and ...

  3. The Business Case for Environmental and Sustainability Employee Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullo, Krista; Haygood, Leah

    2010-01-01

    This white paper examines the business case for environmental and sustainability (E&S) employee education and engagement. The "business case" is defined as both quantifiable measures of the business value for the sustainability program (e.g. money saved, energy use reduction, etc.) as well as less easily measurable assets such as reputation…

  4. Exploring Australian health promotion and environmental sustainability initiatives.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Rebecca; Kingsley, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Health promotion practitioners have important roles in applying ecosystem approaches to health and actively promoting environmental sustainability within community-level practice. The present study identified the nature and scope of health promotion activities across Australia that tackle environmental sustainability. Methods A mixed-method approach was used, with 82 participants undertaking a quantitative survey and 11 undertaking a qualitative interview. Purposeful sampling strategies were used to recruit practitioners who were delivering community-level health promotion and sustainability programs in Australia. The data were analysed thematically and interpretation was guided by the principles of triangulation. Results Study participants were at various stages of linking health promotion and environmental sustainability. Initiatives focused on healthy and sustainable food, active transport, energy efficiency, contact with nature and capacity building. Conclusion Capacity building approaches were perceived as essential to strengthening this field of practice. Healthy and sustainable food and active transport were suitable platforms for simultaneously promoting community health and sustainability. There was potential for expansion of programs that emphasise contact with nature and energy issues, as well as interventions that emphasise systems thinking and interdisciplinary approaches. So what? It was promising that Australian health promotion programs have started to address complexity rather than single issues, as evidenced by explicit engagement with environmental sustainability. However, more effort is required to enable a shift towards ecosystem approaches to health. PMID:26650394

  5. Definitions and Frameworks for Environmental Sustainability in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tarah S. A.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews definitions and frameworks for sustainability in higher education by examining a set of major national and international declarations and institutional policies related to environmental sustainability in universities. It identifies emerging themes and priorities, and discusses how these declarations and policies are affecting…

  6. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Selected Publicly Supported Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at publicly supported community, junior, and technical college campuses in the eleven states accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools' Commission on Colleges. The Sustainability Assessment Questionnaire was…

  7. Background, Schooling, and Achievement. Sustaining Effects Study Technical Report 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Won, Eugene Y. T.; And Others

    This report of a study on the influence of education on student achievement finds that while schooling does have some tangible effects, they are not enough to significantly counterbalance the effects of students' social backgrounds. The report is part of an extensive series of studies on compensatory education and its long-term effects. The study…

  8. The Environmental and Economic Sustainability of Carbon Capture and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Hardisty, Paul E.; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Brooks, Peter

    2011-01-01

    For carbon capture and storage (CCS) to be a truly effective option in our efforts to mitigate climate change, it must be sustainable. That means that CCS must deliver consistent environmental and social benefits which exceed its costs of capital, energy and operation; it must be protective of the environment and human health over the long term; and it must be suitable for deployment on a significant scale. CCS is one of the more expensive and technically challenging carbon emissions abatement options available, and CCS must first and foremost be considered in the context of the other things that can be done to reduce emissions, as a part of an overall optimally efficient, sustainable and economic mitigation plan. This elevates the analysis beyond a simple comparison of the cost per tonne of CO2 abated—there are inherent tradeoffs with a range of other factors (such as water, NOx, SOx, biodiversity, energy, and human health and safety, among others) which must also be considered if we are to achieve truly sustainable mitigation. The full life-cycle cost of CCS must be considered in the context of the overall social, environmental and economic benefits which it creates, and the costs associated with environmental and social risks it presents. Such analysis reveals that all CCS is not created equal. There is a wide range of technological options available which can be used in a variety of industries and applications—indeed CCS is not applicable to every industry. Stationary fossil-fuel powered energy and large scale petroleum industry operations are two examples of industries which could benefit from CCS. Capturing and geo-sequestering CO2 entrained in natural gas can be economic and sustainable at relatively low carbon prices, and in many jurisdictions makes financial sense for operators to deploy now, if suitable secure disposal reservoirs are available close by. Retrofitting existing coal-fired power plants, however, is more expensive and technically

  9. The environmental and economic sustainability of carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Hardisty, Paul E; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Brooks, Peter

    2011-05-01

    For carbon capture and storage (CCS) to be a truly effective option in our efforts to mitigate climate change, it must be sustainable. That means that CCS must deliver consistent environmental and social benefits which exceed its costs of capital, energy and operation; it must be protective of the environment and human health over the long term; and it must be suitable for deployment on a significant scale. CCS is one of the more expensive and technically challenging carbon emissions abatement options available, and CCS must first and foremost be considered in the context of the other things that can be done to reduce emissions, as a part of an overall optimally efficient, sustainable and economic mitigation plan. This elevates the analysis beyond a simple comparison of the cost per tonne of CO(2) abated--there are inherent tradeoffs with a range of other factors (such as water, NOx, SOx, biodiversity, energy, and human health and safety, among others) which must also be considered if we are to achieve truly sustainable mitigation. The full life-cycle cost of CCS must be considered in the context of the overall social, environmental and economic benefits which it creates, and the costs associated with environmental and social risks it presents. Such analysis reveals that all CCS is not created equal. There is a wide range of technological options available which can be used in a variety of industries and applications-indeed CCS is not applicable to every industry. Stationary fossil-fuel powered energy and large scale petroleum industry operations are two examples of industries which could benefit from CCS. Capturing and geo-sequestering CO(2) entrained in natural gas can be economic and sustainable at relatively low carbon prices, and in many jurisdictions makes financial sense for operators to deploy now, if suitable secure disposal reservoirs are available close by. Retrofitting existing coal-fired power plants, however, is more expensive and technically

  10. Economic sustainability and the preservation of environmental assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foy, George

    1990-11-01

    The core requirement of sustainability is that current economic activities should not result in an excessive burden on future generations. This criterion is general enough to imply different decision rules for the preservation of environmental assets. Neoclassical economics does not have a sustainability criterion for environmental assets independent of the intertemporal efficiency criterion, which allocates environmental and man-made capital based on projected monetary benefits and costs. This criterion is examined in terms of the feasibility of valuing the benefits of environmental assets, the substitution possibilities between natural and man-made capital, and the ethical grounds for using efficiency as the sole determinant of the allocation of environmental assets. An alternative ecological sustainability criterion is the preservation of safe minimum levels of environmental assets in physical terms rather than the dollar value of a composite of natural and man-made capital. Safe minimum standards for environmental assets constrain the efficiency criterion in order to ensure the sustainability of economic systems. It is argued that the ecological approach to sustainability should limit the economic approach for decisions involving the allocation of environmental assets.

  11. Environmental sustainability: Understanding young adults' learning, thinking, and actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kola-Olusanya, Anthony O.

    This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in turn, affect their actions toward environmental protection and decision-making. Through a series of in-depth individual interviews with 18 young adults from three universities in southeastern Ontario, this qualitative study provides in-depth insight into young adults' understanding, learning experiences, and actions in relation to environmental and sustainability issues. Employing a Contextual Model of Learning framework the narratives of the young adults in this study are analyzed and discussed within three overlapping environmental learning contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical settings. This framework allows for an examination of the complex interactions and relationships that shape how and where environmental learning occurs. The findings in this study suggest that the three overlapping learning contexts, that is the personal, sociocultural, and physical play an important role in shaping young adults' learning about environmental and sustainability issues. The data reveal that despite the unavailability or near-absence of environmental studies and education within the formal school curriculum (particularly at the elementary and high school levels), the young adults rely on other locations for learning, such as the internet, environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs), television, and family. In light of this, the research participants suggest the re-introduction of environmental programs and content in the school curriculum. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate the centrality of knowledge and

  12. Achieving high sustained performance in an unstructured mesh CFD application

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, D E; Anderson, W K; Gropp, W D; Kaushik, D K; Smith, B F

    1999-12-10

    This paper highlights a three-year project by an interdisciplinary team on a legacy F77 computational fluid dynamics code, with the aim of demonstrating that implicit unstructured grid simulations can execute at rates not far from those of explicit structured grid codes, provided attention is paid to data motion complexity and the reuse of data positioned at the levels of the memory hierarchy closest to the processor, in addition to traditional operation count complexity. The demonstration code is from NASA and the enabling parallel hardware and (freely available) software toolkit are from DOE, but the resulting methodology should be broadly applicable, and the hardware limitations exposed should allow programmers and vendors of parallel platforms to focus with greater encouragement on sparse codes with indirect addressing. This snapshot of ongoing work shows a performance of 15 microseconds per degree of freedom to steady-state convergence of Euler flow on a mesh with 2.8 million vertices using 3072 dual-processor nodes of ASCI Red, corresponding to a sustained floating-point rate of 0.227 Tflop/s.

  13. Environmental Sustainability as a Generative Concern: An Exploratory Study of the Narrative Identities of Leaders in the Environmental Sustainability Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Tiffany Simons

    2009-01-01

    Environmental sustainability is one of the most pressing concerns of the twenty-first century, and working toward sustainability will require broad lifestyle and cultural shifts, particularly in industrialized societies. Yet despite a growing recognition of the importance of issues such as climate change, food security, transportation, and…

  14. Achieving Campus Sustainability: Top-Down, Bottom-Up, or Neither?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkhurst, Marena; Rose, Peter; Maurice, Gillian; Ackerman, Josef Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The dynamics of organizational change related to environmental sustainability on university campuses are examined in this article. Whereas case studies of campus sustainability efforts tend to classify leadership as either "top-down" or "bottom-up", this classification neglects consideration of the leadership roles of the institutional…

  15. Assessing and Enhancing Environmental Sustainability: A Conceptual Review.

    PubMed

    Little, John C; Hester, Erich T; Carey, Cayelan C

    2016-07-01

    While sustainability is an essential concept to ensure the future of humanity and the integrity of the resources and ecosystems on which we depend, identifying a comprehensive yet realistic way to assess and enhance sustainability may be one of the most difficult challenges of our time. We review the primary environmental sustainability assessment approaches, categorizing them as either being design-based or those that employ computational frameworks and/or indicators. We also briefly review approaches used for assessing economic and social sustainability because sustainability necessitates integrating environmental, economic, and social elements. We identify the collective limitations of the existing assessment approaches, showing that there is not a consistent definition of sustainability, that the approaches are generally not comprehensive and are subject to unintended consequences, that there is little to no connection between bottom-up and top-down approaches, and that the field of sustainability is largely fragmented, with a range of academic disciplines and professional organizations pursuing similar goals, but without much formal coordination. We conclude by emphasizing the need for a comprehensive definition of sustainability (that integrates environmental, economic, and social aspects) with a unified system-of-systems approach that is causal, modular, tiered, and scalable, as well as new educational and organizational structures to improve systems-level interdisciplinary integration. PMID:27152660

  16. Assessing the environmental sustainability of biofuels.

    PubMed

    Kazamia, Elena; Smith, Alison G

    2014-10-01

    Biofuels vary in their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when displacing fossil fuels. Savings depend primarily on the crop used for biofuel production, and on the effect that expanding its cultivation has on land use. Evidence-based policies should be used to ensure that maximal sustainability benefits result from the development of biofuels. PMID:25281367

  17. SYSTEMS METRICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept of sustainability is often associated with the statement from the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: "... development that meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future ...". Hence, sus...

  18. The Failure of Non-Binding Declarations to Achieve University Sustainability: A Need for Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekessy, S. A.; Samson, K.; Clarkson, R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to assess the impact and value of non-binding agreements or declarations in achieving sustainability in universities. Design/methodology/approach: A case study of Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) University is presented, analysing the reasons for lack of progress towards sustainability and evaluating best…

  19. A TWO CENTURY HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR ACHIEVING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Achieving ecological sustainability is a daunting challenge. In the Pacific Northwest one of the most highly visible public policy debates concerns the future of salmon populations. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeare...

  20. Key Concepts of Environmental Sustainability: Knowledge and Confidence Levels of FCS Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Amy J.; Friesen, Carol A.; Thompson, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Family and consumer sciences (FCS) is a logical discipline to promote environmental sustainability within the family because it is recognized as helping people make informed decisions about the well-being of individuals and their relationships and resources to achieve optimal quality of life.The objective of this article was to measure the…

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Systems Management is the management of environmental problems at the systems level fully accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This includes socio-economic dimensions as well as the usual physical and life science aspects. This is importa...

  2. Graduate Students, Study of Environmental Literacy and Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özgurler, Safa; Cansaran, Arzu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the level of environmental literacy of the graduate students in Amasya University; their approach to environment and environmental issues; and to investigate their beliefs about the sustainable development. The sample of the study is 5 graduate students studying at Amasya University, 3 female and 2 male, in…

  3. Globalization and Environmental Education: Looking beyond Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob; Wals, Arjen E. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study contends that environmental education is being significantly altered by globalizing forces, witnessing the effort to convert environmental education into education for sustainable development. This internationally propagated conversion can be challenged from many vantage points. This study identifies anomalies that have arisen as…

  4. QuEST: Qualifying Environmentally Sustainable Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2012-01-01

    Articles in this issue inlude: (1) Foundation of Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Principal Center (TEERM) Technology Evaluation is Testing and Qualification, (2) Materials Management and Substitution Efforts, (3 Recycling and Pollution Control Efforts, and (4) Remediation Efforts

  5. Sustainable environmental nanotechnology using nanoparticle surface modification.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive nanomaterials used for environmental remediation require surface modification to make them mobile in the subsurface. Nanomaterials released into the environment inadvertently without an engineered surface coating will acquire one (e.g. adsorption of natural organic matt...

  6. Critical materialism: science, technology, and environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    York, Richard; Clark, Brett

    2010-01-01

    There are widely divergent views on how science and technology are connected to environmental problems. A view commonly held among natural scientists and policy makers is that environmental problems are primarily technical problems that can be solved via the development and implementation of technological innovations. This technologically optimistic view tends to ignore power relationships in society and the political-economic order that drives environmental degradation. An opposed view, common among postmodernist and poststructuralist scholars, is that the emergence of the scientific worldview is one of the fundamental causes of human oppression. This postmodernist view rejects scientific epistemology and often is associated with an anti-realist stance, which ultimately serves to deny the reality of environmental problems, thus (unintentionally) abetting right-wing efforts to scuttle environmental protection. We argue that both the technologically optimistic and the postmodernist views are misguided, and both undermine our ability to address environmental crises. We advocate the adoption of a critical materialist stance, which recognizes the importance of natural science for helping us to understand the world while also recognizing the social embeddedness of the scientific establishment and the need to challenge the manipulation of science by the elite. PMID:20795298

  7. An Environmental Ethical Conceptual Framework for Research on Sustainability and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronlid, David O.; Ohman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    This article suggests that environmental ethics can have great relevance for environmental ethical content analyses in environmental education and education for sustainable development research. It is based on a critique that existing educational research does not reflect the variety of environmental ethical theories. Accordingly, we suggest an…

  8. Hierarchically nanostructured materials for sustainable environmental applications

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zheng; Guo, Yanbing; Liu, Cai-Hong; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions, and multiple functionalities toward water remediation, biosensing, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing, and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology. PMID:24790946

  9. Hierarchically Nanostructured Materials for Sustainable Environmental Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zheng; Guo, Yanbing; Liu, Cai-Hong; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-11-01

    This article presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions and multiple functionalities towards water remediation, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology.

  10. Hierarchically nanostructured materials for sustainable environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zheng; Guo, Yanbing; Liu, Cai-Hong; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions, and multiple functionalities toward water remediation, biosensing, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing, and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology. PMID:24790946

  11. A Sustaining Environment for Environmental Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malamud, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Environmental art (aka land art, green art, earthworks) aims to interpret nature and to inspire audiences to re-envision people's relationship with nature. Some artists see their work as a springboard for reclaiming and remediating damaged environments. Art began keenly grounded in nature--think of cave paintings of animals, in charcoal and…

  12. SUSTAINABILITY: THE NEXT GENERATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 21st century will provide us with a new era of environmental problems that will require new approaches to solve. These problems will be more subtle than past problems, such as the pesticide poisoning at Love Canal or burning of the Cuyahoga River, but will be just as urgent,...

  13. Environmental Education for a Sustainable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, William H.

    2004-01-01

    The American public is now faced with a baffling array of new environmental issues--much more complicated than the problems people faced 30 years ago. Scientists recognize new threats to the biosphere, the fabric of natural ecosystems, and the diversity of plants and animals that inhabit them. Unlike the obvious, toxic pollutants that spurred the…

  14. Tools and Metrics for Environmental Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Research and Development the National Risk Management Research Laboratory has been developing tools to help design and evaluate chemical processes with a life cycle perspective. These tools include the Waste Reduction (...

  15. The Effects of Sustained Silent Reading on Reading Achievement and Reading Attitudes of Fourth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Holly Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a Sustained Silent Reading program on reading achievement and reading attitude. The study accessed scores from the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (Good, Kaminski, & Dill, 2007) to measure reading achievement. This measure was given before and after a twelve week period, during which the treatment group…

  16. Limitations of carbon footprint as indicator of environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig I; Hauschild, Michael Z

    2012-04-01

    Greenhouse gas accountings, commonly referred to with the popular term carbon footprints (CFP), are a widely used metric of climate change impacts and the main focus of many sustainability policies among companies and authorities. However, environmental sustainability concerns not just climate change but also other environmental problems, like chemical pollution or depletion of natural resources, and the focus on CFP brings the risk of problem shifting when reductions in CFP are obtained at the expense of increase in other environmental impacts. But how real is this risk? Here, we model and analyze the life cycle impacts from about 4000 different products, technologies, and services taken from several sectors, including energy generation, transportation, material production, infrastructure, and waste management. By investigating the correlations between the CFP and 13 other impact scores, we show that some environmental impacts, notably those related to emissions of toxic substances, often do not covary with climate change impacts. In such situations, carbon footprint is a poor representative of the environmental burden of products, and environmental management focused exclusively on CFP runs the risk of inadvertently shifting the problem to other environmental impacts when products are optimized to become more "green". These findings call for the use of more broadly encompassing tools to assess and manage environmental sustainability. PMID:22443866

  17. Indicators to support environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Allen; Dale, Virginia H; Baskaran, Latha Malar; Downing, Mark; Eaton, Laurence M; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Garten Jr, Charles T; Kline, Keith L; Jager, Yetta; Mulholland, Patrick J; Parish, Esther S; Schweizer, Peter E; Storey, John Morse

    2011-01-01

    Indicators are needed to assess environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems. Effective indicators will help in the quantification of benefits and costs of bioenergy options and resource uses. We identify 19 measurable indicators for soil quality, water quality and quantity, greenhouse gases, biodiversity, air quality, and productivity, building on existing knowledge and on national and international programs that are seeking ways to assess sustainable bioenergy. Together, this suite of indicators is hypothesized to reflect major environmental effects of diverse feedstocks, management practices, and post-production processes. The importance of each indicator is identified. Future research relating to this indicator suite is discussed, including field testing, target establishment, and application to particular bioenergy systems. Coupled with such efforts, we envision that this indicator suite can serve as a basis for the practical evaluation of environmental sustainability in a variety of bioenergy systems.

  18. Teaching Sustainability as a Large Format Environmental Science Elective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C.; Frisch, M.; Wagner, J.

    2012-12-01

    A challenge in teaching sustainability is engaging students in the global scale and immediacy of environmental impacts, and degree of societal change required to address environmental challenges. Succeeding in a large format Environmental Science elective course with a many as 100 students is an even greater challenge. ENVSC 322 Environmental Sustainability is an innovative new course integrating multiple disciplines, a wide range of external expert speakers and a hands-on community engagement project. The course, in its third year, has been highly successful and impacting for the students, community and faculty involved. The determination of success is based on student and community impacts. Students covered science topics on Earth systems, ecosystem complexity and services through readings and specialist speakers. The interconnection of society and climate was approached through global and local examples with a strong environmental justice component. Experts in a wide range of professional fields were engaged to speak with students on the role and impacts of sustainability in their particular field. Some examples are: Region VII Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Justice Director engaged students in both urban and rural aspects of environmental justice; a Principle Architect and national leader in Green architecture and redevelopment spoke with students regarding the necessity and potential for green urbanism; and industry innovators presented closed-cycle and alternative energy projects. The capstone project and highlight of the course was an individual or team community engagement project on sustainability, designed and implemented by the students. Community engagement projects completed throughout the Kansas City metro area have increased each year in number, quality and impact from 35 the first year to 70 projects this past spring. Students directly engage their communities and through this experience integrate knowledge of environmental systems

  19. Early stage design decisions: the way to achieve sustainable buildings at lower costs.

    PubMed

    Bragança, Luís; Vieira, Susana M; Andrade, Joana B

    2014-01-01

    The construction industry attempts to produce buildings with as lower environmental impact as possible. However, construction activities still greatly affect environment; therefore, it is necessary to consider a sustainable project approach based on its performance. Sustainability is an important issue to consider in design, not only due to environmental concerns but also due to economic and social matters, promoting architectural quality and economic advantages. This paper aims to identify the phases through which a design project should be developed, emphasising the importance and ability of earlier stages to influence sustainability, performance, and life cycle cost. Then, a selection of sustainability key indicators, able to be used at the design conceptual phase and able to start predicting environmental sustainability performance of buildings is presented. The output of this paper aimed to enable designers to compare and evaluate the consequences of different design solutions, based on preliminary data, and facilitate the collaboration between stakeholders and clients and eventually yield a sustainable and high performance building throughout its life cycle. PMID:24578630

  20. An integrative methodological framework for sustainable environmental planning and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, Derek

    1995-07-01

    Sustainable environmental planning and management require effective integration of ecological, socioeconomic, and institutional elements. This paper presents an integrative methodological framework for sustainable environmental planning and management. The development of this integrative framework is accomplished by combining two complementary analytical approaches—Hufschmidt's conceptual framework for watershed planning and management and the ABC resource survey method. The combined methodological framework seeks to delineate and synthesize essential ecological information utilizing an integrative resource survey method. This method generates classifications of environmental significance and constraint. Areas of environmental significance and constraint are then linked to appropriate and acceptable resource management actions, implementation tools (e.g., education, technical assistance), and institutional and organizational arrangements. The integrative methodological framework was developed for application in the Rio Fortuna watershed in Costa Rica's Arenal Conservation Area. The watershed is characterized by a variety of land and resource uses, including biologically diverse and ecologically fragile protected areas, small-parcel agriculture, cattle ranching, and tourism.

  1. Advancing Environmental Education and Training for Sustainable Management of Environmental Resources in Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sa'ed, Rashed; Abu-Madi, Maher; Heun, Jetze

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the various capacity-building activities at the Institute of Environmental and Water Studies of Birzeit University during the past 10 years. It highlights the gained experience in advancing environmental science and engineering education and training programs as components of sustainable water and environmental management…

  2. Bridge to a sustainable future: National environmental technology strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    For the past two years the Administration has sought the views of Congress, the states, communities, industry, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and interested citizens on ways to spur the development and use of a new generation of environmental technologies. This document represents the views of thousands of individuals who participated in events around the country to help craft a national environmental technology strategy that will put us on the path to sustainable development.

  3. Environmental Indicators of Biofuel Sustainability: What About Context?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efroymson, Rebecca A.; Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; McBride, Allen C.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Raymond L.; Parish, Esther S.; Schweizer, Peter E.; Shaw, Denice M.

    2013-02-01

    Indicators of the environmental sustainability of biofuel production, distribution, and use should be selected, measured, and interpreted with respect to the context in which they are used. The context of a sustainability assessment includes the purpose, the particular biofuel production and distribution system, policy conditions, stakeholder values, location, temporal influences, spatial scale, baselines, and reference scenarios. We recommend that biofuel sustainability questions be formulated with respect to the context, that appropriate indicators of environmental sustainability be developed or selected from more generic suites, and that decision makers consider context in ascribing meaning to indicators. In addition, considerations such as technical objectives, varying values and perspectives of stakeholder groups, indicator cost, and availability and reliability of data need to be understood and considered. Sustainability indicators for biofuels are most useful if adequate historical data are available, information can be collected at appropriate spatial and temporal scales, organizations are committed to use indicator information in the decision-making process, and indicators can effectively guide behavior toward more sustainable practices.

  4. Environmental indicators of biofuel sustainability: What about context?

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; McBride, Allen; Bielicki, Jeffrey M; Smith, Raymond; Parish, Esther S; Schweizer, Peter E; Shaw, Denice

    2013-01-01

    Indicators of the environmental sustainability of biofuel production, distribution, and use should be selected, measured, and interpreted with respect to the context in which they are used. These indicators include measures of soil quality, water quality and quantity, greenhouse-gas emissions, biodiversity, air quality, and vegetation productivity. Contextual considerations include the purpose for the sustainability analysis, the particular biofuel production and distribution system (including supply chain, management aspects, and system viability), policy conditions, stakeholder values, location, temporal influences, spatial scale, baselines, and reference scenarios. Recommendations presented in this paper include formulating the problem for particular analyses, selecting appropriate context-specific indicators of environmental sustainability, and developing indicators that can reflect multiple environmental properties at low cost within a defined context. In addition, contextual considerations such as technical objectives, varying values and perspectives of stakeholder groups, and availability and reliability of data need to be understood and considered. Sustainability indicators for biofuels are most useful if adequate historical data are available, information can be collected at appropriate spatial and temporal scales, organizations are committed to use indicator information in the decision-making process, and indicators can effectively guide behavior toward more sustainable practices.

  5. Gamification – Environmental and sustainable development organizations could do more

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of digital games to foster sustainable development and environmental sciences has grown over the last 10 years. Innovative thinking and the origins of “serious games,” “games for change” and “gamification” are partly rooted in movies and science fiction. Existing games il...

  6. Schools That Sustain: Lessening the Environmental Impact of New Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peele, Katherine N.; Malone, Sara

    2002-01-01

    Discusses sustainable school design and its benefits to the environment, offering examples of illustrative schools. Provides suggestions on site selection (such as using smaller sites and recycling existing buildings), sharing facilities with the community, and construction elements that improve environmental impact (such as flexibility,…

  7. Towards Carbon Neutrality and Environmental Sustainability at CCSU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide information about past and present efforts undertaken at Central Connecticut State University (CCSU) to reduce its carbon footprint and to institute a campus culture centered on the principles of environmental sustainability. Provide some recommendations to other institutions of higher education…

  8. Implementing AACN's recommendations for environmental sustainability in colleges of nursing: from concept to impact.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Patricia; Schenk, Elizabeth; Eide, Phyllis; Hahn, Laura; Postma, Julie; Fitzgerald, Cynthia; Oneal, Gail

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) released a guidance report titled Toward an Environmentally Sustainable Academic Enterprise: An AACN Guide for Nursing Education. The report was developed in response to a vivid slide presentation at an AACN meeting depicting the deleterious public and environmental health effects of global industrialization. Following the presentation, AACN members capitalized on the opportunity to provide national leadership to U.S. colleges of nursing in regard to environmental sustainability and stewardship. This article summarizes key features of the AACN plan and outlines one college's multifaceted implementation plan. The goal of the implementation plan was to translate the AACN recommendations from concept into college-specific actions. Specific steps taken by the college included the following: (a) increasing student and faculty awareness, (b) greening business operations, (c) increased participation in media events, (d) leveraging the impact of national sustainability initiatives, and (e) enhancing curricula at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Through this work, the college achieved not only a higher standard of sustainability within its own walls but also a richer appreciation of the importance of educating nurses as future stewards in an environmentally sustainable health care system. PMID:24939329

  9. Revisiting the Democratic Paradox of Environmental and Sustainability Education: Sustainability Issues as Matters of Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Goeminne, Gert; Vandenabeele, Joke

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we address the democratic paradox in environmental and sustainability education (ESE) by drawing on Bruno Latour's conceptual distinction between "matters of fact" and "matters of concern" and the notion of attachments that goes with it. We present an analysis of three cases (nature excursions, workshops that…

  10. World Trends in Education for Sustainable Development. Environmental Education, Communication and Sustainability. Volume 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal Filho, Walter, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that sustainable development is a long-term goal, which both individuals and institutions (and countries!) need to pursue. This important theme is characterized by an intrinsic complexity, since it encompasses ecological or environmental considerations on the one hand, and economic matters, social influences and political…

  11. Sustained Silent Reading in Middle School and Its Impact on Students' Attitudes and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Margaret Peggy S.

    2013-01-01

    Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) is a period of time given to students to read self-selected materials during their school day. This study examines the effect of participation in a SSR program on reading attitudes and reading achievement of students as measured by the Adolescent Motivation to Read Profile (AMRP) and the Northwest Evaluation…

  12. Influence of School Climate on Students' Achievement and Teachers' Productivity for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeogun, A. A.; Olisaemeka, Blessing U.

    2011-01-01

    The study covers ten secondary schools in Lagos State of Nigeria. The purpose is to ascertain the relationship between school climate and student achievements and teachers' productivity for sustainable development. A total sample of 150 respondents was taken. Ten principals, seven teachers and seven students were randomly picked per school. This…

  13. Program Proposal: Certificates of Competence, Certificate of Achievement, Associate in Applied Science Degree in Sustainable Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzoli, Jean A.; Ainsworth, Don

    This document proposes a program in sustainable technology at Maui Community College (Hawaii). This new career program would be designed to provide four Certificates of Competence, a Certificate of Achievement, and an Associate in Applied Science degree. The primary objectives of the program are to meet student, county, and state needs for…

  14. Environmental indicators for sustainability: a strategic analysis for the sugarcane ethanol context in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Priscila; Malheiros, Tadeu; Fernandes, Valdir; Sobral, Maria do Carmo

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane ethanol is considered a renewable energy source and has emerged as a potential alternative to reduce dependency on fossil fuels, particularly in Brazil. However, there are some questions about how sustainable this energy source is, given the impacts from its production and use on a larger scale. To understand and achieve sustainability, it is essential to build tools that can assess an integrated conception and help decision-makers to establish public policies for a sustainable development. The indicators appear as such tools by capturing the complexity without reducing the significance of each system's component. The environmental indicators such as water quality indicator represent the level of water pollution, considering several parameters. The importance of the development, selection and validation of environmental indicators through a structured and cohesive process becomes essential. In the State of São Paulo, in Brazil, the environmental indicators, as well as policies based on them, are defined by the Environmental Secretariat (SMA/SP). This article presents an environmental indicator's evaluation method and reports based on the discussions about sustainability for the ethanol sugarcane context in the State of São Paulo. The method consists of interviews and an expert's workshop which pointed out a set of benchmarks for the evaluation of environmental indicators. The procedures were applied to an indicator used by the SMA/SP to illustrate the method's effectiveness. The results show that a strategic analysis framework can improve the environmental indicators required for the discussion on sustainability, providing a better guide to decision-makers. PMID:26153435

  15. Researching Schools' Contributions to Sustainable Development: Perspectives on Environmental Education and Environmental Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, William; Gough, Stephen; Reid, Alan

    This paper discusses a proposal for an international research initiative [DREAMS-Direct Research in Education And environmental Management in Schools] which aims to develop an indicative methodology for evaluating the contribution of environmental management systems to the 'implementation of sustainable development' in schools. The research…

  16. A Sustainable Building Promotes Pro-Environmental Behavior: An Observational Study on Food Disposal

    PubMed Central

    Wu, David W.–L.; DiGiacomo, Alessandra; Kingstone, Alan

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop a more sustainable society, the wider public will need to increase engagement in pro-environmental behaviors. Psychological research on pro-environmental behaviors has thus far focused on identifying individual factors that promote such behavior, designing interventions based on these factors, and evaluating these interventions. Contextual factors that may also influence behavior at an aggregate level have been largely ignored. In the current study, we test a novel hypothesis – whether simply being in a sustainable building can elicit environmentally sustainable behavior. We find support for our hypothesis: people are significantly more likely to correctly choose the proper disposal bin (garbage, compost, recycling) in a building designed with sustainability in mind compared to a building that was not. Questionnaires reveal that these results are not due to self-selection biases. Our study provides empirical support that one's surroundings can have a profound and positive impact on behavior. It also suggests the opportunity for a new line of research that bridges psychology, design, and policy-making in an attempt to understand how the human environment can be designed and used as a subtle yet powerful tool to encourage and achieve aggregate pro-environmental behavior. PMID:23326521

  17. Environmental indicators for sustainable production of algal biofuels

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Efroymson, Rebecca A.; Dale, Virginia H.

    2014-10-01

    For analyzing sustainability of algal biofuels, we identify 16 environmental indicators that fall into six categories: soil quality, water quality and quantity, air quality, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, and productivity. Indicators are selected to be practical, widely applicable, predictable in response, anticipatory of future changes, independent of scale, and responsive to management. Major differences between algae and terrestrial plant feedstocks, as well as their supply chains for biofuel, are highlighted, for they influence the choice of appropriate sustainability indicators. Algae strain selection characteristics do not generally affect which indicators are selected. The use of water instead of soil as themore » growth medium for algae determines the higher priority of water- over soil-related indicators. The proposed set of environmental indicators provides an initial checklist for measures of biofuel sustainability but may need to be modified for particular contexts depending on data availability, goals of the stakeholders, and financial constraints. Ultimately, use of these indicators entails defining sustainability goals and targets in relation to stakeholder values in a particular context and can lead to improved management practices.« less

  18. Environmental indicators for sustainable production of algal biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca A.; Dale, Virginia H.

    2014-10-01

    For analyzing sustainability of algal biofuels, we identify 16 environmental indicators that fall into six categories: soil quality, water quality and quantity, air quality, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, and productivity. Indicators are selected to be practical, widely applicable, predictable in response, anticipatory of future changes, independent of scale, and responsive to management. Major differences between algae and terrestrial plant feedstocks, as well as their supply chains for biofuel, are highlighted, for they influence the choice of appropriate sustainability indicators. Algae strain selection characteristics do not generally affect which indicators are selected. The use of water instead of soil as the growth medium for algae determines the higher priority of water- over soil-related indicators. The proposed set of environmental indicators provides an initial checklist for measures of biofuel sustainability but may need to be modified for particular contexts depending on data availability, goals of the stakeholders, and financial constraints. Ultimately, use of these indicators entails defining sustainability goals and targets in relation to stakeholder values in a particular context and can lead to improved management practices.

  19. Gamification - Environmental and Sustainable Development Organizations Could Do More

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, C. R.; Miller, C. A.; Kilaru, V.; French, R. A.; Costanza, R.; Brookes, A.

    2013-12-01

    The use of digital games to foster sustainable development and environmental goals has grown over the last 10 years. Innovative thinking and the origins of 'serious games,' 'games for change' and 'gamification' are partly rooted in movies and science fiction. Existing games illustrate a spectrum of approaches: for example, World Food Programme's FoodForce and University of Washington's Foldit. Environmental organizations globally (e.g. US EPA) have dabbled with game development and gamification, but have only touched the tip of the iceberg, particularly when compared to the success of the commercial gaming industry. We explore: 1) the intersection of environmental organization mission statements in the context of gamification efforts , 2) some examples of existing games, from simple to complex, 3) business model approaches (e.g. game development partnerships with academia, private industry, NGOs, etc.), 4) barriers, and 5) benefits of a more concerted and technologically-advanced approach to gamification for environmental organizations.

  20. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies. PMID:26466730

  1. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies. PMID:26466730

  2. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand’s consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  3. Bioelectrochemical system platform for sustainable environmental remediation and energy generation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heming; Luo, Haiping; Fallgren, Paul H; Jin, Song; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the energy-environment nexus is compelling the development of technologies that reduce environmental impacts during energy production as well as energy consumption during environmental remediation. Countries spend billions in pollution cleanup projects, and new technologies with low energy and chemical consumption are needed for sustainable remediation practice. This perspective review provides a comprehensive summary on the mechanisms of the new bioelectrochemical system (BES) platform technology for efficient and low cost remediation, including petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents, perchlorate, azo dyes, and metals, and it also discusses the potential new uses of BES approach for some emerging contaminants remediation, such as CO2 in air and nutrients and micropollutants in water. The unique feature of BES for environmental remediation is the use of electrodes as non-exhaustible electron acceptors, or even donors, for contaminant degradation, which requires minimum energy or chemicals but instead produces sustainable energy for monitoring and other onsite uses. BES provides both oxidation (anode) and reduction (cathode) reactions that integrate microbial-electro-chemical removal mechanisms, so complex contaminants with different characteristics can be removed. We believe the BES platform carries great potential for sustainable remediation and hope this perspective provides background and insights for future research and development. PMID:25886880

  4. Ecosystem management to achieve ecological sustainability: The case of South Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwell, Mark A.; Long, John F.; Bartuska, Ann M.; Gentile, John H.; Harwell, Christine C.; Myers, Victoria; Ogden, John C.

    1996-07-01

    The ecosystems of South Florida are unique in the world. The defining features of the natural Everglades (large spatial scale, temporal patterns of water storage and sheetflow, and low nutrient levels) historically allowed a mosaic of habitats with characteristic animals. Massive hydrological alterations have halved the Everglades, and ecological sustainability requires fundamental changes in management. The US Man and the Biosphere Human-Dominated Systems Directorate is conducting a case study of South Florida using ecosystem management as a framework for exploring options for mutually dependent sustainability of society and the environment. A new methodology was developed to specify sustainability goals, characterize human factors affecting the ecosystem, and conduct scenario/consequence analyses to examine ecological and societal implications. South Florida has sufficient water for urban, agricultural, and ecological needs, but most water drains to the sea through the system of canals; thus, the issue is not competition for resources but storage and management of water. The goal is to reestablish the natural system for water quantity, timing, and distribution over a sufficient area to restore the essence of the Everglades. The societal sustainability in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) is at risk because of soil degradation, vulnerability of sugar price supports, policies affecting Cuban sugar imports, and political/economic forces aligned against sugar production. One scenario suggested using the EAA for water storage while under private sugar production, thereby linking sustainability of the ecological system with societal sustainability. Further analyses are needed, but the US MAB project suggests achieving ecological sustainability consistent with societal sustainability may be feasible.

  5. Community First Communication: Reversing Information Disparities to Achieve Environmental Justice

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, Edward A.; Desai, Chintan

    2011-01-01

    We address how information developed and effectively communicated through community based participatory research (CBPR) can reverse long-standing information disparities, empower a community, and be an agent for sustained change. Substantial information and power disparities existed between the polluted community and both the pollution industry and governmental regulators. An environmental justice partnership between a local community organization, physicians, and university performed CBPR and then developed a novel communication strategy to address a series of information disparities around a local water pollution issue. The community established a set of principles to govern the communication of results as soon as they were determined to be scientifically valid, including informing study participants and the community before other interested parties. CBPR results combined with a community-first communication strategy reversed the preexisting information disparities. The novel communication flow reversed the preferential information flow to industry and government associated with the usual scientific publication process. The community was empowered, and industry and government agencies responded positively to study recommendations. The CBPR results together with community first communication led to adoption of both community-wide and individual solutions and provided powerful motivation for behavioral change by industry and residents. PMID:21546988

  6. Reconceptualizing 'effectiveness' in environmental projects: can we measure values-related achievements?

    PubMed

    Harder, Marie K; Velasco, Ismael; Burford, Gemma; Podger, Dimity; Janoušková, Svatava; Piggot, Georgia; Hoover, Elona

    2014-06-15

    There have been recent calls for a shift to an evidence-based paradigm in environmental management, grounded in systematic monitoring and evaluation, but achieving this will be complex and difficult. Evaluating the educational components of environmental initiatives presents particular challenges, because these programs often have multiple concurrent goals and may value 'human outcomes', such as value change, which are intangible and difficult to quantify. This paper describes a fresh approach based on co-creating an entirely new values-based assessment framework with expert practitioners worldwide. We first discuss the development of a generic framework of 'Proto-Indicators' (reference criteria constituting prototypes for measurable indicators), and then demonstrate its application within a reforestation project in Mexico where indicators and assessment tools were localized to enhance context-relevance. Rigorously derived using unitary validity, with an emphasis on relevance, practicability and logical consistency from user perspectives, this framework represents a step-wise advance in the evaluation of non-formal EE/ESD programs. This article also highlights three important principles with broader implications for evaluation, valuation and assessment processes within environmental management: namely peer-elicitation, localizability, and an explicit focus on ethical values. We discuss these principles in relation to the development of sustainability indicators at local and global levels, especially in relation to post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:24681651

  7. Grain production versus resource and environmental costs: towards increasing sustainability of nutrient use in China.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xiaoqiang; Lyu, Yang; Wu, Xiaobin; Li, Haigang; Cheng, Lingyun; Zhang, Chaochun; Yuan, Lixing; Jiang, Rongfeng; Jiang, Baiwen; Rengel, Zed; Zhang, Fusuo; Davies, William J; Shen, Jianbo

    2016-09-01

    Over the past five decades, Chinese grain production has increased 4-fold, from 110 Mt in 1961 to 557 Mt in 2014, with less than 9% of the world's arable land feeding 22% of the world's population, indicating a substantial contribution to global food security. However, compared with developed economies, such as the USA and the European Union, more than half of the increased crop production in China can be attributed to a rapid increase in the consumption of chemicals, particularly fertilizers. Excessive fertilization has caused low nutrient use efficiency and high environmental costs in grain production. We analysed the key requirements underpinning increased sustainability of crop production in China, as follows: (i) enhance nutrient use efficiency and reduce nutrient losses by fertilizing roots not soil to maximize root/rhizosphere efficiency with innovative root zone nutrient management; (ii) improve crop productivity and resource use efficiency by matching the best agronomic management practices with crop improvement; and (iii) promote technology transfer of the root zone nutrient management to achieve the target of high yields and high efficiency with low environmental risks on a broad scale. Coordinating grain production and environmental protection by increasing the sustainability of nutrient use will be a key step in achieving sustainable crop production in Chinese agriculture. PMID:27489235

  8. Environmental sustainability in the intensive care unit: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Huffling, Katie; Schenk, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In acute care practice sites, the intensive care unit (ICU) is one of the most resource-intense environments. Replete with energy-intensive equipment, significant waste production, and multiple toxic chemicals, ICUs contribute to environmental harm and may inadvertently have a negative impact on the health of patients, staff, and visitors. This article evaluates the ICU on four areas of environmental sustainability: energy, waste, toxic chemicals, and healing environment and provides concrete actions ICU nurses can take to decrease environmental health risks in the ICU. Case studies of nurses making changes within their hospital practice are also highlighted, as well as resources for nurses starting to make changes at their health care institutions. PMID:24896556

  9. [Environmental sustainability and health indicators in the Legal Amazonia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carlos Machado de; Giatti, Leandro Luiz

    2009-06-01

    One of the challenges for public health is to build systems of indicators that allow monitoring current conditions and trends in environmental and health sustainability. This article focuses on the Legal Amazonia macro-region, which has undergone profound socioeconomic, environmental, and health changes since the mid-20th century. The conceptual framework adopted here was the model entitled Driving Forces, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, and Action (DPSEEA) proposed by the World Health Organization and adopted for environmental health surveillance by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The results show that numerous motor forces and pressures have contributed to the growth of the economy and the population, as well as to improvements in some traditional health indicators (a reduction in infant mortality and an increase in life expectancy), alongside major social and economic inequalities and heterogeneity in environmental health impacts. This same process has been accompanied by environmental changes that indicate an unsustainable development model for present and future generations, demanding comprehensive action by public health and environmental institutions. PMID:19503956

  10. City of Portland: Businesses for an environmentally sustainable tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The sustainable business development program in Portland (OR) is known as BEST. BEST stands for Businesses for an Environmentally Sustainable Tomorrow. The Portland Energy Office operates BEST as a {open_quotes}one-stop service center{close_quotes} for business owners and managers. BEST provides information and assistance on resource efficient buildings and business practices. The results of BEST`s two years of operation have been generally impressive. Nearly 150 new or expanding businesses have been connected with utility design assistance programs. Businesses have also received assistance with water conservation, telecommuting, construction debris recycling, and alternative fuel vehicles. BEST has received local and national publicity and BEST services have been the topic at more than a dozen conferences, meetings, or other speaking engagements. A guidebook for communities wishing to start a similar program will be available in early 1996.

  11. Nanomaterials Nexus in Environmental, Human Health, and Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaseashta, A.

    Three interconnected and underpinning aspects of nanotechnology viz.: environment, human health, and sustainability are discussed. Sustainable development using nanomaterials by employing responsible manufacturing, principles of “green chemistry” by drastically reducing waste discharge and emission by-products; generation and storage of energy; development of lightweight yet mechanically strong components; development of bio-degradable goods — for medicine, waste disposal, containers, etc. and to monitor, detect, and remediate the environmental pollution are discussed. A brief discussion of fate and transport of nanomaterials in air, water, and soil; life-cycle analysis, and methodologies to conduct risk-assessment in the context of source reduction and conservation is introduced. It is expected that such emerging and potentially transformative studies will make a major contribution to improving the quality of the life of citizens worldwide, in particular in sectors such as environment and health care.

  12. Green Marine: An environmental program to establish sustainability in marine transportation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tony R

    2016-04-15

    European maritime companies have adopted programs to limit operational impacts on the environment. For maritime companies in North America, the Green Marine Environmental Program (GMEP) offers a framework to establish and reduce environmental footprints. Green Marine (GM) participants demonstrate annual improvements of specific environmental performance indicators (e.g., reductions in air pollution emissions) to maintain certification. Participants complete annual self-evaluations with results determining rankings for performance indicators on a 1-to-5 scale. Self-evaluations are independently verified every two years to ensure rigor and individual results are made publicly available annually to achieve transparency. GM benefits the marine industry across North America by encouraging sustainable development initiatives. GM's credibility is reflected through a diverse network of environmental groups and government agencies that endorse and help shape the program. Merits of this relatively new maritime certification (not previously described in the academic literature), are discussed. PMID:26899158

  13. Promoting environmental sustainability via an expert elicitation process

    SciTech Connect

    Swor, Tom; Canter, Larry

    2011-09-15

    Environmental sustainability (ES) planning was applied to the 981-mile, commercially navigable Ohio River. Navigation improvement needs were identified within the broad study along with actions to restore aquatic and riparian ecological resources to a higher state of sustainability. The actions were identified via an Expert Elicitation Process (EEP) involving aquatic and riparian/terrestrial experts knowledgeable of Ohio River resources. The received information was synthesized into goals for the selected resources (Valued Ecosystem Components - or VECs), actions or measures to attain the goals, and monitoring to evaluate conditions. Finally, 26 types of ES actions were identified and classified into three ES alternatives. These alternatives were then evaluated relative to key decision criteria, and such evaluations, based on pertinent decision criteria, were also conducted for four navigation improvement alternatives. Finally, the best combination of ES and navigation alternatives was identified. The key lessons derived from this use of EEP were that: (1) EEP can support the preliminary identification of ES measures; however, more detailed study of specific designs and cost evaluations will be necessary; (2) the method promotes collaboration between key scientists and policymakers from governmental agencies and private sectors, and such collaboration will ultimately provide the foundation for implementation of sustainability actions; and (3) an effective EEP does not occur by accident, it requires careful planning, implementation, and documentation. - Research Highlights: > Use of an Expert Elicitation Process (EEP) is demonstrated in this study. > EEP was used to identify Environmental Sustainability (ES) needs for the Ohio River. > EEP helped develop consensus among resource experts on ES needs. > EEP promotes collaboration to identify and contribute to common resource goals. > EEP may be used in assessing cumulative effects and formulating restoration plans.

  14. Assessing the environmental sustainability of ethanol from integrated biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Falano, Temitope; Jeswani, Harish K; Azapagic, Adisa

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers the life cycle environmental sustainability of ethanol produced in integrated biorefineries together with chemicals and energy. Four types of second-generation feedstocks are considered: wheat straw, forest residue, poplar, and miscanthus. Seven out of 11 environmental impacts from ethanol are negative, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, when the system is credited for the co-products, indicating environmental savings. Ethanol from poplar is the best and straw the worst option for most impacts. Land use change from forest to miscanthus increases the GHG emissions several-fold. For poplar, the effect is opposite: converting grassland to forest reduces the emissions by three-fold. Compared to fossil and first-generation ethanol, ethanol from integrated biorefineries is more sustainable for most impacts, with the exception of wheat straw. Pure ethanol saves up to 87% of GHG emissions compared to petrol per MJ of fuel. However, for the current 5% ethanol-petrol blends, the savings are much smaller (<3%). Therefore, unless much higher blends become widespread, the contribution of ethanol from integrated biorefineries to the reduction of GHG emissions will be insignificant. Yet, higher ethanol blends would lead to an increase in some impacts, notably terrestrial and freshwater toxicity as well as eutrophication for some feedstocks. PMID:24478110

  15. Assessing the environmental sustainability of ethanol from integrated biorefineries

    PubMed Central

    Falano, Temitope; Jeswani, Harish K; Azapagic, Adisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the life cycle environmental sustainability of ethanol produced in integrated biorefineries together with chemicals and energy. Four types of second-generation feedstocks are considered: wheat straw, forest residue, poplar, and miscanthus. Seven out of 11 environmental impacts from ethanol are negative, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, when the system is credited for the co-products, indicating environmental savings. Ethanol from poplar is the best and straw the worst option for most impacts. Land use change from forest to miscanthus increases the GHG emissions several-fold. For poplar, the effect is opposite: converting grassland to forest reduces the emissions by three-fold. Compared to fossil and first-generation ethanol, ethanol from integrated biorefineries is more sustainable for most impacts, with the exception of wheat straw. Pure ethanol saves up to 87% of GHG emissions compared to petrol per MJ of fuel. However, for the current 5% ethanol–petrol blends, the savings are much smaller (<3%). Therefore, unless much higher blends become widespread, the contribution of ethanol from integrated biorefineries to the reduction of GHG emissions will be insignificant. Yet, higher ethanol blends would lead to an increase in some impacts, notably terrestrial and freshwater toxicity as well as eutrophication for some feedstocks. PMID:24478110

  16. Evaluating environmental sustainability: an integration of multiple-criteria decision-making and fuzzy logic.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kevin F R

    2007-05-01

    While pursuing economic development, countries around the world have become aware of the importance of environmental sustainability; therefore, the evaluation of environmental sustainability has become a significant issue. Traditionally, multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) was widely used as a way of evaluating environmental sustainability, Recently, several researchers have attempted to implement this evaluation with fuzzy logic since they recognized the assessment of environmental sustainability as a subjective judgment Intuition. This paper outlines a new evaluation-framework of environmental sustainability, which integrates fuzzy logic into MCDM. This evaluation-framework consists of 36 structured and 5 unstructured decision-points, wherein MCDM is used to handle the former and fuzzy logic serves for the latter, With the integrated evaluation-framework, the evaluations of environmental sustainability in 146 countries are calculated, ranked and clustered, and the evaluation results are very helpful to these countries, as they identify their obstacles towards environmental sustainability. PMID:17377731

  17. Chicken Farming in Grassland Increases Environmental Sustainability and Economic Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meizhen; Wang, Bingxue; Osborne, Colin P.; Jiang, Gaoming

    2013-01-01

    Background Grassland degradation caused by overgrazing poses a threat to both animal husbandry and environmental sustainability in most semi-arid areas especially north China. Although the Chinese Government has made huge efforts to restore degraded grasslands, a considerable attempt has unfortunately failed due to an inadequate consideration of economic benefits to local communities. Methodology/Principal Findings A controlled field experiment was conducted to test our hypothesis that utilizing natural grasslands as both habitat and feed resources for chickens and replacing the traditional husbandry system with chicken farming would increase environmental sustainability and raise income. Aboveground plant biomass elevated from 25 g m−2 for grazing sheep to 84 g m−2 for chicken farming. In contrast to the fenced (unstocked) grassland, chicken farming did not significantly decrease aboveground plant biomass, but did increase the root biomass by 60% (p<0.01). Compared with traditional sheep grazing, chicken farming significantly improved soil surface water content (0–10 cm), from 5% to 15%. Chicken farming did not affect the soil bulk density, while the traditional sheep grazing increased the soil bulk density in the 0–10 cm soil layer by 35% of the control (p<0.05). Most importantly, the economic income of local herdsmen has been raised about six times compared with the traditional practice of raising sheep. Ecologically, such an innovative solution allowed large degraded grasslands to naturally regenerate. Grasslands also provided a high quality organic poultry product which could be marketed in big cities. Conclusion/Significance Chicken farming is an innovative alternative strategy for increasing environmental sustainability and economic income, rather than a challenge to the traditional nomadic pastoral system. Our approach might be technically applicable to other large degraded grasslands of the world, especially in China. PMID:23372678

  18. An Empirical Study of why our Cognition Toward Environmental Sustainability is Inconsistent with our Behavior: Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, S. Ping

    2016-04-01

    Raising public awareness of human environmental problems has been considered an effective way to promote public participation in environmental sustainability. From the perspective individual level, such participation mainly include the willingness of adopting less consumptive lifestyles and following the principles of reuse, reduce, and recycle. However, in reality, the development of environmental sustainability falls into the "Enlightenment Fallacy," which asserts that enlightenment does not consequentially translate into meaningful reduction of pollution. We argue that environmental awareness is mainly at the level of cognition, which is built upon knowledge and facts; whereas the behaviors toward sustainability development are largely dominated by economic principles that focus on utility maximization. As such, the Enlightenment Fallacy can be explained by the "Tragedy of Commons" which occurrs in the prevailing capitalism based economic system. This is due to the sad fact assumed in modern Economics that human beings are in general self-interested with unending desires but few moral concerns. Thus, economic individuals, who seek mainly their maximal utility or benefit, will not make significant sacrifices for improving environmental sustainability, which cannot be achieved by only a few individuals. From this perspective, we argue that only those individuals who are less self-interested and have more compassion toward mankind and earth will actively participate in environmental sustainability. In this study, we examine empirically the Enlightenment Fallacy phenomenon and develop an empirical model to test the following four hypotheses concerning the inconsistency between the environmental cognition and the actual behaviors. Policy implications for promoting public participation will be suggested based on our empirical results. Hypothesis 1: Compassion (for mankind) has larger positive impacts than environmental cognition. Hypothesis 2: Social punishment and

  19. Economic development in an era of global environmentalism: Sustainable development and environmental policy implementation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qingguo

    The primary purpose of this dissertation is to explore the opportunities and constraints of implementing environmental policy and sustainable development in China. As the most populous country on earth, China's development and survival has come to a turning point. Many scholars as well as the Chinese government have realized that there is only one way out of the impending environmental disaster. That is by adopting a policy of sustainable development to protect the already damaged environment. The study is centered by a case study of Yunnan Biomass-to-Electricity (BTE) Program, which is a joint research effort between American and Chinese institutions to implement biomass energy projects in rural areas of Yunnan province, China. By integrating energy production and environmental protection, the BTE Program could serve both the environmental and economic needs of the local regions. Therefore, the Yunnan BTE program can serve as a model of sustainable development. Furthermore, because the Yunnan BTE program was a cooperative research effort involving Chinese and American institutions, it also provides an opportunity to study and assess international joint policy implementation efforts. In this case study, we developed an analytical model that contains key factors, both constraints and opportunities, which may have affected the implementation of the BTE program. We explore the role of environmental policy and relationships among various relevant Chinese and American institutions involved in the BTE program. Through careful examination of these factors, and their roles in the process, we establish which facilitate and inhibit program implementation. The study of Mengpeng BTE project showed that all the factors in the analytical model influenced the outcome of the project implementation. Some played more vital roles while others were just minor players. The study demonstrated that preferential environmental policy and sound institutional setting are essential for the

  20. One Environmental Education Center's Industry Initiative: Collaborating to Create More Environmentally and Economically Sustainable Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollweg, Karen S.

    2009-01-01

    The Centre for Environment Education (CEE) added an Industry Initiative to its portfolio of more traditional environmental education programs in 1993. This article documents the start-up and evolution of that program and the ways that businesses and CEE have worked together for a sustainable future. A specific 18-month project, in which CEE and an…

  1. Indicators for technological, environmental and economic sustainability of ozone contactors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Tejada-Martinez, Andres E; Lei, Hongxia; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-09-15

    Various studies have attempted to improve disinfection efficiency as a way to improve the sustainability of ozone disinfection which is a critical unit process for water treatment. Baffling factor, CT10, and log-inactivation are commonly used indicators for quantifying disinfection credits. However the applicability of these indicators and the relationship between these indicators have not been investigated in depth. This study simulated flow, tracer transport, and chemical species transport in a full-scale ozone contactor operated by the City of Tampa Water Department and six other modified designs using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Through analysis of the simulation results, we found that baffling factor and CT10 are not optimal indicators of disinfection performance. We also found that the relationship between effluent CT obtained from CT transport simulation and baffling factor depends on the location of ozone release. In addition, we analyzed the environmental and economic impacts of ozone contactor designs and upgrades and developed a composite indicator to quantify the sustainability in technological, environmental and economic dimensions. PMID:27322565

  2. Environmental impacts and sustainability of degraded water reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, D.L.; Bradford, S.A.

    2008-09-15

    Greater urban demand for finite water resources to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and recreational needs; increased frequency of drought resulting from erratic weather; and continued degradation of available water resources from point and nonpoint sources of pollution have focused attention on the reuse of degraded waters as a potential water source. However, short- and long-term detrimental environmental impacts and sustainability of degraded water reuse are not well known or understood. These concerns led to the organization of the 2007 ASA-CSSA-SSSA Symposium entitled Environmental Impacts and Sustainability of Degraded Water Reuse. Out of this symposium came a special collection of 4 review papers and 12 technical research papers focusing on various issues associated with the reuse of agricultural drainage water, well water generated in the production of natural gas from coalbeds, municipal wastewater and biosolids, wastewater from confined animal operations, urban runoff, and food-processing wastewater. Overviews of the papers, gaps in knowledge, and future research directions are presented. The future prognosis of degraded water reuse is promising, provided close attention is paid to managing constituents that pose short- and long-term threats to the environment and the health of humankind.

  3. Monitoring and Evaluation of Environmental Flow Prescriptions for Five Demonstration Sites of the Sustainable Rivers Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy has been working with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) through the Sustainable Rivers Project (SRP) to modify operations of dams to achieve ecological objectives in addition to meeting the authorized purposes of the dams. Modifications to dam operations are specified in terms of environmental flow prescriptions that quantify the magnitude, duration, frequency, and seasonal timing of releases to achieve specific ecological outcomes. Outcomes of environmental flow prescriptions implemented from 2002 to 2008 have been monitored and evaluated at demonstration sites in five rivers: Green River, Kentucky; Savannah River, Georgia/South Carolina; Bill Williams River, Arizona; Big Cypress Creek, Texas; and Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon. Monitoring and evaluation have been accomplished through collaborative partnerships of federal and state agencies, universities, and nongovernmental organizations.

  4. Environmental and economic sustainability of the Mediterranean Diet.

    PubMed

    Germani, Alessia; Vitiello, Valeria; Giusti, Anna Maria; Pinto, Alessandro; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; del Balzo, Valeria

    2014-12-01

    The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been proposed as a healthy dietary pattern for disease prevention. However, little information exists on the cost and on the environmental impact of such a dietary model. We compared the environmental impact and the costs of the current food consumption pattern of the Italian population and the Mediterranean model in order to investigate its overall sustainability. The environmental impact was calculated on the basis of three indexes, i.e. Carbon, Ecological and Water Footprint. The costs (Euro) per person of the MD and of the current Italian household food expenditure were considered on a weekly basis according to the 2013 data from the Observatory prices and tariffs of the Ministry of Economic Development and the service SMS consumers of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry. The MD resulted to produce a lower environmental impact than the current food consumption of the Italian population. The monthly expenditure of the MD is slightly higher in the overall budget compared to the current expenditure allocated to food by the Italian population, but there is a substantial difference in the distribution of budget according to the different food groups. PMID:25088933

  5. Integrated nutrient management (INM) for sustaining crop productivity and reducing environmental impact: a review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Ma, Baoluo

    2015-04-15

    The increasing food demands of a growing human population and the need for an environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agricultural development require significant attention when addressing the issue of enhancing crop productivity. Here we discuss the role of integrated nutrient management (INM) in resolving these concerns, which has been proposed as a promising strategy for addressing such challenges. INM has multifaceted potential for the improvement of plant performance and resource efficiency while also enabling the protection of the environment and resource quality. This review examines the concepts, objectives, procedures and principles of INM. A comprehensive literature search revealed that INM enhances crop yields by 8-150% compared with conventional practices, increases water-use efficiency, and the economic returns to farmers, while improving grain quality and soil health and sustainability. Model simulation and fate assessment further reveal that reactive nitrogen (N) losses and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions are reduced substantially under advanced INM practices. Lower inputs of chemical fertilizer and therefore lower human and environmental costs (such as intensity of land use, N use, reactive N losses and GHG emissions) were achieved under advanced INM practices without compromising crop yields. Various approaches and perspectives for further development of INM in the near future are also proposed and discussed. Strong and convincing evidence indicates that INM practice could be an innovative and environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agriculture worldwide. PMID:25644838

  6. Earth Observation from Space - The Issue of Environmental Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrieu, Sylvie; Nelson, Ross F.

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing scientists work under assumptions that should not be taken for granted and should, therefore, be challenged. These assumptions include the following: 1. Space, especially Low Earth Orbit (LEO), will always be available to governmental and commercial space entities that launch Earth remote sensing missions. 2. Space launches are benign with respect to environmental impacts. 3. Minimization of Type 1 error, which provides increased confidence in the experimental outcome, is the best way to assess the significance of environmental change. 4. Large-area remote sensing investigations, i.e. national, continental, global studies, are best done from space. 5. National space missions should trump international, cooperative space missions to ensure national control and distribution of the data products. At best, all of these points are arguable, and in some cases, they're wrong. Development of observational space systems that are compatible with sustainability principles should be a primary concern when Earth remote sensing space systems are envisioned, designed, and launched. The discussion is based on the hypothesis that reducing the environmental impacts of thedata acquisition step,which is at the very beginning of the information streamleading to decision and action, will enhance coherence in the information streamand strengthen the capacity of measurement processes to meet their stated functional goal, i.e. sustainable management of Earth resources. We suggest that unconventional points of view should be adopted and when appropriate, remedial measures considered that could help to reduce the environmental footprint of space remote sensing and of Earth observation and monitoring systems in general. This article discusses these five assumptions inthe contextof sustainablemanagementof Earth's resources. Takingeachassumptioninturn,we find the following: (1) Space debris may limit access to Low Earth Orbit over the next decades. (2) Relatively speaking, given

  7. An investigation of environmental and sustainability discourses associated with the substantive purposes of environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rozema, Jaap G.; Bond, Alan J.; Cashmore, Matthew; Chilvers, Jason

    2012-02-15

    This paper investigates the discursive construction of the substantive purposes of environmental assessment (EA). It addresses these purposes by exploring the complex and often multifaceted linkages between political factors and plural views of democracy, public participation, and the role of science that are embedded in environmental and sustainability discourses. The interaction between policy-making and public actors leads to the formulation of divergent and potentially competing rationales for public participation, and for social appraisal more generally. Participatory approaches have also given impetus to the development of several interpretations on the role of science in assessment procedures. Science is important in mediating public participation and the two are therefore reciprocally linked. This leads to discourses that become manifest in the construction of substantive purposes. Discourse analysis in EA is a relevant method for examining trends and patterns in sustainable development. It is argued that public participation is an important, if not decisive, variable in the articulation and civil legitimacy of certain purposes. A general proposition that results from this paper is that EA, although typically presented as an objective scientific tool, is an intrinsically normative process. Enhanced knowledge on the construction, and reconstruction over time, of substantive purposes is required if environmental and sustainability discourses are to be used and understood as meaningful analytical instruments to assess the socio-political implications of EA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substantive purposes related to environmental assessment may be best analyzed through discourse analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental and sustainability discourses are contingent on the level of participatory democracy and civic science. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Public participation is a decisive variable in the construction of the substantive

  8. Environmental health sciences education--a tool for achieving environmental equity and protecting children.

    PubMed Central

    Claudio, L; Torres, T; Sanjurjo, E; Sherman, L R; Landrigan, P J

    1998-01-01

    Children are highly susceptible to deleterious effects of environmental toxins. Those who live in underserved communities may be particularly at risk because environmental pollution has been found to be disproportionately distributed among communities. Mounting evidence suggests that asthma rates are rising and that this disease can be caused or aggravated by air pollution. Although ambient air quality has generally improved, these improvements have not reached minority communities in equal proportions. This and other data has fueled the concept of environmental justice or environmental equity, which has led to community activism and government actions. One possible example of environmental inequity and its consequences is the Hunt's Point community, in the South Bronx, New York. This community experiences a high pollution burden with the siting of facilities that emit hazardous wastes into the air. Our approach to this problem has been the formation of mechanisms for bidirectional communication between community residents, government entities, and academic institutions such as Mount Sinai Medical Center. As a result of this experience, we believe that the key to achieving environmental health, especially in communities of color where many children are at risk, is to empower residents to take charge of their environment by providing relevant educational opportunities. Strategies for environmental health education include multitiered training approaches that include community residents, parent education, direct children education, and community education through professional counselors and train-the-trainer approaches. We propose that academic researchers must use community residents not just as subjects of our studies, but to increase our mutual understanding of environmental health, resulting in active participation of community members in research design, data collection, analysis, and dissemination of results in order to make intervention strategies more

  9. How can we improve the environmental sustainability of poultry production?

    PubMed

    Leinonen, Ilkka; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-08-01

    The review presents results of recent life cycle assessment studies aiming to quantify and improve the environmental performance of UK poultry production systems, including broiler meat, egg and turkey meat production. Although poultry production has been found to be relatively environmentally friendly compared with the production of other livestock commodities, it still contributes to environmental impacts, such as global warming, eutrophication and acidification. Amongst different sub-processes, feed production and transport contributes about 70 % to the global warming potential of poultry systems, whereas manure management contributes about 40-60 % to their eutrophication potential and acidification potential, respectively. All these impacts can be reduced by improving the feed efficiency, either by changing the birds through genetic selection or by making the feed more digestible (e.g. by using additives such as enzymes). However, although genetic selection has the potential to reduce the resources needed for broiler production (including feed consumption), the changing need of certain feed ingredients, most notably protein sources as a result of changes in bird requirements may limit the benefits of this strategy. The use of alternative feed ingredients, such as locally grown protein crops and agricultural by-products, as a replacement of South American grown soya, can potentially also lead to improvements in several environmental impact categories, as long as such feeding strategies have no negative effect on bird performance. Other management options, such as improving poultry housing and new strategies for manure management have also the potential to further improve the environmental sustainability of the poultry industries in Europe. PMID:26935025

  10. ISEES: an institute for sustainable software to accelerate environmental science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. B.; Schildhauer, M.; Fox, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Software is essential to the full science lifecycle, spanning data acquisition, processing, quality assessment, data integration, analysis, modeling, and visualization. Software runs our meteorological sensor systems, our data loggers, and our ocean gliders. Every aspect of science is impacted by, and improved by, software. Scientific advances ranging from modeling climate change to the sequencing of the human genome have been rendered possible in the last few decades due to the massive improvements in the capabilities of computers to process data through software. This pivotal role of software in science is broadly acknowledged, while simultaneously being systematically undervalued through minimal investments in maintenance and innovation. As a community, we need to embrace the creation, use, and maintenance of software within science, and address problems such as code complexity, openness,reproducibility, and accessibility. We also need to fully develop new skills and practices in software engineering as a core competency in our earth science disciplines, starting with undergraduate and graduate education and extending into university and agency professional positions. The Institute for Sustainable Earth and Environmental Software (ISEES) is being envisioned as a community-driven activity that can facilitate and galvanize activites around scientific software in an analogous way to synthesis centers such as NCEAS and NESCent that have stimulated massive advances in ecology and evolution. We will describe the results of six workshops (Science Drivers, Software Lifecycles, Software Components, Workforce Development and Training, Sustainability and Governance, and Community Engagement) that have been held in 2013 to envision such an institute. We will present community recommendations from these workshops and our strategic vision for how ISEES will address the technical issues in the software lifecycle, sustainability of the whole software ecosystem, and the critical

  11. What Is an Education for Sustainable Development Supposed to Achieve--A Question of What, How and Why

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofman, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This is a theoretical article to open the discussion of what an education for sustainable development is supposed to achieve and how teachers can help students to develop skills that might be needed in order to support a sustainable future. The focus in the article will be on education. As it is an article aiming to open this kind of discussion…

  12. Medicine 'misuse': Implications for health and environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Felicity; Depledge, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Recent decades have witnessed a global rise in the use of medical pharmaceuticals to combat disease. However, estimates suggest that over half of all medicines are prescribed, dispensed or sold inappropriately, and that half of all patients fail to take them as directed. Bringing together research from across the medical, natural and social sciences, this paper considers what we know about the causes, impacts and implications of medicine misuse in relation to health, the sustainable use of pharmaceuticals and their unintended effects in the environment. We suggest that greater insight and understanding of medicine misuse can be gained by integrating the biomedical-focused approaches used in public health with approaches that consider the social and environmental determinants of medical prescribing and consuming practices. PMID:26344126

  13. What would an environmentally sustainable reproductive technology industry look like?

    PubMed

    Richie, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Through the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), multiple children are born adding to worldwide carbon emissions. Evaluating the ethics of offering reproductive services against its overall harm to the environment makes unregulated ARTs unjustified, yet the ART business can move towards sustainability as a part of the larger green bioethics movement. By integrating ecological ethos into the ART industry, climate change can be mitigated and the conversation about consumption can become a broader public discourse. Although the impact of naturally made children on the environment is undeniable, I will focus on the ART industry as an anthropogenic source of carbon emissions which lead to climate change. The ART industry is an often overlooked source of environmental degradation and decidedly different from natural reproduction as fertility centres provide a service for a fee and therefore can be subject to economic, policy and bioethical scrutiny. In this article, I will provide a brief background on the current state of human-driven climate change before suggesting two conservationist strategies that can be employed in the ART business. First, endorsing a carbon capping programme that limits the carbon emissions of ART businesses will be proposed. Second, I will recommend that policymakers eliminate funded ARTs for those who are not biologically infertile. I will conclude the article by urging policymakers and all those concerned with climate change to consider the effects of the reproductive technologies industry in light of climate change and move towards sustainability. PMID:25060852

  14. Sustainable development and environmental protection: A perspective on current trends and future options for universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemons, John

    1995-03-01

    Problems of sustainable development and environmental protection pose a challenge to humanity unprecedented in scope and complexity. Whether and how the problems are resolved have significant implications for human and ecological well-being. In this paper, I discuss briefly recent international recommendations to promote sustainable development and environmental protection. I then offer a perspective on the roles and prospects of the university in promoting sustainable development and environmental protection.

  15. Linking environmental justice and sustainable development for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, B.A.

    1995-12-01

    This presentation proposes proposes that environmental justice and sustainable development represent the most significant challenges facing environmental professionals during the next 20 years. It will explore the linkages and tensions between these two emerging fields of research and application, as well as their implications for the environmental professions. Questions addressed will include: (1) What is the conceptual link between these ideas? (2) If cost-benefit analysis, taking, and unfunded mandates are the Republican Congress`s top environmental priorities, what do these issues mean from the perspectives of environmental justice and sustainability? (3) What do the justice and sustainability perspectives imply for the future direction of environmental research and advocacy?

  16. Strategic environmental assessment for sustainability: A review of a decade of academic research

    SciTech Connect

    White, Lisa; Noble, Bram F.

    2013-09-15

    This paper examines the strategic environmental assessment (SEA)–sustainability relationship over the past decade, from 2000 to 2010, focusing in particular on the incorporation of sustainability in SEA. A total of 86 papers from the academic literature containing the terms ‘sustainability’ or ‘sustainable development’ and ‘strategic environmental assessment’ were identified and reviewed. Several common themes emerged by which SEA can support sustainability, including providing a framework to support decision making for sustainability; setting sustainability objectives, ensuring the consideration of ‘more sustainable’ alternatives, and integrating sustainability criteria in PPP development; and promoting sustainability outcomes through tiering and institutional learning. At the same time, our review identified many underlying barriers that challenge SEA for sustainability, including the variable interpretations of the scope of sustainability in SEA; the limited use of assessment criteria directly linked to sustainability objectives; and challenges for decision-makers in operationalizing sustainability in SEA and adapting PPP development decision-making processes to include sustainability issues. To advance SEA for sustainability there is a need to better define the scope of sustainability in SEA; clarify how to operationalize the different approaches to sustainability in SEA, as opposed to simply describing those approaches; provide guidance on how to operationalize broad sustainability goals through assessment criteria in SEA; and understand better how to facilitate institutional learning regarding sustainability through SEA application. -- Highlights: ► There is significant potential for SEA to support sustainability in PPP development. ► However, there are still many barriers in place that challenge SEA for sustainability. ► The scope and approaches to sustainability in SEA must be better defined and described. ► Guidance is needed to

  17. Carbon trading, climate change, environmental sustainability and saving planet Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, W. W.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon trading namely the reduction of future carbon dioxide levels has been widely touted as a solution needed to counter the problem of climate change. However, there are enormous risks involved as the measure tackles only one of the causes of climate change and may prove to be ineffective. This presentation highlights ten points relevant to the discussion on carbon trading, climate change, environmental sustainability and saving planet Earth for increasing public awareness. They include: (1) Climate has changed throughout Earth’s history. (2) The present level of about 388 parts per million level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has already exceeded the maximum level of the past 800,000 years. This value is obtained from air bubbles trapped within the ice in Antarctica but the consequence of further increases remains uncertain. (3) Earth scientists do not have an overwhelming consensus on whether carbon trading alone is an effective measure in mitigating climate change. (4) The present state of the Earth’s demise is largely the result of human actions including population growth and the mismanagement of the Earth. (5) The latest evidence on sea-level changes in the South China Sea a far-field region unaffected by glacial isostatic readjustment is not in support of a ‘rapid’ rate of future sea-level rise through global warming. (6) Volcanic eruptions have an important role in driving the Earth’s climate. Examples of temperature lowering as well as abnormally wet and dry years can both be found in the instrumental record. (7) Humans have drastically modified the ‘natural’ water cycle. This is however not a well recognized cause of climate change compared to the emission of greenhouse gases through fossil fuel consumption. (8) The bulk (~75%) of the rise in mean annual temperature of about 1oC observed at the Hong Kong Observatory Station since record began in 1884 is best explained by the thermal heat island effect. (9) No evidence has been found

  18. A framework for sustainable invasive species management: environmental, social and economic objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Phillips-Mao, Laura; Quiram, Gina; Sharpe, Leah; Stark, Rebecca; Sugita, Shinya; Weiler, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Applying the concept of sustainability to invasive species management (ISM) is challenging but necessary, given the increasing rates of invasion and the high costs of invasion impacts and control. To be sustainable, ISM must address environmental, social, and economic factors (or *pillars*) that influence the causes, impacts, and control of invasive species across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although these pillars are generally acknowledged, their implementation is often limited by insufficient control options and significant economic and political constraints. In this paper, we outline specific objectives in each of these three *pillars* that, if incorporated into a management plan, will improve the plan's likelihood of sustainability. We then examine three case studies that illustrate how these objectives can be effectively implemented. Each pillar reinforces the others, such that the inclusion of even a few of the outlined objectives will lead to more effective management that achieves ecological goals, while generating social support and long-term funding to maintain projects to completion. We encourage agency directors and policy-makers to consider sustainability principles when developing funding schemes, management agendas, and policy.

  19. Achieving environmental excellence through a multidisciplinary grassroots movement.

    PubMed

    Herechuk, Bryan; Gosse, Carolyn; Woods, John N

    2010-01-01

    St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton (SJHH) supports a grassroots green team, called Environmental Vision and Action (EVA). Since the creation of EVA, a healthy balance between corporate projects led by corporate leaders and grassroots initiatives led by informal leaders has resulted in many successful environmental initiatives. Over a relatively short period of time, environmental successes at SJHH have included waste diversion programs, energy efficiency and reduction initiatives, alternative commuting programs, green purchasing practices, clinical and pharmacy greening and increased staff engagement and awareness. Knowledge of social movements theory helped EVA leaders to understand the internal processes of a grassroots movement and helped to guide it. Social movements theory may also have broader applicability in health care by understanding the passionate engagement that people bring to a common cause and how to evolve sources of opposition into engines for positive change. After early successes, as the limitations of a grassroots movement began to surface, the EVA team revived the concept of evolving the grassroots green program into a corporate program for environmental stewardship. It is hard to quantify the importance of allowing our staff, physicians, volunteers and patients to engage in changes that they feel passionately about. However, at SJHH, the transformation of a group of people unsatisfied with the organization's environmental performance into an 'engine for change' has led to a rapid improvement in environmental stewardship at SJHH that is now regarded as a success. PMID:21739814

  20. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of 'safely managed' water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  1. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  2. Socially cooperative choices: An approach to achieving resource sustainability in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crance, Colin; Draper, Dianne

    1996-03-01

    Achieving resource sustainability, particularly in the coastal zone, is complicated by a variety of interdependencies and trade-offs between economic, social, and ecological variables. Although trade-offs between each of these variables are important, this paper emphasizes the social components of resource management. In this regard a distinction is made between individual and cooperative choices. Individual choices frequently are made from a shortterm, self-interested perspective, whereas cooperative choices are made from a long-term, community and resource-sustainability perspective. Typically, when presented with a spectrum of resource management decisions, individuals have a tendency to act in a self-interested manner. Thus, cooperative benefits, such as reduced conflict and improved resource certainty, are not realized. An overview of selected aspects of social dilemma theory suggests that socially cooperative choice outcomes are attainable in coastal zone management by integrating structural and behavioral solutions in resource use decision making. Three barriers to successful integration of structural and behavioral solutions are identified as self-interest, mistrust, and variable perceptions of resource amenities. Examples from coastal zone management indicate that these barriers may be overcome using approaches such as scopereduction, co-management, community education, and local participation. The paper also provides comment on the potential benefits of integrating structural and behavioral solutions in international coastal zone management efforts.

  3. Petit receives Robert C. Cowen Award for Sustained Achievement in Science Journalism: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rademacher, Horst

    2012-01-01

    Charles W. Petit, a veteran science writer, received the 2011 Robert C. Cowan Award for Sustained Achievement in Science Journalism at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 7 December 2011 in San Francisco, Calif. Petit covered earthquakes for the San Francisco Chronicle during the 1980s and 1990s and has recently served as "head tracker" for the Knight Science Journalism Tracker, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology-based daily blog that compiles and critiques science reporting worldwide. Petit was previously honored by AGU in 2003 when he received the David Perlman Award for an article about a new finding in oceanography. The Cowan Award, named for a former science editor of the Christian Science Monitor, is given no more than every 2 years and recognizes a journalist who has made "significant, lasting, and consistent contributions to accurate reporting or writing" on the Earth and space sciences for the general public.

  4. Petit receives Robert C. Cowen Award for Sustained Achievement in Science Journalism: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    Charles W. Petit, a veteran science writer, received the 2011 Robert C. Cowan Award for Sustained Achievement in Science Journalism at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 7 December 2011 in San Francisco, Calif. Petit covered earthquakes for the San Francisco Chronicle during the 1980s and 1990s and has recently served as "head tracker" for the Knight Science Journalism Tracker, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology-based daily blog that compiles and critiques science reporting worldwide. Petit was previously honored by AGU in 2003 when he received the David Perlman Award for an article about a new finding in oceanography. The Cowan Award, named for a former science editor of the Christian Science Monitor, is given no more than every 2 years and recognizes a journalist who has made "significant, lasting, and consistent contributions to accurate reporting or writing" on the Earth and space sciences for the general public.

  5. A screening life cycle metric to benchmark the environmental sustainability of waste management systems.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Scott M; Krishnan, Nikhil; Themelis, Nickolas J

    2010-08-01

    The disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) can lead to significant environmental burdens. The implementation of effective waste management practices, however, requires the ability to benchmark alternative systems from an environmental sustainability perspective. Existing metrics--such as recycling and generation rates, or the emissions of individual pollutants--often are not goal-oriented, are not readily comparable, and may not provide insight into the most effective options for improvement. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an effective approach to quantify and compare systems, but full LCA comparisons typically involve significant expenditure of resources and time. In this work we develop a metric called the Resource Conservation Efficiency (RCE) that is based on a screening-LCA approach, and that can be used to rapidly and effectively benchmark (on a screening level) the ecological sustainability of waste management practices across multiple locations. We first demonstrate that this measure is an effective proxy by comparing RCE results with existing LCA inventory and impact assessment methods. We then demonstrate the use of the RCE metric by benchmarking the sustainability of waste management practices in two U.S. cities: San Francisco and Honolulu. The results show that while San Francisco does an excellent job recovering recyclable materials, adding a waste to energy (WTE) facility to their infrastructure would most beneficially impact the environmental performance of their waste management system. Honolulu would achieve the greatest gains by increasing the capture of easily recycled materials not currently being recovered. Overall results also highlight how the RCE metric may be used to provide insight into effective actions cities can take to boost the environmental performance of their waste management practices. PMID:20666561

  6. The environmental sustainability of anaerobic digestion as a biomass valorization technology.

    PubMed

    De Meester, Steven; Demeyer, Jens; Velghe, Filip; Peene, Andy; Van Langenhove, Herman; Dewulf, Jo

    2012-10-01

    This paper studies the environmental sustainability of anaerobic digestion from three perspectives. First, reference electricity is compared to electricity production from domestic organic waste and energy crop digestion. Second, different digester feed possibilities in an agricultural context are studied. Third, the influence of applying digestate as fertilizer is investigated. Results highlight that biomass is converted at a rational exergy (energy) efficiency ranging from 15.3% (22.6) to 33.3% (36.0). From a life cycle perspective, a saving of over 90% resources is achieved in most categories when comparing biobased electricity to conventional electricity. However, operation without heat valorization results in 32% loss of this performance while using organic waste (domestic and agricultural residues) as feedstock avoids land resources. The use of digestate as a fertilizer is beneficial from a resource perspective, but causes increased nitrogen and methane emissions, which can be reduced by 50%, making anaerobic digestion an environmentally competitive bioenergy technology. PMID:22864176

  7. A cross-sectional analysis of reported corporate environmental sustainability practices.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Dallas M; Dopart, Pamela; Ferracini, Tyler; Sahmel, Jennifer; Merryman, Kimberly; Gaffney, Shannon; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2010-12-01

    The concept of sustainability evolved throughout the 1970s and 1980s, but was formally described by the 27 principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development in 1992. Despite the passage of nearly 20years, to date there are no uniform set of federal rules, regulations, or guidelines specifically governing the environmental aspects of sustainability practices or related requirements in the United States. In this benchmark analysis, we have collected information on the sustainability programs of the five largest US companies in each of the 26 industrial sectors [based on the Forbes Global 2000 through 2009 (n=130)]. For each company, we reviewed the most recent corporate sustainability, citizenship, or responsibility report, limiting our scope to environmental components, if available. Ten criteria were identified and analyzed, including leadership, reporting, external review, certification, and individual components of environmental sustainability programs. With respect to the prevalence of sustainability components between various business sectors, we found that the Drugs and Biotechnology (87%), Household and Personal Products (87%) and Oil and Gas Operations (87%) industries had the most comprehensive environmental sustainability programs. Using the nine components of environmental sustainability as a benchmark, we identified four key components as the characteristics of the most comprehensive environmental sustainability programs. These were (1) empowering leadership with a commitment to sustainability (80%), (2) standardized reporting (87%), (3) third-party evaluation of the sustainability programs (73%), and (4) obtaining ISO 14001 certification (73%). We found that many firms shaped their own definition of sustainability and developed their associated sustainability programs based on their sector, stakeholder interests, products or services, and business model. We noted an emerging area that we have called product sustainability - one in which

  8. Secondary Students' Reading Attitudes and Achievement in a Scaffolded Silent Reading Program versus Traditional Sustained Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Chandra Lorene

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the reading attitudes and achievement, as well as genre knowledge, of tenth, eleventh, and twelfth-grade students who participated in Scaffolded Silent Reading, Sustained Silent Reading, or a control group. The Reading and You attitude survey, Degrees of Reading Power achievement measure, and Genre Assessment were administered…

  9. Strategies Employed by Middle School Principals Successful in Increasing and Sustaining the Mathematics Achievement of African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study approaches the problem of African American mathematics achievement from a strength-based perspective, identifying practices implemented by middle school principals successful in increasing and sustaining the mathematics achievement of African American students. The study was designed to answer questions regarding both school-wide…

  10. Educating for Sustainability in Developing Countries: The Need for Environmental Education Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Monica

    1993-01-01

    The Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro emphasized the need for both the developing and developed world to work toward sustainable development. This paper reviews environmental education, sustainable development, and environmental strategies for aid donors to integrate into their programs. (Author/MDH)

  11. Environmental Literacy through Relationships: Connecting Biomes and Society in a Sustainable City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haverkos, Kimberly; Bautista, Nazan

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors share a project developed and implemented in an eighth-grade science classroom in which students apply what they have learned about biomes to create sustainable cities. This project promotes environmental literacy through helping students understand the interrelated elements of sustainable environmental systems and how…

  12. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD): The Turn away from "Environment" in Environmental Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopnina, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the implications of the shift of environmental education (EE) towards education for sustainable development (ESD) in the context of environmental ethics. While plural perspectives on ESD are encouraged both by practitioners and researchers of EE, there is also a danger that such pluralism may sustain dominant political…

  13. Global environmental health and sustainable development: the role at Rio+20.

    PubMed

    Furie, Gregg Lawrence; Balbus, John

    2012-06-01

    The Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development represents a crucial opportunity to place environmental health at the forefront of the sustainable development agenda. Billions of people living in low- and middle-income countries continue to be afflicted by preventable diseases due to modifiable environmental exposures, causing needless suffering and perpetuating a cycle of poverty. Current processes of economic development, while alleviating many social and health problems, are increasingly linked to environmental health threats, ranging from air pollution and physical inactivity to global climate change. Sustainable development practices attempt to reduce environmental impacts and should, in theory, reduce adverse environmental health consequences compared to traditional development. Yet these efforts could also result in unintended harm and impaired economic development if the new "Green Economy" is not carefully assessed for adverse environmental and occupational health impacts. The environmental health community has an essential role to play in underscoring these relationships as international leaders gather to craft sustainable development policies. PMID:22699634

  14. Sustainable nanocomposites toward electrochemical energy storage and environmental remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiahua

    Energy shortage and environmental pollution are the two most concerns right now for the long term sustainable development of human society. New technology developments are the key solutions to these challenges, which strongly rely on the continuous upgrading of advanced material performance. In this dissertation, sustainable nanocomposites with multifunctionalities are designed and fabricated targeting to the applications in high energy/power density capacitor electrodes and efficient heavy metal adsorbent for polluted water purification. Contrary to the helical carbon structure from pure cotton fabrics under microwave heating and radical oxidized ignition of nanoparticles from conventional heating, magnetic carbon tubular nanocomposite fabrics decorated with unifromally dispersed Co-Co3O4 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via a microwave heating process using cotton fabric and inorganic salt as precursors, which have shown better anti-corrosive performance and demonstrated great potential as novel electrochemical pseudocapacitor electrode. Polyaniline nanofibers (PANI-NFs)/graphite oxide (GO) nanocomposites with excellent interfacial interaction and elongated fiber structure were synthesized via a facile interfacial polymerization method. The PANI-NFs/GO hybrid materials showed orders of magnitude enhancement in capacitance and energy density than that of individual GO and PANI-NF components. At the same weight loading of PANI in the composites, fibrous PANI demonstrated higher energy density and long term stability than that of particle-shaped PANI at higher power density. Besides the efforts focusing on the inside of the capacitor including new electrodes, electrolyte materials, and capacitor configuration designs. A significant small external magnetic field (720 Gauss) induced capacitance enhancement is reported for graphene and graphene nanocomposite electrodes. The capacitance of Fe2O3/graphene nanocomposites increases by 154.6% after appling

  15. Promoting Environmental Education for Sustainable Development: The Value of Links between Higher Education and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Martin J.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental sustainability education, the dissemination of environmental education for sustainable development into the community, should be a lifelong process and not one restricted to a learner's years in higher education. Informal environmental sustainability education, including personal involvement in NGO environmental action, can be an…

  16. Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management. PMID:27620092

  17. The impact of environmental education on sixth-grade students' science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavijo, Katherine Gillespie

    This study investigated the relationship between student involvement in environmental education (EE) and science achievement. The performance of students engaged in fifth and sixth grade classrooms identified as incorporating environmental education into science instruction was compared to that of students from similar classrooms that use traditional science instruction. Data from 4655 sixth grade students were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression model to determine if environmental education improves prediction of science achievement beyond that afforded by differences in socioeconomic status and previous science achievement. The results indicated that environmental education, when integrated into science instruction, does not improve prediction of CTBS science scores beyond that afforded by differences in previous achievement in science and socioeconomic status. Previous achievement and socioeconomic status were the only two variables that predicted CTBS science subtest scores. The variable previous achievement (Score on fourth grade KIRIS test) explained 27.6% of the variance in CTBS test scores. The variable socioeconomic status (participation in free and reduced lunch program) explained 7.1% of the variance in CTBS science test scores. Participation in a fifth, sixth or both grades environmental education classroom did not add to the prediction of CTBS scores. This study illustrates that environmental education, while not correlated with high science achievement, does not correlate with low science achievement. Environmental education research may benefit from similar studies, which utilize alternative forms of student assessment. This study has implications for researchers interested in examining the impact of environmental education on science achievement, as it provides evidence for the importance of including background characteristics, such as socioeconomic status and previous achievement, in research models. This study provides an example of

  18. Multifunctional Environmental Smart Fertilizer Based on l-Aspartic Acid for Sustained Nutrient Release.

    PubMed

    Lü, Shaoyu; Feng, Chen; Gao, Chunmei; Wang, Xinggang; Xu, Xiubin; Bai, Xiao; Gao, Nannan; Liu, Mingzhu

    2016-06-22

    Fertilizer is one of the most important elements of modern agriculture. However, conventional fertilizer, when applied to crops, is vulnerable to losses through volatilization, leaching, nitrification, or other means. Such a loss limits crop yields and pollutes the environment. In an effort to enhance nutrient use efficiency and reduce environmental pollution, an environmental smart fertilizer was reported in the current study. Poly(aspartic acid) and a degradable macro-cross-linker based on l-aspartic acid were synthesized and introduced into the fertilizer as a superabsorbent to improve the fertilizer degradability and soil moisture-retention capacity. Sustained release behavior of the fertilizer was achieved in soil. Cumulative release of nitrogen and phosphorus was 79.8% and 64.4% after 30 days, respectively. The water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil with the superabsorbent are obviously higher than those of the control soil without superabsorbent. For the sample of 200 g of soil with 1.5 g of superabsorbent, the water-holding capacity is 81.8%, and the water-retention capacity remains 22.6% after 23 days. All of the current results in this study indicated that the as-prepared fertilizer has a promising application in sustainable modern agriculture. PMID:27244106

  19. The photovoltaic industry on the path to a sustainable future--environmental and occupational health issues.

    PubMed

    Bakhiyi, Bouchra; Labrèche, France; Zayed, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    As it supplies solar power, a priori considered harmless for the environment and human health compared with fossil fuels, the photovoltaic (PV) industry seems to contribute optimally to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and, overall, to sustainable development. However, considering the forecast for rapid growth, its use of potentially toxic substances and manufacturing processes presenting health and safety problems may jeopardize its benefits. This paper aims to establish a profile of the PV industry in order to determine current and emerging environmental and health concerns. A review of PV system life cycle assessments, in light of the current state of the industry and its developmental prospects, reveals information deficits concerning some sensitive life cycle indicators and environmental impacts, together with incomplete information on toxicological data and studies of workers' exposure to different chemical and physical hazards. Although solar panel installation is generally considered relatively safe, the occupational health concerns related to the growing number of hazardous materials handled in the PV industry warrants an all-inclusive occupational health and safety approach in order to achieve an optimal equilibrium with sustainability. To prevent eco-health problems from offsetting the benefits currently offered by the PV industry, manufacturers should cooperate actively with workers, researchers and government agencies toward improved and more transparent research, the adoption of specific and stricter regulations, the implementation of preventive risk management of occupational health and safety and, lastly, greater responsibilization toward PV systems from their design until their end of life. PMID:25168128

  20. Sustainability Research Under EPA/NRMRL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability means different things to different people, but most can agree that maintaining and supporting critical ecosystems over the long term is important for environmental and human health. Achieving sustainability involves a broad view of environmental stewardship. When ...

  1. Achieving and sustaining profound institutional change in healthcare: case study using neo-institutional theory.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Fraser; Barton-Sweeney, Cathy; Woodard, Fran; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2013-03-01

    Change efforts in healthcare sometimes have an ambitious, whole-system remit and seek to achieve fundamental changes in norms and organisational culture rather than (or as well as) restructuring the service. Long-term evaluation of such initiatives is rarely undertaken. We report a secondary analysis of data from an evaluation of a profound institutional change effort in London, England, using a mixed-method longitudinal case study design. The service had received £15 million modernisation funding in 2004, covering multiple organisations and sectors and overseen by a bespoke management and governance infrastructure that was dismantled in 2008. In 2010-11, we gathered data (activity statistics, documents, interviews, questionnaires, site visits) and compared these with data from 2003 to 2008. Data analysis was informed by neo-institutional theory, which considers organisational change as resulting from the material-resource environment and three 'institutional pillars' (regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive), enacted and reproduced via the identities, values and activities of human actors. Explaining the long-term fortunes of the different components of the original programme and their continuing adaptation to a changing context required attention to all three of Scott's pillars and to the interplay between macro institutional structures and embedded human agency. The paper illustrates how neo-institutional theory (which is typically used by academics to theorise macro-level changes in institutional structures over time) can also be applied at a more meso level to inform an empirical analysis of how healthcare organisations achieve change and what helps or hinders efforts to sustain those changes. PMID:23415586

  2. Ergonomics and design for sustainability in healthcare: ambient assisted living and the social-environmental impact of patients lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, Giuseppe; Arslan, Pelin; Costa, Fiammetta; Muschiato, Sabrina; Romero, Maximiliano

    2012-01-01

    This work presents considerations on Ergonomics and Design for Sustainability in the healthcare field based on research experiences of the Technology and Design for Healthcare (TeDH) research group of INDACO (Industrial design, communication, arts and fashion) department of Politecnico di Milano. In order to develop a multidisciplinary approach to design able to answer to specific user needs such as elderly in an environmental sustainable way (1) this paper shows the results we achieved concerning ergonomics and environmental impact in product development (2), the extension of this approach to interior and home design and the advantage of the application of Information Communication Technologies (ICT). ICT can help people with special needs to make their everyday life easier and more safe, at the same time, ICT can make social-environmental impact of everyday behavior evident and can be applied to manage sustainability. The specific theme is thus to integrate ergonomics and sustainability competences in the development of Ambient Assisted Living through a Product- Service System approach. The concept of product service system has the potential to improve product performances and services, establish new relations and networks with different actors in order to satisfy user needs and apply a systems approach considering environmental, social and economic factors in the users' environment. PMID:22317315

  3. Distinct foods with smaller unit would be an effective approach to achieve sustainable weight loss.

    PubMed

    Chang, Un Jae; Suh, Hyung Joo; Yang, Sun Ok; Hong, Yang Hee; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Jin Man; Jung, Eun Young

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effects of food type and food unit size on food intake and satiety using fried rice mixed with Kimchi in healthy Korean young women (n=31). Amorphous fried rice (1st week), distinct large fried rice balls (100 g/unit, 2nd week) and distinct small fried rice balls (20 g/unit, 3rd week) were served in the same content and volume (500 g). Subjects ate significantly (p<.001) less distinct large fried rice balls (243.5 g) compared to amorphous fried rice (317.2 g). Despite consuming more amorphous fried rice, subjects did not feel significantly fuller after eating amorphous fried rice compared to distinct large fried rice balls. When distinct fried rice balls were served as smaller unit, subjects ate significantly less them (small unit; 190.6 g vs. large unit; 243.5 g, p<.01). Although subjects ate more distinct fried rice balls provided as large unit, they rated similar satiety and hunger levels for distinct small and distinct large fried rice balls. In conclusion, we propose that distinct foods with smaller unit would be an effective approach to achieve sustainable weight loss. PMID:22177403

  4. Environmental sustainability in an agricultural development project: a system dynamics approach.

    PubMed

    Saysel, Ali Kerem; Barlas, Yaman; Yenigün, Orhan

    2002-03-01

    Regional agricultural projects based on water resource development have many potential impacts on social and natural environments. In this research, potential long-term environmental problems of the Southeastern Anatolian Project (GAP) related to water resources, land use, land degradation, agricultural pollution and demography are analysed from a systems perspective. The analysis focuses on the totality of environmental, social and economic issues. For this purpose, a system dynamics simulation model (GAPSIM) has been developed as an experimental platform for policy analysis. GAPSIM was validated, first 'structurally', using the tests suggested by the literature and then the model 'behaviour' was tested and calibrated with respect to available data. The reference behaviour of GAPSIM reveals that, as the irrigated lands are developed, GAP faces significant water scarcity because of the increased intensity of cotton, the crop with the highest demands for water. Simulation results also indicate that two key environmental factors, pesticide and fertilizer consumption may reach undesirable levels. Alternative irrigation water release strategies, development rates of irrigated fields and farm rotation practices appear as important policy tools in achieving long-term environmental sustainability. GAPSIM promises to be not only a useful laboratory for policy makers of GAP, but also a useful generic structure applicable to other similar regional development projects. PMID:12040958

  5. Environmental impacts and sustainability of egg production systems.

    PubMed

    Xin, H; Gates, R S; Green, A R; Mitloehner, F M; Moore, P A; Wathes, C M

    2011-01-01

    As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified topics requiring further research. Currently, we know that 1) high-rise cage houses generally have poorer air quality and emit more ammonia than manure belt (MB) cage houses; 2) manure removal frequency in MB houses greatly affects ammonia emissions; 3) emissions from manure storage are largely affected by storage conditions, including ventilation rate, manure moisture content, air temperature, and stacking profile; 4) more baseline data on air emissions from high-rise and MB houses are being collected in the United States to complement earlier measurements; 5) noncage houses generally have poorer air quality (ammonia and dust levels) than cage houses; 6) noncage houses tend to be colder during cold weather due to a lower stocking density than caged houses, leading to greater feed and fuel energy use; 7) hens in noncage houses are less efficient in resource (feed, energy, and land) utilization, leading to a greater carbon footprint; 8) excessive application of hen manure to cropland can lead to nutrient runoff to water bodies; 9) hen manure on open (free) range may be subject to runoff during rainfall, although quantitative data are lacking; 10) mitigation technologies exist to reduce generation and emission of noxious gases and dust; however, work is needed to evaluate their economic feasibility and optimize design; and 11) dietary modification shows promise for mitigating emissions. Further research is needed on 1) indoor air quality, barn emissions, thermal conditions, and energy use in alternative hen housing systems (1-story floor, aviary, and enriched cage systems), along with conventional housing systems under different production conditions; 2) environmental footprint for different US egg production systems through life cycle assessment; 3) practical means to mitigate air

  6. Surf Tourism, Artificial Surfing Reefs, and Environmental Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotkin, Michael H.; Chambliss, Karen; Vamosi, Alexander R.; Lindo, Chris

    2009-07-01

    This paper explores the confluence of surf tourism, artificial surfing reefs, and sustainability. Surfing is an ascendant recreational and tourism industry and artificial surfing reefs are a new and innovative technology and product. Presented within the context of Florida's Space Coast, empirical details on surf tourism are discussed along with the possible implications for sustainability.

  7. Actualizing sustainability: environmental policy for resilience in ecological systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Society benefits from ecological systems in many ways. These benefits are often referred to as ecosystem services (MA 2005). Because these services matter to humans, they are critical to sustainability. Sustainability has many definitions, but for this chapter, we link our defi...

  8. Local Environmental Risk Assessment as a Sustainability Education Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Garry; Koernicke, Ingo

    2004-01-01

    Experience in Australia has demonstrated that problems arise when sustainability requirements appear to conflict with individual development rights or local lifestyles. Community partnering between government and the public is therefore of fundamental importance in working towards sustainable development. Unfortunately genuine partnering is only…

  9. Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Zhang, Gong; Yang, Xiahua; You, Shao-Hong

    2015-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2014 publications on the focus of the following sections: • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management. PMID:26420087

  10. Contributions to the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development. Environmental Education, Communication and Sustainability. Volume 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goncalves, Fernando J., Ed.; Pereira, Ruth, Ed.; Leal Filho, Walter, Ed.; Miranda Azeiteiro, Ulisses, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book presents essential learning approaches. It introduces educational and training activities, as well as various innovative methods aiming at the development of practical skills, in order to strengthen the continuous process of environmental education, and in particular the education for sustainable development (ESD). In doing so, it…

  11. Conceptualizing learning for sustainability through environmental assessment: critical reflections on 15 years of research

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, A. John Diduck, Alan Fitzpatrick, Patricia

    2008-10-15

    Numerous scholars are now directing their attention to the education and learning implications of participatory resource and environmental governance because of the potential implications of these for generating the social mobilization necessary to achieve sustainability trajectories. Our work, and that of other researchers, establishes that public participation in environmental assessment (EA) provides fertile ground for considering the intricacies of governance as they relate to participation, and for examining the education and learning implications of participation. Since EA law requires in many cases that public voices be part of the decision process, it has resulted in the creation of fascinating, state-sanctioned, deliberative spaces for civic interactions. Our purpose here is to share, and build upon, a framework that conceptualizes the relationships among participation, education, learning and sustainability in an EA context. We do so by considering findings from studies we have undertaken on participation in EA in Canada since the early 90's. Our approach was interactive and collaborative. We each considered in detail the key results of our earlier work as they relate to education, learning and EA process design. The findings illuminate aspects of the conceptual framework for which there is considerable empirical evidence, such as the link between meaningful participation and critical education and the diversity of individual learning outcomes associated with public participation in EA. The findings also highlight those parts of the framework for which the empirical evidence is relatively sparse, such as the range of possible social learning outcomes, their congruence with sustainability criteria, and the roles of monitoring and cumulative and strategic assessments in shaping EA into an adaptive, learning system.

  12. An Investigation of Taiwan's Education Regulations and Policies for Pursuing Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid industrialization and economic development in the past decades, heavy environmental loads caused some serious environmental scenarios in Taiwan, an island country with a dense population and only limited natural resources. As a result, environmental education in Taiwan has been a leading tool to promote sustainable development since…

  13. When wastewater has worth: Water reconditioning opportunities in the food industry to achieve sustainable food manufacturing (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major sustainability goal of food processing wastewater (FPWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also utilize valuable co-products present in the FPWW. Many processed food products, especially those from fruits and vegetables, result in FPWW streams that contain compou...

  14. Does the law stymie the science? The role of law in achieving sustainable groundwater management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, A.

    2012-04-01

    Legal frameworks for the management of groundwater evolved in an environment where scientific understanding of the resource was sketchy. As hydrogeological knowledge has improved over time, the law has often failed to catch up and enforcement of those laws that are in place has proved difficult. Consequently, groundwater in many countries is still managed by inadequate regimes that are unable to effectively integrate the impacts of land use management and surface water interactions. The Water Framework Directive and its associated Groundwater Directive require the integrated management of both ground and surface waters, but on a global level, this is unusual. Institutional frameworks often perpetuate this split, and the legal regime for the management of transboundary shared aquifers is a work in progress. Both national and international frameworks encourage a race to over-exploit groundwater resources. Symptomatic of the problems currently seen in groundwater management is a widespread inability to adapt to changing climate and environmental conditions. Users may be granted unchangeable rights of use in perpetuity, and the impacts of aquifer over-exploitation on dependent ecosystems may be ignored. There are therefore significant barriers to the application of existing science in many countries, and this seriously jeopardises efforts to sustainably manage groundwater. This presentation will assess current developments in the laws relating to the use of groundwater around the world, highlighting case studies from India, Australia and the USA, and assessing the implementation of the Groundwater Directive in selected European countries (in work derived from the EU-funded GENESIS project). It will also examine the legal architecture relating to international shared aquifers, and the extent to which it can cope with national groundwater use patterns that will shift in response to climate change and its consequences.

  15. Achieving and Sustaining Automated Health Data Linkages for Learning Systems: Barriers and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Van Eaton, Erik G.; Devlin, Allison B.; Devine, Emily Beth; Flum, David R.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    challenges of idiosyncratic EHR implementations required each hospital to devote more IT resources than were predicted. Cost savings did not meet projections because of the increased IT resource requirements and a different source of lowered chart review costs. Discussion: CERTAIN succeeded in recruiting unaffiliated hospitals into the Automation Project to create an enhanced registry to achieve AHRQ goals. This case report describes several distinct barriers to central data aggregation for QI and CER across unaffiliated hospitals: (1) competition for limited on-site IT expertise, (2) concerns about data use for QI versus research, (3) restrictions on data automation to a defined subset of patients, and (4) unpredictable resource needs because of idiosyncrasies among unaffiliated hospitals in how EHR data are coded, stored, and made available for transmission—even between hospitals using the same vendor’s EHR. Therefore, even a fully optimized automation infrastructure would still not achieve complete automation. The Automation Project was unable to align sufficiently with internal hospital objectives, so it could not show a compelling case for sustainability. PMID:25848606

  16. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  17. The Sustainability of Reading Recovery Intervention on Reading Achievement of Students Identified as At-Risk for Early Reading Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Anne J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact and sustainability of successfully discontinued first grade Reading Recovery students as compared to non-Reading Recovery students in reading achievement measures as third graders. Schools are facing the unprecedented challenge to ensure reading success for all students by the end of second…

  18. In Pursuit of Sustained Achievement: A Case Study of One At-Risk School's Efforts to Change Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorvig, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustained achievement remains out of reach for most Title I schools. While there are many programs and examples of schools touting improved performance, there are precious few that are able to maintain that improved performance over time. This case study examined the characteristics of changes made at one Colorado Title I elementary school that…

  19. Lipophilic nalmefene prodrugs to achieve a one-month sustained release.

    PubMed

    Gaekens, Tim; Guillaume, Michel; Borghys, Herman; De Zwart, Loeckie L; de Vries, Ronald; Embrechts, Roger C A; Vermeulen, An; Megens, Anton A H P; Leysen, Josée E; Herdewijn, Piet; Annaert, Pieter P; Atack, John R

    2016-06-28

    Nalmefene is an opioid antagonist which as a once-a-day tablet formulation has recently been approved for reducing ethanol intake in alcoholic subjects. In order to address the compliance issue in this patient population, a number of potential nalmefene prodrugs were synthesized with the aim of providing a formulation that could provide plasma drug concentrations in the region of 0.5-1.0ng/mL for a one-month period when dosed intramuscular to dogs or minipigs. In an initial series of studies, three different lipophilic nalmefene derivatives were evaluated: the palmitate (C16), the octadecyl glutarate diester (C18-C5) and the decyl carbamate (CB10). They were administered intramuscularly to dogs in a sesame oil solution at a dose of 1mg-eq. nalmefene/kg. The decyl carbamate was released relatively quickly from the oil depot and its carbamate bond was too stable to be used as a prodrug. The other two derivatives delivered a fairly constant level of 0.2-0.3ng nalmefene/mL plasma for one month and since there was no significant difference between these two, the less complex palmitate monoester was chosen to demonstrate that dog plasma nalmefene concentrations were dose-dependent at 1, 5 and 20mg-eq. nalmefene/kg. In a second set of experiments, the effect of the chain length of the fatty acid monoester promoieties was examined. The increasingly lipophilic octanoate (C8), decanoate (C10) and dodecanoate (C12) derivatives were evaluated in dogs and in minipigs, at a dose of 5mg-eq. nalmefene/kg and plasma nalmefene concentrations were measured over a four-week period. The pharmacokinetic profiles were very similar in both species with Cmax decreasing and Tmax increasing with increasing fatty acid chain length and the target plasma concentrations (0.5-1.0ng/mL over a month-long period) were achieved with the dodecanoate (C12) prodrug. These data therefore demonstrate that sustained plasma nalmefene concentrations can be achieved in both dog and minipig using nalmefene

  20. Breaking the Link between Environmental Degradation and Oil Palm Expansion: A Method for Enabling Sustainable Oil Palm Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Hans Harmen; Meijaard, Erik; van der Laan, Carina; Mantel, Stephan; Budiman, Arif; Verweij, Pita

    2013-01-01

    Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded lands for more productive purposes. To facilitate the processes of avoided degradation and land rehabilitation, we have developed a methodology in which we have used international environmental and social sustainability standards to determine the suitability of lands for sustainable agricultural expansion. The method was developed and tested in one of the frontiers of agricultural expansion, West Kalimantan province in Indonesia. The focus was on oil palm expansion, which is considered as a major driver for deforestation in tropical regions globally. The results suggest that substantial changes in current land-use planning are necessary for most new plantations to comply with international sustainability standards. Through visualizing options for sustainable expansion with our methodology, we demonstrate that the link between oil palm expansion and degradation can be broken. Application of the methodology with criteria and thresholds similar to ours could help the Indonesian government and the industry to achieve its pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor and pro-environment development goals. For sustainable agricultural production, context specific guidance has to be developed in areas suitable for expansion. Our methodology can serve as a template for designing such commodity and country specific tools and deliver such guidance. PMID:24039700

  1. Breaking the link between environmental degradation and oil palm expansion: a method for enabling sustainable oil palm expansion.

    PubMed

    Harmen Smit, Hans; Meijaard, Erik; van der Laan, Carina; Mantel, Stephan; Budiman, Arif; Verweij, Pita

    2013-01-01

    Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded lands for more productive purposes. To facilitate the processes of avoided degradation and land rehabilitation, we have developed a methodology in which we have used international environmental and social sustainability standards to determine the suitability of lands for sustainable agricultural expansion. The method was developed and tested in one of the frontiers of agricultural expansion, West Kalimantan province in Indonesia. The focus was on oil palm expansion, which is considered as a major driver for deforestation in tropical regions globally. The results suggest that substantial changes in current land-use planning are necessary for most new plantations to comply with international sustainability standards. Through visualizing options for sustainable expansion with our methodology, we demonstrate that the link between oil palm expansion and degradation can be broken. Application of the methodology with criteria and thresholds similar to ours could help the Indonesian government and the industry to achieve its pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor and pro-environment development goals. For sustainable agricultural production, context specific guidance has to be developed in areas suitable for expansion. Our methodology can serve as a template for designing such commodity and country specific tools and deliver such guidance. PMID:24039700

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: BIOMASS CO-FIRING IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS--UNIVERSITY OF IOWA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental and Sustainable Technology Evaluation (ESTE) program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. This ESTE project involved evaluation of co-firing common woody bio...

  3. Categorizing Biomarkers of the Human Exposome and Developing Metrics for Assessing Environmental Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept of maintaining environmental sustainability broadly encompasses all human activities that impact the global environment, including the production of energy, use and management of finite resources such as petrochemicals, metals, food production (farmland, fresh and oce...

  4. Environmental Impact Assessment and Sustainable Agricultural Development--With Special Reference to Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiragu, Consolater Wambuku; Goode, Pamela M.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of sustainable agriculture from the perspective of development in Kenya is discussed. The steps in an Environmental Impact Assessment which takes into account the physical, cultural, social, and ecological aspects of the problem are presented. (CW)

  5. Students' Qualification in Environmental and Sustainability Education--Epistemic Gaps or Composites of Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasslöf, Helen; Lundegård, Iann; Malmberg, Claes

    2016-01-01

    In an "age of measurement" where students' "qualification" is a hot topic on the political agenda, it is of interest to ask what the "function of qualification" might implicate in relation to a complex issue as Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and what function environmental and sustainability issues serve…

  6. The Riddle of Sustainable Development and the Role of Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Malcolm

    1995-01-01

    Explores the meaning of sustainable development from the economic and ethical perspectives. Argues that education for sustainability programs ought to acknowledge and address questions raised by these two perspectives. Concludes that the goals of environmental education need to be reconceptualized, continually and reflexively, in response to the…

  7. On the Need to Repoliticise Environmental and Sustainability Education: Rethinking the Postpolitical Consensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sund, Louise; Öhman, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This article draws attention to the possibilities of the ongoing philosophical discussion about cosmopolitan universal values in relation to the normative challenges in environmental and sustainability education (ESE). The purpose of this paper is to clarify the philosophical problems of addressing universally sustainable responsibilities and…

  8. Environmental Education for Sustainability in Higher Education Institutions in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galang, Angelina P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To present a national profile of developments in higher education for sustainable development in the Philippines and to analyse a new initiative to accelerate environmental education for sustainable development (EESD) within academic institutions. Design/methodology/approach: This is an evaluative review that examines the design and…

  9. Environmental Management and Sustainability in Higher Education: The Case of Spanish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon-Fernandez, Yolanda; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyse trends in implementing the main initiatives in the field of environmental management and sustainability in Spanish universities, taking as a reference point the guidelines adopted by a number of universities in countries most committed to sustainable development. Design/methodology/approach: An analysis of…

  10. The Role of Environmental Engineering Education in Sustainable Development in Iran: AUT Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, M. R. Alavi; Taher-shamsi, A.; Maknoun, R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explain the strategies and activities of a main technical University in Iran (Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT)) toward sustainable development goals. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, three main strategies of AUT to achieve sustainable developments goals in engineering education are explained.…

  11. Environmental Sustainability in Higher Education: What Do Academics Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Belinda A.; Miller, Kelly K.; Cooke, Raylene; White, John G.

    2015-01-01

    The slow uptake of Education for Sustainability (EfS) curricula in universities has, partly, been attributed to academics' perceptions that EfS has little relevance within some disciplines. Understanding teaching academics' attitudes, values and experiences of EfS across disciplines can inform future EfS efforts in higher education. This paper…

  12. ON SYSTEMS METRICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept of sustainability is widely associated with the statement from the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: “… development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs…” Hence, sustai...

  13. ON SYSTEMS METRICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept of sustainability is often associated with the statement from the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: "... development that meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future ...". Hence, sus...

  14. Significant Increase in Ecosystem C Can Be Achieved with Sustainable Forest Management in Subtropical Plantation Forests

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500–2500 trees ha−1. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir – Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr−1, offsetting 1.9% of China’s annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber

  15. What current literature tells us about sustainable diets: emerging research linking dietary patterns, environmental sustainability, and economics.

    PubMed

    Auestad, Nancy; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of sustainable diets, although not new, is gaining increased attention across the globe, especially in relation to projected population growth and growing concerns about climate change. As defined by the FAO (Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium, Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets 2010; FAO 2012), "Sustainable diets are those diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life for present and future generations." Consistent and credible science that brings together agriculture, food systems, nutrition, public health, environment, economics, culture, and trade is needed to identify synergies and trade-offs and to inform guidance on vital elements of healthy, sustainable diets. The aim of this article is to review the emerging research on environmental and related economic impacts of dietary patterns, including habitual eating patterns, nutritionally balanced diets, and a variety of different dietary scenarios. Approaches to research designs, methodologies, and data sources are compared and contrasted to identify research gaps and future research needs. To date, it is difficult to assimilate all of the disparate approaches, and more concerted efforts for multidisciplinary studies are needed. PMID:25593141

  16. What Current Literature Tells Us about Sustainable Diets: Emerging Research Linking Dietary Patterns, Environmental Sustainability, and Economics12

    PubMed Central

    Auestad, Nancy; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of sustainable diets, although not new, is gaining increased attention across the globe, especially in relation to projected population growth and growing concerns about climate change. As defined by the FAO (Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium, Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets 2010; FAO 2012), “Sustainable diets are those diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life for present and future generations.” Consistent and credible science that brings together agriculture, food systems, nutrition, public health, environment, economics, culture, and trade is needed to identify synergies and trade-offs and to inform guidance on vital elements of healthy, sustainable diets. The aim of this article is to review the emerging research on environmental and related economic impacts of dietary patterns, including habitual eating patterns, nutritionally balanced diets, and a variety of different dietary scenarios. Approaches to research designs, methodologies, and data sources are compared and contrasted to identify research gaps and future research needs. To date, it is difficult to assimilate all of the disparate approaches, and more concerted efforts for multidisciplinary studies are needed. PMID:25593141

  17. Sustainable Urban Waters: Opportunities to Integrate Environmental Protection in Multi-objective Projects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Nonpoint source pollution is an ongoing challenge for environmental agencies who seek to protect waters of the U.S. Urban stream and waterfront redevelopment projects present opportunities to achieve integrated environmental, economic, and social benefits in urban water...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT, SUSTAINABILITY THEORY, AND THE CHALLENGE OF UNCERTAINTY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Systems Management is the management of environmental problems at the systems level fully accounting fo rthe multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This includes socio-economic dimensions as well s the usual physical and life science aspects. This is important...

  19. Interdisciplinary Environmental Education: Communicating and Applying Energy Efficiency for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Joshua M.; Russill, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This article demonstrates that interdisciplinary alliances on environmental education projects can effectively address the gap between complex environmental problems in the real world and disciplinary curricula in a university. We describe an alliance between an advanced communication course and a general science course wherein we addressed…

  20. Psychology and Environmental Sustainability: A Call for Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koger, Susan M.; Scott, Britain A.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental scientists warn that the health of the planet is rapidly deteriorating, and the primary cause of the crisis is human behavior. Psychology can contribute greatly to understanding and changing behaviors that negatively impact global ecosystems; however, environmental issues are not generally included in psychology curricula, and…

  1. Sustaining Environmental Pedagogy in Times of Educational Conservatism: A Case Study of Integrated Curriculum Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Erin; Breunig, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Although the global call for environmental education is persistent, on a local or regional level, this call can be confronted by educational policies that drive environmental education out of the curriculum. This paper reports on a qualitative case study of the factors contributing to the sustainability of three teacher-driven integrated…

  2. The Power of One: The Impact of Family and Consumer Sciences Education on Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nancy E.

    2010-01-01

    The issues related to environmental sustainability can be overwhelming. It is difficult to imagine that actions of one person could make a difference. This article addresses that perception and illustrates the impact of one person, a family and consumer sciences educator, on the lives of others and on environmental resources. Making a difference…

  3. Research in Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable Development in Germany: The State of the Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seybold, Hansjorg; Rieb, Werner

    2006-01-01

    This article outlines the state of the art in German research on environmental education and education for sustainable development (ESD). Empirical German research on the importance of environmental education and ESD for schools is analysed in relation to three research fields. First, survey research describes the practice of environmental…

  4. The Roots and Routes of Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Lysgaard, Jonas A.

    2016-01-01

    "Environmental Education Research" has developed a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focusing on studies of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) policy. The VSI draws on key examples of research on this topic published in the Journal from the past two decades, for three reasons.…

  5. Sustainable Architecture that Teaches: Promoting Environmental Education through Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Grace; Berger, Rebecca; Green, Pamela Davis

    2010-01-01

    The University of Maine at Farmington (UMF) has undertaken a commitment to establish a culture of environmental sustainability. With two new Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified buildings on site, a green building curriculum has been developed. This multidimensional curriculum involves university faculty, students, K-12…

  6. Integrating Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering Education: The Application of an Environmental Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanes, M. T.; Palomares, A. E.; Sanchez-Tovar, R.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of sustainable development have been integrated in chemical engineering education by means of an environmental management system. These principles have been introduced in the teaching laboratories where students perform their practical classes. In this paper, the implementation of the environmental management system, the problems…

  7. Towards a Campus Culture of Environmental Sustainability: Recommendations for a Large University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Brett L. M.; Marans, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors led an interdisciplinary team that developed recommendations for building a "culture of environmental sustainability" at the University of Michigan (UM), and the purpose of this paper is to provide guidance on how other institutions might promote pro-environmental behaviors on their campuses. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  8. Educational Reflections on the "Ecological Crisis": EcoJustice, Environmentalism, and Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    There is a tendency by scholars arguing for a more just and sustainable future to position the "ecological crisis" as a fundamental reason for major educational reforms. Relying on crisis-talk to fuel social and environmental justice and environmentalism reinforces the thinking of the past, which inadvertently perpetuates the acceptance of present…

  9. Facing Global Sustainability Issues: Teachers' Experiences of Their Own Practices in Environmental and Sustainability Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, international organisations and national governments have stressed the need for education policies to be (re)oriented towards social change, sustainability and preparing students for life in a global society. This area of pedagogy is not problem free. When policy is turned into practice teachers need to take a number of…

  10. Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmandt, Jurgen; Ward, C. H.; Marilu Hastings, Assisted By

    2000-04-01

    Demographers predict that the world population will double during the first half of the 21st century before it will begin to level off. In this volume, a group of prominent authors examine what societal changes must occur to meet this challenge to the natural environment and the transformational changes that we must experience to achieve sustainability. Frances Cairncross, Herman E. Daly, Stephen H. Schneider and others provide a broad discussion of sustainable development. They detail economic and environmental, as well as spiritual and religious, corporate and social, scientific and political factors. Sustainable Development: The Challenge of Transition offers many insightful policy recommendations about how business, government, and individuals must change their current values, priorities, and behavior to meet present and future challenges. It will appeal to scholars and decision makers interested in global change, environmental policy, population growth, and sustainable development, and also to corporate environmental managers.

  11. Environmental and sustainability ethics in supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Beamon, Benita M

    2005-04-01

    Environmentally Conscious Supply Chain Management (ECSCM refers to the control exerted over all immediate and eventual environmental effects of products and processes associated with converting raw materials into final products. While much work has been done in this area, the focus has traditionally been on either: product recovery (recycling, remanufacturing, or re-use) or the product design function only (e.g., design for environment). Environmental considerations in manufacturing are often viewed as separate from traditional, value-added considerations. However, the case can be made that professional engineers have an ethical responsibility to consider the immediate and eventual environmental impacts of products and processes that they design and/or manage. This paper describes ECSCM as a component of engineering ethics, and highlights the major issues associated with ethical decision-making in supply chain management. PMID:15915861

  12. Technological challenges for boosting coal production with environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Mrinal K

    2009-07-01

    The global energy requirement has grown at a phenomenon rate and the consumption of primary energy sources has been a very high positive growth. This paper focuses on the consumption of different primary energy sources and it identifies that coal will continue to remain as the prime energy source in foreseeable future. It examines the energy requirement perspective for India and demand of coal as the prime energy source. Economic development and poverty alleviation depend on securing affordable energy sources and Indian coal mining industry offers a bright future for the country's energy security, provided the industry is allowed to develop by supportive government policies and adopts latest technologies for mining. It is an irony that in-spite of having a plentiful reserves, India is not able to jack up coal production to meet its current and future demand. It discusses the strategies to be adopted for growth and meeting the coal demand. But such energy are very much concerned with environmental degradation and must be driven by contemporary managerial acumen addressing environmental and social challenges effectively The paper highlights the emissions of greenhouse gases due to burning of fossil fuels and environmental consequences of global warming and sea-level rise. Technological solutions for environment friendly coal mining and environmental laws for the abatement of environmental degradation are discussed in this paper. PMID:18604635

  13. Integrated farm sustainability assessment for the environmental management of rural activities

    SciTech Connect

    Stachetii Rodrigues, Geraldo; Aparecida Rodrigues, Izilda; Almeida Buschinelli, Claudio Cesar de; Barros, Inacio de

    2010-07-15

    Farmers have been increasingly called upon to respond to an ongoing redefinition in consumers' demands, having as a converging theme the search for sustainable production practices. In order to satisfy this objective, instruments for the environmental management of agricultural activities have been sought out. Environmental impact assessment methods are appropriate tools to address the choice of technologies and management practices to minimize negative effects of agricultural development, while maximizing productive efficiency, sound usage of natural resources, conservation of ecological assets and equitable access to wealth generation means. The 'system for weighted environmental impact assessment of rural activities' (APOIA-NovoRural) presented in this paper is organized to provide integrated farm sustainability assessment according to quantitative environmental standards and defined socio-economic benchmarks. The system integrates sixty-two objective indicators in five sustainability dimensions - (i) Landscape ecology, (ii) Environmental quality (atmosphere, water and soil), (iii) Sociocultural values, (iv) Economic values, and (v) Management and administration. Impact indices are expressed in three integration levels: (i) specific indicators, that offer a diagnostic and managerial tool for farmers and rural administrators, by pointing out particular attributes of the rural activities that may be failing to comply with defined environmental performance objectives; (ii) integrated sustainability dimensions, that show decision-makers the major contributions of the rural activities toward local sustainable development, facilitating the definition of control actions and promotion measures; and (iii) aggregated sustainability index, that can be considered a yardstick for eco-certification purposes. Nine fully documented case studies carried out with the APOIA-NovoRural system, focusing on different scales, diverse rural activities/farming systems, and contrasting

  14. Integrating Sustainable Consumption into Environmental Education: A Case Study on Environmental Representations, Decision Making and Intention to Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjichambis, Andreas Ch.; Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, Demetra; Ioannou, Hara; Georgiou, Yiannis; Manoli, Constantinos C.

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, current consumption patterns have been recurrently blamed for rendering both the environment and our lifestyles unsustainable. Young children are considered a critical group in the effort to make a shift towards sustainable consumption (environmentally friendly consumption). However, young people should be able to consider…

  15. Environmental Education, Sustainable Agriculture, and CGIAR: History and Future Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelles, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is a global network of 15 specialized centers employing around 2,000 international scientists and 6,000 national staff in over 100 countries. CGIAR educational approaches to environmental issues have varied amid conflicting perspectives. Inadequate policies, learning resources,…

  16. The Most Economic, Socially Viable, and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic, social, and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labor. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. It…

  17. EVALUATING AND DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals and chemical processes are at the heart of most environmental problems. This isn't surprising since chemicals make up all of the products we use in our lives. The common use of cjhemicals makes them of high interest for systems analysis, particularly because of environ...

  18. Fair Trade Flowers: Global Certification, Environmental Sustainability, and Labor Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raynolds, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the organization of the fair trade flower industry, integration of Ecuadorian enterprises into these networks, and power of certification to address key environmental and social concerns on participating estates. Pursuing a social regulatory approach, I locate fair trade within the field of new institutions that establish and…

  19. SUstaiNability: a science communication website on environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravina, Teresita; Rutigliano, Flora Angela

    2015-04-01

    Environmental news mainly reach not specialist people by mass media, which generally focuses on fascinating or catastrophic events without reporting scientific data. Otherwise, scientific data on environment are published in peer-reviewed journals with specific language, so they could be not understandable to common people. In the last decade, Internet spread made easier to divulge environmental information. This allows everyone (scientist or not) to publish information without revision. In fact, World Wide Web includes many scientific sites with different levels of confidence. Within Italian scientific websites, there are those of University and Research Centre, but they mainly contain didactic and bureaucratic information, generally lacking in research news, or reporting them in peer-reviewed format. University and Research Centre should have an important role to divulge certified information, but news should be adapted to a general audience without scientific skills, in order to help population to gain knowledge on environmental issues and to develop responsible behavior. Therefore, an attractive website (www.sunability.unina2.it) has been created in order to divulge research products of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies Department (DiSTABiF) of Second University of Naples-SUN (Campania, Southern Italy). This website contains divulgation articles derived from peer-reviewed publications of DiSTABiF researchers and concerning studies on environmental, nutrition, and health issues, closely related topics. Environmental studies mainly referred to Caserta district (Southern Italy), where DiSTABiF is located. Divulgation articles have been shared by main social networks (Facebook: sunability, Twitter: @SUNability) and accesses have been monitored for 28 days in order to obtain demographic and geographic information about users and visualization number of both DiSTABiF website and social network pages. Demographic and geographic

  20. Walking the sustainability assessment talk - Progressing the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA)

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois

    2012-09-15

    Internationally there is a growing demand for environmental impact assessment (EIA) to move away from its traditional focus towards delivering more sustainable outcomes. South Africa is an example of a country where the EIA system seems to have embraced the concept of sustainability. In this paper we test the existing objectives for EIA in South Africa against sustainability principles and then critique the effectiveness of EIA practice in delivering these objectives. The outcome of the research suggests that notwithstanding a strong and explicit sustainability mandate through policy and legislation, the effectiveness of EIA practice falls far short of what is mandated. This shows that further legislative reform is not required to improve effectiveness but rather a focus on changing the behaviour of individual professionals. We conclude by inviting further debate on what exactly practitioners can do to give effect to sustainability in EIA practice.

  1. Pulmonary liposomal formulations encapsulated procaterol hydrochloride by a remote loading method achieve sustained release and extended pharmacological effects.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Kohei; Tomida, Hiromasa; Ito, Yousuke; Tachikawa, Suguru; Onodera, Risako; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Tozuka, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Hirofumi

    2016-05-30

    Drug inhalation provides localized drug therapy for respiratory diseases. However, the therapeutic efficacy of inhaled drugs is limited by rapid clearance from the lungs. Small hydrophilic compounds have short half-lives to systemic absorption. We developed a liposomal formulation as a sustained-release strategy for pulmonary delivery of procaterol hydrochloride (PRO), a short-acting pulmonary β2-agonist for asthma treatment. After PRO-loaded liposomes were prepared using a pH gradient (remote loading) method, 100-nm liposomes improved residence times of PRO in the lungs. PRO encapsulation efficiency and release profiles were examined by screening several liposomal formulations of lipid, cholesterol, and inner phase. Although PRO loading was not achieved using the conventional hydration method, PRO encapsulation efficiency was >60% using the pH gradient method. PRO release from liposomes was sustained for several hours depending on liposomal composition. The liposomal formulation effects on the PRO behavior in rat lungs were evaluated following pulmonary administration in vivo. Sustained PRO release was achieved using simplified egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC)/cholesterol (8/1) liposome in vitro, and greater PRO remnants were observed in rat lungs following pulmonary administration. Extended pharmacological PRO effects were observed for 120min in a histamine-induced bronchoconstriction guinea pig model. We indicated the simplified EPC/cholesterol liposome potential as a controlled-release PRO carrier for pulmonary administration. PMID:27012982

  2. Sustainable unattended sensors for security and environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carapezza, Edward M.; Molter, Trent M.

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes two ocean energy harvesting approaches and technologies for providing sustainable power for distributed unattended sensor and unmanned underwater vehicle networks in open ocean and in coastal and riverine areas. Technologies and systems described include energy harvesting using bottom mounted microbial fuel cells and energy harvesting from naturally occurring methane and methane hydrate deposits. The potential continuous power that could be extracted using these methods ranges from milliwatts for very small microbial fuel cells to tens of kilowatts for methane hydrate processing systems. Exploiting the appropriate naturally occurring ocean or coastal energy source will enable the placement and use of large networks of unattended sensors, both fixed in position and on rechargeable unmanned undersea vehicles. The continuous operation of such systems will have a profound impact on our knowledge of marine biological, physical and chemical processes and systems and will also facilitate improved homeland security and port surveillance.

  3. How Does Scale of Implementation Impact the Environmental Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment Integrated with Resource Recovery?

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Pablo K; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2016-07-01

    Energy and resource consumptions required to treat and transport wastewater have led to efforts to improve the environmental sustainability of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Resource recovery can reduce the environmental impact of these systems; however, limited research has considered how the scale of implementation impacts the sustainability of WWTPs integrated with resource recovery. Accordingly, this research uses life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate how the scale of implementation impacts the environmental sustainability of wastewater treatment integrated with water reuse, energy recovery, and nutrient recycling. Three systems were selected: a septic tank with aerobic treatment at the household scale, an advanced water reclamation facility at the community scale, and an advanced water reclamation facility at the city scale. Three sustainability indicators were considered: embodied energy, carbon footprint, and eutrophication potential. This study determined that as with economies of scale, there are benefits to centralization of WWTPs with resource recovery in terms of embodied energy and carbon footprint; however, the community scale was shown to have the lowest eutrophication potential. Additionally, technology selection, nutrient control practices, system layout, and topographical conditions may have a larger impact on environmental sustainability than the implementation scale in some cases. PMID:27001077

  4. Visual sustained attention and numerosity sensitivity correlate with math achievement in children.

    PubMed

    Anobile, Giovanni; Stievano, Paolo; Burr, David C

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated in school-age children the relationship among mathematical performance, the perception of numerosity (discrimination and mapping to number line), and sustained visual attention. The results (on 68 children between 8 and 11 years of age) show that attention and numerosity perception predict math scores but not reading performance. Even after controlling for several variables, including age, gender, nonverbal IQ, and reading accuracy, attention remained correlated with math skills and numerosity discrimination. These findings support previous reports showing the interrelationship between visual attention and both numerosity perception and math performance. It also suggests that attentional deficits may be implicated in disturbances such as developmental dyscalculia. PMID:23933254

  5. Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilman, David; Clark, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower global life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet-environment-health trilemma is a global challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance.

  6. QuEST: Qualifying Environmentally Sustainable Technologies. Vol. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This is an exciting new chapter for the NASA Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Principal Center (TEERM). The Principal Center's past successes have created new opportunities for partnership and technology implementation. TEERM is continuing to support the current NASA Programs while reaching out and offering our assistance and experience to Constellation. NASA has also assumed Chairmanship responsibility of the Joint Group on Pollution Prevention (JG-PP) and Chairmanship of the JG-PP Working Group (WG). Both JG-PP and TEERM strive to improve mission readiness and reduce risk to personnel and assets by solving joint problems through cooperation. JG-PP and TEERM not only show our commitment to environmental stewardship, but also our commitment to fiscal responsibility.

  7. Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health.

    PubMed

    Tilman, David; Clark, Michael

    2014-11-27

    Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower global life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet-environment-health trilemma is a global challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance. PMID:25383533

  8. QuEST: Qualifying Environmentally Sustainable Technologies. Volume 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2011-01-01

    QuEST is a publication of the NASA Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Principal Center (TEERM). This issue contains brief articles on: Risk Identification and Mitigation, Material Management and Substitution Efforts--Hexavalent Chrome-free Coatings and Low volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Coatings, Lead-Free Electronics, Corn-Based Depainting Media; Alternative Energy Efforts Hydrogen Sensors and Solar Air Conditioning. Other TEERM Efforts include: Energy and Water Management and Remediation Technology Collaboration.

  9. Environmental sustainability and water availability: Analyses of the scarcity and improvement opportunities in the Usangu plain, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malley, Z. J. U.; Taeb, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Takeya, H.

    Environmental sustainability is one among the eight United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for sustainable development. As a measure of this goal, proportion of people with sustainable access to improved water source is an indicator of progress towards its achievement by the year 2015. This study assessed the emerging scarcity of water and analyzed opportunities for improvement in six rural villages of the Usangu plain in south-western Tanzania. A combination of the literature survey, participatory rural appraisal, formal survey, participant observations and biophysical data collection were research tools used. A problem of water shortage for domestic use exists and is increasing in the Usangu plain. In the area of study, only 13% of the households had full time access to improved sources of water. This proportion is very low, compared to national average of 65.7% in 1999, and the national target to be achieved is 82.1% by year 2015. Environmental change, manifested by increasing drought events, decline of water levels in underground aquifers, streams, rivers and springs, and observed increased losses through runoff floods are the major causes of emerging shortages of the water. Use of techniques that increase conservation and infiltration of the rainwater in the watershed areas of the major sources would enhance the recharge of underground aquifers and reduce floods. Technologies and skills, that would enable local people to directly harvest rainwater and tap underground water and manage these sources effectively, at household or sub-village community levels, seem to be sustainable solutions to the scarcity of safe drinking water supply in this semi-arid environment, where there is increasing rainfall amount and pattern variability.

  10. THE USE OF EXISTING AND MODIFIED LAND USE INSTRUMENTS TO ACHIEVE ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews the application and potential of the police power at the local level of government as it is used to achieve environmental planning objectives. The first section presents an overview of the interactions of various municipal regulations and ordinances as they aff...

  11. The Genetic-Environmental Etiology of Cognitive School Readiness and Later Academic Achievement in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Boivin, Michel; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Seguin, Jean R.; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Using a genetic design of 840 60-month-old twins, this study investigated the genetic and environmental contributions to (a) individual differences in four components of cognitive school readiness, (b) the general ability underlying these four components, and (c) the predictive association between school readiness and school achievement. Results…

  12. Investigating Student Attitudes and Achievements in an Environmental Place-Based Inquiry in Secondary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gautreau, Brian T.; Binns, Ian C.

    2012-01-01

    Student attitudes toward science and content achievements were examined in three secondary Biology I classrooms using an environmentally place-based curriculum as well as a traditional curriculum. Student attitudes were measured using Likert-scale science attitude surveys administered at the beginning of the school year and once again following…

  13. Achieving Your Vision: How to Make Sustainable Living a Reality on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Located on a wildlife reserve in northern California, Butte College is an environmentally conscious community, complete with an extensive solar-power program and a transportation network built to keep cars off its roads. The college generates more solar power than any other community college in the country and is a nationally recognized leader in…

  14. DASEES: A Tripartite Decision Analysis Framework to Achieve Sustainable Environment, Economy & Society Growth and Management Goals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of Societies management and growth decisions are often made without a balanced consideration of pertinent factors from environmental, economic and societal perspectives. All three of these areas are key players in many of the decisions facing societies as they strive to ope...

  15. QuEST: Qualifying Environmentally Sustainable Technologies. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, in one of their first collaborative efforts, Centro Para Prevencao da Poluicao (Portuguese Center for Pollution Prevention or C3P). teamed with Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Principal Center (TEERM) and two Portuguese entities, TAP Portugal (Portuguese National Airline) and OGMA Indtistria Aeron utica de Portugal (Portuguese Aeronautics Industry), to target the reduction of hexavalent chromium, cadmium, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in aircraft maintenance operations. This project focused on two coating systems that utilize non-chrome pretreatments and low-VOC primers and topcoats.

  16. QuEST: Qualifying Environmentally Sustainable Technologies, Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2010-01-01

    This edition of the QuEST newsletter contains brief articles that discuss the NASA Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation (TEERM) program, and the importance of collaboration, efforts in materials management and substitution for coatings for launch structures, Low volatile organic compound (VOC) Coatings Field Testing, Non-Chrome Coating Systems, Life Cycle Corrosion Testing, Lead-Free Electronics Testing and Corn Based Depainting and efforts in Pollution Control in the area of Hypergolic Propellant Destruction Evaluation, efforts in development of alternative energy in particular Hydrogen Sensors, Energy and Water Management, and efforts in remediation in the removal of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) contamination

  17. Rock on Cafe: achieving sustainable systems changes in school lunch programs.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Yvonne; Denniston, Ray; Morgan, Molly; Bordeau, Mark

    2009-04-01

    The rising rate of overweight poses a significant threat to the health of children. Because roughly one third of a child's dietary intake occurs during school hours and because both health and academic outcomes have been linked to children's nutrition, school nutrition policies and programs have been identified as a key area for intervention. This article describes the components, processes, and initial successes of a grassroots effort and innovative project to improve the nutritional quality of the School Lunch Program through a sustainable systems intervention and policy change across a regional area of upstate New York. The Rock on Cafe intervention was partially funded by the Steps to a Healthier New York program and promises to be a model for creating a school environment that supports healthy dietary behaviors among children. PMID:19454756

  18. Challenges to Achieving Sustainable Sanitation in Informal Settlements of Kigali, Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Tsinda, Aime; Abbott, Pamela; Pedley, Steve; Charles, Katrina; Adogo, Jane; Okurut, Kenan; Chenoweth, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Like most cities in developing countries, Kigali is experiencing rapid urbanisation leading to an increase in the urban population and rapid growth in the size and number of informal settlements. More than 60% of the city’s population resides in these settlements, where they experience inadequate and poor quality urban services including sanitation. This article discusses the issues and constraints related to the provision of sustainable sanitation in the informal settlements in Kigali. Two informal settlements (Gatsata and Kimisagara) were selected for the study, which used a mixed method approach for data collection. The research found that residents experienced multiple problems because of poor sanitation and that the main barrier to improved sanitation was cost. Findings from this study can be used by the city authorities in the planning of effective sanitation intervention strategies for communities in informal settlements. PMID:24336021

  19. The role of productivity in improving the environmental sustainability of ruminant production systems.

    PubMed

    Capper, Judith L; Bauman, Dale E

    2013-01-01

    The global livestock industry is charged with providing sufficient animal source foods to supply the global population while improving the environmental sustainability of animal production. Improved productivity within dairy and beef systems has demonstrably reduced resource use and greenhouse gas emissions per unit of food over the past century through the dilution of maintenance effect. Further environmental mitigation effects have been gained through the current use of technologies and practices that enhance milk yield or growth in ruminants; however, the social acceptability of continued intensification and use of productivity-enhancing technologies is subject to debate. As the environmental impact of food production continues to be a significant issue for all stakeholders within the field, further research is needed to ensure that comparisons among foods are made based on both environmental impact and nutritive value to truly assess the sustainability of ruminant products. PMID:25387028

  20. Code of Sustainable Practice in Occupational and Environmental Health and Safety for Corporations.

    PubMed

    Castleman, Barry; Allen, Barbara; Barca, Stefania; Bohme, Susanna Rankin; Henry, Emmanuel; Kaur, Amarjit; Massard-Guilbaud, Genvieve; Melling, Joseph; Menendez-Navarro, Alfredo; Renfrew, Daniel; Santiago, Myrna; Sellers, Christopher; Tweedale, Geoffrey; Zalik, Anna; Zavestoski, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    At a conference held at Stony Brook University in December 2007, "Dangerous Trade: Histories of Industrial Hazard across a Globalizing World," participants endorsed a Code of Sustainable Practice in Occupational and Environmental Health and Safety for Corporations. The Code outlines practices that would ensure corporations enact the highest health and environmentally protective measures in all the locations in which they operate. Corporations should observe international guidelines on occupational exposure to air contaminants, plant safety, air and water pollutant releases, hazardous waste disposal practices, remediation of polluted sites, public disclosure of toxic releases, product hazard labeling, sale of products for specific uses, storage and transport of toxic intermediates and products, corporate safety and health auditing, and corporate environmental auditing. Protective measures in all locations should be consonant with the most protective measures applied anywhere in the world, and should apply to the corporations' subsidiaries, contractors, suppliers, distributors, and licensees of technology. Key words: corporations, sustainability, environmental protection, occupational health, code of practice. PMID:18686726

  1. HPC-EPIC for High Resolution Simulations of Environmental and Sustainability Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dali; Post, Wilfred M; Kang, Shujiang; Nichols, Dr Jeff A

    2011-01-01

    Multiple concerns over the impact of wide scale changes in land management have motivated comprehensive analyses of environmental sustainability of food and biofuel production. These call for high-resolution land management tools that enable comprehensive analyses of natural resources for decision-making. The agroecosystem simulation models with the most biophysical detail are point models, which often have a user interface that allows users to provide inputs and examine results for agricultural field scale analyses. These are not able to meet the needs of high-resolution regional or national simulations. We describe an efficient computational approach for deployment of the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model at high-resolution spatial scales using high performance computing (HPC) techniques. We developed an integrated procedure for executing the millions of simulations required for high-resolution, regional studies, and also address building databases for model initialization, model forcing data, and model outputs. We first ported EPIC from Windows to an HPC platform and validated output from both platforms. We then developed methods of packaging simulations for efficient, unattended parallel execution on the HPC cluster. The job queuing system, Portable Batch System (PBS) is employed to control job submission. Simulation outputs are extracted to PostgreSQL database for analysis. In a case study covering four counties in central Wisconsin using HPC-EPIC, we finished over 140 K simulations in a total of 10 h on an HPC cluster using 20 nodes. This is a speedup of 40 times. More nodes could be used to achieve larger speedups. The HPC-EPIC model developed in this study is anticipated to provide information useful for high-resolution land use management and decision making. The framework for high-performance computing can be extended to other traditional, point-based biophysical simulation models.

  2. Microbial protein: future sustainable food supply route with low environmental footprint.

    PubMed

    Matassa, Silvio; Boon, Nico; Pikaar, Ilje; Verstraete, Willy

    2016-09-01

    Microbial biotechnology has a long history of producing feeds and foods. The key feature of today's market economy is that protein production by conventional agriculture based food supply chains is becoming a major issue in terms of global environmental pollution such as diffuse nutrient and greenhouse gas emissions, land use and water footprint. Time has come to re-assess the current potentials of producing protein-rich feed or food additives in the form of algae, yeasts, fungi and plain bacterial cellular biomass, producible with a lower environmental footprint compared with other plant or animal-based alternatives. A major driver is the need to no longer disintegrate but rather upgrade a variety of low-value organic and inorganic side streams in our current non-cyclic economy. In this context, microbial bioconversions of such valuable matters to nutritive microbial cells and cell components are a powerful asset. The worldwide market of animal protein is of the order of several hundred million tons per year, that of plant protein several billion tons of protein per year; hence, the expansion of the production of microbial protein does not pose disruptive challenges towards the process of the latter. Besides protein as nutritive compounds, also other cellular components such as lipids (single cell oil), polyhydroxybuthyrate, exopolymeric saccharides, carotenoids, ectorines, (pro)vitamins and essential amino acids can be of value for the growing domain of novel nutrition. In order for microbial protein as feed or food to become a major and sustainable alternative, addressing the challenges of creating awareness and achieving public and broader regulatory acceptance are real and need to be addressed with care and expedience. PMID:27389856

  3. Benchmarking farmer performance as an incentive for sustainable farming: environmental impacts of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Kragten, S; De Snoo, G R

    2003-01-01

    Pesticide use in The Netherlands is very high, and pesticides are found across all environmental compartments. Among individual farmers, though, there is wide variation in both pesticide use and the potential environmental impact of that use, providing policy leverage for environmental protection. This paper reports on a benchmarking tool with which farmers can compare their environmental and economic performance with that of other farmers, thereby serving as an incentive for them to adopt more sustainable methods of food production methods. The tool is also designed to provide farmers with a more detailed picture of the environmental impacts of their methods of pest management. It is interactive and available on the internet: www.agriwijzer.nl. The present version has been developed specifically for arable farmers, but it is to be extended to encompass other agricultural sectors, in particular horticulture (bulb flowers, stem fruits), as well as various other aspects of sustainability (nutrient inputs, 'on-farm' biodiversity, etc.). The benchmarking methodology was tested on a pilot group of 20 arable farmers, whose general response was positive. They proved to be more interested in comparative performance in terms of economic rather than environmental indicators. In their judgment the benchmarking tool can serve a useful purpose in steering them towards more sustainable forms of agricultural production. The benchmarking results can also be used by other actors in the agroproduction chain, such as food retailers and the food industry. PMID:15151309

  4. Review and challenges of policies of environmental protection and sustainable development in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun-Min; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2008-09-01

    China is confronted with the dual task of developing its national economy and protecting its ecological environment. Since the 1980s, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development have experienced five changes: (1) progression from the adoption of environmental protection as a basic state policy to the adoption of sustainable development strategy; (2) changing focus from pollution control to ecological conservation equally; (3) shifting from end-of-pipe treatment to source control; (4) moving from point source treatment to regional environmental governance; and (5) a turn away from administrative management-based approaches and towards a legal means and economic instruments-based approach. Since 1992, China has set down sustainable development as a basic national strategy. However, environmental pollution and ecological degradation in China have continued to be serious problems and have inflicted great damage on the economy and quality of life. The beginning of the 21st century is a critical juncture for China's efforts towards sustaining rapid economic development, intensifying environmental protection efforts, and curbing ecological degradation. As the largest developing country, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development will be of primary importance not only for China, but also the world. Realizing a completely well-off society by the year 2020 is seen as a crucial task by the Chinese government and an important goal for China's economic development in the new century, however, attaining it would require a four-fold increase over China's year 2000 GDP. Therefore, speeding up economic development is a major mission during the next two decades and doing so will bring great challenges in controlling depletion of natural resources and environmental pollution. By taking a critical look at the development of Chinese environmental policy, we try to determine how best to coordinate the relationship between the

  5. A Perspective on Education for Sustainable Development: Historical Development of Environmental Education in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomura, Ko

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the historical development of environmental education (EE) in Indonesia with emphasis on the non-formal sector, and applies its findings to the discussion on education for sustainable development (ESD), which seldom draws on case studies from developing countries. Local socio-economic and political conditions have made EE in…

  6. Environmental Education for Sustainability in the Curriculum of Primary Teacher Training in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sureda-Negre, Jaume; Oliver-Trobat, Miquel; Catalan-Fernández, Albert; Comas-Forgas, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyse, first, what competences regarding environmental sustainability are envisaged in the curricula of primary teachers at Spanish universities and, second, to what extent these competences guide the aims and content of the subject matter and the topics in the syllabi. From an analysis of the 79 competences which, according to…

  7. Educational Configurations for Teaching Environmental Socioscientific Issues within the Perspective of Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonneaux, Jean; Simonneaux, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Education for Sustainability has become an institutional requirement in many countries. It takes many forms that can integrate the teaching of environmental Socioscientific Issues (SSIs). In this context, we present the French notion of Socially Acute Questions (SAQs). We develop a theoretical frame to analyse educational configurations applied to…

  8. Educating for Environmental Sustainability and Educating for Creativity: Actively Compatible or Missed Opportunities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stables, Kay

    2009-01-01

    This paper identifies the importance of both creativity and environmental sustainability for developing individual learners and society as a whole. It suggests that sometimes these two concepts appear to be in tension and that, politically, each is often championed by different communities. The relationship between creativity and environmental…

  9. Watershed scale environmental sustainability analysis of biofuel production in changing land use and climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RAJ, C.; Chaubey, I.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Brouder, S. M.; Volenec, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    One of the grand challenges in meeting the US biofuel goal is producing large quantities of cellulosic biofeedstock materials for the production of biofuels in an environmentally sustainable and economically viable manner. The possible land use and land management practice changes induce concerns over the environmental impacts of these bioenergy crop production scenarios both in terms of water availability and water quality, and these impacts may be exacerbated by climate variability and change. This study aims to evaluate environmental sustainability of various plausible land and crop management scenarios for biofuel production under changing climate scenarios for a Midwest US watershed. The study considers twelve environmental sustainability indicators related hydrology and water quality with thirteen plausible biofuels scenarios in the watershed under nine climate change scenarios. The land use change scenarios for evaluation includes, (1) bioenergy crops in highly erodible soils (3) bioenergy crops in low row crop productive fields (marginal lands); (3) bioenergy crops in pasture and range land use areas and (4) combinations of these scenarios. Future climate data bias corrected and downscaled to daily values from the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model dataset were used in this study. The distributed hydrological model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was used to simulate bioenergy crops growth, hydrology and water quality. The watershed scale sustainability analysis was done in Wildcat Creek basin, which is located in North-Central Indiana, USA.

  10. Policy Analysis for Sustainable Development: The Toolbox for the Environmental Social Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runhaar, Hens; Dieperink, Carel; Driessen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to propose the basic competencies of environmental social scientists regarding policy analysis for sustainable development. The ultimate goal is to contribute to an improvement of educational programmes in higher education by suggesting a toolbox that should be integrated in the curriculum. Design/methodology/approach:…

  11. A Framework for Teaching Social and Environmental Sustainability to Undergraduate Business Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumagim, Alan L.; Cann, Cynthia W.

    2012-01-01

    The authors outline an undergraduate exercise to help students more fully understand the environmental and social justice aspects of business sustainability activities. A simple hierarchical framework, based on Maslow's (1943) work, was utilized to help the students understand, analyze, and judge the vast amount of corporate sustainability…

  12. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. In these studies we investigated use of food waste to produce butanol by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initia...

  13. Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research: A Systematic Review of Methodological and Thematic Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikens, Kathleen; McKenzie, Marcia; Vaughter, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic literature review of policy research in the area of environmental and sustainability education. We analyzed 215 research articles, spanning four decades and representing 71 countries, and which engaged a range of methodologies. Our analysis combines quantification of geographic and methodological trends with…

  14. Can novel management practice improve soil and environmental quality and sustain crop yield simultaneously?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about management practices that can simultaneously improve soil and environmental quality and sustain crop yields. The effect of a combination of tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on soil C and N, global warming potential (GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), and malt bar...

  15. DELIVERING TIMELY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY: THE BOULDER AREA SUSTAINABILITY INFORMATION NETWORK: OTHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1577 Petersen*, D., Barber, L., Dilworth, G, Fiebelkorn, T., McCaffrey, M., Murphy, S., Rudkin, C., Scott, D., and Waterman, J. Delivering Timely Environmental Information to your Community: The Boulder Area Sustainability Information Network. EPA/625/C-01/010. The Te...

  16. Transformative World Language Learning: An Approach for Environmental and Cultural Sustainability and Economic and Political Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulah, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author responds to the Modern Language Association's report, "Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World" (2007) by arguing for an explicit and interdisciplinary transformative world language learning approach toward environmental and cultural sustainability and economic and political…

  17. Leaders of Sustainable Development Projects: Resources Used and Lessons Learned in a Context of Environmental Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Lang, Mathieu; Kerry, Jackie; Fortin, Guillaume; Langis, Joanne; Liboiron, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In our day, leaders involved in ingenious sustainable development projects plan spaces and implement practices that are beneficial to the environment. These initiatives represent a fertile source of information on the competences linked to environmental design that we should nurture in our students. In view of improving our understanding of the…

  18. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Publicly Supported Two-Year Colleges in the Southern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Michael J.; Webster, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    In September of 2012, a mixed methods exploratory research study was conducted from among the 270 presidents of public two-year colleges in the 11-state region accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. The purpose of the study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at these…

  19. Science Education for Environmental Sustainability: A Case Study of the Palouse Watershed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Samson E.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses case study and qualitative content analysis methodologies to answer the question: What is the relationship between Washington State's k-12 science education standards and the environmental sustainability needs of the Palouse River Watershed? After defining the Palouse Watershed's attributes, the author presents a land use history…

  20. Pluralism and Criticism in Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable Development: A Practical Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohman, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Education is presented with a challenge when faced with criticism of modern science and adoption of a pluralistic view of environmental education and education for sustainable development. In dealing with this challenge, a practical understanding inspired by the later works of Ludwig Wittgenstein is suggested as a complement to more traditional…

  1. Environmental Education and Education for Sustainability Projects: Inspiring and Facilitating Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    Our world is faced with a vast array of environmental catastrophes ranging everywhere from climate change, to air and water pollution, to mass extinction of species which all threaten the environment and human existence. As of now, students are not being informed on the sustainability issues, or engaged in the change process at school. Rote…

  2. Sustainability and environmental assessment of fertigation in an intensive olive grove under Mediterranean conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over application of water and nitrogen is a major concern for intensive olive groves in South of Portugal. In this study, field experimental measurements were integrated with a system model, Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) to assess the sustainability and environmental impact of fertigation in...

  3. Evaluating sustainable water quality management in the U.S.: Urban, Agricultural, and Environmental Protection Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oel, P. R.; Alfredo, K. A.; Russo, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable water management typically emphasizes water resource quantity, with focus directed at availability and use practices. When attention is placed on sustainable water quality management, the holistic, cross-sector perspective inherent to sustainability is often lost. Proper water quality management is a critical component of sustainable development practices. However, sustainable development definitions and metrics related to water quality resilience and management are often not well defined; water quality is often buried in large indicator sets used for analysis, and the policy regulating management practices create sector specific burdens for ensuring adequate water quality. In this research, we investigated the methods by which water quality is evaluated through internationally applied indicators and incorporated into the larger idea of "sustainability." We also dissect policy's role in the distribution of responsibility with regard to water quality management in the United States through evaluation of three broad sectors: urban, agriculture, and environmental water quality. Our research concludes that despite a growing intention to use a single system approach for urban, agricultural, and environmental water quality management, one does not yet exist and is even hindered by our current policies and regulations. As policy continues to lead in determining water quality and defining contamination limits, new regulation must reconcile the disparity in requirements for the contaminators and those performing end-of-pipe treatment. Just as the sustainable development indicators we researched tried to integrate environmental, economic, and social aspects without skewing focus to one of these three categories, policy cannot continue to regulate a single sector of society without considering impacts to the entire watershed and/or region. Unequal distribution of the water pollution burden creates disjointed economic growth, infrastructure development, and policy

  4. Controlling interlayer diffusion to achieve sustained, multiagent delivery from layer-by-layer thin films

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kris C.; Chuang, Helen F.; Batten, Robert D.; Lynn, David M.; Hammond, Paula T.

    2006-01-01

    We present the fabrication of conformal, hydrolytically degradable thin films capable of administering sustained, multiagent release profiles. Films are constructed one molecular layer at a time by using the layer-by-layer, directed-deposition technique; the subsequent hydrolytic surface erosion of these systems results in the release of incorporated materials in a sequence that reflects their relative positions in the film. The position of each species is determined by its ability to diffuse throughout the film architecture, and, as such, the major focus of this work is to define strategies that physically block interlayer diffusion during assembly to create multicomponent, stratified films. By using a series of radiolabeled polyelectrolytes as experimental probes, we show that covalently crosslinked barriers can effectively block interlayer diffusion, leading to compartmentalized structures, although even very large numbers of ionically crosslinked (degradable or nondegradable) barrier layers cannot block interlayer diffusion. By using these principles, we designed degradable films capable of extended release as well as both parallel and serial multiagent release. The ability to fabricate multicomponent thin films with nanoscale resolution may lead to a host of new materials and applications. PMID:16801543

  5. An environmentally sustainable decision model for urban solid waste management.

    PubMed

    Costi, P; Minciardi, R; Robba, M; Rovatti, M; Sacile, R

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the structure and the application of a decision support system (DSS) designed to help decision makers of a municipality in the development of incineration, disposal, treatment and recycling integrated programs. Specifically, within a MSW management system, several treatment plants and facilities can generally be found: separators, plants for production of refuse derived fuel (RDF), incinerators with energy recovery, plants for treatment of organic material, and sanitary landfills. The main goal of the DSS is to plan the MSW management, defining the refuse flows that have to be sent to recycling or to different treatment or disposal plants, and suggesting the optimal number, the kinds, and the localization of the plants that have to be active. The DSS is based on a decision model that requires the solution of a constrained non-linear optimization problem, where some decision variables are binary and other ones are continuous. The objective function takes into account all possible economic costs, whereas constraints arise from technical, normative, and environmental issues. Specifically, pollution and impacts, induced by the overall solid waste management system, are considered through the formalization of constraints on incineration emissions and on negative effects produced by disposal or other particular treatments. PMID:15016417

  6. An environmentally sustainable decision model for urban solid waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Costi, P.; Minciardi, R.; Robba, M.; Rovatti, M.; Sacile, R

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work is to present the structure and the application of a decision support system (DSS) designed to help decision makers of a municipality in the development of incineration, disposal, treatment and recycling integrated programs. Specifically, within a MSW management system, several treatment plants and facilities can generally be found: separators, plants for production of refuse derived fuel (RDF), incinerators with energy recovery, plants for treatment of organic material, and sanitary landfills. The main goal of the DSS is to plan the MSW management, defining the refuse flows that have to be sent to recycling or to different treatment or disposal plants, and suggesting the optimal number, the kinds, and the localization of the plants that have to be active. The DSS is based on a decision model that requires the solution of a constrained non-linear optimization problem, where some decision variables are binary and other ones are continuous. The objective function takes into account all possible economic costs, whereas constraints arise from technical, normative, and environmental issues. Specifically, pollution and impacts, induced by the overall solid waste management system, are considered through the formalization of constraints on incineration emissions and on negative effects produced by disposal or other particular treatments.

  7. Educating for Sustainable Development: An Overview of Environmental Education Programmes in the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Calvin A.

    1995-01-01

    Traditional approaches to formal education in the Caribbean have not achieved sufficiently high levels of sensitivity towards the environment. Nontraditional approaches and new strategies for sustainable development are needed. This paper reviews some approaches being undertaken in the English-speaking Caribbean designed to foster positive change…

  8. Some Systems Thinking Concepts for Environmental Educators during the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Jaimie P.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of education for sustainability (EFS) is "to develop in young people and adults new knowledge and new ways of thinking needed to achieve economic prosperity, participate democratically, secure justice and equity, and all the while regenerate the health of the ecosystems, the gift upon which all life and all production depend." The…

  9. From economics to resources: Teaching environmental sustainability in Peru's public education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriazola-Rodriguez, Ana

    This dissertation examines the teaching of environmental awareness in Peru's public educational system and how it needs to be consciously taught and improved in order to overcome contamination and pollution of resources and decrease poverty. This is a situation afflicting a significant percentage of Peruvians, who face difficulty in surviving and living well because the scarcity of clean air and water, unpolluted land, and affordable energy, which are basic environmental resources. The teaching of environmental awareness, as mandated by Educational Peruvian Laws and curriculum, should be redesigned to promote environmental ethical awareness and sustainability to guard Peru's natural and cultural resources, bounty and beauty before it is too late. In this way, education will promote a better level of life for the majority of Peruvians. Peruvian public education is presently in a state of emergency, as has been recognized by the former minister of education Javier Sota Nadal (2004-2006). Only 10% of students leaving high school understand what they read and only 4% do well in mathematics. A number of reasons contribute to this tragedy. Among them is principally the low quality of teaching and the inadequate budget available for public education. Peru's laws, echoing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and mandate good and free education and guarantee the right to live well. The reality is that none of these rights are properly given to the majority of poor Peruvians. This dissertation offers a course of action to teach and spread out not only environmental awareness, but also environmental ethics and sustainability from a personal perspective. This rounded concept, if applied, will form citizens able to guard, protect, and preserve natural and cultural resources. The needed environmental ethics and sustainability education will gradually guarantee, from early in life, a truthful way to love, care, protect and preserve the ecosystem. Also encompassed within

  10. A critical review of environmental assessment tools for sustainable urban design

    SciTech Connect

    Ameen, Raed Fawzi Mohammed; Mourshed, Monjur; Li, Haijiang

    2015-11-15

    Cities are responsible for the depletion of natural resources and agricultural lands, and 70% of global CO{sub 2} emissions. There are significant risks to cities from the impacts of climate change in addition to existing vulnerabilities, primarily because of rapid urbanization. Urban design and development are generally considered as the instrument to shape the future of the city and they determine the pattern of a city's resource usage and resilience to change, from climate or otherwise. Cities are inherently dynamic and require the participation and engagement of their diverse stakeholders for the effective management of change, which enables wider stakeholder involvement and buy-in at various stages of the development process. Sustainability assessment of urban design and development is increasingly being seen as indispensable for informed decision-making. A sustainability assessment tool also acts as a driver for the uptake of sustainable pathways by recognizing excellence through their rating system and by creating a market demand for sustainable products and processes. This research reviews six widely used sustainability assessment tools for urban design and development: BREEAM Communities, LEED-ND, CASBEE-UD, SBTool{sup PT}–UP, Pearl Community Rating System (PCRS) and GSAS/QSAS, to identify, compare and contrast the aim, structure, assessment methodology, scoring, weighting and suitability for application in different geographical contexts. Strengths and weaknesses of each tool are critically discussed. The study highlights the disparity in local and international contexts for global sustainability assessment tools. Despite their similarities in aim on environmental aspects, differences exist in the relative importance and share of mandatory vs optional indicators in both environmental and social dimensions. PCRS and GSAS/QSAS are new incarnations, but have widely varying shares of mandatory indicators, at 45.4% and 11.36% respectively, compared to 30% in

  11. Radioactive Waste Management - It's Role in contributing and achieving Sustainability. R1.13 The French strategy of waste management: technical and political dimensions of sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Bazile, F.

    2007-07-01

    The sustainability of an energy policy depends on the manner in which it satisfies environmental, economical and social requirements. Nuclear energy is not an exception. The objectives of the future nuclear systems, as defined in the Generation IV International Forum, tend to optimize the ability of nuclear energy to satisfy sustainable development goals. In this regard, they involve strong commitments concerning waste management policy : five designs in six are based on a closed fuel cycle, in order to minimize the volume and radiotoxicity of final waste, and to recycle the fissile materials to save natural resources. Since its beginnings, the French civil nuclear programme has considered a long-term perspective and has developed spent fuel reprocessing. The French current industrial technology has already permitted to recycle 96% of spent fuel materials, to save 30% of natural resources, to reduce by 5 the amount of waste and to reduce by 10 the waste radiotoxicity, all these benefits for less than 6% of the kWh total cost. This strategy has always been criticized by the nuclear opponents, precisely because they saw that it was a sustainable way, and didn't accept to consider nuclear energy as a sustainable source of power. Two arguments were put forward these criticisms. First, the cost of reprocessing versus once-through cycle and second, the risk of proliferation induced by U-Pu partitioning process. These arguments were also invoked in international debates, and they have also been pleaded by the anti-nukes during the National Debate on HLLLW, at the end of 2005, preceding the vote of a new law in 2006 by the French parliament. Fortunately they have not convinced public opinion in France nor political decision-makers. A majority of people with no regard to technical background understand that recycling and saving the natural resources are sustainable principles. And, from a technical point of view, the 6% over cost does not seem significant considering the

  12. Is Sustainability Sustainable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonevac, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The most important concept in current environmental thinking is "sustainability". Environmental policies, economic policies, development, resource use--all of these things, according to the consensus, ought to be sustainable. But what is sustainability? What is its ethical foundation? There is little consensus about how these questions ought to be…

  13. Development of an integrated methodology for the sustainable environmental and socio-economic management of river ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Koundouri, P; Ker Rault, P; Pergamalis, V; Skianis, V; Souliotis, I

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Water Framework Directive aimed to establish an integrated framework of water management at European level. This framework revolves around inland surface waters, transitional waters, coastal waters and ground waters. In the process of achieving the environment and ecological objectives set from the Directive, the role of economics is put in the core of the water management. An important feature of the Directive is the recovery of total economic cost of water services by all users. The total cost of water services can be disaggregated into environmental, financial and resource costs. Another important aspect of the directive is the identification of major drivers and pressures in each River Basin District. We describe a methodology that is aiming to achieve sustainable and environmental and socioeconomic management of freshwater ecosystem services. The Ecosystem Services Approach is in the core of the suggested methodology for the implementation of a more sustainable and efficient water management. This approach consists of the following three steps: (i) socio-economic characterization of the River Basin area, (ii) assessment of the current recovery of water use cost, and (iii) identification and suggestion of appropriate programs of measures for sustainable water management over space and time. This methodology is consistent with a) the economic principles adopted explicitly by the Water Framework Directive (WFD), b) the three-step WFD implementation approach adopted in the WATECO document, c) the Ecosystem Services Approach to valuing freshwater goods and services to humans. Furthermore, we analyze how the effects of multiple stressors and socio-economic development can be quantified in the context of freshwater resources management. We also attempt to estimate the value of four ecosystem services using the benefit transfer approach for the Anglian River Basin, which showed the significance of such services. PMID:26277441

  14. Sustainability principles in strategic environmental assessment: A framework for analysis and examples from Italian urban planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lamorgese, Lydia Geneletti, Davide

    2013-09-15

    This paper presents a framework for analysing the degree of consideration of sustainability principles in Strategic environmental assessment (SEA), and demonstrates its application to a sample of SEA of Italian urban plans. The framework is based on Gibson's (2006) sustainability principles, which are linked to a number of guidance criteria and eventually to review questions, resulting from an extensive literature review. A total of 71 questions are included in the framework, which gives particular emphasis to key concepts, such as intragenerational and intergenerational equity. The framework was applied to review the Environmental Report of the urban plans of 15 major Italian cities. The results of this review show that, even if sustainability is commonly considered as a pivotal concept, there is still work to be done in order to effectively integrate sustainability principles into SEA. In particular, most of the attention is given to mitigation and compensation measures, rather than to actual attempts to propose more sustainable planning decisions in the first place. Concerning the proposed framework of analysis, further research is required to clarify equity concerns and particularly to identify suitable indicators for operationalizing the concepts of intra/inter-generational equity in decision-making. -- Highlights: ► A framework was developed in order to evaluate planning against sustainability criteria. ► The framework was applied to analyse how sustainable principles are addressed in 15 Italian SEA reports. ► Over 85% of the reports addressed, to some extent, at least 40% of the framework questions. ► Criteria explicitly linked to intra and inter-generational equity are rarely addressed.

  15. Quaternary Aquifer of the North China Plain-assessing and achieving groundwater resource sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Stephen; Garduno, Hector; Evans, Richard; Olson, Doug; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Weizhen; Han, Zaisheng

    The Quaternary Aquifer of the North China Plain is one of the world's largest aquifer systems and supports an enormous exploitation of groundwater, which has reaped large socio-economic benefits in terms of grain production, farming employment and rural poverty alleviation, together with urban and industrial water-supply provision. Both population and economic activity have grown markedly in the past 25 years. Much of this has been heavily dependent upon groundwater resource development, which has encountered increasing difficulties in recent years primarily as a result of aquifer depletion and related phenomena. This paper focuses upon the hydrogeologic and socio-economic diagnosis of these groundwater resource issues, and identifies strategies to improve groundwater resource sustainability. L'aquifère Quaternaire de la Plaine du Nord de la Chine est l'un des plus grands systèmes aquifères du monde; il permet une exploitation énorme d'eau souterraine, qui a permis des très importants bénéfices socio-économiques en terme de production de céréales, d'emplois ruraux et de réduction de la pauvreté rurale, en même temps que l'approvisionnement en eau potable et pour l'industrie. La population comme l'activité économique ont remarquablement augmenté au cours de ces 25 dernières années. Elles ont été sous la forte dépendance du développement de la ressource en eau souterraine, qui a rencontré des difficultés croissantes ces dernières années, du fait du rabattement de l'aquifère et des phénomènes associés. Cet article est consacré aux diagnostiques hydrogéologique et socio-économique des retombées de cette ressource en eau souterraine; il identifie les stratégies pour améliorer la pérennité des ressources en eau souterraine. El acuífero cuaternario de la Llanura Septentrional de China es uno de los mayores sistemas acuíferos del mundo y soporta una enorme explotación de su agua subterránea, las cuales han originado grandes

  16. Quantitative Guidance for Stove Usage and Performance to Achieve Health and Environmental Targets

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ranyee A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Displacing the use of polluting and inefficient cookstoves in developing countries is necessary to achieve the potential health and environmental benefits sought through clean cooking solutions. Yet little quantitative context has been provided on how much displacement of traditional technologies is needed to achieve targets for household air pollutant concentrations or fuel savings. Objectives This paper provides instructive guidance on the usage of cooking technologies required to achieve health and environmental improvements. Methods We evaluated different scenarios of displacement of traditional stoves with use of higher performing technologies. The air quality and fuel consumption impacts were estimated for these scenarios using a single-zone box model of indoor air quality and ratios of thermal efficiency. Results Stove performance and usage should be considered together, as lower performing stoves can result in similar or greater benefits than a higher performing stove if the lower performing stove has considerably higher displacement of the baseline stove. Based on the indoor air quality model, there are multiple performance–usage scenarios for achieving modest indoor air quality improvements. To meet World Health Organization guidance levels, however, three-stone fire and basic charcoal stove usage must be nearly eliminated to achieve the particulate matter target (< 1–3 hr/week), and substantially limited to meet the carbon monoxide guideline (< 7–9 hr/week). Conclusions Moderate health gains may be achieved with various performance–usage scenarios. The greatest benefits are estimated to be achieved by near-complete displacement of traditional stoves with clean technologies, emphasizing the need to shift in the long term to near exclusive use of clean fuels and stoves. The performance–usage scenarios are also provided as a tool to guide technology selection and prioritize behavior change opportunities to maximize impact. Citation

  17. Curricular Reform: Systems Modeling and Sustainability in Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Vermont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, D. M.; Hayden, N. J.; Dewoolkar, M.; Neumann, M.; Lathem, S.

    2009-12-01

    Researchers at the University of Vermont were awarded a NSF-sponsored Department Level Reform (DLR) grant to incorporate a systems approach to engineering problem solving within the civil and environmental engineering programs. A systems approach challenges students to consider the environmental, social, and economic aspects within engineering solutions. Likewise, sustainability requires a holistic approach to problem solving that includes economic, social and environmental factors. Our reform has taken a multi-pronged approach in two main areas that include implementing: a) a sequence of three systems courses related to environmental and transportation systems that introduce systems thinking, sustainability, and systems analysis and modeling; and b) service-learning (SL) projects as a means of practicing the systems approach. Our SL projects are good examples of inquiry-based learning that allow students to emphasize research and learning in areas of most interest to them. The SL projects address real-world open-ended problems. Activities that enhance IT and soft skills for students are incorporated throughout the curricula. Likewise, sustainability has been a central piece of the reform. We present examples of sustainability in the SL and modeling projects within the systems courses (e.g., students have used STELLA™ systems modeling software to address the impact of different carbon sequestration strategies on global climate change). Sustainability in SL projects include mentoring home schooled children in biomimicry projects, developing ECHO exhibits and the design of green roofs, bioretention ponds and porous pavement solutions. Assessment includes formative and summative methods involving student surveys and focus groups, faculty interviews and observations, and evaluation of student work.

  18. Solar power for energy sustainability and environmental friendliness of Curtin University Sarawak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanichamy, C.; Goh, Alvin

    2016-03-01

    The demand on electrical energy is rapidly increasing. Everything around us requires electrical energy either during its production or usage stage. Sustainability has become the main concern nowadays as the availability of fossil fuels is limited. As renewable energy is the path-way to energy sustainability and environmental friendly environment, this paper proposes a solar power system for Curtin University Sarawak to reduce its electricity consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The proposed 208 kW solar system saves an energy consumption of more than 380,000 kWh per year, and a CO2 offset by 285 Tons per year

  19. Educational Configurations for Teaching Environmental Socioscientific Issues Within The Perspective of Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonneaux, Jean; Simonneaux, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Education for Sustainability has become an institutional requirement in many countries. It takes many forms that can integrate the teaching of environmental Socioscientific Issues (SSIs). In this context, we present the French notion of Socially Acute Questions (SAQs). We develop a theoretical frame to analyse educational configurations applied to the teaching of SAQs within the perspective of sustainability. This frame is built with a reference to a matrix integrating attributes of knowledge (universal, plural, engaged or contextualised), teachers' epistemological postures (scientism, utilitarianism, skepticsm or relativism) and various didactic strategies (doctrinal, problematizing, critical or pragmatic). To illustrate this frame, three situations of teaching-learning are compared.

  20. Investigating local sustainable environmental perspectives of Kenyan community members and teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Cassie F.; Dogbey, James; Che, S. Megan; Hallo, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Efforts to conserve and preserve the environment in developing or marginalized locales frequently involve a one-way transfer of knowledge and materials from a source in a more developed location. This situation often degenerates into a short-term donor project which risks little to no long-term impacts on local or indigenous relationships with the environment. This research study with educators in Narok, Kenya investigates the current perspectives of local key stakeholders on the environment and sustainability with the purpose of sharing these understandings among local groups to generate a locally constructed meaning of environmental conservation and sustainability. It is the researchers' aim that through locally constructed meanings of environmental hazards and conservation, the Maasai community will empower themselves to transform their relationship with their environment and begin to construct and enact sustainable alternatives to destructive environmental practices. The approach used in this study is a qualitative study of representative stakeholders' environmental perspectives called photovoice. Two major themes emerged during the data analysis: How do we co-habit? and How do we modernize? This community demonstrated a complex understandings including navigate traditional practices, made connections to a larger system, and describing positive ways in which humans influence our environment.

  1. Sustainability evaluation of Sicily's lemon and orange production: an energy, economic and environmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Pergola, M; D'Amico, M; Celano, G; Palese, A M; Scuderi, A; Di Vita, G; Pappalardo, G; Inglese, P

    2013-10-15

    The island of Sicily has a long standing tradition in citrus growing. We evaluated the sustainability of orange and lemon orchards, under organic and conventional farming, using an energy, environmental and economic analysis of the whole production cycle by using a life cycle assessment approach. These orchard systems differ only in terms of a few of the inputs used and the duration of the various agricultural operations. The quantity of energy consumption in the production cycle was calculated by multiplying the quantity of inputs used by the energy conversion factors drawn from the literature. The production costs were calculated considering all internal costs, including equipment, materials, wages, and costs of working capital. The performance of the two systems (organic and conventional), was compared over a period of fifty years. The results, based on unit surface area (ha) production, prove the stronger sustainability of the organic over the conventional system, both in terms of energy consumption and environmental impact, especially for lemons. The sustainability of organic systems is mainly due to the use of environmentally friendly crop inputs (fertilizers, not use of synthetic products, etc.). In terms of production costs, the conventional management systems were more expensive, and both systems were heavily influenced by wages. In terms of kg of final product, the organic production system showed better environmental and energy performances. PMID:23850762

  2. Citizen involvement in sustainability-centred environmental assessment follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsberger, Carol A. . E-mail: cahunsbe@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Gibson, Robert B. . E-mail: rbgibson@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Wismer, Susan K. . E-mail: skwismer@fes.uwaterloo.ca

    2005-08-15

    In Canada, many project proponents and planners in the public and private sectors are required to forecast and minimize the adverse environmental effects of their undertakings. However, environmental assessments have traditionally been weak in the areas of planning and conducting effective monitoring, encouraging public participation, integrating social and ecological considerations, encouraging environmental rehabilitation and enhancement, and examining cumulative effects of multiple projects. This paper attempts to address these deficiencies together by drawing from theory and practice in citizen-based monitoring, in the interests of sustainable livelihoods, using local knowledge. Informed by case study research in several regions of Canada, the discussion focuses on opportunities for using citizen-based approaches to broad and continuing regional monitoring as a foundation for the project-centred work that is the usual concern of environmental assessment follow-up. Such approaches have advantages beyond the usual expectations of project-centred monitoring and beyond the conventional arguments for increasing local involvement in environmental assessments. However, there are also challenges including those of integrating local and conventional (or scientific) knowledge systems, addressing concerns about the credibility and biases of citizens and project proponents, ensuring attention to broader sustainability goals such as increased stewardship and civility, and developing practical ways of coordinating and funding integrated and participatory monitoring programs. The concluding recommendations call for a dramatically different approach to follow-up activities on the part of private and public project proponents, as well as novel thinking for environmental assessment practitioners.

  3. Chicago Clean Air, Clean Water Project: Environmental Monitoring for a Healthy, Sustainable Urban Future

    SciTech Connect

    none, none; Tuchman, Nancy

    2015-11-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy awarded Loyola University Chicago and the Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES) $486,000.00 for the proposal entitled “Chicago clean air, clean water project: Environmental monitoring for a healthy, sustainable urban future.” The project supported the purchase of analytical instruments for the development of an environmental analytical laboratory. The analytical laboratory is designed to support the testing of field water and soil samples for nutrients, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, and agricultural toxins, with special emphasis on testing Chicago regional soils and water affected by coal-based industry. Since the award was made in 2010, the IES has been launched (fall 2013), and the IES acquired a new state-of-the-art research and education facility on Loyola University Chicago’s Lakeshore campus. Two labs were included in the research and education facility. The second floor lab is the Ecology Laboratory where lab experiments and analyses are conducted on soil, plant, and water samples. The third floor lab is the Environmental Toxicology Lab where lab experiments on environmental toxins are conducted, as well as analytical tests conducted on water, soil, and plants. On the south end of the Environmental Toxicology Lab is the analytical instrumentation collection purchased from the present DOE grant, which is overseen by a full time Analytical Chemist (hired January 2016), who maintains the instruments, conducts analyses on samples, and helps to train faculty and undergraduate and graduate student researchers.

  4. An Overview of Public Domain Tools for Measuring the Sustainability of Environmental Remediation - 12060

    SciTech Connect

    Claypool, John E.; Rogers, Scott

    2012-07-01

    The application of sustainability principles to the investigation and remediation of contaminated sites is an area of rapid development within the environmental profession, with new business practices, tools, and performance standards for identifying, evaluating, and managing the 'collateral' impacts of cleanup projects to the environment, economy and society coming from many organizations. Guidelines, frameworks, and standards of practice for 'green and sustainable remediation' (GSR) have been released and are under development by the Sustainable Remediation Forum (SURF), the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM), the Interstate Technology Roundtable Commission (ITRC) and other organizations in the U.S. and internationally. In response to Executive Orders from the President, Federal government agencies have developed policies, procedures and guidelines for evaluating and reporting the sustainability of their environmental restoration projects. Private sector companies in the petroleum, utility, manufacturing, defense, and other sectors are developing their own corporate GSR programs to improve day-to-day management of contaminated sites and to support external reporting as part of their corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts. The explosion of mandates, policy, procedures and guidance raises the question of how to determine whether a remediation technology or cleanup approach is green and/or sustainable. The environmental profession has responded to this question by designing, developing and deploying a wide array of tools, calculators, and databases that enable regulatory agencies, site managers and environmental professionals to calculate the collateral impacts of their remediation projects in the environmental, social, and economic domains. Many of these tools are proprietary ones developed by environmental engineering/consulting firms for use in their consulting engagements and/or tailored specifically to meet the needs of their clients. When it

  5. Implementing the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD): achievements, open questions and strategies for the way forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigozzi, Mary Joy

    2010-06-01

    This paper looks at the implementation of the DESD from a global perspective. It takes the position that quality education is fundamental for learning how to live sustainably, and that the DESD needs to be better positioned in the education landscape and conceived as a global social movement that must be fostered and nurtured for the well-being of humankind. It suggests that, while there has been progress, much remains to be achieved. Several key challenges are identified. With regard to overcoming these obstacles, it focuses on macro-level strategies that would allow the development of environments in which actions can take root and grow so that the work of the DESD endures beyond the decade itself. Finally, it suggests that there are some opportunities that can be seized to make the task ahead easier to accomplish.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT: TOWARDS A NEW SCIENCE OF SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Systems Management (ESM) is the management of environmental problems at the systems level fully accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This includes socio-economic dimensions as well as the usual physical and life science aspects of environm...

  7. Sustaining an Environmental Ethic: Outdoor and Environmental Education Graduates' Negotiation of School Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Lou

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I draw on interviews with graduates from an Outdoor and Environmental Education course to explore the ways in which their environmental ethics changed since leaving university. I do this in relation to the graduates' personal and professional experiences, particularly in the context of teaching Outdoor Education and Physical…

  8. Biotechnological Tools for Environmental Sustainability: Prospects and Challenges for Environments in Nigeria—A Standard Review

    PubMed Central

    Ezeonu, Chukwuma S.; Tagbo, Richard; Anike, Ephraim N.; Oje, Obinna A.; Onwurah, Ikechukwu N. E.

    2012-01-01

    The environment is a very important component necessary for the existence of both man and other biotic organisms. The degree of sustainability of the physical environment is an index of the survival and well-being of the entire components in it. Additionally, it is not sufficient to try disposing toxic/deleterious substances with any known method. The best method of sustaining the environment is such that returns back all the components (wastes) in a recyclable way so that the waste becomes useful and helps the biotic and abiotic relationship to maintain an aesthetic and healthy equilibrium that characterizes an ideal environment. In this study, the method investigated includes biological method of environmental sustainability which seeks to investigate the various biotechnological tools (biotools) in current use and those undergoing investigations for future use. PMID:22611499

  9. Sheep grazing in the North Atlantic region: A long-term perspective on environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Ross, Louise C; Austrheim, Gunnar; Asheim, Leif-Jarle; Bjarnason, Gunnar; Feilberg, Jon; Fosaa, Anna Maria; Hester, Alison J; Holand, Øystein; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Mortensen, Lis E; Mysterud, Atle; Olsen, Erla; Skonhoft, Anders; Speed, James D M; Steinheim, Geir; Thompson, Des B A; Thórhallsdóttir, Anna Gudrún

    2016-09-01

    Sheep grazing is an important part of agriculture in the North Atlantic region, defined here as the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Scotland. This process has played a key role in shaping the landscape and biodiversity of the region, sometimes with major environmental consequences, and has also been instrumental in the development of its rural economy and culture. In this review, we present results of the first interdisciplinary study taking a long-term perspective on sheep management, resource economy and the ecological impacts of sheep grazing, showing that sustainability boundaries are most likely to be exceeded in fragile environments where financial support is linked to the number of sheep produced. The sustainability of sheep grazing can be enhanced by a management regime that promotes grazing densities appropriate to the site and supported by area-based subsidy systems, thus minimizing environmental degradation, encouraging biodiversity and preserving the integrity of ecosystem processes. PMID:26932602

  10. Modeling environmental and social impacts of energy systems with the goal-sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Tulbure, I.

    1996-12-31

    In a time when global problems concerning environmental pollution are recognized as climate changes, greenhouse effect, or global warming and when the global energy consumption will increase, a very important issue for any country is to construct an efficient and sustainable energy supply system, which will assure the energy demands for the country. Environmental impacts of energy systems are one of the goals of technology assessment (TA). For several years the interest on technology assessment has increased, as a possibility to solve problems concerning sustainable development of regions and countries. The realization of TA-studies, which are sustainable feasibility studies, is characterized by the modeling of interactions between technical systems and their environment. In the present paper, after a short theoretical description of the EPR-model, a concrete application for this model in a region of Romania will be presented. A word model will be obtained, which will be solved using a method based on fuzzy logic. The method based on fuzzy logic permits to work with highly aggregated entities. Based on a phase diagram results are to be discussed and conclusions concerning the assurance of a sustainable development of regions will be drawn. In this way the important role of scientific research in the decision making process will be expressed. This is also the role of technology assessment.

  11. Understanding sustainable diets: a descriptive analysis of the determinants and processes that influence diets and their impact on health, food security, and environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jessica L; Fanzo, Jessica C; Cogill, Bruce

    2014-07-01

    The confluence of population, economic development, and environmental pressures resulting from increased globalization and industrialization reveal an increasingly resource-constrained world in which predictions point to the need to do more with less and in a "better" way. The concept of sustainable diets presents an opportunity to successfully advance commitments to sustainable development and the elimination of poverty, food and nutrition insecurity, and poor health outcomes. This study examines the determinants of sustainable diets, offers a descriptive analysis of these areas, and presents a causal model and framework from which to build. The major determinants of sustainable diets fall into 5 categories: 1) agriculture, 2) health, 3) sociocultural, 4) environmental, and 5) socioeconomic. When factors or processes are changed in 1 determinant category, such changes affect other determinant categories and, in turn, the level of "sustainability" of a diet. The complex web of determinants of sustainable diets makes it challenging for policymakers to understand the benefits and considerations for promoting, processing, and consuming such diets. To advance this work, better measurements and indicators must be developed to assess the impact of the various determinants on the sustainability of a diet and the tradeoffs associated with any recommendations aimed at increasing the sustainability of our food system. PMID:25022991

  12. Seasonality and dietary requirements: will eating seasonal food contribute to health and environmental sustainability?

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2014-08-01

    Eating more seasonal food is one proposal for moving towards more sustainable consumption patterns, based on the assumption that it could reduce the environmental impact of the diet. The aim of the present paper is to consider the implications of eating seasonal food on the different elements of sustainability (i.e. health, economics, society), not just the environment. Seasonality can be defined as either globally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season but consumed anywhere in the world) or locally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season and consumed within the same climatic zone). The environmental, health, economic and societal impact varies by the definition used. Global seasonality has the nutritional benefit of providing a more varied and consistent supply of fresh produce year round, but this increases demand for foods that in turn can have a high environmental cost in the country of production (e.g. water stress, land use change with loss of biodiversity). Greenhouse gas emissions of globally seasonal food are not necessarily higher than food produced locally as it depends more on the production system used than transportation. Eating more seasonal food, however, is only one element of a sustainable diet and should not overshadow some of the potentially more difficult dietary behaviours to change that could have greater environmental and health benefits (e.g. reducing overconsumption or meat consumption). For future guidelines for sustainable diets to be realistic they will need to take into account modern lifestyles, cultural and social expectations in the current food environment. PMID:25027288

  13. Willow biomass-bioenergy industry development in New York: Sustainability and environmental benefits

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Robison, D.J.; Abrahamson, L.P.

    1996-12-31

    Biomass-for-bioenergy cropping and production systems based on willow (and poplar) planted and managed at high densities and short (3 to 4 year) coppice harvest cycles, providing fuel for co-firing with coal (or other types of energy conversion) can be economically, ecologically and environmentally sustainable. All of these areas are crucial to the successful commercialization of this biomass-bioenergy system. Current knowledge and ongoing research and development indicate that the production and utilization systems involved are environmentally and ecologically acceptable. Therefore two of the primary constraints to commercialization have been met. The remaining constraint is economic viability based on cost of production and use, the value of environmental externalities (such as atmospheric emissions), and potential government public policy actions to promote this system of providing a locally produced and renewable farm crop and fuel. Developments needed to overcome the economic constraints are known, and should be bolstered by the environmental and ecological quality of the system.

  14. The emergence of land change science for global environmental change and sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Turner, B. L.; Lambin, Eric F.; Reenberg, Anette

    2007-01-01

    Land change science has emerged as a fundamental component of global environmental change and sustainability research. This interdisciplinary field seeks to understand the dynamics of land cover and land use as a coupled human–environment system to address theory, concepts, models, and applications relevant to environmental and societal problems, including the intersection of the two. The major components and advances in land change are addressed: observation and monitoring; understanding the coupled system—causes, impacts, and consequences; modeling; and synthesis issues. The six articles of the special feature are introduced and situated within these components of study. PMID:18093934

  15. Toward an integrated approach to nutritional quality, environmental sustainability, and economic viability: research and measurement gaps.

    PubMed

    Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts. PMID:25351044

  16. Environmental impact assessment (EIA): an overlooked instrument for sustainable development in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Rashid; Sattar, Ayesha; Iqbal, Zafar; Imran, Muhammad; Nadeem, Raziya

    2012-04-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a policy tool used for evaluating a project proposal from physical and socioeconomic environmental perspectives. Its aim is to reduce the impact of development on environment, hence, ensuring environmental sustainability. It is mandatory to submit an Environmental Impact Statement before starting a mega project as required by Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and Environmental Policy of Pakistan. Public consultation plays a key role in an EIA system, identifying the likely aspects and impacts of a development activity. This aspect has been ignored in effective enactment of environmental legislation in Pakistan. Sufficient legislative instruments are there to support EIA system in the country but the agencies responsible for the enforcement of environmental regulations have failed to do so. The current research gives an insight into the actual status of EIA system in Pakistan along with the feedback of EIA specialists and university teachers of the concerned departments. A new index has been devised on the basis of questionnaire response to work out the overall performance of EIA system in Pakistan or any other country. The weaknesses and deficiencies of each EIA stage have been worked out for Pakistan and elaborated with the help of the controversial Zero point Interchange Project in the capital city of Pakistan. PMID:21887481

  17. Sustainable development and quality of life: expected effects of prospective changes in economic and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Vlek, C; Skolnik, M; Gatersleben, B

    1998-01-01

    In the context of "sustainable development", we studied which attributes are important to people's quality of life (QoL) and which changes in QoL people would expect from future economic and environmental improvements or deteriorations. About 200 adult subjects evaluated the relative importance of 22 different QoL attributes. They subsequently indicated expected changes in those attributes, under three different scenarios in which economic and environmental conditions would either improve or deteriorate. On average, subjects judged the QoL attributes "healthy", "family", "environmental quality", "nature" and "safety" to be most important, while "recognition", "comfort", "status" and "spiritual life" were found least important. The most important QoL attributes as well as "security" were judged as more important by women than by men. Also observed were income and age effects on relative attribute importance. Our (Dutch) subjects expected significant and varied negative QoL changes from an environmental-deterioration scenario involving either an improved or a deteriorated economy. In contrast, they had mixed positive-negative QoL expectations about environmental improvement combined with economic deterioration. Subjects high in environmental concern assigned greater weight to "environmental" QoL attributes, and they expected environmental improvement versus deterioration to more strongly affect their QoL-attributes "environmental quality", "nature", "health" and "unity with nature", than did subjects low in environmental concern. We conclude that quality of life can be meaningfully conceived as a multi-attribute value concept, useful for assessing the expected effects of future economic and environmental conditions. Suggestions are given for methodological improvement and for further research. PMID:9857825

  18. Population Pharmacokinetics of Colistin Methanesulfonate in Rats: Achieving Sustained Lung Concentrations of Colistin for Targeting Respiratory Infections

    PubMed Central

    W. S. Yapa, Shalini; Li, Jian; Porter, Christopher J. H.; Nation, Roger L.

    2013-01-01

    Colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), the inactive prodrug of colistin, is administered by inhalation for the management of respiratory infections. However, limited pharmacokinetic data are available for CMS and colistin following pulmonary delivery. This study investigates the pharmacokinetics of CMS and colistin following intravenous (i.v.) and intratracheal (i.t.) administration in rats and determines the targeting advantage after direct delivery into the lungs. In addition to plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected to quantify drug concentrations in lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF). The resulting data were analyzed using a population modeling approach in S-ADAPT. A three-compartment model described the disposition of both compounds in plasma following i.v. administration. The estimated mean clearance from the central compartment was 0.122 liters/h for CMS and 0.0657 liters/h for colistin. Conversion of CMS to colistin from all three compartments was required to fit the plasma data. The fraction of the i.v. dose converted to colistin in the systemic circulation was 0.0255. Two BAL fluid compartments were required to reflect drug kinetics in the ELF after i.t. dosing. A slow conversion of CMS (mean conversion time [MCTCMS] = 3.48 h) in the lungs contributed to high and sustained concentrations of colistin in ELF. The fraction of the CMS dose converted to colistin in ELF (fm,ELF = 0.226) was higher than the corresponding fractional conversion in plasma after i.v. administration. In conclusion, pulmonary administration of CMS achieves high and sustained exposures of colistin in lungs for targeting respiratory infections. PMID:23917323

  19. Understanding Sustainable Diets: A Descriptive Analysis of the Determinants and Processes That Influence Diets and Their Impact on Health, Food Security, and Environmental Sustainability123

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Jessica L.; Fanzo, Jessica C.; Cogill, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The confluence of population, economic development, and environmental pressures resulting from increased globalization and industrialization reveal an increasingly resource-constrained world in which predictions point to the need to do more with less and in a “better” way. The concept of sustainable diets presents an opportunity to successfully advance commitments to sustainable development and the elimination of poverty, food and nutrition insecurity, and poor health outcomes. This study examines the determinants of sustainable diets, offers a descriptive analysis of these areas, and presents a causal model and framework from which to build. The major determinants of sustainable diets fall into 5 categories: 1) agriculture, 2) health, 3) sociocultural, 4) environmental, and 5) socioeconomic. When factors or processes are changed in 1 determinant category, such changes affect other determinant categories and, in turn, the level of “sustainability” of a diet. The complex web of determinants of sustainable diets makes it challenging for policymakers to understand the benefits and considerations for promoting, processing, and consuming such diets. To advance this work, better measurements and indicators must be developed to assess the impact of the various determinants on the sustainability of a diet and the tradeoffs associated with any recommendations aimed at increasing the sustainability of our food system. PMID:25022991

  20. The Contribution of Environmental Assessment to Sustainable Development: Toward a Richer Empirical Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashmore, Matthew; Bond, Alan; Cobb, Dick

    2007-09-01

    It has long been suggested that environmental assessment has the potential to contribute to sustainable development through mechanisms above and beyond informing design and consent decisions, and while theories have been proposed to explain how this might occur, few have been subjected to rigorous empirical validation. This research advances the theoretical debate by building a rich empirical understanding of environmental assessment’s practical outcomes, from which its potential to contribute to sustainable development can be gauged. Three case study environmental assessment processes in England were investigated using a combination of data generated from content analysis, in-depth interviews, and a questionnaire survey. Four categories of outcomes are delineated based on the research data: learning outcomes; governance outcomes; attitudinal and value changes; and developmental outcomes. The data provide a robust critique of mainstream theory, with its focus on design and consent decisions. The article concludes with an examination of the consequences of the context-specific nature of environmental assessment practices in terms of developing theory and focusing future research.

  1. Reducing Food Loss and Waste to Enhance Food Security and Environmental Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Shafiee-Jood, Majid; Cai, Ximing

    2016-08-16

    While food shortage remains a big concern in many regions around the world, almost one-third of the total food production is discarded as food loss and waste (FLW). This is associated with about one-quarter of land, water, and fertilizer used for crop production, even though resources and environmental constraints are expected to limit food production around the world. FLW reduction represents a potential opportunity to enhance both food security and environmental sustainability and therefore has received considerable attention recently. By reviewing the recent progress and new developments in the literature, this paper highlights the importance of FLW prevention as a complementary solution to address the Grand Challenge of global food security and environmental sustainability. However, raising awareness only is not enough to realize the expected FLW reduction. We identify the knowledge gaps and opportunities for research by synthesizing the strategies of FLW reduction and the barriers, including (1) filling the data gaps, (2) quantifying the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of FLW reduction strategies, (3) understanding the scale effects, and (4) exploring the impacts of global transitions. It is urgent to take more aggressive yet scientifically based actions to reduce FLW, which require everyone's involvement along the food supply chain, including policy makers, food producers and suppliers, and food consumers. PMID:27428555

  2. Environmental certification: a scientific tool for sustainability. Evaluation of possible indicators for the environmental performance evaluation (EPE) of Ravenna province (Italy).

    PubMed

    Panzieri, Margherita; Marchettini, Nadia; Ridolfi, Roberto

    2003-04-01

    Environmental certification is becoming the main tool for application of sustainable development principles. The European Regulation Emas and the international standard ISO 14001 both require for certification, to perform an environmental management system to prevent environmental impacts and to continuously improve environmental performance. For a good environmental performance evaluation (EPE), certification needs to use scientific methodologies and to interface with scientific research; here we proposed emergy analysis as a valid method for EPE and emergetic environmental performance and condition indicators (EPIs, ECIs) to monitor a territorial system: Ravenna province (Italy). Together with emergy indicators were selected other indicators for a deeper EPE: emitted/adsorbed CO2, energy consumptions, air and water pollution measures. The paper showed that Ravenna system has a good environmental performance and demonstrated how different indicators from the most advanced chemical research (chemical-physical, analytical, etc.) contribute to a complete EPE of a complex territorial system and are useful for environmental certification and sustainable development. PMID:12817643

  3. Environmental sustainability of bioethanol produced from sweet sorghum stem on saline-alkali land.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxin; Pan, Xinxing; Xia, Xunfeng; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental impacts of a bioethanol production system that uses sweet sorghum stem on saline-alkali land as feedstock. The system comprises a plant cultivation unit, a feedstock transport unit, and a bioethanol conversion unit, with 1000L of bioethanol as a functional unit. The net energy ratio is 3.84, and the net energy gain is 17.21MJ/L. Agrochemical production consumes 76.58% of the life cycle fossil energy. The category with the most significant impact on the environment is eutrophication, followed by acidification, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, human toxicity, and global warming. Allocation method, waste recycling approach, and soil salinity significantly influence the results. Using vinasse to produce pellet fuel for steam generation significantly improves energy efficiency and decreases negative environmental impacts. Promoting reasonable management practices to alleviate saline stress and increasing agrochemical utilization efficiency can further improve environmental sustainability. PMID:25846180

  4. Program in environmental sustainability uses interdisciplinary approach to cross-train students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.; Johnson, Sarah S.

    The Hewlett Program in Environmental Sustainability, an experimental educational pathway for undergraduate students interested in the study of the environment (http://wundow.wustl.edu/hewlett), is now in its third year at Washington University. About 90% of incoming students have stayed with the program through the first year and about 80% through the second year.The program's objectives and implementation closely follow the recommendations presented in a 1998 Boyer Commission Report on emphasizing and improving undergraduate education at research universities (http://notes.cc.sunysb.edu/Pres/boyer/nsf). A clustered, interdisciplinary approach is used for coursework, with key environmental problems viewed from scientific, political, cultural, and ethical perspectives. Courses are taught by instructors who conduct research in environmental areas. The program's multidisciplinary nature is considered a strong draw for faculty involvement, though retaining faculty is still an issue.

  5. Balancing environmental and industry sustainability: a case study of the US gold mining industry.

    PubMed

    Finnie, Bruce; Stuart, Jeffrey; Gibson, Linda; Zabriskie, Fern

    2009-09-01

    Mandatory insurance requirements and/or mitigation fees (royalties) for mining companies may help reduce environmental risk exposure for the federal government. Mining is examined since the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Release Inventory reveals that this sector produces more hazardous waste than any other industrial sector. Although uncommon, environmental expense can exceed hundreds of millions of dollars per development. Of particular concern is the potential for mines to become unfunded Superfund sites. Monte Carlo simulation of risk exposure is used to establish a plausible range of unfunded federal liabilities associated with cyanide-leach gold mining. A model is developed to assess these costs and their impact on both the federal budget and corporate profitability (i.e., industry sustainability), particularly if such costs are borne by offending firms. PMID:19501452

  6. Designing Biological Systems for Sustainability and Programmed Environmental Interface (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Silver, Pam [Harvard University

    2011-06-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Pam Silver of Harvard University gives a presentation on "Designing Biological Systems for Sustainability and Programmed Environmental Interface" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

  7. Probabilistic evaluation of integrating resource recovery into wastewater treatment to improve environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; McCarty, Perry L; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yu, Han-Qing; Qian, Yi; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-02-01

    Global expectations for wastewater service infrastructure have evolved over time, and the standard treatment methods used by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are facing issues related to problem shifting due to the current emphasis on sustainability. A transition in WWTPs toward reuse of wastewater-derived resources is recognized as a promising solution for overcoming these obstacles. However, it remains uncertain whether this approach can reduce the environmental footprint of WWTPs. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a net environmental benefit calculation for several scenarios for more than 50 individual countries over a 20-y time frame. For developed countries, the resource recovery approach resulted in ∼154% net increase in the environmental performance of WWTPs compared with the traditional substance elimination approach, whereas this value decreased to ∼60% for developing countries. Subsequently, we conducted a probabilistic analysis integrating these estimates with national values and determined that, if this transition was attempted for WWTPs in developed countries, it would have a ∼65% probability of attaining net environmental benefits. However, this estimate decreased greatly to ∼10% for developing countries, implying a substantial risk of failure. These results suggest that implementation of this transition for WWTPs should be studied carefully in different temporal and spatial contexts. Developing countries should customize their approach to realizing more sustainable WWTPs, rather than attempting to simply replicate the successful models of developed countries. Results derived from the model forecasting highlight the role of bioenergy generation and reduced use of chemicals in improving the sustainability of WWTPs in developing countries. PMID:25605884

  8. Probabilistic evaluation of integrating resource recovery into wastewater treatment to improve environmental sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; McCarty, Perry L.; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yu, Han-Qing; Qian, Yi; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-01-01

    Global expectations for wastewater service infrastructure have evolved over time, and the standard treatment methods used by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are facing issues related to problem shifting due to the current emphasis on sustainability. A transition in WWTPs toward reuse of wastewater-derived resources is recognized as a promising solution for overcoming these obstacles. However, it remains uncertain whether this approach can reduce the environmental footprint of WWTPs. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a net environmental benefit calculation for several scenarios for more than 50 individual countries over a 20-y time frame. For developed countries, the resource recovery approach resulted in ∼154% net increase in the environmental performance of WWTPs compared with the traditional substance elimination approach, whereas this value decreased to ∼60% for developing countries. Subsequently, we conducted a probabilistic analysis integrating these estimates with national values and determined that, if this transition was attempted for WWTPs in developed countries, it would have a ∼65% probability of attaining net environmental benefits. However, this estimate decreased greatly to ∼10% for developing countries, implying a substantial risk of failure. These results suggest that implementation of this transition for WWTPs should be studied carefully in different temporal and spatial contexts. Developing countries should customize their approach to realizing more sustainable WWTPs, rather than attempting to simply replicate the successful models of developed countries. Results derived from the model forecasting highlight the role of bioenergy generation and reduced use of chemicals in improving the sustainability of WWTPs in developing countries. PMID:25605884

  9. Stratification of Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable Development in Australia: An Analysis of Positions Vacant Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Joy

    2008-01-01

    Positions vacant advertisements discursively construct employment sectors, employers and employees. This paper uses content analysis, systemic functional linguistics and critical discourse analysis to investigate the discursive construction of environmental education and education for sustainable development through positions vacant advertisements…

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: BIOMASS CO-FIRING IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS--MINNESOTA POWER'S RAPIDS ENERGY CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental and Sustainable Technology Evaluation (ESTE) program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. This ESTE project involved evaluation of co-firing common woody bio...

  11. TRACI - TOOL FOR THE REDUCTION AND ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS (SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRACI is an impact assessment tool being developed to assist in environmental decision making for programs in Pollution Prevention (P2), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Sustainable Development (SD). TRACI includes impact assessment methodologies and supporting databases to allow ...

  12. Enhancing technology development through integrated environmental analysis: toward sustainable nonlethal military systems.

    PubMed

    Saulters, Oral S; Erickson, Larry E; Leven, Blase A; Pickrel, John A; Green, Ryan M; Jamka, Leslie; Prill, Amanda

    2010-04-01

    New technologies are not only critical in supporting traditional industrial and military success but also play a pivotal role in advancing sustainability and sustainable development. With the current global economic challenges, resulting in tighter budgets and increased uncertainty, synergistic paradigms and tools that streamline the design and dissemination of key technologies are more important than ever. Accordingly, a proactive and holistic approach can facilitate efficient research, design, testing, evaluation, and fielding for novel and off-the-shelf products, thereby assisting developers, end users, and other diverse stakeholders in better understanding tradeoffs in the defense industry and beyond. By prioritizing mechanisms such as strategic life-cycle environmental assessments (LCEA); programmatic environment, safety, and occupational health evaluations (PESHE); health hazard assessments (HHA); and other innovative platforms and studies early within systems engineering, various nonlethal military technologies have been successfully developed and deployed. These efforts provide a framework for addressing complex environment, safety, and occupational health risks that affect personnel, infrastructure, property, socioeconomic, and natural/cultural resources. Moreover, integrated, comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and iterative analyses involving flexible groups of specialists/subject matter experts can be applied at various spatiotemporal scales in support of collaborations. This paper highlights the Urban Operations Laboratory process utilized for inclusive and transformative environmental analysis, which can translate into advantages and progress toward sustainable systems. PMID:19886729

  13. Achieving Sustainability in a Semi-Arid Basin in Northwest Mexico through an Integrated Hydrologic-Economic-Institutional Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz-Hernandez, A.; Mayer, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    The hydrologic systems in Northwest Mexico are at risk of over exploitation due to poor management of the water resources and adverse climatic conditions. The purpose of this work is to create and Integrated Hydrologic-Economic-Institutional Model to support future development in the Yaqui River basin, well known by its agricultural productivity, by directing the water management practices toward sustainability. The Yaqui River basin is a semi-arid basin with an area of 72,000 square kilometers and an average precipitation of 527 mm per year. The primary user of water is agriculture followed by domestic use and industry. The water to meet user demands comes from three reservoirs constructed, in series, along the river. The main objective of the integrated simulation-optimization model is to maximize the economic benefit within the basin, subject to physical and environmental constraints. Decision variables include the water allocation to major users and reservoirs as well as aquifer releases. Economic and hydrologic (including the interaction of the surface water and groundwater) simulation models were both included in the integrated model. The surface water model refers to a rainfall-runoff model created, calibrated, and incorporated into a MATLAB code that estimates the monthly storage in the main reservoirs by solving a water balance. The rainfall-runoff model was coupled with a groundwater model of the Yaqui Valley which was previously developed (Addams, 2004). This model includes flow in the main canals and infiltration to the aquifer. The economic benefit of water for some activities such as agricultural use, domestic use, hydropower generation, and environmental value was determined. Sensitivity analysis was explored for those parameters that are not certain such as price elasticities or population growth. Different water allocation schemes were created based on climate change, climate variability, and socio-economic scenarios. Addams L. 2004. Water resource

  14. Towards Using Transformative Education as a Benchmark for Clarifying Differences and Similarities between Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlova, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    The UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) charges educators with a key role in developing and "securing sustainable life chances, aspirations and futures for young people". Environmental Education (EE) and ESD share a vision of quality education and a society that lives in balance with Earth's carrying capacity,…

  15. Re-Examining the Importance of Indigenous Perspectives in the Western Environmental Education for Sustainability: "From Tribal to Mainstream Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandra, Doreen Vikashni

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of integrating indigenous perspectives on environmental sustainability into mainstream education as a way of bridging the gap in the understanding of indigenous knowledge systems into Western science explanations of sustainable development (SD) in education, at the same time ensuring traditional ecological…

  16. Factors That Lead to Environmentally Sustainable Practices in the Restaurant Industry: A Qualitative Analysis of Two Green Restaurant Innovators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyheim, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, more organizations, including restaurants, have concerned themselves with sustainability. As with any new endeavor, guidance is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that lead to environmentally sustainable practices in the restaurant industry. Using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory as a…

  17. Reconciling Pesticide Reduction with Economic and Environmental Sustainability in Arable Farming

    PubMed Central

    Lechenet, Martin; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Bockstaller, Christian; Boissinot, François; Petit, Marie-Sophie; Petit, Sandrine; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas M.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing pesticide use is one of the high-priority targets in the quest for a sustainable agriculture. Until now, most studies dealing with pesticide use reduction have compared a limited number of experimental prototypes. Here we assessed the sustainability of 48 arable cropping systems from two major agricultural regions of France, including conventional, integrated and organic systems, with a wide range of pesticide use intensities and management (crop rotation, soil tillage, cultivars, fertilization, etc.). We assessed cropping system sustainability using a set of economic, environmental and social indicators. We failed to detect any positive correlation between pesticide use intensity and both productivity (when organic farms were excluded) and profitability. In addition, there was no relationship between pesticide use and workload. We found that crop rotation diversity was higher in cropping systems with low pesticide use, which would support the important role of crop rotation diversity in integrated and organic strategies. In comparison to conventional systems, integrated strategies showed a decrease in the use of both pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers, they consumed less energy and were frequently more energy efficient. Integrated systems therefore appeared as the best compromise in sustainability trade-offs. Our results could be used to re-design current cropping systems, by promoting diversified crop rotations and the combination of a wide range of available techniques contributing to pest management. PMID:24887494

  18. Reconciling pesticide reduction with economic and environmental sustainability in arable farming.

    PubMed

    Lechenet, Martin; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Bockstaller, Christian; Boissinot, François; Petit, Marie-Sophie; Petit, Sandrine; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas M

    2014-01-01

    Reducing pesticide use is one of the high-priority targets in the quest for a sustainable agriculture. Until now, most studies dealing with pesticide use reduction have compared a limited number of experimental prototypes. Here we assessed the sustainability of 48 arable cropping systems from two major agricultural regions of France, including conventional, integrated and organic systems, with a wide range of pesticide use intensities and management (crop rotation, soil tillage, cultivars, fertilization, etc.). We assessed cropping system sustainability using a set of economic, environmental and social indicators. We failed to detect any positive correlation between pesticide use intensity and both productivity (when organic farms were excluded) and profitability. In addition, there was no relationship between pesticide use and workload. We found that crop rotation diversity was higher in cropping systems with low pesticide use, which would support the important role of crop rotation diversity in integrated and organic strategies. In comparison to conventional systems, integrated strategies showed a decrease in the use of both pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers, they consumed less energy and were frequently more energy efficient. Integrated systems therefore appeared as the best compromise in sustainability trade-offs. Our results could be used to re-design current cropping systems, by promoting diversified crop rotations and the combination of a wide range of available techniques contributing to pest management. PMID:24887494

  19. Towards a methodology to formulate sustainable diets for livestock: accounting for environmental impact in diet formulation.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-05-28

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel methodology that enables pig diets to be formulated explicitly for environmental impact objectives using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. To achieve this, the following methodological issues had to be addressed: (1) account for environmental impacts caused by both ingredient choice and nutrient excretion, (2) formulate diets for multiple environmental impact objectives and (3) allow flexibility to identify the optimal nutritional composition for each environmental impact objective. An LCA model based on Canadian pig farms was integrated into a diet formulation tool to compare the use of different ingredients in Eastern and Western Canada. By allowing the feed energy content to vary, it was possible to identify the optimum energy density for different environmental impact objectives, while accounting for the expected effect of energy density on feed intake. A least-cost diet was compared with diets formulated to minimise the following objectives: non-renewable resource use, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential and a combined environmental impact score (using these four categories). The resulting environmental impacts were compared using parallel Monte Carlo simulations to account for shared uncertainty. When optimising diets to minimise a single environmental impact category, reductions in the said category were observed in all cases. However, this was at the expense of increasing the impact in other categories and higher dietary costs. The methodology can identify nutritional strategies to minimise environmental impacts, such as increasing the nutritional density of the diets, compared with the least-cost formulation. PMID:26987378

  20. Cyanobacteria: A Precious Bio-resource in Agriculture, Ecosystem, and Environmental Sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jay Shankar; Kumar, Arun; Rai, Amar N.; Singh, Devendra P.

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view, the challenges concerning agro-ecosystem and environment, the recent developments in biotechnology offers a more reliable approach to address the food security for future generations and also resolve the complex environmental problems. Several unique features of cyanobacteria such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high biomass yield, growth on non-arable lands and a wide variety of water sources (contaminated and polluted waters), generation of useful by-products and bio-fuels, enhancing the soil fertility and reducing green house gas emissions, have collectively offered these bio-agents as the precious bio-resource for sustainable development. Cyanobacterial biomass is the effective bio-fertilizer source to improve soil physico-chemical characteristics such as water-holding capacity and mineral nutrient status of the degraded lands. The unique characteristics of cyanobacteria include their ubiquity presence, short generation time and capability to fix the atmospheric N2. Similar to other prokaryotic bacteria, the cyanobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-inoculants for improving soil fertility and environmental quality. Genetically engineered cyanobacteria have been devised with the novel genes for the production of a number of bio-fuels such as bio-diesel, bio-hydrogen, bio-methane, synga, and therefore, open new avenues for the generation of bio-fuels in the economically sustainable manner. This review is an effort to enlist the valuable information about the qualities of cyanobacteria and their potential role in solving the agricultural and environmental problems for the future welfare of the planet. PMID:27148218

  1. Cyanobacteria: A Precious Bio-resource in Agriculture, Ecosystem, and Environmental Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jay Shankar; Kumar, Arun; Rai, Amar N; Singh, Devendra P

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view, the challenges concerning agro-ecosystem and environment, the recent developments in biotechnology offers a more reliable approach to address the food security for future generations and also resolve the complex environmental problems. Several unique features of cyanobacteria such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high biomass yield, growth on non-arable lands and a wide variety of water sources (contaminated and polluted waters), generation of useful by-products and bio-fuels, enhancing the soil fertility and reducing green house gas emissions, have collectively offered these bio-agents as the precious bio-resource for sustainable development. Cyanobacterial biomass is the effective bio-fertilizer source to improve soil physico-chemical characteristics such as water-holding capacity and mineral nutrient status of the degraded lands. The unique characteristics of cyanobacteria include their ubiquity presence, short generation time and capability to fix the atmospheric N2. Similar to other prokaryotic bacteria, the cyanobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-inoculants for improving soil fertility and environmental quality. Genetically engineered cyanobacteria have been devised with the novel genes for the production of a number of bio-fuels such as bio-diesel, bio-hydrogen, bio-methane, synga, and therefore, open new avenues for the generation of bio-fuels in the economically sustainable manner. This review is an effort to enlist the valuable information about the qualities of cyanobacteria and their potential role in solving the agricultural and environmental problems for the future welfare of the planet. PMID:27148218

  2. Technical Tension Between Achieving Particulate and Molecular Organic Environmental Cleanliness: Data from Astromaterial Curation Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Burkett, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center operates clean curation facilities for Apollo lunar, Antarctic meteorite, stratospheric cosmic dust, Stardust comet and Genesis solar wind samples. Each of these collections is curated separately due unique requirements. The purpose of this abstract is to highlight the technical tensions between providing particulate cleanliness and molecular cleanliness, illustrated using data from curation laboratories. Strict control of three components are required for curating samples cleanly: a clean environment; clean containers and tools that touch samples; and use of non-shedding materials of cleanable chemistry and smooth surface finish. This abstract focuses on environmental cleanliness and the technical tension between achieving particulate and molecular cleanliness. An environment in which a sample is manipulated or stored can be a room, an enclosed glovebox (or robotic isolation chamber) or an individual sample container.

  3. Comparing environmental issues in Cuba before and after the Special Period: balancing sustainable development and survival.

    PubMed

    Maal-Bared, Rasha

    2006-04-01

    Following the Earth Summit in 1992, Cuba designed and implemented a variety of programs, administrative structures, and public awareness activities to promote sound environmental management and sustainable development. This came shortly after the fall of the Soviet Union and the strengthening of the US blockade in 1990, which resulted in a 35% drop in Cuban GDP. This period, referred to as the Special Period, witnessed a decrease in many environmentally damaging activities both by choice and by necessity, but also resulted in many decisions to resuscitate the Cuban economy. The purpose of this work was to compare and rank the environmental risks Cuba faced before and during the Special Period (1990-2000) using two Comparative environmental risk assessments (CERAs). To do so, an ecosystem integrity risk assessment matrix was constructed with 42 risk end points. The matrix assessed the risk posed by 17 problem areas including air pollution, water contamination, solid waste sites, pesticides and ecosystem degradation. The risks were calculated using five criteria: area affected, vulnerability of affected population, severity of impact, irreversibility of effect and uncertainty. To construct this matrix, both literature reviews and expert interviews in Cuba were conducted in 2000. The results showed a general decrease in risk scores during the Special Period. Before the Special Period, high risks were posed by: terrestrial degradation and industrial wastewater and sludge, followed by freshwater degradation, surface water stressors, and pesticides. After the Special Period, industrial wastewater and sludge and pesticides were no longer high-risk areas, but municipal wastewater and marine coastal degradation ranked higher than previously. Also, the risk endpoints most stressed after 1990 were affected by activities controlled by the government, such as mining and tourism, and lack of infrastructure. Therefore, the claims that public environmental education is the main

  4. Sustainable Development at Universities: New Horizons. Umweltbildung, Umweltkommunikation und Nachhaltigkeit/Environmental Education, Communication and Sustainability. Volume 34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal Filho, Walter, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book, prepared in the context of the "UN Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD)", also known as "Rio+20", contains the papers submitted to the "World Symposium on Sustainable Development at Universities (WSSD-U-2012)", which took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on 5 and 6 June 2012. It pursues the following main aims: to document and…

  5. Environmentally Sustainable Growth in the 21st Century: The Role of Catalytic Science in Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusumano, James A.

    1995-11-01

    Nations of the world face an unprecedented and daunting challenge. They aggressively seek to stimulate their economies, to create new jobs, to increase the accessibility of products and technologies that enhance the quality of life--at the same time they desparately pursue the reversal of a perceived global environmental crisis. Resolution of this apparent paradox can be addressed to a significant degree by new developments in catalytic science. With the recent advent of molecular design techniques, the modernized form of this broadly applicable technological tool has the potential to change the face of the four fundamental needs of humanity--health care, food supply, energy, and materials. This can be done in a way that provides a path to environmentally sustainable development for all citizens of the planet.

  6. The environmental and economic sustainability of potential bioethanol from willow in the UK.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, A L; Dupree, P; Scott, S A; Dennis, J S

    2010-12-01

    Life cycle assessment has been used to investigate the environmental and economic sustainability of a potential operation in the UK in which bioethanol is produced from the hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation of coppice willow. If the willow were grown on idle arable land in the UK, or, indeed, in Eastern Europe and imported as wood chips into the UK, it was found that savings of greenhouse gas emissions of 70-90%, when compared to fossil-derived gasoline on an energy basis, would be possible. The process would be energetically self-sufficient, as the co-products, e.g. lignin and unfermented sugars, could be used to produce the process heat and electricity, with surplus electricity being exported to the National Grid. Despite the environmental benefits, the economic viability is doubtful at present. However, the cost of production could be reduced significantly if the willow were altered by breeding to improve its suitability for hydrolysis and fermentation. PMID:20727740

  7. HPC-EPIC for High Resolution Simulations of Environmental and Sustainability Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Jeffrey A.; Kang, Shujiang; Post, W. M.; Wang, Dali; Bandaru, Varaprasad; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2011-11-01

    Multiple concerns over the impact of wide scale changes in land management have motivated comprehensive analyses of environmental sustainability of food and biofuel production. These call for high-resolution, spatial-temporal information of lands using tools that enable comprehensive analyses of natural resources for decision-making. Most agroecosystem simulation models are point models with a user interface that allows users to provide inputs and examine results for agricultural field scale analyses, and they aren’t able to meet the needs of the regional and national simulation with high spatial resolutions. We describe an efficient computational approach over deployment of the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model at high-resolution scales using a high performance computing (HPC) technique in this study. We concentrate on an integrated procedure for executing millions of simulations required, but also address building databases for model initialization and forcing the simulations, and post-processing model outputs.

  8. Integrating environmental equity, energy and sustainability: A spatial-temporal study of electric power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touche, George Earl

    The theoretical scope of this dissertation encompasses the ecological factors of equity and energy. Literature important to environmental justice and sustainability are reviewed, and a general integration of global concepts is delineated. The conceptual framework includes ecological integrity, quality human development, intra- and inter-generational equity and risk originating from human economic activity and modern energy production. The empirical focus of this study concentrates on environmental equity and electric power generation within the United States. Several designs are employed while using paired t-tests, independent t-tests, zero-order correlation coefficients and regression coefficients to test seven sets of hypotheses. Examinations are conducted at the census tract level within Texas and at the state level across the United States. At the community level within Texas, communities that host coal or natural gas utility power plants and corresponding comparison communities that do not host such power plants are tested for compositional differences. Comparisons are made both before and after the power plants began operating for purposes of assessing outcomes of the siting process and impacts of the power plants. Relationships between the compositions of the hosting communities and the risks and benefits originating from the observed power plants are also examined. At the statewide level across the United States, relationships between statewide composition variables and risks and benefits originating from statewide electric power generation are examined. Findings indicate the existence of some limited environmental inequities, but they do not indicate disparities that confirm the general thesis of environmental racism put forth by environmental justice advocates. Although environmental justice strategies that would utilize Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the disparate impact standard do not appear to be applicable, some findings suggest potential

  9. Meeting report: threats to human health and environmental sustainability in the pacific basin.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Robert G; Carpenter, David O; Kirk, Donald; Koh, David; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Cebrian, Mariano; Cifuentes, Luis; Khwaja, Mahmood; Ling, Bo; Makalinao, Irma; Paz-Y-Miño, César; Peralta, Genandrialine; Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Kirpal; Sly, Peter; Tohyama, Chiharu; Woodward, Alistair; Zheng, Baoshan; Maiden, Todd

    2007-12-01

    The coastal zone of the Pacific Rim is home for about one-third of the world's population. Disproportionate growth of Far Eastern economies has produced a disproportionate share of related environmental difficulties. As the region searches for acceptable compromises between growth and environmental quality, its influence on global environmental health is certain to increase. Consequences of global environmental change such as habitat alteration, storms, and sea level rise will be particularly acute among Pacific Rim nations. Adverse health effects from arsenic exposure in Pacific Rim nations have been used to justify drinking water standards in the United States and elsewhere. As global manufacturing in the Pacific Rim increases, the centroid of global air quality and waste management issues will shift further toward Far Eastern nations. The Eleventh International Conference of the Pacific Basin Consortium (PBC) was held in September 2005 in Honolulu, Hawaii. The purpose of the conference was to bring together individuals to discuss regional challenges to sustainable growth. The historic emphasis of the conference on hazardous wastes in relation to human health makes the PBC an ideal forum for discussing technical aspects of sustainable economic growth in the Pacific region. That role is reflected in the 2005 PBC conference themes, which included management of arsenic in potable waters, air quality, climate change, pesticides, mercury, and electronics industry waste-each with emphasis on relationships to human health. Arsenic management exemplifies the manner in which the PBC can focus interdisciplinary discussion in a single technical area. The conference program provided talks on arsenic toxicology, treatment technologies, management of arsenic-bearing residuals from water treatment, and the probable societal costs and benefits of arsenic management. PMID:18087598

  10. Meeting Report: Threats to Human Health and Environmental Sustainability in the Pacific Basin

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Robert G.; Carpenter, David O.; Kirk, Donald; Koh, David; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Cebrian, Mariano; Cifuentes, Luis; Khwaja, Mahmood; Ling, Bo; Makalinao, Irma; Paz-y-Miño, César; Peralta, Genandrialine; Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Kirpal; Sly, Peter; Tohyama, Chiharu; Woodward, Alistair; Zheng, Baoshan; Maiden, Todd

    2007-01-01

    The coastal zone of the Pacific Rim is home for about one-third of the world’s population. Disproportionate growth of Far Eastern economies has produced a disproportionate share of related environmental difficulties. As the region searches for acceptable compromises between growth and environmental quality, its influence on global environmental health is certain to increase. Consequences of global environmental change such as habitat alteration, storms, and sealevel rise will be particularly acute among Pacific Rim nations. Adverse health effects from arsenic exposure in Pacific Rim nations have been used to justify drinking water standards in the United States and elsewhere. As global manufacturing in the Pacific Rim increases, the centroid of global air quality and waste management issues will shift further toward Far Eastern nations. The Eleventh International Conference of the Pacific Basin Consortium (PBC) was held in September 2005 in Honolulu, Hawaii. The purpose of the conference was to bring together individuals to discuss regional challenges to sustainable growth. The historic emphasis of the conference on hazardous wastes in relation to human health makes the PBC an ideal forum for discussing technical aspects of sustainable economic growth in the Pacific region. That role is reflected in the 2005 PBC conference themes, which included management of arsenic in potable waters, air quality, climate change, pesticides, mercury, and electronics industry waste—each with emphasis on relationships to human health. Arsenic management exemplifies the manner in which the PBC can focus interdisciplinary discussion in a single technical area. The conference program provided talks on arsenic toxicology, treatment technologies, management of arsenic-bearing residuals from water treatment, and the probable societal costs and benefits of arsenic management. PMID:18087598

  11. Students' qualification in environmental and sustainability education—epistemic gaps or composites of critical thinking?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasslöf, Helen; Lundegård, Iann; Malmberg, Claes

    2016-01-01

    In an 'age of measurement' where students' qualification is a hot topic on the political agenda, it is of interest to ask what the function of qualification might implicate in relation to a complex issue as Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and what function environmental and sustainability issues serve in science education. This paper deals with how secondary and upper secondary teachers in discussions with colleagues articulate qualification in relation to educational aims of ESD. With inspiration from discourse theory, the teachers' articulations of qualification are analysed and put in relation to other functions of education (qualification, socialisation and subjectification). The results of this study show three discourses of qualification: scientific reasoning, awareness of complexity and to be critical. The discourse of 'qualification as to be critical' is articulated as a composite of differing epistemological views. In this discourse, the teachers undulate between rationalistic epistemological views and postmodern views, in a pragmatic way, to articulate a discourse of critical thinking which serves as a reflecting tool to bring about different ways of valuing issues of sustainability, which reformulates 'matter of facts' towards 'matter of concerns'

  12. Cultivating an Ethic of Environmental Sustainability: Integrating Insights from Aristotelian Virtue Ethics and Pragmatist Cognitive Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Travis; Becker, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Despite increased attention for environmental sustainability programming, large-scale adoption of pro-environmental behaviors has been slow and largely short-term. This article analyzes the crucial role of ethics in this respect. The authors utilize an interdisciplinary approach drawing on virtue ethics and cognitive development theory to…

  13. Using Tourism Free-Choice Learning Experiences to Promote Environmentally Sustainable Behaviour: The Role of Post-Visit "Action Resources"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Roy; Packer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues the need for the providers of ecotourism and other free-choice environmental learning experiences to promote the adoption of environmentally sustainable actions beyond their own sites, when visitors return to their home environments. Previous research indicates that although visitors often leave such experiences with a heightened…

  14. Challenges of Integrating Environmental Sustainability Issues into Business School Curriculum: A Case Study from the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesonen, Hanna-Leena

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the history and foundations of a master's program in corporate environmental management at a Finnish university. Provides insights for program development: (1) clear commitment from administrators; (2) content based on environmental science and technology; (3) interdisciplinary approach; (4) diverse approaches to sustainability; and (5)…

  15. Sustain

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-20

    Current building energy simulation technology requires excessive labor, time and expertise to create building energy models, excessive computational time for accurate simulations and difficulties with the interpretation of the results. These deficiencies can be ameliorated using modern graphical user interfaces and algorithms which take advantage of modern computer architectures and display capabilities. To prove this hypothesis, we developed an experimental test bed for building energy simulation. This novel test bed environment offers an easy-to-use interactive graphical interface, provides access to innovative simulation modules that run at accelerated computational speeds, and presents new graphics visualization methods to interpret simulation results. Our system offers the promise of dramatic ease of use in comparison with currently available building energy simulation tools. Its modular structure makes it suitable for early stage building design, as a research platform for the investigation of new simulation methods, and as a tool for teaching concepts of sustainable design. Improvements in the accuracy and execution speed of many of the simulation modules are based on the modification of advanced computer graphics rendering algorithms. Significant performance improvements are demonstrated in several computationally expensive energy simulation modules. The incorporation of these modern graphical techniques should advance the state of the art in the domain of whole building energy analysis and building performance simulation, particularly at the conceptual design stage when decisions have the greatest impact. More importantly, these better simulation tools will enable the transition from prescriptive to performative energy codes, resulting in better, more efficient designs for our future built environment.

  16. Role of input self-sufficiency in the economic and environmental sustainability of specialised dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Lebacq, T; Baret, P V; Stilmant, D

    2015-03-01

    Increasing input self-sufficiency is often viewed as a target to improve sustainability of dairy farms. However, few studies have specifically analysed input self-sufficiency, by including several technical inputs and without only focussing on animal feeding, in order to explore its impact on farm sustainability. To address this gap, our work has three objectives as follows: (1) identifying the structural characteristics required by specialised dairy farms located in the grassland area to be self-sufficient; (2) analysing the relationships between input self-sufficiency, environmental and economic sustainability; and (3) studying how the farms react to a decrease in milk price according to their self-sufficiency degree. Based on farm accounting databases, we categorised 335 Walloon specialised conventional dairy farms into four classes according to their level of input self-sufficiency. To this end, we used as proxy the indicator of economic autonomy - that is, the ratio between costs of inputs related to animal production, crop production and energy use and the total gross product. Classes were then compared using multiple comparison tests and canonical discriminant analysis. A total of 30 organic farms - among which 63% had a high level of economic autonomy - were considered separately and compared with the most autonomous class. We showed that a high degree of economic autonomy is associated, in conventional farms, with a high proportion of permanent grassland in the agricultural area. The most autonomous farms used less input - especially animal feeding - for a same output level, and therefore combined good environmental and economic performances. Our results also underlined that, in a situation of decrease in milk price, the least autonomous farms had more latitude to decrease their input-related costs without decreasing milk production. Their incomes per work unit were, therefore, less impacted by falling prices, but remained lower than those of more

  17. Purposes, paradigms and pressure groups: Accountability and sustainability in EU environmental assessment, 1985-2010

    SciTech Connect

    Sheate, William R.

    2012-02-15

    Twenty five years since the introduction of the European Union (EU) environmental impact assessment (EIA) Directive in 1985 this paper reflects on the extent to which environmental assessment (EA) processes, over the course of their evolution over the last 25 years in the EU, have provided a platform for enhancing accountability and sustainability. Surprisingly-in the context of legal mandates for EA-there is little reference in the EA literature explicitly to the literature on accountability and the role EA may play in this increasingly important aspect of governance. The paper explores EA implementation principally from an environmentalist perspective and particularly the way in which NGOs and other advocates for the environment in the UK and EU have used the EA legislation as a lever for increasing democratic, corporate and professional accountability of proponents and decision-makers alike. From an a historical analysis, including two historical EIA case studies and two contemporary SEA case studies, it becomes clear that EA has had an important role to play-at the legislative level in providing the requirements for accountability, and at the implementation level as the lever that can be used to hold individuals, organisations and authorities to account for their actions. The relationship with the shift to sustainability is a close one, since sustainable development demands greater public involvement in decision-making and greater accountability of executive decisions to the public. The lessons from this analysis allow the development of a nascent policy-oriented theory regarding EA's role in accountability, which provides a framework for a distinctive new area of EA research and policy analysis. Moreover, an accountability perspective on EA could help re-frame EA for policy makers from being purely an informational and procedural instrument to one which promotes better accountability and sustainability simultaneously. - Highlights: Black

  18. Exploring land developer perspectives on conservation subdivision design and environmentally sustainable land development.

    PubMed

    Göçmen, Z Aslıgül

    2014-11-01

    Insight into land developers' perspectives on alternative residential developments and the barriers they experience in trying to develop them can be crucial in efforts to change environmentally damaging low-density, large-lot, and automobile-dependent residential patterns. Using a semi-structured interview instrument followed by short surveys, I examined the views of 16 developers in Waukesha County, WI, USA, a county that has experienced significant development pressures and widespread implementation of conservation subdivision design. The land developer investigation focused on conservation subdivision design familiarity and implementation, and identified a number of barriers that developers experienced in implementing the design. While the majority of the developers appeared familiar with the design and had experience developing conservation subdivisions, their motivations for developing them varied, as did their on-site conservation practices. The barriers included the lack of land use regulations supporting the design, economic factors, community opposition, and a lack of knowledge about sustainable residential development practices. Strategies to promote more environmentally sustainable residential land development patterns include providing a more supportive institutional environment, enacting different regulations and guidelines for natural resources protection, and offering education on ecologically sound development and planning practices. PMID:25178188

  19. Exploring Land Developer Perspectives on Conservation Subdivision Design and Environmentally Sustainable Land Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göçmen, Z. Aslıgül

    2014-11-01

    Insight into land developers' perspectives on alternative residential developments and the barriers they experience in trying to develop them can be crucial in efforts to change environmentally damaging low-density, large-lot, and automobile-dependent residential patterns. Using a semi-structured interview instrument followed by short surveys, I examined the views of 16 developers in Waukesha County, WI, USA, a county that has experienced significant development pressures and widespread implementation of conservation subdivision design. The land developer investigation focused on conservation subdivision design familiarity and implementation, and identified a number of barriers that developers experienced in implementing the design. While the majority of the developers appeared familiar with the design and had experience developing conservation subdivisions, their motivations for developing them varied, as did their on-site conservation practices. The barriers included the lack of land use regulations supporting the design, economic factors, community opposition, and a lack of knowledge about sustainable residential development practices. Strategies to promote more environmentally sustainable residential land development patterns include providing a more supportive institutional environment, enacting different regulations and guidelines for natural resources protection, and offering education on ecologically sound development and planning practices.

  20. On the value of environmental stewardship and sustainability in health administration education.

    PubMed

    Verderber, Stephen; Fauerbach, Julia; Walter, Brandon

    2008-01-01

    Global warming, the depletion of the world'snatural resources, and excessive consumer consumption in developed countries are determinants reshaping the way we live our everyday lives. These factors are rapidly giving rise to new ecological paradigms of environmental stewardship and in healthcare environments that express sustainable theories and practices. This has given rise to a systematic system for promoting and assessing the energy performance and efficiency of healthcare facilities known as Leadership in Energy Efficient Environmental Design (LEED), and a parallel certification program, the Green Guide for Heath Care. These developments are examined in direct relation to the functions of managerial ethics. A series of ten sustainability-based ethical dilemmas are presented. Each is examined in relation to the need to inculcate in future healthcare administrators a critical understanding and appreciation of the need to reposition contemporary healthcare organizations at the center--as leading civic participants and role models in relation to the emerging movement towards carbon neutrality in the healthcare industry. PMID:19655628

  1. Incorporating Environmental and Sustainability Issues into the Curriculum in a Mineralogy Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, G. W.

    2013-12-01

    A traditional curriculum in mineralogy addresses classic subject matter such as crystal chemistry, crystallography, systematic mineralogy and optical mineralogy. This is entirely reasonable and appropriate, as these time-honored aspects of mineralogy are fundamental to students' understanding of Earth Materials; they are also important building blocks for an understanding of other geologic disciplines such as petrology, structural geology, and sedimentology. Due to the impressive breadth and amount of subject material that is covered in most mineralogy courses, time constraints do not allow instructors to branch out into more contemporary subjects. In our increasingly technologically-advanced (and crowded) modern society, issues pertaining to the environment and sustainability are at the forefront of scientific thought. In many introductory physical geoscience courses these issues are addressed and incorporated into the curriculum, thereby giving students valuable scientific background in modern environmental issues. However, in upper division classes (such as mineralogy) there is little time or motivation for instructors to add new content or to connect the course content with current environmental or societal concerns, even though there may be significant and meaningful opportunities to do so throughout the quarter or semester. Consequently, many students' understanding of environmental issues remains at an introductory or cursory level. In my mineralogy class at the University of California San Diego (UCSD), I teach a traditional curriculum with a modern approach that uses dynamic lectures, makes use of multimedia, and also utilizes current best teaching practices. As a department, we have recently made an increased effort to educate our students about environmental issues. Accordingly, I have integrated environmental and sustainability topics (when they are pertinent) into the curriculum as a regular component of the course. These topics typically relate to how

  2. How does consumer knowledge affect environmentally sustainable choices? Evidence from a cross-country latent class analysis of food labels.

    PubMed

    Peschel, Anne O; Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele

    2016-11-01

    This paper examines consumers' knowledge and lifestyle profiles and preferences regarding two environmentally labeled food staples, potatoes and ground beef. Data from online choice experiments conducted in Canada and Germany are analyzed through latent class choice modeling to identify the influence of consumer knowledge (subjective and objective knowledge as well as usage experience) on environmentally sustainable choices. We find that irrespective of product or country under investigation, high subjective and objective knowledge levels drive environmentally sustainable food choices. Subjective knowledge was found to be more important in this context. Usage experience had relatively little impact on environmentally sustainable choices. Our results suggest that about 20% of consumers in both countries are ready to adopt footprint labels in their food choices. Another 10-20% could be targeted by enhancing subjective knowledge, for example through targeted marketing campaigns. PMID:26944229

  3. Educational Reflections on the ``Ecological Crisis'': EcoJustice, Environmentalism, and Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2009-08-01

    There is a tendency by scholars arguing for a more just and sustainable future to position the “ecological crisis” as a fundamental reason for major educational reforms. Relying on crisis-talk to fuel social and environmental justice and environmentalism reinforces the thinking of the past, which inadvertently perpetuates the acceptance of present cultural attitudes which frame our relationships with others and the natural world. To evaluate previous cultural thinking and associated traditions of Euro-West society, Chet Bowers asserts that we ought to analyze how assumptions are carried forward as metaphors, which are associated with attitudes towards science, technology, and nature. This pedagogy is called ecojustice education and serves to conserve and sustain cultural diversity and the biodiversity of Earth’s ecosystems, which are threatened and vulnerable. But, also carried forward in the language of ecojustice philosophy (and other ecological works) is a presumption that feeds into scientifically proving that a crisis exists, which is associated with organizing schools around an implicit shock doctrine of fear and urgency. This paper explores these assumptions and others associated with a supposition of ecological crisis. The ecological crisis has the potential to marginalize many diverse people who are needed during these times of increasing ecological awareness and uncertainties. Situating education (and the world) in the frenzy associated with crisis, versus the assertion that schools should increase awareness around the belief that a more sustainable lifestyle is beneficial for the individual, the community and the environment is a worthwhile debate and is rich with respect to research opportunities in education.

  4. Integrating Climate Change Science and Sustainability in Environmental Science, Sociology, Philosophy and Business Courses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Cantzler, J.; Croom, S.; Huston, C.; Woods, M.

    2015-12-01

    Courses on sustainability can be taught from multiple perspectives with some focused on specific areas (environmental, socio-cultural, economic, ethics) and others taking a more integrated approach across areas of sustainability and academic disciplines. In conjunction with the Climate Change Education Program efforts to enhance climate change literacy with innovative approaches, resources and communication strategies developed by Climate Education Partners were used in two distinct ways to integrate climate change science and impacts into undergraduate and graduate level courses. At the graduate level, the first lecture in the MBA program in Sustainable Supply Chain Management is entirely dedicated to climate change science, local and global impacts and discussions about key messages to communicate to the business community. Basic science concepts are integrated with discussions about mitigation and adaptation focused on business leaders. The concepts learned are then applied to the semester-long business plan project for the students. At the undergraduate level, a new model of comprehensive integration across disciplines was implemented in Spring 2015 across three courses on Sustainability each with a specific lens: Natural Science, Sociology and Philosophy. All three courses used climate change as the 'big picture' framing concept and had similar learning objectives creating a framework where lens-specific topics, focusing on depth in a discipline, were balanced with integrated exercises across disciplines providing breadth and possibilities for integration. The comprehensive integration project was the creation of the climate action plan for the university with each team focused on key areas of action (water, energy, transportation, etc.) and each team built with at least one member from each class ensuring a natural science, sociological and philosophical perspective. The final project was presented orally to all three classes and an integrated paper included

  5. Sustain

    2013-08-20

    Current building energy simulation technology requires excessive labor, time and expertise to create building energy models, excessive computational time for accurate simulations and difficulties with the interpretation of the results. These deficiencies can be ameliorated using modern graphical user interfaces and algorithms which take advantage of modern computer architectures and display capabilities. To prove this hypothesis, we developed an experimental test bed for building energy simulation. This novel test bed environment offers an easy-to-use interactivemore » graphical interface, provides access to innovative simulation modules that run at accelerated computational speeds, and presents new graphics visualization methods to interpret simulation results. Our system offers the promise of dramatic ease of use in comparison with currently available building energy simulation tools. Its modular structure makes it suitable for early stage building design, as a research platform for the investigation of new simulation methods, and as a tool for teaching concepts of sustainable design. Improvements in the accuracy and execution speed of many of the simulation modules are based on the modification of advanced computer graphics rendering algorithms. Significant performance improvements are demonstrated in several computationally expensive energy simulation modules. The incorporation of these modern graphical techniques should advance the state of the art in the domain of whole building energy analysis and building performance simulation, particularly at the conceptual design stage when decisions have the greatest impact. More importantly, these better simulation tools will enable the transition from prescriptive to performative energy codes, resulting in better, more efficient designs for our future built environment.« less

  6. Sustainable water management practices and remote sensing.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s charge to protect human health and the environment requires a long-term commitment to creating sustainable solutions to environmental problems. The most direct way to ensure that management practices are achieving sustainability...

  7. Environmental dilemma game to establish a sustainable society dealing with an emergent value system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun

    2005-01-01

    To induce whether we can obtain a sustainable society by shifting our paradigm from the materialistic to the eco-conscientious, we established a multi-agent simulation model. The model primarily featured a dilemma structure encouraged by a conflict between each agent's private desire to earn more and the need for environmental conservation. Another important feature is that the model has two evolutionary layers. The subordinate layer is a learning system comprised of a finite state machine (FSM) and a genetic algorithm (GA) primarily, which is carried with each individual agent to determine his/her next behavior and how much he/she must earn to maximize an individual fitness function. The supra layer is the so-called value system, the gene pool of which is shared within the society. The value system stipulates an agent's fitness function, which in turn affects the agent's behavior. The value system of each agent was set up to be entirely ego-oriented at the beginning of the simulation episode. A numerical experiment based on the model reveals a scene in which, under a certain condition related to assumptions of the value system, a group of agents undergoes a paradigm shift from the ego-oriented materialism to the eco-conscious sustainable society. The key condition is a latent existence of several values that ultimately lead to sustainability, even though they do not work at all at the beginning of the episode. In terms of the evolutionary game theory, this implies that changing game structure on the way of a simulation episode by transforming the fitness function seems to be much powerful measures for the emergent collective cooperation among the agents than ordinal options to support cooperation. In addition, we made a detailed analysis on how assumed agents have obtained a sustainable value system. Each agent has an individual decision-making process based on the input with a learning mechanism. We focus here on two types of learning system, the finite state

  8. The environmental sustainability of sugarcane cultivation under scenarios of climate change: case studies for Brazil and Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, E.; Vidale, P. L.; Verhoef, A.; Cuadro, S. V.

    2012-04-01

    Over the next decades increasing oil and carbon prices will lead to a proliferation of energy crop cultivation initiatives. Many of these will be based in developing countries, and hence will affect some of the poorest people in the world. The capacity of such initiatives to alleviate poverty in the long term depends on their environmental sustainability. Specifically, the exploitation of water resources in an unsustainable manner may permanently damage vulnerable ecosystems and ultimately deepen poverty. These issues have motivated a collaborative project - Integrated Carbon, Water and Land Management for Poverty Alleviation (ICWALPA), which asks whether the export of bio-fuel technology from Brazil to Ghana will alleviate poverty. This presentation will describe the initial results from ICWALPA - including the development of an integrated environmental modelling framework and its application to sugarcane cultivation under scenarios of climate change. The environmental model used to represent the biophysical interactions is process-based and implemented in the framework of the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES). Crop growth is predicted dynamically by accumulating the carbon assimilated during photosynthesis and is then allocated according to well-established allometric principles. Two contrasting case studies will be presented: the Sao Paulo region of Brazil (where there is an established sugarcane industry) and the Daka River region of Ghana (where commercial sugarcane cultivation is planned). We show that our model is capable of reproducing both the spatial and temporal variability in sugarcane yield for the Sao Paulo province of Brazil - lending credence to the projections for Ghana. For Ghana, we show that, providing there is sufficient irrigation, it is possible to generate approximately 75% of the yield achieved in the Sao Paulo province. In the final part of the study, the behaviour of sugarcane under an idealized climate change scenario is

  9. ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN PROCESS RESEARCH: LINKING USEPA CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN AND SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest in sustainability has increased dramatically over the last decade. Declarations have been made on what sustainable development is: meeting today's needs without compromising future needs (Brundtland, 1987). Others have focused on what sustainability means in terms of s...

  10. Challenges and Opportunities for Urban Environmental Health and Sustainability: the HEALTHY-POLIS initiative.

    PubMed

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dear, Keith; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Cities around the world face many environmental health challenges including contamination of air, water and soil, traffic congestion and noise, and poor housing conditions exacerbated by unsustainable urban development and climate change. Integrated assessment of these risks offers opportunities for holistic, low carbon solutions in the urban environment that can bring multiple benefits for public health. The Healthy-Polis consortium aims to protect and promote urban health through multi-disciplinary, policy-relevant research on urban environmental health and sustainability. We are doing this by promoting improved methods of health risk assessment, facilitating international collaboration, contributing to the training of research scientists and students, and engaging with key stakeholders in government, local authorities, international organisations, industry and academia. A major focus of the consortium is to promote and support international research projects coordinated between two or more countries. The disciplinary areas represented in the consortium are many and varied, including environmental epidemiology, modelling and exposure assessment, system dynamics, health impact assessment, multi-criteria decision analysis, and other quantitative and qualitative approaches. This Healthy-Polis special issue presents a range of case studies and reviews that illustrate the need for a systems-based understanding of the urban environment. PMID:26960714

  11. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

    2002-01-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable. PMID:12003747

  12. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    PubMed

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

    2002-05-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable. PMID:12003747

  13. The Water Footprint as an indicator of environmental sustainability in water use at the river basin level.

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Martínez, Francisco; Martínez-Paz, José Miguel

    2016-11-15

    One of the main challenges in water management is to determine how the current water use can condition its availability to future generations and hence its sustainability. This study proposes the use of the Water Footprint (WF) indicator to assess the environmental sustainability in water resources management at the river basin level. The current study presents the methodology developed and applies it to a case study. The WF is a relatively new indicator that measures the total volume of freshwater that is used as a production factor. Its application is ever growing in the evaluation of water use in production processes. The calculation of the WF involves water resources (blue), precipitation stored in the soil (green) and pollution (grey). It provides a comprehensive assessment of the environmental sustainability of water use in a river basin. The methodology is based upon the simulation of the anthropised water cycle, which is conducted by combining a hydrological model and a decision support system. The methodology allows the assessment of the environmental sustainability of water management at different levels, and/or ex-ante analysis of how the decisions made in water planning process affect sustainability. The sustainability study was carried out in the Segura River Basin (SRB) in South-eastern Spain. The SRB is among the most complex basins in Europe, given its special peculiarities: competition for the use, overexploitation of aquifers, pollution, alternative sources, among others. The results indicate that blue water use is not sustainable due to the generalised overexploitation of aquifers. They also reveal that surface water pollution, which is not sustainable, is mainly caused by phosphate concentrations. The assessment of future scenarios reveals that these problems will worsen if no additional measures are implemented, and therefore the water management in the SRB is environmentally unsustainable in both the short- and medium-term. PMID:27405519

  14. Revisiting the association between reading achievement and antisocial behavior: new evidence of an environmental explanation from a twin study.

    PubMed

    Trzesniewski, Kali H; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Taylor, Alan; Maughan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have reported, but not explained, the reason for a robust association between reading achievement and antisocial behavior. This association was investigated using the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative 1994-1995 birth cohort of 5- and 7-year-olds. Results showed that the association resulted primarily from environmental factors common to both reading and antisocial behavior and was stronger in boys. Environmental factors also explained the relation between reading disability and conduct disorder. Leading candidate environmental risk factors weakly mediated the association. For boys the best explanation was a reciprocal causation model: poor reading led to antisocial behavior, and vice versa. In contrast, the relation between reading achievement and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was best explained by common genetic influences. PMID:16460526

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE. Profiling risk and sustainability in coastal deltas of the world.

    PubMed

    Tessler, Z D; Vörösmarty, C J; Grossberg, M; Gladkova, I; Aizenman, H; Syvitski, J P M; Foufoula-Georgiou, E

    2015-08-01

    Deltas are highly sensitive to increasing risks arising from local human activities, land subsidence, regional water management, global sea-level rise, and climate extremes. We quantified changing flood risk due to extreme events using an integrated set of global environmental, geophysical, and social indicators. Although risks are distributed across all levels of economic development, wealthy countries effectively limit their present-day threat by gross domestic product-enabled infrastructure and coastal defense investments. In an energy-constrained future, such protections will probably prove to be unsustainable, raising relative risks by four to eight times in the Mississippi and Rhine deltas and by one-and-a-half to four times in the Chao Phraya and Yangtze deltas. The current emphasis on short-term solutions for the world's deltas will greatly constrain options for designing sustainable solutions in the long term. PMID:26250684

  16. Environmental management systems as sustainable tools in the way of life for the SMEs and VSMEs.

    PubMed

    Zorpas, Antonis

    2010-03-01

    Small medium enterprises (SMEs) and very small medium enterprises (VSMEs) are the economic backbone of the most economies in Europe. Those VSMEs have mono-service or product, they feel economic pressure, they sell to the local market, they are family traditions and they are informal organizations, they have very "low management", they have employees from different nationalities, they have little access to adult training and to the new requirements of the market, they do not federate and they produce high amount of waste. The research question of our study was: why do SMEs build up environmental management systems (EMS)? This paper presents the need for the implementation of the EMS as a sustainable tool in order to monitor the production of the waste from SMEs and VSMEs. The paper presents benefits, disadvantages, motivation, differences from the international literature in order to present the necessity for the implementation of the EMS. PMID:19906527

  17. The environmental sustainability of microalgae as feed for aquaculture: a life cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Taelman, S E; De Meester, S; Roef, L; Michiels, M; Dewulf, J

    2013-12-01

    The environmental sustainability of microalgae production for aquaculture purposes was analyzed using exergy analysis (EA) and life cycle assessment (LCA). A production process (pilot 2012, 240 m(2)) was assessed and compared with two upscaling scenarios (pilot 2013, 1320 m(2) and first production scale 2015, 2.5 ha). The EA at process level revealed that drying and cultivation had the lowest efficiencies. The LCA showed an improvement in resource efficiency after upscaling: 55.5 MJ(ex,CEENE)/MJ(ex) DW biomass was extracted from nature in 2012, which was reduced to 21.6 and 2.46 MJ(ex,CEENE)/MJ(ex) DW in the hypothetical 2013 and 2015 scenarios, respectively. Upscaling caused the carbon footprint to decline by factor 20 (0.09 kg CO2,eq/MJ(ex) DW in 2015). In the upscaling scenarios, microalgae production for aquaculture purposes appeared to be more sustainable in resource use than a reference fish feed (7.70 MJ(ex,CEENE) and 0.05 kg CO2,eq per MJ(ex) DW). PMID:24012094

  18. Economic transition and environmental sustainability: effects of economic restructuring on air pollution in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Cherp, Aleg; Kopteva, Irina; Mnatsakanian, Ruben

    2003-06-01

    Economic liberalization in former socialist countries may have various implications for their environmental sustainability. Positive effects of this process are potentially associated with improved efficiency, investments into cleaner technologies, responsiveness to environmentally aware markets, and ending subsidies to heavy industries. On the other hand, market liberalization may result in weaker environmental controls, economic instabilities distracting attention from environmental issues, and increasing orientation towards profit-making leading to more intensive exploitation of natural resources. In addition, trade liberalization may result in shifts towards more pollution and resource-intensive industries. This article seeks to quantify effects of economic restructuring in Russia on air pollution from productive economic sectors in the 1990s. Air pollution in Russia had significantly declined in 1991-1999, however, this decline was largely due to economic decline, as the overall pollution intensity of the economy had decreased only slightly. The factors that affected the pollution intensity are: (1) a decrease in the combined share of industrial and transport activities in the economy and (2) changing pollution intensities of the industrial and transport sectors. The pollution intensity of the Russian industry had remained relatively stable during the 1990s. This was the result of the two opposite and mutually canceling trends: (a) increasing shares of pollution-intensive branches such as metal smelting and oil production vs. less pollution intensive manufacturing and (b) decline in pollution intensities within the industrial branches. The article proposes a methodology by which the contribution of both factors to the overall pollution intensity of the industrial sector can be quantified. The pollution intensity of the Russian transport sector appears to have declined in the first half of the 1990s and increased in the second half. The most recent trend can be

  19. Heritability and Educational Policy: Genetic and Environmental Effects on IQ, Aptitude and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarr, Sandra

    The effects of family background on adolescents' IQ, aptitude, and school achievement test scores challenge some of the usual beliefs about the fairness of achievement rather than IQ tests, and the role of genetic differences among individuals and social class groups in academic achievements. Subjects included 115 adoptive families with adolescent…

  20. The Implementation of Environmental Management towards Sustainable Universities and Education for Sustainable Development as an Ethical Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaides, Angelo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To show that the practices, processes and resources for the management of the university environment should be aligned to meet the ever-growing demands of sustainability and its motivations should be clearly spelt out to all stakeholders. Universities should also strive to become leaders in the development of effective environmental…

  1. Institutional Incorporation of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) in Residency Training: Achieving a Sustainable Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Denise M.; McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda; Brown, Fannie D.; Newton, Robin; Marshall, Vanessa J.; Kalu, Nnenna; Cain, Gloria E.; Taylor, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The success of implementing a screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) program within a medical residency program for sustainability is contingent upon a well-crafted training curriculum that incorporates substance abuse education and clinical practice skills. The goal of the Howard University (HU) SBIRT program is to train…

  2. Evaluating National Environmental Sustainability: Performance Measures and Influential Factors for OECD-Member Countries featuring Canadian Performance and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbick, Kenneth S.

    This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another policy measure.); analyses factors that seem to influence performance: climate, population growth, population density, economic output, technological development, industrial structure, energy prices, environmental governance, pollution abatement and control expenditures, and environmental pricing; and explores Canadian policy implications of the results. The techniques to build composite indices include performance indicator selection, missing data treatment, normalisation technique, scale-effect adjustments, weights, and aggregation method. Scale-effect adjustments and normalisation method are significant sources of uncertainty inducing 68% of the observed variation in a country's final rank at the 95% level of confidence. Choice of indicators also introduces substantial variation as well. To compensate for this variation, the current study recommends that a composite index should always be analysed with other policy subindices and individual indicators. Moreover, the connection between population and consumption indicates that per capita scale-effect adjustments should be used for certain indicators. Rather than ranking normalisation, studies should use a method that retains information from the raw indicator values. Multiple regression and cluster analyses indicate economic output, environmental governance, and energy prices are major influential factors, with energy prices the most important. It is statistically significant for five out of seven performance measures at the 95

  3. Environmental sustainability assessments of pharmaceuticals: an emerging need for simplification in life cycle assessments.

    PubMed

    De Soete, Wouter; Debaveye, Sam; De Meester, Steven; Van der Vorst, Geert; Aelterman, Wim; Heirman, Bert; Cappuyns, Philippe; Dewulf, Jo

    2014-10-21

    The pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries are eager to strive toward innovative products and technologies. This study first derives hotspots in resource consumption of 2839 Basic Operations in 40 Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient synthesis steps through Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment (ELCA). Second, since companies are increasingly obliged to quantify the environmental sustainability of their products, two alternative ways of simplifying (E)LCA are discussed. The usage of averaged product group values (R(2) = 3.40 × 10(-30)) is compared with multiple linear regression models (R(2) = 8.66 × 10(-01)) in order to estimate resource consumption of synthesis steps. An optimal set of predictor variables is postulated to balance model complexity and embedded information with usability and capability of merging models with existing Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) data systems. The amount of organic solvents used, molar efficiency, and duration of a synthesis step were shown to be the most significant predictor variables. Including additional predictor variables did not contribute to the predictive power and eventually weakens the model interpretation. Ideally, an organization should be able to derive its environmental impact from readily available ERP data, linking supply chains back to the cradle of resource extraction, excluding the need for an approximation with product group averages. PMID:25244162

  4. Multi-objective optimization of solid waste flows: environmentally sustainable strategies for municipalities.

    PubMed

    Minciardi, Riccardo; Paolucci, Massimo; Robba, Michela; Sacile, Roberto

    2008-11-01

    An approach to sustainable municipal solid waste (MSW) management is presented, with the aim of supporting the decision on the optimal flows of solid waste sent to landfill, recycling and different types of treatment plants, whose sizes are also decision variables. This problem is modeled with a non-linear, multi-objective formulation. Specifically, four objectives to be minimized have been taken into account, which are related to economic costs, unrecycled waste, sanitary landfill disposal and environmental impact (incinerator emissions). An interactive reference point procedure has been developed to support decision making; these methods are considered appropriate for multi-objective decision problems in environmental applications. In addition, interactive methods are generally preferred by decision makers as they can be directly involved in the various steps of the decision process. Some results deriving from the application of the proposed procedure are presented. The application of the procedure is exemplified by considering the interaction with two different decision makers who are assumed to be in charge of planning the MSW system in the municipality of Genova (Italy). PMID:18042369

  5. Environmental Assessment for Sustainability and Resiliency for Ecological and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Clarke, James; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention has been devoted to environmental assessment and monitoring, primarily by physical and biological scientists, and more recently by social scientists. However, population growth and global change have resulted in an imperative to assess the resiliency of the environment to adapt to large scale changes and to continue to produce goods and services for future generations (sustainability). Changing land use needs or expectations may require the remediation and restoration of degraded or contaminated land. This paper provides an overview of monitoring types, and discusses how indicators for the different monitoring types can be developed to address questions of ecological health, human health, and whether restoration and remediation are effective. We suggest that along with more traditional types of monitoring, agencies should consider recovery indicators or metrics, as well as resiliency metrics. We suggest that one goal of assessment should be to determine if management, remediation, restoration, and mitigation reduce recovery time, thus reducing community vulnerability and enhancing resiliency to environmental stressors and disasters. PMID:27468428

  6. Revisiting the Association between Reading Achievement and Antisocial Behavior: New Evidence of an Environmental Explanation from a Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Taylor, Alan; Maughan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have reported, but not explained, the reason for a robust association between reading achievement and antisocial behavior. This association was investigated using the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative 1994-1995 birth cohort of 5 and 7 year-olds. Results showed that the association…

  7. Effects of In-Service Training on Elementary Teachers Pertaining to Science Achievement and Attitudes Toward Environmental Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulleman, Harold Wayne

    The purpose of this study was to determine what changes, if any, occurred in the achievement and attitudes of elementary teachers following an inservice program in environmental science. The personal and academic characteristics of grade level assignment, age, experience, and formal science training were obtained for each of the 25 experimental…

  8. Effects of Science Interest and Environmental Responsibility on Science Aspiration and Achievement: Gender Differences and Cultural Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Mei-Shiu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to investigate gender differences in the effects of science interest and environmental responsibility on science aspiration and achievement and (2) to explore the relations between cultural supports (macroeconomic and gender equality) and both boys' and girls' tendencies to integrate the aforementioned…

  9. The Effects of Sustained Classroom-Embedded Teacher Professional Learning on Teacher Efficacy and Related Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Catherine D.; Esmonde, Indigo; Ross, John; Dookie, Lesley; Beatty, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the impact of a classroom-embedded professional learning (PL) program for mathematics teaching in two contrasting districts in Canada, and investigates the relationship between teacher efficacy and student achievement. Before the PL, District A had lower teacher efficacy and student achievement than District B, but after the…

  10. Efforts to Empower Teachers in Ethiopia to Address Local Environmental Problems: Achievements and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalelo, Aklilu

    2009-01-01

    It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major…

  11. How Sustainable Is Government-Sponsored Desertification Rehabilitation in China? Behavior of Households to Changes in Environmental Policies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ning; Zhou, Lihua; Hauger, J. Scott

    2013-01-01

    This paper undertakes a direct, comprehensive assessment of the long-term sustainability of desertification rehabilitation in China under a plausible but worst case scenario where governmental interventions, in the form of payments for environmental services (PES), will cease. The analysis is based on household behavior as well as experimental data. Our econometric results highlight the main obstacles to the sustainability of rehabilitation programs subsequent to cessation of government intervention, including specific shortfalls in households’ preference for a free ride, budget constraints, attitudes, tolerance of and responsibility for desertification, and dissatisfaction with governmental actions. We conclude that desertification rehabilitation is not sustainable in China without continued governmental intervention. The results of this study are intended to support policy makers as they consider future directions for rehabilitation sustainability. PMID:24204849

  12. Environmental Issues and Sustainable Futures: A Critical Guide To Recent Books, Reports, and Periodicals. A "Future Survey" Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marien, Michael

    This guide seeks to sort the flood of information written about environmental issues and sustainable societies in recent years and order it in some way. A total of 450 document abstracts are presented here, most of which are on books and think tank reports. These items first appeared in "Future Survey" (journal) and were published between 1991 and…

  13. Using a Council of Beings to Ascertain Student Understanding of the Relationship between Sense-of-Place and Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogan, Margaret B.

    2012-01-01

    A modified J. Seed, Council of Beings is used to ascertain participants' understanding of their sense of place within the environment. Over the past 15 years, students in environmental education, teachers in-service programs or undergraduate face-to-face and Internet sustainability education courses have been exposed to pedagogy that leads to the…

  14. Analyzing the Environmental Impacts of Laptop Enclosures Using Screening-Level Life Cycle Assessment to Support Sustainable Consumer Electronics

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the ever-increasing amount of consumer electronics in service, it is essential industries and policy-makers work together to develop ways to manufacture more environmentally sustainable IT products which meet the needs of society. The objective of this study was to better un...

  15. EPA Growing DASEES (Decision Analysis For A Sustainable Environment, Economy & Society) - To Aid In Making Decisions On Complex Environmental Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Having a framework and tools to help sort through complicated environmental issues in an objective way would be useful to communities and risk managers, and all the stakeholders affected by these issues. This is one need that DASEES (Decision Analysis for a Sustainable En...

  16. Situated Environmental Learning in Southern Africa at the Start of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, Rob; Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

    2006-01-01

    Within the globalising trajectory of modernism, conservation, then environmental (EE) and now sustainability education (ESD) have each emerged as developing responses to risk produced by and in the modern state. Through adopting a long term process perspective, this paper narrates the emergence of situated learning perspectives and a developing…

  17. Livestock waste treatment systems of the future: A challenge to environmental quality, food safety, and sustainability. OECD Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This Special Issue of Bioresource Technology is dedicated to selected contributions presented at the international Workshop: “Livestock waste treatment systems of the future: A challenge to environmental quality, food safety, and sustainability,” held 2-4 April, 2008, in Florence, South Carolina (US...

  18. Mapping Research Activities and Technologies for Sustainability and Environmental Studies--A Case Study at University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hara, Keishiro; Uwasu, Michinori; Kurimoto, Shuji; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Umeda, Yasushi; Shimoda, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Systemic understanding of potential research activities and available technology seeds at university level is an essential condition to promote interdisciplinary and vision-driven collaboration in an attempt to cope with complex sustainability and environmental problems. Nonetheless, any such practices have been hardly conducted at universities…

  19. Education, Globalization and Sustainable Futures: Struggles Over Educational Aims and Purposes in a Period of Environmental and Ecological Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, R. V.; Papagiannis, George

    This study examines the advocacy of education for sustainability in a contemporary world driven by the powerful forces of globalization and development. A brief overview of the current ecological crisis in the world is presented, and concerns about environmental degradation, social injustice, and social inequalities are discussed. The vision of…

  20. Schooling and Environmental/Sustainability Education: From Discourses of Policy and Practice to Discourses of Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert B.

    2007-01-01

    The gap between policy rhetoric and school practices in environmental education has not only persisted but probably increased over the past twenty years, given the contested advent of education for sustainable development (ESD) as the dominant international policy discourse in this area, and an increased focus in schools on didactic teaching in…

  1. Tracking Dissipation Reduction, Externalities, Stability and Sustainability for Environmental Management of New Orleans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D.; Werner, B. T.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainability requires stability, but in promoting economic development, modern economies and political systems reduce stabilizing dissipation by facilitating use and management of the environment through engineered mitigation of disturbances, which externalizes dissipation over the short to medium term. To quantitatively investigate the relationship between a range of environmental management approaches and sustainability, and the implications for Earth's future, we track the impact of management strategies on dissipation within the system and its externalities in a numerical model for the coupled economic, political/management and flooding dynamics of New Orleans. The model simulates river floods, hurricane storm-surge-induced floods, subsidence, and agent-based market interactions leading to development of port services, hotels, homes and labor relations. Flood protection decisions for levee construction based on the baseline case of cost-benefit analyses designed to prevent short-term economic loss from future floods qualitatively reproduce historical expansion of New Orleans and increases in levee height. Alternative management strategies explored include majority voting, consensus-based decision-making, and variations in discounting of costs and benefits. Enhanced dissipation is measured relative to optimal economic development without floods. The focus of modern economies on commodification is exploited to track dissipation as a scalar representing value or power, but this approach might not be applicable to more complicated traditional/indigenous cultures or cultures of resistance. For the baseline case, short-to-medium-term reductions in dissipation destabilize the coupled system, resulting in episodic bursts of externalized dissipation during flooding. Comparisons of results for a range of management options and generalizations of this approach for alternative cultural systems will be discussed.

  2. Integrating Environmental Sustainability Considerations into Food and Nutrition Policies: Insights from Australia's National Food Plan.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, Ella Megan; Lawrence, Mark Andrew; Woods, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sustainability (ES) of food systems is a critical challenge for policy makers. This is a highly contested policy area with differing views among stakeholders. The aim of the study was to develop a better understanding of how ES considerations are addressed in Australian food and nutrition policies and the way that consultation processes affect final policy outcomes. A mixed-methods study design combined a detailed chronology of key policy developments (2009-2015), a content analysis of written submissions obtained during the NFP's consultation period (2011-2013) and a frame analysis of the sustainability perspectives - efficiency, demand restraint, and system transformation - in the NFP's Issues, Green, and White Papers. There were 555 written submissions responding to two consultation papers. Stakeholders represented all sectors of Australia's food system including government, non-government organizations, the food supply chain, research and academic institutions, and members of the general public. Around 74% of submissions referred to ES considerations and ~65% supported their inclusion into the final policy. Efficiency frames were most dominant; emphasizing a production-oriented approach that regards the environment as a natural resource base for food production but overlooks consumption and equity concerns. Despite strong support for the inclusion of ES considerations in the NFP, the influence of Australia's socio-political context, powerful, industry-dominated stakeholders, and a reliance on traditional production-oriented perspectives delivered a business-as-usual approach to food policy making. It has since been replaced by an agricultural strategy that provides only cursory attention to ES. Our findings indicate that Australia's political environment is not sufficiently mature for ES considerations to be integrated into food and nutrition policies. We propose reforms to the current consultation process in Australia to better support this

  3. Do Community Based Initiatives foster sustainability transitions? Towards a unique Environmental Impact Assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martellozzo, Federico; Hendrickson, Cary; Gozdowska, Iga; Groß, Helge; Henderson, Charles; Reusser, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    The active participation in Community Based Initiatives (CBI) is a spreading phenomenon that has reached a significant magnitude and - in some cases - CBIs are also supposed to have catalysed social and technological innovation, thus contributing to global transition into low-carbon economy. Generally speaking, CBIs are grassroots initiatives with broad sustainability foci that promote a plethora of activities such as alternative transportation, urban gardening, renewable energy implementation, waste regeneration/reduction, etc. Some advocate that such practices fostered by bottom-up activities, rather than top-down policies, represent a proficient countermeasure to alleviate global environmental change and effectively foster a societal transition towards sustainability. However, thus far most empirical research grounds mainly on anecdotal evidence and little work has been done to quantitatively assess CBIs' "environmental impacts" (EI) or their carbon footprints using comparative methodologies. This research main aim is to frame a methodology to assess univocally CBIs' EIs which are crucial to understanding their role in societal sustainability transition. However, to do so, three main caveats need to be addressed: first, some CBIs do not directly produce tangible measurable outputs, nor have an intelligibly defined set of inputs (e.g. CBIs focusing on environmental education and awareness rising). Thus, calculating their "indirect" EI may represent an intricate puzzle that is very much open to subjective interpretation. Second, CBIs' practices are heterogenic and therefore existing methodologies to make comparisons of their EIs are neither straightforward nor proficient, also given the lack of available data. Third, another issue closely related to the one previously mentioned, is a general lack of consensus among already existing impact-assessment frameworks for certain practices (e.g. composting). A potential way of estimating a CBI's EI is a standard Carbon

  4. Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-04-01

    low-carbon energy is considered cheap enough to replace fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is one such bridging technology (1). CCS has been the focus of an increasing amount of research over the last 15-20 years and is the subject of a comprehensive IPCC report that thoroughly covers the subject (1). CCS is currently being carried out in several countries around the world in conjunction with natural gas extraction (e.g., 2, 3) and enhanced oil recovery (17). Despite this progress, widespread deployment of CCS remains the subject of research and future plans rather than present action on the scale needed to mitigate emissions from the perspective of climate change. The reasons for delay in deploying CCS more widely are concerns about cost (18), regulatory and legal uncertainty (19), and potential environmental impacts (21). This chapter discusses the long-term (decadal) sustainability and environmental hazards associated with the geologic CO{sub 2} storage (GCS) component of large-scale CCS (e.g., 20). Discussion here barely touches on capture and transport of CO{sub 2} which will occur above ground and which are similar to existing engineering, chemical processing, and pipeline transport activities and are therefore easier to evaluate with respect to risk assessment and feasibility. The focus of this chapter is on the more uncertain part of CCS, namely geologic storage. The primary concern for sustainability of GCS is whether there is sufficient capacity in sedimentary basins worldwide to contain the large of amounts of CO{sub 2} needed to address climate change. But there is also a link between sustainability and environmental impacts. Specifically, if GCS is found to cause unacceptable impacts that are considered worse than its climate-change mitigation benefits, the approach will not be widely adopted. Hence, GCS has elements of sustainability insofar as capacity of the subsurface for CO{sub 2} is concerned, and also in terms of whether the

  5. Recent Developments in the Application of Fisher Information to Sustainable Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing sustainability in human and natural systems is often hampered by complex dynamics, timescales, and inherent linkages among the observable properties. Although many indicators have been identified that help classify trends indicating movement toward and away from sustain...

  6. Can Novel Management Practice Improve Soil and Environmental Quality and Sustain Crop Yield Simultaneously?

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about management practices that can simultaneously improve soil and environmental quality and sustain crop yields. The effects of novel and traditional management practices that included a combination of tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on soil C and N, global warming potential (GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), and malt barley (Hordeum vulgarie L.) yield and quality were examined under non-irrigated and irrigated cropping systems from 2008 to 2011 in eastern Montana and western North Dakota, USA. In loamy soil under non-irrigated condition in eastern Montana, novel and traditional management practices were no-till malt barley-pea (Pisum sativum L.) with 80 kg N ha(-1) and conventional till malt barley-fallow with 80 kg N ha(-1), respectively. In sandy loam soil under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions in western North Dakota, novel and traditional management practices included no-till malt barley-pea with 67 (non-irrigated) to 134 kg N ha(-1) (irrigated) and conventional till malt barley with 67 (non-irrigated) to 134 kg N ha(-1) (irrigated), respectively. Compared with the traditional management practice, soil organic C (SOC) and total N (STN) at 0-120 cm were 5% greater with the novel management practice under non-irrigated condition in eastern Montana and under irrigated condition in western North Dakota, but were not different under non-irrigated condition in western North Dakota. In both places under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, total applied N rate, residual soil NO3-N content at 0-120 cm, global warming potential (GWP), and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) were 15 to 70% lower with the novel than the traditional management practice. Malt barley yield and quality were not different between the two practices in both places. Novel management practices, such as no-till malt barley-pea with reduced N rate, can simultaneously enhance soil and environmental quality, reduce N input, and sustain crop yield compared with

  7. Can Novel Management Practice Improve Soil and Environmental Quality and Sustain Crop Yield Simultaneously?

    PubMed Central

    Sainju, Upendra M.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about management practices that can simultaneously improve soil and environmental quality and sustain crop yields. The effects of novel and traditional management practices that included a combination of tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on soil C and N, global warming potential (GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), and malt barley (Hordeum vulgarie L.) yield and quality were examined under non-irrigated and irrigated cropping systems from 2008 to 2011 in eastern Montana and western North Dakota, USA. In loamy soil under non-irrigated condition in eastern Montana, novel and traditional management practices were no-till malt barley-pea (Pisum sativum L.) with 80 kg N ha-1 and conventional till malt barley-fallow with 80 kg N ha-1, respectively. In sandy loam soil under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions in western North Dakota, novel and traditional management practices included no-till malt barley-pea with 67 (non-irrigated) to 134 kg N ha-1 (irrigated) and conventional till malt barley with 67 (non-irrigated) to 134 kg N ha-1 (irrigated), respectively. Compared with the traditional management practice, soil organic C (SOC) and total N (STN) at 0–120 cm were 5% greater with the novel management practice under non-irrigated condition in eastern Montana and under irrigated condition in western North Dakota, but were not different under non-irrigated condition in western North Dakota. In both places under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, total applied N rate, residual soil NO3-N content at 0–120 cm, global warming potential (GWP), and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) were 15 to 70% lower with the novel than the traditional management practice. Malt barley yield and quality were not different between the two practices in both places. Novel management practices, such as no-till malt barley-pea with reduced N rate, can simultaneously enhance soil and environmental quality, reduce N input, and sustain crop yield compared with

  8. Sustainable energy for all. Technical report of task force 1 in support of the objective to achieve universal access to modern energy services by 2030

    SciTech Connect

    Birol, Fatih

    2012-04-15

    The UN Secretary General established the Sustainable Energy for All initiative in order to guide and support efforts to achieve universal access to modern energy, rapidly increase energy efficiency, and expand the use of renewable energies. Task forces were formed involving prominent energy leaders and experts from business, government, academia and civil society worldwide. The goal of the Task Forces is to inform the implementation of the initiative by identifying challenges and opportunities for achieving its objectives. This report contains the findings of Task Force One which is dedicated to the objective of achieving universal access to modern energy services by 2030. The report shows that universal energy access can be realized by 2030 with strong, focused actions set within a coordinated framework.

  9. Integrating Omic Technologies into Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment and Environmental Monitoring: Hurdles, Achievements and Future Outlook

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In this commentary we present the findings from an international consortium on fish toxicogenomics sponsored by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) with a remit of moving omic technologies into chemical risk assessment and environmental monitoring. Obj...

  10. Integrating Omic Technologies into Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment and Environmental Monitoring: Hurdles, Achievements and Future Outlook

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this commentary we present the findings from an international consortium on fish toxicogenomics sponsored by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) with an objective of moving omic technologies into chemical risk assessment and environmental monitoring. Objectiv...

  11. Environmental health in China: challenges to achieving clean air and safe water

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Mauzerall, Denise L.; Zhu, Tong; Liang, Song; Ezzati, Majid; Remais, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The health effects of environmental risks, especially those of air and water pollution, remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are routinely burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and santiation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions remains high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrializing with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. While economic growth resulting from industrialization has improved health and quality of life indicators in China, it has also increased the incidence of environmental disasters and the release of chemical toxins into the environment, with severe impacts on health. Air quality in China's cities is among the worst in the world and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify China's environmental health problems, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental problems, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. China has the opportunity to both address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment. PMID:20346817

  12. Developing a sustainable satellite-based environmental monitoring system In Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinyede, J. O.; Adepoju, K. A.; Akinluyi, F. O.; Anifowose, A. Y. B.

    2015-10-01

    Increased anthropogenic activities over the year have remained a major factor of the Earth changing environment. This phenomenon has given rise to a number of environmental degraded sites that characterize the Nigeria's landscape. The human-induced elements include gully erosion, mangrove ecosystems degradation, desertification and deforestation, particularly in the south east, Niger Delta, north east and south west of Nigeria respectively, as well as river flooding/flood plain inundation and land degradation around Kainji lake area. Because of little or no effective management measures, the attendant environmental hazards have been extremely damaging to the infrastructures and socio-economic development of the affected area. Hence, a concerted effort, through integrated and space-based research, is being intensified to manage and monitor the environment in order to restore the stability, goods and services of the environment. This has justified Nigeria's investment in its space programme, especially the launch of NigeriaSat-1, an Earth observation micro-satellite in constellation with five (5) other similar satellites, Alsat-1, China DMC, Bilsat-1, DEMOS and UK DMC belonging to Algeria, China, Turkey, Spain and United Kingdom respectively. The use of data from these satellites, particularly NigeriaSat-1, in conjunction with associated technologies has proved to be very useful in understanding the influence of both natural and human activities on the Nigeria's ecosystems and environment. The results of some researches on specific applications of Nigerian satellites are presented in this paper. Appropriate sustainable land and water resources management in the affected areas, based on Nigeria's satellite data capture and integration, are also discussed.

  13. [Solid urban waste: socio-environmental impacts and prospects for sustainable management with social inclusion].

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2012-06-01

    Strategies to reconcile development with the protection of ecosystems will yet again be discussed at the forthcoming Rio +20 Summit. The management of solid urban waste is an issue which has barely been touched upon in such discussions. Given the institutionalization of the National Solid Waste Policy, this paper seeks to contribute to this debate and to single out alternatives to tackle this issue with an emphasis on social inclusion. For this purpose, specialized scientific literature was consulted as well as information on solid waste management. It is clearly seen that inadequate management of solid waste has immediate impacts on the environment and health, and contributes to climate change. Considering the limitations of the current options for waste disposal, it is essential to minimize the quantities produced by reducing, reusing and recycling. In this context, the role of independent waste gatherers who have been conducting work of great environmental importance is highlighted. Given the vulnerabilities of this population, it is necessary to devise public policies to ensure that waste gathering is a more respected and less risky activity that guarantees an income, so as to move towards more healthy, equitable and sustainable development. PMID:22699641

  14. An Exploration of Scenarios to Support Sustainable Land Management Using Integrated Environmental Socio-economic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleskens, L.; Nainggolan, D.; Stringer, L. C.

    2014-11-01

    Scenario analysis constitutes a valuable deployment method for scientific models to inform environmental decision-making, particularly for evaluating land degradation mitigation options, which are rarely based on formal analysis. In this paper we demonstrate such an assessment using the PESERA-DESMICE modeling framework with various scenarios for 13 global land degradation hotspots. Starting with an initial assessment representing land degradation and productivity under current conditions, options to combat instances of land degradation are explored by determining: (1) Which technologies are most biophysically appropriate and most financially viable in which locations; we term these the "technology scenarios"; (2) how policy instruments such as subsidies influence upfront investment requirements and financial viability and how they lead to reduced levels of land degradation; we term these the "policy scenarios"; and (3) how technology adoption affects development issues such as food production and livelihoods; we term these the "global scenarios". Technology scenarios help choose the best technology for a given area in biophysical and financial terms, thereby outlining where policy support may be needed to promote adoption; policy scenarios assess whether a policy alternative leads to a greater extent of technology adoption; while global scenarios demonstrate how implementing technologies may serve wider sustainable development goals. Scenarios are applied to assess spatial variation within study sites as well as to compare across different sites. Our results show significant scope to combat land degradation and raise agricultural productivity at moderate cost. We conclude that scenario assessment can provide informative input to multi-level land management decision-making processes.

  15. Water quality management and sustainability: the experience of Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project (LVEMP)??Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machiwa, Praxeda K.

    Human health and development are threatened in many parts of the world either from lack of water or poor water quality. Human development has partially contributed to water quality deterioration. In Tanzania, for instance, rapid population growth that caused expansion of agricultural activities, livestock keeping, deforestation, biomass burning and human settlement have exerted pressures within the Lake Victoria Basin. These developments have led to land degradation and increased levels of pollution mainly from non-point sources. The Governments of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda initiated the program of Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project, (LVEMP), in 1994 to rehabilitate the Lake Ecosystem through restoration and conservation of biodiversity in the lake as well as within the catchment. This paper presents the five years (1997-2002) experience of LVEMP in Tanzania on the issues of water quality; focusing on water pollution, water quality monitoring and LVEMP strategies to accomplish water quality management in the Lake Zone (Kagera, Mara and Mwanza regions). The findings show that non-point source pollution from agricultural practices; as well as unplanned urban settlements contribute more to siltation and eutrophication of the of Lake Victoria than that from point source pollution. Recommendations for water quality management and sustainability are presented.

  16. USING A LIFE-CYCLE APPROACH TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABLE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a computer-based decision support tool that has been developed to assist local governments in evaluating the cost and environmental performance of integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) managment systems. ongoing case studies of the tool at the local level are...

  17. Taiwanese students' scientific attitudes, environmental perceptions, self-efficacy, and achievement in microbiology courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jing-Jin

    One of the important aims of science education is to teach science for every one and to create scientifically literate citizens. In order to become more cognizant of students in the science classroom to better prepare students for an increasingly complex modern society, the study assessed students' science attitudes, science laboratory environment perceptions, self-efficacy in microbiology, and achievement to determine the differences based on gender, knowledge background, enrollment status, and the duration of learning background. Also, the relationships among students' scientific attitudes, perceptions of science laboratory environment, self-efficacy, and achievement were explored. The population for this study included 442 students who took microbiology course at CHCMT in Taiwan. The instruments for data collecting include scientific attitudes inventory, laboratory environment inventory, and self-efficacy inventory for microbiology. A series of t tests and one-way ANOVA, correlation, multiply regression, and path analysis are conducted for data analysis. The results reveal that students' scientific attitude is the only significant factor that affects attitudes. Students' perceptions of the laboratory environment first influenced self-efficacy and attitudes, and then affected achievement. Gender influences students' perceptions of the laboratory environment and self-efficacy. Knowledge background can cause differences in students' scientific attitudes. The duration of students' learning in science can influence students' perceptions of the laboratory environment and achievement. Enrollment status makes a difference in students' scientific attitudes, laboratory environment perceptions, and achievement.

  18. Assessing the environmental sustainability of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in the UK.

    PubMed

    Jeswani, H K; Azapagic, A

    2016-04-01

    Even though landfilling of waste is the least favourable option in the waste management hierarchy, the majority of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many countries is still landfilled. This represents waste of valuable resources and could lead to higher environmental impacts compared to energy recovered by incineration, even if the landfill gas is recovered. Using life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool, this paper aims to find out which of the following two options for MSW disposal is more environmentally sustainable: incineration or recovery of biogas from landfills, each producing either electricity or co-generating heat and electricity. The systems are compared on a life cycle basis for two functional units: 'disposal of 1 tonne of MSW' and 'generation of 1 kWh of electricity'. The results indicate that, if both systems are credited for their respective recovered energy and recyclable materials, energy from incineration has much lower impacts than from landfill biogas across all impact categories, except for human toxicity. The impacts of incineration co-generating heat and electricity are negative for nine out of 11 categories as the avoided impacts for the recovered energy and materials are higher than those caused by incineration. By improving the recovery rate of biogas, some impacts of landfilling, such as global warming, depletion of fossil resources, acidification and photochemical smog, would be significantly reduced. However, most impacts of the landfill gas would still be higher than the impacts of incineration, except for global warming and human toxicity. The analysis on the basis of net electricity produced shows that the LCA impacts of electricity from incineration are several times lower in comparison to the impacts of electricity from landfill biogas. Electricity from incineration has significantly lower global warming and several other impacts than electricity from coal and oil but has higher impacts than electricity from natural gas or UK grid. At

  19. Sustainable Communities: A Lens for Envisioning and Achieving a Community-Based Culture of Social and Ecological Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Frans C.

    2014-01-01

    One of the obstacles to dealing with the social and ecological crises that obstruct the achievement of a culture of peace is silo thinking in global governance. A unidimensional mode of planning, silo thinking leads to decisions based on the area of expertise of a particular agency or intergovernmental organization and fails to recognize linkages…

  20. Hype, harmony and human factors: applying user-centered design to achieve sustainable telehealth program adoption and growth.

    PubMed

    Rossos, P G; St-Cyr, O; Purdy, B; Toenjes, C; Masino, C; Chmelnitsky, D

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of international experience with the use of information and communication technologies in healthcare delivery, widespread telehealth adoption remains limited and progress slow. Escalating health system challenges related to access, cost and quality currently coincide with rapid advancement of affordable and reliable internet based communication technologies creating unprecedented opportunities and incentives for telehealth. In this paper, we will describe how Human Factors Engineering (HFE) and user-centric elements have been incorporated into the establishment of telehealth within a large academic medical center to increase acceptance and sustainability. Through examples and lessons learned we wish to increase awareness of HFE and its importance in the successful implementation, innovation and growth of telehealth programs. PMID:25980714

  1. Flinders University School of Medicine, Northern Territory, Australia: Achieving Educational Excellence along with a Sustainable Rural Medical Workforce.

    PubMed

    Worley, Paul

    2008-10-01

    Introduction Medical schools today are being challenged to educate doctors who are willing and able to practice in areas of poverty and workforce need. In many countries, there is a shortage of doctors practicing in rural and remote communities. There is evidence that locating undergraduate medical education in rural areas increases the likelihood that graduates will choose to practice in underserved areas. Through its Parallel Rural Community Curriculum (PRCC), Flinders University School of Medicine (FUSM) now enables over 25% of its students to undertake an entire clinical year based in small rural communities supervised principally by rural family physicians. Objective The PRCC was conceived to provide a high quality educational intervention that would result in an increased number of students choosing to practice in rural and remote Australia. It was also designed to test the hypothesis that small rural and remote practices were capable of facilitating a full year of medical training at a standard comparable to that provided at a major tertiary hospital. Intervention Starting with eight students in four towns in 1997, the PRCC now places 30 students across 18 towns in rural Australia. The students simultaneously learn the disciplines of medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, and family medicine. At the end of the year, all Flinders students, regardless of training location, take the same comprehensive exam. Outcomes PRCC students improved their academic performance in comparison to their tertiary trained peers. This improvement has been consistent over the ten years studied. Seventy percent of the PRCC students have chosen to practice in rural locations, compared to 18 percent of tertiary-trained students. Over twelve years, the program has proved to be sustainable in a private practice environment with a workforce shortage. Conclusions Evaluation of the PRCC indicates that a rural community-based clinical education can provide a

  2. The Effects of Interactive Learning Environments on Cooperative Learning Achievement and Student Anxiety in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavuz, Soner

    2007-01-01

    All events in the world are caused by chemical events and reactions. One of the most important aims of life chemistry is bringing up individuals who have sensitivity towards the environment and environmental awareness; could apply their learnt knowledge to daily issues and problems; have the ability to comment and adopt their knowledge into…

  3. Integrated crop–livestock systems: Strategies to achieve synergy between agricultural production and environmental quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world for food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce agriculture’s negative environmental impacts. We suggest that a cause of this dichotomy is loss of diversity within agricultural systems at field, farm and landscape scales....

  4. Developing Index for Sustainable Water Use with Environmental and Socioeconomic Indicators: an Application for Hydrologic Units in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Kong, I.

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to develop index for sustainable water use over hydrologic units in South Korea. We identified major indicators for sustainable water use with considering multiple aspects of water use: not only physical, biological and chemical aspects but also social and environmental aspects. Furthermore, stressors for sustainable water use were of major interests because they were straightforward and easy to measure in comparison to indicators representing the state- and impact-related indictors. As a result, sustainability index was constructed with a theme-based hierarchical approach. It is comprised of two components of stress and response to sustainable water use and each component includes five sub-components of human water requirements, water quality requirements, 4) h, equitable water use and others. Then for each sub-component, multiple indicators, i.e., proxy variables were identified. For drainage basins in South Korea, standard hydrologic units with their total number of about 100 across the country, total 19 indicators were identified and their data from the various sources such as remote-sensing based datasets and survey-based national datasets were collected for current times. Then they were integrated to estimate the sustainability index with a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach. At last, we evaluated sustainability index with focusing on the spatial variability of indices and indicators and the sensitivity of indices to individual indicators to better understand the sustainability of water use in Korea. In addition, we derived the indices with different MCDM methods to evaluate the sensitivity of index to various mathematical techniques.

  5. School Environmental Health Programs and the Challenges of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ana, Godson R. E. E.; Shendell, Derek G.

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) mandate of achieving healthful living for all by the year 2015 through the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is facing several challenges. In the school environment, and particularly in less developed countries (LDCs), the situation is further strained by both relatively weak infrastructure and competing governmental…

  6. Achievement and Ascription in Educational Attainment: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Adolescent Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Francois

    2006-01-01

    The classic ("status attainment") model of educational and occupational attainment suffers from three related shortcomings when used as a tool for comparative or policy-oriented research on social mobility: (1) ambiguity of model parameters as measures of opportunity for achievement vs. ascription; (2) vulnerability to incomplete specification of…

  7. Achieving Healthy School Siting and Planning Policies: Understanding Shared Concerns of Environmental Planners, Public Health Professionals, and Educators

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Policy decisions regarding the quality of the physical school environment—both, school siting and school facility planning policies—are often considered through the lens of environmental planning, public health, or education policy, but rarely through all three. Environmental planners consider environmental justice issues on a local level and/or consider the regional impact of a school. Public health professionals focus on toxic exposures and populations particularly vulnerable to negative health outcomes. Educators and education policymakers emphasize investing in human capital of both students and staff. By understanding these respective angles and combining these efforts around the common goals of achieving adequacy and excellence, we can work towards a regulatory system for school facilities that recognizes children as a uniquely vulnerable population and seeks to create healthier school environments in which children can learn and adults can work. PMID:20359991

  8. Transdisciplinarity as an Inference Technique to Achieve a Better Understanding in the Health and Environmental Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Annerstedt, Matilda

    2010-01-01

    The problems of the world are not categorised into disciplines. They are far more complex, a reality that the tradition of transdisciplinary research has recognised. When faced with questions in public health and sustainability, the traditional scientific paradigm often seems inadequate, and, at least in medicine, transdisciplinary research has not yet been fully appreciated or acknowledged. This lack of recognition may be partly caused by a lack of cooperation between disciplines and between science and society. In this paper, I discuss some of the challenges that scientists and policymakers face in public health and environment within a methodological context. I present transdisciplinarity as a modern research tool that should be applied in research in health and the environment and argue that these topics can be approached beyond the inherent obstacle of incommensurability between disciplines. Thus, a small step might be taken in this immense research arena. PMID:20644696

  9. Moving Toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) to Achieve Inclusive and Sustainable Health Development: Three Essential Strategies Drawn From Asian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ye; Huang, Cheng; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2015-01-01

    Binagwaho and colleagues’ perspective piece provided a timely reflection on the experience of Rwanda in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and a proposal of 5 principles to carry forward in post-2015 health development. This commentary echoes their viewpoints and offers three lessons for health policy reforms consistent with these principles beyond 2015. Specifically, we argue that universal health coverage (UHC) is an integrated solution to advance the global health development agenda, and the three essential strategies drawn from Asian countries’ health reforms toward UHC are: (1) Public financing support and sequencing health insurance expansion by first extending health insurance to the extremely poor, vulnerable, and marginalized population are critical for achieving UHC; (2) Improved quality of delivered care ensures supply-side readiness and effective coverage; (3) Strategic purchasing and results-based financing creates incentives and accountability for positive changes. These strategies were discussed and illustrated with experience from China and other Asian economies. PMID:26673477

  10. Public goods and private interests: The role of voluntary green power demand in achieving environmental improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiser, Ryan Hayes

    This dissertation explores the role of consumer purchasing behavior in providing public, environmental goods. It does so by empirically evaluating one market---voluntary demand for renewable energy. The dissertation addresses the following five research questions: (1) What does early experience with green power marketing tell us about the prospects for this market to deliver environmental benefits? (2) What product design and marketing approaches might be used to increase voluntary demand? (3) What motivates non-residential customers to voluntarily purchase green power? (4) What role might public policy play in the creation of the green power market? (5) What preferences do individuals hold on the most appropriate forms of support for renewable energy? By helping to answer these questions, this dissertation seeks to better understand the gap between widespread positive attitudes for the environment and an often-anemic response to green product offerings. It contributes to not only the public goods and environmental marketing literatures, but also to contingent valuation methodology and to an emerging literature on the motivations of firms to contribute to environmental causes. The analysis performed is diverse, and includes: a literature review, a mail survey of green power marketers, a mail survey of non-residential green power customers, and contingent valuation and opinion surveys of U.S. residents. Detailed statistical analysis is performed on the data collected from the residential and non-residential surveys. The analysis reveals that customer participation in green power programs to date has been weak. The possibility that the traditional economic concept of "free riding" may explain this low response is raised, and the dissertation identifies a number of marketing approaches that might be used to partially combat this problem. Analysis of survey data shows that non-residential green power purchases have been motivated principally by altruistic concerns

  11. A Twin and Adoption Study of Reading Achievement: Exploration of Shared-Environmental and Gene-Environment-Interaction Effects.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M; Legrand, Lisa N; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2011-08-01

    Existing behavior-genetic research implicates substantial influence of heredity and modest influence of shared environment on reading achievement and reading disability. Applying DeFries-Fulker analysis to a combined sample of twins and adoptees (N = 4,886, including 266 reading-disabled probands), the present study replicates prior findings of considerable heritability for both reading achievement and reading disability. A simple biometric model adequately described parent and offspring data (combined N = 9,430 parents and offspring) across differing types of families present in the sample Analyses yielded a high heritability estimate (around 0.70) and a negligible shared-environmentality estimate for both reading achievement and reading disability. No evidence of gene × environment interaction was found for parental reading ability and parental educational attainment, the two moderators analyzed. PMID:21743785

  12. A Twin and Adoption Study of Reading Achievement: Exploration of Shared-Environmental and Gene-Environment-Interaction Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Legrand, Lisa N.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Existing behavior-genetic research implicates substantial influence of heredity and modest influence of shared environment on reading achievement and reading disability. Applying DeFries-Fulker analysis to a combined sample of twins and adoptees (N = 4,886, including 266 reading-disabled probands), the present study replicates prior findings of considerable heritability for both reading achievement and reading disability. A simple biometric model adequately described parent and offspring data (combined N = 9,430 parents and offspring) across differing types of families present in the sample Analyses yielded a high heritability estimate (around 0.70) and a negligible shared-environmentality estimate for both reading achievement and reading disability. No evidence of gene × environment interaction was found for parental reading ability and parental educational attainment, the two moderators analyzed. PMID:21743785

  13. Towards sustainable settlement growth: A new multi-criteria assessment for implementing environmental targets into strategic urban planning

    SciTech Connect

    Schetke, Sophie; Haase, Dagmar; Koetter, Theo

    2012-01-15

    For nearly one decade, the German political and research-agenda has been to a large extent determined by the ongoing question of how to limit the expansion of settlement areas around cities in order to preserve natural resources, make settlement growth more sustainable and to strengthen the re-use of existing inner-urban areas (see a.o. Koetter et al. 2009a, 2010; Schetke et al. 2009, 2010b). What is already under discussion within the international literature are the recommendations of the German Council for Sustainability to quantitatively reduce the daily greenfield consumption from the current rate of over 100 ha per day to a rate of 30 ha per day in 2020 and to bring urban infill development up to a ratio of 3:1 with greenfield development (German Council for Sustainability, 2004).). This paper addresses the added value beyond those abstract political targets and presents an innovative, multi-criteria assessment (MCA) of greenfield and infill sites to evaluate their sustainability and resource efficiency. MCA development and its incorporation into a Decision Support System (DSS) were accomplished by utilising a stakeholder-driven approach. The resulting tool can be applied in preparing and revising land-use plans. The paper presents the concept and the development process of the MCA-DSS. Test runs with planners prove that the evaluation of potential housing sites using individually weighted environmental indicators helps to identify those strategies of housing development that accord most closely with sustainability goals. The tests further show that the development of greenfield sites generally exhibits less sustainability than that of infill sites. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper presents an innovative, multi-criteria assessment (MCA) of greenfield and infill sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MCA evaluates sustainability and resource efficiency of potential housing sites in a stakeholder-driven approach. Black

  14. Is Earth F**ked? Dynamical Futility of Global Environmental Management and Possibilities for Sustainability via Direct Action Activism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    wErnEr, B.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental challenges are dynamically generated within the dominant global culture principally by the mismatch between short-time-scale market and political forces driving resource extraction/use and longer-time-scale accommodations of the Earth system to these changes. Increasing resource demand is leading to the development of two-way, nonlinear interactions between human societies and environmental systems that are becoming global in extent, either through globalized markets and other institutions or through coupling to global environmental systems such as climate. These trends are further intensified by dissipation-reducing technological advances in transactions, communication and transport, which suppress emergence of longer-time-scale economic and political levels of description and facilitate long-distance connections, and by predictive environmental modeling, which strengthens human connections to a short-time-scale virtual Earth, and weakens connections to the longer time scales of the actual Earth. Environmental management seeks to steer fast scale economic and political interests of a coupled human-environmental system towards longer-time-scale consideration of benefits and costs by operating within the confines of the dominant culture using a linear, engineering-type connection to the system. Perhaps as evidenced by widespread inability to meaningfully address such global environmental challenges as climate change and soil degradation, nonlinear connections reduce the ability of managers to operate outside coupled human-environmental systems, decreasing their effectiveness in steering towards sustainable interactions and resulting in managers slaved to short-to-intermediate-term interests. In sum, the dynamics of the global coupled human-environmental system within the dominant culture precludes management for stable, sustainable pathways and promotes instability. Environmental direct action, resistance taken from outside the dominant culture, as in

  15. An exploration of scenarios to support sustainable land management using integrated environmental socio-economic models.

    PubMed

    Fleskens, L; Nainggolan, D; Stringer, L C

    2014-11-01

    Scenario analysis constitutes a valuable deployment method for scientific models to inform environmental decision-making, particularly for evaluating land degradation mitigation options, which are rarely based on formal analysis. In this paper we demonstrate such an assessment using the PESERA-DESMICE modeling framework with various scenarios for 13 global land degradation hotspots. Starting with an initial assessment representing land degradation and productivity under current conditions, options to combat instances of land degradation are explored by determining: (1) Which technologies are most biophysically appropriate and most financially viable in which locations; we term these the "technology scenarios"; (2) how policy instruments such as subsidies influence upfront investment requirements and financial viability and how they lead to reduced levels of land degradation; we term these the "policy scenarios"; and (3) how technology adoption affects development issues such as food production and livelihoods; we term these the "global scenarios". Technology scenarios help choose the best technology for a given area in biophysical and financial terms, thereby outlining where policy support may be needed to promote adoption; policy scenarios assess whether a policy alternative leads to a greater extent of technology adoption; while global scenarios demonstrate how implementing technologies may serve wider sustainable development goals. Scenarios are applied to assess spatial variation within study sites as well as to compare across different sites. Our results show significant scope to combat land degradation and raise agricultural productivity at moderate cost. We conclude that scenario assessment can provide informative input to multi-level land management decision-making processes. PMID:24263675

  16. Environmental sustainability and scenarios of urbanization in arid area: a case study in Wuwei City of Gansu Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Suocheng; You, Fei; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2004-11-01

    Northwestern China, located in the hinterland of the Asia-European continent, is composed of arid and semi-arid areas, with a very vulnerable natural environment and a long history of oasis economy. Implementation of the new policy of development of Western China resulted in both economic progress and environmental crisis. This article, using Wuwei City as an example, evaluated the sustainability of its environment and analyzed the scenarios of energy, pollution discharge, transportation, food, industry and urbanization. Polestar language, the model developed and used by the Global Scenario Group, was applied to simulate the development of the study area. The results revealed that Wuwei city would reach a severe eco-environmental crisis under the conventional development patterns in the next ten to twenty years. Therefore, a sustainable scenario was recommended in the urbanization of Wuwei, and appropriate suggestions were also put forward to the policy makers.

  17. Balancing water resources development and environmental sustainability in Africa: a review of recent research findings and applications.

    PubMed

    McClain, Michael E

    2013-09-01

    Sustainable development in Africa is dependent on increasing use of the continent's water resources without significantly degrading ecosystem services that are also fundamental to human wellbeing. This is particularly challenging in Africa because of high spatial and temporal variability in the availability of water resources and limited amounts of total water availability across expansive semi-arid portions of the continent. The challenge is compounded by ambitious targets for increased water use and a rush of international funding to finance development activities. Balancing development with environmental sustainability requires (i) understanding the boundary conditions imposed by the continent's climate and hydrology today and into the future, (ii) estimating the magnitude and spatial distribution of water use needed to meet development goals, and (iii) understanding the environmental water requirements of affected ecosystems, their current status and potential consequences of increased water use. This article reviews recent advancements in each of these topics and highlights innovative approaches and tools available to support sustainable development. While much remains to be learned, scientific understanding and technology should not be viewed as impediments to sustainable development on the continent. PMID:23238866

  18. Some Considerations for Applying Business Sustainability Practices to Campus Environmental Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Steve V.; Galea, Chris E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose--To explore how universities can adopt sustainability practices that have proven to be successful in business. Design/methodology/approach--Draws on several sources of theory (internationally published literatures in business, sustainability, and education) and practice (primarily US business and university practice) to develop a…

  19. Adult Education in Local Environmental Initiatives for Ecological and Cultural Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Janice Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines the phenomenon of how communities can effect change in policy and practice to support greater ecological and cultural sustainability. The general purpose of this research is to examine selected local initiatives for ecological and cultural sustainability to better understand the role of adult education in those efforts.…

  20. Embedding Environmental Sustainability in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Madeleine

    2013-01-01

    In spite of increasing attention devoted to the importance of embedding sustainability in university curricula, few Australian universities include specific green chemistry units, and there is no mention of green or sustainable chemistry concepts in the majority of units. In this paper, an argument is posited that all universities should embed…

  1. Our Vision for a Sustainable Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Jane

    2010-01-01

    The Welsh Assembly Government is committed to putting sustainable development at the heart of all it does. In May 2009, the Assembly launched its latest scheme, "One Wales: One Planet," which sets out a clear definition of sustainable development as enhancing the economic, social and environmental wellbeing of people and communities, achieving a…

  2. Community-Driven Initiatives to Achieve Interoperability for Ecological and Environmental Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madin, J.; Bowers, S.; Jones, M.; Schildhauer, M.

    2007-12-01

    Advances in ecology and environmental science increasingly depend on information from multiple disciplines to tackle broader and more complex questions about the natural world. Such advances, however, are hindered by data heterogeneity, which impedes the ability of researchers to discover, interpret, and integrate relevant data that have been collected by others. Here, we outline two community-building initiatives for improving data interoperability in the ecological and environmental sciences, one that is well-established (the Ecological Metadata Language [EML]), and another that is actively underway (a unified model for observations and measurements). EML is a metadata specification developed for the ecology discipline, and is based on prior work done by the Ecological Society of America and associated efforts to ensure a modular and extensible framework to document ecological data. EML "modules" are designed to describe one logical part of the total metadata that should be included with any ecological dataset. EML was developed through a series of working meetings, ongoing discussion forums and email lists, with participation from a broad range of ecological and environmental scientists, as well as computer scientists and software developers. Where possible, EML adopted syntax from the other metadata standards for other disciplines (e.g., Dublin Core, Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata, and more). Although EML has not yet been ratified through a standards body, it has become the de facto metadata standard for a large range of ecological data management projects, including for the Long Term Ecological Research Network, the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, and the Ecological Society of America. The second community-building initiative is based on work through the Scientific Environment for Ecological Knowledge (SEEK) as well as a recent workshop on multi-disciplinary data management. This initiative aims at improving

  3. Strategic planning model for achieving stakeholder involvement in environmental at DOE weapons complex sites

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G.

    1994-12-31

    Within today`s reality a public manager often needs to develop cooperative relationships among a number of individual, program, and organizational stakeholders to accomplish particular projects, programs, or policies. A DOE site manager charged with accomplishing environmental restoration and conversion at former weapons production sites is no exception. Important reasons for this include the technical and political complexity of the clean-up problem; limits on the funding, authority, and other resources available to DOE; authority, responsibilities, and interests of other stakeholders; and the ever present potential for conflict among stakeholders, and power of any one to hinder, if not halt, the clean-up process if conflicts aren`t managed and cooperative relationships established and maintained.

  4. Achieving the Security, Environmental, and Economic Potential of Bioenergy. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, John A

    2006-06-07

    A group of business, government, environmental and academic leaders convened in a dialogue by the Aspen Institute proposed a series of actions to promote the widespread commercialization of both corn and cellulosic ethanol to improve energy security, the environment, and the economy. Co-chaired by Booz Allen Hamilton Vice President and former CIA Director R. James Woolsey and former Congressman Tom Ewing (R. IL), they developed a series of recommendations involving improved crop yields, processing of biomass into ethanol, manufacture of more cars that can burn either ethanol or gasoline, and the provision of ethanol pumps at more filling stations. Their report, "A High Growth Strategy for Ethanol, includes a discussion of the potential of ethanol, the group's recommendations, and a series of discussion papers commissioned for the dialogue.

  5. Learning Programmes for Environmental Sustainability: A Different Approach to Curriculum Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zietsman, S.; Pretorius, R. W.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental management in South Africa is constrained by a lack of capacity for effective stakeholder engagement and environmental decision-making. The country's excellent environmental legislation demands that environmental professionals be appropriately trained at the higher education level. To this end, a Bachelors level learning programme in…

  6. Environmental sustainability comparison of a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system and a door-to-door system

    SciTech Connect

    Punkkinen, Henna; Merta, Elina; Teerioja, Nea; Moliis, Katja; Kuvaja, Eveliina

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compare the environmental sustainability of two MSW collection systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate pneumatic and door-to-door collection systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The greenhouse gas emissions of pneumatic collection are around three times higher. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System components are decisive but assumptions on electricity use are also important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pneumatic collection could provide other benefits over door-to-door system. - Abstract: Waste collection is one of the life cycle phases that influence the environmental sustainability of waste management. Pneumatic waste collection systems represent a new way of arranging waste collection in densely populated urban areas. However, limited information is available on the environmental impacts of this system. In this study, we compare the environmental sustainability of conventional door-to-door waste collection with its hypothetical pneumatic alternative. Furthermore, we analyse whether the size of the hypothetical pneumatic system, or the number of waste fractions included, have an impact on the results. Environmental loads are calculated for a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system modelled on an existing dense urban area in Helsinki, Finland, and the results are compared to those of the prevailing, container-based, door-to-door waste collection system. The evaluation method used is the life-cycle inventory (LCI). In this study, we report the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The results indicate that replacing the prevailing system with stationary pneumatic waste collection in an existing urban infrastructure would increase total air emissions. Locally, in the waste collection area, emissions would nonetheless diminish, as collection traffic decreases. While the electricity consumption of the hypothetical pneumatic system and the origin of electricity have a

  7. Photovoltaic canopies: thermodynamics to achieve a sustainable systems approach to mitigate the urban heat island hysteresis lag effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Jay S.

    2006-03-01

    At a time of greater attention to global climate change and increased costs of energy, our planet is rapidly urbanizing and transitioning regions from the natural rural vegetation to man-made urban engineered infrastructure. The anthropogenic-induced change has manifested itself in micro-scale and meso-scale increase in temperatures in comparison to adjacent rural regions which is known as the urban heat island effect ? Tu- r; (Oke 1987, Brazel 2003) and results in the increased need of electricity for mechanical cooling as well as various adverse environmental, social, and economic consequences for local and global communities (Golden 2004). Prior research has documented that between 29% and 45% of the urban fabric comprised paved surfaces to support mobility (Akbari et al. 1999). The increase in paved surfaces as a function of thermodynamics alters the urban energy budget due to changes in albedo, thermal mass as well as conduction, convection, and evapotranspiration. An emerging engineering option to reduce the significant role that surface pavements play in adding to the urban heat island is to capitalize on the capturing and shading of incident solar energy by means of utilization of photovoltaic panels to provide covered parking for this large portion of the urban fabric.

  8. Biotech crops: imperative for achieving the millenium development goals and sustainability of agriculture in the climate change era.

    PubMed

    Husaini, Amjad M; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnological intervention in the development of crops has opened new vistas in agriculture. Central to the accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), biotech-agriculture is essential in meeting these targets. Biotech crops have already made modest contributions toward ensuring food and nutrition security by reducing losses and increasing productivity, with less pesticide input. These crops could help address some of the major challenges in agriculture-based economies created by climate change. Projections of global climate change expect the concentration of greenhouse gases to increase, aridization of the environment to increase, temperature fluctuations to occur sharply and frequently, and spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall to be disturbed-all of which will increase abiotic stress-related challenges to crops. Countering these challenges and to meet the food requirement of the ever-increasing world population (expected to reach 9 billion by 2030) we need to (1) develop and use biotech crops for mitigating adverse climatic changes; (2) develop biotech crops resilient to adverse environmental conditions; and (3) address the issues/non-issues raised by NGO's and educate the masses about the benefits of biotech crops. PMID:23160541

  9. Environmental Sustainability and Effects on Urban Micro Region using Agent-Based Modeling of Urbanisation in Select Major Indian Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aithal, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Urbanisation has gained momentum with globalization in India. Policy decisions to set up commercial, industrial hubs have fuelled large scale migration, added with population upsurge has contributed to the fast growing urban region that needs to be monitored in order to design sustainable urban cities. Unplanned urbanization have resulted in the growth of peri-urban region referred to as urban sprawl, are often devoid of basic amenities and infrastructure leading to large scale environmental problems that are evident. Remote sensing data acquired through space borne sensors at regular interval helps in understanding urban dynamics aided by Geoinformatics which has proved very effective in mapping and monitoring for sustainable urban planning. Cellular automata (CA) is a robust approach for the spatially explicit simulation of land-use land cover dynamics. CA uses rules, states, conditions that are vital factors in modelling urbanisation. This communication effectively introduces simulation assistances of CA with the agent based modelling supported by its fuzzy characteristics and weightages through analytical hierarchal process (AHP). This has been done considering perceived agents such as industries, natural resource etc. Respective agent's role in development of a particular regions into an urban area has been examined with weights and its influence of each of these agents based on its characteristics functions. Validation was performed obtaining a high kappa coefficient indicating the quality and the allocation performance of the model & validity of the model to predict future projections. The prediction using the proposed model was performed for 2030. Further environmental sustainability of each of these cities are explored such as water features, environment, greenhouse gas emissions, effects on human human health etc., Modeling suggests trend of various land use classes transformation with the spurt in urban expansions based on specific regions and

  10. Environmental sustainability comparison of a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system and a door-to-door system.

    PubMed

    Punkkinen, Henna; Merta, Elina; Teerioja, Nea; Moliis, Katja; Kuvaja, Eveliina

    2012-10-01

    Waste collection is one of the life cycle phases that influence the environmental sustainability of waste management. Pneumatic waste collection systems represent a new way of arranging waste collection in densely populated urban areas. However, limited information is available on the environmental impacts of this system. In this study, we compare the environmental sustainability of conventional door-to-door waste collection with its hypothetical pneumatic alternative. Furthermore, we analyse whether the size of the hypothetical pneumatic system, or the number of waste fractions included, have an impact on the results. Environmental loads are calculated for a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system modelled on an existing dense urban area in Helsinki, Finland, and the results are compared to those of the prevailing, container-based, door-to-door waste collection system. The evaluation method used is the life-cycle inventory (LCI). In this study, we report the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), SO(2) and NO(x). The results indicate that replacing the prevailing system with stationary pneumatic waste collection in an existing urban infrastructure would increase total air emissions. Locally, in the waste collection area, emissions would nonetheless diminish, as collection traffic decreases. While the electricity consumption of the hypothetical pneumatic system and the origin of electricity have a significant bearing on the results, emissions due to manufacturing the system's components prove decisive. PMID:22647502

  11. Integrating Omic Technologies into Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment and Environmental Monitoring: Hurdles, Achievements, and Future Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Van Aggelen, Graham; Ankley, Gerald T.; Baldwin, William S.; Bearden, Daniel W.; Benson, William H.; Chipman, J. Kevin; Collette, Tim W.; Craft, John A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Embry, Michael R.; Falciani, Francesco; George, Stephen G.; Helbing, Caren C.; Hoekstra, Paul F.; Iguchi, Taisen; Kagami, Yoshi; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Kille, Peter; Liu, Li; Lord, Peter G.; McIntyre, Terry; O’Neill, Anne; Osachoff, Heather; Perkins, Ed J.; Santos, Eduarda M.; Skirrow, Rachel C.; Snape, Jason R.; Tyler, Charles R.; Versteeg, Don; Viant, Mark R.; Volz, David C.; Williams, Tim D.; Yu, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Background In this commentary we present the findings from an international consortium on fish toxicogenomics sponsored by the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council (Fish Toxicogenomics—Moving into Regulation and Monitoring, held 21–23 April 2008 at the Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada). Objectives The consortium from government agencies, academia, and industry addressed three topics: progress in ecotoxicogenomics, regulatory perspectives on roadblocks for practical implementation of toxicogenomics into risk assessment, and dealing with variability in data sets. Discussion Participants noted that examples of successful application of omic technologies have been identified, but critical studies are needed to relate molecular changes to ecological adverse outcome. Participants made recommendations for the management of technical and biological variation. They also stressed the need for enhanced interdisciplinary training and communication as well as considerable investment into the generation and curation of appropriate reference omic data. Conclusions The participants concluded that, although there are hurdles to pass on the road to regulatory acceptance, omics technologies are already useful for elucidating modes of action of toxicants and can contribute to the risk assessment process as part of a weight-of-evidence approach. PMID:20056575

  12. The role of sustained observations in tracking impacts of environmental change on marine biodiversity and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Mieszkowska, N.; Sugden, H.; Firth, L. B.; Hawkins, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine biodiversity currently faces unprecedented threats from multiple pressures arising from human activities. Global drivers such as climate change and ocean acidification interact with regional eutrophication, exploitation of commercial fish stocks and localized pressures including pollution, coastal development and the extraction of aggregates and fuel, causing alteration and degradation of habitats and communities. Segregating natural from anthropogenically induced change in marine ecosystems requires long-term, sustained observations of marine biota. In this review, we outline the history of biological recording in the coastal and shelf seas of the UK and Ireland and highlight where sustained observations have contributed new understanding of how anthropogenic activities have impacted on marine biodiversity. The contributions of sustained observations, from those collected at observatories, single station platforms and multiple-site programmes to the emergent field of multiple stressor impacts research, are discussed, along with implications for management and sustainable governance of marine resources in an era of unprecedented use of the marine environment. PMID:25157190

  13. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES ON SUSTAINABILITY & APPLICATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE CONCEPT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1987 the World Commission on Environment and Development published their report titled Out Common Future addressing sustainable development. The Commission's definition, since widely adopted, was "Development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the abilit...

  14. Environmental natural processes that achieve thermal comfort in multifamily buildings in hot-arid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Paola

    Buildings, especially in hot climates, consume a lot of energy when people want to be comfortable inside them, which translates to very expensive fees each month. The most innovative response to this problem is renewable energy, that is used, in this case, to run mechanical HVAC systems. Renewable energy is the solution for many problems, but to avoid urban heat islands when using excessive HVAC systems (powered by renewables), and to solve thermal comfort-related problems, there has to be other solution. The major challenge to find it would be to have a change of thinking process. If a building in a hot-arid region uses natural processes to emulate the functions of HVAC systems, and the proper passive strategies, then, it will provide thermal comfort to its users, diminishing the need of a mechanical system. This hypothesis will be carried out by extracting the natural processes found in a specific case in nature, applying them into a building's design, and then simulating its energy efficiency with the adequate software. There will be a comparison of the same proposed building without the natural processes, to have tangible numbers showing that these proposed strategies, in fact, work. With explanatory detailed diagrams and the energy analysis, the hypothesis could be proven correct or incorrect. The significance of this approach relies on the proximity to the natural processes that have been working in different aspects of life since the beginning of time. They have been there all the time, waiting until architects, engineers, and people in general use them, instead of making more new energy-using inventions. By having the numbers from a conventional building and the ones of the proposed building, and the right environmental diagrams, the experiment should be valid. In the near future, there should be more research focused on nature and its processes, in order to be able to reduce the use of mechanical systems, and with that, reduce the energy use and the carbon

  15. Crop and irrigation management strategies for saline-sodic soils and waters aimed at environmentally sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Qadir, M; Oster, J D

    2004-05-01

    Irrigation has long played a key role in feeding the expanding world population and is expected to play a still greater role in the future. As supplies of good-quality irrigation water are expected to decrease in several regions due to increased municipal-industrial-agricultural competition, available freshwater supplies need to be used more efficiently. In addition, reliance on the use and reuse of saline and/or sodic drainage waters, generated by irrigated agriculture, seems inevitable for irrigation. The same applies to salt-affected soils, which occupy more than 20% of the irrigated lands, and warrant attention for efficient, inexpensive and environmentally acceptable management. Technologically and from a management perspective, a couple of strategies have shown the potential to improve crop production under irrigated agriculture while minimizing the adverse environmental impacts. The first strategy, vegetative bioremediation--a plant-assisted reclamation approach--relies on growing appropriate plant species that can tolerate ambient soil salinity and sodicity levels during reclamation of salt-affected soils. A variety of plant species of agricultural significance have been found to be effective in sustainable reclamation of calcareous and moderately sodic and saline-sodic soils. The second strategy fosters dedicating soils to crop production systems where saline and/or sodic waters predominate and their disposal options are limited. Production systems based on salt-tolerant plant species using drainage waters may be sustainable with the potential of transforming such waters from an environmental burden into an economic asset. Such a strategy would encourage the disposal of drainage waters within the irrigated regions where they are generated rather than exporting these waters to other regions via discharge into main irrigation canals, local streams, or rivers. Being economically and environmentally sustainable, these strategies could be the key to future

  16. DASEES: A decision analysis tool with Bayesian networks from the Environmental Protection Agency’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tackling environmental, economic, and social sustainability issues with community stakeholders will often lead to choices that are costly, complex and uncertain. A formal process with proper guidance is needed to understand the issues, identify sources of disagreement, consider t...

  17. Measuring Energy Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L

    2009-01-01

    For the purpose of measurement, energy sustainability is defined as ensuring that future generations have energy resources that enable them to achieve a level of well-being at least as good as that of the current generation. It is recognized that there are valid, more comprehensive understandings of sustainability and that energy sustainability as defined here is only meaningful when placed in a broader context. Still, measuring energy sustainability is important to society because the rates of consumption of some fossil resources are now substantial in relation to measures of ultimate resources, and because conflicts between fossil energy use and environmental sustainability are intensifying. Starting from the definition, an equation for energy sustainability is derived that reconciles renewable fl ows and nonrenewable stocks, includes the transformation of energy into energy services, incorporates technological change and, at least notionally, allows for changes in the relationship between energy services and societal well-being. Energy sustainability must be measured retrospectively as well as prospectively, and methods for doing each are discussed. Connections to the sustainability of other resources are also critical. The framework presented is merely a starting point; much remains to be done to make it operational.

  18. Exploring emerging learning needs: a UK-wide consultation on environmental sustainability learning objectives for medical education

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Frances; Inman, Alice; Braithwaite, Isobel; Thompson, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to engage wide-ranging stakeholders and develop consensus learning objectives for undergraduate and postgraduate medical education. Methods A UK-wide consultation garnered opinions of healthcare students, healthcare educators and other key stakeholders about environmental sustainability in medical education. The policy Delphi approach informed this study. Draft learning objectives were revised iteratively during three rounds of consultation: online questionnaire or telephone interview, face-to-face seminar and email consultation. Results Twelve draft learning objectives were developed based on review of relevant literature. In round one, 64 participants’ median ratings of the learning objectives were 3.5 for relevance and 3.0 for feasibility on a Likert scale of one to four. Revisions were proposed, e.g. to highlight relevance to public health and professionalism. Thirty three participants attended round two. Conflicting opinions were explored. Added content areas included health benefits of sustainable behaviours. To enhance usability, restructuring provided three overarching learning objectives, each with subsidiary points. All participants from rounds one and two were contacted in round three, and no further edits were required. Conclusions This is the first attempt to define consensus learning objectives for medical students about environmental sustainability. Allowing a wide range of stakeholders to comment on multiple iterations of the document stimulated their engagement with the issues raised and ownership of the resulting learning objectives. PMID:26702552

  19. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures using screening-level life cycle assessment to support sustainable consumer electronics (j/a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use...

  20. The Eastern Africa Environmental Network and the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malakwen, George

    2005-01-01

    With a goal of increasing and intensifying public awareness on environmental and development issues in the Eastern Africa region, the Eastern Africa Environmental Network (EAEN) has been actively involved in Environmental Education (EE) networking with the objective of creating opportunities to disseminate and share information. Through…

  1. Economic and environmental sustainability of submerged anaerobic MBR-based (AnMBR-based) technology as compared to aerobic-based technologies for moderate-/high-loaded urban wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Pretel, R; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the economic and environmental sustainability of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) in comparison with aerobic-based technologies for moderate-/high-loaded urban wastewater (UWW) treatment. To this aim, a combined approach of steady-state performance modelling, life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) was used, in which AnMBR (coupled with an aerobic-based post-treatment) was compared to aerobic membrane bioreactor (AeMBR) and conventional activated sludge (CAS). AnMBR with CAS-based post-treatment for nutrient removal was identified as a sustainable option for moderate-/high-loaded UWW treatment: low energy consumption and reduced sludge production could be obtained at given operating conditions. In addition, significant reductions can be achieved in different aspects of environmental impact (global warming potential (GWP), abiotic depletion, acidification, etc.) and LCC over existing UWW treatment technologies. PMID:26473754

  2. Out of sight, out of mind: global connection, environmental discourse and the emerging field of sustainability education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Joseph A.

    2015-09-01

    How might we understand the complex nature of our existence in the world, and what are the implications of such examination? Moreover, how might we go about engaging others in this practice and what are the complications of such an endeavor? Expanding on Quigley, Dogbey, Che and Hallo's findings, I consider the implications of human-environment connections and examine the difficulty of articulating such connections via photovoice methods in particular places. Further, I use a Foucauldian discourse lens to situate this connective process to larger political and social dynamics at work in their paper, and in environmental education in general. Implications for sustainability and sustainability education are then developed, along with suggestions for future research in this emerging field.

  3. How Well Does Brazil's Environmental Law Work in Practice? Environmental Impact Assessment and the Case of the Itapiranga Private Sustainable Logging Plan.

    PubMed

    Eve; Arguelles; Fearnside

    2000-09-01

    / The Itapiranga Sustainable Logging Plan provides an example of how Brazil's licensing system functions for logging companies in the state of Amazonas. Two questions need to be dealt with: "How sustainable can logging in the Amazon be?" and "What and how effective are existing legal mechanisms to deal with logging projects?" The environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental impact statement (EIS, known as the RIMA in Brazil), present relatively detailed accounts of biodiversity and the need to adopt conservation strategies to protect it. However, social and health impacts are only superficially addressed. The economic sustainability of the operation over multiple cycles is not demonstrated. The multidisciplinary teams responsible for the EIA and EIS (RIMA) reports are hired by the project proponent, an arrangement inherently carrying the risk of biasing the result. Logging reduces biodiversity, releases greenhouse gases and inflicts social and health costs. These impacts reduce the ability of Amazonian forests to provide environmental services and to supply food and livelihood security to local populations. The reports inflate positive effects such as employment: the estimated number of jobs was cut by more than half in a revision made after the EIA and EIS (RIMA) had been approved. Not only do the reports need to be more realistic in assessing both positive and negative consequences of proposed projects, but better means are needed to ensure that promised mitigatory measures are enforced in practice. Many of the lessons that can be drawn from the Itapiranga Plan are not unique to logging projects and apply to licensing of development activites generally in Brazil and elsewhere. PMID:10977880

  4. Sustainability Base Construction Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewhinney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Construction of the new Sustainability Base Collaborative support facility, expected to become the highest performing building in the federal government continues at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, Calif. The new building is designed to achieve a platinum rating under the leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) new construction standards for environmentally sustainable construction developed by the U. S. Green Building Council, Washington, D. C. When completed by the end of 2011, the $20.6 million building will feature near zero net energy consumption, use 90 percent less potable water than conventionally build buildings of equivalent size, and will result in reduced building maintenance costs.

  5. Framework for integration of urban planning, strategic environmental assessment and ecological planning for urban sustainability within the context of China

    SciTech Connect

    He Jia; Bao Cunkuan; Shu Tingfei; Yun Xiaoxue; Jiang Dahe; Brwon, Lex

    2011-11-15

    Sustainable development or sustainability has been highlighted as an essential principle in urban master planning, with increasing recognition that uncontrollable urbanization may well give rise to various issues such as overexploitation of natural resources, ecosystem destruction, environmental pollution and large-scale climate change. Thus, it is deemed necessary to modify the existing urban and regional administrative system so as to cope with the challenges urban planning is being confronted with and realize the purpose of urban sustainability. This paper contributed to proposing a mechanism which helps to make urban planning with full consideration of issues with respect to sustainable development. We suggested that the integration of urban planning, SEA and ecological planning be a multi-win strategy to offset deficiency of each mentioned political tool being individually applied. We also proposed a framework where SEA and ecological planning are fully incorporated into urban planning, which forms a two-way constraint mechanism to ascertain environmental quality of urban planning, although in practice, planning and SEA processes may conditionally be unified. Moreover, as shown in the case study, the integration of the three political tools may be constrained due to slow changes in the contextual factors, in particular the political and cultural dimensions. Currently within the context of China, there may be three major elements which facilitate integration of the three political tools, which are (1) regulatory requirement of PEIA on urban planning, (2) the promotion or strong administrative support from government on eco-district building, and (3) the willingness of urban planners to collaborate with SEA experts or ecologists.

  6. Valuing environmental water pulses into the Incomati estuary: Key to achieving equitable and sustainable utilisation of transboundary waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengo, D. José; Kachapila, Albert; Zaag, Pieter van der; Mul, Marloes; Nkomo, Sakhiwe

    Upstream developments in the Incomati river basin, shared by South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique, have altered downstream flows significantly. The frequency of small floods into the estuary has been reduced dramatically. This change in the flow regime has impacted on the state of the environment downstream, and the Incomati estuary in particular. The estuary requires fresh water pulses that naturally occur, and the resulting seasonal flooding of the plains. Resource-poor rural households depend on the goods and services that the estuary and flood plains provide such as wood, charcoal, building materials, fish and shrimp, wetland farming, and tourism. Alteration of the flow regime into the estuary has a negative impact on the state of the environment and hence on the goods and services the estuary yields; a phenomenon the people living near the estuary are keenly aware of. The article estimates the value of the goods and services that the estuary currently provides, that is under the conditions of a changed flow regime. A linear relationship is then assumed between fresh water pulses into the estuary and the goods and services it provides, so that the order of magnitude of the economic value of fresh water pulses into the estuary may be approximated. Various development scenarios in the Incomati basin are then considered, that have different upstream and downstream impacts on water availability, and the basin-wide benefits and costs are compared. The paper concludes that the principle of sharing the benefits derived from the water resources, rather than the water itself, as proposed by authors such as [Sadoff, C.W., Grey, D., 2002. Beyond the river: the benefits of cooperation on international rivers. Water Policy 4, 389-403], may be a feasible approach only if the less tangible benefits and functions, especially those of the environment, are assigned an appropriate value and corresponding priority.

  7. Sustainability assessment of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Biao; Mao, Mingcui; Yao, Lipeng; Niedermann, Silvana; Hu, Wenyou; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-01

    To provide growing population with sufficient food, greenhouse vegetable production has expanded rapidly in recent years in China and sustainability of its farming practices is a major concern. Therefore, this study assessed the sustainability of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China based on selected indicators. The empirical data were collected through a survey of 91 farm households from six typical greenhouse vegetable production bases and analysis of environmental material samples. The results showed that heavy fertilization in greenhouse vegetable bases of China resulted in an accumulation of N, P, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil, nutrient eutrophication in irrigation water, and high Cd in some leaf vegetables cultivated in acidic soil. Economic factors including decreased crop yield in conventional farming bases, limited and site-dependent farmers' income, and lack of complete implementation of subsidy policies contributed a lot to adoption of heavy fertilization by farmers. Also, socio-institutional factors such as lack of unified management of agricultural supplies in the bases operated in cooperative and small family business models and low agricultural extension service efficiency intensified the unreasonable fertilization. The selection of cultivated vegetables was mainly based on farmers' own experience rather than site-dependent soil conditions. Thus, for sustainable development of greenhouse vegetable production systems in China, there are two key aspects. First, it is imperative to reduce environmental pollution and subsequent health risks through integrated nutrient management and the planting strategy of selected low metal accumulation vegetable species especially in acidic soil. Second, a conversion of cooperative and small family business models of greenhouse vegetable bases to enterprises should be extensively advocated in future for the unified agricultural supplies

  8. Environmental and sustainability factors associated with next-generation biofuels in the U.S.: what do we really know?

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela R D; Inman, Daniel; Aden, Andy; Heath, Garvin A

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we assess what is known or anticipated about environmental and sustainability factors associated with next-generation biofuels relative to the primary conventional biofuels (i.e., corn grain-based ethanol and soybean-based diesel) in the United States during feedstock production and conversion processes. Factors considered include greenhouse (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions, soil health and quality, water use and water quality, wastewater and solid waste streams, and biodiversity and land-use changes. Based on our review of the available literature, we find that the production of next-generation feedstocks in the U.S. (e.g., municipal solid waste, forest residues, dedicated energy crops, microalgae) are expected to fare better than corn-grain or soybean production on most of these factors, although the magnitude of these differences may vary significantly among feedstocks. Ethanol produced using a biochemical or thermochemical conversion platform is expected to result in fewer GHG and air pollutant emissions, but to have similar or potentially greater water demands and solid waste streams than conventional ethanol biorefineries in the U.S. However, these conversion-related differences are likely to be small, particularly relative to those associated with feedstock production. Modeling performed for illustrative purposes and to allow for standardized quantitative comparisons across feedstocks and conversion technologies generally confirms the findings from the literature. Despite current expectations, significant uncertainty remains regarding how well next-generation biofuels will fare on different environmental and sustainability factors when produced on a commercial scale in the U.S. Additional research is needed in several broad areas including quantifying impacts, designing standardized metrics and approaches, and developing decision-support tools to identify and quantify environmental trade-offs and ensure sustainable biofuels production

  9. Accounting for Natural Resources and Environmental Sustainability: Linking Ecosystem Services to Human Well-being.

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of society's greatest challenges is to sustain natural resources while promoting economic growth and quality of life. In the face of this challenge. society must measure the effectiveness of programs established to protect human health and safeguard the environment. The impet...

  10. Biodiversity Conservation through Environmental Education for Sustainable Development--A Case Study from Puducherry, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramadoss, Alexandar; Poyya Moli, Gopalsamy

    2011-01-01

    Promoting students commitment to protect local biodiversity is an important goal of education for sustainable development in India and elsewhere. The main focus of the biodiversity education was to create knowledge, interest and necessary skills to solve various biodiversity problems with reference to the local context. In order to develop the…

  11. Sustaining the Future: Activities for Environmental Education in U.S. History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jeffrey L., Ed.

    This volume provides methods and resources for teachers to integrate global issues and sustainable development concepts into high school U.S. history classes. The focus of the lessons is problem solving by examining development issues in U.S. history. The resource book contains two sections. Section 1 provides overview lessons on the following:…

  12. An Analysis of Environmental Sustainability Instruction in California Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Jeanne Louise

    2012-01-01

    Concepts of sustainability around working, living, natural, and built environments are complex and interdisciplinary. Preparation for post-secondary roles and decision making in college, among careers, and as citizens includes a working knowledge of interrelated social, economic, and science-related activities differentially impacting…

  13. Gender and Environmental Sustainability: Issues and Problems Involved for Persons with Special Needs in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egaga, Patrick I.; Aderibigbe, S. Akinwumi

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability of the environment is one of the major problems facing African people, most especially Nigerians. It is unfortunate that women, by the nature of their daily activities of managing the homes and families are in touch with nature and environment and are at greater risk of health hazards and foetal damage. This paper focuses on the…

  14. Sustainable cropping systems using cover crops, native species field borders and riparian buffers for environmental quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will focus on the application of sustainable management practices for no-till cultivation using cover crops, native species field borders, and fast growing woody species integrated in vegetative strips and riparian buffers. An ongoing field project at the Bradford Research and Exte...

  15. Investing in Our Children's Future: Building Sustainable Environmental Health Programs in Our Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grevatt, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Providing safe and healthy learning environments for our children is a fundamental way to advance sustainability in our K-12 schools. However, according to reports by the Government Accountability Office, the U.S. Department of Education, the American Federation of Teachers and other organizations, many schools are in poor condition, and many have…

  16. DELIVERING TIMELY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY: THE BOULDER AREA SUSTAINABILITY INFORMATION NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Technology Transfer and Support Division of the EPA Office of Research and Development's (ORD's) National Risk Management Laboratory in conjunction with the Boulder Area Sustainability Information Network (BASIN) has developed a "how-to" handbook to allow other community orga...

  17. Predictors and outcomes of sustained, intermittent or never achieving remission in patients with recent onset inflammatory polyarthritis: results from the Norfolk Arthritis Register

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Michael J.; Diffin, Janet; Scirè, Carlo A.; Lunt, Mark; MacGregor, Alex J.; Symmons, Deborah P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Early remission is the current treatment strategy for patients with inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) and RA. Our objective was to identify baseline factors associated with achieving remission: sustained (SR), intermittent (IR) or never (NR) over a 5-year period in patients with early IP. Methods. Clinical and demographic data of patients with IP recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR) were obtained at baseline and years 1, 2, 3 and 5. Remission was defined as no tender or swollen joints (out of 51). Patients were classified as NR or PR, respectively, if they were in remission at: no assessment or ⩾3 consecutive assessments after baseline, and IR otherwise. Ordinal regression and a random effects model, respectively, were used to examine the association between baseline factors, remission group and HAQ scores over time. Results. A total of 868 patients (66% female) were included. Of these, 54%, 34% and 12% achieved NR, IR and SR, respectively. In multivariate analysis, female sex (odds ratio, OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.63), higher tender joint count (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.93, 0.96), higher HAQ (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.74), being obese (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.99), hypertensive (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.90) or depressed (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.55, 1.00) at baseline were independent predictors of being in a lower remission group. IR and SR were associated with lower HAQ scores over time and lower DAS28 at year 5. Conclusion. Women with higher tender joint count and disability at baseline, depression, obesity and hypertension were less likely to achieve remission. This information could help when stratifying patients for more aggressive therapy. PMID:27220594

  18. Mainstreaming environment and sustainability: an analysis of a master's in environmental science and a tree-planting project at Chancellor College, University of Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiotha, Sosten S.

    2010-06-01

    In 2004, Mainstreaming Environment and Sustainability in African Universities (MESA) was formally launched by UNEP, UNESCO and the Association of African Universities. This paper sets the stage for a critical analysis of ESD by reviewing historical perspectives of conservation in Africa as a means of appreciating the need for African universities to mainstream both environmental concerns and those relating to sustainability. Two case studies from Chancellor College, University of Malawi are discussed to illustrate that good practice in mainstreaming environment and sustainability requires challenges to be refined and knowledge to be extended on an ongoing basis. To analyse the reorientation of the curriculum for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), the paper examines the introduction of an Environmental Science Master's programme at the college and notes how environmental issues are covered. The article also looks at the college's tree-planting programme in terms of the training, research and outreach involved.

  19. Eating like there's no tomorrow: Public awareness of the environmental impact of food and reluctance to eat less meat as part of a sustainable diet.

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Douglas, Flora; Campbell, Jonina

    2016-01-01

    Reducing meat consumption is central to many of the scientific debates on healthy, sustainable diets because of the high environmental impact of meat production. Missing from these debates are the public perspectives about eating less meat and consideration of cultural and social values associated with meat. The aim of this study was to explore public awareness of the environmental impact of food and their willingness to reduce meat consumption. Twelve focus groups and four individual interviews were conducted with adults from a range of socio-economic groups living in both rural and urban settings in Scotland. Public understanding of the link between food, environment and climate change was explored, with a focus on meat and attitudes towards reducing meat consumption. Data were transcribed and analysed thematically. Three dominant themes emerged: a lack of awareness of the association between meat consumption and climate change, perceptions of personal meat consumption playing a minimal role in the global context of climate change, and resistance to the idea of reducing personal meat consumption. People associated eating meat with pleasure, and described social, personal and cultural values around eating meat. Some people felt they did not need to eat less meat because they had already reduced their consumption or that they only ate small quantities. Scepticism of scientific evidence linking meat and climate change was common. Changing non-food related behaviours was viewed as more acceptable and a greater priority for climate change mitigation. The study highlights the role meat plays in the diet for many people, beyond nutritional needs. If healthy, sustainable dietary habits are to be achieved, cultural, social and personal values around eating meat must be integrated into the development of future dietary recommendations. PMID:26476397

  20. Environmental Education in Action: How Expeditionary Learning Schools Support Classroom Teachers in Tackling Issues of Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riordan, Meg; Klein, Emily J.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental education (EE) pedagogy is grounded in a view of teaching as a "creative and dynamic process in which pupils and teachers are engaged together in a search for solutions to environmental problems." However it is not only the students who need support engaging in this search but the teachers--in creating dynamic, rigorous exploration…