Fast-convergence superpixel algorithm via an approximate optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Kensuke; Hong, Byung-Woo
2016-09-01
We propose an optimization scheme that achieves fast yet accurate computation of superpixels from an image. Our optimization is designed to improve the efficiency and robustness for the minimization of a composite energy functional in the expectation-minimization (EM) framework where we restrict the update of an estimate to avoid redundant computations. We consider a superpixel energy formulation that consists of L2-norm for the spatial regularity and L1-norm for the data fidelity in the demonstration of the robustness of the proposed algorithm. The quantitative and qualitative evaluations indicate that our superpixel algorithm outperforms SLIC and SEEDS algorithms. It is also demonstrated that our algorithm guarantees the convergence with less computational cost by up to 89% on average compared to the SLIC algorithm while preserving the accuracy. Our optimization scheme can be easily extended to other applications in which the alternating minimization is applicable in the EM framework.
Achieving a "Grand Convergence" in global health by 2035.
Mahmoud, Adel
2017-01-20
Historical evidence demonstrates the validity of the concept "Grand Convergence". The Lancet commission identified the major challenges facing low and lower middle income countries including the unfinished agenda, non-communicable diseases and injuries and an approach to funding and achieving these objectives along with progress towards universal health care. The role of vaccines is summarized as a major approach to accomplish a Grand Convergence in a generation.
Fast convergence to equilibrium for long-chain polymer melts using a MD/continuum hybrid method.
Senda, Yasuhiro; Fujio, Miyuki; Shimamura, Shuji; Blomqvist, Janne; Nieminen, Risto M
2012-10-21
Effective and fast convergence toward an equilibrium state for long-chain polymer melts is realized by a hybrid method coupling molecular dynamics and the elastic continuum. The required simulation time to achieve the equilibrium state is reduced compared with conventional equilibration methods. The polymers move on a wide range phase space due to large-scale fluctuation generated by the elastic continuum. A variety of chain structures is generated in the polymer melt which results in the fast convergence to the equilibrium state.
Design of Neural Networks for Fast Convergence and Accuracy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maghami, Peiman G.; Sparks, Dean W., Jr.
1998-01-01
A novel procedure for the design and training of artificial neural networks, used for rapid and efficient controls and dynamics design and analysis for flexible space systems, has been developed. Artificial neural networks are employed to provide a means of evaluating the impact of design changes rapidly. Specifically, two-layer feedforward neural networks are designed to approximate the functional relationship between the component spacecraft design changes and measures of its performance. A training algorithm, based on statistical sampling theory, is presented, which guarantees that the trained networks provide a designer-specified degree of accuracy in mapping the functional relationship. Within each iteration of this statistical-based algorithm, a sequential design algorithm is used for the design and training of the feedforward network to provide rapid convergence to the network goals. Here, at each sequence a new network is trained to minimize the error of previous network. The design algorithm attempts to avoid the local minima phenomenon that hampers the traditional network training. A numerical example is performed on a spacecraft application in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.
Fast converging exact power series for the time and period of the simple pendulum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benacka, Jan
2017-03-01
A time explicit fast converging exact power series solution to the pendulum equation is derived in this paper. A novel series for the period results from it. The approximate formula that comprises the first three terms gives an accuracy of 99.99% up to the amplitude of 90°. The accuracy was compared with that of 11 other approximate period formulas.
Models for IP/MPLS routing performance: convergence, fast reroute, and QoS impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choudhury, Gagan L.
2004-09-01
We show how to model the black-holing and looping of traffic during an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) convergence event at an IP network and how to significantly improve both the convergence time and packet loss duration through IGP parameter tuning and algorithmic improvement. We also explore some congestion avoidance and congestion control algorithms that can significantly improve stability of networks in the face of occasional massive control message storms. Specifically we show the positive impacts of prioritizing Hello and Acknowledgement packets and slowing down LSA generation and retransmission generation on detecting congestion in the network. For some types of video, voice signaling and circuit emulation applications it is necessary to reduce traffic loss durations following a convergence event to below 100 ms and we explore that using Fast Reroute algorithms based on Multiprotocol Label Switching Traffic Engineering (MPLS-TE) that effectively bypasses IGP convergence. We explore the scalability of primary and backup MPLS-TE tunnels where MPLS-TE domain is in the backbone-only or edge-to-edge. We also show how much extra backbone resource is needed to support Fast Reroute and how can that be reduced by taking advantage of Constrained Shortest Path (CSPF) routing of MPLS-TE and by reserving less than 100% of primary tunnel bandwidth during Fast Reroute.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.
2005-09-01
Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and
Achieving fast and stable failure detection in WDM Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiyu; Zhang, Hanyi
2005-02-01
In dynamic networks, the failure detection time takes a major part of the convergence time, which is an important network performance index. To detect a node or link failure in the network, traditional protocols, like Hello protocol in OSPF or RSVP, exchanges keep-alive messages between neighboring nodes to keep track of the link/node state. But by default settings, it can get a minimum detection time in the measure of dozens of seconds, which can not meet the demands of fast network convergence and failure recovery. When configuring the related parameters to reduce the detection time, there will be notable instability problems. In this paper, we analyzed the problem and designed a new failure detection algorithm to reduce the network overhead of detection signaling. Through our experiment we found it is effective to enhance the stability by implicitly acknowledge other signaling messages as keep-alive messages. We conducted our proposal and the previous approaches on the ASON test-bed. The experimental results show that our algorithm gives better performances than previous schemes in about an order magnitude reduction of both false failure alarms and queuing delay to other messages, especially under light traffic load.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.
2005-05-01
Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.
2005-06-01
Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.
2005-04-01
Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.
2004-12-01
Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.
2005-08-01
Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.
2005-03-01
Call for Papers: Convergence Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.
2005-02-01
Call for Papers: Convergence Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.
2005-01-01
Accurate and Fast Convergent Initial-Value Belief Propagation for Stereo Matching
Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yiguang
2015-01-01
The belief propagation (BP) algorithm has some limitations, including ambiguous edges and textureless regions, and slow convergence speed. To address these problems, we present a novel algorithm that intrinsically improves both the accuracy and the convergence speed of BP. First, traditional BP generally consumes time due to numerous iterations. To reduce the number of iterations, inspired by the crucial importance of the initial value in nonlinear problems, a novel initial-value belief propagation (IVBP) algorithm is presented, which can greatly improve both convergence speed and accuracy. Second, .the majority of the existing research on BP concentrates on the smoothness term or other energy terms, neglecting the significance of the data term. In this study, a self-adapting dissimilarity data term (SDDT) is presented to improve the accuracy of the data term, which incorporates an additional gradient-based measure into the traditional data term, with the weight determined by the robust measure-based control function. Finally, this study explores the effective combination of local methods and global methods. The experimental results have demonstrated that our method performs well compared with the state-of-the-art BP and simultaneously holds better edge-preserving smoothing effects with fast convergence speed in the Middlebury and new 2014 Middlebury datasets. PMID:26349063
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cleary, Timothy J.; Callan, Gregory L.; Malatesta, Jaime; Adams, Tanya
2015-01-01
This study examined the convergent and predictive validity of self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic measures. Specifically, theoretically based relations among a set of self-reflection processes, self-efficacy, and achievement were examined as was the level of convergence between a microanalytic strategy measure and a SRL self-report…
Fast-kick-off monotonically convergent algorithm for searching optimal control fields
Liao, Sheng-Lun; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel; Chu, Shih-I
2011-09-15
This Rapid Communication presents a fast-kick-off search algorithm for quickly finding optimal control fields in the state-to-state transition probability control problems, especially those with poorly chosen initial control fields. The algorithm is based on a recently formulated monotonically convergent scheme [T.-S. Ho and H. Rabitz, Phys. Rev. E 82, 026703 (2010)]. Specifically, the local temporal refinement of the control field at each iteration is weighted by a fractional inverse power of the instantaneous overlap of the backward-propagating wave function, associated with the target state and the control field from the previous iteration, and the forward-propagating wave function, associated with the initial state and the concurrently refining control field. Extensive numerical simulations for controls of vibrational transitions and ultrafast electron tunneling show that the new algorithm not only greatly improves the search efficiency but also is able to attain good monotonic convergence quality when further frequency constraints are required. The algorithm is particularly effective when the corresponding control dynamics involves a large number of energy levels or ultrashort control pulses.
Lin, Chunhua; Xie, Xianqing; Fan, Naili; Tu, Yuanhong; Chen, Yan; Liao, Weilin
2015-04-01
A fast analytical method for five common fatty acids in six edible vegetable oils was developed by ultra-performance convergence chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPC2-MS). The five fatty acids are palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Their contents in the corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, tea oil, rapeseed oil and peanut oil were compared. The chromatographic separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPC2 BEH 2-EP column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) using the mobile phases of carbon dioxide and methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) with gradient elution. The separated compounds were detected by negative electrospray ionization ESF-MS. The results showed that the reasonable linearities were achieved for all the analytes over the range of 0.5-100 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9985-0.9998. The limits of quantification (S/N ≥ 10) of the five fatty acids were 0.15-0.50 mg/L. The recoveries of the five fatty acids at three spiked levels were in the range of 89.61%-108.50% with relative standard deviations of 0.69%-3.01%. The developed method showed high performance, good resolution and fast analysis for the underivatized fatty acids. It has been successfully used to detect the five fatty acids from corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, tea oil rapeseed oil and peanut oil.
How to Achieve Fast Entrainment? The Timescale to Synchronization
Granada, Adrián E.; Herzel, Hanspeter
2009-01-01
Entrainment, where oscillators synchronize to an external signal, is ubiquitous in nature. The transient time leading to entrainment plays a major role in many biological processes. Our goal is to unveil the specific dynamics that leads to fast entrainment. By studying a generic model, we characterize the transient time to entrainment and show how it is governed by two basic properties of an oscillator: the radial relaxation time and the phase velocity distribution around the limit cycle. Those two basic properties are inherent in every oscillator. This concept can be applied to many biological systems to predict the average transient time to entrainment or to infer properties of the underlying oscillator from the observed transients. We found that both a sinusoidal oscillator with fast radial relaxation and a spike-like oscillator with slow radial relaxation give rise to fast entrainment. As an example, we discuss the jet-lag experiments in the mammalian circadian pacemaker. PMID:19774087
Achieving fast timing performance with multiplexed SiPMs.
Bieniosek, M F; Cates, J W; Levin, C S
2016-04-07
Using time of flight (ToF) measurements for positron emission tomography (PET) is an attractive avenue for increasing the signal to noise (SNR) ratio of PET images. However, achieving excellent time resolution required for high SNR gain using silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) requires many resource heavy high bandwidth readout channels. A method of multiplexing many SiPM signals into a single electronic channel would greatly simplify ToF PET systems. However, multiplexing SiPMs degrades time resolution because of added dark counts and signal shaping. In this work the relative contribution of dark counts and signal shaping to timing degradation is simulated and a baseline correction technique to mitigate the effect of multiplexing on the time resolution of analog SiPMs is simulated and experimentally verified. A charge sharing network for multiplexing is proposed and tested. Results show a full width at half maximum (FWHM) coincidence time resolution of [Formula: see text] ps for a single 3 mm × 3 mm × 20 mm LYSO scintillation crystals coupled to an array of sixteen 3 mm × 3 mm SiPMs that are multiplexed to a single timing channel (in addition to 4 position channels). A [Formula: see text] array of 3 mm × 3 mm × 20 mm LFS crystals showed an average FWHM coincidence time resolution of [Formula: see text] ps using the same timing scheme. All experiments were performed at room temperature with no thermal regulation. These results show that excellent time resolution for ToF can be achieved with a highly multiplexed analog SiPM readout.
Popov, E; Nevière, M
2001-11-01
We establish the most general differential equations that are satisfied by the Fourier components of the electromagnetic field diffracted by an arbitrary periodic anisotropic medium. The equations are derived by use of the recently published fast-Fourier-factorization (FFF) method, which ensures fast convergence of the Fourier series of the field. The diffraction by classic isotropic gratings arises as a particular case of the derived equations; the case of anisotropic classic gratings was published elsewhere. The equations can be resolved either through classic differential theory or through the modal method for particular groove profiles. The new equations improve both methods in the same way. Crossed gratings, among which are grids and two-dimensional arbitrarily shaped periodic surfaces, appear as particular cases of the theory, as do three-dimensional photonic crystals. The method can be extended to nonperiodic media through the use of a Fourier transform.
Distributed weighted least-squares estimation with fast convergence for large-scale systems.
Marelli, Damián Edgardo; Fu, Minyue
2015-01-01
In this paper we study a distributed weighted least-squares estimation problem for a large-scale system consisting of a network of interconnected sub-systems. Each sub-system is concerned with a subset of the unknown parameters and has a measurement linear in the unknown parameters with additive noise. The distributed estimation task is for each sub-system to compute the globally optimal estimate of its own parameters using its own measurement and information shared with the network through neighborhood communication. We first provide a fully distributed iterative algorithm to asymptotically compute the global optimal estimate. The convergence rate of the algorithm will be maximized using a scaling parameter and a preconditioning method. This algorithm works for a general network. For a network without loops, we also provide a different iterative algorithm to compute the global optimal estimate which converges in a finite number of steps. We include numerical experiments to illustrate the performances of the proposed methods.
Distributed weighted least-squares estimation with fast convergence for large-scale systems☆
Marelli, Damián Edgardo; Fu, Minyue
2015-01-01
In this paper we study a distributed weighted least-squares estimation problem for a large-scale system consisting of a network of interconnected sub-systems. Each sub-system is concerned with a subset of the unknown parameters and has a measurement linear in the unknown parameters with additive noise. The distributed estimation task is for each sub-system to compute the globally optimal estimate of its own parameters using its own measurement and information shared with the network through neighborhood communication. We first provide a fully distributed iterative algorithm to asymptotically compute the global optimal estimate. The convergence rate of the algorithm will be maximized using a scaling parameter and a preconditioning method. This algorithm works for a general network. For a network without loops, we also provide a different iterative algorithm to compute the global optimal estimate which converges in a finite number of steps. We include numerical experiments to illustrate the performances of the proposed methods. PMID:25641976
A fast-converging iterative method for X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vo, Nghia T.; Atwood, Robert C.; Moser, Herbert O.; Lee, Peter D.; Breese, Mark B. H.; Drakopoulos, Michael
2012-11-01
X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography holds great promise for the quantitative analysis of soft materials. However, its applications have been limited, so far, by the fact that direct methods based on the transport-of-intensity equation and the contrast transfer function are sensitive to noise and applicable only to limited types of samples. Here, we propose an iterative method based on the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972)), but overcoming its slow convergence by an acceleration technique, named random signed feedback, which shows an excellent performance, both in numerical simulation and tomographic experiment, of discriminating various polymers even when using 53 keV synchrotron X-rays.
A fast-converging iterative method for X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography
Vo, Nghia T.; Breese, Mark B. H.; Atwood, Robert C.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Moser, Herbert O.; Lee, Peter D.
2012-11-26
X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography holds great promise for the quantitative analysis of soft materials. However, its applications have been limited, so far, by the fact that direct methods based on the transport-of-intensity equation and the contrast transfer function are sensitive to noise and applicable only to limited types of samples. Here, we propose an iterative method based on the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972)), but overcoming its slow convergence by an acceleration technique, named random signed feedback, which shows an excellent performance, both in numerical simulation and tomographic experiment, of discriminating various polymers even when using 53 keV synchrotron X-rays.
Lahanas, M; Baltas, D; Giannouli, S
2003-03-07
We consider the problem of the global convergence of gradient-based optimization algorithms for interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy dose optimization using variance-based objectives. Possible local minima could lead to only sub-optimal solutions. We perform a configuration space analysis using a representative set of the entire non-dominated solution space. A set of three prostate implants is used in this study. We compare the results obtained by conjugate gradient algorithms, two variable metric algorithms and fast-simulated annealing. For the variable metric algorithm BFGS from numerical recipes, large fluctuations are observed. The limited memory L-BFGS algorithm and the conjugate gradient algorithm FRPR are globally convergent. Local minima or degenerate states are not observed. We study the possibility of obtaining a representative set of non-dominated solutions using optimal solution rearrangement and a warm start mechanism. For the surface and volume dose variance and their derivatives, a method is proposed which significantly reduces the number of required operations. The optimization time, ignoring a preprocessing step, is independent of the number of sampling points in the planning target volume. Multiobjective dose optimization in HDR brachytherapy using L-BFGS and a new modified computation method for the objectives and derivatives has been accelerated, depending on the number of sampling points, by a factor in the range 10-100.
Choi, Sekyu; Lim, Dae-Sik; Chung, Jongkyeong
2015-05-01
LKB1 plays important roles in governing energy homeostasis by regulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and other AMPK-related kinases, including the salt-inducible kinases (SIKs). However, the roles and regulation of LKB1 in lipid metabolism are poorly understood. Here we show that Drosophila LKB1 mutants display decreased lipid storage and increased gene expression of brummer, the Drosophila homolog of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). These phenotypes are consistent with those of SIK3 mutants and are rescued by expression of constitutively active SIK3 in the fat body, suggesting that SIK3 is a key downstream kinase of LKB1. Using genetic and biochemical analyses, we identify HDAC4, a class IIa histone deacetylase, as a lipolytic target of the LKB1-SIK3 pathway. Interestingly, we found that the LKB1-SIK3-HDAC4 signaling axis is modulated by dietary conditions. In short-term fasting, the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) pathway, related to the mammalian glucagon pathway, inhibits the kinase activity of LKB1 as shown by decreased SIK3 Thr196 phosphorylation, and consequently induces HDAC4 nuclear localization and brummer gene expression. However, under prolonged fasting conditions, AKH-independent signaling decreases the activity of the LKB1-SIK3 pathway to induce lipolytic responses. We also identify that the Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs) pathway, related to mammalian insulin pathway, regulates SIK3 activity in feeding conditions independently of increasing LKB1 kinase activity. Overall, these data suggest that fasting stimuli specifically control the kinase activity of LKB1 and establish the LKB1-SIK3 pathway as a converging point between feeding and fasting signals to control lipid homeostasis in Drosophila.
Design of Neural Networks for Fast Convergence and Accuracy: Dynamics and Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maghami, Peiman G.; Sparks, Dean W., Jr.
1997-01-01
A procedure for the design and training of artificial neural networks, used for rapid and efficient controls and dynamics design and analysis for flexible space systems, has been developed. Artificial neural networks are employed, such that once properly trained, they provide a means of evaluating the impact of design changes rapidly. Specifically, two-layer feedforward neural networks are designed to approximate the functional relationship between the component/spacecraft design changes and measures of its performance or nonlinear dynamics of the system/components. A training algorithm, based on statistical sampling theory, is presented, which guarantees that the trained networks provide a designer-specified degree of accuracy in mapping the functional relationship. Within each iteration of this statistical-based algorithm, a sequential design algorithm is used for the design and training of the feedforward network to provide rapid convergence to the network goals. Here, at each sequence a new network is trained to minimize the error of previous network. The proposed method should work for applications wherein an arbitrary large source of training data can be generated. Two numerical examples are performed on a spacecraft application in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.
Fast time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy: Achieving sub-cycle time resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karatay, Durmus U.; Harrison, Jeffrey S.; Glaz, Micah S.; Giridharagopal, Rajiv; Ginger, David S.
2016-05-01
The ability to measure microsecond- and nanosecond-scale local dynamics below the diffraction limit with widely available atomic force microscopy hardware would enable new scientific studies in fields ranging from biology to semiconductor physics. However, commercially available scanning-probe instruments typically offer the ability to measure dynamics only on time scales of milliseconds to seconds. Here, we describe in detail the implementation of fast time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy using an oscillating cantilever as a means to measure fast local dynamics following a perturbation to a sample. We show how the phase of the oscillating cantilever relative to the perturbation event is critical to achieving reliable sub-cycle time resolution. We explore how noise affects the achievable time resolution and present empirical guidelines for reducing noise and optimizing experimental parameters. Specifically, we show that reducing the noise on the cantilever by using photothermal excitation instead of piezoacoustic excitation further improves time resolution. We demonstrate the discrimination of signal rise times with time constants as fast as 10 ns, and simultaneous data acquisition and analysis for dramatically improved image acquisition times.
Yamey, Gavin; Fewer, Sara; Beyeler, Naomi
2015-07-29
Global Health 2035, the report of The Lancet Commission on Investing in Health, laid out a bold, highly ambitious framework for making rapid progress in improving global public health outcomes. It showed that with the right health investments, the international community could achieve a "grand convergence" in global health-a reduction in avertable infectious, maternal, and child deaths down to universally low levels-within a generation. Rwanda's success in rapidly reducing such deaths over the last 20 years shows that convergence is feasible. Binagwaho and Scott have argued that 5 lessons from this success are the importance of equity, quality health services, evidence-informed policy, intersectoral collaboration, and effective collaboration between countries and multilateral agencies. This article re-examines these lessons through the lens of the Global Health 2035 report to analyze how the experience in Rwanda might be generalized for other countries to making progress towards achieving a grand convergence.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robinson, Cecil; Rose, Sage
2010-01-01
One leading version of hope theory posits hope to be a general disposition for goal-directed agency and pathways thinking. Domain-specific hope theory suggests that hope operates within context and measures of hope should reflect that context. This study examined three measures of hope to test the predictive, construct, and convergent validity…
Kaslow, David C; Kalil, Jorge; Bloom, David; Breghi, Gianluca; Colucci, Anna Maria; De Gregorio, Ennio; Madhavan, Guru; Meier, Genevieve; Seabrook, Richard; Xu, Xiaoning
2017-01-20
On 17 and 18 July 2015, a meeting in Siena jointly sponsored by ADITEC and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) was held to review the goals of the Global Health 2035 Grand Convergence, to discuss current vaccine evaluation methods, and to determine the feasibility of reaching consensus on an assessment framework for comprehensively and accurately capturing the full benefits of vaccines. Through lectures and workshops, participants reached a consensus that Multi-Criteria-Decision-Analysis is a method suited to systematically account for the many variables needed to evaluate the broad benefits of vaccination, which include not only health system savings, but also societal benefits, including benefits to the family and increased productivity. Participants also agreed on a set of "core values" to be used in future assessments of vaccines for development and introduction. These values include measures of vaccine efficacy and safety, incident cases prevented per year, the results of cost-benefit analyses, preventable mortality, and the severity of the target disease. Agreement on this set of core assessment parameters has the potential to increase alignment between manufacturers, public health agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and policy makers (see Global Health 2035 Mission Grand Convergence [1]). The following sections capture the deliberations of a workshop (Working Group 4) chartered to: (1) review the list of 24 parameters selected from SMART vaccines (see the companion papers by Timmis et al. and Madhavan et al., respectively) to determine which represent factors (see Table 1) that should be taken into account when evaluating the role of vaccines in maximizing the success of the Global Health 2035 Grand Convergence; (2) develop 3-5 "core values" that should be taken into account when evaluating vaccines at various stages of development; and (3) determine how vaccines can best contribute to the Global Health 2035 Grand Convergence effort.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jagoutz, O. E.; Royden, L.; Holt, A.; Becker, T. W.
2014-12-01
The pre-collisional convergence history of India and Eurasia displays highly variable convergence rates, including anomalously high rates of ~120-180 mm/a between ~70 and 50 Ma. As the subduction zone forces play a key role in driving plate tectonic understanding the subduction zone configuration in the Tethyan ocean is essential to understand the observed variation in convergence rates. It has long been established that two subduction systems existed between India and Eurasia since the break up of Gondwana: An intra oceanic subduction system (in the equatorial part of the ocean) and a continental subduction system on the southern Eurasian margin. As relicts of both subduction systems are now incorporated in the Himalayan and Tibetan collision zone, reconstruction of the pre-collisional geometry and the timing of the collision between India and the different subduction system is challenging. However, in recent years it has become increasingly more obvious that India likely originally collided with the intra oceanic subduction system first and only subsequently with the Eurasia margin (e.g., Aitchison et al., 2007 JGR, Bouilhol et al, 2013 EPSL). In this presentation, we summarize the geological evidence that allows us to reconstruct the configuration of the subduction system in the Tehtyan ocean and the timing of the India-Arc and India Eurasia collision. These constraints guide 3D subduction zone models that are used to evaluate the role of two subduction zones for the variable India-Eurasia Convergence rates. Model convergence rates of up to 140 mm/yr are in agreement with observed rates from 120 Ma to present, except for a short-lived spike in rate at ~62-66 Ma, which may be attributed to the Reunion plume. The end of anomalously fast convergence is due to the entry of buoyant Indian continental lithosphere into this intra-oceanic subduction zone at 50 Ma and not to the collision of India with Eurasia, which had little effect before 40 Ma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoy, Robert S.; Foteinopoulou, Katerina; Kröger, Martin
2009-09-01
Primitive path analyses of entanglements are performed over a wide range of chain lengths for both bead spring and atomistic polyethylene polymer melts. Estimators for the entanglement length Ne which operate on results for a single chain length N are shown to produce systematic O(1/N) errors. The mathematical roots of these errors are identified as (a) treating chain ends as entanglements and (b) neglecting non-Gaussian corrections to chain and primitive path dimensions. The prefactors for the O(1/N) errors may be large; in general their magnitude depends both on the polymer model and the method used to obtain primitive paths. We propose, derive, and test new estimators which eliminate these systematic errors using information obtainable from the variation in entanglement characteristics with chain length. The new estimators produce accurate results for Ne from marginally entangled systems. Formulas based on direct enumeration of entanglements appear to converge faster and are simpler to apply.
Hemingway, Janet; Shretta, Rima; Wells, Timothy N C; Bell, David; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Achee, Nicole; Qi, Gao
2016-03-01
Progress made in malaria control during the past decade has prompted increasing global dialogue on malaria elimination and eradication. The product development pipeline for malaria has never been stronger, with promising new tools to detect, treat, and prevent malaria, including innovative diagnostics, medicines, vaccines, vector control products, and improved mechanisms for surveillance and response. There are at least 25 projects in the global malaria vaccine pipeline, as well as 47 medicines and 13 vector control products. In addition, there are several next-generation diagnostic tools and reference methods currently in development, with many expected to be introduced in the next decade. The development and adoption of these tools, bolstered by strategies that ensure rapid uptake in target populations, intensified mechanisms for information management, surveillance, and response, and continued financial and political commitment are all essential to achieving global eradication.
Hemingway, Janet; Shretta, Rima; Wells, Timothy N. C.; Bell, David; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; Achee, Nicole; Qi, Gao
2016-01-01
Progress made in malaria control during the past decade has prompted increasing global dialogue on malaria elimination and eradication. The product development pipeline for malaria has never been stronger, with promising new tools to detect, treat, and prevent malaria, including innovative diagnostics, medicines, vaccines, vector control products, and improved mechanisms for surveillance and response. There are at least 25 projects in the global malaria vaccine pipeline, as well as 47 medicines and 13 vector control products. In addition, there are several next-generation diagnostic tools and reference methods currently in development, with many expected to be introduced in the next decade. The development and adoption of these tools, bolstered by strategies that ensure rapid uptake in target populations, intensified mechanisms for information management, surveillance, and response, and continued financial and political commitment are all essential to achieving global eradication. PMID:26934361
Fast Principal-Component Analysis Reveals Convergent Evolution of ADH1B in Europe and East Asia.
Galinsky, Kevin J; Bhatia, Gaurav; Loh, Po-Ru; Georgiev, Stoyan; Mukherjee, Sayan; Patterson, Nick J; Price, Alkes L
2016-03-03
Searching for genetic variants with unusual differentiation between subpopulations is an established approach for identifying signals of natural selection. However, existing methods generally require discrete subpopulations. We introduce a method that infers selection using principal components (PCs) by identifying variants whose differentiation along top PCs is significantly greater than the null distribution of genetic drift. To enable the application of this method to large datasets, we developed the FastPCA software, which employs recent advances in random matrix theory to accurately approximate top PCs while reducing time and memory cost from quadratic to linear in the number of individuals, a computational improvement of many orders of magnitude. We apply FastPCA to a cohort of 54,734 European Americans, identifying 5 distinct subpopulations spanning the top 4 PCs. Using the PC-based test for natural selection, we replicate previously known selected loci and identify three new genome-wide significant signals of selection, including selection in Europeans at ADH1B. The coding variant rs1229984(∗)T has previously been associated to a decreased risk of alcoholism and shown to be under selection in East Asians; we show that it is a rare example of independent evolution on two continents. We also detect selection signals at IGFBP3 and IGH, which have also previously been associated to human disease.
Fast Principal-Component Analysis Reveals Convergent Evolution of ADH1B in Europe and East Asia
Galinsky, Kevin J.; Bhatia, Gaurav; Loh, Po-Ru; Georgiev, Stoyan; Mukherjee, Sayan; Patterson, Nick J.; Price, Alkes L.
2016-01-01
Searching for genetic variants with unusual differentiation between subpopulations is an established approach for identifying signals of natural selection. However, existing methods generally require discrete subpopulations. We introduce a method that infers selection using principal components (PCs) by identifying variants whose differentiation along top PCs is significantly greater than the null distribution of genetic drift. To enable the application of this method to large datasets, we developed the FastPCA software, which employs recent advances in random matrix theory to accurately approximate top PCs while reducing time and memory cost from quadratic to linear in the number of individuals, a computational improvement of many orders of magnitude. We apply FastPCA to a cohort of 54,734 European Americans, identifying 5 distinct subpopulations spanning the top 4 PCs. Using the PC-based test for natural selection, we replicate previously known selected loci and identify three new genome-wide significant signals of selection, including selection in Europeans at ADH1B. The coding variant rs1229984∗T has previously been associated to a decreased risk of alcoholism and shown to be under selection in East Asians; we show that it is a rare example of independent evolution on two continents. We also detect selection signals at IGFBP3 and IGH, which have also previously been associated to human disease. PMID:26924531
Sanz, Martín; Picazo-Bueno, José Angel; García, Javier; Micó, Vicente
2015-08-10
We report on a novel algorithm for high-resolution quantitative phase imaging in a new concept of lensless holographic microscope based on single-shot multi-wavelength illumination. This new microscope layout, reported by Noom et al. along the past year and named by us as MISHELF (initials incoming from Multi-Illumination Single-Holographic-Exposure Lensless Fresnel) microscopy, rises from the simultaneous illumination and recording of multiple diffraction patterns in the Fresnel domain. In combination with a novel and fast iterative phase retrieval algorithm, MISHELF microscopy is capable of high-resolution (micron range) phase-retrieved (twin image elimination) biological imaging of dynamic events. In this contribution, MISHELF microscopy is demonstrated through qualitative concept description, algorithm implementation, and experimental validation using both a synthetic object (resolution test target) and a biological sample (swine sperm sample) for the case of three (RGB) illumination wavelengths. The proposed method becomes in an alternative instrument improving the capabilities of existing lensless microscopes.
The Impact of Fast ForWord on MCT Scores and Student Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Vinkle, Michael Harvey
2009-01-01
Educators today were concerned with how the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 dealt with the improvement of education throughout the United States. Schools should have put forth a greater effort and reduced the achievement gap between different groups of students based on race, gender, special education status, and if that student was economically…
Clementi, Catia; Nowik, Witold; Romani, Aldo; Cardon, Dominique; Trojanowicz, Marek; Davantès, Athénaïs; Chaminade, Pierre
2016-07-05
In this paper, partial least square (PLS) regression is innovatively applied for a semi-quantitative non invasive study of the most precious dye of Antiquity: Tyrian purple. This original approach for the study of organic dyes in the cultural heritage field, is based on the correlation of spectrophotometric (UV-Visible) and chromatographic (Fast-HT-HPLC-PDA) data from an extensive set of textiles prepared with different snail species according to historical recipes. A cross-validated PLS model, based on the quantity of 6,6'-dibromoindigotin, displays an excellent correlation factor (R(2)Y = 0.987) between values determined by chromatography and those predicted from reflectance spectra. This indicates that the spectral features of Tyrian purple on textile fibre is strictly related to the amount of this indigoid component whose content may be non invasively predicted from reflectance spectrum. The studied correlation also highlights that, independently of the dyeing method and nature of the textile fibre used, the relative content of 6,6'-dibromindigotin may be used as a parameter to distinguish samples prepared with Hexaplex trunculus L. snails from those prepared with further mollusc species. To validate this model, archaeological textile fragments dating from the Roman period were successfully examined. The results achieved open an absolutely new way in Tyrian purple analysis in cultural heritage by non invasive spectroscopic techniques attesting their convergence with HPLC and giving them a semi-quantitative value.
Achieving Fast Self Healing in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Multi-generation Deployment Schemes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yılmaz, Ömer Zekvan; Levi, Albert; Savaş, Erkay
The majority of studies on security in resource limited wireless sensor networks (WSN) focus on finding an efficient balance among energy consumption, computational speed and memory usage. Besides these resources, time is a relatively immature aspect that can be considered in system design and performance evaluations. In a recent study by Castelluccia and Spognardi , the time dimension is used to lower the ratio of compromised links, thus, improving resiliency in key distribution in WSNs. This is achieved by making the old and possibly compromised keys useful only for a limited amount of time. In this way, the effect of compromised keys diminish in time, so the WSN selfheals. In this study we further manipulate the time dimension and propose a deployment model that speeds up the resilience improvement process with a tradeoff between connectivity and resiliency. In our method, self healing speeds up by introducing nodes that belong to future generations in the time scale. In this way, the duration that the adversary can make use of compromised keys become smaller.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zion, Shelley D.; Blanchett, Wanda
2011-01-01
Background/Context: Even though not fully realized, in legislation and theory, the requirements of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act and the No Child Left Behind Act have created pressure to address the historical inequity in educational opportunity, achievement, and outcomes, as well as disparities in achievement between…
Han, Xu; Ma, Hongbin; Jiao, Anjun; Critser, John K
2008-06-01
Theoretically, direct vitrification of cell suspensions with relatively low concentrations ( approximately 1 M) of permeating cryoprotective agents (CPA) is suitable for cryopreservation of almost all cell types and can be accomplished by ultra-fast cooling rates that are on the order of 10(6-7) K/min. However, the methods and devices currently available for cell cryopreservation cannot achieve such high cooling rates. In this study, we constructed a novel cryogenic oscillating heat pipe (COHP) using liquid nitrogen as its working fluid and investigated its heat transport capability to assess its application for achieving ultra-fast cooling rates for cell cryopreservation. The experimental results showed that the apparent heat transfer coefficient of the COHP can reach 2 x 10(5) W/m(2).K, which is two orders of the magnitude higher than traditional heat pipes. Theoretical analyzes showed that the average local heat transfer coefficient in the thin film evaporation region of the COHP can reach 1.2 x 10(6) W/m(2).K, which is approximately 10(3) times higher than that achievable with standard pool-boiling approaches. Based on these results, a novel device design applying the COHP and microfabrication techniques is proposed and its efficiency for cell vitrification is demonstrated through numerical simulation. The estimated average cooling rates achieved through this approach is 10(6-7)K/min, which is much faster than the currently available methods and sufficient for achieving vitrification with relatively low concentrations of CPA.
Luque, Niceto R.; Garrido, Jesús A.; Carrillo, Richard R.; D'Angelo, Egidio; Ros, Eduardo
2014-01-01
The cerebellum is known to play a critical role in learning relevant patterns of activity for adaptive motor control, but the underlying network mechanisms are only partly understood. The classical long-term synaptic plasticity between parallel fibers (PFs) and Purkinje cells (PCs), which is driven by the inferior olive (IO), can only account for limited aspects of learning. Recently, the role of additional forms of plasticity in the granular layer, molecular layer and deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) has been considered. In particular, learning at DCN synapses allows for generalization, but convergence to a stable state requires hundreds of repetitions. In this paper we have explored the putative role of the IO-DCN connection by endowing it with adaptable weights and exploring its implications in a closed-loop robotic manipulation task. Our results show that IO-DCN plasticity accelerates convergence of learning by up to two orders of magnitude without conflicting with the generalization properties conferred by DCN plasticity. Thus, this model suggests that multiple distributed learning mechanisms provide a key for explaining the complex properties of procedural learning and open up new experimental questions for synaptic plasticity in the cerebellar network. PMID:25177290
Loco, Daniele; Jurinovich, Sandro; Di Bari, Lorenzo; Mennucci, Benedetta
2016-01-14
We present and discuss a simple and fast computational approach to the calculation of electronic circular dichroism spectra of nucleic acids. It is based on a exciton model in which the couplings are obtained in terms of the full transition-charge distributions, as resulting from TDDFT methods applied on the individual nucleobases. We validated the method on two systems, a DNA G-quadruplex and a RNA β-hairpin whose solution structures have been accurately determined by means of NMR. We have shown that the different characteristics of composition and structure of the two systems can lead to quite important differences in the dependence of the accuracy of the simulation on the excitonic parameters. The accurate reproduction of the CD spectra together with their interpretation in terms of the excitonic composition suggest that this method may lend itself as a general computational tool to both predict the spectra of hypothetic structures and define clear relationships between structural and ECD properties.
Boyle, Kelly S; Dewan, Adam K; Tricas, Timothy C
2013-04-01
Sound production that is mediated by intrinsic or extrinsic swim bladder musculature has evolved multiple times in teleost fishes. Sonic muscles must contract rapidly and synchronously to compress the gas-filled bladder with sufficient velocity to produce sound. Muscle modifications that may promote rapid contraction include small fiber diameter, elaborate sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), triads at the A-I boundary, and cores of sarcoplasm. The diversity of innervation patterns indicate that sonic muscles have independently evolved from different trunk muscle precursors. The analysis of sonic motor pathways in distantly related fishes is required to determine the relationships between sonic muscle evolution and function in acoustic signaling. We examined the ultrastructure of sonic and adjacent hypaxial muscle fibers and the distribution of sonic motor neurons in the coral reef Pyramid Butterflyfish (Chaetodontidae: Hemitaurichthys polylepis) that produces sound by contraction of extrinsic sonic muscles near the anterior swim bladder. Relative to adjacent hypaxial fibers, sonic muscle fibers were sparsely arranged among the endomysium, smaller in cross-section, had longer sarcomeres, a more elaborate SR, wider t-tubules, and more radially arranged myofibrils. Both sonic and non-sonic muscle fibers possessed triads at the Z-line, lacked sarcoplasmic cores, and had mitochondria among the myofibrils and concentrated within the peripheral sarcoplasm. Sonic muscles of this derived eutelost possess features convergent with other distant vocal taxa (other euteleosts and non-euteleosts): small fiber diameter, a well-developed SR, and radial myofibrils. In contrast with some sonic fishes, however, Pyramid Butterflyfish sonic muscles lack sarcoplasmic cores and A-I triads. Retrograde nerve label experiments show that sonic muscle is innervated by central and ventrolateral motor neurons associated with spinal nerves 1-3. This restricted distribution of sonic motor neurons in the
Ur, Ehud; Langer, Anatoly; Rabkin, Simon W; Calciu, Cristina-Dana; Leiter, Lawrence A
2010-01-01
BACKGROUND: Despite an increasing body of evidence on the benefit of lowering elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), there is still considerable concern that patients are not achieving target LDL-C levels. OBJECTIVE: The CANadians Achieve Cholesterol Targets Fast with Atorvastatin Stratified Titration (CanACTFAST) trial tested whether an algorithm-based statin dosing approach would enable patients to achieve LDL-C and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio targets quickly. METHODS: Subjects requiring statin therapy, but with an LDL-C level of 5.7 mmol/L or lower, and triglycerides of 6.8 mmol/L or lower at screening participated in the 12-week study, which had two open-label, six-week phases: a treatment period during which patients received 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg or 80 mg of atorvastatin based on an algorithm incorporating baseline LDL-C value and cardiovascular risk; and patients who achieved both LDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio targets at six weeks continued on the same atorvastatin dose. Patients who did not achieve both targets received dose uptitration using a single-step titration regimen. The primary efficacy outcome was the proportion of patients achieving target LDL-C levels after 12 weeks. RESULTS: Of 2016 subjects screened at 88 Canadian sites, 1258 were assigned to a study drug (1101 were statin-free and 157 were statin-treated at baseline). The proportion of subjects who achieved LDL-C targets after 12 weeks of treatment was 86% (95% CI 84% to 88%) for statin-free patients and 54% (95% CI 46% to 61%) for statin-treated patients. Overall, 1003 subjects (80%; 95% CI 78% to 82%) achieved both lipid targets. CONCLUSIONS: Algorithm-based statin dosing enables patients to achieve LDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio targets quickly, with either no titration or a single titration. PMID:20151053
Do convergent developmental mechanisms underlie convergent phenotypes?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wray, Gregory A.
2002-01-01
Convergence is a pervasive evolutionary process, affecting many aspects of phenotype and even genotype. Relatively little is known about convergence in developmental processes, however, nor about the degree to which convergence in development underlies convergence in anatomy. A switch in the ecology of sea urchins from feeding to nonfeeding larvae illustrates how convergence in development can be associated with convergence in anatomy. Comparisons to more distantly related taxa, however, suggest that this association may be limited to relatively close phylogenetic comparisons. Similarities in gene expression during development provide another window into the association between convergence in developmental processes and convergence in anatomy. Several well-studied transcription factors exhibit likely cases of convergent gene expression in distantly related animal phyla. Convergence in regulatory gene expression domains is probably more common than generally acknowledged, and can arise for several different reasons. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hauschildt, P. H.
1992-01-01
A fast method for the solution of the radiative transfer equation in rapidly moving spherical media, based on an approximate Lambda-operator iteration, is described. The method uses the short characteristic method and a tridiagonal approximate Lambda-operator to achieve fast convergence. The convergence properties and the CPU time requirements of the method are discussed for the test problem of a two-level atom with background continuum absorption and Thomson scattering. Details of the actual implementation for fast vector and parallel computers are given. The method is accurate and fast enough to be incorporated in radiation-hydrodynamic calculations.
Analog electro-optical readout of SiPMs achieves fast timing required for time-of-flight PET/MR
Bieniosek, MF
2015-01-01
The design of combined positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems presents a number of challenges to engineers, as it forces the PET system to acquire data in space constrained environment that is sensitive to electro-magnetic interference and contains high static, radio frequency (RF) and gradient fields. In this work we validate fast timing performance of a PET scintillation detector using a potentially very compact, very low power, and MR compatible readout method in which analog silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) signals are transmitted optically away from the MR bore with little or even no additional readout electronics. This analog ‘electro-optial’ method could reduce the entire PET readout in the MR bore to two compact, low power components (SiPMs and lasers). Our experiments show fast timing performance from analog electro-optical readout with and without pre-amplification. With 3mm × 3mm × 20mm lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals and Excelitas SiPMs the best two-sided fwhm coincident timing resolution achieved was 220 +/- 3ps in electrical mode, 230 +/- 2ps in electro-optical with preamp mode, and 253 +/- 2ps in electro-optical without preamp mode. Timing measurements were also performed with Hamamatsu SiPMs and 3mm × 3mm × 5mm crystals. In the future the timing degradation seen can be further reduced with lower laser noise or improvements SiPM rise time or gain. PMID:25905626
Analog electro-optical readout of SiPMs achieves fast timing required for time-of-flight PET/MR.
Bieniosek, M F; Levin, C S
2015-05-07
The design of combined positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems presents a number of challenges to engineers, as it forces the PET system to acquire data in a space constrained environment that is sensitive to electro-magnetic interference and contains high static, radio frequency and gradient fields. In this work we validate fast timing performance of a PET scintillation detector using a potentially very compact, very low power, and MR compatible readout method in which analog silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) signals are transmitted optically away from the MR bore with little or even no additional readout electronics. This analog 'electro-optial' method could reduce the entire PET readout in the MR bore to two compact, low power components (SiPMs and lasers). Our experiments show fast timing performance from analog electro-optical readout with and without pre-amplification. With 3 mm × 3 mm × 20 mm lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals and Excelitas SiPMs the best two-sided fwhm coincident timing resolution achieved was 220 +/- 3 ps in electrical mode, 230 +/- 2 ps in electro-optical with preamp mode, and 253 +/- 2 ps in electro-optical without preamp mode. Timing measurements were also performed with Hamamatsu SiPMs and 3 mm × 3 mm × 5 mm crystals. In the future the timing degradation seen can be further reduced with lower laser noise or improvements SiPM rise time or gain.
Adaptive sampling in convergent beams.
Espinosa, Julián; Mas, David; Pérez, Jorge; Illueca, Carlos
2008-09-01
Numerical calculation of convergent Fresnel patterns through fast Fourier transform usually requires a large number of samples to fulfill the Nyquist sampling condition around the focus. From polynomial decomposition of the wavefront it is possible to determine which polynomial orders are the main contributors to the number of samples. This information can be used to properly modify the initial wavefront and relax the Nyquist condition thus giving a more efficient numerical algorithm.
A convergent Born series for solving the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation in arbitrarily large media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osnabrugge, Gerwin; Leedumrongwatthanakun, Saroch; Vellekoop, Ivo M.
2016-10-01
We present a fast method for numerically solving the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation. Our iterative method is based on the Born series, which we modified to achieve convergence for scattering media of arbitrary size and scattering strength. Compared to pseudospectral time-domain simulations, our modified Born approach is two orders of magnitude faster and nine orders of magnitude more accurate in benchmark tests in 1, 2, and 3-dimensional systems.
Zeng, Zhiping; Chen, Xuanze; Wang, Hening; Huang, Ning; Shan, Chunyan; Zhang, Hao; Teng, Junlin; Xi, Peng
2015-02-10
Previous stochastic localization-based super-resolution techniques are largely limited by the labeling density and the fidelity to the morphology of specimen. We report on an optical super-resolution imaging scheme implementing joint tagging using multiple fluorescent blinking dyes associated with super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (JT-SOFI), achieving ultra-high labeling density super-resolution imaging. To demonstrate the feasibility of JT-SOFI, quantum dots with different emission spectra were jointly labeled to the tubulin in COS7 cells, creating ultra-high density labeling. After analyzing and combining the fluorescence intermittency images emanating from spectrally resolved quantum dots, the microtubule networks are capable of being investigated with high fidelity and remarkably enhanced contrast at sub-diffraction resolution. The spectral separation also significantly decreased the frame number required for SOFI, enabling fast super-resolution microscopy through simultaneous data acquisition. As the joint-tagging scheme can decrease the labeling density in each spectral channel, thereby bring it closer to single-molecule state, we can faithfully reconstruct the continuous microtubule structure with high resolution through collection of only 100 frames per channel. The improved continuity of the microtubule structure is quantitatively validated with image skeletonization, thus demonstrating the advantage of JT-SOFI over other localization-based super-resolution methods.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Troia, Gary A.
2004-01-01
This study evaluated the efficacy of the computer-assisted intervention program known as Fast ForWord Language? in a sample of migrant students in Grades 1 through 6 who were native Spanish speakers. Fast ForWord Language? combines intensive training in multiple receptive English language skills with adaptive acoustic waveform lengthening and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Enyeart, Mike; Staman, E. Michael; Valdes, Jose J., Jr.
2007-01-01
The concept of convergence has evolved significantly during recent years. Today, "convergence" refers to the integration of the communications and computing resources and services that seamlessly traverse multiple infrastructures and deliver content to multiple platforms or appliances. Convergence is real. Those in higher education, and especially…
Leader selection for fast consensus in networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ying; Yang, Wen; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiaofan
2015-12-01
This paper considers a leader-follower system with the aim to select an optimal leader so as to drive the remaining nodes to reach the desired consensus with the fastest convergence speed. An index called consensus centrality (CC) is proposed to quantify how fast a leader could guide the network to achieve the desired consensus. The experiment results explored the big similarities between the distributions of CC and degree in the network, which suggest that the suboptimal leader selected by the maximum degree can approximately approach the optimal leader in heterogeneous networks. Combining the degree-based k-shell decomposition with consensus centrality, a leader selection algorithm is proposed to reduce the computational complexity in large-scale networks. Finally, the convergence time of an equivalent discrete-time model is given to illustrate the properties of the suboptimal solutions.
Nonaccommodative convergence excess.
von Noorden, G K; Avilla, C W
1986-01-15
Nonaccommodative convergence excess is a condition in which a patient has orthotropia or a small-angle esophoria or esotropia at distance and a large-angle esotropia at near, not significantly reduced by the addition of spherical plus lenses. The AC/A ratio, determined with the gradient method, is normal or subnormal. Tonic convergence is suspected of causing the convergence excess in these patients. Nonaccommodative convergence excess must be distinguished from esotropia with a high AC/A ratio and from hypoaccommodative esotropia. In 24 patients treated with recession of both medial recti muscles with and without posterior fixation or by posterior fixation alone, the mean correction of esotropia was 7.4 prism diopters at distance and 17 prism diopters at near.
Lu, Ping; Yuan, Renliang; Zuo, Jian Min
2017-02-01
Elemental mapping at the atomic-scale by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) provides a powerful real-space approach to chemical characterization of crystal structures. However, applications of this powerful technique have been limited by inefficient X-ray emission and collection, which require long acquisition times. Recently, using a lattice-vector translation method, we have shown that rapid atomic-scale elemental mapping using STEM-EDS can be achieved. This method provides atomic-scale elemental maps averaged over crystal areas of ~few 10 nm2 with the acquisition time of ~2 s or less. Here we report the details of this method, and, in particular, investigate the experimental conditions necessary for achieving it. It shows, that in addition to usual conditions required for atomic-scale imaging, a thin specimen is essential for the technique to be successful. Phenomenological modeling shows that the localization of X-ray signals to atomic columns is a key reason. The effect of specimen thickness on the signal delocalization is studied by multislice image simulations. The results show that the X-ray localization can be achieved by choosing a thin specimen, and the thickness of less than about 22 nm is preferred for SrTiO3 in [001] projection for 200 keV electrons.
Science and technology convergence: with emphasis for nanotechnology-inspired convergence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bainbridge, William S.; Roco, Mihail C.
2016-07-01
Convergence offers a new universe of discovery, innovation, and application opportunities through specific theories, principles, and methods to be implemented in research, education, production, and other societal activities. Using a holistic approach with shared goals, convergence seeks to transcend existing human limitations to achieve improved conditions for work, learning, aging, physical, and cognitive wellness. This paper outlines ten key theories that offer complementary perspectives on this complex dynamic. Principles and methods are proposed to facilitate and enhance science and technology convergence. Several convergence success stories in the first part of the 21st century—including nanotechnology and other emerging technologies—are discussed in parallel with case studies focused on the future. The formulation of relevant theories, principles, and methods aims at establishing the convergence science.
De Bruyn, D.; Fernandez, R.; Mansani, L.; Woaye-Hune, A.; Sarotto, M.; Bubelis, E.
2012-07-01
MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hybrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is the flexible experimental accelerator-driven system (ADS) in development at SCK CEN in replacement of its material testing reactor BR2. SCK CEN in association with 17 European partners from industry, research centres and academia, responded to the FP7 (Seventh Framework Programme) call from the European Commission to establish a Central Design Team (CDT) for the design of a Fast Spectrum Transmutation Experimental Facility (FASTEF) able to demonstrate efficient transmutation and associated technology through a system working in subcritical and/or critical mode. The project has started on April 01, 2009 for a period of three years. In this paper, we present the latest configuration of the reactor core and primary system. The FASTEF facility has evolved quite a lot since the intermediate reporting done at the ICAPP'10 and ICAPP'11 conferences 1 2. If it remains a small-scale facility, the core power amounts now up to 100 MWth in critical mode. In a companion paper 3, we present the concept of the reactor building and the plant layout. (authors)
OpenMC In Situ Source Convergence Detection
Aldrich, Garrett Allen; Dutta, Soumya; Woodring, Jonathan Lee
2016-05-07
We designed and implemented an in situ version of particle source convergence for the OpenMC particle transport simulator. OpenMC is a Monte Carlo based-particle simulator for neutron criticality calculations. For the transport simulation to be accurate, source particles must converge on a spatial distribution. Typically, convergence is obtained by iterating the simulation by a user-settable, fixed number of steps, and it is assumed that convergence is achieved. We instead implement a method to detect convergence, using the stochastic oscillator for identifying convergence of source particles based on their accumulated Shannon Entropy. Using our in situ convergence detection, we are able to detect and begin tallying results for the full simulation once the proper source distribution has been confirmed. Our method ensures that the simulation is not started too early, by a user setting too optimistic parameters, or too late, by setting too conservative a parameter.
Fast evaluation of polarizable forces.
Wang, Wei; Skeel, Robert D
2005-10-22
Polarizability is considered to be the single most significant development in the next generation of force fields for biomolecular simulations. However, the self-consistent computation of induced atomic dipoles in a polarizable force field is expensive due to the cost of solving a large dense linear system at each step of a simulation. This article introduces methods that reduce the cost of computing the electrostatic energy and force of a polarizable model from about 7.5 times the cost of computing those of a nonpolarizable model to less than twice the cost. This is probably sufficient for the routine use of polarizable forces in biomolecular simulations. The reduction in computing time is achieved by an efficient implementation of the particle-mesh Ewald method, an accurate and robust predictor based on least-squares fitting, and non-stationary iterative methods whose fast convergence is accelerated by a simple preconditioner. Furthermore, with these methods, the self-consistent approach with a larger timestep is shown to be faster than the extended Lagrangian approach. The use of dipole moments from previous timesteps to calculate an accurate initial guess for iterative methods leads to an energy drift, which can be made acceptably small. The use of a zero initial guess does not lead to perceptible energy drift if a reasonably strict convergence criterion for the iteration is imposed.
Converging shocks for DSD modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matignon, Christophe
2013-06-01
Modelling of pyrotechnic systems requires both, a good understanding and precise prediction capabilities of the dynamics of detonation. When using insensitive high explosives IHE (such as TATB-based explosives) the interaction of the detonation front with the confinement can lead to very different detonation velocities. One of the most popular engineering tools used to model this behaviour is the Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD). In the DSD assumption, the detonation front propagates at a normal shock velocity (Dn) which depends only on its local curvature (κ). For divergent detonations, the DSD limit is very well established both experimentally and theoretically and one can easily propose a model (which obeys the 1D quasi-steady weakly curved detonation theory) to reproduce this behavior. We propose to extend the DSD theory to slightly convergent detonation fronts and to validate it against experimental data. Two series of experiments were carried out. The first series was designed to collect precise information regarding converging detonation. Usually, in such configurations, the detonation is non steady, making precise and simultaneous measurements of velocity and curvature difficult to achieve. The originality of the proposed setup is to drive a self similar convergent detonation at constant speed in an IHE rod by an external explosive tube of greater detonation velocity (allowing an accurate recording of both velocity and curvature). A wide range EOS/reaction rate model (inspired from previous works of Wescott et al.) was then calibrated to reproduce both the strong shock initiation and the newly extended (Dn- κ) law. This model can be used to perform either direct numerical simulation (DNS) on fine resolved mesh grid, or its reduced PZR model (DSD based) on a much coarser grid. This model was then successfully validated against the second series of experiments involving a detonation propagating around an obstacle and exhibiting a non steady converging front
Professionalization in Universities and European Convergence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vivas, Amparo Jimenez; Hevia, David Menendez Alvarez
2009-01-01
The constant assessment of the quality of higher education within the framework of European convergence is a challenge for all those universities that wish their degrees and diplomas to reflect a unified Europe. As is the case in any assessment, change and review process, the quest to improve quality implies measuring achievement of the objectives…
Auto convergence for stereoscopic 3D cameras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Buyue; Kothandaraman, Sreenivas; Batur, Aziz Umit
2012-03-01
Viewing comfort is an important concern for 3-D capable consumer electronics such as 3-D cameras and TVs. Consumer generated content is typically viewed at a close distance which makes the vergence-accommodation conflict particularly pronounced, causing discomfort and eye fatigue. In this paper, we present a Stereo Auto Convergence (SAC) algorithm for consumer 3-D cameras that reduces the vergence-accommodation conflict on the 3-D display by adjusting the depth of the scene automatically. Our algorithm processes stereo video in realtime and shifts each stereo frame horizontally by an appropriate amount to converge on the chosen object in that frame. The algorithm starts by estimating disparities between the left and right image pairs using correlations of the vertical projections of the image data. The estimated disparities are then analyzed by the algorithm to select a point of convergence. The current and target disparities of the chosen convergence point determines how much horizontal shift is needed. A disparity safety check is then performed to determine whether or not the maximum and minimum disparity limits would be exceeded after auto convergence. If the limits would be exceeded, further adjustments are made to satisfy the safety limits. Finally, desired convergence is achieved by shifting the left and the right frames accordingly. Our algorithm runs real-time at 30 fps on a TI OMAP4 processor. It is tested using an OMAP4 embedded prototype stereo 3-D camera. It significantly improves 3-D viewing comfort.
Convergence of the natural approximations of piecewise monotone interval maps.
Haydn, Nicolai
2004-06-01
We consider piecewise monotone interval mappings which are topologically mixing and satisfy the Markov property. It has previously been shown that the invariant densities of the natural approximations converge exponentially fast in uniform pointwise topology to the invariant density of the given map provided its derivative is piecewise Lipshitz continuous. We provide an example of a map which is Lipshitz continuous and for which the densities converge in the bounded variation norm at a logarithmic rate. This shows that in general one cannot expect exponential convergence in the bounded variation norm. Here we prove that if the derivative of the interval map is Holder continuous and its variation is well approximable (gamma-uniform variation for gamma>0), then the densities converge exponentially fast in the norm.
Nevanlinna, O.
1994-12-31
This note summarizes some results on (a monitored version of) the Arnoldi method in Hilbert spaces. The interest in working in infinite dimensional spaces comes partly from the fact that only then can one have meaningful asymptotical statements (which hopefully give some light to the convergence of Arnoldi in large dimensional problems with iteration indices far less than the dimension).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kolodzy, Janet; Grant, August E.; DeMars, Tony R.; Wilkinson, Jeffrey S.
2014-01-01
The emergence of the Internet, social media, and digital technologies in the twenty-first century accelerated an evolution in journalism and communication that fit under the broad term of convergence. That evolution changed the relationship between news producers and consumers. It broke down the geographical boundaries in defining our communities,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Branca, Mario
2013-01-01
Why does a lens magnify? Why does it shrink objects? Why does this happen? The activities that we propose here are useful in helping us to understand how lenses work, and they show that the same lens can have different magnification capabilities. A converging lens can also act as a diverging lens. (Contains 4 figures.)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
NASA's QuikSCAT satellite has confirmed a 30-year old largely unproven theory that there are two areas near the equator where the winds converge year after year and drive ocean circulation south of the equator. By analyzing winds, QuikSCAT has found a year-round southern and northern Intertropical Convergence Zone. This find is important to climate modelers and weather forecasters because it provides more detail on how the oceans and atmosphere interact near the equator. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the region that circles the Earth near the equator, where the trade winds of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. North of the equator, strong sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, drawing air in from north and south and causing the air to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Satellite data, however, has confirmed that there is an ITCZ north of the equator and a parallel ITCZ south of the equator. Variation in the location of the ITCZ is important to people around the world because it affects the north-south atmospheric circulation, which redistributes energy. It drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. 'The double ITCZ is usually only identified in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans on a limited and seasonal basis,' said Timothy Liu, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., and lead researcher on the project. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, the southern ITCZ is usually seen springtime. In the western Atlantic Ocean, the southern ITCZ was recently clearly identified only in the summertime. However, QuikSCAT's wind data has seen the southern ITCZ in all seasons across the
Photoacoustic-guided convergence of light through optically diffusive media.
Kong, Fanting; Silverman, Ronald H; Liu, Liping; Chitnis, Parag V; Lee, Kotik K; Chen, Y C
2011-06-01
We demonstrate that laser beams can be converged toward a light-absorbing target through optically diffusive media by using photoacoustic-guided interferometric focusing. The convergence of light is achieved by shaping the wavefront of the incident light with a deformable mirror to maximize the photoacoustic signal, which is proportional to the scattered light intensity at the light absorber.
Photoacoustic-guided convergence of light through optically diffusive media
Kong, Fanting; Silverman, Ronald H.; Liu, Liping; Chitnis, Parag V.; Lee, Kotik K.; Chen, Y. C.
2012-01-01
We demonstrate that laser beams can be converged toward a light-absorbing target through optically diffusive media by using photoacoustic-guided interferometric focusing. The convergence of light is achieved by shaping the wavefront of the incident light with a deformable mirror to maximize the photoacoustic signal, which is propor tional to the scattered light intensity at the light absorber. PMID:21633446
On lacunary statistical convergence with respect to the intuitionistic fuzzy normed space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mursaleen, M.; Mohiuddine, S. A.
2009-11-01
The concept of statistical convergence was introduced by Fast [H. Fast, Sur la convergence statistique, Colloq. Math. 2 (1951) 241-244] which was later on studied by many authors. In [J.A. Fridy, C. Orhan, Lacunary statistical convergence, Pacific J. Math. 160 (1993) 43-51], Fridy and Orhan introduced the idea of lacunary statistical convergence. Quite recently, the concept of statistical convergence of double sequences has been studied in intuitionistic fuzzy normed space by Mursaleen and Mohiuddine [M. Mursaleen, S.A. Mohiuddine, Statistical convergence of double sequences in intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces, Chaos Solitons Fractals (2008), doi:10.1016/j.chaos.2008.09.018]. In this paper, we study lacunary statistical convergence in intuitionistic fuzzy normed space. We also introduce here a new concept, that is, statistical completeness and show that IFNS is statistically complete but not complete.
Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roco, Mihail C.
2008-01-01
The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and
Numerical Convergence In Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Qirong; Hernquist, Lars; Li, Yuexing
2015-02-01
We study the convergence properties of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) using numerical tests and simple analytic considerations. Our analysis shows that formal numerical convergence is possible in SPH only in the joint limit N → ∞, h → 0, and Nnb → ∞, where N is the total number of particles, h is the smoothing length, and Nnb is the number of neighbor particles within the smoothing volume used to compute smoothed estimates. Previous work has generally assumed that the conditions N → ∞ and h → 0 are sufficient to achieve convergence, while holding Nnb fixed. We demonstrate that if Nnb is held fixed as the resolution is increased, there will be a residual source of error that does not vanish as N → ∞ and h → 0. Formal numerical convergence in SPH is possible only if Nnb is increased systematically as the resolution is improved. Using analytic arguments, we derive an optimal compromise scaling for Nnb by requiring that this source of error balance that present in the smoothing procedure. For typical choices of the smoothing kernel, we find Nnb vpropN 0.5. This means that if SPH is to be used as a numerically convergent method, the required computational cost does not scale with particle number as O(N), but rather as O(N 1 + δ), where δ ≈ 0.5, with a weak dependence on the form of the smoothing kernel.
Knowledge Convergence and Collaborative Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jeong, Heisawn; Chi, Michelene T. H.
2007-01-01
This paper operationalized the notion of knowledge convergence and assessed quantitatively how much knowledge convergence occurred during collaborative learning. Knowledge convergence was defined as an increase in common knowledge where common knowledge referred to the knowledge that all collaborating partners had. Twenty pairs of college students…
Bailey, T.; Barkholt Christensen, S.; Nauck, M. A.
2016-01-01
This meta‐analysis of seven randomized, placebo‐controlled studies (total 3222 patients) evaluated whether type 2 diabetes (T2D) duration affects the changes in blood glucose control and body weight that can be achieved with liraglutide and placebo. With liraglutide 1.2 mg, shorter diabetes duration was associated with a significantly greater, but clinically non‐relevant, difference in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction (p < 0.05), i.e. a 0.18% (1.96 mmol/mol) reduction in HbA1c per 10 years shorter diabetes duration. With liraglutide 1.8 mg, shorter diabetes duration was associated with a small but statistically significant trend for greater fasting plasma glucose (FPG) reduction (p < 0.05), i.e. a 0.38 mmol/l reduction in FPG per 10 years shorter diabetes duration. Neither the liraglutide 1.8 mg nor placebo results showed a significant association between HbA1c and diabetes duration and neither the liraglutide 1.2 mg nor placebo results showed a significant association between FPG and diabetes duration. Likewise, neither liraglutide nor placebo showed a significant association between change in weight and diabetes duration. These results suggest diabetes duration has a clinically negligible effect on achievable blood glucose control and weight outcomes with liraglutide and placebo in patients with T2D. PMID:26679282
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Korn, Abe
1994-01-01
Presents an activity that enables students to answer for themselves the question of how fast a body must travel before the nonrelativistic expression must be replaced with the correct relativistic expression by deciding on the accuracy required in describing the kinetic energy of a body. (ZWH)
Achieving Bologna Convergence: Is ECTS Failing to Make the Grade?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karran, Terence
2004-01-01
Transparent and consistent credit transfer procedures are essential if EU Universities are to successfully build the European Higher Education Area and thrive in the emerging global knowledge economy. Currently, the European Credit Transfer System is the most widely used mechanism to enable credit transfer between universities in different EU…
Cubature on Wiener Space: Pathwise Convergence
Bayer, Christian Friz, Peter K.
2013-04-15
Cubature on Wiener space (Lyons and Victoir in Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 460(2041):169-198, 2004) provides a powerful alternative to Monte Carlo simulation for the integration of certain functionals on Wiener space. More specifically, and in the language of mathematical finance, cubature allows for fast computation of European option prices in generic diffusion models.We give a random walk interpretation of cubature and similar (e.g. the Ninomiya-Victoir) weak approximation schemes. By using rough path analysis, we are able to establish weak convergence for general path-dependent option prices.
Homology, convergence and parallelism
Ghiselin, Michael T.
2016-01-01
Homology is a relation of correspondence between parts of parts of larger wholes. It is used when tracking objects of interest through space and time and in the context of explanatory historical narratives. Homologues can be traced through a genealogical nexus back to a common ancestral precursor. Homology being a transitive relation, homologues remain homologous however much they may come to differ. Analogy is a relationship of correspondence between parts of members of classes having no relationship of common ancestry. Although homology is often treated as an alternative to convergence, the latter is not a kind of correspondence: rather, it is one of a class of processes that also includes divergence and parallelism. These often give rise to misleading appearances (homoplasies). Parallelism can be particularly hard to detect, especially when not accompanied by divergences in some parts of the body. PMID:26598721
Bandlimited image extrapolation with faster convergence.
Cahana, D; Stark, H
1981-08-15
The Gerchberg-Papoulis (GP) algorithm has been widely discussed in the literature in connection with band-limited or space-limited image extrapolation. Despite its seemingly superior noise-resistant properties over earlier superresolution schemes, the GP algorithm generally exhibits very slow convergence thereby making the choice of starting point critical. We discuss how additional a priori information, such as the low-pass projection of the image (LPI), can be incorporated in the algorithm to decrease the initial error between the starting point of the recursion and the true signal. We also investigate how convergence rates might be improved by (1) using the LPI in each iteration to achieve a double per cycle correction, and (2) applying adaptive thresholding. Somewhat surprisingly, it was found that using the LPI had only a minor effect on the rate of convergence. On the other hand, when combined with adaptive thresholding the use of the LPI both significantly reduced the starting point error and improved the rate of convergence.
Series that Converge Absolutely but Don't Converge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kantrowitz, Robert; Schramm, Michael
2012-01-01
If a series of real numbers converges absolutely, then it converges. The usual proof requires completeness in the form of the Cauchy criterion. Failing completeness, the result is false. We provide examples of rational series that illustrate this point. The Cantor set appears in connection with one of the examples.
Rapidly converging multigrid reconstruction of cone-beam tomographic data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myers, Glenn R.; Kingston, Andrew M.; Latham, Shane J.; Recur, Benoit; Li, Thomas; Turner, Michael L.; Beeching, Levi; Sheppard, Adrian P.
2016-10-01
In the context of large-angle cone-beam tomography (CBCT), we present a practical iterative reconstruction (IR) scheme designed for rapid convergence as required for large datasets. The robustness of the reconstruction is provided by the "space-filling" source trajectory along which the experimental data is collected. The speed of convergence is achieved by leveraging the highly isotropic nature of this trajectory to design an approximate deconvolution filter that serves as a pre-conditioner in a multi-grid scheme. We demonstrate this IR scheme for CBCT and compare convergence to that of more traditional techniques.
On the Convergence of an Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi Method
Lehoucq, Richard B.
1999-07-12
We show that Sorensen's [35] implicitly restarted Arnoldi method (including its block extension) is simultaneous iteration with an implicit projection step to accelerate convergence to the invariant subspace of interest. By using the geometric convergence theory for simultaneous iteration due to Watkins and Elsner [43], we prove that an implicitly restarted Arnoldi method can achieve a super-linear rate of convergence to the dominant invariant subspace of a matrix. Moreover, we show how an IRAM computes a nested sequence of approximations for the partial Schur decomposition associated with the dominant invariant subspace of a matrix.
NUMERICAL CONVERGENCE IN SMOOTHED PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMICS
Zhu, Qirong; Li, Yuexing; Hernquist, Lars
2015-02-10
We study the convergence properties of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) using numerical tests and simple analytic considerations. Our analysis shows that formal numerical convergence is possible in SPH only in the joint limit N → ∞, h → 0, and N{sub nb} → ∞, where N is the total number of particles, h is the smoothing length, and N{sub nb} is the number of neighbor particles within the smoothing volume used to compute smoothed estimates. Previous work has generally assumed that the conditions N → ∞ and h → 0 are sufficient to achieve convergence, while holding N{sub nb} fixed. We demonstrate that if N{sub nb} is held fixed as the resolution is increased, there will be a residual source of error that does not vanish as N → ∞ and h → 0. Formal numerical convergence in SPH is possible only if N{sub nb} is increased systematically as the resolution is improved. Using analytic arguments, we derive an optimal compromise scaling for N{sub nb} by requiring that this source of error balance that present in the smoothing procedure. For typical choices of the smoothing kernel, we find N{sub nb} ∝N {sup 0.5}. This means that if SPH is to be used as a numerically convergent method, the required computational cost does not scale with particle number as O(N), but rather as O(N {sup 1} {sup +} {sup δ}), where δ ≈ 0.5, with a weak dependence on the form of the smoothing kernel.
Almost Sure Convergence of Adaptive Identification Prediction and Control Algorithms.
1981-03-01
achievable with known plant parameters, in the Cesaro sense. An additional regularity assumption on the signal model establishes the result that the...the Cesaro sense. Under an additional regularity assumption, the convergence of these errors and also that of the tracking error for the adaptive con...The 4- convergence in all these references is established in the Cesaro sense. The above schemes of [7-10] leave the question unanswered as to
The Intertropical Convergence Zone
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
The Intertropical Convergence Zone, or ITCZ, is the region that circles the Earth, near the equator, where the trade winds of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. The intense sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, raising its humidity and causing it to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Variation in the location of the ITCZ drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. This image is a combination of cloud data from NOAA's newest Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-11) and color land cover classification data. The ITCZ is the band of bright white clouds that cuts across the center of the image. For more GOES images, visit the GOES Project Science site. Image Courtesy GOES Project Science Office
Some Observations on Grid Convergence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salas, manuel D.
2006-01-01
It is claimed that current practices in grid convergence studies, particularly in the field of external aerodynamics, are flawed. The necessary conditions to properly establish grid convergence are presented. A theoretical model and a numerical example are used to demonstrate these ideas.
Convergence of Defect-Correction and Multigrid Iterations for Inviscid Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.
2011-01-01
Convergence of multigrid and defect-correction iterations is comprehensively studied within different incompressible and compressible inviscid regimes on high-density grids. Good smoothing properties of the defect-correction relaxation have been shown using both a modified Fourier analysis and a more general idealized-coarse-grid analysis. Single-grid defect correction alone has some slowly converging iterations on grids of medium density. The convergence is especially slow for near-sonic flows and for very low compressible Mach numbers. Additionally, the fast asymptotic convergence seen on medium density grids deteriorates on high-density grids. Certain downstream-boundary modes are very slowly damped on high-density grids. Multigrid scheme accelerates convergence of the slow defect-correction iterations to the extent determined by the coarse-grid correction. The two-level asymptotic convergence rates are stable and significantly below one in most of the regions but slow convergence is noted for near-sonic and very low-Mach compressible flows. Multigrid solver has been applied to the NACA 0012 airfoil and to different flow regimes, such as near-tangency and stagnation. Certain convergence difficulties have been encountered within stagnation regions. Nonetheless, for the airfoil flow, with a sharp trailing-edge, residuals were fast converging for a subcritical flow on a sequence of grids. For supercritical flow, residuals converged slower on some intermediate grids than on the finest grid or the two coarsest grids.
DNS of coflowing planar jet atomization: can one reach convergence?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ling, Yue; Zaleski, Stephane; Tryggvason, Gretar; Fuster, Daniel; Scardovelli, Ruben; Cenni, Matteo; Arrufat, Tomas
2015-11-01
Atomization of a liquid jet assisted by a coflowing fast gas jet is commonly seen in fuel injection systems. Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations are performed to investigate the turbulent multiphase flow characteristics in coflowing planar jet atomization, with the interface tracked by the Volume-of-fluid method. Although many numerical simulations of atomization were reported in the recent years, whether the atomization characteristics such as droplet formation and size distribution are fully resolved is often unclear. In this work, a series of very large-scale simulations of different grid resolution (up to four billion grid points) are conducted and particular attention is focused on examining whether we can achieve converged results on the statistical atomization characteristics. The statistical characteristics of the turbulence (such as turbulence kinetic energy) and of the spray (such as droplet size distribution, liquid volume fraction, and gas-liquid interfacial area) are calculated by averaging the DNS data spatially and temporally. The complex multiscale droplet formation mechanisms due to the interaction between the interface and the turbulence are also revealed by the simulation results. ANR-11-MONU-0011.
Indirectly driven, high-convergence implosions (HEP1)
Hatchett, S.P.; Cable, M.D.; Caird, J.A.
1996-06-01
High-gain inertial confinement fusion will most readily be achieved with hot-spot ignition, in which a relatively small mass of gaseous fuel at the center of the target is heated to 5-10 keV, igniting a larger surrounding mass of approximately isobaric fuel at higher density but lower temperature. Existing lasers are too low in energy to achieve thermonuclear gain, but hydrodynamically equivalent implosions using these lasers can demonstrate that the important, scalable parameters of ignition capsules are scientifically and technologically achievable. The experiments described in this article used gas-filled glass shells driven by x rays produced in a surrounding cavity, or hohlraum. These implosions achieved convergence ratios (initial capsule radius/ final fuel radius) high enough to fall in the range required for ignition-scale capsules, and they produced an imploded configuration (high-density glass with hot gas fill) that is equivalent to the hot-spot configuration of an ignition-scale capsule. Other recent laser-driven implosions have achieved high shell density but at lower convergences and without a well defined hot spot. Still other experiments have used very-low-density gas fill to reach high convergence with unshaped drive, but that approach results in a relatively low shell density. Moreover, even at the highest convergence ratios the implosions described here had neutron yields averaging 8% of that calculated for an idealized, clean, spherically symmetric implosion - much higher than previous high-convergence experiments.
Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution
2010-01-01
Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution. PMID:20074322
Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.; Berry, Ray A.
1999-01-01
A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.
Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.; Berry, R.A.
1999-08-10
A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream. 8 figs.
The Convergence of Intelligences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diederich, Joachim
Minsky (1985) argued an extraterrestrial intelligence may be similar to ours despite very different origins. ``Problem- solving'' offers evolutionary advantages and individuals who are part of a technical civilisation should have this capacity. On earth, the principles of problem-solving are the same for humans, some primates and machines based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Intelligent systems use ``goals'' and ``sub-goals'' for problem-solving, with memories and representations of ``objects'' and ``sub-objects'' as well as knowledge of relations such as ``cause'' or ``difference.'' Some of these objects are generic and cannot easily be divided into parts. We must, therefore, assume that these objects and relations are universal, and a general property of intelligence. Minsky's arguments from 1985 are extended here. The last decade has seen the development of a general learning theory (``computational learning theory'' (CLT) or ``statistical learning theory'') which equally applies to humans, animals and machines. It is argued that basic learning laws will also apply to an evolved alien intelligence, and this includes limitations of what can be learned efficiently. An example from CLT is that the general learning problem for neural networks is intractable, i.e. it cannot be solved efficiently for all instances (it is ``NP-complete''). It is the objective of this paper to show that evolved intelligences will be constrained by general learning laws and will use task-decomposition for problem-solving. Since learning and problem-solving are core features of intelligence, it can be said that intelligences converge despite very different origins.
Convergence and Rate Analysis of Neural Networks for Sparse Approximation
Balavoine, Aurèle; Romberg, Justin; Rozell, Christopher J.
2013-01-01
We present an analysis of the Locally Competitive Algotihm (LCA), which is a Hopfield-style neural network that efficiently solves sparse approximation problems (e.g., approximating a vector from a dictionary using just a few nonzero coefficients). This class of problems plays a significant role in both theories of neural coding and applications in signal processing. However, the LCA lacks analysis of its convergence properties, and previous results on neural networks for nonsmooth optimization do not apply to the specifics of the LCA architecture. We show that the LCA has desirable convergence properties, such as stability and global convergence to the optimum of the objective function when it is unique. Under some mild conditions, the support of the solution is also proven to be reached in finite time. Furthermore, some restrictions on the problem specifics allow us to characterize the convergence rate of the system by showing that the LCA converges exponentially fast with an analytically bounded convergence rate. We support our analysis with several illustrative simulations. PMID:24199030
Why does continental convergence stop
Hynes, A.
1985-01-01
Convergence between India and Asia slowed at 45 Ma when they collided, but continues today. This requires that substantial proportions of the Indian and/or Asian lithospheric mantle are still being subducted. The resulting slab-pull is probably comparable with that from complete lithospheric slabs and may promote continued continental convergence even after collision. Since descending lithospheric slabs are present at all collision zones at the time of collision such continued convergence may be general after continental collisions. It may cease only when there is a major (global) plate reorganization which results in new forces on the convergent continents that may counteract the slab-pull. These inferences may be tested on the late Paleozoic collision between Gondwanaland and Laurasia. This is generally considered to have been complete by mid-Permian time (250 Ma). However, this may be only the time of docking of Gondwanaland with North America, not that of the cessation of convergence. Paleomagnetic polar-wander paths for the Gondwanide continents exhibit consistently greater latitudinal shifts from 250 Ma to 200 Ma than those of Laurasia when corrected for post-Triassic drift, suggesting that convergence continued through late Permian well into the Triassic. It may have been accommodated by crustal thickening under what is now the US Coastal Plain, or by strike-slip faulting. Convergence may have ceased only when Pangea began to fragment again, in which case the cause for its cessation may be related to the cause of continental fragmentation.
Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: II. Reduction using a convergent light source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dekker, Kurtis H.; Battista, Jerry J.; Jordan, Kevin J.
2016-04-01
Optical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using a broad beam and CCD camera is a fast method for densitometry of 3D optical gel dosimeters. However, diffuse light sources introduce considerable stray light into the imaging system, leading to underestimation of attenuation coefficients and non-uniformities in CT images unless corrections are applied to each projection image. In this study, the light source of a commercial optical CT scanner is replaced with a convergent cone beam source consisting of almost exclusively image forming primary rays. The convergent source is achieved using a small isotropic source and a Fresnel lens. To characterize stray light effects, full-field cone beam CT imaging is compared to fan beam CT (FBCT) using a 1 cm high fan beam aperture centered on the optic axis of the system. Attenuating liquids are scanned within a large 96 mm diameter uniform phantom and in a small 13.5 mm diameter finger phantom. For the uniform phantom, cone and fan beam CT attenuation coefficients agree within a maximum deviation of (1 ± 2)% between mean values over a wide range from 0.036 to 0.43 cm-1. For the finger phantom, agreement is found with a maximum deviation of (4 ± 2)% between mean values over a range of 0.1-0.47 cm-1. With the convergent source, artifacts associated with refractive index mismatch and vessel optical features are more pronounced. Further optimization of the source size to achieve a balance between quantitative accuracy and artifact reduction should enable practical, accurate 3D dosimetry, avoiding time consuming 3D scatter measurements.
Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: II. Reduction using a convergent light source.
Dekker, Kurtis H; Battista, Jerry J; Jordan, Kevin J
2016-04-07
Optical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using a broad beam and CCD camera is a fast method for densitometry of 3D optical gel dosimeters. However, diffuse light sources introduce considerable stray light into the imaging system, leading to underestimation of attenuation coefficients and non-uniformities in CT images unless corrections are applied to each projection image. In this study, the light source of a commercial optical CT scanner is replaced with a convergent cone beam source consisting of almost exclusively image forming primary rays. The convergent source is achieved using a small isotropic source and a Fresnel lens. To characterize stray light effects, full-field cone beam CT imaging is compared to fan beam CT (FBCT) using a 1 cm high fan beam aperture centered on the optic axis of the system. Attenuating liquids are scanned within a large 96 mm diameter uniform phantom and in a small 13.5 mm diameter finger phantom. For the uniform phantom, cone and fan beam CT attenuation coefficients agree within a maximum deviation of (1 ± 2)% between mean values over a wide range from 0.036 to 0.43 cm(-1). For the finger phantom, agreement is found with a maximum deviation of (4 ± 2)% between mean values over a range of 0.1-0.47 cm(-1). With the convergent source, artifacts associated with refractive index mismatch and vessel optical features are more pronounced. Further optimization of the source size to achieve a balance between quantitative accuracy and artifact reduction should enable practical, accurate 3D dosimetry, avoiding time consuming 3D scatter measurements.
Convergent Coarseness Regulation for Segmented Images
Paglieroni, D W
2004-05-27
In segmentation of remotely sensed images, the number of pixel classes and their spectral representations are often unknown a priori. Even with prior knowledge, pixels with spectral components from multiple classes lead to classification errors and undesired small region artifacts. Coarseness regulation for segmented images is proposed as an efficient novel technique for handling these problems. Beginning with an over-segmented image, perceptually similar connected regions are iteratively merged using a method reminiscent of region growing, except the primitives are regions, not pixels. Interactive coarseness regulation is achieved by specifying the area {alpha} of the largest region eligible for merging. A region with area less than {alpha} is merged with the most spectrally similar connected region, unless the regions are perceived as spectrally dissimilar. In convergent coarseness regulation, which requires no user interaction, {alpha} is specified as the total number of pixels in the image, and the coarseness regulation output converges to a steady-state segmentation that remains unchanged as {alpha} is further increased. By applying convergent coarseness regulation to AVIRIS, IKONOS and DigitalGlobe images, and quantitatively comparing computer-generated segmentations to segmentations generated manually by a human analyst, it was found that the quality of the input segmentations was consistently and dramatically improved.
On domains of convergence in optimization problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diaz, Alejandro R.; Shaw, Steven S.; Pan, Jian
1990-01-01
Numerical optimization algorithms require the knowledge of an initial set of design variables. Starting from an initial design x(sup 0), improved solutions are obtained by updating the design iteratively in a way prescribed by the particular algorithm used. If the algorithm is successful, convergence is achieved to a local optimal solution. Let A denote the iterative procedure that characterizes a typical optimization algorithm, applied to the problem: Find x belonging to R(sup n) that maximizes f(x) subject to x belonging to Omega contained in R(sup n). We are interested in problems with several local maxima (x(sub j))(sup *), j=1, ..., m, in the feasible design space Omega. In general, convergence of the algorithm A to a specific solution (x(sub j))(sup *) is determined by the choice of initial design x(sup 0). The domain of convergence D(sub j) of A associated with a local maximum (x(sub j))(sup *) is a subset of initial designs x(sup 0) in Omega such that the sequence (x(sup k)), k=0,1,2,... defined by x(sup k+1) = A(x(sup k)), k=0,1,... converges to (x(sub j))(sup *). The set D(sub j) is also called the basin of attraction of (x(sub j))(sup *). Cayley first proposed the problem of finding the basin of attraction for Newton's method in 1897. It has been shown that the basin of attraction for Newton's method exhibits chaotic behavior in problems with polynomial objective. This implies that there may be regions in the feasible design space where arbitrarily close starting points will converge to different local optimal solutions. Furthermore, the boundaries of the domains of convergence may have a very complex, even fractal structure. In this paper we show that even simple structural optimization problems solved using standard gradient based (first order) algorithms exhibit similar features.
Chou, Engels; Colagiuri, Stephen; Gaàl, Zsolt; Lavalle, Fernando; Mkrtumyan, Ashot; Nikonova, Elena; Tentolouris, Nikolaos; Vidal, Josep; Davies, Melanie
2016-01-01
Abstract Background This study used data from different sources to identify the extent of the unmet need for postprandial glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after the initiation of basal insulin therapy in Europe, Asia Pacific, the United States, and Latin America. Methods Different levels of evidence were used as available for each country/region, with data extracted from seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs), three clinical trial registries (CTRs), and three electronic medical record (EMR) databases. Glycemic status was categorized as “well controlled” (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] at target [<7%]), “residual hyperglycemia” (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] but not HbA1c at target [FPG <7.2/7.8 mmol/L, <130/140 mg/dL, depending on country‐specific recommendations]), or “uncontrolled” (both FPG and HbA1c above target). Predictor factors were identified from the RCT data set using logistic regression analysis. Results RCT data showed that 16.9% to 28.0%, 42.7% to 54.4%, and 16.9% to 38.1% of patients with T2DM had well‐controlled glycemia, residual hyperglycemia, and uncontrolled hyperglycemia, respectively. In CTRs, respective ranges were 21.8% to 33.6%, 31.5% to 35.6%, and 30.7% to 46.8%, and in EMR databases were 4.4% to 21.0%, 23.9% to 31.8%, and 53.6% to 63.8%. Significant predictor factors of residual hyperglycemia identified from RCT data included high baseline HbA1c (all countries/regions except Brazil), high baseline FPG (United Kingdom/Japan), longer duration of diabetes (Brazil), and female sex (Europe/Latin America). Conclusions Irrespective of intrinsic differences between data sources, 24% to 54% of patients with T2DM globally had residual hyperglycemia with HbA1c not at target, despite achieving FPG control, indicating a significant unmet need for postprandial glycemic control. PMID:27606888
ADEM-DIOS: an SCF convergence algorothm for difficult cases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sellers, Harrell
1991-05-01
We present an SCF convergence algorithm which we call ADEM-DIOS for accelerated direct energy minimization-direct inversion in the optimized subspace. This method employs the direct energy minimization (steepest descent) procedure outlined by Seeger and Pople to generate a set of "optimized" approximate solutions that form a basis for a least squares interpolation based on the DIIS method of Pulay. In all of our test cases, which we chose because damped Roothaan—Hall iterations, ordinary DIIS, level shifting, and variable metric second-order optimization failed to bring about convergence, the ADEM-DIOS method achieved convergence in a fraction of the number of steps required when direct energy minimization was used alone. This method can be thought of as being essentially the DIIS convergence acceleration technique applied to an "iterative subspace" generated by the direct energy minimization procedure. While we do not expect ADEM-DIOS to be significantly faster per cycle than second-order optimization algorithms based on Bacskay's method, the convergence ability of ADEM-DIOS is insensitive to the initial parameter set and should be more applicable in difficult cases. We consider th usefulness of this new algorithm to be in those cases in which other algorithms have difficulty in achieving convergence.
Spaces of Ideal Convergent Sequences
Mursaleen, M.; Sharma, Sunil K.
2014-01-01
In the present paper, we introduce some sequence spaces using ideal convergence and Musielak-Orlicz function ℳ = (Mk). We also examine some topological properties of the resulting sequence spaces. PMID:24592143
Linearly convergent inexact proximal point algorithm for minimization. Revision 1
Zhu, C.
1993-08-01
In this paper, we propose a linearly convergent inexact PPA for minimization, where the inner loop stops when the relative reduction on the residue (defined as the objective value minus the optimal value) of the inner loop subproblem meets some preassigned constant. This inner loop stopping criterion can be achieved in a fixed number of iterations if the inner loop algorithm has a linear rate on the regularized subproblems. Therefore the algorithm is able to avoid the computationally expensive process of solving the inner loop subproblems exactly or asymptotically accurately; a process required by most of the other linearly convergent PPAs. As applications of this inexact PPA, we develop linearly convergent iteration schemes for minimizing functions with singular Hessian matrices, and for solving hemiquadratic extended linear-quadratic programming problems. We also prove that Correa-Lemarechal`s ``implementable form`` of PPA converges linearly under mild conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esposito, S.; Pisanti, O.
The following sections are included: * Elementary Considerations * The Integral Equation to the Neutron Distribution * The Critical Size for a Fast Reactor * Supercritical Reactors * Problems and Exercises
Fast quench reactor and method
Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.
2002-09-24
A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.
Fast quench reactor and method
Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.
1998-01-01
A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.
Fast quench reactor and method
Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.
1998-05-12
A fast quench reactor includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This ``freezes`` the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage. 7 figs.
Fast quench reactor and method
Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.
2002-01-01
A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.
Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.
1986-01-01
The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path.
NONSURGICAL TREATMENT OF CONVERGENT STRABISMUS
Tour, Robert L.
1959-01-01
It is generally agreed that surgical treatment of convergent strabismus should be withheld until all other less traumatic approaches have proved ineffectual. There are four categories of nonsurgical treatment. One is psychiatric. Too often psychiatric problems in the causation of convergent strabismus are either overlooked or unrecognized. Another is the proper employment of optical devices. For example, spectacle lenses to eliminate the need for excessive accommodation with its associated convergence excess, and the employment of prisms in the lenses to permit the two eyes to see as a unit even though they may not be properly anatomically oriented. Another kind of treatment is orthoptics, the use of exercises and rather complex optical equipment in a laboratory to train the patient in coordination between the two eyes. Treatment with drugs is based on the fact that certain drugs reduce the effort necessary for accommodation (much as eye-glasses do) and therefore lessen the stimulus toward convergence which may possibly tend toward the development of convergent strabismus. PMID:13662849
The camera convergence problem revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allison, Robert S.
2004-05-01
Convergence of the real or virtual stereoscopic cameras is an important operation in stereoscopic display systems. For example, convergence can shift the range of portrayed depth to improve visual comfort; can adjust the disparity of targets to bring them nearer to the screen and reduce accommodation-vergence conflict; or can bring objects of interest into the binocular field-of-view. Although camera convergence is acknowledged as a useful function, there has been considerable debate over the transformation required. It is well known that rotational camera convergence or 'toe-in' distorts the images in the two cameras producing patterns of horizontal and vertical disparities that can cause problems with fusion of the stereoscopic imagery. Behaviorally, similar retinal vertical disparity patterns are known to correlate with viewing distance and strongly affect perception of stereoscopic shape and depth. There has been little analysis of the implications of recent findings on vertical disparity processing for the design of stereoscopic camera and display systems. We ask how such distortions caused by camera convergence affect the ability to fuse and perceive stereoscopic images.
Convergence of the solution method for variational inequalities
Panin, V.M.; Aleksandrova, V.M.
1995-01-01
We study the properties of the method proposed in literature for solving variational inequalities and its modifications. Linear convergence in the neighborhood of the solution is established for problems that satisfy second-order sufficient conditions. The problem of finding the solution x{sub *} of the variational inequality (F(x{sub *}), x-x{sub *}) {ge} 0, {forall} x {element_of} {Omega} = (x{element_of}R{sup n}{vert_bar} f{sub i}(x){le}O, i=1,...,l) has been studied by many authors. The numerical methods considered by them, despite their theoretically fast rate of convergence, usually converge only locally and are computationally highly complex, because each iteration solves auxiliary subproblems on the original nonlinear set {Omega}. In other methods, on the other hand, each iteration is efficiently executed and converges nonlocally to the solution, but we do not have the rate of convergence bounds which are typical for mathematical programming methods of the corresponding order.
Cosmic Reionization On Computers: Numerical and Physical Convergence
Gnedin, Nickolay Y.
2016-04-01
In this paper I show that simulations of reionization performed under the Cosmic Reionization On Computers (CROC) project do converge in space and mass, albeit rather slowly. A fully converged solution (for a given star formation and feedback model) can be determined at a level of precision of about 20%, but such a solution is useless in practice, since achieving it in production-grade simulations would require a large set of runs at various mass and spatial resolutions, and computational resources for such an undertaking are not yet readily available. In order to make progress in the interim, I introduce a weak convergence correction factor in the star formation recipe, which allows one to approximate the fully converged solution with finite resolution simulations. The accuracy of weakly converged simulations approaches a comparable, ~20% level of precision for star formation histories of individual galactic halos and other galactic properties that are directly related to star formation rates, like stellar masses and metallicities. Yet other properties of model galaxies, for example, their HI masses, are recovered in the weakly converged runs only within a factor of two.
COSMIC REIONIZATION ON COMPUTERS: NUMERICAL AND PHYSICAL CONVERGENCE
Gnedin, Nickolay Y.
2016-04-10
In this paper I show that simulations of reionization performed under the Cosmic Reionization On Computers project do converge in space and mass, albeit rather slowly. A fully converged solution (for a given star formation and feedback model) can be determined at a level of precision of about 20%, but such a solution is useless in practice, since achieving it in production-grade simulations would require a large set of runs at various mass and spatial resolutions, and computational resources for such an undertaking are not yet readily available. In order to make progress in the interim, I introduce a weak convergence correction factor in the star formation recipe, which allows one to approximate the fully converged solution with finite-resolution simulations. The accuracy of weakly converged simulations approaches a comparable, ∼20% level of precision for star formation histories of individual galactic halos and other galactic properties that are directly related to star formation rates, such as stellar masses and metallicities. Yet other properties of model galaxies, for example, their H i masses, are recovered in the weakly converged runs only within a factor of 2.
Cosmic Reionization On Computers: Numerical and Physical Convergence
Gnedin, Nickolay Y.
2016-04-01
In this paper I show that simulations of reionization performed under the Cosmic Reionization On Computers (CROC) project do converge in space and mass, albeit rather slowly. A fully converged solution (for a given star formation and feedback model) can be determined at a level of precision of about 20%, but such a solution is useless in practice, since achieving it in production-grade simulations would require a large set of runs at various mass and spatial resolutions, and computational resources for such an undertaking are not yet readily available. In order to make progress in the interim, I introduce amore » weak convergence correction factor in the star formation recipe, which allows one to approximate the fully converged solution with finite resolution simulations. The accuracy of weakly converged simulations approaches a comparable, ~20% level of precision for star formation histories of individual galactic halos and other galactic properties that are directly related to star formation rates, like stellar masses and metallicities. Yet other properties of model galaxies, for example, their HI masses, are recovered in the weakly converged runs only within a factor of two.« less
Cosmic Reionization on Computers: Numerical and Physical Convergence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gnedin, Nickolay Y.
2016-04-01
In this paper I show that simulations of reionization performed under the Cosmic Reionization On Computers project do converge in space and mass, albeit rather slowly. A fully converged solution (for a given star formation and feedback model) can be determined at a level of precision of about 20%, but such a solution is useless in practice, since achieving it in production-grade simulations would require a large set of runs at various mass and spatial resolutions, and computational resources for such an undertaking are not yet readily available. In order to make progress in the interim, I introduce a weak convergence correction factor in the star formation recipe, which allows one to approximate the fully converged solution with finite-resolution simulations. The accuracy of weakly converged simulations approaches a comparable, ~20% level of precision for star formation histories of individual galactic halos and other galactic properties that are directly related to star formation rates, such as stellar masses and metallicities. Yet other properties of model galaxies, for example, their H i masses, are recovered in the weakly converged runs only within a factor of 2.
Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption
Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D
2015-01-01
Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person’s immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person’s perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence—Geographic Information Systems (GIS)—within that person’s neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant’s neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely
Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.
Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D
2015-09-01
Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective.
2009-10-01
Detecting Codes: General Theory and Their Application in Feedback Communication Systems. Kluwer Academic, 1995. [8] D.E. Knuth , The Art of Computer ... computation . Index Terms—Fast CRC, low-complexity CRC, checksum, error-detection code, Hamming code, period of polynomial, fast software implementation...simulations, and performance analysis of systems and networks. CRC implementation in software is desirable, because many computers do not have hardware
Convergence methods on time scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turan, Ceylan; Duman, Oktay
2013-10-01
In this paper, we introduce the concepts of lacunary statistical convergence and strongly lacunary Cesàro summability of delta measurable functions on time scales and obtain some inclusion results between them. We also display some examples containing discrete and continuous cases.
Convergence of a Catalan Series
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang
2012-01-01
This article studies the convergence of the infinite series of the reciprocals of the Catalan numbers. We extract the sum of the series as well as some related ones, illustrating the power of the calculus in the study of the Catalan numbers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hancock, Alan
1984-01-01
Characterizes the development over the past 30 years of the communication technologies employed in education by examining technological developments, structure of individual media, objectives and audiences of media systems, access to communications technologies, appropriateness of technology in new environments, social impact, and policy…
Fast algorithm for calculating chemical kinetics in turbulent reacting flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Radhakrishnan, K.; Pratt, D. T.
1986-01-01
This paper addresses the need for a fast batch chemistry solver to perform the kinetics part of a split operator formulation of turbulent reacting flows, with special attention focused on the solution of the ordinary differential equations governing a homogeneous gas-phase chemical reaction. For this purpose, a two-part predictor-corrector algorithm which incorporates an exponentially fitted trapezoidal method was developed. The algorithm performs filtering of ill-posed initial conditions, automatic step-size selection, and automatic selection of Jacobi-Newton or Newton-Raphson iteration for convergence to achieve maximum computational efficiency while observing a prescribed error tolerance. The new algorithm, termed CREK1D (combustion reaction kinetics, one-dimensional), compared favorably with the code LSODE when tested on two representative problems drawn from combustion kinetics, and is faster than LSODE.
Evolutionary Genetics: Reuse, Recycle, Converge.
Miller, Charles J J; Matute, Daniel R
2016-09-26
Our understanding of how genetic changes underlie the evolution of traits is growing fast. Two new studies now show that changes in the same genetic loci can drive the evolution of the same trait in multiple Drosophila species.
Van Dyke, W.J.
1992-04-07
A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing. 4 figs.
Van Dyke, William J.
1992-01-01
A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing.
Optimality Functions and Lopsided Convergence
2015-03-16
Problems involving functions defined in terms of integrals or optimization problems (as the maxi - mization in Example 3), functions defined on infinite...optimization methods in finite time. The key technical challenge associate with the above scheme is to establish ( weak ) consistency. In the next...Theorem 4.3. In view of this result, it is clear that ( weak ) consistency will be ensured by epi-convergence of the approximating objective functions and
Converging beam optical Fourier transforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puang-ngern, Srisuda; Almeida, Silverio P.
1985-08-01
The classical, most often used, system for performing the optical Fourier transform is by using parallel coherent beam illumination. Lenses used in this method can become quite costly. In this paper we present results obtained using converging beam illumination which is suitable for many applications and is less expensive than the parallel beam method. The input objects for which the Fourier transforms were made are transparencies of snowflakes.
Technology Convergence and National Security
2010-08-25
transdisciplinary nature of that convergence that was critical. Sandro Botticelli Michelangelo Buonarroti Lorenzo the Magnificent Andrea del Verrocchio Leonardo ...da Vinci UNCLASSIFIED BACKGROUND LOGIC • Many traditional R&D programs have been commodity or capability driven, and based on a perceived threat
Progress in governance of converging technologies integrated from the nanoscale.
Roco, Mihail C
2006-12-01
It is expected that convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution, and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This article focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies that are integrated with more traditional technologies. The proposed framework for governance calls for several key functions: supporting the transformative impact; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety, and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and commitment to long-term planning with effects on human development. Principles of good governance include participation of all those involved or affected by the new technologies, transparency, participant responsibility, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns (such as information technology privacy, access to medical advancements, and addressing toxicity of new nanomaterials) and longer-term concerns (such as human development and concern for human integrity, dignity, and welfare). Four levels of governance of converging technologies have been identified: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations, and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) national policies and institutional capacity building; and (d) international agreements and partnerships.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Essexville-Hampton Public Schools, MI.
Described are components of Project FAST (Functional Analysis Systems Training) a nationally validated project to provide more effective educational and support services to learning disordered children and their regular elementary classroom teachers. The program is seen to be based on a series of modules of delivery systems ranging from mainstream…
Convergence analysis of combinations of different methods
Kang, Y.
1994-12-31
This paper provides a convergence analysis for combinations of different numerical methods for solving systems of differential equations. The author proves that combinations of two convergent linear multistep methods or Runge-Kutta methods produce a new convergent method of which the order is equal to the smaller order of the two original methods.
Convergence of m-bonacci 'golden ratios'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahrens, K.; Brown, D. A.; Kramer, A.
2014-05-01
This paper proves that the ratios of consecutive terms of the m-bonacci sequence converge to a limit φm < 2 and, as m → ∞, these φm converge to 2. Further, it is shown that the generating functions for the m-bonacci sequences converge pointwise to the geometric series.
"Nanoselves": NBIC and the Culture of Convergence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Venkatesan, Priya
2010-01-01
The subject of this essay is NBIC convergence (nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science convergence). NBIC convergence is a recurring trope that is dominated by the paradigm of integration of the sciences. It is largely influenced by the considerations of social and economic impact, and it assumes positivism in…
Liu, Hui; Zhang, Cai-Ming; Su, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Kai; Deng, Kai
2015-01-01
The key problem of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of lung cancer is to segment pathologically changed tissues fast and accurately. As pulmonary nodules are potential manifestation of lung cancer, we propose a fast and self-adaptive pulmonary nodules segmentation method based on a combination of FCM clustering and classification learning. The enhanced spatial function considers contributions to fuzzy membership from both the grayscale similarity between central pixels and single neighboring pixels and the spatial similarity between central pixels and neighborhood and improves effectively the convergence rate and self-adaptivity of the algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve more accurate segmentation of vascular adhesion, pleural adhesion, and ground glass opacity (GGO) pulmonary nodules than other typical algorithms. PMID:25945120
Fast-PPP assessment in European and equatorial region near the solar cycle maximum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rovira-Garcia, Adria; Juan, José Miguel; Sanz, Jaume
2014-05-01
The Fast Precise Point Positioning (Fast-PPP) is a technique to provide quick high-accuracy navigation with ambiguity fixing capability, thanks to an accurate modelling of the ionosphere. Indeed, once the availability of real-time precise satellite orbits and clocks is granted to users, the next challenge is the accuracy of real-time ionospheric corrections. Several steps had been taken by gAGE/UPC to develop such global system for precise navigation. First Wide-Area Real-Time Kinematics (WARTK) feasibility studies enabled precise relative continental navigation using a few tens of reference stations. Later multi-frequency and multi-constellation assessments in different ionospheric scenarios, including maximum solar-cycle conditions, were focussed on user-domain performance. Recently, a mature evolution of the technique consists on a dual service scheme; a global Precise Point Positioning (PPP) service, together with a continental enhancement to shorten convergence. A end to end performance assessment of the Fast-PPP technique is presented in this work, focussed in Europe and in the equatorial region of South East Asia (SEA), both near the solar cycle maximum. The accuracy of the Central Processing Facility (CPF) real-time precise satellite orbits and clocks is respectively, 4 centimetres and 0.2 nanoseconds, in line with the accuracy of the International GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centres. This global PPP service is enhanced by the Fast-PPP by adding the capability of global undifferenced ambiguity fixing thanks to the fractional part of the ambiguities determination. The core of the Fast-PPP is the capability to compute real-time ionospheric determinations with accuracies at the level or better than 1 Total Electron Content Unit (TECU), improving the widely-accepted Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM), with declared accuracies of 2-8 TECU. This large improvement in the modelling accuracy is achieved thanks to a two-layer description of the ionosphere combined with
Fast wavelet estimation of weak biosignals.
Causevic, Elvir; Morley, Robert E; Wickerhauser, M Victor; Jacquin, Arnaud E
2005-06-01
Wavelet-based signal processing has become commonplace in the signal processing community over the past decade and wavelet-based software tools and integrated circuits are now commercially available. One of the most important applications of wavelets is in removal of noise from signals, called denoising, accomplished by thresholding wavelet coefficients in order to separate signal from noise. Substantial work in this area was summarized by Donoho and colleagues at Stanford University, who developed a variety of algorithms for conventional denoising. However, conventional denoising fails for signals with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Electrical signals acquired from the human body, called biosignals, commonly have below 0 dB SNR. Synchronous linear averaging of a large number of acquired data frames is universally used to increase the SNR of weak biosignals. A novel wavelet-based estimator is presented for fast estimation of such signals. The new estimation algorithm provides a faster rate of convergence to the underlying signal than linear averaging. The algorithm is implemented for processing of auditory brainstem response (ABR) and of auditory middle latency response (AMLR) signals. Experimental results with both simulated data and human subjects demonstrate that the novel wavelet estimator achieves superior performance to that of linear averaging.
Ocular Convergence Deficits in Schizophrenia
Bolding, Mark S.; Lahti, Adrienne C.; Gawne, Timothy J.; Hopkins, Kristine B.; Gurler, Demet; Gamlin, Paul D.
2012-01-01
Individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) have been reported to exhibit a higher prevalence of convergence insufficiency (CI) than the “normal” adult population. The purpose of this study was to determine if individuals with SZ exhibit clinical signs of CI and to determine if the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) is an effective instrument for identifying CI in this population. Twenty participants with SZ and 20 healthy controls (HC) completed the study. The prevalence of CI (15%) in the SZ group was slightly higher than reported norms, but the difference was not significant. The SZ group had significantly higher scores on the CISS than the HC group, but the CISS scores did not correlate with clinical measures of CI in individuals with SZ. The only exception was that SZ patients had a significantly reduced fusional reserve as determined by Sheard’s criteria. Further study is needed to determine why individuals with SZ reported symptoms associated with CI even though clinical measures did not support this diagnosis. PMID:23087652
Fast Moreau envelope computation I
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucet, Yves
2006-11-01
The present article summarizes the state of the art algorithms to compute the discrete Moreau envelope, and presents a new linear-time algorithm, named NEP for NonExpansive Proximal mapping. Numerical comparisons between the NEP and two existing algorithms: The Linear-time Legendre Transform (LLT) and the Parabolic Envelope (PE) algorithms are performed. Worst-case time complexity, convergence results, and examples are included. The fast Moreau envelope algorithms first factor the Moreau envelope as several one-dimensional transforms and then reduce the brute force quadratic worst-case time complexity to linear time by using either the equivalence with Fast Legendre Transform algorithms, the computation of a lower envelope of parabolas, or, in the convex case, the non expansiveness of the proximal mapping.
μ-tempered metadynamics: Artifact independent convergence times for wide hills
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dickson, Bradley M.
2015-12-01
Recent analysis of well-tempered metadynamics (WTmetaD) showed that it converges without mollification artifacts in the bias potential. Here, we explore how metadynamics heals mollification artifacts, how healing impacts convergence time, and whether alternative temperings may be used to improve efficiency. We introduce "μ-tempered" metadynamics as a simple tempering scheme, inspired by a related mollified adaptive biasing potential, that results in artifact independent convergence of the free energy estimate. We use a toy model to examine the role of artifacts in WTmetaD and solvated alanine dipeptide to compare the well-tempered and μ-tempered frameworks demonstrating fast convergence for hill widths as large as 60∘ for μTmetaD.
Yin, Chunyue; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna
2007-04-01
During vertebrate gastrulation, concurrent inductive events and cell movements fashion the body plan. Convergence and extension (C&E) gastrulation movements narrow the vertebrate embryonic body mediolaterally while elongating it rostrocaudally. Segmented somites are shaped and positioned by C&E alongside the notochord and differentiate into skeleton, fast, and slow muscles during somitogenesis. In zebrafish, simultaneous inactivation of non-canonical Wnt signaling components Knypek and Trilobite strongly impairs C&E gastrulation movements. Here we show that knypek;trilobite double mutants exhibit a severe deficit in slow muscles and their precursor, adaxial cells, revealing essential roles of C&E movements in adaxial cell development. Adaxial cells become distinguishable in the presomitic mesoderm during late gastrulation by their expression of myogenic factors and axial-adjacent position. Using cell tracing analyses and genetic manipulations, we demonstrate that C&E movements regulate the number of prospective adaxial cells specified during gastrulation by determining the size of the interface between the inductive axial and target presomitic tissues. During segmentation, when the range of Hedgehog signaling from the axial tissue declines, tight apposition of prospective adaxial cells to the notochord, which is achieved by convergence movements, is necessary for their continuous Hedgehog reception and fate maintenance. We provide direct evidence to show that the deficiency of adaxial cells in knypek;trilobite double mutants is due to impaired C&E movements, rather than an alteration in Hedgehog signal and its reception, or a cell-autonomous requirement for Knypek and Trilobite in adaxial cell development. Our results underscore the significance of precise coordination between cell movements and inductive tissue interactions during cell fate specification.
Particles Acceleration in Converged Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xin
2016-07-01
Observations show that there is a proton spectral ``break" with E_{break} at 1-10MeV in some large CME-driven shocks. However, the understanding of this energy spectral ``break" from the diffusive shock acceleration theory still remains uncertain. Although previous numerical methods can hardly predict this ``break" from current theoretical models due to high computational expense, the present paper focuses on simulating this energy spectrum in converged two shocks by Monte Carlo numerical method. Considering the Dec 13 2006 CME-driven shock interaction with an Earth bow shock, we examine whether the energy spectral ``break" could occur on an interaction between two shocks. As result, we indeed obtain the maximum proton energy up to 10MeV, and we further find a proton spectral ``break" appears distinctly at the energy ˜5MeV.
Cosmic Convergence: Art and Science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayo, Elizabeth A.; Zisholtz, E.; Hilton, H.
2010-01-01
The I.P. Stanback Museum and Planetarium is a major educational and teaching resource for South Carolina State University, K-12 schools, other universities and the community of Orangeburg and well beyond. The concept of creating a museum with a planetarium on the campus of SC State was ahead of its time. Today scholars are writing about the unity of creative disciplines. Through its integration of the arts, humanities and sciences, the Stanback, the only art museum with a planetarium at any of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities and one of the few in the nation, stands in the forefront of modern thinking. Cosmic Convergence: Art and Science, opening at the I.P. Stanback Museum and Planetarium in February 2010, will feature the works of Mildred Thompson (1936-2003), a prominent African American artist who worked in the media of painting, drawing, print making, sculpture, and photography. Thompson’s artwork shows the strong influences of her interest in physics, astronomy, and metaphysics as well as music and spiritualism. “My work in the visual arts is, and has always been, a continuous search for understanding. It is an expression of purpose and reflects a personal interpretation of the Universe.” Cosmic Convergence will explore the meeting of Art and Science through Mildred Thompson's work and the scientific basis of that work. The paintings and sculptures of the exhibit will be combined with astronomical images showing both the reality and interpretation of the surrounding Universe. Support for this work was provided by the NSF PAARE program to South Carolina State University under award AST-0750814.
Simulations of Converging Shock Collisions for Shock Ignition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sauppe, Joshua; Dodd, Evan; Loomis, Eric
2016-10-01
Shock ignition (SI) has been proposed as an alternative to achieving high gain in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. A central hot spot below the ignition threshold is created by an initial compression pulse, and a second laser pulse drives a strong converging shock into the fuel. The collision between the rebounding shock from the compression pulse and the converging shock results in amplification of the converging shock and increases the hot spot pressure above the ignition threshold. We investigate shock collision in SI drive schemes for cylindrical targets with a polystyrene foam interior using radiation-hydrodynamics simulations with the RAGE code. The configuration is similar to previous targets fielded on the Omega laser. The CH interior results in a lower convergence ratio and the cylindrical geometry facilitates visualization of the shock transit using an axial X-ray backlighter, both of which are important for comparison to potential experimental measurements. One-dimensional simulations are used to determine shock timing, and the effects of low mode asymmetries in 2D computations are also quantified. LA-UR-16-24773.
Convergence Analysis of LMS based Adaptive filter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rai, Amrita; Kohli, Amit Kumar
2010-11-01
A standard algorithm for LMS-filter simulation, tested with several convergence criteria is presented in this paper. We analyze the steady-state mean square error (MSE) convergence of the LMS algorithm when random functions are used as reference inputs. In this paper, we make a more precise analysis using the deterministic nature of the reference inputs and their time-variant correlation matrix. Simulations performed under MATLAB show remarkable differences between convergence criteria with various value of the step size.
Stayton, C Tristan
2006-04-01
Despite its importance to evolutionary theory, convergence remains an understudied phenomenon and is usually investigated using qualitative data. This paper advances a new, multidimensional view of convergence. Three patterns indicative of convergence are discussed, and techniques to discover and test convergent patterns in a quantitative framework are developed. These concepts and methods are applied to a dataset of digitized coordinates on 1554 lizard skulls and 1292 lower jaws to test hypotheses of convergence among herbivorous lizards. Encompassing seven independent acquisitions of herbivory, this lizard sample provides an ideal natural experiment for exploring ideas of convergence among different systems (here, morphological and functional). Three related questions are addressed: (1) Do herbivorous lizards show evidence of convergence in skull and lower jaw morphology? (2) What, if any, is the morphospace pattern associated with this convergence? (3) Is it possible to predict the direction of convergence using functional models? Relative warp analysis and permutation tests reveal that the skulls and lower jaws of herbivorous lizards do show evidence of convergence. Herbivore skulls deviate from their carnivorous or omnivorous sister groups toward the same area of morphospace. Without a phylogenetic perspective, this pattern would not be recognizable. Lower jaws of herbivores are not convergent in morphology but are convergent in function: herbivores deviate away from their carnivorous sister groups toward higher values of mechanical advantage. These results illustrate the desirability of quantitative methods, informed by phylogenetic information, in the study of convergence.
Stalling chaos control accelerates convergence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bick, Christian; Kolodziejski, Christoph; Timme, Marc
2013-06-01
Since chaos control has found its way into many applications, the development of fast, easy-to-implement and universally applicable chaos control methods is of crucial importance. Predictive feedback control has been widely applied but suffers from a speed limit imposed by highly unstable periodic orbits. We show that this limit can be overcome by stalling the control, thereby taking advantage of the stable directions of the uncontrolled chaotic map. This analytical finding is confirmed by numerical simulations, giving a chaos-control method that is capable of successfully stabilizing periodic orbits of high period.
Maternal and child mortality indicators across 187 countries of the world: converging or diverging.
Goli, Srinivas; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam
2014-01-01
This study reassessed the progress achieved since 1990 in maternal and child mortality indicators to test whether the progress is converging or diverging across countries worldwide. The convergence process is examined using standard parametric and non-parametric econometric models of convergence. The results of absolute convergence estimates reveal that progress in maternal and child mortality indicators is diverging for the entire period of 1990-2010 [maternal mortality ratio (MMR) - β = .00033, p < .574; neonatal mortality rate (NNMR) - β = .04367, p < .000; post-neonatal mortality rate (PNMR) - β = .02677, p < .000; under-five mortality rate (U5MR) - β = .00828, p < .000)]. In the recent period, such divergence is replaced with convergence for MMR but diverged for all the child mortality indicators. The results of Kernel density estimate reveal considerable reduction in divergence of MMR for the recent period; however, the Kernel density distribution plots show more than one 'peak' which indicates the emergence of convergence clubs based on their mortality levels. For child mortality indicators, the Kernel estimates suggest that divergence is in progress across the countries worldwide but tended to converge for countries with low mortality levels. A mere progress in global averages of maternal and child mortality indicators among a global cross-section of countries does not warranty convergence unless there is a considerable reduction in variance, skewness and range of change.
The Grand Convergence: Closing the Divide between Public Health Funding and Global Health Needs
Moran, Mary
2016-01-01
The Global Health 2035 report notes that the “grand convergence”—closure of the infectious, maternal, and child mortality gap between rich and poor countries—is dependent on research and development (R&D) of new drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and other health tools. However, this convergence (and the R&D underpinning it) will first require an even more fundamental convergence of the different worlds of public health and innovation, where a largely historical gap between global health experts and innovation experts is hindering achievement of the grand convergence in health. PMID:26933890
Johnstone, A M
2007-05-01
Adult humans often undertake acute fasts for cosmetic, religious or medical reasons. For example, an estimated 14% of US adults have reported using fasting as a means to control body weight and this approach has long been advocated as an intermittent treatment for gross refractory obesity. There are unique historical data sets on extreme forms of food restriction that give insight into the consequences of starvation or semi-starvation in previously healthy, but usually non-obese subjects. These include documented medical reports on victims of hunger strike, famine and prisoners of war. Such data provide a detailed account on how the body adapts to prolonged starvation. It has previously been shown that fasting for the biblical period of 40 days and 40 nights is well within the overall physiological capabilities of a healthy adult. However, the specific effects on the human body and mind are less clearly documented, either in the short term (hours) or in the longer term (days). This review asks the following three questions, pertinent to any weight-loss therapy, (i) how effective is the regime in achieving weight loss, (ii) what impact does it have on psychology? and finally, (iii) does it work long-term?
Recent extensions to the free-vortex-sheet theory for expanded convergence capability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luckring, J. M.; Hoffler, K. D.; Grantz, A. C.
1986-01-01
A new version of the free vortex sheet formulation is presented which has greatly improved convergence characteristics for a broad range of geometries. The enhanced convergence properties were achieved largely with extended modeling capabilities of the leading edge vortex and the near field trailing wake. Results from the new code, designated FVS-1, are presented for a variety of configurations and flow conditions with emphasis on vortex flap applications.
A fast combination calibration of foreground and background for pipelined ADCs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kexu, Sun; Lenian, He
2012-06-01
This paper describes a fast digital calibration scheme for pipelined analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The proposed method corrects the nonlinearity caused by finite opamp gain and capacitor mismatch in multiplying digital-to-analog converters (MDACs). The considered calibration technique takes the advantages of both foreground and background calibration schemes. In this combination calibration algorithm, a novel parallel background calibration with signal-shifted correlation is proposed, and its calibration cycle is very short. The details of this technique are described in the example of a 14-bit 100 Msample/s pipelined ADC. The high convergence speed of this background calibration is achieved by three means. First, a modified 1.5-bit stage is proposed in order to allow the injection of a large pseudo-random dithering without missing code. Second, before correlating the signal, it is shifted according to the input signal so that the correlation error converges quickly. Finally, the front pipeline stages are calibrated simultaneously rather than stage by stage to reduce the calibration tracking constants. Simulation results confirm that the combination calibration has a fast startup process and a short background calibration cycle of 2 × 221 conversions.
Ecomorphological convergence of cave communities.
Trontelj, Peter; Blejec, Andrej; Fišer, Cene
2012-12-01
Extreme selective environments are commonly believed to funnel evolution toward a few predictable outcomes. Caves are well-known extreme environments with characteristically adapted faunas that are similar in appearance, physiology, and behavior all over the world, even if not closely related. Morphological diversity between closely related cave species has been explained by difference in time since colonization and different ecological influence from the surface. Here, we tested a more classical hypothesis: morphological diversity is niche-based, and different morphologies reflect properties of microhabitats within caves. We analyzed seven communities with altogether 30 species of the subterranean amphipod (crustacean) genus Niphargus using multivariate morphometrics, multinomial logit models cross-validation, and phylogenetic reconstruction. Species clustered into four distinct ecomorph classes-small pore, cave stream, cave lake, and lake giants-associated with specific cave microhabitats and of multiple independent phylogenetic origins. Traits commonly regarded as adaptations to caves, such as antenna length, were shown to be related to microhabitat parameters, such as flow velocity. These results demonstrate that under the selection pressure of extreme environment, the ecomorphological structure of communities can converge. Thus, morphological diversity does not result from adaptive response to temporal and ecological gradients, but from fine-level niche partitioning.
Hepatitis C Virus Antigenic Convergence
Campo, David S.; Dimitrova, Zoya; Yokosawa, Jonny; Hoang, Duc; Perez, Nestor O.; Ramachandran, Sumathi; Khudyakov, Yury
2012-01-01
Vaccine development against hepatitis C virus (HCV) is hindered by poor understanding of factors defining cross-immunoreactivity among heterogeneous epitopes. Using synthetic peptides and mouse immunization as a model, we conducted a quantitative analysis of cross-immunoreactivity among variants of the HCV hypervariable region 1 (HVR1). Analysis of 26,883 immunological reactions among pairs of peptides showed that the distribution of cross-immunoreactivity among HVR1 variants was skewed, with antibodies against a few variants reacting with all tested peptides. The HVR1 cross-immunoreactivity was accurately modeled based on amino acid sequence alone. The tested peptides were mapped in the HVR1 sequence space, which was visualized as a network of 11,319 sequences. The HVR1 variants with a greater network centrality showed a broader cross-immunoreactivity. The entire sequence space is explored by each HCV genotype and subtype. These findings indicate that HVR1 antigenic diversity is extensively convergent and effectively limited, suggesting significant implications for vaccine development. PMID:22355779
High convergence, indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at Nova
Lerche, R.A.; Cable, M.D.; Hatchett, S.P.
1995-06-02
High convergence, indirect drive implosion experiments have been done at the Nova Laser Facility. The targets were deuterium and deuterium/tritium filled, glass microballoons driven symmetrically by x rays produced in a surrounding uranium hohlraum. Implosions achieved convergence ratios of 24:1 with fuel densities of 19 g/cm{sup 3}; this is equivalent to the range required for the hot spot of ignition scale capsules. The implosions used a shaped drive and were well characterized by a variety of laser and target measurements. The primary measurement was the fuel density using the secondary neutron technique (neutrons from the reaction {sup 2}H({sup 3}H,n){sup 4}He in initially pure deuterium fuel). Laser measurements include power, energy and pointing. Simultaneous measurement of neutron yield, fusion reaction rate, and x-ray images provide additional information about the implosion process. Computer models are in good agreement with measured results.
New concurrent iterative methods with monotonic convergence
Yao, Qingchuan
1996-12-31
This paper proposes the new concurrent iterative methods without using any derivatives for finding all zeros of polynomials simultaneously. The new methods are of monotonic convergence for both simple and multiple real-zeros of polynomials and are quadratically convergent. The corresponding accelerated concurrent iterative methods are obtained too. The new methods are good candidates for the application in solving symmetric eigenproblems.
Convergence of a Linear Recursive Sequence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tay, E. G.; Toh, T. L.; Dong, F. M.; Lee, T. Y.
2004-01-01
A necessary and sufficient condition is found for a linear recursive sequence to be convergent, no matter what initial values are given. Its limit is also obtained when the sequence is convergent. Methods from various areas of mathematics are used to obtain the results.
Selective Grammatical Convergence: Learning from Desirable Speakers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lev-Ari, Shiri
2016-01-01
Models of language learning often assume that we learn from all the input we receive. This assumption is particularly strong in the domain of short-term and long-term grammatical convergence, where researchers argue that grammatical convergence is mostly an automatic process insulated from social factors. This article shows that the degree to…
An experimental analysis on OSPF-TE convergence time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, S.; Kitayama, K.; Cugini, F.; Paolucci, F.; Giorgetti, A.; Valcarenghi, L.; Castoldi, P.
2008-11-01
Open shortest path first (OSPF) protocol is commonly used as an interior gateway protocol (IGP) in MPLS and generalized MPLS (GMPLS) networks to determine the topology over which label-switched paths (LSPs) can be established. Traffic-engineering extensions (network states such as link bandwidth information, available wavelengths, signal quality, etc) have been recently enabled in OSPF (henceforth, called OSPF-TE) to support shortest path first (SPF) tree calculation upon different purposes, thus possibly achieving optimal path computation and helping improve resource utilization efficiency. Adding these features into routing phase can exploit the OSPF robustness, and no additional network component is required to manage the traffic-engineering information. However, this traffic-engineering enhancement also complicates OSPF behavior. Since network states change frequently upon the dynamic trafficengineered LSP setup and release, the network is easily driven from a stable state to unstable operating regimes. In this paper, we focus on studying the OSPF-TE stability in terms of convergence time. Convergence time is referred to the time spent by the network to go back to steady states upon any network state change. An external observation method (based on black-box method) is employed to estimate the convergence time. Several experimental test-beds are developed to emulate dynamic LSP setup/release, re-routing upon single-link failure. The experimental results show that with OSPF-TE the network requires more time to converge compared to the conventional OSPF protocol without TE extension. Especially, in case of wavelength-routed optical network (WRON), introducing per wavelength availability and wavelength continuity constraint to OSPF-TE suffers severe convergence time and a large number of advertised link state advertisements (LSAs). Our study implies that long convergence time and large number of LSAs flooded in the network might cause scalability problems in OSPF
Measuring phonetic convergence in speech production
Pardo, Jennifer S.
2013-01-01
Phonetic convergence is defined as an increase in the similarity of acoustic-phonetic form between talkers. Previous research has demonstrated phonetic convergence both when a talker listens passively to speech and while talkers engage in social interaction. Much of this research has focused on a diverse array of acoustic-phonetic attributes, with fewer studies incorporating perceptual measures of phonetic convergence. The current paper reviews research on phonetic convergence in both non-interactive and conversational settings, and attempts to consolidate the diverse array of findings by proposing a paradigm that models perceptual and acoustic measures together. By modeling acoustic measures as predictors of perceived phonetic convergence, this paradigm has the potential to reconcile some of the diverse and inconsistent findings currently reported in the literature. PMID:23986738
Data Convergence - An Australian Perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.
2012-12-01
Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview
Fast calculation of the `ILC norm' in iterative learning control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rice, Justin K.; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem
2013-06-01
In this paper, we discuss and demonstrate a method for the exploitation of matrix structure in computations for iterative learning control (ILC). In Barton, Bristow, and Alleyne [International Journal of Control, 83(2), 1-8 (2010)], a special insight into the structure of the lifted convolution matrices involved in ILC is used along with a modified Lanczos method to achieve very fast computational bounds on the learning convergence, by calculating the 'ILC norm' in ? computational complexity. In this paper, we show how their method is equivalent to a special instance of the sequentially semi-separable (SSS) matrix arithmetic, and thus can be extended to many other computations in ILC, and specialised in some cases to even faster methods. Our SSS-based methodology will be demonstrated on two examples: a linear time-varying example resulting in the same ? complexity as in Barton et al., and a linear time-invariant example where our approach reduces the computational complexity to ?, thus decreasing the computation time, for an example, from the literature by a factor of almost 100. This improvement is achieved by transforming the norm computation via a linear matrix inequality into a check of positive definiteness - which allows us to further exploit the almost-Toeplitz properties of the matrix, and additionally provides explicit upper and lower bounds on the norm of the matrix, instead of the indirect Ritz estimate. These methods are now implemented in a MATLAB toolbox, freely available on the Internet.
Canonical forms of unconditionally convergent multipliers☆
Stoeva, D.T.; Balazs, P.
2013-01-01
Multipliers are operators that combine (frame-like) analysis, a multiplication with a fixed sequence, called the symbol, and synthesis. They are very interesting mathematical objects that also have a lot of applications for example in acoustical signal processing. It is known that bounded symbols and Bessel sequences guarantee unconditional convergence. In this paper we investigate necessary and equivalent conditions for the unconditional convergence of multipliers. In particular, we show that, under mild conditions, unconditionally convergent multipliers can be transformed by shifting weights between symbol and sequence, into multipliers with symbol (1) and Bessel sequences (called multipliers in canonical form). PMID:23564973
Canonical forms of unconditionally convergent multipliers.
Stoeva, D T; Balazs, P
2013-03-01
Multipliers are operators that combine (frame-like) analysis, a multiplication with a fixed sequence, called the symbol, and synthesis. They are very interesting mathematical objects that also have a lot of applications for example in acoustical signal processing. It is known that bounded symbols and Bessel sequences guarantee unconditional convergence. In this paper we investigate necessary and equivalent conditions for the unconditional convergence of multipliers. In particular, we show that, under mild conditions, unconditionally convergent multipliers can be transformed by shifting weights between symbol and sequence, into multipliers with symbol (1) and Bessel sequences (called multipliers in canonical form).
On the Local Convergence of Pattern Search
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolan, Elizabeth D.; Lewis, Robert Michael; Torczon, Virginia; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
We examine the local convergence properties of pattern search methods, complementing the previously established global convergence properties for this class of algorithms. We show that the step-length control parameter which appears in the definition of pattern search algorithms provides a reliable asymptotic measure of first-order stationarity. This gives an analytical justification for a traditional stopping criterion for pattern search methods. Using this measure of first-order stationarity, we analyze the behavior of pattern search in the neighborhood of an isolated local minimizer. We show that a recognizable subsequence converges r-linearly to the minimizer.
Pan, Min-Cheng; Pan, Min-Chun
2010-01-01
A promising method to achieve rapid convergence for image reconstruction is introduced for the continuous-wave near-infrared (NIR) diffuse optical tomography (DOT). Tomographic techniques are usually implemented off line and are time consuming to realize image reconstruction, especially for NIR DOT. Therefore, it is essential to both speed up reconstruction and achieve stable and convergent solutions. We propose an approach using a constraint based on a Lorentzian distributed function incorporated into Tikhonov regularization, thereby rapidly converging a stable solution. It is found in the study that using the proposed method with around five or six iterations leads to a stable solution. The result is compared to the primary method usually converging in approximately 25 iterations. Our algorithm rapidly converges to stable solution in the case of noisy (>20 dB) detected intensities.
Modified Margin Convergence: Over-Under Lacing Suture Technique
Métais, Pierre; Lanzone, Roberto; Lim, Chauncey Kester; Albino, Paolo; Carbone, Stefano
2015-01-01
The principle of margin convergence can be applied to rotator cuff repair to enhance the security of fixation by decreasing the mechanical strain at the margins of the tear. We describe a suture technique, over-under lacing, that reproduces the same margin convergence, with equal tissue tension across the entire surface area of the cuff. A consecutive series of patients affected by massive U-shaped rotator cuff tears were treated by this repair technique. Preoperative diagnosis, tear assessment, and grading of fatty infiltration of the cuff muscles were based on arthro–computed tomography evaluation. The technique passes 2 sutures from the medial to lateral margin of the tear, with a knotless suture anchor for tendon-to-bone fixation. The proposed technique seems to reduce tensile strain on the repaired tendon, can reconstruct the rotator cuff cable, and can attain the balanced pull of the tendon in a medial-to-lateral fashion. The over-under lacing suture technique is both simple and reproducible. This technique may achieve the goals of margin convergence with satisfactory preliminary clinical results for patients with massive rotator cuff tears. PMID:26697304
Multigrid convergence of inviscid fixed- and rotary-wing flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, C. B.
2002-05-01
The affect of multigrid acceleration implemented within an upwind-biased Euler method is presented, and applied to fixed-wing and rotary-wing flows. The convergence of fixed- and rotary-wing computations is shown to be vastly different, and multigrid is shown to be less effective for rotary-wing flows. The flow about a hovering rotor suffers from very slow convergence of the inner blade region, where the flow is effectively incompressible. Furthermore, the vortical wake must develop over several turns before convergence is achieved, whereas for fixed-wing computations the far-field grid and solution have little significance. Results are presented for single mesh and two, three, four, and five level multigrid, and using five levels a reduction in required CPU time of over 80 per cent is demonstrated for rotary-wing computations, but 94 per cent for fixed-wing computations. It is found that a simple V-cycle is the most effective, smoothing in the decreasing mesh density direction only, with a relaxed trilinear prolongation operator. Copyright
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiokawa, Hotaka; Dolence, Joshua C.; Gammie, Charles F.; Noble, Scott C.
2012-01-01
Global, general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of non-radiative, magnetized disks are widely used to model accreting black holes. We have performed a convergence study of GRMHD models computed with HARM3D. The models span a factor of four in linear resolution, from 96 × 96 × 64 to 384 × 384 × 256. We consider three diagnostics of convergence: (1) dimensionless shell-averaged quantities such as plasma β (2) the azimuthal correlation length of fluid variables; and (3) synthetic spectra of the source including synchrotron emission, absorption, and Compton scattering. Shell-averaged temperature is, except for the lowest resolution run, nearly independent of resolution; shell-averaged plasma β decreases steadily with resolution but shows signs of convergence. The azimuthal correlation lengths of density, internal energy, and temperature decrease steadily with resolution but show signs of convergence. In contrast, the azimuthal correlation length of magnetic field decreases nearly linearly with grid size. We argue by analogy with local models, however, that convergence should be achieved with another factor of two in resolution. Synthetic spectra are, except for the lowest resolution run, nearly independent of resolution. The convergence behavior is consistent with that of higher physical resolution local model ("shearing box") calculations and with the recent non-relativistic global convergence studies of Hawley et al.
Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brookhart, Susan M.
2015-01-01
Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morrison, Deb
2016-10-01
In this dialogue with Monica Ridgeway and Randy Yerrick's Whose banner are we waving?: exploring STEM partnerships for marginalized urban youth, I engage the critical race theory (CRT) tenet of interest convergence. I first expand Derrick Bell's (1980) initial statement of interest convergence with subsequent scholarly work in this area. I then explore ways CRT in general and interest convergence specifically have been applied in the field of education. Using this framing, I examine how interest convergence may be shed new insights into Monica Ridgeway and Randy Yerrick's study. For example, the tenet of interest convergence is used to frame why it was beneficial for the White artist, Jacob, and the Achievement Scholars to collaborate in the service-learning mural. Then the idea of interest divergence is brought into explore the ways in which Jacob benefitted from his participation in the service learning project while the Achievement Scholars were left with an unfinished project which they had to problem solve. To conclude, I provide future directions for the application of interest convergence and divergence to issues facing science education.
Dosimetric and bremsstrahlung performance of a single convergent beam for teletherapy device.
Figueroa, R G; Santibáñez, M; Valente, M
2016-12-01
The present work investigates preliminary feasibility and characteristics of a new type of radiation therapy modality based on a single convergent beam of photons. The proposal consists of the design of a device capable of generating convergent X-ray beams useful for radiotherapy. The main goal is to achieve high concentrated dose delivery. The first step is an analytical approach in order to characterize the dosimetric performance of the hypothetical convergent photon beam. Then, the validated FLUKA Monte Carlo main code is used to perform complete radiation transport to account also for scattering effects. The proposed method for producing convergent X-rays is mainly based on the bremsstrahlung effect. Hence the operating principle of the proposed device is described in terms of bremsstrahlung production. The work is mainly devoted characterizing the effect on the bremsstrahlung yield due to accessories present in the device, like anode material and geometry, filtration and collimation systems among others. The results obtained for in-depth dose distributions, by means of analytical and stochastic approaches, confirm the presence of a high dose concentration around the irradiated target, as expected. Moreover, it is shown how this spot of high dose concentration depends upon the relevant physical properties of the produced convergent photon beam. In summary, the proposed design for producing single convergent X-rays attained satisfactory performance for achieving high dose concentration around small targets depending on beam spot size that may be used for some applications in radiotherapy, like radiosurgery.
Topics in global convergence of density estimates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Devroye, L.
1982-01-01
The problem of estimating a density f on R sup d from a sample Xz(1),...,X(n) of independent identically distributed random vectors is critically examined, and some recent results in the field are reviewed. The following statements are qualified: (1) For any sequence of density estimates f(n), any arbitrary slow rate of convergence to 0 is possible for E(integral/f(n)-fl); (2) In theoretical comparisons of density estimates, integral/f(n)-f/ should be used and not integral/f(n)-f/sup p, p 1; and (3) For most reasonable nonparametric density estimates, either there is convergence of integral/f(n)-f/ (and then the convergence is in the strongest possible sense for all f), or there is no convergence (even in the weakest possible sense for a single f). There is no intermediate situation.
Convergence results for elliptic quasivariational inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sofonea, Mircea; Benraouda, Ahlem
2017-02-01
In this paper, we state and prove various convergence results for a general class of elliptic quasivariational inequalities with constraints. Thus, we prove the convergence of the solution of a class of penalized problems to the solution of the original inequality, as the penalty parameter converges to zero. We also prove a continuous dependence result of the solution with respect the convex set of constraints. Then, we consider a mathematical model which describes the equilibrium of an elastic rod attached to a nonlinear spring. We derive the variational formulation of the model which is in a form of an elliptic quasivariational inequality for the displacement field. We prove the unique weak solvability of the model, and then we state and prove two convergence results and provide their corresponding mechanical interpretation.
Morphological and molecular convergences in mammalian phylogenetics.
Zou, Zhengting; Zhang, Jianzhi
2016-09-02
Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from molecular sequences are often considered more reliable than those reconstructed from morphological characters, in part because convergent evolution, which confounds phylogenetic reconstruction, is believed to be rarer for molecular sequences than for morphologies. However, neither the validity of this belief nor its underlying cause is known. Here comparing thousands of characters of each type that have been used for inferring the phylogeny of mammals, we find that on average morphological characters indeed experience much more convergences than amino acid sites, but this disparity is explained by fewer states per character rather than an intrinsically higher susceptibility to convergence for morphologies than sequences. We show by computer simulation and actual data analysis that a simple method for identifying and removing convergence-prone characters improves phylogenetic accuracy, potentially enabling, when necessary, the inclusion of morphologies and hence fossils for reliable tree inference.
Convergence of Attitudes among College Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whatley, Alice E.; Appel, Victor H.
1973-01-01
Attempts to determine whether the intersex convergence phenomenon could be applicable to the measured attitudes of collegiate samples. Both sexes seemed to be moving toward a more liberal view on issues related to marriage and the family. (Author)
Cultivate technology convergence for product innovation.
Wilkinson, J Malcolm
2006-04-01
Technologies from diverse scientific disciplines are being combined to drive innovation in medical devices. How technology convergence and innovation could be further stimulated is explored here using developments in imaging and point-of-care devices as examples.
Morphological and molecular convergences in mammalian phylogenetics
Zou, Zhengting; Zhang, Jianzhi
2016-01-01
Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from molecular sequences are often considered more reliable than those reconstructed from morphological characters, in part because convergent evolution, which confounds phylogenetic reconstruction, is believed to be rarer for molecular sequences than for morphologies. However, neither the validity of this belief nor its underlying cause is known. Here comparing thousands of characters of each type that have been used for inferring the phylogeny of mammals, we find that on average morphological characters indeed experience much more convergences than amino acid sites, but this disparity is explained by fewer states per character rather than an intrinsically higher susceptibility to convergence for morphologies than sequences. We show by computer simulation and actual data analysis that a simple method for identifying and removing convergence-prone characters improves phylogenetic accuracy, potentially enabling, when necessary, the inclusion of morphologies and hence fossils for reliable tree inference. PMID:27585543
New convergence estimates for multigrid algorithms
Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.
1987-10-01
In this paper, new convergence estimates are proved for both symmetric and nonsymmetric multigrid algorithms applied to symmetric positive definite problems. Our theory relates the convergence of multigrid algorithms to a ''regularity and approximation'' parameter ..cap alpha.. epsilon (0, 1) and the number of relaxations m. We show that for the symmetric and nonsymmetric ..nu.. cycles, the multigrid iteration converges for any positive m at a rate which deteriorates no worse than 1-cj/sup -(1-//sup ..cap alpha..//sup )///sup ..cap alpha../, where j is the number of grid levels. We then define a generalized ..nu.. cycle algorithm which involves exponentially increasing (for example, doubling) the number of smoothings on successively coarser grids. We show that the resulting symmetric and nonsymmetric multigrid iterations converge for any ..cap alpha.. with rates that are independent of the mesh size. The theory is presented in an abstract setting which can be applied to finite element multigrid and finite difference multigrid methods.
On Convergent Probability of a Random Walk
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Y.-F.; Ching, W.-K.
2006-01-01
This note introduces an interesting random walk on a straight path with cards of random numbers. The method of recurrent relations is used to obtain the convergent probability of the random walk with different initial positions.
International Convergence on Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allison, M. L.; Atkinson, R.; Arctur, D. K.; Cox, S.; Jackson, I.; Nativi, S.; Wyborn, L. A.
2012-04-01
There is growing international consensus on addressing the challenges to cyber(e)-infrastructure for the geosciences. These challenges include: Creating common standards and protocols; Engaging the vast number of distributed data resources; Establishing practices for recognition of and respect for intellectual property; Developing simple data and resource discovery and access systems; Building mechanisms to encourage development of web service tools and workflows for data analysis; Brokering the diverse disciplinary service buses; Creating sustainable business models for maintenance and evolution of information resources; Integrating the data management life-cycle into the practice of science. Efforts around the world are converging towards de facto creation of an integrated global digital data network for the geosciences based on common standards and protocols for data discovery and access, and a shared vision of distributed, web-based, open source interoperable data access and integration. Commonalities include use of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO specifications and standardized data interchange mechanisms. For multidisciplinarity, mediation, adaptation, and profiling services have been successfully introduced to leverage the geosciences standards which are commonly used by the different geoscience communities -introducing a brokering approach which extends the basic SOA archetype. Principal challenges are less technical than cultural, social, and organizational. Before we can make data interoperable, we must make people interoperable. These challenges are being met by increased coordination of development activities (technical, organizational, social) among leaders and practitioners in national and international efforts across the geosciences to foster commonalities across disparate networks. In doing so, we will 1) leverage and share resources, and developments, 2) facilitate and enhance emerging technical and structural advances, 3) promote
[Convergence in health: dream or reality?].
Comín Novella, D
1997-01-01
In the last fifty years the distance between the poorest and the richest countries, measured in income per capita, has augmented. Keeping in mind the absence of economic convergence, this paper use the life expectancy data compiled by the World Bank for 125 countries to examine whether their health levels have converged in the period 1960-1992. In order to answer this question we apply the concepts of beta and sigma convergence and the evolution of the distribution developed in the economic literature. The most relevant results that arise from the analysis are that 1) there is convergence in the health levels in the world during the period 1960-89, 2) the existence of convergence is not sensible to the measure used but it is to the variable used to proxy the health level, 3) the speed of convergence fell down from the eighties, and 4) the African countries reduced the distance from their health level to the levels of the rest of the world but, within Africa, the differences increased along 1960-92. These evidences suggest a nonlinear relation between health and income per capita.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wojciechowski, Bogdan V. (Inventor); Pegg, Robert J. (Inventor)
2003-01-01
A fast-acting valve includes an annular valve seat that defines an annular valve orifice between the edges of the annular valve seat, an annular valve plug sized to cover the valve orifice when the valve is closed, and a valve-plug holder for moving the annular valve plug on and off the annular valve seat. The use of an annular orifice reduces the characteristic distance between the edges of the valve seat. Rather than this distance being equal to the diameter of the orifice, as it is for a conventional circular orifice, the characteristic distance equals the distance between the inner and outer radii (for a circular annulus). The reduced characteristic distance greatly reduces the gap required between the annular valve plug and the annular valve seat for the valve to be fully open, thereby greatly reducing the required stroke and corresponding speed and acceleration of the annular valve plug. The use of a valve-plug holder that is under independent control to move the annular valve plug between its open and closed positions is important for achieving controllable fast operation of the valve.
Future Assets, Student Talent (FAST)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
Future Assets, Student Talent (FAST) motivates and prepares talented students with disabilities to further their education and achieve High Tech and professional employment. The FAST program is managed by local professionals, business, and industry leaders; it is modeled after High School High Tech project TAKE CHARGE started in Los Angeles in 1983. Through cooperative efforts of Alabama Department of Education, Vocational Rehabilitation, Adult and Children Services, and the President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities, north central Alabama was chosen as the second site for a High School High Tech project. In 1986 local business, industry, education, government agencies, and rehabilitation representatives started FAST. The program objectives and goals, results and accomplishments, and survey results are included.
A simplified analysis of the multigrid V-cycle as a fast elliptic solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, Naomi H.; Taasan, Shlomo
1988-01-01
For special model problems, Fourier analysis gives exact convergence rates for the two-grid multigrid cycle and, for more general problems, provides estimates of the two-grid convergence rates via local mode analysis. A method is presented for obtaining mutigrid convergence rate estimates for cycles involving more than two grids (using essentially the same analysis as for the two-grid cycle). For the simple cast of the V-cycle used as a fast Laplace solver on the unit square, the k-grid convergence rate bounds obtained by this method are sharper than the bounds predicted by the variational theory. Both theoretical justification and experimental evidence are presented.
Kazemi, Mahdi; Arefi, Mohammad Mehdi
2017-03-01
In this paper, an online identification algorithm is presented for nonlinear systems in the presence of output colored noise. The proposed method is based on extended recursive least squares (ERLS) algorithm, where the identified system is in polynomial Wiener form. To this end, an unknown intermediate signal is estimated by using an inner iterative algorithm. The iterative recursive algorithm adaptively modifies the vector of parameters of the presented Wiener model when the system parameters vary. In addition, to increase the robustness of the proposed method against variations, a robust RLS algorithm is applied to the model. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Results confirm that the proposed method has fast convergence rate with robust characteristics, which increases the efficiency of the proposed model and identification approach. For instance, the FIT criterion will be achieved 92% in CSTR process where about 400 data is used.
Previti, Alberto; Furfaro, Roberto; Picca, Paolo; Ganapol, Barry D; Mostacci, Domiziano
2011-08-01
This paper deals with finding accurate solutions for photon transport problems in highly heterogeneous media fastly, efficiently and with modest memory resources. We propose an extended version of the analytical discrete ordinates method, coupled with domain decomposition-derived algorithms and non-linear convergence acceleration techniques. Numerical performances are evaluated using a challenging case study available in the literature. A study of accuracy versus computational time and memory requirements is reported for transport calculations that are relevant for remote sensing applications.
Convergence of gut microbiomes in myrmecophagous mammals.
Delsuc, Frédéric; Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Song, Se Jin; González, Antonio; Knight, Rob
2014-03-01
Mammals have diversified into many dietary niches. Specialized myrmecophagous (ant- and termite-eating) placental mammals represent a textbook example of evolutionary convergence driven by extreme diet specialization. Armadillos, anteaters, aardvarks, pangolins and aardwolves thus provide a model system for understanding the potential role of gut microbiota in the convergent adaptation to myrmecophagy. Here, we expand upon previous mammalian gut microbiome studies by using high-throughput barcoded Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the composition of gut microbiota in 15 species representing all placental myrmecophagous lineages and their close relatives from zoo- and field-collected samples. We confirm that both diet and phylogeny drive the evolution of mammalian gut microbiota, with cases of convergence in global composition, but also examples of phylogenetic inertia. Our results reveal specialized placental myrmecophages as a spectacular case of large-scale convergence in gut microbiome composition. Indeed, neighbour-net networks and beta-diversity plots based on UniFrac distances show significant clustering of myrmecophagous species (anteaters, aardvarks and aardwolves), even though they belong to phylogenetically distant lineages representing different orders. The aardwolf, which diverged from carnivorous hyenas only in the last 10 million years, experienced a convergent shift in the composition of its gut microbiome to become more similar to other myrmecophages. These results confirm diet adaptation to be a major driving factor of convergence in gut microbiome composition over evolutionary timescales. This study sets the scene for future metagenomic studies aiming at evaluating potential convergence in functional gene content in the microbiomes of specialized mammalian myrmecophages.
Convergence of electronic bands for high performance bulk thermoelectrics.
Pei, Yanzhong; Shi, Xiaoya; LaLonde, Aaron; Wang, Heng; Chen, Lidong; Snyder, G Jeffrey
2011-05-05
Thermoelectric generators, which directly convert heat into electricity, have long been relegated to use in space-based or other niche applications, but are now being actively considered for a variety of practical waste heat recovery systems-such as the conversion of car exhaust heat into electricity. Although these devices can be very reliable and compact, the thermoelectric materials themselves are relatively inefficient: to facilitate widespread application, it will be desirable to identify or develop materials that have an intensive thermoelectric materials figure of merit, zT, above 1.5 (ref. 1). Many different concepts have been used in the search for new materials with high thermoelectric efficiency, such as the use of nanostructuring to reduce phonon thermal conductivity, which has led to the investigation of a variety of complex material systems. In this vein, it is well known that a high valley degeneracy (typically ≤6 for known thermoelectrics) in the electronic bands is conducive to high zT, and this in turn has stimulated attempts to engineer such degeneracy by adopting low-dimensional nanostructures. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to direct the convergence of many valleys in a bulk material by tuning the doping and composition. By this route, we achieve a convergence of at least 12 valleys in doped PbTe(1-x)Se(x) alloys, leading to an extraordinary zT value of 1.8 at about 850 kelvin. Band engineering to converge the valence (or conduction) bands to achieve high valley degeneracy should be a general strategy in the search for and improvement of bulk thermoelectric materials, because it simultaneously leads to a high Seebeck coefficient and high electrical conductivity.
Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry
Rousculp, Christopher L.; Oro, David Michael; Griego, Jeffrey Randall; Turchi, Peter John; Reinovsky, Robert Emil; Bradley, Joseph Thomas; Cheng, Baolian; Freeman, Matthew Stouten; Patten, Austin Randall
2016-03-21
There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer- Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release. A conceptual cylindrical liner and target is shown in Figure 1.
Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry
Rousculp, Christopher L.; Oro, David Michael; Margolin, Len G.; Griego, Jeffrey Randall; Reinovsky, Robert Emil; Turchi, Peter John
2015-08-06
There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release.
Fully converged iterative method for coupled channel problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shu, Di; Simbotin, I.; Côté, R.
2016-05-01
We implemented a numerical method using a distorted-wave perturbative approach for coupled-channel scattering problems. Our new method provides a way to avoid costly computations for the propagation of the full solutions in coupled-channel problems to large distances for slowly vanishing couplings. Thus, instead of dealing with large matrices, all computations are performed in a channel by channel fashion. The distorted wavefunction for each channel is initialized with the appropriate solution (which includes the diagonal element of the coupling potential matrix). We then solve single-channel inhomogeneous radial equations which contain the (off-diagonal) couplings as a perturbation, and we iterate until desired accuracy is achieved. We tested for stability by continuing to iterate even after convergence has been achieved, e.g., for a total of 75 iterations. Partial support from the US Army Research Office (ARO-MURI W911NF-14-1-0378), and from NSF (Grant No. PHY-1415560).
Uplift of Zagros Mountains slows plate convergence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balcerak, Ernie
2013-05-01
Research has indicated that mountain ranges can slow down the convergence between two tectonic plates on timescales as short as a few million years, as the growing mountains provide enough tectonic force to impact plate motions. Focusing on the convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates at the Zagros mountain range, which runs across Iran and Iraq, Austermann and Iaffaldano reconstructed the relative motion of the plates using published paleomagnetic data covering the past 13 million years, as well as current geodetic measurements. They show that the convergence of the two plates has decreased by about 30% over the past 5 million years. Looking at the geological record to infer past topography and using a computer model of the mantle-lithosphere system, the authors examined whether the recent uplift across the Zagros Mountains could have caused the observed slowdown. They also considered several other geological events that might have influenced the convergence rate, but the authors were able to rule those out as dominant controls. The authors conclude that the uplift across the Zagros Mountains in the past 5 million years did indeed play a key role in slowing down the convergence between the Eurasian and Arabian plates. (Tectonics, doi:10.1002/tect.20027, 2013)
Formation of polarity convergences underlying shoot outgrowths
Abley, Katie; Sauret-Güeto, Susanna; Marée, Athanasius FM; Coen, Enrico
2016-01-01
The development of outgrowths from plant shoots depends on formation of epidermal sites of cell polarity convergence with high intracellular auxin at their centre. A parsimonious model for generation of convergence sites is that cell polarity for the auxin transporter PIN1 orients up auxin gradients, as this spontaneously generates convergent alignments. Here we test predictions of this and other models for the patterns of auxin biosynthesis and import. Live imaging of outgrowths from kanadi1 kanadi2 Arabidopsis mutant leaves shows that they arise by formation of PIN1 convergence sites within a proximodistal polarity field. PIN1 polarities are oriented away from regions of high auxin biosynthesis enzyme expression, and towards regions of high auxin importer expression. Both expression patterns are required for normal outgrowth emergence, and may form part of a common module underlying shoot outgrowths. These findings are more consistent with models that spontaneously generate tandem rather than convergent alignments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18165.001 PMID:27478985
Grid Convergence for Turbulent Flows(Invited)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Schwoppe, Axel
2015-01-01
A detailed grid convergence study has been conducted to establish accurate reference solutions corresponding to the one-equation linear eddy-viscosity Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model for two dimensional turbulent flows around the NACA 0012 airfoil and a flat plate. The study involved three widely used codes, CFL3D (NASA), FUN3D (NASA), and TAU (DLR), and families of uniformly refined structured grids that differ in the grid density patterns. Solutions computed by different codes on different grid families appear to converge to the same continuous limit, but exhibit different convergence characteristics. The grid resolution in the vicinity of geometric singularities, such as a sharp trailing edge, is found to be the major factor affecting accuracy and convergence of discrete solutions, more prominent than differences in discretization schemes and/or grid elements. The results reported for these relatively simple turbulent flows demonstrate that CFL3D, FUN3D, and TAU solutions are very accurate on the finest grids used in the study, but even those grids are not sufficient to conclusively establish an asymptotic convergence order.
A three-dimensional robust nonlinear terminal guidance law with ISS finite-time convergence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Guilin; Ji, Haibo
2016-05-01
This paper presents a novel three-dimensional nonlinear terminal guidance law with finite-time convergence for intercepting manoeuvring targets. Different from the usual method of decoupling the missile-target relative motion into two-dimensional planes, this law is designed via using the coupled dynamics. The guidance law is derived based on the theory of finite-time input-to-state stability (ISS), which needs no assumption of the linearisation and the estimation of target accelerations. Under this law, the line-of-sight angular rates can be stabilised to a small domain of convergence around zero in finite time. The convergence rate and convergence domain can be adjusted by changing the guidance parameters. First, a sufficient condition on finite-time ISS of the guidance system is given, and is subsequently used to design the guidance law. Finally, simulation results are provided to show that the proposed guidance law possesses fast convergence rate and strong robustness to target manoeuvres.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Yanfeng; Naqvi, Syed Mohsen; Chambers, Jonathon A.
2012-12-01
Fast fixed-point independent vector analysis (FastIVA) is an improved independent vector analysis (IVA) method, which can achieve faster and better separation performance than original IVA. As an example IVA method, it is designed to solve the permutation problem in frequency domain independent component analysis by retaining the higher order statistical dependency between frequencies during learning. However, the performance of all IVA methods is limited due to the dimensionality of the parameter space commonly encountered in practical frequency-domain source separation problems and the spherical symmetry assumed with the source model. In this article, a particular permutation problem encountered in using the FastIVA algorithm is highlighted, namely the block permutation problem. Therefore a new audio video based fast fixed-point independent vector analysis algorithm is proposed, which uses video information to provide a smart initialization for the optimization problem. The method cannot only avoid the ill convergence resulting from the block permutation problem but also improve the separation performance even in noisy and high reverberant environments. Different multisource datasets including the real audio video corpus AV16.3 are used to verify the proposed method. For the evaluation of the separation performance on real room recordings, a new pitch based evaluation criterion is also proposed.
Algorithm for correcting optimization convergence errors in Eclipse.
Zacarias, Albert S; Mills, Michael D
2009-10-14
IMRT plans generated in Eclipse use a fast algorithm to evaluate dose for optimization and a more accurate algorithm for a final dose calculation, the Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm. The use of a fast optimization algorithm introduces optimization convergence errors into an IMRT plan. Eclipse has a feature where optimization may be performed on top of an existing base plan. This feature allows for the possibility of arriving at a recursive solution to optimization that relies on the accuracy of the final dose calculation algorithm and not the optimizer algorithm. When an IMRT plan is used as a base plan for a second optimization, the second optimization can compensate for heterogeneity and modulator errors in the original base plan. Plans with the same field arrangement as the initial base plan may be added together by adding the initial plan optimal fluence to the dose correcting plan optimal fluence.A simple procedure to correct for optimization errors is presented that may be implemented in the Eclipse treatment planning system, along with an Excel spreadsheet to add optimized fluence maps together.
Convergence studies in meshfree peridynamic simulations
Seleson, Pablo; Littlewood, David J.
2016-04-15
Meshfree methods are commonly applied to discretize peridynamic models, particularly in numerical simulations of engineering problems. Such methods discretize peridynamic bodies using a set of nodes with characteristic volume, leading to particle-based descriptions of systems. In this article, we perform convergence studies of static peridynamic problems. We show that commonly used meshfree methods in peridynamics suffer from accuracy and convergence issues, due to a rough approximation of the contribution to the internal force density of nodes near the boundary of the neighborhood of a given node. We propose two methods to improve meshfree peridynamic simulations. The first method uses accurate computations of volumes of intersections between neighbor cells and the neighborhood of a given node, referred to as partial volumes. The second method employs smooth influence functions with a finite support within peridynamic kernels. Numerical results demonstrate great improvements in accuracy and convergence of peridynamic numerical solutions, when using the proposed methods.
Convergence Estimates for Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arian, Eyal
1997-01-01
A quantitative analysis of coupling between systems of equations is introduced. This analysis is then applied to problems in multidisciplinary analysis, sensitivity, and optimization. For the sensitivity and optimization problems both multidisciplinary and single discipline feasibility schemes are considered. In all these cases a "convergence factor" is estimated in terms of the Jacobians and Hessians of the system, thus it can also be approximated by existing disciplinary analysis and optimization codes. The convergence factor is identified with the measure for the "coupling" between the disciplines in the system. Applications to algorithm development are discussed. Demonstration of the convergence estimates and numerical results are given for a system composed of two non-linear algebraic equations, and for a system composed of two PDEs modeling aeroelasticity.
Mnemonic convergence in the human hippocampus
Backus, Alexander R.; Bosch, Sander E.; Ekman, Matthias; Grabovetsky, Alejandro Vicente; Doeller, Christian F.
2016-01-01
The ability to form associations between a multitude of events is the hallmark of episodic memory. Computational models have espoused the importance of the hippocampus as convergence zone, binding different aspects of an episode into a coherent representation, by integrating information from multiple brain regions. However, evidence for this long-held hypothesis is limited, since previous work has largely focused on representational and network properties of the hippocampus in isolation. Here we identify the hippocampus as mnemonic convergence zone, using a combination of multivariate pattern and graph-theoretical network analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging data from humans performing an associative memory task. We observe overlap of conjunctive coding and hub-like network attributes in the hippocampus. These results provide evidence for mnemonic convergence in the hippocampus, underlying the integration of distributed information into episodic memory representations. PMID:27325442
Convergence studies in meshfree peridynamic simulations
Seleson, Pablo; Littlewood, David J.
2016-04-15
Meshfree methods are commonly applied to discretize peridynamic models, particularly in numerical simulations of engineering problems. Such methods discretize peridynamic bodies using a set of nodes with characteristic volume, leading to particle-based descriptions of systems. In this article, we perform convergence studies of static peridynamic problems. We show that commonly used meshfree methods in peridynamics suffer from accuracy and convergence issues, due to a rough approximation of the contribution to the internal force density of nodes near the boundary of the neighborhood of a given node. We propose two methods to improve meshfree peridynamic simulations. The first method uses accuratemore » computations of volumes of intersections between neighbor cells and the neighborhood of a given node, referred to as partial volumes. The second method employs smooth influence functions with a finite support within peridynamic kernels. Numerical results demonstrate great improvements in accuracy and convergence of peridynamic numerical solutions, when using the proposed methods.« less
Xu, Qiaofeng; Yang, Deshan; Tan, Jun; Sawatzky, Alex; Anastasio, Mark A.
2016-01-01
Purpose: The development of iterative image reconstruction algorithms for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) remains an active and important research area. Even with hardware acceleration, the overwhelming majority of the available 3D iterative algorithms that implement nonsmooth regularizers remain computationally burdensome and have not been translated for routine use in time-sensitive applications such as image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this work, two variants of the fast iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm (FISTA) are proposed and investigated for accelerated iterative image reconstruction in CBCT. Methods: Algorithm acceleration was achieved by replacing the original gradient-descent step in the FISTAs by a subproblem that is solved by use of the ordered subset simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (OS-SART). Due to the preconditioning matrix adopted in the OS-SART method, two new weighted proximal problems were introduced and corresponding fast gradient projection-type algorithms were developed for solving them. We also provided efficient numerical implementations of the proposed algorithms that exploit the massive data parallelism of multiple graphics processing units. Results: The improved rates of convergence of the proposed algorithms were quantified in computer-simulation studies and by use of clinical projection data corresponding to an IGRT study. The accelerated FISTAs were shown to possess dramatically improved convergence properties as compared to the standard FISTAs. For example, the number of iterations to achieve a specified reconstruction error could be reduced by an order of magnitude. Volumetric images reconstructed from clinical data were produced in under 4 min. Conclusions: The FISTA achieves a quadratic convergence rate and can therefore potentially reduce the number of iterations required to produce an image of a specified image quality as compared to first-order methods. We have proposed and investigated
Teacher Unions, School Districts, Universities, Governments: Time to Tango and Promote Convergence?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Naylor, Charlie
2007-01-01
This paper considers "convergence" as deliberate acts of will to achieve common goals within the context of the education service in general and school sector industrial relations in particular. Such language is unusual in the field of industrial relations, where assumptions are often based on notions of conflictual relationships.…
Dubé, Laurette; Webb, Patrick; Arora, Narendra K; Pingali, Prabhu
2014-12-01
The causes of many vexing challenges facing 21st-century society are at the nexus of systems involved in agriculture, health and wealth production, consumption, and distribution. Using food as a test bed, and on the basis of emerging roadmaps that set achievable objectives over a 1- to 3-year horizon, we introduce this special feature with convergence thinking and practice at its core. Specifically, we discuss academic papers structured around four themes: (1) evidence for a need for convergence and underlying mechanisms at the individual and societal levels; (2) strategy for mainstreaming convergence as a driver of business engagement and innovation; (3) convergence in policy and governance; (4) convergence in metrics and methods. Academic papers under each theme are accompanied by a roadmap paper reporting on the current status of concrete transformative convergence-building projects associated with that theme. We believe that the insights provided by these papers have the potential to enable all actors throughout society to singly and collectively work to build supply and demand for nutritious food, in both traditional and modern food systems, while placing the burdens of malnutrition and ill health on their core strategic agendas.
Li, Xiangrong; Zhao, Xupei; Duan, Xiabin; Wang, Xiaoliang
2015-01-01
It is generally acknowledged that the conjugate gradient (CG) method achieves global convergence--with at most a linear convergence rate--because CG formulas are generated by linear approximations of the objective functions. The quadratically convergent results are very limited. We introduce a new PRP method in which the restart strategy is also used. Moreover, the method we developed includes not only n-step quadratic convergence but also both the function value information and gradient value information. In this paper, we will show that the new PRP method (with either the Armijo line search or the Wolfe line search) is both linearly and quadratically convergent. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the new PRP algorithm is competitive with the normal CG method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Huaxiong; Takagi, Shu
2003-08-01
In this paper, we study the convergence property of PHYSALIS when it is applied to incompressible particle flows in two-dimensional space. PHYSALIS is a recently proposed iterative method which computes the solution without imposing the boundary conditions on the particle surfaces directly. Instead, a consistency equation based on the local (near particle) representation of the solution is used as the boundary conditions. One of the important issues needs to be addressed is the convergence properties of the iterative procedure. In this paper, we present the convergence analysis using Laplace and biharmonic equations as two model problems. It is shown that convergence of the method can be achieved but the rate of convergence depends on the relative locations of the cages. The results are directly related to potential and Stokes flows. However, they are also relevant to Navier-Stokes flows, heat conduction in composite media, and other problems.
On Iλ -statistical convergence of weight g
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savas, Ekrem
2016-08-01
In this paper, following a very recent and new approach of [M. Balcerzak, P. Das, M. Filipczak, and J. Swaczyna, Acta Math. Hungar. 147, 97-115 (2015)], we further generalize the recently introduced summability method of [E. Savas, and P. Das, Appl. Math. Lett. 24, 826-830 (2011)] and introduce the new notion namely, Iλ -statistical convergence of weight g, where g : ℕ → [0, ∞) is a function satisfying g(n) → ∞ and g(n) ↛ 0 as n → ∞. We mainly investigate certain properties of this convergence.
Antibiotics from microbes: converging to kill.
Fischbach, Michael A
2009-10-01
As genetically encoded small molecules, antibiotics are phenotypes that have resulted from mutation and natural selection. Advances in genetics, biochemistry, and bioinformatics have connected hundreds of antibiotics to the gene clusters that encode them, allowing these molecules to be analyzed using the tools of evolutionary biology. This review surveys examples of convergent evolution from microbially produced antibiotics, including the convergence of distinct gene clusters on similar phenotypes and the merger of distinct gene clusters into a single functional unit. Examining antibiotics through an evolutionary lens highlights the versatility of biosynthetic pathways, reveals lessons for combating antibiotic resistance, and provides an entry point for studying the natural roles of these natural products.
Suratwala, Tayyab; Steele, Rusty; Feit, Michael; Dylla-Spears, Rebecca; Desjardin, Richard; Mason, Dan; Wong, Lana; Geraghty, Paul; Miller, Phil; Shen, Nan
2014-01-01
Convergent Polishing is a novel polishing system and method for finishing flat and spherical glass optics in which a workpiece, independent of its initial shape (i.e., surface figure), will converge to final surface figure with excellent surface quality under a fixed, unchanging set of polishing parameters in a single polishing iteration. In contrast, conventional full aperture polishing methods require multiple, often long, iterative cycles involving polishing, metrology and process changes to achieve the desired surface figure. The Convergent Polishing process is based on the concept of workpiece-lap height mismatch resulting in pressure differential that decreases with removal and results in the workpiece converging to the shape of the lap. The successful implementation of the Convergent Polishing process is a result of the combination of a number of technologies to remove all sources of non-uniform spatial material removal (except for workpiece-lap mismatch) for surface figure convergence and to reduce the number of rogue particles in the system for low scratch densities and low roughness. The Convergent Polishing process has been demonstrated for the fabrication of both flats and spheres of various shapes, sizes, and aspect ratios on various glass materials. The practical impact is that high quality optical components can be fabricated more rapidly, more repeatedly, with less metrology, and with less labor, resulting in lower unit costs. In this study, the Convergent Polishing protocol is specifically described for fabricating 26.5 cm square fused silica flats from a fine ground surface to a polished ~λ/2 surface figure after polishing 4 hr per surface on a 81 cm diameter polisher. PMID:25489745
A fast multipole transformation for global climate calculations
Holmes, J.A.; Wang, Z.; Drake, J.B.; Lyon, B.F.; Chen, W.T.
1996-01-01
A fast multipole transformation is adapted to the evaluation of summations that occur in global climate calculations when transforming between spatial and spherical harmonic representations. For each summation, the timing of the fast multipole transformation scales linearly with the number of latitude gridpoints, but the timing for direct evaluations scales quadratically. In spite of a larger computational overhead, this scaling advantage renders the fast multipole method faster than direct evaluation for transformations involving greater than approximately 300 to 500 gridpoints. Convergence of the fast multipole transformation is accurate to machine precision. As the resolution in global climate calculations continues to increase, an increasingly large fraction of the computational work involves the transformation between spatial and spherical harmonic representations. The fast multipole transformation offers a significant reduction in computational time for these high-resolution cases.
Dienemann, Jacqueline
2002-01-01
This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.
Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated ...
Chuang, Chun-Fu; Sun, Yeong-Jeu; Wang, Wen-June
2012-12-01
In this study, exponential finite-time synchronization for generalized Lorenz chaotic systems is investigated. The significant contribution of this paper is that master-slave synchronization is achieved within a pre-specified convergence time and with a simple linear control. The designed linear control consists of two parts: one achieves exponential synchronization, and the other realizes finite-time synchronization within a guaranteed convergence time. Furthermore, the control gain depends on the parameters of the exponential convergence rate, the finite-time convergence rate, the bound of the initial states of the master system, and the system parameter. In addition, the proposed approach can be directly and efficiently applied to secure communication. Finally, four numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the feasibility and correctness of the obtained results.
Chen, Chia-Lin; Yang, Ruey-Jen
2012-03-01
Preconcentration microfluidic devices are fabricated incorporating straight or convergent-divergent microchannels and hydrogel or Nafion membranes. Sample preconcentration is achieved utilizing concentration-polarization effects. The effects of the microchannel geometry on the preconcentration intensity are systematically examined. It is shown that for the preconcentrator with the straight microchannel, the time required to achieve a satisfactory preconcentration intensity increases with an increasing channel depth. For the convergent-divergent microchannel, the preconcentration intensity increases with a reducing convergent channel width. Comparing the preconcentration performance of the two different microchannel configurations, it is found that for an equivalent width of the main microchannel, the concentration effect in the convergent-divergent microchannel is faster than that in the straight microchannel.
[Conservative and surgical treatment of convergence excess].
Ehrt, O
2016-07-01
Convergence excess is a common finding especially in pediatric strabismus. A detailed diagnostic approach has to start after full correction of any hyperopia measured in cycloplegia. It includes measurements of manifest and latent deviation at near and distance fixation, near deviation after relaxation of accommodation with addition of +3 dpt, assessment of binocular function with and without +3 dpt as well as the accommodation range. This diagnostic approach is important for the classification into three types of convergence excess, which require different therapeutic approaches: 1) hypo-accommodative convergence excess is treated with permanent bifocal glasses, 2) norm-accommodative patients should be treated with bifocals which can be weaned over years, especially in patients with good stereopsis and 3) non-accommodative convergence excess and patients with large distance deviations need a surgical approach. The most effective operations include those which reduce the muscle torque, e. g. bimedial Faden operations or Y‑splitting of the medial rectus muscles.
The convergence coefficient across political systems.
Gallego, Maria; Schofield, Norman
2013-01-01
Formal work on the electoral model often suggests that parties or candidates should locate themselves at the electoral mean. Recent research has found no evidence of such convergence. In order to explain nonconvergence, the stochastic electoral model is extended by including estimates of electoral valence. We introduce the notion of a convergence coefficient, c. It has been shown that high values of c imply that there is a significant centrifugal tendency acting on parties. We used electoral surveys to construct a stochastic valence model of the the elections in various countries. We find that the convergence coefficient varies across elections in a country, across countries with similar regimes, and across political regimes. In some countries, the centripetal tendency leads parties to converge to the electoral mean. In others the centrifugal tendency dominates and some parties locate far from the electoral mean. In particular, for countries with proportional electoral systems, namely, Israel, Turkey, and Poland, the centrifugal tendency is very high. In the majoritarian polities of the United States and Great Britain, the centrifugal tendency is very low. In anocracies, the autocrat imposes limitations on how far from the origin the opposition parties can move.
Another Perspective: A Response to "Toward Convergence"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Regelski, Thomas A.
2013-01-01
This response by Thomas A. Regelski was solicited to complement the lead article in this issue, "Toward Convergence: Adapting Music Education to Contemporary Society and Participatory Culture" by Evan S. Tobias. The author notes that many interesting and vital questions and alternatives that are often studiously ignored, overlooked, or taken for…
Sweet! Generation "D" Takes on Media Convergence.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tarpenning, David; Schaub, Laura
2002-01-01
Notes that professional journalists continually emphasize the need for developing skills for all delivery systems. Proposes that students interested in journalism should learn about technology and develop projects without the guidance of a teacher or advisor. Describes students' experience with media convergence in a summer journalism workshop.…
Culture and Social Psychology: Converging Perspectives
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dimaggio, Paul; Markus, Hazel Rose
2010-01-01
Views of culture in psychology and sociology have converged markedly in the past two decades. Both have rejected what Adams and Markus (2004) refer to as the "entity" conception of culture--the view that culture is coherent, stable, and located in the heads of collectivities' members--in favor of more supple and dynamic constructs. Culture, in…
Collaborative Instructional Strategies to Enhance Knowledge Convergence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Draper, Darryl C.
2015-01-01
To promote knowledge convergence through collaborative learning activities in groups, this qualitative case study involved a layered approach for the design and delivery of a highly collaborative learning environment incorporating various instructional technologies grounded in learning theory. In a graduate-level instructional technology course,…
Convergence of coupled cluster perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eriksen, Janus J.; Kristensen, Kasper; Matthews, Devin A.; Jørgensen, Poul; Olsen, Jeppe
2016-12-01
The convergence of a recently proposed coupled cluster (CC) family of perturbation series [J. J. Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)], in which the energetic difference between two CC models—a low-level parent and a high-level target model—is expanded in orders of the Møller-Plesset (MP) fluctuation potential, is investigated for four prototypical closed-shell systems (Ne, singlet CH2, distorted HF, and F-) in standard and augmented basis sets. In these investigations, energy corrections of the various series have been calculated to high orders and their convergence radii have been determined by probing for possible front- and back-door intruder states, the existence of which would make the series divergent. In summary, we conclude how it is primarily the choice of the target state, and not the choice of the parent state, which ultimately governs the convergence behavior of a given series. For example, restricting the target state to, say, triple or quadruple excitations might remove intruders present in series which target the full configuration interaction limit, such as the standard MP series. Furthermore, we find that whereas a CC perturbation series might converge within standard correlation consistent basis sets, it may start to diverge whenever these become augmented by diffuse functions, similar to the MP case. However, unlike for the MP case, such potential divergences are not found to invalidate the practical use of the low-order corrections of the CC perturbation series.
The Convergence Coefficient across Political Systems
Schofield, Norman
2013-01-01
Formal work on the electoral model often suggests that parties or candidates should locate themselves at the electoral mean. Recent research has found no evidence of such convergence. In order to explain nonconvergence, the stochastic electoral model is extended by including estimates of electoral valence. We introduce the notion of a convergence coefficient, c. It has been shown that high values of c imply that there is a significant centrifugal tendency acting on parties. We used electoral surveys to construct a stochastic valence model of the the elections in various countries. We find that the convergence coefficient varies across elections in a country, across countries with similar regimes, and across political regimes. In some countries, the centripetal tendency leads parties to converge to the electoral mean. In others the centrifugal tendency dominates and some parties locate far from the electoral mean. In particular, for countries with proportional electoral systems, namely, Israel, Turkey, and Poland, the centrifugal tendency is very high. In the majoritarian polities of the United States and Great Britain, the centrifugal tendency is very low. In anocracies, the autocrat imposes limitations on how far from the origin the opposition parties can move. PMID:24385886
Converging Oceaniac Internal Waves, Somalia, Africa
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1988-01-01
The arculate fronts of these apparently converging internal waves off the northeast coast of Somalia (11.5N, 51.5E) probably were produced by interaction with two parallel submarine canyons off the Horn of Africa. Internal waves are packets of tidally generated waves traveling within the ocean at varying depths and are not detectable by any surface disturbance.
Fast combinatorial optimization with parallel digital computers.
Kakeya, H; Okabe, Y
2000-01-01
This paper presents an algorithm which realizes fast search for the solutions of combinatorial optimization problems with parallel digital computers.With the standard weight matrices designed for combinatorial optimization, many iterations are required before convergence to a quasioptimal solution even when many digital processors can be used in parallel. By removing the components of the eingenvectors with eminent negative eigenvalues of the weight matrix, the proposed algorithm avoids oscillation and realizes energy reduction under synchronous discrete dynamics, which enables parallel digital computers to obtain quasi-optimal solutions with much less time than the conventional algorithm.
Perraut, François; Doménès, Mickaël; Grateau, Henri; Josso, Quentin
2016-11-15
Lensless or lensfree microscopy is now available commercially. With these new microscopes, it is possible to record images in contact mode with a magnification of 1 or in holographic mode with a magnification larger than 1. In this Letter, we present an original setup that allows us to record the image of an object whose surface is larger than that of the image sensor without placing an optical component between the object and the image sensor.
Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H
2011-09-01
Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations.
[Global health 2035: a world converging within a generation].
Jamison, Dean T; Summers, Lawrence H; Alleyne, George; Arrow, Kenneth J; Berkley, Seth; Binagwaho, Agnes; Bustreo, Flavia; Evans, David; Feachem, Richard G A; Frenk, Julio; Ghosh, Gargee; Goldie, Sue J; Guo, Yan; Gupta, Sanjeev; Horton, Richard; Kruk, Margaret E; Mahmoud, Adel; Mohohlo, Linah K; Ncube, Mthuli; Pablos-Mendez, Ariel; Reddy, K Srinath; Saxenian, Helen; Soucat, Agnes; Ulltveit-Moe, Karen H; Yamey, Gavin
2015-01-01
Prompted by the 20th anniversary of the 1993 World Development Report, a Lancet Commission revisited the case for investment in health and developed a new investment framework to achieve dramatic health gains by 2035. The Commission's report has four key messages, each accompanied by opportunities for action by national governments of low-income and middle-income countries and by the international community. First, there is an enormous economic payoff from investing in health. The impressive returns make a strong case for both increased domestic financing of health and for allocating a higher proportion of official development assistance to development of health. Second, modeling by the Commission found that a "grand convergence" in health is achievable by 2035-that is, a reduction in infectious, maternal, and child mortality down to universally low levels. Convergence would require aggressive scale up of existing and new health tools, and it could mostly be financed from the expected economic growth of low- and middle-income countries. The international community can best support convergence by funding the development and delivery of new health technologies and by curbing antibiotic resistance. Third, fiscal policies -such as taxation of tobacco and alcohol- are a powerful and underused lever that governments can use to curb non-communicable diseases and injuries while also raising revenue for health. International action on NCDs and injuries should focus on providing technical assistance on fiscal policies, regional cooperation on tobacco, and funding policy and implementation research on scaling-up of interventions to tackle these conditions. Fourth, progressive universalism, a pathway to universal health coverage (UHC) that includes the poor from the outset, is an efficient way to achieve health and financial risk protection. For national governments, progressive universalism would yield high health gains per dollar spent and poor people would gain the most in
Enhanced Model for Fast Ignition
Mason, Rodney J.
2010-10-12
Laser Fusion is a prime candidate for alternate energy production, capable of serving a major portion of the nation's energy needs, once fusion fuel can be readily ignited. Fast Ignition may well speed achievement of this goal, by reducing net demands on laser pulse energy and timing precision. However, Fast Ignition has presented a major challenge to modeling. This project has enhanced the computer code ePLAS for the simulation of the many specialized phenomena, which arise with Fast Ignition. The improved code has helped researchers to understand better the consequences of laser absorption, energy transport, and laser target hydrodynamics. ePLAS uses efficient implicit methods to acquire solutions for the electromagnetic fields that govern the accelerations of electrons and ions in targets. In many cases, the code implements fluid modeling for these components. These combined features, "implicitness and fluid modeling," can greatly facilitate calculations, permitting the rapid scoping and evaluation of experiments. ePLAS can be used on PCs, Macs and Linux machines, providing researchers and students with rapid results. This project has improved the treatment of electromagnetics, hydrodynamics, and atomic physics in the code. It has simplified output graphics, and provided new input that avoids the need for source code access by users. The improved code can now aid university, business and national laboratory users in pursuit of an early path to success with Fast Ignition.
Very fast approximate reconstruction of MR images.
Angelidis, P A
1998-11-01
The ultra fast Fourier transform (UFFT) provides the means for a very fast computation of a magnetic resonance (MR) image, because it is implemented using only additions and no multiplications at all. It achieves this by approximating the complex exponential functions involved in the Fourier transform (FT) sum with computationally simpler periodic functions. This approximation introduces erroneous spectrum peaks of small magnitude. We examine the performance of this transform in some typical MRI signals. The results show that this transform can very quickly provide an MR image. It is proposed to be used as a replacement of the classically used FFT whenever a fast general overview of an image is required.
Calcium waves with fast buffers and mechanical effects.
Kaźmierczak, Bogdan; Peradzyński, Zbigniew
2011-01-01
In the paper we consider the existence of calcium travelling waves for systems with fast buffers. We prove the convergence of the travelling waves to an asymptotic limit as the kinetic coefficients characterizing the interaction between calcium and buffers tend to infinity. To be more precise, we prove the convergence of the speeds as well as the calcium component concentration profile to the profile of the travelling wave of the reduced equation. Additionally, we take into account the effect of coupling between the mechanical and chemical processes and show the existence as well the monotonicity of the profiles of concentrations. This property guarantees their positivity.
Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa
2011-01-01
This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…
Integrative Physiology of Fasting.
Secor, Stephen M; Carey, Hannah V
2016-03-15
Extended bouts of fasting are ingrained in the ecology of many organisms, characterizing aspects of reproduction, development, hibernation, estivation, migration, and infrequent feeding habits. The challenge of long fasting episodes is the need to maintain physiological homeostasis while relying solely on endogenous resources. To meet that challenge, animals utilize an integrated repertoire of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses that reduce metabolic rates, maintain tissue structure and function, and thus enhance survival. We have synthesized in this review the integrative physiological, morphological, and biochemical responses, and their stages, that characterize natural fasting bouts. Underlying the capacity to survive extended fasts are behaviors and mechanisms that reduce metabolic expenditure and shift the dependency to lipid utilization. Hormonal regulation and immune capacity are altered by fasting; hormones that trigger digestion, elevate metabolism, and support immune performance become depressed, whereas hormones that enhance the utilization of endogenous substrates are elevated. The negative energy budget that accompanies fasting leads to the loss of body mass as fat stores are depleted and tissues undergo atrophy (i.e., loss of mass). Absolute rates of body mass loss scale allometrically among vertebrates. Tissues and organs vary in the degree of atrophy and downregulation of function, depending on the degree to which they are used during the fast. Fasting affects the population dynamics and activities of the gut microbiota, an interplay that impacts the host's fasting biology. Fasting-induced gene expression programs underlie the broad spectrum of integrated physiological mechanisms responsible for an animal's ability to survive long episodes of natural fasting.
Convergence characteristics of the multiple input, multiple output LMS algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Snyder, Scott D.; Hansen, Colin H.; Clark, Robert L.
1992-01-01
The convergence characteristics of the multiple input, multiple output LMS algorithm, as applied to active noise and vibration control systems, are examined. The mean square error during the convergence process, as well as the final converged value, are examined analytically and in computer simulation. It is shown that the ratio of number of error sensors to number of control sources has a significant influence upon both the converging and converged value of the mean square error. Other active control system variables, such as the inherent time delays and structural/acoustic transfer functions, are also shown to have a significant influence upon the convergence process.
Health Behaviour and Academic Achievement in Icelandic School Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Allegrante, John P.
2007-01-01
Interest in the relationship between health behaviours and academic achievement has recently intensified in the face of an epidemic of childhood and adolescent obesity and converging school reforms in the United States and other nations with advanced economies. Epidemiologic research has demonstrated that poor diet and lack of adequate physical…
On the Effect of Learning Style on Scholastic Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bhatti, Rahmatullah; Bart, William M.
2013-01-01
The present study was designed to explore the influence of learning styles on scholastic achievement levels. The participants in this study were undergraduate students studying social sciences at a Division 1 research university. The frequencies of the participants in the four learning style categories are the following: Convergent ("n"…
Impact of selected troposphere models on Precise Point Positioning convergence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalita, Jakub; Rzepecka, Zofia
2016-04-01
The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) absolute method is currently intensively investigated in order to reach fast convergence time. Among various sources that influence the convergence of the PPP, the tropospheric delay is one of the most important. Numerous models of tropospheric delay are developed and applied to PPP processing. However, with rare exceptions, the quality of those models does not allow fixing the zenith path delay tropospheric parameter, leaving difference between nominal and final value to the estimation process. Here we present comparison of several PPP result sets, each of which based on different troposphere model. The respective nominal values are adopted from models: VMF1, GPT2w, MOPS and ZERO-WET. The PPP solution admitted as reference is based on the final troposphere product from the International GNSS Service (IGS). The VMF1 mapping function was used for all processing variants in order to provide capability to compare impact of applied nominal values. The worst case initiates zenith wet delay with zero value (ZERO-WET). Impact from all possible models for tropospheric nominal values should fit inside both IGS and ZERO-WET border variants. The analysis is based on data from seven IGS stations located in mid-latitude European region from year 2014. For the purpose of this study several days with the most active troposphere were selected for each of the station. All the PPP solutions were determined using gLAB open-source software, with the Kalman filter implemented independently by the authors of this work. The processing was performed on 1 hour slices of observation data. In addition to the analysis of the output processing files, the presented study contains detailed analysis of the tropospheric conditions for the selected data. The overall results show that for the height component the VMF1 model outperforms GPT2w and MOPS by 35-40% and ZERO-WET variant by 150%. In most of the cases all solutions converge to the same values during first
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna
2007-01-01
From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…
Convergence Constrained Multiuser Transmitter-Receiver Optimization in Single-Carrier FDMA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tervo, Valtteri; Tolli, Antti; Karjalainen, Juha; Matsumoto, Tad
2015-03-01
Convergence constrained power allocation (CCPA) in single carrier multiuser (MU) single-input multiple-output (SIMO) systems with turbo equalization is considered in this paper. In order to exploit full benefit of the iterative receiver, its convergence properties need to be considered also at the transmitter side. The proposed scheme can guarantee that the desired quality of service (QoS) is achieved after sufficient amount of iterations. We propose two different successive convex approximations for solving the non-convex power minimization problem subject to user specific QoS constraints. The results of extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) chart analysis demonstrate that the proposed CCPA scheme can achieve the design objective. Numerical results show that the proposed schemes can achieve superior performance in terms of power consumption as compared to linear receivers with and without precoding as well as to the iterative receiver without precoding.
Research Program of a Super Fast Reactor
Oka, Yoshiaki; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Liu, Jie; Terai, Takayuki; Nagasaki, Shinya; Muroya, Yusa; Abe, Hiroaki; Akiba, Masato; Akimoto, Hajime; Okumura, Keisuke; Akasaka, Naoaki; GOTO, Shoji
2006-07-01
Research program of a supercritical-pressure light water cooled fast reactor (Super Fast Reactor) is funded by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) in December 2005 as one of the research programs of Japanese NERI (Nuclear Energy Research Initiative). It consists of three programs. (1) development of Super Fast Reactor concept; (2) thermal-hydraulic experiments; (3) material developments. The purpose of the concept development is to pursue the advantage of high power density of fast reactor over thermal reactors to achieve economic competitiveness of fast reactor for its deployment without waiting for exhausting uranium resources. Design goal is not breeding, but maximizing reactor power by using plutonium from spent LWR fuel. MOX will be the fuel of the Super Fast Reactor. Thermal-hydraulic experiments will be conducted with HCFC22 (Hydro chlorofluorocarbons) heat transfer loop of Kyushu University and supercritical water loop at JAEA. Heat transfer data including effect of grid spacers will be taken. The critical flow and condensation of supercritical fluid will be studied. The materials research includes the development and testing of austenitic stainless steel cladding from the experience of PNC1520 for LMFBR. Material for thermal insulation will be tested. SCWR (Supercritical-Water Cooled Reactor) of GIF (Generation-4 International Forum) includes both thermal and fast reactors. The research of the Super Fast Reactor will enhance SCWR research and the data base. The research period will be until March 2010. (authors)
Converging beams for distortion-free imagery in transfer holograms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waddell, Peter; Saxby, Graham
1995-02-01
In order to obtain a distortion-free image when a transfer hologram is replayed by a diverging beam, the original reference beam must be the precise conjugate of the replay beam, i.e., it must converge towards the future location of the replay source. Off-the-shelf collimating mirrors have too long a focal length to achieve this, and suitable custom-built mirrors are heavy and prohibitively expensive. Several methods are suggested for obtaining a suitable beam, including a new type of varifocal pellicular mirror made by stretching a metallized plastic membrane over a circular drumhead and creating a partial vacuum behind it, producing a concave mirror of high optical quality with adjustable focal length.
GLOBE Science and GLOBE Education: Convergence or Divergence?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McWilliams, H.
2003-12-01
The GLOBE Program is a partnership between scientists, classroom teachers, and students collaborating to monitor and study the global environment. GLOBE has trained more than 20,000 teachers. Yet only a small percentage of K-12 teachers who are trained in GLOBE consistently submit data to the program's data base and thereby actively contribute to the science goals of GLOBE. Based on a study of New England GLOBE teachers, this report argues that the goals of GLOBE, including consistent data submission, can be accomplished only when there is a greater congruence between the scientific goals of the program and the educational goals of the classroom. The results are discussed in terms of current educational policies and mandates, specifically the No Child Left Behind legislation. Some ideas are offered regarding how to achieve greater convergence between the goals of GLOBE scientists and the educational goals of classroom teachers.
Convergent and divergent mechanisms of sugar recognition across kingdoms
Taylor, Maureen E; Drickamer, Kurt
2014-01-01
Protein modules that bind specific oligosaccharides are found across all kingdoms of life from single-celled organisms to man. Different, overlapping and evolving designations for sugar-binding domains in proteins can sometimes obscure common features that often reflect convergent solutions to the problem of distinguishing sugars with closely similar structures and binding them with sufficient affinity to achieve biologically meaningful results. Structural and functional analysis has revealed striking parallels between protein domains with widely different structures and evolutionary histories that employ common solutions to the sugar recognition problem. Recent studies also demonstrate that domains descended from common ancestors through divergent evolution appear more widely across the kingdoms of life than had previously been recognized. PMID:25102772
Convergence of Fourier-based time methods for turbomachinery wake passing problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomar, Adrien; Bouvy, Quentin; Sicot, Frédéric; Dufour, Guillaume; Cinnella, Paola; François, Benjamin
2014-12-01
The convergence of Fourier-based time methods applied to turbomachinery flows is assessed. The focus is on the harmonic balance method, which is a time-domain Fourier-based approach standing as an efficient alternative to classical time marching schemes for periodic flows. In the literature, no consensus exists concerning the number of harmonics needed to achieve convergence for turbomachinery stage configurations. In this paper it is shown that the convergence of Fourier-based methods is closely related to the impulsive nature of the flow solution, which in turbomachines is essentially governed by the characteristics of the passing wakes between adjacent rows. As a result of the proposed analysis, a priori estimates are provided for the minimum number of harmonics required to accurately compute a given turbomachinery configuration. Their application to several contra-rotating open-rotor configurations is assessed, demonstrating the practical interest of the proposed methodology.
[Orthoptic treatment efficiency in convergence insufficiency treatment].
Dragomir, M; Truş, L; Chirilă, D; Stîngu, C
2001-01-01
We studied a group of 162 patients(89 females, 73 males), with ages between 15-30 years, who complained of blurred vision at near work. 98 patients(60.4%) were diagnosed with convergence insufficiency (C.I.), the rest of 64 patients(39.6%) had: low refractive errors, heterophoria and intermittent heterotropia. Patients with convergence insufficiency were divided in 3 groups: group 1(34 patients--34.6%) were treated with orthoptic exercises and near point exercises at home, group 2 (34 patients--34.6%) were treated with only near point exercises at home and control group 3 (30 patients--30.8%) without treatment. The result of the treatment of C.I. was good at 25 patients(73.5%) of group 1, at 8 patients(23.5%) of group 2 while in group 3 at only one patient the symptoms disappeared.
Antibiotics From Microbes: Converging To Kill
Fischbach, Michael A.
2011-01-01
Summary As genetically encoded small molecules, antibiotics are phenotypes that have resulted from mutation and natural selection. Advances in genetics, biochemistry, and bioinformatics have connected hundreds of antibiotics to the gene clusters that encode them, allowing these molecules to be analyzed using the tools of evolutionary biology. This review surveys examples of convergent evolution from microbially produced antibiotics, including the convergence of distinct gene clusters on similar phenotypes and the merger of distinct gene clusters into a single functional unit. Examining antibiotics through an evolutionary lens highlights the versatility of biosynthetic pathways, reveals lessons for combating antibiotic resistance, and provides an entry point for studying the natural roles of these natural products. PMID:19695947
The cumulative effect of convergent seismic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guglielmi, A. V.
2015-11-01
This methodical note is devoted to the nonlinear impact of convergent seismic waves on a medium. Special attention is paid to the similarity and distinctions of the phenomena occurring in the Earth, on one hand, and on the Moon and Mercury, on the other hand. The importance of the experimental and theoretical study of the round-the-world seismic echo which induces repeated shocks in the epicentral zones of the earthquakes is noted.
A Practical, Convergent Method for Glycopeptide Synthesis
1993-07-23
deprotection, the overall yield from oligosaccharide to glycopeptide is low. This may be acceptable for monosaccharides or for oligosaccharides which...in Figure 3. GIcNAcNH2 (1) is commercially available. Chitobiose constitutes the disaccharide core of N-linked sugars; the peracetylated compound (2...glycopeptides containing this sugar cannot be easily prepared by non- convergent methods. 43 The peracetylated disaccharide (5) was synthesized from L
Convergence Creates Opportunities Across Health Care System
Fox, Brent I.; Felkey, Bill G.
2014-01-01
Industrial design students at Auburn do a creativity exercise where they are asked to combine a common household appliance with an animal. Have you seen a snake light? In health technology, we have a similar opportunity. In the connection between jewelry and vital sign monitoring technology or household security and health status monitoring, we are witnessing active convergence that will benefit patients, providers, and health systems. PMID:24958948
New Type Continuities via Abel Convergence
Albayrak, Mehmet
2014-01-01
We investigate the concept of Abel continuity. A function f defined on a subset of ℝ, the set of real numbers, is Abel continuous if it preserves Abel convergent sequences. Some other types of continuities are also studied and interesting result is obtained. It turned out that uniform limit of a sequence of Abel continuous functions is Abel continuous and the set of Abel continuous functions is a closed subset of continuous functions. PMID:24883393
Design Calculations For NIF Convergent Ablator Experiments
Olson, R E; Hicks, D G; Meezan, N B; Callahan, D A; Landen, O L; Jones, O S; Langer, S H; Kline, J L; Wilson, D C; Rinderknecht, H; Zylstra, A; Petrasso, R D
2011-10-25
The NIF convergent ablation tuning effort is underway. In the early experiments, we have discovered that the design code simulations over-predict the capsule implosion velocity and shock flash rhor, but under-predict the hohlraum x-ray flux measurements. The apparent inconsistency between the x-ray flux and radiography data implies that there are important unexplained aspects of the hohlraum and/or capsule behavior.
Beyer, Hans-Georg
2014-01-01
The convergence behaviors of so-called natural evolution strategies (NES) and of the information-geometric optimization (IGO) approach are considered. After a review of the NES/IGO ideas, which are based on information geometry, the implications of this philosophy w.r.t. optimization dynamics are investigated considering the optimization performance on the class of positive quadratic objective functions (the ellipsoid model). Exact differential equations describing the approach to the optimizer are derived and solved. It is rigorously shown that the original NES philosophy optimizing the expected value of the objective functions leads to very slow (i.e., sublinear) convergence toward the optimizer. This is the real reason why state of the art implementations of IGO algorithms optimize the expected value of transformed objective functions, for example, by utility functions based on ranking. It is shown that these utility functions are localized fitness functions that change during the IGO flow. The governing differential equations describing this flow are derived. In the case of convergence, the solutions to these equations exhibit an exponentially fast approach to the optimizer (i.e., linear convergence order). Furthermore, it is proven that the IGO philosophy leads to an adaptation of the covariance matrix that equals in the asymptotic limit-up to a scalar factor-the inverse of the Hessian of the objective function considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matthews, G. Eric; Holzwarth, N. A. W.; Martin, George; Keeling, Briana; Agopsowicz, Douglas
2007-03-01
We develop an algorithm for generating better initial electronic wave function estimates for density functional theory calculations following atomic movement. First principles molecular dynamics and atomic relaxation calculations involve successive movements of atoms followed by self consistent field (SCF) solutions for electronic wave functions. The SCF solutions converge most rapidly when starting from reasonably good estimates. Often estimates are generated directly from the wave functions of the previous atomic positions without adjustments for effects of position changes. Such estimates result in fast convergence to the correct wave function for small atomic movements, but for larger movements, convergence may be much slower. We present a method for improving the estimates of the new wave functions by using information from the movement of the atoms. Our algorithm is based on the ``rubber-sheeting'' method used in overlaying satellite imagery on geographic maps. A warping function is calculated that stretches and shrinks different regions of the wave function so that regions near nuclei are dragged along with the atoms. These estimates yield faster convergence for cases studied thus far.
Fuwa, Haruhiko; Nakajima, Motohiro; Shi, Jinglu; Takeda, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Makoto
2011-03-04
A convergent synthesis of the C1-C16 segment of goniodomin A, an actin-targeting marine polyether macrolide natural product, has been achieved via a 2-fold application of palladium-catalyzed organostannane-thioester coupling.
Convergence Behavior of Bird's Sophisticated DSMC Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallis, M. A.; Torczynski, J. R.; Rader, D. J.
2007-11-01
Bird's standard Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) algorithm has remained almost unchanged since the mid-1970s. Recently, Bird developed a new DSMC algorithm, termed ``sophisticated DSMC'', which significantly modifies the way molecules both move and collide. The sophisticated DSMC algorithm is implemented in a one-dimensional DSMC code, and its convergence behavior is investigated for one-dimensional Fourier flow, where an argon-like hard-sphere gas is confined between two parallel, motionless, fully accommodating walls with unequal temperatures. As in previous work, the primary convergence metric is the ratio of the DSMC-calculated thermal conductivity to the theoretical value. The convergence behavior of sophisticated DSMC is compared to that of standard DSMC and to the predictions of Green-Kubo theory. The sophisticated algorithm significantly reduces the computational resources needed to maintain a fixed level of accuracy. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Disparity and convergence in bipedal archosaur locomotion
Bates, K. T.; Schachner, E. R.
2012-01-01
This study aims to investigate functional disparity in the locomotor apparatus of bipedal archosaurs. We use reconstructions of hindlimb myology of extant and extinct archosaurs to generate musculoskeletal biomechanical models to test hypothesized convergence between bipedal crocodile-line archosaurs and dinosaurs. Quantitative comparison of muscle leverage supports the inference that bipedal crocodile-line archosaurs and non-avian theropods had highly convergent hindlimb myology, suggesting similar muscular mechanics and neuromuscular control of locomotion. While these groups independently evolved similar musculoskeletal solutions to the challenges of parasagittally erect bipedalism, differences also clearly exist, particularly the distinct hip and crurotarsal ankle morphology characteristic of many pseudosuchian archosaurs. Furthermore, comparative analyses of muscle design in extant archosaurs reveal that muscular parameters such as size and architecture are more highly adapted or optimized for habitual locomotion than moment arms. The importance of these aspects of muscle design, which are not directly retrievable from fossils, warns against over-extrapolating the functional significance of anatomical convergences. Nevertheless, links identified between posture, muscle moments and neural control in archosaur locomotion suggest that functional interpretations of osteological changes in limb anatomy traditionally linked to postural evolution in Late Triassic archosaurs could be constrained through musculoskeletal modelling. PMID:22112652
Bandlimited image extrapolation with faster convergence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cahana, D.; Stark, H.
1981-08-01
Techniques for increasing the convergence rate of the extrapolation algorithm proposed by Gerchberg (1974) and Papoulis (1975) for image restoration applications are presented. The techniques involve the modification of the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm to include additional a priori data such as the low-pass projection of the image either by the inclusion of the data at the start of the recursion to reduce the starting-point error, or by use of the low-pass image in each iteration to correct twice in the frequency domain. The performance of the GP algorithm and the two modifications presented in the restorations of a signal consisting of widely separated spectral components of equal magnitude and a signal with spectral components grouped in passbands is compared, and it is found that while both modifications reduced the starting point error, the convergence rate of the second technique was not substantially greater than that of the first despite the additional iterative frequency-plane correction. A significant improvement in the starting-point errors and convergence rates of both modified algorithms is obtained, however, when they are combined with adaptive thresholding in the presence of low noise levels and a signal with relatively well spaced impulse-type spectral components.
Convergence of quantum random walks with decoherence
Fan Shimao; Feng Zhiyong; Yang, Wei-Shih; Xiong Sheng
2011-10-15
In this paper, we study the discrete-time quantum random walks on a line subject to decoherence. The convergence of the rescaled position probability distribution p(x,t) depends mainly on the spectrum of the superoperator L{sub kk}. We show that if 1 is an eigenvalue of the superoperator with multiplicity one and there is no other eigenvalue whose modulus equals 1, then P(({nu}/{radical}(t)),t) converges to a convex combination of normal distributions. In terms of position space, the rescaled probability mass function p{sub t}(x,t){identical_to}p({radical}(t)x,t), x is an element of Z/{radical}(t), converges in distribution to a continuous convex combination of normal distributions. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for a U(2) decoherent quantum walk that satisfies the eigenvalue conditions. We also give a complete description of the behavior of quantum walks whose eigenvalues do not satisfy these assumptions. Specific examples such as the Hadamard walk and walks under real and complex rotations are illustrated. For the O(2) quantum random walks, an explicit formula is provided for the scaling limit of p(x,t) and their moments. We also obtain exact critical exponents for their moments at the critical point and show universality classes with respect to these critical exponents.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Min, Byeong June
2012-05-01
Calculation of bulk Madelung constants is not a straightforward process. In a direct summation, the infinite series is only conditionally convergent, and the value depends on the way the terms are grouped and truncated. For this reason, the traditional direct summation method taking an expanding sphere method cannot be generalized to an expanding cube method, and vice versa. We propose a straightforward method of calculating Madelung's constants by direct summation of the screened Coulomb interaction that is applicable in both expanding modes. We demonstrate that the bulk Madelung constants of the sodium-chloride structure and the cesium-chloride crystal structure can be calculated regardless of the constraints on the unit cell shape or the expanding mode. Although the exponential factor in the screened potential generally slows down the convergence of the Madelung series, it is possible in many cases to accelerate the convergence with an appropriate choice of the unit cell. Since conditional convergence is eliminated by this simple method, we may choose any unit cell configuration to achieve a faster convergence of the Madelung constant.
Convergence of a Moran model to Eigen's quasispecies model.
Dalmau, Joseba
2017-03-02
We prove that a Moran model converges in probability to Eigen's quasispecies model in the infinite population limit. We show further that the invariant probability measure of the Moran model converges to the unique stationary solution of Eigen's quasispecies model.
Isochoric implosions for fast ignition
Clark, D S; Tabak, M
2006-06-05
Fast Ignition (FI) exploits the ignition of a dense, uniform fuel assembly by an external energy source to achieve high gain. In conventional ICF implosions, however, the fuel assembles as a dense shell surrounding a low density, high-pressure hotspot. Such configurations are far from optimal for FI. Here, it is shown that a self-similar spherical implosion of the type originally studied by Guderley [Luftfahrtforschung 19, 302 (1942).] may be employed to implode a dense, quasi-uniform fuel assembly with minimal energy wastage in forming a hotspot. A scheme for realizing these specialized implosions in a practical ICF target is also described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Ngo, J.; Parker, C.; Petersen, B.; Seiden, A.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Marchetto, F.; Bruzzi, M.; Mori, R.; Scaringella, M.; Vinattieri, A.
2013-12-01
We propose to develop a fast, thin silicon sensor with gain capable to concurrently measure with high precision the space (∼10 μm) and time (∼10 ps) coordinates of a particle. This will open up new application of silicon detector systems in many fields. Our analysis of detector properties indicates that it is possible to improve the timing characteristics of silicon-based tracking sensors, which already have sufficient position resolution, to achieve four-dimensional high-precision measurements. The basic sensor characteristics and the expected performance are listed, the wide field of applications are mentioned and the required R&D topics are discussed.
ON THE CONVERGENCE OF THE ENSEMBLE KALMAN FILTER
Mandel, Jan; Cobb, Loren; Beezley, Jonathan D.
2013-01-01
Convergence of the ensemble Kalman filter in the limit for large ensembles to the Kalman filter is proved. In each step of the filter, convergence of the ensemble sample covariance follows from a weak law of large numbers for exchangeable random variables, the continuous mapping theorem gives convergence in probability of the ensemble members, and Lp bounds on the ensemble then give Lp convergence. PMID:24843228
Madhukar, Amit; Chen, Ying; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin
2017-03-14
The MRI-based computational model, previously validated by tagged MRI and HARP imaging analysis technique on in vivo human brain deformation, is employed to study transient wave dynamics during blunt head trauma. Three different constitutive models are used for the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): incompressible solid elastic, viscoelastic and fluid-like elastic using an equation of state model. Three impact cases are simulated which indicate that the blunt impacts give rise not only to a fast pressure wave but also to a slow, and potentially much more damaging, shear (distortional) wave that converges spherically towards the brain center. The wave amplification due to spherical geometry is balanced by damping due to tissues' viscoelasticity and the heterogeneous brain structure, suggesting a stochastic competition of these two opposite effects. It is observed that this convergent shear wave is dependent on the constitutive property of the CSF whereas the peak pressure is not as significantly affected.
Nithiananthan, S.; Brock, K. K.; Daly, M. J.; Chan, H.; Irish, J. C.; Siewerdsen, J. H.
2009-10-15
52 s for the cadaveric head and in an average time of 270 s for the larger FOV patient images. Conclusions: Appropriate selection of convergence and multiscale parameters in Demons registration was shown to reduce computational expense without sacrificing registration performance. For intraoperative CBCT imaging with deformable registration, the ability to perform accurate registration within the stringent time requirements of the operating environment could offer a useful clinical tool allowing integration of preoperative information while accurately reflecting changes in the patient anatomy. Similarly for CBCT-guided radiation therapy, fast accurate deformable registration could further augment high-precision treatment strategies.
Convergent and Divergent Thinking in the Context of Narrative Mysteries
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wenzel, William G.; Gerrig, Richard J.
2015-01-01
This project demonstrates how narrative mysteries provide a context in which readers engage in creative cognition. Drawing on the concepts of convergent and divergent thinking, we wrote stories that had either convergent or divergent outcomes. For example, one story had a character give his girlfriend a ring (a convergent outcome), whereas the…
Independent molecular basis of convergent highland adaptation in maize
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar traits in different species or lineages of the same species; this often is a result of adaptation to similar environments, a process referred to as convergent adaptation. We investigate here the molecular basis of convergent adaptation in ...
Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.
1985-07-01
Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities.
Grey Ballard, Austin Benson
2014-11-26
This software provides implementations of fast matrix multiplication algorithms. These algorithms perform fewer floating point operations than the classical cubic algorithm. The software uses code generation to automatically implement the fast algorithms based on high-level descriptions. The code serves two general purposes. The first is to demonstrate that these fast algorithms can out-perform vendor matrix multiplication algorithms for modest problem sizes on a single machine. The second is to rapidly prototype many variations of fast matrix multiplication algorithms to encourage future research in this area. The implementations target sequential and shared memory parallel execution.
An improved current potential method for fast computation of stellarator coil shapes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landreman, Matt
2017-04-01
Several fast methods for computing stellarator coil shapes are compared, including the classical NESCOIL procedure (Merkel 1987 Nucl. Fusion 27 867), its generalization using truncated singular value decomposition, and a Tikhonov regularization approach we call REGCOIL in which the squared current density is included in the objective function. Considering W7-X and NCSX geometries, and for any desired level of regularization, we find the REGCOIL approach simultaneously achieves lower surface-averaged and maximum values of both current density (on the coil winding surface) and normal magnetic field (on the desired plasma surface). This approach therefore can simultaneously improve the free-boundary reconstruction of the target plasma shape while substantially increasing the minimum distances between coils, preventing collisions between coils while improving access for ports and maintenance. The REGCOIL method also allows finer control over the level of regularization, it preserves convexity to ensure the local optimum found is the global optimum, and it eliminates two pathologies of NESCOIL: the resulting coil shapes become independent of the arbitrary choice of angles used to parameterize the coil surface, and the resulting coil shapes converge rather than diverge as Fourier resolution is increased. We therefore contend that REGCOIL should be used instead of NESCOIL for applications in which a fast and robust method for coil calculation is needed, such as when targeting coil complexity in fixed-boundary plasma optimization, or for scoping new stellarator geometries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Probe, A.; Macomber, B.; Kim, D.; Woollands, R.; Junkins, J.
2014-09-01
Modified Chebyshev Picard Iteration (MCPI) is a numerical method for approximating solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). MCPI uses Picard Iteration with Orthogonal Chebyshev Polynomial basis functions to recursively update approximate time histories of system states. Unlike stepping numerical integrators, such as explicit Runge-Kutta methods, MCPI approximates large segments of the trajectory by evaluating the forcing function at multiple nodes along the current approximation during each iteration. Importantly, the Picard sequence theoretically converges to the solution over large time intervals if the forces are continuous and once differentiable. Orthogonality of the basis functions and a vector-matrix formulation allow for low overhead cost, efficient iterations, and parallel evaluation of the forcing function. Despite these advantages MCPI only achieves a geometric rate of convergence. Depending on the quality of the starting approximation, MCPI sometimes requires more function evaluations than competing methods; for parallel applications, this is not a serious drawback, but may be for some serial applications. To improve efficiency, the Terminal Convergence Approximation Modified Chebyshev Picard Iteration (TCA-MCPI) was developed. TCA-MCPI takes advantage of the property that once moderate accuracy of the approximating trajectory has been achieved, the subsequent displacement of nodes asymptotically approaches zero. Applying judicious approximation methods to the force function at each node in the terminal convergence iterations is shown to dramatically reduce the computational cost to achieve accurate convergence. To illustrate this approach we consider high-order spherical-harmonic gravity for high accuracy orbital propagation. When combined with a starting approximation from the 2-body solution TCA-MCPI, is shown to outperform 2 current state-of-practice integration methods for astrodynamics. This paper presents the development of TCA
2007-05-01
The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.
Vicarious Achievement Orientation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others
This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…
Heritability of Creative Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi
2014-01-01
Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…
Confronting the Achievement Gap
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gardner, David
2007-01-01
This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fletcher, Mike; And Others
1992-01-01
This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…
States Address Achievement Gaps.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Christie, Kathy
2002-01-01
Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brand, J. C.
1985-01-01
Contraction theory is applied to an iterative formulation of electromagnetic scattering from periodic structures and a computational method for insuring convergence is developed. A short history of spectral (or k-space) formulation is presented with an emphasis on application to periodic surfaces. The mathematical background for formulating an iterative equation is covered using straightforward single variable examples including an extension to vector spaces. To insure a convergent solution of the iterative equation, a process called the contraction corrector method is developed. Convergence properties of previously presented iterative solutions to one-dimensional problems are examined utilizing contraction theory and the general conditions for achieving a convergent solution are explored. The contraction corrector method is then applied to several scattering problems including an infinite grating of thin wires with the solution data compared to previous works.
Li, Xiangrong; Zhao, Xupei; Duan, Xiabin; Wang, Xiaoliang
2015-01-01
It is generally acknowledged that the conjugate gradient (CG) method achieves global convergence—with at most a linear convergence rate—because CG formulas are generated by linear approximations of the objective functions. The quadratically convergent results are very limited. We introduce a new PRP method in which the restart strategy is also used. Moreover, the method we developed includes not only n-step quadratic convergence but also both the function value information and gradient value information. In this paper, we will show that the new PRP method (with either the Armijo line search or the Wolfe line search) is both linearly and quadratically convergent. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the new PRP algorithm is competitive with the normal CG method. PMID:26381742
Convergence in [Formula: see text]-quasicontinuous posets.
Ruan, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Xiao-Quan
2016-01-01
In this paper, we present one way to generalize [Formula: see text]-convergence and [Formula: see text]-convergence of nets for arbitrary posets by use of the cut operator instead of joins. Some convergence theoretical characterizations of [Formula: see text]-continuity and [Formula: see text]-quasicontinuity of posets are given. The main results are: (1) a poset P is [Formula: see text]-continuous if and only if the [Formula: see text]-convergence in P is topological; (2) P is [Formula: see text]-quasicontinuous if and only if the [Formula: see text]-convergence in P is topological.
Preferred latitudes of the intertropical convergence zone
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waliser, Duane E.; Somerville, C. J.
1994-01-01
The latitude preference of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is examined on the basis of observations, theory, and a modeling analysis. Observations show that convection is enhanced at latitudes of about 4 deg to 10 deg relative to the equator, even in regions where the sea surface temperature (SST) is maximum on the equator. Both linear shallow-water theory and a moist primitive equation model suggest a new explanation for the off-equatorial latitude preference of the ITCZ that requires neither the existence of zonally propagating disturbances nor an off-equatorial maximum in SST. The shallow-water theory indicates that a finite-width, zonally oriented, midtropospheric heat source (i.e., an ITCZ) produces the greatest local low-level convergence when placed a finite distance away from the equator. This result suggests that an ITCZ is most likely to be supported via low-level convergence of moist energy when located at these "preferred" latitudes away from the equator. For a plausible range of heating widths and damping parameters, the theoretically predicted latitude is approximately equal to the observed position (s) of the ITCZ (s). Analysis with an axially symmetric, moist, primitive equation model indicates that when the latent heating field is allowed to be determined internally, a positive feedback develops between the midtropospheric latent heating and the low-level convergence, with the effect of enhancing the organization of convection at latitudes of about 4 deg to 12 deg. Numerical experiments show that (1) two peaks in convective precipitation develop straddling the equator when the SST maximum is located on the equator; (2) steady ITCZ-like structures form only when the SST maximum is located away from the equator; and (3) peaks in convection can develop away from the maximum in SST, with a particular preference for latitudes of about 4 deg to 12 deg, even in the ('cold') hemisphere without the SST maximum. The relationship between this
On Convergence Acceleration Techniques for Unstructured Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, Dimitri J.
1998-01-01
A discussion of convergence acceleration techniques as they relate to computational fluid dynamics problems on unstructured meshes is given. Rather than providing a detailed description of particular methods, the various different building blocks of current solution techniques are discussed and examples of solution strategies using one or several of these ideas are given. Issues relating to unstructured grid CFD problems are given additional consideration, including suitability of algorithms to current hardware trends, memory and cpu tradeoffs, treatment of non-linearities, and the development of efficient strategies for handling anisotropy-induced stiffness. The outlook for future potential improvements is also discussed.
Digest: Imperfect convergence in butterfly wing patterns.
Earl, Chandra; Guralnick, Robert P; Kawahara, Akito Y
2017-02-27
Butterfly wing patterns are among the most diverse morphological characteristics in nature, with many of the 18,000 or so described butterfly species readily distinguished by wing pattern alone. Wing pattern serves as one of the primary means of communication among species and is thus subject to strong natural selection for mimicry and warning color (aposematism). Convergent wing patterns are particularly evident across the butterfly genus Adelpha, suggesting this genus may be a good system to study the underlying mechanisms behind mimicry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Convergent strabismus in a white Bengal tiger.
Bernays, M E; Smith, R I
1999-03-01
A white Bengal tiger was noted to have a convergent strabismus with poor vision since a cub. The tiger and a littermate with normal colouring and apparently normal eyes were anaesthetised for comparative ocular examination. A fundus typical of colour-dilute cats and dogs was noted in the white tiger. Except for strabismus, no abnormalities were observed. Electroretinography showed similar retinal function in both tigers. Possible causes of strabismus considered were an adaptation to genetically determined abnormal visual pathways related to lack of pigment, abnormalities of the abducent nerves and mechanical restricting conditions of the medial rectus muscles.
Problems Associated with Grid Convergence of Functionals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salas, Manuel D.; Atkins, Harld L.
2008-01-01
The current use of functionals to evaluate order-of-convergence of a numerical scheme can lead to incorrect values. The problem comes about because of interplay between the errors from the evaluation of the functional, e.g., quadrature error, and from the numerical scheme discretization. Alternative procedures for deducing the order-property of a scheme are presented. The problem is studied within the context of the inviscid supersonic flow over a blunt body; however, the problem and solutions presented are not unique to this example.
Mobile systems; From chaos to convergence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swain, R. S.
An outline of the two most recent and significant mobile communication developments in Europe is given. These are the Global System for Mobility (GSM) and Digital European Cordless Telecoms (DECT). A summary of advanced communications research is also presented, and the topics covered include the following: Research into Advanced Communications in Europe (RACE); 3rd-generation mobile communication systems; a common unified Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS); convergence of mobile radio services; and equipment interface standardization. Finally, a brief review is given of the areas where further antenna and propagation research is needed: handset antennas, in-building propagation, and full system emulation.
Convergence of Fourier series in classical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galoyan, L. N.; Grigoryan, M. G.; Kobelyan, A. Kh
2015-07-01
The following results are proved:there exists an integrable function such that any subsequence of the Cesàro means of negative order of the Fourier series of this function diverges almost everywhere; the values of an arbitrary integrable function can be changed on a set (independent of this function) of arbitrarily small measure so that the Fourier series with respect to both the Franklin system and the Haar system of the 'modified' function will be absolutely convergent almost everywhere on [ 0,1 ] there exists a continuous function which features an unremovable absolute divergence. Bibliography: 47 titles.
Gelman, Hannah; Gruebele, Martin
2014-01-01
Fast folding proteins have been a major focus of computational and experimental study because they are accessible to both techniques: they are small and fast enough to be reasonably simulated with current computational power, but have dynamics slow enough to be observed with specially developed experimental techniques. This coupled study of fast folding proteins has provided insight into the mechanisms which allow some proteins to find their native conformation well less than 1 ms and has uncovered examples of theoretically predicted phenomena such as downhill folding. The study of fast folders also informs our understanding of even “slow” folding processes: fast folders are small, relatively simple protein domains and the principles that govern their folding also govern the folding of more complex systems. This review summarizes the major theoretical and experimental techniques used to study fast folding proteins and provides an overview of the major findings of fast folding research. Finally, we examine the themes that have emerged from studying fast folders and briefly summarize their application to protein folding in general as well as some work that is left to do. PMID:24641816
Trueland, Jennifer
2013-12-18
The 5.2 diet involves two days of fasting each week. It is being promoted as the key to sustained weight loss, as well as wider health benefits, despite the lack of evidence on the long-term effects. Nurses need to support patients who wish to try intermittent fasting.
O'Brien, Travis A.; Kashinath, Karthik
2015-05-22
This software implements the fast, self-consistent probability density estimation described by O'Brien et al. (2014, doi: ). It uses a non-uniform fast Fourier transform technique to reduce the computational cost of an objective and self-consistent kernel density estimation method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cezairliyan, Ared
1988-01-01
Design and operation of accurate millisecond and microsecond resolution optical pyrometers developed at the National Bureau of Standards during the last two decades are described. Results of tests are presented and estimates of uncertainties in temperature measurements are given. Calibration methods are discussed and examples of applications of fast pyrometry are given. Ongoing research in developing fast multiwavelength and spatial scanning pyrometers are summarized.
Fast integral methods for integrated optical systems simulations: a review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleemann, Bernd H.
2015-09-01
-functional profiles, very deep ones, very large ones compared to wavelength, or simple smooth profiles. This integral method with either trigonometric or spline collocation, iterative solver with O(N2) complexity, named IESMP, was significantly improved by an efficient mesh refinement, matrix preconditioning, Ewald summation method, and an exponentially convergent quadrature in 2006 by G. Schmidt and A. Rathsfeld from Weierstrass-Institute (WIAS) Berlin. The so-called modified integral method (MIM) is a modification of the IEM of D. Maystre and has been introduced by L. Goray in 1995. It has been improved for weak convergence problems in 2001 and it was the only commercial available integral method for a long time, known as PCGRATE. All referenced integral methods so far are for in-plane diffraction only, no conical diffraction was possible. The first integral method for gratings in conical mounting was developed and proven under very weak conditions by G. Schmidt (WIAS) in 2010. It works for separated interfaces and for inclusions as well as for interpenetrating interfaces and for a large number of thin and thick layers in the same stable way. This very fast method has then been implemented for parallel processing under Unix and Windows operating systems. This work gives an overview over the most important BIMs for grating diffraction. It starts by presenting the historical evolution of the methods, highlights their advantages and differences, and gives insight into new approaches and their achievements. It addresses future open challenges at the end.
Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals
Foote, Andrew D.; Liu, Yue; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Vinař, Tomáš; Alföldi, Jessica; Deng, Jixin; Dugan, Shannon; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra L.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Mancia, Annalaura; Nielsen, Rasmus; Qin, Xiang; Qu, Jiaxin; Raney, Brian J.; Vijay, Nagarjun; Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Gibbs, Richard A.
2015-01-01
Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and are therefore a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and de novo assembled the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome, and that a subset were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that while convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare. PMID:25621460
No Genome-Wide Protein Sequence Convergence for Echolocation
Zou, Zhengting; Zhang, Jianzhi
2015-01-01
Toothed whales and two groups of bats independently acquired echolocation, the ability to locate and identify objects by reflected sound. Echolocation requires physiologically complex and coordinated vocal, auditory, and neural functions, but the molecular basis of the capacity for echolocation is not well understood. A recent study suggested that convergent amino acid substitutions widespread in the proteins of echolocators underlay the convergent origins of mammalian echolocation. Here, we show that genomic signatures of molecular convergence between echolocating lineages are generally no stronger than those between echolocating and comparable nonecholocating lineages. The same is true for the group of 29 hearing-related proteins claimed to be enriched with molecular convergence. Reexamining the previous selection test reveals several flaws and invalidates the asserted evidence for adaptive convergence. Together, these findings indicate that the reported genomic signatures of convergence largely reflect the background level of sequence convergence unrelated to the origins of echolocation. PMID:25631925
No genome-wide protein sequence convergence for echolocation.
Zou, Zhengting; Zhang, Jianzhi
2015-05-01
Toothed whales and two groups of bats independently acquired echolocation, the ability to locate and identify objects by reflected sound. Echolocation requires physiologically complex and coordinated vocal, auditory, and neural functions, but the molecular basis of the capacity for echolocation is not well understood. A recent study suggested that convergent amino acid substitutions widespread in the proteins of echolocators underlay the convergent origins of mammalian echolocation. Here, we show that genomic signatures of molecular convergence between echolocating lineages are generally no stronger than those between echolocating and comparable nonecholocating lineages. The same is true for the group of 29 hearing-related proteins claimed to be enriched with molecular convergence. Reexamining the previous selection test reveals several flaws and invalidates the asserted evidence for adaptive convergence. Together, these findings indicate that the reported genomic signatures of convergence largely reflect the background level of sequence convergence unrelated to the origins of echolocation.
Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals
Foote, Andrew D.; Liu, Yue; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Vinař, Tomáš; Alföldi, Jessica; Deng, Jixin; Dugan, Shannon; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Hunter, Margaret; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra L.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Mancia, Annalaura; Nielsen, Rasmus; Qin, Xiang; Qu, Jiaxin; Raney, Brian J.; Vijay, Nagarjun; Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Gibbs, Richard A.
2015-01-01
Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and therefore represent a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and performed de novo assembly of the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome and that a subset of these substitutions were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that, whereas convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare.
Converging shock generation with cone target filled with low density foam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shigemori, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Hironaka, Y.; Kawashima, T.; Hattori, S.; Nagatomo, H.; Kato, H.; Sato, N.; Watari, T.; Takagi, M.
2016-05-01
We have been developing an alternative scheme of fast ignition of inertial confinement targets with converging shock. Experiments were carried out on GEKKO-XII laser facility at ILE, Osaka University. We employed Au cone targets filled with low- density RF foam (2 mg/cm3). The foam-filled cone targets were irradiated by three beams of the GEKKO-XII, with pulse duration of 1.3 ns, intensity of ∼ 1014 W/cm2 in 2 :λ(ω0.527μm). Self-emission at the tip of cone was observed by one-dimensional streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) and two-dimensional images.
Achievability for telerobotic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.
2001-02-01
Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .
Low convergence path to fusion II: An integrated NIF design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitt, Mark J.; Molvig, K.; McCall, G. H.; Edgel, D. H.; Myatt, J. E.; Betti, R.; Froula, D. H.; Campbell, E. M.
2016-10-01
We report on the Revolver design methodology for achieving ignition using large diameter (6mm) Be shells to efficiently ( 10%) convert laser energy from a short, 5 ns, 320TW laser pulse on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) into a dynamic pressure source for inertial confinement fusion. It is shown that this source can be used to kinetically drive two nested internal shells to achieve ignition conditions inside a central liquid DT core. Using principles recently elucidated [K. Molvig, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 255003, 2016], we formulate a robust optimization of a triple shell target that mitigates long-standing issues with conventional ignition schemes including drive non-uniformities, laser plasma instabilities (including the hot electrons they produce), non-local heat conduction and deceleration Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mix. Rad-hydro simulations predict ignition initiating at 2.5keV with 90% of the maximum inner shell velocity remaining (before deceleration RT can cause significant mix in the compressed DT fuel). Simulations in 2D show that the short pulse design produces a spatially uniform kinetic drive that is tolerant to random 5% variations in laser cone power. Moreover, it will be shown that intra-shell parameters can be adjusted to mitigate convergence growth of capsule spatial non-uniformities. This research supported by the US DOE/NNSA, performed in part at LANL, operated by LANS LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.
Electrospinning versus fibre production methods: from specifics to technological convergence.
Luo, C J; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Stride, E; Pelan, E; Edirisinghe, M
2012-07-07
Academic and industrial research on nanofibres is an area of increasing global interest, as seen in the continuously multiplying number of research papers and patents and the broadening range of chemical, medical, electrical and environmental applications. This in turn expands the size of the market opportunity and is reflected in the significant rise of entrepreneurial activities and investments in the field. Electrospinning is probably the most researched top-down method to form nanofibres from a remarkable range of organic and inorganic materials. It is well known and discussed in many comprehensive studies, so why this review? As we read about yet another "novel" method producing multifunctional nanomaterials in grams or milligrams in the laboratory, there is hardly any research addressing how these methods can be safely, consistently and cost-effectively up-scaled. Despite two decades of governmental and private investment, the productivity of nanofibre forming methods is still struggling to meet the increasing demand. This hinders the further integration of nanofibres into practical large-scale applications and limits current uses to niche-markets. Looking into history, this large gap between supply and demand of synthetic fibres was seen and addressed in conventional textile production a century ago. The remarkable achievement was accomplished via extensive collaborative research between academia and industry, applying ingenious solutions and technological convergence from polymer chemistry, physical chemistry, materials science and engineering disciplines. Looking into the present, current advances in electrospinning and nanofibre production are showing similar interdisciplinary technological convergence, and knowledge of industrial textile processing is being combined with new developments in nanofibre forming methods. Moreover, many important parameters in electrospinning and nanofibre spinning methods overlap parameters extensively studied in industrial
Surgery for residual convergence excess esotropia.
Patel, Himanshu I; Dawson, Emma; Lee, John
2011-12-01
The outcome of bilateral medial rectus posterior fixation sutures +/- central tenotomy was assessed as a secondary procedure for residual convergence excess esotropia in 11 patients. Ten had previously undergone bilateral medial rectus recessions. One had recess/resect surgery on the deviating eye. The average preoperative near angle was 30 prism diopters with a range of 16 to 45 prism diopters. Eight patients underwent bilateral medial rectus posterior fixation sutures with central tenotomy. Two had bilateral medial rectus posterior fixation sutures only, and one had bilateral medial rectus posterior fixation suture, a lateral rectus resection, and an inferior oblique disinsertion. The postoperative near angle ranged from 4-30 prism diopters, with mean of 12 prism diopters. Five patients demonstrated some stereopsis preoperatively, all needing bifocals. Postoperatively, nine patients demonstrated an improvement in stereopsis, none needing bifocals. Two showed smaller near angles and better control without bifocals. Final stereopsis ranged from 30 seconds of arc to 800 seconds of arc. We feel that bilateral medial rectus posterior fixation sutures with or without central tenotomy is a viable secondary procedure for residual convergence excess esotropia.
Instability and Tsunamigenic Potential at Convergent Margins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Huene, R.; Ranero, C. R.; Watts, P.
2001-12-01
Along many convergent margins multibeam echosounding navigated with GPS has revealed large slope failures that were probably tsunamigenic. Bathymetric data combined with seismic reflection imaging indicate multiple causes. The 55-km wide Nicoya Slump resulted from the steepening slope above an underthrusting seamount on the subducting oceanic plate. This slump may have generated a 27-m high wave. Several 5-7 km wide mid-slope slides off central Nicaragua probably resulted from steepening of the continental slope by tectonic erosion. They may have generated waves 6-7 m high. A 30 km wide mid-slope slump off northern Peru may have generated a 5 m high wave. Its cause will not be understood without better seismic reflection imaging but considerable fluid venting was observed across its headwall. In the Gulf of Alaska a large slide appears to have resulted from rapid sedimentation. Tsunamigenic slope failure along convergent margins is only beginning to be resolved and the causes vary. Subducted ocean floor relief, tectonically steepened slopes, and sites of rapid sedimentation can help target potential failure and possible future tsunami hazards.
Exceptional Convergent Evolution in a Virus
Bull, J. J.; Badgett, M. R.; Wichman, H. A.; Huelsenbeck, J. P.; Hillis, D. M.; Gulati, A.; Ho, C.; Molineux, I. J.
1997-01-01
Replicate lineages of the bacteriophage φX 174 adapted to growth at high temperature on either of two hosts exhibited high rates of identical, independent substitutions. Typically, a dozen or more substitutions accumulated in the 5.4-kilobase genome during propagation. Across the entire data set of nine lineages, 119 independent substitutions occurred at 68 nucleotide sites. Over half of these substitutions, accounting for one third of the sites, were identical with substitutions in other lineages. Some convergent substitutions were specific to the host used for phage propagation, but others occurred across both hosts. Continued adaptation of an evolved phage at high temperature, but on the other host, led to additional changes that included reversions of previous substitutions. Phylogenetic reconstruction using the complete genome sequence not only failed to recover the correct evolutionary history because of these convergent changes, but the true history was rejected as being a significantly inferior fit to the data. Replicate lineages subjected to similar environmental challenges showed similar rates of substitution and similar rates of fitness improvement across corresponding times of adaptation. Substitution rates and fitness improvements were higher during the initial period of adaptation than during a later period, except when the host was changed. PMID:9409816
Revisiting approximate dynamic programming and its convergence.
Heydari, Ali
2014-12-01
Value iteration-based approximate/adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) as an approximate solution to infinite-horizon optimal control problems with deterministic dynamics and continuous state and action spaces is investigated. The learning iterations are decomposed into an outer loop and an inner loop. A relatively simple proof for the convergence of the outer-loop iterations to the optimal solution is provided using a novel idea with some new features. It presents an analogy between the value function during the iterations and the value function of a fixed-final-time optimal control problem. The inner loop is utilized to avoid the need for solving a set of nonlinear equations or a nonlinear optimization problem numerically, at each iteration of ADP for the policy update. Sufficient conditions for the uniqueness of the solution to the policy update equation and for the convergence of the inner-loop iterations to the solution are obtained. Afterwards, the results are formed as a learning algorithm for training a neurocontroller or creating a look-up table to be used for optimal control of nonlinear systems with different initial conditions. Finally, some of the features of the investigated method are numerically analyzed.
Design Calculations for NIF Convergent Ablator Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olson, R. E.; Callahan, D. A.; Hicks, D. G.; Landen, O. L.; Langer, S. H.; Meezan, N. B.; Spears, B. K.; Widmann, K.; Kline, J. L.; Wilson, D. C.; Petrasso, R. D.; Leeper, R. J.
2010-11-01
Design calculations for NIF convergent ablator experiments will be described. The convergent ablator experiments measure the implosion trajectory, velocity, and ablation rate of an x-ray driven capsule and are a important component of the U. S. National Ignition Campaign at NIF. The design calculations are post-processed to provide simulations of the key diagnostics -- 1) Dante measurements of hohlraum x-ray flux and spectrum, 2) streaked radiographs of the imploding ablator shell, 3) wedge range filter measurements of D-He3 proton output spectra, and 4) GXD measurements of the imploded core. The simulated diagnostics will be compared to the experimental measurements to provide an assessment of the accuracy of the design code predictions of hohlraum radiation temperature, capsule ablation rate, implosion velocity, shock flash areal density, and x-ray bang time. Post-shot versions of the design calculations are used to enhance the understanding of the experimental measurements and will assist in choosing parameters for subsequent shots and the path towards optimal ignition capsule tuning. *SNL, LLNL, and LANL are operated under US DOE contracts DE-AC04-94AL85000. DE-AC52-07NA27344, and DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Simulations of 2-shock Convergence Scan Shots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bradley, Paul; Olson, R. E.; Kline, J. L.; MacLaren, S. A.; Ma, T.; Salmonson, J. D.; Kyrala, G. A.; Pino, J.; Dewald, E.; Khan, S.; Sayre, D.; Ralph, J.; Turnbull, D.
2016-10-01
The 2-shock campaign is a joint Los Alamos/Livermore project to investigate the role of shock timing, asymmetry, and shock convergence on the performance of ignition relevant capsules. This campaign uses a simple two step pulse that makes it easier to correlate the effect of changing the laser pulse on the performance of the capsule. The 680 micron outer radius capsule has a CH +1 at% Si ablator approximately 175 microns thick surrounding a DD or HT gas region with fill densities between 0.0085 and 0.00094 g/cc. The capsules are indirectly driven inside a gold hohlraum that is 9.2 mm long by 5.75 mm in diameter. Some capsules had about 3 microns of CD on the inner surface. The CD inner surface capsules utilized HT fuel so that the DT yield arises from mixing of CD shell material into the tritium of the gas region. Our simulated results compare well to the experimental yield, ion temperature, burn width, x-ray size, convergence ratio, and radius versus time data. Work performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396 for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy.
Origin of weak lensing convergence peaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jia; Haiman, Zoltán
2016-08-01
Weak lensing convergence peaks are a promising tool to probe nonlinear structure evolution at late times, providing additional cosmological information beyond second-order statistics. Previous theoretical and observational studies have shown that the cosmological constraints on Ωm and σ8 are improved by a factor of up to ≈2 when peak counts and second-order statistics are combined, compared to using the latter alone. We study the origin of lensing peaks using observational data from the 154 deg2 Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey. We found that while high peaks (with height κ >3.5 σκ , where σκ is the rms of the convergence κ ) are typically due to one single massive halo of ≈1 015M⊙ , low peaks (κ ≲σκ ) are associated with constellations of 2-8 smaller halos (≲1 013M⊙ ). In addition, halos responsible for forming low peaks are found to be significantly offset from the line of sight towards the peak center (impact parameter ≳ their virial radii), compared with ≈0.25 virial radii for halos linked with high peaks, hinting that low peaks are more immune to baryonic processes whose impact is confined to the inner regions of the dark matter halos. Our findings are in good agreement with results from the simulation work by Yang et al. [Phys. Rev. D 84, 043529 (2011)].
Divergence and Convergence in Enzyme Evolution*
Galperin, Michael Y.; Koonin, Eugene V.
2012-01-01
Comparative analysis of the sequences of enzymes encoded in a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes reveals convergence and divergence at several levels. Functional convergence can be inferred when structurally distinct and hence non-homologous enzymes show the ability to catalyze the same biochemical reaction. In contrast, as a result of functional diversification, many structurally similar enzyme molecules act on substantially distinct substrates and catalyze diverse biochemical reactions. Here, we present updates on the ATP-grasp, alkaline phosphatase, cupin, HD hydrolase, and N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn) hydrolase enzyme superfamilies and discuss the patterns of sequence and structural conservation and diversity within these superfamilies. Typically, enzymes within a superfamily possess common sequence motifs and key active site residues, as well as (predicted) reaction mechanisms. These observations suggest that the strained conformation (the entatic state) of the active site, which is responsible for the substrate binding and formation of the transition complex, tends to be conserved within enzyme superfamilies. The subsequent fate of the transition complex is not necessarily conserved and depends on the details of the structures of the enzyme and the substrate. This variability of reaction outcomes limits the ability of sequence analysis to predict the exact enzymatic activities of newly sequenced gene products. Nevertheless, sequence-based (super)family assignments and generic functional predictions, even if imprecise, provide valuable leads for experimental studies and remain the best approach to the functional annotation of uncharacterized proteins from new genomes. PMID:22069324
A grand convergence in mortality is possible: comment on Global Health 2035.
Norheim, Ole Frithjof
2014-01-01
The grand challenge in global health is the inequality in mortality and life expectancy between countries and within countries. According to Global Health 2035, the Lancet Commission celebrating the 20(th) anniversary of the World Development Report (WDR) of 1993, the world now has the unique opportunity to achieve a grand convergence in global mortality within a generation. This article comments on the main findings and recommendations of the Global Health 2035.
A grand convergence in mortality is possible: comment on Global Health 2035
Norheim, Ole Frithjof
2014-01-01
The grand challenge in global health is the inequality in mortality and life expectancy between countries and within countries. According to Global Health 2035, the Lancet Commission celebrating the 20th anniversary of the World Development Report (WDR) of 1993, the world now has the unique opportunity to achieve a grand convergence in global mortality within a generation. This article comments on the main findings and recommendations of the Global Health 2035. PMID:24596900
Higher Order Convergence Rates in Theory of Homogenization: Equations of Non-divergence Form
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sunghan; Lee, Ki-Ahm
2016-03-01
We establish higher order convergence rates in the theory of periodic homogenization of both linear and fully nonlinear uniformly elliptic equations of non-divergence form. The rates are achieved by involving higher order correctors which fix the errors occurring both in the interior and on the boundary layer of our physical domain. The proof is based on a viscosity method and a new regularity theory which captures the stability of the correctors with respect to the shape of our limit profile.
Posterior fixation suture and convergence excess esotropia.
Steffen; Auffarth; Kolling
1998-09-01
The present study investigates the results of Cuppers' 'Fadenoperation' in patients with non-accommodative convergence excess esotropia. Particular attention is given to postoperative eye alignment at distance fixation. Group 1 (n=96) included patients with a 'normal' convergence excess. The manifest near angles (mean ET 16.73 degrees +/- 6.33 degrees, range 4 degrees -33 degrees ) were roughly twice the size of the distance angles (mean ET 6.50 degrees +/- 3.62 degrees, range 0 degrees -14 degrees ). These patients were treated with a bilateral fadenoperation of the medial recti without additional eye muscle surgery. Three months after surgery, the mean postoperative angles were XT 0.5 degrees +/- 3.3 degrees (range XT 11 degrees -ET 5 degrees ) for distance fixation, and ET 2.7 degrees +/- 3.6 degrees (range XT 5 degrees -ET 14 degrees ) for near fixation, respectively. Postoperative convergent angles at near fixation >ET 10 degrees were present in two patients (1.9%). Group 2 (n=21) included patients with a mean preoperative distance angle of ET 9.2 degrees +/- 3.7 degrees (range 6 degrees -16 degrees ) and a mean preoperative near angle of ET 23.4 degrees +/- 3.1 degrees (range 16 degrees -31 degrees ). These patients were operated on with a bilateral fadenoperation of the medial recti and a simultaneous recession of one or both medial rectus muscles. Mean postoperative angles were XT 0.5 degrees +/- 4.6 degrees (range XT 12 degrees -ET 7 degrees ) for distance fixation and ET 1.4 degrees +/- 4.5 degrees (range XT 8 degrees -ET 13 degrees ) for near fixation, respectively. In this group, 2 patients (10.6%) had a postoperative exotropia >XT 5 degrees at distance fixation, and two patients had residual esotropia>ET 10 degrees at near fixation. Group 3 (n=17) included patients with a pronounced non-accommodative convergence excess. Near angle values (mean of 17.8 degrees +/- 5.3 degrees, range ET 7 degrees -26 degrees ) were several times higher than the distance
A Vertical Organic Transistor Architecture for Fast Nonvolatile Memory.
She, Xiao-Jian; Gustafsson, David; Sirringhaus, Henning
2017-02-01
A new device architecture for fast organic transistor memory is developed, based on a vertical organic transistor configuration incorporating high-performance ambipolar conjugated polymers and unipolar small molecules as the transport layers, to achieve reliable and fast programming and erasing of the threshold voltage shift in less than 200 ns.
Culture and Achievement Motivation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maehr, Martin L.
1974-01-01
A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nevill, Dorothy D.
1975-01-01
Three techniques are outlined for use by higher education institutions to achieve salary equity: salary prediction (using various statistical procedures), counterparting (comparing salaries of persons of similar rank), and grievance procedures. (JT)
Stayton, C. Tristan
2015-01-01
Convergent evolution is central to the study of life's evolutionary history. Researchers have documented the ubiquity of convergence and have used this ubiquity to make inferences about the nature of limits on evolution. However, these inferences are compromised by unrecognized inconsistencies in the definitions, measures, significance tests and inferred causes of convergent evolution. I review these inconsistencies and provide recommendations for standardizing studies of convergence. A fundamental dichotomy exists between definitions that describe convergence as a pattern and those that describe it as a pattern caused by a particular process. When this distinction is not acknowledged it becomes easy to assume that a pattern of convergence indicates that a particular process has been active, leading researchers away from alternative explanations. Convergence is not necessarily caused by limits to evolution, either adaptation or constraint; even substantial amounts of convergent evolution can be generated by a purely stochastic process. In the absence of null models, long lists of examples of convergent events do not necessarily indicate that convergence or any evolutionary process is ubiquitous throughout the history of life. Pattern-based definitions of convergence, coupled with quantitative measures and null models, must be applied before drawing inferences regarding large-scale limits to evolution. PMID:26640646
Print-speech convergence predicts future reading outcomes in early readers
Preston, Jonathan L.; Molfese, Peter J.; Frost, Stephen J.; Mencl, W. Einar; Fulbright, Robert K.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Landi, Nicole; Shankweiler, Donald; Pugh, Kenneth R.
2015-01-01
Becoming a skilled reader requires building a functional neurocircuitry for printed language processing that converges on spoken language processing networks. In this longitudinal study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine whether convergence for printed and spoken language in beginning readers predicts reading outcomes two years later. Print-speech co-activation across the left hemisphere reading network predicted later reading achievement beyond the effects of brain activity for either modality alone; moreover, co-activation effects accounted for variance in later reading after controlling for initial reading performance. Within the reading network, effects of co-activation were significant in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left inferior parietal cortex and fusiform. The contribution of left and right IFG differed, with more co-activation in left IFG predicting better achievement but more co-activation in right IFG predicting poorer achievement. Findings point to the centrality of print-speech convergence in building an efficient reading circuitry in children. PMID:26589242
Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.
1983-12-21
A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.
Van Devender, John P.; Emin, David
1986-01-01
A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and insulating states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.
Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.
1980-07-01
This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nan, R. D.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, L.; Cai, W. J.; Liu, N.; Xie, J. T.; Zhang, S. X.
2016-11-01
The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese mega-science project to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. A unique karst depression in Guizhou province has been selected as the site to build an active reflector radio telescope with a diameter of 500 m and three outstanding aspects, which enables FAST to have a large sky coverage and the ability of observing astronomical targets with a high precision. Chinese Academy of Sciences and Guizhou province are in charge of FAST construction. The first light of the telescope was expected on September 25, 2016.
Six Homeoproteins and a linc-RNA at the Fast MYH Locus Lock Fast Myofiber Terminal Phenotype
Sakakibara, Iori; Santolini, Marc; Ferry, Arnaud; Hakim, Vincent; Maire, Pascal
2014-01-01
Abstract Thousands of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are encoded by the mammalian genome. However, the function of most of these lincRNAs has not been identified in vivo. Here, we demonstrate a role for a novel lincRNA, linc-MYH, in adult fast-type myofiber specialization. Fast myosin heavy chain (MYH) genes and linc-MYH share a common enhancer, located in the fast MYH gene locus and regulated by Six1 homeoproteins. linc-MYH in nuclei of fast-type myofibers prevents slow-type and enhances fast-type gene expression. Functional fast-sarcomeric unit formation is achieved by the coordinate expression of fast MYHs and linc-MYH, under the control of a common Six-bound enhancer. PMID:24852826
FATRAS - the ATLAS Fast Track Simulation project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mechnich, Jörg; ATLAS Collaboration
2011-12-01
The Monte Carlo simulation of the detector response is an integral component of any analysis performed with data from the LHC experiments. As these simulated data sets must be both large and precise, their production is a CPU-intensive task. ATLAS has developed full and fast detector simulation techniques to achieve this goal within the computing limits of the collaboration. At the current early stages of data-taking, it is necessary to reprocess the Monte Carlo event samples continuously, while integrating adaptations to the simulation modules in order to improve the agreement with data taken by means of the detector itself. FATRAS is a fast track simulation engine which produces a Monte Carlo simulation based on modules and the geometry of the standard ATLAS track reconstruction algorithm. It can be combined with a fast parametrized-response simulation of the calorimeters. This approach shows a high level of agreement with the full simulation, while achieving a relative timing gain of two orders of magnitude. FATRAS was designed to provide a fast feedback cycle for tuning the MC simulation with real data: this includes the material distribution inside the detector, the integration of misalignment and current conditions, as well as calibration at the hit level. We present the updated and calibrated version of FATRAS based on the first LHC data. Extensive comparisons of the fast track simulation with the full simulation and data at 900 GeV are shown.
Impact of Fast Ignition on Laser Fusion Energy Development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirna, Kunioki
2016-10-01
Reviewed are the early history of Japanese laser fusion research and the recent achievement of fast ignition research at Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University. After the achievement of high density compression at Osaka University, LLE of University Rochester, and LLNL, the critical issue of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) research became the formation of hot spark in a compressed plasma. In this lecture, the history of the fast ignition research will be reviewed and future prospects are presented.
Contrasting patterns of adaptive sequence convergence among echolocating mammals.
Lambert, Matthew J; Nevue, Alexander A; Portfors, Christine V
2017-03-20
Several recent studies have described genes demonstrating adaptive sequence convergence between echolocating bats and dolphin, suggesting that common selective pressures can induce common molecular changes, even in distantly related species. However, in the case of the auditory genes Otoferlin (Otof), Cadherin 23 (Cdh23) and Protocadherin 15 (Pcdh15), the reported sequence convergence was supported only by incongruent gene and species trees and counts of convergent substitutions. Therefore, it remains unclear whether echolocating bats and dolphin really do demonstrate evidence of adaptive sequence convergence, or whether there is simply a high level of random background convergence in these genes. To address this question, we estimated the number of convergent and divergent amino acid substitutions along all independent branches of a sufficiently deep phylogeny containing between 22 and 32 mammals for each gene, and compared convergence between the two proposed suborders of bat, Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera, and dolphin. We find no support for convergence between bats and dolphin in the gene Pcdh15. For the gene Otof we report minimal evidence for convergent evolution only between the Yinpterochiroptera and dolphin. Cdh23 displayed a high level of convergence between dolphin and the Yinpterochiroptera. In addition, dolphin and certain members of the Yangochiroptera that emit high frequency echolocation calls shared several unique convergent substitutions. These results indicate that the convergent evolution of Cdh23 was likely driven by selection for hearing above a certain frequency threshold. Moreover, the contrasting patterns of convergence between the two bat suborders and dolphin in all auditory genes studied thus far suggest echolocation may have evolved independently in the Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera.
Converging shocks in elastic-plastic solids.
Ortega, A López; Lombardini, M; Hill, D J
2011-11-01
We present an approximate description of the behavior of an elastic-plastic material processed by a cylindrically or spherically symmetric converging shock, following Whitham's shock dynamics theory. Originally applied with success to various gas dynamics problems, this theory is presently derived for solid media, in both elastic and plastic regimes. The exact solutions of the shock dynamics equations obtained reproduce well the results obtained by high-resolution numerical simulations. The examined constitutive laws share a compressible neo-Hookean structure for the internal energy e=e(s)(I(1))+e(h)(ρ,ς), where e(s) accounts for shear through the first invariant of the Cauchy-Green tensor, and e(h) represents the hydrostatic contribution as a function of the density ρ and entropy ς. In the strong-shock limit, reached as the shock approaches the axis or origin r=0, we show that compression effects are dominant over shear deformations. For an isothermal constitutive law, i.e., e(h)=e(h)(ρ), with a power-law dependence e(h) is proportional to ρ(α), shock dynamics predicts that for a converging shock located at r=R(t) at time t, the Mach number increases as M is proportional to [log(1/R)](α), independently of the space index s, where s=2 in cylindrical geometry and 3 in spherical geometry. An alternative isothermal constitutive law with p(ρ) of the arctanh type, which enforces a finite density in the strong-shock limit, leads to M is proportional to R(-(s-1)) for strong shocks. A nonisothermal constitutive law, whose hydrostatic part e(h) is that of an ideal gas, is also tested, recovering the strong-shock limit M is proportional to R(-(s-1)/n(γ)) originally derived by Whitham for perfect gases, where γ is inherently related to the maximum compression ratio that the material can reach, (γ+1)/(γ-1). From these strong-shock limits, we also estimate analytically the density, radial velocity, pressure, and sound speed immediately behind the shock. While the
Converging shocks in elastic-plastic solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López Ortega, A.; Lombardini, M.; Hill, D. J.
2011-11-01
We present an approximate description of the behavior of an elastic-plastic material processed by a cylindrically or spherically symmetric converging shock, following Whitham's shock dynamics theory. Originally applied with success to various gas dynamics problems, this theory is presently derived for solid media, in both elastic and plastic regimes. The exact solutions of the shock dynamics equations obtained reproduce well the results obtained by high-resolution numerical simulations. The examined constitutive laws share a compressible neo-Hookean structure for the internal energy e=es(I1)+eh(ρ,ς), where es accounts for shear through the first invariant of the Cauchy-Green tensor, and eh represents the hydrostatic contribution as a function of the density ρ and entropy ς. In the strong-shock limit, reached as the shock approaches the axis or origin r=0, we show that compression effects are dominant over shear deformations. For an isothermal constitutive law, i.e., eh=eh(ρ), with a power-law dependence eh∝ρα, shock dynamics predicts that for a converging shock located at r=R(t) at time t, the Mach number increases as M∝[log(1/R)]α, independently of the space index s, where s=2 in cylindrical geometry and 3 in spherical geometry. An alternative isothermal constitutive law with p(ρ) of the arctanh type, which enforces a finite density in the strong-shock limit, leads to M∝R-(s-1) for strong shocks. A nonisothermal constitutive law, whose hydrostatic part eh is that of an ideal gas, is also tested, recovering the strong-shock limit M∝R-(s-1)/n(γ) originally derived by Whitham for perfect gases, where γ is inherently related to the maximum compression ratio that the material can reach, (γ+1)/(γ-1). From these strong-shock limits, we also estimate analytically the density, radial velocity, pressure, and sound speed immediately behind the shock. While the hydrostatic part of the energy essentially commands the strong-shock behavior, the shear
Huthwaite, P; Simonetti, F
2011-09-01
Breast ultrasound tomography has the potential to improve the cost, safety, and reliability of breast cancer screening and diagnosis over the gold-standard of mammography. Vital to achieving this potential is the development of imaging algorithms to unravel the complex anatomy of the breast and its mechanical properties. The solution most commonly relied upon is time-of-flight tomography, but this exhibits low resolution due to the presence of diffraction effects. Iterative full-wave inversion methods present one solution to achieve higher resolution, but these are slow and are not guaranteed to converge to the correct solution. Presented here is HARBUT, the hybrid algorithm for robust breast ultrasound tomography, which utilizes the complementary strengths of time-of-flight and diffraction tomography resulting in a direct, fast, robust and accurate high resolution method of reconstructing the sound speed through the breast. The algorithm is shown to produce accurate reconstructions with realistic data from a complex three-dimensional simulation, with masses as small as 4 mm being clearly visible.
FAST joins Breakthrough programme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banks, Michael
2016-11-01
The 180m Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) - the world's largest single-aperture radio receiver - has become part of the Breakthrough Listen programme, which launched in July 2015 to look for intelligent life beyond Earth.
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The 1977 intertropical convergence zone experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poppoff, I. G. (Editor); Page, W. A. (Editor); Margozzi, A. P. (Editor)
1979-01-01
Data are presented from the 1977 Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) Experiment conducted in the Panama Canal Zone in July 1977. Measurements were made daily over a 16-day period when the ITCZ moved across the Canal Zone. Two aircraft (Learjet and U-2) flew daily and provided data from horizontal traverses at several altitudes to 21.3 km of ozone, temperature, pressure, water vapor, aerosols, fluorocarbons, methane, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and nitric acid. Balloonsondes flown four times per day provided data on ozone, wind fields, pressure, temperature, and humidities to altitudes near 30 km. Rocketsondes provided daily data to altitudes near 69 km. Satellite photography provided detailed cloud information. Descriptions of individual experiments and detailed compilations of all results are provided.
Flow of foam through a convergent channel.
Dollet, Benjamin; Bocher, Claire
2015-11-01
We study experimentally the flow of a foam confined as a bubble monolayer between two plates through a convergent channel. We quantify the velocity, the distribution and orientation of plastic events, and the elastic stress, using image analysis. We use two different soap solutions: a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution, with a negligible wall friction between the bubbles and the confining plates, and a mixture containing a fatty acid, giving a large wall friction. We show that for SDS solutions, the velocity profile obeys a self-similar form which results from the superposition of plastic events, and the elastic deformation is uniform. For the other solution, the velocity field differs and the elastic deformation increases towards the exit of the channel. We discuss and quantify the role of wall friction on the velocity profile, the elastic deformation, and the rate of plastic events.
Convergent Replication of Mouse Synthetic Prion Strains
Ghaemmaghami, Sina; Colby, David W.; Nguyen, Hoang-Oanh B.; Hayashi, Shigenari; Oehler, Abby; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.
2014-01-01
Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the aberrant folding of endogenous proteins into self-propagating pathogenic conformers. Prion disease can be initiated in animal models by inoculation with amyloid fibrils formed from bacterially derived recombinant prion protein. The synthetic prions that accumulated in infected organisms are structurally distinct from the amyloid preparations used to initiate their formation and change conformationally on repeated passage. To investigate the nature of synthetic prion transformation, we infected mice with a conformationally diverse set of amyloids and serially passaged the resulting prion strains. At each passage, we monitored changes in the biochemical and biological properties of the adapting strain. The physicochemical properties of each synthetic prion strain gradually changed on serial propagation until attaining a common adapted state with shared physicochemical characteristics. These results indicate that synthetic prions can assume multiple intermediate conformations before converging into one conformation optimized for in vivo propagation. PMID:23438476
Convergent evolution in primates and an insectivore
Boffelli, Dario; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Rubin, Edward M.
2003-04-16
The cardiovascular risk factor apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) has a puzzling distribution among mammals, its presence being limited to a subset of primates and a member of the insectivore lineage, the hedgehog. To explore the evolutionary history of apo(a), we performed extensive genomic sequence comparisons of multiple species with and without an apo(a) gene product, such as human, baboon, hedgehog, lemurand mouse. This analysis indicated that apo(a) arose independently in a subset of primates, including baboon and human, and an insectivore, the hedgehog, and was not simply lost by species lacking it. The similar structural domains shared by the hedgehog and primate apo(a) indicate that they were formed by a unique molecular mechanism involving the convergent evolution of paralogous genes in these distantspecies.
Unstable resonators with excited converging wave
Hodgson, N. ); Weber, H. )
1990-04-01
This paper reports the properties of unstable resonators with an additional mirror inside or outside the resonator investigated, both experimentally and theoretically. The additional mirror excites the converging wave, and by this, output coupling is decreased without affecting beam quality. Experiments were performed with a pulsed Nd:YAG system. The theoretical model was based on the coupled Kirchhoff integrals and solved numerically. Agreement between theory and experiments indicates that this kind of resonator provides high focusability and maximum extraction efficiency simultaneously, even with low-gain media. This enables one to apply unstable resonators to solid-state lasers with low small-signal gain, like alexandrite or CW-pumped Nd:YAG.
Convergent solid-phase synthesis of hirudin.
Goulas, Spyros; Gatos, Dimitrios; Barlos, Kleomenis
2006-02-01
Hirudin variant 1 (HV1), a small protein consisting of 65 amino acids and three disulfide bonds, was synthesized by using Fmoc-based convergent methods on 2-chlorotrityl resin (CLTR). The linear sequence was assembled by the sequential condensation of 7 protected fragments, on the resin-bound 55-65 fragment. The conditions of fragment assembly were carefully studied to determine the most efficient synthetic protocol. Crude reduced [Cys(16, 28)(Acm)]-HV1 thus obtained was easily purified to homogeneity by RP-HPLC. Disulfide bridges were successfully formed by a two-step procedure, involving an oxidative folding step to form Cys(6)-Cys(14) and Cys(22)-Cys(39) linkages, followed by iodine oxidation to form the Cys(16)-Cys(28) bond. The correct disulfide bond alignment was established by peptide mapping using Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease at pH 4.5.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roco, Mihail C.; Bainbridge, William S.
2013-09-01
Convergence of knowledge and technology for the benefit of society (CKTS) is the core opportunity for progress in the twenty-first century. CKTS is defined as the escalating and transformative interactions among seemingly different disciplines, technologies, communities, and domains of human activity to achieve mutual compatibility, synergism, and integration, and through this process to create added value and branch out to meet shared goals. Convergence has been progressing by stages over the past several decades, beginning with nanotechnology for the material world, followed by convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information, and cognitive science (NBIC) for emerging technologies. CKTS is the third level of convergence. It suggests a general process to advance creativity, innovation, and societal progress based on five general purpose principles: (1) the interdependence of all components of nature and society, (2) decision analysis for research, development, and applications based on dynamic system-logic deduction, (3) enhancement of creativity and innovation through evolutionary processes of convergence that combines existing principles and divergence that generates new ones, (4) the utility of higher-level cross-domain languages to generate new solutions and support transfer of new knowledge, and (5) the value of vision-inspired basic research embodied in grand challenges. CKTS is a general purpose approach in knowledge society. It allows society to answer questions and resolve problems that isolated capabilities cannot, as well as to create new competencies, knowledge, and technologies on this basis. Possible solutions are outlined for key societal challenges in the next decade, including support for foundational emerging technologies NBIC to penetrate essential platforms of human activity and create new industries and jobs, improve lifelong wellness and human potential, achieve personalized and integrated healthcare and education, and secure a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilkinson, P.
2016-02-01
FAST offers "transformational" performance well-suited to finding new phenomena - one of which might be polarised spectral transients. But discoveries will only be made if "the system" provides its users with the necessary opportunities. In addition to designing in as much observational flexibility as possible, FAST should be operated with a philosophy which maximises its "human bandwidth". This band includes the astronomers of tomorrow - many of whom not have yet started school or even been born.
The Converged Experience of Risk and Disease
Aronowitz, Robert A
2009-01-01
Context: One underappreciated consequence of modern clinical and public health practices is that the experience of being at risk for disease has been converging with the experience of disease itself. This is especially true for certain chronic diseases, in which early diagnosis and aggressive treatment have led to symptom-less and sign-less disease and in which treatments have largely been aimed at altering the disease's future course. Methods: This article reviews the historical scholarship and medical literature pertinent to transformations in the chronic disease and risk experiences. Findings: The experience of chronic disease increasingly resembles or has become indistinguishable from risk because of (1) new clinical interventions that have directly changed the natural history of disease; (2) increased biological, clinical, and epidemiological knowledge about the risk of chronic disease; (3) the recruitment of larger numbers into chronic disease diagnoses via new screening and diagnostic technology and disease definitions; (4) new ways of conceptualizing efficacy; and (5) intense diagnostic testing and medical interventions. Conclusions: The converged experience of risk and disease has led to some unsettling and generally underappreciated consequences that might be subjected to more clinical and policy reflection and response: (1) some puzzling trends in medical decision making, such as the steep and uniform increase in the numbers of women across a broad spectrum of risk/disease in breast cancer who have opted for prophylactic mastectomies; (2) a larger and highly mobilized disease/risk population, resulting in an expanded market for interventions and greater clout for disease advocates; (3) shifts in the perceived severity of the disease, with ripple effects on how people experience and understand their illness and risk of disease; and (4) interventions that promise both to reduce the risk of disease and to treat its symptoms. PMID:19523124
Convergence and Fluctuations of Regularized Tyler Estimators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kammoun, Abla; Couillet, Romain; Pascal, Ferderic; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2016-02-01
This article studies the behavior of regularized Tyler estimators (RTEs) of scatter matrices. The key advantages of these estimators are twofold. First, they guarantee by construction a good conditioning of the estimate and second, being a derivative of robust Tyler estimators, they inherit their robustness properties, notably their resilience to the presence of outliers. Nevertheless, one major problem that poses the use of RTEs in practice is represented by the question of setting the regularization parameter $\\rho$. While a high value of $\\rho$ is likely to push all the eigenvalues away from zero, it comes at the cost of a larger bias with respect to the population covariance matrix. A deep understanding of the statistics of RTEs is essential to come up with appropriate choices for the regularization parameter. This is not an easy task and might be out of reach, unless one considers asymptotic regimes wherein the number of observations $n$ and/or their size $N$ increase together. First asymptotic results have recently been obtained under the assumption that $N$ and $n$ are large and commensurable. Interestingly, no results concerning the regime of $n$ going to infinity with $N$ fixed exist, even though the investigation of this assumption has usually predated the analysis of the most difficult $N$ and $n$ large case. This motivates our work. In particular, we prove in the present paper that the RTEs converge to a deterministic matrix when $n\\to\\infty$ with $N$ fixed, which is expressed as a function of the theoretical covariance matrix. We also derive the fluctuations of the RTEs around this deterministic matrix and establish that these fluctuations converge in distribution to a multivariate Gaussian distribution with zero mean and a covariance depending on the population covariance and the parameter $\\rho$.
Cooperative target convergence using multiple agents
Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.
1997-10-01
This work considers the problem of causing multiple (100`s) autonomous mobile robots to converge to a target and provides a follow-the-leader approach to the problem. Each robot has only a limited-range sensor for sending the target and also larger but also limited-range robot-to-robot communication capability. Because of the small amount of information available to the robots, a practical approach to improve convergence to the target is to have a robot follow the robot with the best quality of information. Specifically, each robot emits a signal that informs in-range robots what its status is. A robot has a status value of 0 if it is itself in range of the target. A robot has a status of 1 if it is not in range of the target but is in communication range of a robot that is in range of the target. A robot has a status of 2 if it is not in range of the target but is within range of another robot that has status 1, and so on. Of all the mobile robots that any given robot is in range of, it follows the one with the best status. The emergent behavior is the ant-like trails of robots following each other toward the target. If the robot is not in range of another robot that is either in range of the target or following another robot, the robot will assign-1 to its quality-of-information, and will execute an exhaustive search. The exhaustive search will continue until it encounters either the target or another robot with a nonnegative quality-of-information. The quality of information approach was extended to the case where each robot only has two-bit signals informing it of distance to in-range robots.
A Rapid Convergent Low Complexity Interference Alignment Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks
Jiang, Lihui; Wu, Zhilu; Ren, Guanghui; Wang, Gangyi; Zhao, Nan
2015-01-01
Interference alignment (IA) is a novel technique that can effectively eliminate the interference and approach the sum capacity of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is high, by casting the desired signal and interference into different signal subspaces. The traditional alternating minimization interference leakage (AMIL) algorithm for IA shows good performance in high SNR regimes, however, the complexity of the AMIL algorithm increases dramatically as the number of users and antennas increases, posing limits to its applications in the practical systems. In this paper, a novel IA algorithm, called directional quartic optimal (DQO) algorithm, is proposed to minimize the interference leakage with rapid convergence and low complexity. The properties of the AMIL algorithm are investigated, and it is discovered that the difference between the two consecutive iteration results of the AMIL algorithm will approximately point to the convergence solution when the precoding and decoding matrices obtained from the intermediate iterations are sufficiently close to their convergence values. Based on this important property, the proposed DQO algorithm employs the line search procedure so that it can converge to the destination directly. In addition, the optimal step size can be determined analytically by optimizing a quartic function. Numerical results show that the proposed DQO algorithm can suppress the interference leakage more rapidly than the traditional AMIL algorithm, and can achieve the same level of sum rate as that of AMIL algorithm with far less iterations and execution time. PMID:26230697
Thepsoonthorn, C.; Yokozuka, T.; Miura, S.; Ogawa, K.; Miyake, Y.
2016-01-01
As prior knowledge is claimed to be an essential key to achieve effective education, we are interested in exploring whether prior knowledge enhances communication effectiveness. To demonstrate the effects of prior knowledge, mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony are observed as indicators of communication effectiveness. We conducted an experiment on lecture task between lecturer and student under 2 conditions: prior knowledge and non-prior knowledge. The students in prior knowledge condition were provided the basic information about the lecture content and were assessed their understanding by the experimenter before starting the lecture while the students in non-prior knowledge had none. The result shows that the interaction in prior knowledge condition establishes significantly higher mutual gaze convergence (t(15.03) = 6.72, p < 0.0001; α = 0.05, n = 20) and head nodding synchrony (t(16.67) = 1.83, p = 0.04; α = 0.05, n = 19) compared to non-prior knowledge condition. This study reveals that prior knowledge facilitates mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony. Furthermore, the interaction with and without prior knowledge can be evaluated by measuring or observing mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony. PMID:27910902
Svecofennian orogeny in an evolving convergent margin setting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korja, Annakaisa
2015-04-01
The dominant tectonic mode changes from extension to convergence at around 1.9 Ga in Fennoscandian. The lithological record suggests short lived subduction-related magmatic events followed by deformation and low-pressure high temperature metamorphism. At around 1.8 Ga the subduction systems seem to have stabilized implying continuous supply of oceanic lithosphere. The evolution of the convergent margin is recorded in the rock record and crustal architecture of the long lived Svecofennian orogeny (1.9-1.7 Ga). A closer look at the internal structure of the Svecofennian orogen reveals distinct regional differences. The northern and central parts of the Svecofennian orogen that have been formed during the initial accretionary phase - or compilation of the nucleus - have a thick three-layer crust and with thick mafic lower crust (10-30 km) and block-like internal architecture. Reflection profiles (FIRE1-3) image listric structures flattening on crustal scale décollement zones at the upper-middle crust and middle-upper crust boundaries. The crustal architecture together with large volumes of exposed granitoid rocks suggests spreading of the orogen and the development of an orogenic plateau west of the continental convergence boundary. The architecture is reminiscent of a large hot orogen. Within the western and southwestern part of the Svecofennian orogen (BABEL B, 1, 2, 3&4), which have been envisioned to have formed during continuous subduction phase, the crust is thinner (45-50 km) and it is hosting crustal blocks having one to two crustal layers. Layering is poorly developed in crustal blocks that are found S-SW of NE-dipping mantle reflections previously interpreted as paleo-subduction zones. Within these blocks, the crustal scale reflective structures dip NE (prowedge) or form pop-up wedges (uplifted plug) above the paleo-subduction zones. Crustal blocks with well-developed two-layer crust are located NE of the paleo-subduction zone. The architecture can be
The solution of the point kinetics equations via converged accelerated Taylor series (CATS)
Ganapol, B.; Picca, P.; Previti, A.; Mostacci, D.
2012-07-01
This paper deals with finding accurate solutions of the point kinetics equations including non-linear feedback, in a fast, efficient and straightforward way. A truncated Taylor series is coupled to continuous analytical continuation to provide the recurrence relations to solve the ordinary differential equations of point kinetics. Non-linear (Wynn-epsilon) and linear (Romberg) convergence accelerations are employed to provide highly accurate results for the evaluation of Taylor series expansions and extrapolated values of neutron and precursor densities at desired edits. The proposed Converged Accelerated Taylor Series, or CATS, algorithm automatically performs successive mesh refinements until the desired accuracy is obtained, making use of the intermediate results for converged initial values at each interval. Numerical performance is evaluated using case studies available from the literature. Nearly perfect agreement is found with the literature results generally considered most accurate. Benchmark quality results are reported for several cases of interest including step, ramp, zigzag and sinusoidal prescribed insertions and insertions with adiabatic Doppler feedback. A larger than usual (9) number of digits is included to encourage honest benchmarking. The benchmark is then applied to the enhanced piecewise constant algorithm (EPCA) currently being developed by the second author. (authors)
A new look at the convergence of a famous sequence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobrescu, Mihaela
2010-12-01
A new proof for the monotonicity of the sequence ? is given as a special case of a large family of monotomic and bounded, hence convergent sequences. The new proof is based on basic calculus results rather than induction, which makes it accessible to a larger audience including business and life sciences students and faculty. The slow rate of convergence of the two sequences is also discussed, and convergence bounds are found.
Visibility of speech articulation enhances auditory phonetic convergence.
Dias, James W; Rosenblum, Lawrence D
2016-01-01
Talkers automatically imitate aspects of perceived speech, a phenomenon known as phonetic convergence. Talkers have previously been found to converge to auditory and visual speech information. Furthermore, talkers converge more to the speech of a conversational partner who is seen and heard, relative to one who is just heard (Dias & Rosenblum Perception, 40, 1457-1466, 2011). A question raised by this finding is what visual information facilitates the enhancement effect. In the following experiments, we investigated the possible contributions of visible speech articulation to visual enhancement of phonetic convergence within the noninteractive context of a shadowing task. In Experiment 1, we examined the influence of the visibility of a talker on phonetic convergence when shadowing auditory speech either in the clear or in low-level auditory noise. The results suggest that visual speech can compensate for convergence that is reduced by auditory noise masking. Experiment 2 further established the visibility of articulatory mouth movements as being important to the visual enhancement of phonetic convergence. Furthermore, the word frequency and phonological neighborhood density characteristics of the words shadowed were found to significantly predict phonetic convergence in both experiments. Consistent with previous findings (e.g., Goldinger Psychological Review, 105, 251-279, 1998), phonetic convergence was greater when shadowing low-frequency words. Convergence was also found to be greater for low-density words, contrasting with previous predictions of the effect of phonological neighborhood density on auditory phonetic convergence (e.g., Pardo, Jordan, Mallari, Scanlon, & Lewandowski Journal of Memory and Language, 69, 183-195, 2013). Implications of the results for a gestural account of phonetic convergence are discussed.
Exponential convergence rates for weighted sums in noncommutative probability space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Byoung Jin; Ji, Un Cig
2016-11-01
We study exponential convergence rates for weighted sums of successive independent random variables in a noncommutative probability space of which the weights are in a von Neumann algebra. Then we prove a noncommutative extension of the result for the exponential convergence rate by Baum, Katz and Read. As applications, we first study a large deviation type inequality for weighted sums in a noncommutative probability space, and secondly we study exponential convergence rates for weighted free additive convolution sums of probability measures.
Linear perturbations of a Schwarzschild blackhole by thin disc - convergence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Čížek, P.; Semerák, O.
2012-07-01
In order to find the perturbation of a Schwarzschild space-time due to a rotating thin disc, we try to adjust the method used by [4] in the case of perturbation by a one-dimensional ring. This involves solution of stationary axisymmetric Einstein's equations in terms of spherical-harmonic expansions whose convergence however turned out questionable in numerical examples. Here we show, analytically, that the series are almost everywhere convergent, but in some regions the convergence is not absolute.
SALT and Spelling Achievement.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nelson, Joan
A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.
1993-01-01
This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…
Schools Achieving Gender Equity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Revis, Emma
This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…
Achieving Peace through Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clarken, Rodney H.
While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…
Explorations in achievement motivation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Helmreich, Robert L.
1982-01-01
Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.
Increasing Male Academic Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jackson, Barbara Talbert
2008-01-01
The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…
Appraising Reading Achievement.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ediger, Marlow
To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…
Cognitive Processes and Achievement.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.
For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…
Graders' Mathematics Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.
2013-01-01
The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hartley, Tricia
2009-01-01
National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…
Improving Educational Achievement.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
New York University Education Quarterly, 1979
1979-01-01
This is a slightly abridged version of the report of the National Academy of Education panel, convened at the request of HEW Secretary Joseph Califano and Assistant Secretary for Education Mary F. Berry, to study recent declines in student achievement and methods of educational improvement. (SJL)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rogers, Ibram
2009-01-01
When Gabrielle Carpenter became a guidance counselor in Northern Virginia nine years ago, she focused on the academic achievement gap and furiously tried to close it. At first, she was compelled by tremendous professional interest. However, after seeing her son lose his zeal for school, Carpenter joined forces with other parents to form an…
Achievement in Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Friebele, David
2010-01-01
This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.…
Essays on Educational Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi
2013-01-01
This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walberg, Herbert J.
2010-01-01
For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bracey, Gerald W.
2008-01-01
In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…
Mutual colliding impact fast ignition
Winterberg, Friedwardt
2014-09-15
It is proposed to apply the well established colliding beam technology of high energy physics to the fast hot spot ignition of a highly compressed DT (deuterium-tritium) target igniting a larger D (deuterium) burn, by accelerating a small amount of solid deuterium, and likewise a small amount of tritium, making a head-on collision in the center of the target, projecting them through conical ducts situated at the opposite side of the target and converging in its center. In their head-on collision, the relative collision velocity is 5/3 times larger compared to the collision velocity of a stationary target. The two pieces have for this reason to be accelerated to a smaller velocity than would otherwise be needed to reach upon impact the same temperature. Since the velocity distribution of the two head-on colliding projectiles is with its two velocity peaks non-Maxwellian, the maximum cross section velocity product turns out to be substantially larger than the maximum if averaged over a Maxwellian. The D and T projectiles would have to be accelerated with two sabots driven by powerful particle or laser beams, permitting a rather large acceleration length. With the substantially larger cross section-velocity product by virtue of the non-Maxwellian velocity distribution, a further advantage is that the head-on collision produces a large magnetic field by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect, enhancing propagating burn. With this concept, the ignition of the neutron-less hydrogen-boron (HB{sup 11}) reaction might even be possible in a heterogeneous assembly of the hydrogen and the boron to reduce the bremsstrahlung-losses, resembling the heterogeneous assembly in a graphite-natural uranium reactor, there to reduce the neutron losses.
Coefficients of convergent multiple Walsh-Paley series
Plotnikov, Mikhail G
2012-09-30
The paper is concerned with the behaviour of the coefficients of multiple Walsh-Paley series that are cube convergent to a finite sum. It is shown that even an everywhere convergent series of this kind may contain coefficients with numbers from a sufficiently large set that grow faster than any preassigned sequence. By Cohen's theorem, this sort of thing cannot happen for multiple trigonometric series that are cube convergent on a set of full measure - their coefficients cannot grow even exponentially. Null subsequences of coefficients are determined for multiple Walsh-Paley series that are cube convergent on a set of definite measure. Bibliography: 18 titles.
Fractal aspects and convergence of Newton`s method
Drexler, M.
1996-12-31
Newton`s Method is a widely established iterative algorithm for solving non-linear systems. Its appeal lies in its great simplicity, easy generalization to multiple dimensions and a quadratic local convergence rate. Despite these features, little is known about its global behavior. In this paper, we will explain a seemingly random global convergence pattern using fractal concepts and show that the behavior of the residual is entirely explicable. We will also establish quantitative results for the convergence rates. Knowing the mechanism of fractal generation, we present a stabilization to the orthodox Newton method that remedies the fractal behavior and improves convergence.
Khawam, Edward; Abiad, Bachir; Boughannam, Alaa; Saade, Joanna; Alameddine, Ramzi
2015-01-01
Great discrepancies are often encountered between the distance fixation and the near-fixation esodeviations and exodeviations. They are all attributed to either anomalies of the AC/A ratio or anomalies of the fusional convergence or divergence amplitudes. We report a case with pseudoconvergence insufficiency and another one with pseudoaccommodative convergence excess. In both cases, conv./div. excess and insufficiency were erroneously attributed to anomalies of the AC/A ratio or to anomalies of the fusional amplitudes. Our purpose is to show that numerous factors, other than anomalies in the AC/A ratio or anomalies in the fusional conv. or divergence amplitudes, can contaminate either the distance or the near deviations. This results in significant discrepancies between the distance and the near deviations despite a normal AC/A ratio and normal fusional amplitudes, leading to erroneous diagnoses and inappropriate treatment models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ito, Kazufumi
1987-01-01
The linear quadratic optimal control problem on infinite time interval for linear time-invariant systems defined on Hilbert spaces is considered. The optimal control is given by a feedback form in terms of solution pi to the associated algebraic Riccati equation (ARE). A Ritz type approximation is used to obtain a sequence pi sup N of finite dimensional approximations of the solution to ARE. A sufficient condition that shows pi sup N converges strongly to pi is obtained. Under this condition, a formula is derived which can be used to obtain a rate of convergence of pi sup N to pi. The results of the Galerkin approximation is demonstrated and applied for parabolic systems and the averaging approximation for hereditary differential systems.
Singularly perturbed control systems with noncompact fast variable
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Thuong; Siconolfi, Antonio
2016-10-01
We deal with a singularly perturbed optimal control problem with slow and fast variable depending on a parameter ε. We study the asymptotics, as ε goes to 0, of the corresponding value functions, and show convergence, in the sense of weak semilimits, to sub and supersolution of a suitable limit equation containing the effective Hamiltonian. The novelty of our contribution is that no compactness condition is assumed on the fast variable. This generalization requires, in order to perform the asymptotic procedure, an accurate qualitative analysis of some auxiliary equations posed on the space of fast variable. The task is accomplished using some tools of Weak KAM theory, and in particular the notion of Aubry set.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jameson, A.
1975-01-01
The use of a fast elliptic solver in combination with relaxation is presented as an effective way to accelerate the convergence of transonic flow calculations, particularly when a marching scheme can be used to treat the supersonic zone in the relaxation process.
Slow and Fast Light in Coupled Microresonators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Hongrok; Smith, David D.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Dimmock, John O.; Gregory, Don A.; Frazier, Donald O.
2005-01-01
We predict the propagation of slow and fast light in two co-resonant coupled optical resonators. In coupled resonators, slow light can propagate without attenuation by a cancellation of absorption as a result of mode splitting and destructive interference, whereas transparent fast light propagation can be achieved by the assistance of gain and splitting of the intracavity resonances, which consequently change the dispersion from normal to anomalous. The effective steady-state response of coupled-resonators is derived using the temporal coupled-mode formalism, and the absorptive and dispersive responses are described. Specifically, the occurrence of slow light via coupled-resonator-induced transparency and gain-assisted fast light are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.
1985-07-01
Experiments on the fast wave in the range of high ion cyclotron harmonics in the ACT-1 device show that current drive is possible with the fast wave just as it is for the lower hybrid wave, except that it is suitable for higher plasma densities. A 140° loop antenna launched the high ion cyclotron harmonic fast wave [ω/Ω=O(10)] into a He+ plasma with ne≂4×1012 cm-3 and B=4.5 kG. Probe and magnetic loop diagnostics and FIR laser scattering confirmed the presence of the fast wave, and the Rogowski loop indicated that the circulating plasma current increased by up to 40A with 1 kW of coupled power, which is comparable to lower hybrid current drive in the same device with the same unidirectional fast electron beam used as the target for the rf. A phased antenna array would be used for FWCD in a tokamak without the E-beam.
Stayton, C Tristan
2015-08-01
Convergent evolution is an important phenomenon in the history of life. Despite this, there is no common definition of convergence used by biologists. Instead, several conceptually different definitions are employed. The primary dichotomy is between pattern-based definitions, where independently evolved similarity is sufficient for convergence, and process-based definitions, where convergence requires a certain process to produce this similarity. The unacknowledged diversity of definitions can lead to problems in evolutionary research. Process-based definitions may bias researchers away from studying or recognizing other sources of independently evolved similarity, or lead researchers to interpret convergent patterns as necessarily caused by a given process. Thus, pattern-based definitions are recommended. Existing measures of convergence are reviewed, and two new measures are developed. Both are pattern based and conceptually minimal, quantifying nothing but independently evolved similarity. One quantifies the amount of phenotypic distance between two lineages that is closed by subsequent evolution; the other simply counts the number of lineages entering a region of phenotypic space. The behavior of these measures is explored in simulations; both show acceptable Type I and Type II error. The study of convergent evolution will be facilitated if researchers are explicit about working definitions of convergence and adopt a standard toolbox of convergence measures.
Beyond assemblies: system convergence and multi-materiality.
Wiscombe, Tom
2012-03-01
The architectural construction industry has become increasingly more specialized over the past 50 years, creating a culture of layer thinking over part-to-whole thinking. Building systems and technologies are often cobbled together in conflicting and uncorrelated ways, even when referred to as 'integrated', such as by way of building information modeling. True integration of building systems requires rethinking how systems and architectural morphologies can push and pull on one another, creating not only innovation in technology but in aesthetics. The revolution in composite materials, with unprecedented plasticity and performance features, opens up a huge range of possibilities for achieving this kind of convergence. Composites by nature fuse envelope and structure, but through various types of inflections, they can also be made to conduct air and fluids through cavities and de-laminations, as well as integrate lighting and energy systems. Assembly as we know it moves away from mineral materials and hardware and toward polymers and 'healing'. Further, when projected into the near-future realm of multi-materiality and 3D manufacturing, possibilities for embedding systems and creating gradients of rigidity and opacity open up, pointing to an entirely new realm of architectural thinking.
Convergence of stochastic learning in perceptrons with binary synapses.
Senn, Walter; Fusi, Stefano
2005-06-01
The efficacy of a biological synapse is naturally bounded, and at some resolution, and is discrete at the latest level of single vesicles. The finite number of synaptic states dramatically reduce the storage capacity of a network when online learning is considered (i.e., the synapses are immediately modified by each pattern): the trace of old memories decays exponentially with the number of new memories (palimpsest property). Moreover, finding the discrete synaptic strengths which enable the classification of linearly separable patterns is a combinatorially hard problem known to be NP complete. In this paper we show that learning with discrete (binary) synapses is nevertheless possible with high probability if a randomly selected fraction of synapses is modified following each stimulus presentation (slow stochastic learning). As an additional constraint, the synapses are only changed if the output neuron does not give the desired response, as in the case of classical perceptron learning. We prove that for linearly separable classes of patterns the stochastic learning algorithm converges with arbitrary high probability in a finite number of presentations, provided that the number of neurons encoding the patterns is large enough. The stochastic learning algorithm is successfully applied to a standard classification problem of nonlinearly separable patterns by using multiple, stochastically independent output units, with an achieved performance which is comparable to the maximal ones reached for the task.
Finite time convergent learning law for continuous neural networks.
Chairez, Isaac
2014-02-01
This paper addresses the design of a discontinuous finite time convergent learning law for neural networks with continuous dynamics. The neural network was used here to obtain a non-parametric model for uncertain systems described by a set of ordinary differential equations. The source of uncertainties was the presence of some external perturbations and poor knowledge of the nonlinear function describing the system dynamics. A new adaptive algorithm based on discontinuous algorithms was used to adjust the weights of the neural network. The adaptive algorithm was derived by means of a non-standard Lyapunov function that is lower semi-continuous and differentiable in almost the whole space. A compensator term was included in the identifier to reject some specific perturbations using a nonlinear robust algorithm. Two numerical examples demonstrated the improvements achieved by the learning algorithm introduced in this paper compared to classical schemes with continuous learning methods. The first one dealt with a benchmark problem used in the paper to explain how the discontinuous learning law works. The second one used the methane production model to show the benefits in engineering applications of the learning law proposed in this paper.
HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING VIA MODAL CONVERGENCE OF DEFORMABLE MIRROR
Wang Feiling
2012-06-01
For extremely high contrast imaging, such as direct observation of faint stellar companions, an adaptive optics system is required to produce low-halo and low-speckle regions in the focal plane. A method for deformable mirror control is proposed to achieve this goal. The method relies on a modal convergence of the deformable mirror driven by a focal-plane metric. The modal sets are derived from the Walsh functions. The Walsh-function modes serve two purposes: the expansion of the actuator displacements and the expansion of the phase functions. Taking advantage of the unique properties of the modal functions, a universal control algorithm is devised for the realization of high-contrast focal planes with and without the help of conventional coronagraphy. Numerical modeling is conducted to simulate complete imaging systems under various scenarios. It is shown that the proposed method reliably produces high-contrast focal planes using either a segmented or a membrane mirror. In the presence of random aberration the method is shown to be able to maintain high-contrast focal planes. Requiring neither retrieval of electric fields nor detailed knowledge of the deformable mirrors, this technique may allow high-contrast imaging in real time.
Convergent properties of vestibular-related brain stem neurons in the gerbil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, G. D.; Shinder, M. E.; Perachio, A. A.
2000-01-01
Three classes of vestibular-related neurons were found in and near the prepositus and medial vestibular nuclei of alert or decerebrate gerbils, those responding to: horizontal translational motion, horizontal head rotation, or both. Their distribution ratios were 1:2:2, respectively. Many cells responsive to translational motion exhibited spatiotemporal characteristics with both response gain and phase varying as a function of the stimulus vector angle. Rotationally sensitive neurons were distributed as Type I, II, or III responses (sensitive to ipsilateral, contralateral, or both directions, respectively) in the ratios of 4:6:1. Four tested factors shaped the response dynamics of the sampled neurons: canal-otolith convergence, oculomotor-related activity, rotational Type (I or II), and the phase of the maximum response. Type I nonconvergent cells displayed increasing gains with increasing rotational stimulus frequency (0.1-2.0 Hz, 60 degrees /s), whereas Type II neurons with convergent inputs had response gains that markedly decreased with increasing translational stimulus frequency (0.25-2.0 Hz, +/-0.1 g). Type I convergent and Type II nonconvergent neurons exhibited essentially flat gains across the stimulus frequency range. Oculomotor-related activity was noted in 30% of the cells across all functional types, appearing as burst/pause discharge patterns related to the fast phase of nystagmus during head rotation. Oculomotor-related activity was correlated with enhanced dynamic range compared with the same category that had no oculomotor-related response. Finally, responses that were in-phase with head velocity during rotation exhibited greater gains with stimulus frequency increments than neurons with out-of-phase responses. In contrast, for translational motion, neurons out of phase with head acceleration exhibited low-pass characteristics, whereas in-phase neurons did not. Data from decerebrate preparations revealed that although similar response types could
On two parabolic systems: Convergence and blowup
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yamin
1998-12-01
This dissertation studies two parabolic systems. It consists of two parts. In part one (chapter one), we prove a convergence result, namely, the solution (AK,/ BK) of a system of chemical diffusion-reaction equations (with reaction rate K) converges to the solution (A, B) of a diffusion- instantaneous-reaction equation. To prove our main result, we use some L1 and L2 'energy' estimates and a compactness result due to Aubin (1). As a by-product we also prove that as K approaches infinity, the limit solution exhibits phase separation between A and B. In part two (chapter two), we study the blowup rate for a system of heat equations ut=/Delta u,/ vt=/Delta v in a bounded domain Ωtimes(0,T) coupled in the nonlinear Neumann boundary conditions [/partial u/over/partial n]=vp,/ [/partial v/over/partial n]=uq on ∂Omega×[ 0,T), where p>0,/ q>0,/ pq>1 and n is the exterior normal vector on ∂Omega. Under certain assumptions, we establish exact blowup rate which generalizes the corresponding results of some authors' recent work including Deng (2), Deng-Fila-Levine (3) and Hu-Yin (4). ftn (1) J. P. A scUBIN, Un theoreme de compacite, C. R. Acad. Sci., 256(1963), pp. 5042-5044. (2) K. D scENG, Blow-up rates for parabolic systems, Z. Angew. Math. Phys., 47(1996), No. 1, pp. 132-143. (3) K. D scENG, M. F scILA AND H. A. L scEVINE, On critical exponents for a system of heat equations coupled in the boundary conditions, Acta Math. Univ. Comenian. (N.S.), 36(1994), No. 2, pp. 169-192. (4) B. H scU scAND H. M. Y scIN, The profile near blowup time for solutions of the heat equation with a nonlinear boundary condition, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 346(1994), pp. 117-135.
Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics
Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, R.
2014-09-15
We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=√(μ{sub 0}/p{sub 0}) I/(2 π) where I is the current, μ{sub 0} is the permeability, and p{sub 0} is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The
Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, R.
2014-09-01
We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=sqrt{μ _0/p_0} I/(2 π ) where I is the current, μ0 is the permeability, and p0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field
Faculty achievement tracking tool.
Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy
2009-03-01
Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.
1997-06-13
Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.
Convergent acoustic field of view in echolocating bats.
Jakobsen, Lasse; Ratcliffe, John M; Surlykke, Annemarie
2013-01-03
Most echolocating bats exhibit a strong correlation between body size and the frequency of maximum energy in their echolocation calls (peak frequency), with smaller species using signals of higher frequency than larger ones. Size-signal allometry or acoustic detection constraints imposed on wavelength by preferred prey size have been used to explain this relationship. Here we propose the hypothesis that smaller bats emit higher frequencies to achieve directional sonar beams, and that variable beam width is critical for bats. Shorter wavelengths relative to the size of the emitter translate into more directional sound beams. Therefore, bats that emit their calls through their mouths should show a relationship between mouth size and wavelength, driving smaller bats to signals of higher frequency. We found that in a flight room mimicking a closed habitat, six aerial hawking vespertilionid species (ranging in size from 4 to 21 g, ref. 5) produced sonar beams of extraordinarily similar shape and volume. Each species had a directivity index of 11 ± 1 dB (a half-amplitude angle of approximately 37°) and an on-axis sound level of 108 ± 4 dB sound pressure level referenced to 20 μPa root mean square at 10 cm. Thus all bats adapted their calls to achieve similar acoustic fields of view. We propose that the necessity for high directionality has been a key constraint on the evolution of echolocation, which explains the relationship between bat size and echolocation call frequency. Our results suggest that echolocation is a dynamic system that allows different species, regardless of their body size, to converge on optimal fields of view in response to habitat and task.
Vergence adaptation in subjects with convergence excess.
Nilsson, Maria; Brautaset, Rune L
2011-03-01
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the vergence adaptive ability in subjects diagnosed with convergence excess (CE) phoria (ie, subjects with an esophoric shift from distance to near but without an intermittent tropia at near). Vergence adaptation was measured at far and near with both base-in and base-out prisms using a "flashed" Maddox rod technique in 20 control subjects and 16 subjects with CE. In addition, accommodative adaptation and the stimulus AC/A and CA/C cross-links were measured. The AC/A and CA/C ratios were found to be high and low, respectively, and accommodative adaptation was found to be reduced in CE subjects as compared with the controls (P<0.005), all as predicted by the present theory. However, vergence adaptive ability was found to be reduced in the CE subjects at both distance and near and in response to both base-in and base-out prisms (P=0.002). This finding is not in accordance with and is difficult to reconcile with the present theory of CE.
Conformal mapping and convergence of Krylov iterations
Driscoll, T.A.; Trefethen, L.N.
1994-12-31
Connections between conformal mapping and matrix iterations have been known for many years. The idea underlying these connections is as follows. Suppose the spectrum of a matrix or operator A is contained in a Jordan region E in the complex plane with 0 not an element of E. Let {phi}(z) denote a conformal map of the exterior of E onto the exterior of the unit disk, with {phi}{infinity} = {infinity}. Then 1/{vert_bar}{phi}(0){vert_bar} is an upper bound for the optimal asymptotic convergence factor of any Krylov subspace iteration. This idea can be made precise in various ways, depending on the matrix iterations, on whether A is finite or infinite dimensional, and on what bounds are assumed on the non-normality of A. This paper explores these connections for a variety of matrix examples, making use of a new MATLAB Schwarz-Christoffel Mapping Toolbox developed by the first author. Unlike the earlier Fortran Schwarz-Christoffel package SCPACK, the new toolbox computes exterior as well as interior Schwarz-Christoffel maps, making it easy to experiment with spectra that are not necessarily symmetric about an axis.
Improved convergence of electromechanical transducer element
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sattler, Robert; Wachutka, Gerhard
2002-04-01
Electrostatic attraction is a favored principle of actuation in MEMS (e.g. mirrors, relays, membrane devices). In this work we use an electrostatically actuated membrane as demonstrator. Physically based device models require the coupling of the electrostatic and the two domains. One way to reduce this expense consists in reduced order modeling by introducing a local approximation of the electric field using the Differential-Plate-Capacitor-Approximation (DPCA). This semi-analytical approximation can be directly (matrix coupled transducer element) or sequentially (load vector coupling) coupled with the mechanical solver. Both approaches yield results which agree well with those of coupled 3D-field solvers. It turns out that the transducer element converges much faster than the sequentially coupled relaxation scheme, as ong as the voltage is not close to the pull-in voltage. If this is the case then the transducer element has problems to find the equilibrium state at all. To avoid this difficulty we propose the use of a homotopy method to give the transducer element the same accuracy and robustness in the stable and the unstable regions of the operating area. The electrostatic charge and the electrostatic force turn out to be proper homotopy parameters for the given example.
Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution
Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W
2007-01-01
Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of ‘good design’ through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, laser scanning of habitat features and acoustic flight path tracking permit reconstruction of the flight paths of echolocating bats relative to obstacles and prey in nature. These methods show that echolocation calls are among the most intense airborne vocalizations produced by animals. Acoustic tracking has clarified how and why bats vary call structure in relation to flight speed. Bats using broadband echolocation calls adjust call design in a range-dependent manner so that nearby obstacles are localized accurately. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences show that particular types of echolocation signals have evolved independently in several lineages of bats. Call design is often influenced more by perceptual challenges imposed by the environment than by phylogeny, and provides excellent examples of convergent evolution. Now that whole genome sequences of bats are imminent, understanding the functional genomics of echolocation will become a major challenge. PMID:17251105
Two-stream instability in convergent geometry
Gratton, F.T.; Gnavi, G.
1987-02-01
The problem of the instability of counterstreaming beams of charged particles is extended to cylindrical and spherical geometries. For well-focused configurations it can be solved by complex contour integral representations. The effects of the convergence of the flow and the density gradient along the trajectories of the particles are considered. The linear spectrum for the cylindrical case is obtained, together with the proof that the solution has finite energy and satisfies two physical matching conditions through the origin. The properties of the special functions which solve this problem are presented. Although the density of the ideally focused model diverges as 1/r at the origin, the growth rate of the instability, for a system of radius R, is given by ..omega../sup 2//sub p/R/V/sub 0/2xi/sub n/, where V/sub 0/ is the beam velocity, xi/sub n/ are the zeros of the Bessel function of zeroth order, and the plasma frequency ..omega../sub p/ is evaluated at one-half the average density of particles.
Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution.
Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W
2007-04-07
Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of 'good design' through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, laser scanning of habitat features and acoustic flight path tracking permit reconstruction of the flight paths of echolocating bats relative to obstacles and prey in nature. These methods show that echolocation calls are among the most intense airborne vocalizations produced by animals. Acoustic tracking has clarified how and why bats vary call structure in relation to flight speed. Bats using broadband echolocation calls adjust call design in a range-dependent manner so that nearby obstacles are localized accurately. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences show that particular types of echolocation signals have evolved independently in several lineages of bats. Call design is often influenced more by perceptual challenges imposed by the environment than by phylogeny, and provides excellent examples of convergent evolution. Now that whole genome sequences of bats are imminent, understanding the functional genomics of echolocation will become a major challenge.
Evolutionary convergence in experimental Pseudomonas populations.
Lind, Peter A; Farr, Andrew D; Rainey, Paul B
2017-03-01
Model microbial systems provide opportunity to understand the genetic bases of ecological traits, their evolution, regulation and fitness contributions. Experimental populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens rapidly diverge in spatially structured microcosms producing a range of surface-colonising forms. Despite divergent molecular routes, wrinkly spreader (WS) niche specialist types overproduce a cellulosic polymer allowing mat formation at the air-liquid interface and access to oxygen. Given the range of ways by which cells can form mats, such phenotypic parallelism is unexpected. We deleted the cellulose-encoding genes from the ancestral genotype and asked whether this mutant could converge on an alternate phenotypic solution. Two new traits were discovered. The first involved an exopolysaccharide encoded by pgaABCD that functions as cell-cell glue similar to cellulose. The second involved an activator of an amidase (nlpD) that when defective causes cell chaining. Both types form mats, but were less fit in competition with cellulose-based WS types. Surprisingly, diguanylate cyclases linked to cellulose overexpression underpinned evolution of poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PGA)-based mats. This prompted genetic analyses of the relationships between the diguanylate cyclases WspR, AwsR and MwsR, and both cellulose and PGA. Our results suggest that c-di-GMP regulatory networks may have been shaped by evolution to accommodate loss and gain of exopolysaccharide modules facilitating adaptation to new environments.
5G: The Convergence of Wireless Communications.
Chávez-Santiago, Raúl; Szydełko, Michał; Kliks, Adrian; Foukalas, Fotis; Haddad, Yoram; Nolan, Keith E; Kelly, Mark Y; Masonta, Moshe T; Balasingham, Ilangko
As the rollout of 4G mobile communication networks takes place, representatives of industry and academia have started to look into the technological developments toward the next generation (5G). Several research projects involving key international mobile network operators, infrastructure manufacturers, and academic institutions, have been launched recently to set the technological foundations of 5G. However, the architecture of future 5G systems, their performance, and mobile services to be provided have not been clearly defined. In this paper, we put forth the vision for 5G as the convergence of evolved versions of current cellular networks with other complementary radio access technologies. Therefore, 5G may not be a single radio access interface but rather a "network of networks". Evidently, the seamless integration of a variety of air interfaces, protocols, and frequency bands, requires paradigm shifts in the way networks cooperate and complement each other to deliver data rates of several Gigabits per second with end-to-end latency of a few milliseconds. We provide an overview of the key radio technologies that will play a key role in the realization of this vision for the next generation of mobile communication networks. We also introduce some of the research challenges that need to be addressed.
Value Creation Through Integrated Networks and Convergence
De Martini, Paul; Taft, Jeffrey D.
2015-04-01
Customer adoption of distributed energy resources and public policies are driving changes in the uses of the distribution system. A system originally designed and built for one-way energy flows from central generating facilities to end-use customers is now experiencing injections of energy from customers anywhere on the grid and frequent reversals in the direction of energy flow. In response, regulators and utilities are re-thinking the design and operations of the grid to create more open and transactive electric networks. This evolution has the opportunity to unlock significant value for customers and utilities. Alternatively, failure to seize this potential may instead lead to an erosion of value if customers seek to defect and disconnect from the system. This paper will discuss how current grid modernization investments may be leveraged to create open networks that increase value through the interaction of intelligent devices on the grid and prosumerization of customers. Moreover, even greater value can be realized through the synergistic effects of convergence of multiple networks. This paper will highlight examples of the emerging nexus of non-electric networks with electricity.
Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N; Park, Wooram; Taintor, Robert; Chirikjian, Gregory S
2008-12-17
We present algorithms for fast and stable approximation of the Hermite transform of a compactly supported function on the real line, attainable via an application of a fast algebraic algorithm for computing sums associated with a three-term relation. Trade-offs between approximation in bandlimit (in the Hermite sense) and size of the support region are addressed. Numerical experiments are presented that show the feasibility and utility of our approach. Generalizations to any family of orthogonal polynomials are outlined. Applications to various problems in tomographic reconstruction, including the determination of protein structure, are discussed.
Upper bounds for convergence rates of acceleration methods with initial iterations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sidi, Avram; Shapira, Yair
1998-06-01
GMRES(n,k), a version of GMRES for the solution of large sparse linear systems, is introduced. A cycle of GMRES(n,k) consists of n Richardson iterations followed by k iterations of GMRES. Such cycles can be repeated until convergence is achieved. The advantage in this approach is in the opportunity to use moderate k, which results in time and memory saving. Because the number of inner products among the vectors of iteration is about k2/2, using a moderate k is particularly attractive on message-passing parallel architectures, where inner products require expensive global communication. The present analysis provides tight upper bounds for the convergence rates of GMRES(n,k) for problems with diagonalizable coefficient matrices whose spectra lie in an ellipse in 0. The advantage of GMRES(n,k) over GMRES(k) is illustrated numerically.
Chow, C W; Lin, Y H
2012-04-09
To provide broadband services in a single and low cost perform, the convergent optical wired and wireless access network is promising. Here, we propose and demonstrate a convergent optical wired and wireless long-reach access networks based on orthogonal wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). Both the baseband signal and the radio-over-fiber (ROF) signal are multiplexed and de-multiplexed in optical domain, hence it is simple and the operation speed is not limited by the electronic bottleneck caused by the digital signal processing (DSP). Error-free de-multiplexing and down-conversion can be achieved for all the signals after 60 km (long-reach) fiber transmission. The scalability of the system for higher bit-rate (60 GHz) is also simulated and discussed.
Willert, Jeffrey; Taitano, William T.; Knoll, Dana
2014-09-15
In this note we demonstrate that using Anderson Acceleration (AA) in place of a standard Picard iteration can not only increase the convergence rate but also make the iteration more robust for two transport applications. We also compare the convergence acceleration provided by AA to that provided by moment-based acceleration methods. Additionally, we demonstrate that those two acceleration methods can be used together in a nested fashion. We begin by describing the AA algorithm. At this point, we will describe two application problems, one from neutronics and one from plasma physics, on which we will apply AA. We provide computational results which highlight the benefits of using AA, namely that we can compute solutions using fewer function evaluations, larger time-steps, and achieve a more robust iteration.
Convergent evolution as natural experiment: the tape of life reconsidered
Powell, Russell; Mariscal, Carlos
2015-01-01
Stephen Jay Gould argued that replaying the ‘tape of life’ would result in radically different evolutionary outcomes. Recently, biologists and philosophers of science have paid increasing attention to the theoretical importance of convergent evolution—the independent origination of similar biological forms and functions—which many interpret as evidence against Gould's thesis. In this paper, we examine the evidentiary relevance of convergent evolution for the radical contingency debate. We show that under the right conditions, episodes of convergent evolution can constitute valid natural experiments that support inferences regarding the deep counterfactual stability of macroevolutionary outcomes. However, we argue that proponents of convergence have problematically lumped causally heterogeneous phenomena into a single evidentiary basket, in effect treating all convergent events as if they are of equivalent theoretical import. As a result, the ‘critique from convergent evolution’ fails to engage with key claims of the radical contingency thesis. To remedy this, we develop ways to break down the heterogeneous set of convergent events based on the nature of the generalizations they support. Adopting this more nuanced approach to convergent evolution allows us to differentiate iterated evolutionary outcomes that are probably common among alternative evolutionary histories and subject to law-like generalizations, from those that do little to undermine and may even support, the Gouldian view of life. PMID:26640647
Influence of Role-Switching on Phonetic Convergence in Conversation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pardo, Jennifer S.; Jay, Isabel Cajori; Hoshino, Risa; Hasbun, Sara Maria; Sowemimo-Coker, Chantal; Krauss, Robert M.
2013-01-01
The current study examined phonetic convergence when talkers alternated roles during conversational interaction. The talkers completed a map navigation task in which they alternated instruction Giver and Receiver roles across multiple map pairs. Previous studies found robust effects of the role of a talker on phonetic convergence, and it was…
Converging Instructional Technology and Critical Intercultural Pedagogy in Teacher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pittman, Joyce
2007-01-01
Purpose: This paper aims to postulate an emerging unified cultural-convergence framework to converge the delivery of instructional technology and intercultural education (ICE) that extends beyond web-learning technologies to inculcate inclusive pedagogy in teacher education. Design/methodology/approach: The paper explores the literature and a…
Relaxed controls and the convergence of optimal control algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williamson, L. J.; Polak, E.
1976-01-01
This paper presents a framework for the study of the convergence properties of optimal control algorithms and illustrates its use by means of two examples. The framework consists of an algorithm prototype with a convergence theorem, together with some results in relaxed controls theory.
On the Structure of the Present-Day Convergence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Korotayev, Andrey; Zinkina, Julia
2014-01-01
Purpose: A substantial number of researchers have investigated the global economic dynamics of this time to disprove unconditional convergence and refute its very idea, stating the phenomenon of conditional convergence instead. However, most respective papers limit their investigation period with the early or mid-2000s. In the authors' opinion,…
Development of the Scale for "Convergence Thinking" in Engineering
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Park, Sungmi
2016-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to define the concept of "convergence thinking" as a trading zone for knowledge fusion in the engineering field, and develops its measuring scale. Design/ Methodology/Approach: Based on results from literature review, this study clarifies a theoretical ground for "convergence thinking."…
Convergent evolution as natural experiment: the tape of life reconsidered.
Powell, Russell; Mariscal, Carlos
2015-12-06
Stephen Jay Gould argued that replaying the 'tape of life' would result in radically different evolutionary outcomes. Recently, biologists and philosophers of science have paid increasing attention to the theoretical importance of convergent evolution-the independent origination of similar biological forms and functions-which many interpret as evidence against Gould's thesis. In this paper, we examine the evidentiary relevance of convergent evolution for the radical contingency debate. We show that under the right conditions, episodes of convergent evolution can constitute valid natural experiments that support inferences regarding the deep counterfactual stability of macroevolutionary outcomes. However, we argue that proponents of convergence have problematically lumped causally heterogeneous phenomena into a single evidentiary basket, in effect treating all convergent events as if they are of equivalent theoretical import. As a result, the 'critique from convergent evolution' fails to engage with key claims of the radical contingency thesis. To remedy this, we develop ways to break down the heterogeneous set of convergent events based on the nature of the generalizations they support. Adopting this more nuanced approach to convergent evolution allows us to differentiate iterated evolutionary outcomes that are probably common among alternative evolutionary histories and subject to law-like generalizations, from those that do little to undermine and may even support, the Gouldian view of life.
Print, Broadcast and Online Convergence in the Newsroom.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hammond, Scott C.; Petersen, Daniel; Thomsen, Steven
2000-01-01
Describes how, over five years, students and faculty at Brigham Young University created a converged newsroom that brought together student broadcast, print, and online journalism into one organization. Discusses the industry- and technology-driven rationale for converging newsrooms in educational institutions; describes generic changes and the…
Convergence rate of spherical harmonic expansions of smooth functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Feng; Wang, Kunyang
2008-12-01
We extend a well-known result of Bonami and Clerc on the almost everywhere (a.e.) convergence of Cesàro means of spherical harmonic expansions. For smooth functions measured in terms of [phi]-derivatives on the unit sphere, we obtained the sharp a.e. convergence rate of Cesàro means of their spherical harmonic expansions.
Fast multilevel radiative transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paletou, Frédéric; Léger, Ludovick
2007-01-01
The vast majority of recent advances in the field of numerical radiative transfer relies on approximate operator methods better known in astrophysics as Accelerated Lambda-Iteration (ALI). A superior class of iterative schemes, in term of rates of convergence, such as Gauss-Seidel and Successive Overrelaxation methods were therefore quite naturally introduced in the field of radiative transfer by Trujillo Bueno & Fabiani Bendicho (1995); it was thoroughly described for the non-LTE two-level atom case. We describe hereafter in details how such methods can be generalized when dealing with non-LTE unpolarised radiation transfer with multilevel atomic models, in monodimensional geometry.
On the Convergence of Iterative Receiver Algorithms Utilizing Hard Decisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rößler, Jürgen F.; Gerstacker, Wolfgang H.
2010-12-01
The convergence of receivers performing iterative hard decision interference cancellation (IHDIC) is analyzed in a general framework for ASK, PSK, and QAM constellations. We first give an overview of IHDIC algorithms known from the literature applied to linear modulation and DS-CDMA-based transmission systems and show the relation to Hopfield neural network theory. It is proven analytically that IHDIC with serial update scheme always converges to a stable state in the estimated values in course of iterations and that IHDIC with parallel update scheme converges to cycles of length 2. Additionally, we visualize the convergence behavior with the aid of convergence charts. Doing so, we give insight into possible errors occurring in IHDIC which turn out to be caused by locked error situations. The derived results can directly be applied to those iterative soft decision interference cancellation (ISDIC) receivers whose soft decision functions approach hard decision functions in course of the iterations.
Antiproton fast ignition for Inertial Confinement Fusion
Perkins, L.J.
1997-10-24
With 180MJ/{micro}g, antiprotons offer the highest stored energy per unit mass of any known entity. We investigate the use of antiprotons to promote fast ignition in an ICF capsule and seek high gains with only modest compression of the main fuel. Unlike standard fast ignition where the ignition energy is supplied by an energetic, short pulse laser, the energy here is supplied through the ionization energy deposited when antiprotons annihilate at the center of a compressed fuel capsule. In the first of two candidate fast ignition schemes, the antiproton package is delivered by a low energy external ion beam. In the second, ''autocatalytic'' scheme, the antiprotons are pre-emplaced at the center of the capsule prior to compression. In both schemes, we estimate that {approximately}3x10{sup 13} antiprotons are required to initiate fast ignition in a typical ICF capsule and show that incorporation of a thin, heavy metal shell is desirable to enhance energy deposition in the igniter zone. In addition to obviating the need for a second energetic fast laser and vulnerable final optics, this scheme would achieve central without reliance on laser channeling through halo plasma or houlrahm debris. However, in addition to the unknowns involved in the storage and manipulation of antiprotons at low energy, the other large uncertainty for the practicality of such a scheme is the ultimate efficiency of antiproton production in, an external, optimized facility.
Azmy, Y.Y.
1999-06-10
The author proposes preconditioning as a viable acceleration scheme for the inner iterations of transport calculations in slab geometry. In particular he develops Adjacent-Cell Preconditioners (AP) that have the same coupling stencil as cell-centered diffusion schemes. For lowest order methods, e.g., Diamond Difference, Step, and 0-order Nodal Integral Method (ONIM), cast in a Weighted Diamond Difference (WDD) form, he derives AP for thick (KAP) and thin (NAP) cells that for model problems are unconditionally stable and efficient. For the First-Order Nodal Integral Method (INIM) he derives a NAP that possesses similarly excellent spectral properties for model problems. The two most attractive features of the new technique are:(1) its cell-centered coupling stencil, which makes it more adequate for extension to multidimensional, higher order situations than the standard edge-centered or point-centered Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) methods; and (2) its decreasing spectral radius with increasing cell thickness to the extent that immediate pointwise convergence, i.e., in one iteration, can be achieved for problems with sufficiently thick cells. He implemented these methods, augmented with appropriate boundary conditions and mixing formulas for material heterogeneities, in the test code APID that he uses to successfully verify the analytical spectral properties for homogeneous problems. Furthermore, he conducts numerical tests to demonstrate the robustness of the KAP and NAP in the presence of sharp mesh or material discontinuities. He shows that the AP for WDD is highly resilient to such discontinuities, but for INIM a few cases occur in which the scheme does not converge; however, when it converges, AP greatly reduces the number of iterations required to achieve convergence.
Fast Quantum Rabi Model with Trapped Ions
Moya-Cessa, Héctor M.
2016-01-01
We show how to produce a fast quantum Rabi model with trapped ions. Its importance resides not only in the acceleration of the phenomena that may be achieved with these systems, from quantum gates to the generation of nonclassical states of the vibrational motion of the ion, but also in reducing unwanted effects such as the decay of coherences that may appear in such systems. PMID:27941846
Fast Quantum Rabi Model with Trapped Ions.
Moya-Cessa, Héctor M
2016-12-12
We show how to produce a fast quantum Rabi model with trapped ions. Its importance resides not only in the acceleration of the phenomena that may be achieved with these systems, from quantum gates to the generation of nonclassical states of the vibrational motion of the ion, but also in reducing unwanted effects such as the decay of coherences that may appear in such systems.
Segment-Specific Adhesion as a Driver of Convergent Extension
Vroomans, Renske M. A.; Hogeweg, Paulien; ten Tusscher, Kirsten H. W. J.
2015-01-01
Convergent extension, the simultaneous extension and narrowing of tissues, is a crucial event in the formation of the main body axis during embryonic development. It involves processes on multiple scales: the sub-cellular, cellular and tissue level, which interact via explicit or intrinsic feedback mechanisms. Computational modelling studies play an important role in unravelling the multiscale feedbacks underlying convergent extension. Convergent extension usually operates in tissue which has been patterned or is currently being patterned into distinct domains of gene expression. How such tissue patterns are maintained during the large scale tissue movements of convergent extension has thus far not been investigated. Intriguingly, experimental data indicate that in certain cases these tissue patterns may drive convergent extension rather than requiring safeguarding against convergent extension. Here we use a 2D Cellular Potts Model (CPM) of a tissue prepatterned into segments, to show that convergent extension tends to disrupt this pre-existing segmental pattern. However, when cells preferentially adhere to cells of the same segment type, segment integrity is maintained without any reduction in tissue extension. Strikingly, we demonstrate that this segment-specific adhesion is by itself sufficient to drive convergent extension. Convergent extension is enhanced when we endow our in silico cells with persistence of motion, which in vivo would naturally follow from cytoskeletal dynamics. Finally, we extend our model to confirm the generality of our results. We demonstrate a similar effect of differential adhesion on convergent extension in tissues that can only extend in a single direction (as often occurs due to the inertia of the head region of the embryo), and in tissues prepatterned into a sequence of domains resulting in two opposing adhesive gradients, rather than alternating segments. PMID:25706823
Variation of binocular-vertical fusion amplitude with convergence
Bharadwaj, Shrikant R.; Hoenig, Pia M.; Sivaramakrishnan, C. V.; Karthikeyan, B.; Simonian, Donna; Mau, Katie; Rastani, Sally; Schor, Clifton M.
2007-01-01
Purpose The maximum binocular vertical disparity that can be fused with disparity vergence (vertical-fusion amplitude or VFA), varies with convergence angle. VFA is larger for convergence responses to near than to far viewing distances; however the clinical norms for changes in VFA with convergence have not been established. VFA at several convergence angles was measured to obtain a quantitative description of the changes in VFA with convergence. Methods 56-adults took part in the study. Horizontal and vertical disparity stimuli were presented on a computer monitor using the red-green anaglyphic technique. Stimulus to convergence was altered either by changing horizontal disparity on the computer monitor (experiment I: 9 horizontal disparities: 1.2 –22.5 Δ) or by changing the binocular viewing distance (experiment II: 5 viewing distances: 25 – 300 cms). Convergence was held constant during an experimental session while vertical disparity was incremented in steps of 0.05 Δ after a subjective report of fusion until the subject reported diplopia. The maximum vertical disparity that could be fused was defined as the VFA. Results VFA increased linearly over the range of convergence stimuli (y = 0.10x + 1.62) and inter-subject variability of VFA increased marginally with the amount of convergence. Linear regression equations with similar slopes and y-intercepts were observed in experiments I and II. Conclusions The results of our experiments provide a quantitative description of a linear relationship between VFA and convergence. The linear regression equation could be employed in a clinical setting to establish norms and screen for vertical vergence abnormalities. PMID:17389488
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.
This paper provides an overview of Fast ForWord, a CD-ROM and Internet-based training program for children (pre-K to grade 8) with language and reading problems that helps children rapidly build oral language comprehension and other critical skills necessary for learning to read or becoming a better reader. With the help of computers, speech…
Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I. ); Lineberry, M.J. )
1990-01-01
Argonne National Laboratory, since 1984, has been developing the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). This paper will describe the way in which this new reactor concept came about; the technical, public acceptance, and environmental issues that are addressed by the IFR; the technical progress that has been made; and our expectations for this program in the near term. 5 refs., 3 figs.
Borrowed alleles and convergence in serpentine adaptation
Arnold, Brian J.; Lahner, Brett; DaCosta, Jeffrey M.; Weisman, Caroline M.; Hollister, Jesse D.; Salt, David E.; Bomblies, Kirsten; Yant, Levi
2016-01-01
Serpentine barrens represent extreme hazards for plant colonists. These sites are characterized by high porosity leading to drought, lack of essential mineral nutrients, and phytotoxic levels of metals. Nevertheless, nature forged populations adapted to these challenges. Here, we use a population-based evolutionary genomic approach coupled with elemental profiling to assess how autotetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa adapted to a multichallenge serpentine habitat in the Austrian Alps. We first demonstrate that serpentine-adapted plants exhibit dramatically altered elemental accumulation levels in common conditions, and then resequence 24 autotetraploid individuals from three populations to perform a genome scan. We find evidence for highly localized selective sweeps that point to a polygenic, multitrait basis for serpentine adaptation. Comparing our results to a previous study of independent serpentine colonizations in the closely related diploid Arabidopsis lyrata in the United Kingdom and United States, we find the highest levels of differentiation in 11 of the same loci, providing candidate alleles for mediating convergent evolution. This overlap between independent colonizations in different species suggests that a limited number of evolutionary strategies are suited to overcome the multiple challenges of serpentine adaptation. Interestingly, we detect footprints of selection in A. arenosa in the context of substantial gene flow from nearby off-serpentine populations of A. arenosa, as well as from A. lyrata. In several cases, quantitative tests of introgression indicate that some alleles exhibiting strong selective sweep signatures appear to have been introgressed from A. lyrata. This finding suggests that migrant alleles may have facilitated adaptation of A. arenosa to this multihazard environment. PMID:27357660
Mesh Convergence Requirements for Composite Damage Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davila, Carlos G.
2016-01-01
The ability of the finite element method to accurately represent the response of objects with intricate geometry and loading renders the finite element method as an extremely versatile analysis technique for structural analysis. Finite element analysis is routinely used in industry to calculate deflections, stress concentrations, natural frequencies, buckling loads, and much more. The method works by discretizing complex problems into smaller, simpler approximations that are valid over small uniform domains. For common analyses, the maximum size of the elements that can be used is often be determined by experience. However, to verify the quality of a solution, analyses with several levels of mesh refinement should be performed to ensure that the solution has converged. In recent years, the finite element method has been used to calculate the resistance of structures, and in particular that of composite structures. A number of techniques such as cohesive zone modeling, the virtual crack closure technique, and continuum damage modeling have emerged that can be used to predict cracking, delaminations, fiber failure, and other composite damage modes that lead to structural collapse. However, damage models present mesh refinement requirements that are not well understood. In this presentation, we examine different mesh refinement issues related to the representation of damage in composite materials. Damage process zone sizes and their corresponding mesh requirements will be discussed. The difficulties of modeling discontinuities and the associated need for regularization techniques will be illustrated, and some unexpected element size constraints will be presented. Finally, some of the difficulties in constructing models of composite structures capable of predicting transverse matrix cracking will be discussed. It will be shown that to predict the initiation and propagation of transverse matrix cracks, their density, and their saturation may require models that are
Divergent and Convergent Evolution of Fungal Pathogenicity
Shang, Yanfang; Xiao, Guohua; Zheng, Peng; Cen, Kai; Zhan, Shuai; Wang, Chengshu
2016-01-01
Fungal pathogens of plants and animals have multifarious effects; they cause devastating damages to agricultures, lead to life-threatening diseases in humans, or induce beneficial effects by reducing insect pest populations. Many virulence factors have been determined in different fungal pathogens; however, the molecular determinants contributing to fungal host selection and adaptation are largely unknown. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of seven ascomycete insect pathogens and performed the genome-wide analyses of 33 species of filamentous ascomycete pathogenic fungi that infect insects (12 species), plants (12), and humans (9). Our results revealed that the genomes of plant pathogens encode more proteins and protein families than the insect and human pathogens. Unexpectedly, more common orthologous protein groups are shared between the insect and plant pathogens than between the two animal group pathogens. We also found that the pathogenicity of host-adapted fungi evolved multiple times, and that both divergent and convergent evolutions occurred during pathogen–host cospeciation thus resulting in protein families with similar features in each fungal group. However, the role of phylogenetic relatedness on the evolution of protein families and therefore pathotype formation could not be ruled out due to the effect of common ancestry. The evolutionary correlation analyses led to the identification of different protein families that correlated with alternate pathotypes. Particularly, the effector-like proteins identified in plant and animal pathogens were strongly linked to fungal host adaptation, suggesting the existence of similar gene-for-gene relationships in fungus–animal interactions that has not been established before. These results well advance our understanding of the evolution of fungal pathogenicity and the factors that contribute to fungal pathotype formation. PMID:27071652
Fast discharge in a spherical cavity
Antsiferov, P. S. Dorokhin, L. A.
2014-04-15
The work is devoted to the study of the plasma, created by a fast discharge in a spherical cavity. The discharge was driven by an inductive storage with plasma erosion opening switch (dI/dt ∼10{sup 12} A/s). The plasma was produced in a spherical cavity (alumina, 11 mm diameter). Xe, Ar, and He at the pressure 80 Pa were used as working gases. The time evolution of the spatial structure and of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra of the discharge plasma was studied by means of micro channel plate detector. The discharges with Xe and Ar resulted in the stable appearance of the spherically shaped plasma with the diameter about 1–3 mm. The plasma emission in the EUV region lasts ∼500 ns. The EUV spectrum of Ar discharge at the moment of maximum of the electron temperature T{sub e} contains the lines of Ar X (ionization potential 478.7 eV), that indicates a value of T{sub e} in the range 50–100 eV. The mechanism of plasma appearance can be the cumulation of the convergent spherical shock wave, generated by fast heat deposition and magnetic pressure in working media near the inner surface of the discharge volume.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Desideri, J. A.; Steger, J. L.; Tannehill, J. C.
1978-01-01
The iterative convergence properties of an approximate-factorization implicit finite-difference algorithm are analyzed both theoretically and numerically. Modifications to the base algorithm were made to remove the inconsistency in the original implementation of artificial dissipation. In this way, the steady-state solution became independent of the time-step, and much larger time-steps can be used stably. To accelerate the iterative convergence, large time-steps and a cyclic sequence of time-steps were used. For a model transonic flow problem governed by the Euler equations, convergence was achieved with 10 times fewer time-steps using the modified differencing scheme. A particular form of instability due to variable coefficients is also analyzed.
Lee, Jeong Seok; Kang, Dong-Goo; Jin, Seung Oh; Kim, Insoo; Lee, Soo Yeol
2016-04-11
Fast and accurate energy calibration of photon counting spectral detectors (PCSDs) is essential for their biomedical applications to identify and characterize bio-components or contrast agents in tissues. Using the x-ray tube voltage as a reference for energy calibration is known to be an efficient method, but there has been no consideration in the energy calibration of non-convergent behavior of PCSDs. We observed that a single pixel mode (SPM) CdTe PCSD based on Medipix-2 shows some non-convergent behaviors in turning off the detector elements when a high enough threshold is applied to the comparator that produces a binary photon count pulse. More specifically, the detector elements are supposed to stop producing photon count pulses once the threshold reaches a point of the highest photon energy determined by the tube voltage. However, as the x-ray exposure time increases, the threshold giving 50% of off pixels also increases without converging to a point. We established a method to take account of the non-convergent behavior in the energy calibration. With the threshold-to-photon energy mapping function established by the proposed method, we could better identify iodine component in a phantom consisting of iodine and other components.
Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.
2001-02-25
When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.
Reliability enhancement of Navier-Stokes codes through convergence acceleration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merkle, Charles L.; Dulikravich, George S.
1995-01-01
Methods for enhancing the reliability of Navier-Stokes computer codes through improving convergence characteristics are presented. The improving of these characteristics decreases the likelihood of code unreliability and user interventions in a design environment. The problem referred to as a 'stiffness' in the governing equations for propulsion-related flowfields is investigated, particularly in regard to common sources of equation stiffness that lead to convergence degradation of CFD algorithms. Von Neumann stability theory is employed as a tool to study the convergence difficulties involved. Based on the stability results, improved algorithms are devised to ensure efficient convergence in different situations. A number of test cases are considered to confirm a correlation between stability theory and numerical convergence. The examples of turbulent and reacting flow are presented, and a generalized form of the preconditioning matrix is derived to handle these problems, i.e., the problems involving additional differential equations for describing the transport of turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rate and chemical species. Algorithms for unsteady computations are considered. The extension of the preconditioning techniques and algorithms derived for Navier-Stokes computations to three-dimensional flow problems is discussed. New methods to accelerate the convergence of iterative schemes for the numerical integration of systems of partial differential equtions are developed, with a special emphasis on the acceleration of convergence on highly clustered grids.
Figueroa, R G; Valente, M
2015-09-21
The main purpose of this work is to determine the feasibility and physical characteristics of a new teletherapy device of radiation therapy based on the application of a convergent x-ray beam of energies like those used in radiotherapy providing highly concentrated dose delivery to the target. We have denominated it Convergent Beam Radio Therapy (CBRT). Analytical methods are developed first in order to determine the dosimetry characteristic of an ideal convergent photon beam in a hypothetical water phantom. Then, using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code, a similar convergent beam that is applied to the water phantom is compared with that of the analytical method. The CBRT device (Converay(®)) is designed to adapt to the head of LINACs. The converging beam photon effect is achieved thanks to the perpendicular impact of LINAC electrons on a large thin spherical cap target where Bremsstrahlung is generated (high-energy x-rays). This way, the electrons impact upon various points of the cap (CBRT condition), aimed at the focal point. With the X radiation (Bremsstrahlung) directed forward, a system of movable collimators emits many beams from the output that make a virtually definitive convergent beam. Other Monte Carlo simulations are performed using realistic conditions. The simulations are performed for a thin target in the shape of a large, thin, spherical cap, with an r radius of around 10-30 cm and a curvature radius of approximately 70 to 100 cm, and a cubed water phantom centered in the focal point of the cap. All the interaction mechanisms of the Bremsstrahlung radiation with the phantom are taken into consideration for different energies and cap thicknesses. Also, the magnitudes of the electric and/or magnetic fields, which are necessary to divert clinical-use electron beams (0.1 to 20 MeV), are determined using electromagnetism equations with relativistic corrections. This way the above-mentioned beam is manipulated and guided for its perpendicular impact
Convergence properties of the softassign quadratic assignment algorithm.
Rangarajan, A; Vuille, A; Mjolsness, E
1999-08-15
The softassign quadratic assignment algorithm is a discrete-time, continuous-state, synchronous updating optimizing neural network. While its effectiveness has been shown in the traveling salesman problem, graph matching, and graph partitioning in thousands of simulations, its convergence properties have not been studied. Here, we construct discrete-time Lyapunov functions for the cases of exact and approximate doubly stochastic constraint satisfaction, which show convergence to a fixed point. The combination of good convergence properties and experimental success makes the softassign algorithm an excellent choice for neural quadratic assignment optimization.
IS THERE CONVERGENCE ACROSS COUNTRIES? A SPATIAL APPROACH
Berry, Heather; Guillen, Mauro F.; Hendi, Arun S.
2014-01-01
We analyze convergence across countries over the last half century as a result of globalizing forces. Drawing on theories of modernization, dependency, the world-system, political trade blocs, and the world-society, we consider economic, demographic, knowledge, financial, and political dimensions of convergence. Using a new methodology, we calculate the minimum volume ellipsoid encompassing different groupings of countries, finding that during the 1960–2009 period, countries have not evolved significantly closer or similar to one another, although groups of countries based on their core-periphery status or membership in trade blocs exhibit increasing internal convergence and divergence between one another. PMID:25580035
The convergence of spectral methods for nonlinear conservation laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tadmor, Eitan
1987-01-01
The convergence of the Fourier method for scalar nonlinear conservation laws which exhibit spontaneous shock discontinuities is discussed. Numerical tests indicate that the convergence may (and in fact in some cases must) fail, with or without post-processing of the numerical solution. Instead, a new kind of spectrally accurate vanishing viscosity is introduced to augment the Fourier approximation of such nonlinear conservation laws. Using compensated compactness arguments, it is shown that this spectral viscosity prevents oscillations, and convergence to the unique entropy solution follows.
Comparative Convergence Analysis of Nonlinear AMLI-Cycle Multigrid
Hu, Xiaozhe; Vassilevski, Panayot S.; Xu, Jinchao
2013-04-30
The purpose of our paper is to provide a comprehensive convergence analysis of the nonlinear algebraic multilevel iteration (AMLI)-cycle multigrid (MG) method for symmetric positive definite problems. We show that the nonlinear AMLI-cycle MG method is uniformly convergent, based on classical assumptions for approximation and smoothing properties. Furthermore, under only the assumption that the smoother is convergent, we show that the nonlinear AMLI-cycle method is always better (or not worse) than the respective V-cycle MG method. Finally, numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the theoretical results.
Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huang, Chiungjung
2011-01-01
This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uvarov, I. V.; Postnikov, A. V.; Svetovoy, V. B.
2016-03-01
Lack of fast and strong microactuators is a well-recognized problem in MEMS community. Electrochemical actuators can develop high pressure but they are notoriously slow. Water electrolysis produced by short voltage pulses of alternating polarity can overcome the problem of slow gas termination. Here we demonstrate an actuation regime, for which the gas pressure is relaxed just for 10 μs or so. The actuator consists of a microchamber filled with the electrolyte and covered with a flexible membrane. The membrane bends outward when the pressure in the chamber increases. Fast termination of gas and high pressure developed in the chamber are related to a high density of nanobubbles in the chamber. The physical processes happening in the chamber are discussed so as problems that have to be resolved for practical applications of this actuation regime. The actuator can be used as a driving engine for microfluidics.
"Fast" Capitalism and "Fast" Schools: New Realities and New Truths.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robertson, Susan L.
This paper locates the phenomenon of self-managing schools within the framework of "fast capitalism" and identifies themes of organization central to fast capitalism, which are argued to also underpin the self-managing schools. "Fast capitalism" refers to the rapidly intensified integration of regionalized productive activities into the global…
Soha, Aria; Chiu, Mickey; Mannel, Eric; Stoll, Sean; Lynch, Don; Boose, Steve; Northacker, Dave; Alfred, Marcus; Lindesay, James; Chujo, Tatsuya; Inaba, Motoi; Nonaka, Toshihiro; Sato, Wataru; Sakatani, Ikumi; Hirano, Masahiro; Choi, Ihnjea
2014-01-15
This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of PHENIX Fast TOF group who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the FY2014 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. The goals for this test beam experiment are to verify the timing performance of the two types of time-of-flight detector prototypes.
Chang, Y.I.
1988-01-01
The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, with emphasis on its safety characteristics. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Fast tracking hospital construction.
Quirk, Andrew
2013-03-01
Hospital leaders should consider four factors in determining whether to fast track a hospital construction project: Expectations of project length, quality, and cost. Whether decisions can be made quickly as issues arise. Their own time commitment to the project, as well as that of architects, engineers, construction managers, and others. The extent to which they are willing to share with the design and construction teams how and why decisions are being made.
Zhong, Shangping; Chen, Tianshun; He, Fengying; Niu, Yuzhen
2014-09-01
For a practical pattern classification task solved by kernel methods, the computing time is mainly spent on kernel learning (or training). However, the current kernel learning approaches are based on local optimization techniques, and hard to have good time performances, especially for large datasets. Thus the existing algorithms cannot be easily extended to large-scale tasks. In this paper, we present a fast Gaussian kernel learning method by solving a specially structured global optimization (SSGO) problem. We optimize the Gaussian kernel function by using the formulated kernel target alignment criterion, which is a difference of increasing (d.i.) functions. Through using a power-transformation based convexification method, the objective criterion can be represented as a difference of convex (d.c.) functions with a fixed power-transformation parameter. And the objective programming problem can then be converted to a SSGO problem: globally minimizing a concave function over a convex set. The SSGO problem is classical and has good solvability. Thus, to find the global optimal solution efficiently, we can adopt the improved Hoffman's outer approximation method, which need not repeat the searching procedure with different starting points to locate the best local minimum. Also, the proposed method can be proven to converge to the global solution for any classification task. We evaluate the proposed method on twenty benchmark datasets, and compare it with four other Gaussian kernel learning methods. Experimental results show that the proposed method stably achieves both good time-efficiency performance and good classification performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gan, Shuwei; Wang, Shoudong; Chen, Yangkang; Chen, Xiaohong; Huang, Weiling; Chen, Hanming
2016-07-01
According to the compressive sensing (CS) theory in the signal-processing field, we proposed a new CS approach based on a fast projection onto convex sets (POCS) algorithm with sparsity constraint in the seislet transform domain. The seislet transform appears to be the sparest among the state-of-the-art sparse transforms. The FPOCS can obtain much faster convergence than conventional POCS (about two thirds of conventional iterations can be saved), while maintaining the same recovery performance. The FPOCS can obtain faster and better performance than FISTA for relatively cleaner data but will get slower and worse performance than FISTA, which becomes a reference to decide which algorithm to use in practice according the noise level in the seismic data. The seislet transform based CS approach can achieve obviously better data recovery results than f - k transform based scenarios, considering both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), local similarity comparison, and visual observation, because of a much sparser structure in the seislet transform domain. We have used both synthetic and field data examples to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed seislet-based FPOCS approach.
Gumerov, Nail A; Duraiswami, Ramani
2009-01-01
The development of a fast multipole method (FMM) accelerated iterative solution of the boundary element method (BEM) for the Helmholtz equations in three dimensions is described. The FMM for the Helmholtz equation is significantly different for problems with low and high kD (where k is the wavenumber and D the domain size), and for large problems the method must be switched between levels of the hierarchy. The BEM requires several approximate computations (numerical quadrature, approximations of the boundary shapes using elements), and these errors must be balanced against approximations introduced by the FMM and the convergence criterion for iterative solution. These different errors must all be chosen in a way that, on the one hand, excess work is not done and, on the other, that the error achieved by the overall computation is acceptable. Details of translation operators for low and high kD, choice of representations, and BEM quadrature schemes, all consistent with these approximations, are described. A novel preconditioner using a low accuracy FMM accelerated solver as a right preconditioner is also described. Results of the developed solvers for large boundary value problems with 0.0001 less, similarkD less, similar500 are presented and shown to perform close to theoretical expectations.
Pattern centric OPC flow: a special RET flow with fast turn-around-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tom; Wu, Joanne; Liu, Qingwei; Zhang, Gary; Wang, Benny; Su, Bo; Cheng, Guojie
2008-03-01
Low K1 photolithography process increases the complexity of RET applications in IC designs. As technology node shrinks, pattern density is much denser along with much smaller geometry dimensions. Model-based OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) and post-OPC verification require more complex models and through process window compensated approaches, which significantly increase computational burden. Both lithographical challenges and computational complexity associated with 45nm process and below create a need for advanced capabilities on commercial OPC tools. To answer those challenges, hardware-accelerated OPC solution made a debut to solve runtime bottleneck issues, but they came in with very expensive price tags. As today, there are no explorations on the linkage between design styles and layout pattern OPC reusability. This paper introduces a new OPC flow with pattern-centric approach to leverage OPC knowledge of repeated design cells and patterns to achieve fast full chip OPC convergence, shorter cycle time, better OPC quality, and eventually lead to high manufacturing yields. In this paper, the main concepts of pattern-based OPC flow are demonstrated in 65nm customer memory designs. Pattern-based OPC is a natural extension of Anchor's pattern-centric approaches in DFM (Design for Manufacturing) domain.
Print-Speech Convergence Predicts Future Reading Outcomes in Early Readers.
Preston, Jonathan L; Molfese, Peter J; Frost, Stephen J; Mencl, W Einar; Fulbright, Robert K; Hoeft, Fumiko; Landi, Nicole; Shankweiler, Donald; Pugh, Kenneth R
2016-01-01
Becoming a skilled reader requires building a functional neurocircuitry for printed-language processing that integrates with spoken-language-processing networks. In this longitudinal study, functional MRI (fMRI) was used to examine convergent activation for printed and spoken language (print-speech coactivation) in selected regions implicated in printed-language processing (the reading network). We found that print-speech coactivation across the left-hemisphere reading network in beginning readers predicted reading achievement 2 years later beyond the effects of brain activity for either modality alone; moreover, coactivation effects accounted for variance in later reading after controlling for initial reading performance. Within the reading network, effects of coactivation were significant in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left inferior parietal cortex and fusiform gyrus. The contribution of left and right IFG differed, with more coactivation in left IFG predicting better achievement but more coactivation in right IFG predicting poorer achievement. Findings point to the centrality of print-speech convergence in building an efficient reading circuitry in children.
Lipid metabolism during fasting.
Jensen, M D; Ekberg, K; Landau, B R
2001-10-01
These studies were conducted to understand the relationship between measures of systemic free fatty acid (FFA) reesterification and regional FFA, glycerol, and triglyceride metabolism during fasting. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure fatty acid oxidation in six men after a 60-h fast. Systemic and regional (splanchnic, renal, and leg) FFA ([(3)H]palmitate) and glycerol ([(3)H]glycerol) kinetics, as well as splanchnic triglyceride release, were measured. The rate of systemic FFA reesterification was 366 +/- 93 micromol/min, which was greater (P < 0.05) than splanchnic triglyceride fatty acid output (64 +/- 6 micromol/min), a measure of VLDL triglyceride fatty acid export. The majority of glycerol uptake occurred in the splanchnic and renal beds, although some leg glycerol uptake was detected. Systemic FFA release was approximately double that usually present in overnight postabsorptive men, yet the regional FFA release rates were of the same proportions previously observed in overnight postabsorptive men. In conclusion, FFA reesterification at rest during fasting far exceeds splanchnic triglyceride fatty acid output. This indicates that nonhepatic sites of FFA reesterification are important, and that peripheral reesterification of FFA exceeds the rate of simultaneous intracellular triglyceride fatty acid oxidation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1996-01-01
The NASA Fast Track Study supports the efforts of a Special Study Group (SSG) made up of members of the Advanced Project Management Class number 23 (APM-23) that met at the Wallops Island Management Education Center from April 28 - May 8, 1996. Members of the Class expressed interest to Mr. Vem Weyers in having an input to the NASA Policy Document (NPD) 7120.4, that will replace NASA Management Institute (NMI) 7120.4, and the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. The APM-23 SSG was tasked with assisting in development of NASA policy on managing Fast Track Projects, defined as small projects under $150 million and completed within three years. 'Me approach of the APM-23 SSG was to gather data on successful projects working in a 'Better, Faster, Cheaper' environment, within and outside of NASA and develop the Fast Track Project section of the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. Fourteen interviews and four other data gathering efforts were conducted by the SSG, and 16 were conducted by Strategic Resources, Inc. (SRI), including five interviews at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and one at the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The interviews were compiled and analyzed for techniques and approaches commonly used to meet severe cost and schedule constraints.
Projection displays and MEMS: timely convergence for a bright future
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hornbeck, Larry J.
1995-09-01
Projection displays and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have evolved independently, occasionally crossing paths as early as the 1950s. But the commercially viable use of MEMS for projection displays has been illusive until the recent invention of Texas Instruments Digital Light Processing TM (DLP) technology. DLP technology is based on the Digital Micromirror DeviceTM (DMD) microchip, a MEMS technology that is a semiconductor digital light switch that precisely controls a light source for projection display and hardcopy applications. DLP technology provides a unique business opportunity because of the timely convergence of market needs and technology advances. The world is rapidly moving to an all- digital communications and entertainment infrastructure. In the near future, most of the technologies necessary for this infrastrucutre will be available at the right performance and price levels. This will make commercially viable an all-digital chain (capture, compression, transmission, reception decompression, hearing, and viewing). Unfortunately, the digital images received today must be translated into analog signals for viewing on today's televisions. Digital video is the final link in the all-digital infrastructure and DLP technoogy provides that link. DLP technology is an enabler for digital, high-resolution, color projection displays that have high contrast, are bright, seamless, and have the accuracy of color and grayscale that can be achieved only by digital control. This paper contains an introduction to DMD and DLP technology, including the historical context from which to view their developemnt. The architecture, projection operation, and fabrication are presented. Finally, the paper includes an update about current DMD business opportunities in projection displays and hardcopy.
First high-convergence cryogenic implosion in a near-vacuum hohlraum
Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Meezan, N. B.; Le Pape, S.; Divol, L.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Ho, D. D.; Hohenberger, M.; Jones, O. S.; Kyrala, G.; Milovich, J. L.; Pak, A.; Ralph, J. E.; Ross, J. S.; Benedetti, L. R.; Biener, J.; Bionta, R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D.; Caggiano, J.; Callahan, D.; Cerjan, C.; Church, J.; Clark, D.; Döppner, T.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Eckart, M.; Edgell, D.; Field, J.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G.; Guler, N.; Haan, S.; Hamza, A.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hinkel, D.; Hoover, D.; Huang, H.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S.; Kozioziemski, B.; Kroll, J.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A.; McNaney, J.; Merrill, F.; Moody, J.; Nikroo, A.; Patel, P.; Robey, H. F.; Rygg, J. R.; Sater, J.; Sayre, D.; Schneider, M.; Sepke, S.; Stadermann, M.; Stoeffl, W.; Thomas, C.; Town, R. P. J.; Volegov, P. L.; Wild, C.; Wilde, C.; Woerner, E.; Yeamans, C.; Yoxall, B.; Kilkenny, J.; Landen, O. L.; Hsing, W.; Edwards, M. J.
2015-04-29
Recent experiments on the National Ignition Facility [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] demonstrate that utilizing a near-vacuum hohlraum (low pressure gas-filled) is a viable option for high convergence cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) layered capsule implosions. This is made possible by using a dense ablator (high-density carbon), which shortens the drive duration needed to achieve high convergence: a measured 40% higher hohlraum efficiency than typical gas-filled hohlraums, which requires less laser energy going into the hohlraum, and an observed better symmetry control than anticipated by standard hydrodynamics simulations. The first series of near-vacuum hohlraum experiments culminated in a 6.8 ns, 1.2 MJ laser pulse driving a 2-shock, high adiabat (α ~ 3.5) cryogenic DT layered high density carbon capsule. This resulted in one of the best performances so far on the NIF relative to laser energy, with a measured primary neutron yield of 1.8 X 10¹⁵ neutrons, with 20% calculated alpha heating at convergence ~27X.
First High-Convergence Cryogenic Implosion in a Near-Vacuum Hohlraum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Meezan, N. B.; Le Pape, S.; Divol, L.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Ho, D. D.; Hohenberger, M.; Jones, O. S.; Kyrala, G.; Milovich, J. L.; Pak, A.; Ralph, J. E.; Ross, J. S.; Benedetti, L. R.; Biener, J.; Bionta, R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D.; Caggiano, J.; Callahan, D.; Cerjan, C.; Church, J.; Clark, D.; Döppner, T.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Eckart, M.; Edgell, D.; Field, J.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G.; Guler, N.; Haan, S.; Hamza, A.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hinkel, D.; Hoover, D.; Huang, H.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S.; Kozioziemski, B.; Kroll, J.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A.; McNaney, J.; Merrill, F.; Moody, J.; Nikroo, A.; Patel, P.; Robey, H. F.; Rygg, J. R.; Sater, J.; Sayre, D.; Schneider, M.; Sepke, S.; Stadermann, M.; Stoeffl, W.; Thomas, C.; Town, R. P. J.; Volegov, P. L.; Wild, C.; Wilde, C.; Woerner, E.; Yeamans, C.; Yoxall, B.; Kilkenny, J.; Landen, O. L.; Hsing, W.; Edwards, M. J.
2015-05-01
Recent experiments on the National Ignition Facility [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] demonstrate that utilizing a near-vacuum hohlraum (low pressure gas-filled) is a viable option for high convergence cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) layered capsule implosions. This is made possible by using a dense ablator (high-density carbon), which shortens the drive duration needed to achieve high convergence: a measured 40% higher hohlraum efficiency than typical gas-filled hohlraums, which requires less laser energy going into the hohlraum, and an observed better symmetry control than anticipated by standard hydrodynamics simulations. The first series of near-vacuum hohlraum experiments culminated in a 6.8 ns, 1.2 MJ laser pulse driving a 2-shock, high adiabat (α ˜3.5 ) cryogenic DT layered high density carbon capsule. This resulted in one of the best performances so far on the NIF relative to laser energy, with a measured primary neutron yield of 1.8 ×1015 neutrons, with 20% calculated alpha heating at convergence ˜27 × .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Soon Wei Daniel; Fiedler, Kevin; Troian, Sandra
Thermocapillary forces offer a powerful method for sculpting interfaces at microscale dimensions. Here we demonstrate how periodic arrays of cooled pins placed in close proximity to the surface of a molten polymer nanofilm can be used to fabricate various large area microlens arrays, which when solidified exhibit ultrasmooth surfaces and excellent focusing capability. This technique was used to fabricate both homogeneous converging and diverging microlens shapes by application of various thermal distributions. The converging arrays were incorporated into a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor able to image moving currents of airborne spray droplets. Feature overlap was also used to achieve hierarchical arrays comprising two superimposed patterns. By varying the width of the cooled pins, it was also possible to fabricate converging microlens structures featuring a caldera-like depression at the vertex able to focus collimated light into a sharp annulus. These demonstrations prove that with suitable microscale control over the thermal distributions projected onto molten nanofilms, a diverse set of micro-optical components can be fabricated by thermocapillary replication from a nearby mask without contact and in a single step. S. W. D. Lim acknowledges funding from the Toshi Kubota SURF fellowship. KRF is supported by a NASA Science and Technology Research Fellowship.
First high-convergence cryogenic implosion in a near-vacuum hohlraum
Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Meezan, N. B.; Le Pape, S.; ...
2015-04-29
Recent experiments on the National Ignition Facility [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] demonstrate that utilizing a near-vacuum hohlraum (low pressure gas-filled) is a viable option for high convergence cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) layered capsule implosions. This is made possible by using a dense ablator (high-density carbon), which shortens the drive duration needed to achieve high convergence: a measured 40% higher hohlraum efficiency than typical gas-filled hohlraums, which requires less laser energy going into the hohlraum, and an observed better symmetry control than anticipated by standard hydrodynamics simulations. The first series of near-vacuum hohlraum experiments culminated inmore » a 6.8 ns, 1.2 MJ laser pulse driving a 2-shock, high adiabat (α ~ 3.5) cryogenic DT layered high density carbon capsule. This resulted in one of the best performances so far on the NIF relative to laser energy, with a measured primary neutron yield of 1.8 X 10¹⁵ neutrons, with 20% calculated alpha heating at convergence ~27X.« less
First high-convergence cryogenic implosion in a near-vacuum hohlraum.
Berzak Hopkins, L F; Meezan, N B; Le Pape, S; Divol, L; Mackinnon, A J; Ho, D D; Hohenberger, M; Jones, O S; Kyrala, G; Milovich, J L; Pak, A; Ralph, J E; Ross, J S; Benedetti, L R; Biener, J; Bionta, R; Bond, E; Bradley, D; Caggiano, J; Callahan, D; Cerjan, C; Church, J; Clark, D; Döppner, T; Dylla-Spears, R; Eckart, M; Edgell, D; Field, J; Fittinghoff, D N; Gatu Johnson, M; Grim, G; Guler, N; Haan, S; Hamza, A; Hartouni, E P; Hatarik, R; Herrmann, H W; Hinkel, D; Hoover, D; Huang, H; Izumi, N; Khan, S; Kozioziemski, B; Kroll, J; Ma, T; MacPhee, A; McNaney, J; Merrill, F; Moody, J; Nikroo, A; Patel, P; Robey, H F; Rygg, J R; Sater, J; Sayre, D; Schneider, M; Sepke, S; Stadermann, M; Stoeffl, W; Thomas, C; Town, R P J; Volegov, P L; Wild, C; Wilde, C; Woerner, E; Yeamans, C; Yoxall, B; Kilkenny, J; Landen, O L; Hsing, W; Edwards, M J
2015-05-01
Recent experiments on the National Ignition Facility [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] demonstrate that utilizing a near-vacuum hohlraum (low pressure gas-filled) is a viable option for high convergence cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) layered capsule implosions. This is made possible by using a dense ablator (high-density carbon), which shortens the drive duration needed to achieve high convergence: a measured 40% higher hohlraum efficiency than typical gas-filled hohlraums, which requires less laser energy going into the hohlraum, and an observed better symmetry control than anticipated by standard hydrodynamics simulations. The first series of near-vacuum hohlraum experiments culminated in a 6.8 ns, 1.2 MJ laser pulse driving a 2-shock, high adiabat (α∼3.5) cryogenic DT layered high density carbon capsule. This resulted in one of the best performances so far on the NIF relative to laser energy, with a measured primary neutron yield of 1.8×10(15) neutrons, with 20% calculated alpha heating at convergence ∼27×.
Visual servo walking control for humanoids with finite-time convergence and smooth robot velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delfin, Josafat; Becerra, Hector M.; Arechavaleta, Gustavo
2016-07-01
In this paper, we address the problem of humanoid locomotion guided from information of a monocular camera. The goal of the robot is to reach a desired location defined in terms of a target image, i.e., a positioning task. The proposed approach allows us to introduce a desired time to complete the positioning task, which is advantageous in contrast to the classical exponential convergence. In particular, finite-time convergence is achieved while generating smooth robot velocities and considering the omnidirectional waking capability of the robot. In addition, we propose a hierarchical task-based control scheme, which can simultaneously handle the visual positioning and the obstacle avoidance tasks without affecting the desired time of convergence. The controller is able to activate or inactivate the obstacle avoidance task without generating discontinuous velocity references while the humanoid is walking. Stability of the closed loop for the two task-based control is demonstrated theoretically even during the transitions between the tasks. The proposed approach is generic in the sense that different visual control schemes are supported. We evaluate a homography-based visual servoing for position-based and image-based modalities, as well as for eye-in-hand and eye-to-hand configurations. The experimental evaluation is performed with the humanoid robot NAO.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giordano, J.
The advanced integrative scientific convergence (AISC) model represents a viable approach to neuroscience. Beyond simple multi-disciplinarity, the AISC model unifies constituent scientific and technological fields to foster innovation, invention and new ways of addressing seemingly intractable questions. In this way, AISC can yield novel methods and foster new trajectories of knowledge and discovery, and yield new epistemologies. As stand-alone disciplines, each and all of the constituent fields generate practical and ethical issues, and their convergence may establish a unique set of both potential benefits and problems. To effectively attend to these contingencies requires pragmatic assessment of the actual capabilities and limits of neurofocal AISC, and an openness to what new knowledge and scientific/technological achievements may be produced, and how such outcomes can affect humanity, the human condition, society and the global environment. It is proposed that a progressive neurobioethics may be needed to establish both a meta-ethical framework upon which to structure ethical decisions, and a system and method of ethics that is inclusive, convergent and innovative, and in thus aligned with and meaningful to use of an AISC model in neuroscience.
Leitch, R J; Burke, J P; Strachan, I M
1990-05-01
Convergence excess esotropia has been treated with bifocals, miotics, medial rectus recession(s), fadenoperation, or a combination of these. However, comparatively few studies on the sensory status of these patients exist. We present the sensory findings in 31 children treated surgically. Twenty-one had fadenoperations combined with bimedial rectus recessions, one had a fadenoperation alone, and nine had augmented bimedial rectus recessions. Five children (16%) achieved bifoveal fusion, 22 (71%) had varying degrees of peripheral fusion, and four (13%) had no detectable binocularity after a mean postoperative follow-up of 2.4 years.
Review of high convergence implosion experiments with single and double shell targets
Delamater, N. D.; Watt, R. G.; Varnum, W. S.
2002-01-01
Experiments have been been performed in recent years at the Omega laser studying double shell capsules as an a1 teinative, 11011 cryogenic, path towards ignition at NTF. Double shell capsules designed to mitigate the Au M-band radiation asymmetries, were experimentally found to perform well in both spherical and cylindrical hohlraums, achieving near 1-D (-90 %) clean calculated yield at convergence comparable to that required for NIF ignition. Near-term plans include directly driven double shell experiments at Omega, which eliminates Au M-band radiation as a yield degradation m ec h an i s in.
Convergent innovation for affordable nutrition, health, and health care: the global pulse roadmap.
Jha, Srivardhini K; McDermott, John; Bacon, Gordon; Lannon, Chris; Joshi, P K; Dubé, Laurette
2014-12-01
The paper outlines how the principles of convergent innovation (CI) can be applied to bring about a transformation in the pulse value chain. The paper presents three pioneering CI initiatives--two in conception and one in operation--by various actors in the pulse ecosystem, which are delivering economic and human development impact in particular segments of the pulse value chain. It goes on to propose the way forward to scale up these efforts and connect them into a roadmap so as to achieve transformation throughout society, calling into action a number of actors in the ecosystem.
Analysis of local strain in aluminum interconnects by convergent beam electron diffraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krämer, Stephan; Mayer, Joachim
1999-11-01
Energy filtered convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) was used to investigate localized strain in aluminum interconnects. An analysis of the higher order Laue zone (HOLZ) line positions in CBED patterns makes it possible to measure the lattice strain with high accuracy (˜104) and high spatial resolution (10 to 100 nm). The strain development in a single grain was measured during thermal cycling between -170 °C and +100 °C. The grain showed reversible, elastic behavior over the whole temperature range building up large strains at low temperatures. By comparing with finite element simulations, a detailed understanding of the tri-axial strain state could be achieved.
Heterotic quantum and classical computing on convergence spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patten, D. R.; Jakel, D. W.; Irwin, R. J.; Blair, H. A.
2015-05-01
Category-theoretic characterizations of heterotic models of computation, introduced by Stepney et al., combine computational models such as classical/quantum, digital/analog, synchronous/asynchronous, etc. to obtain increased computational power. A highly informative classical/quantum heterotic model of computation is represented by Abramsky's simple sequential imperative quantum programming language which extends the classical simple imperative programming language to encompass quantum computation. The mathematical (denotational) semantics of this classical language serves as a basic foundation upon which formal verification methods can be developed. We present a more comprehensive heterotic classical/quantum model of computation based on heterotic dynamical systems on convergence spaces. Convergence spaces subsume topological spaces but admit finer structure from which, in prior work, we obtained differential calculi in the cartesian closed category of convergence spaces allowing us to define heterotic dynamical systems, given by coupled systems of first order differential equations whose variables are functions from the reals to convergence spaces.
Convergence Results on Iteration Algorithms to Linear Systems
Wang, Zhuande; Yang, Chuansheng; Yuan, Yubo
2014-01-01
In order to solve the large scale linear systems, backward and Jacobi iteration algorithms are employed. The convergence is the most important issue. In this paper, a unified backward iterative matrix is proposed. It shows that some well-known iterative algorithms can be deduced with it. The most important result is that the convergence results have been proved. Firstly, the spectral radius of the Jacobi iterative matrix is positive and the one of backward iterative matrix is strongly positive (lager than a positive constant). Secondly, the mentioned two iterations have the same convergence results (convergence or divergence simultaneously). Finally, some numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithms are correct and have the merit of backward methods. PMID:24991640
Convergence of oscillator spectral estimators for counted-frequency measurements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tausworthe, R. C.
1972-01-01
A common intermediary connecting frequency-noise calibration or testing of an oscillator to useful applications is the spectral density of the frequency-deviating process. In attempting to turn test data into predicts of performance characteristics, one is naturally led to estimation of statistical values by sample-mean and sample-variance techniques. However, sample means and sample variances themselves are statistical quantities that do not necessarily converge (in the mean-square sense) to actual ensemble-average means and variances, except perhaps for excessively large sample sizes. This is especially true for the flicker noise component of oscillators. This article shows, for the various types of noises found in oscillators, how sample averages converge (or do not converge) to their statistical counterparts. The convergence rate is shown to be the same for all oscillators of a given spectral type.
Multi-sectorial convergence in greenhouse gas emissions.
Oliveira, Guilherme de; Bourscheidt, Deise Maria
2017-03-20
This paper uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to test the hypothesis of per capita convergence in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for a multi-sectorial panel of countries. The empirical strategy applies conventional estimators of random and fixed effects and Arellano and Bond's (1991) GMM to the main pollutants related to the greenhouse effect. For reasonable empirical specifications, the model revealed robust evidence of per capita convergence in CH4 emissions in the agriculture, food, and services sectors. The evidence of convergence in CO2 emissions was moderate in the following sectors: agriculture, food, non-durable goods manufacturing, and services. In all cases, the time for convergence was less than 15 years. Regarding emissions by energy use, the largest source of global warming, there was only moderate evidence in the extractive industry sector-all other pollutants presented little or no evidence.
Convection in the east Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raymond, David J.
2017-01-01
The eastern tropical Pacific exhibits a strong, cross-equatorial sea surface temperature (SST) gradient, which drives a southerly flow in the atmospheric boundary layer. Convergence in this flow is generally considered to drive deep convection in the east Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone. However, results from cloud modeling and recent field programs provide an alternative thermodynamic mechanism for controlling this convection. While shallow convection responds to boundary layer convergence, deep convection appears to be controlled by a combination of convective inhibition, surface moist entropy fluxes, tropospheric relative humidity, and moist convective instability. These factors explain the sharp minimum in infrared brightness temperature near 8°N while boundary layer convergence occurs over a much broader range of latitudes.
Convergence rate of Cesaro means of Fourier-Laplace series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Luoqing; Yu, Chunwu
2007-01-01
The convergence rate of Fourier-Laplace series in logarithmic subclasses of L2([Sigma]d) defined in terms of moduli of continuity is of interest. Lin and Wang [C. Lin, K. Wang, Convergence rate of Fourier-Laplace series of L2-functions, J. Approx. Theory 128 (2004) 103-114] recently presented a characterization of those subclasses and provided the almost everywhere convergence rates of Fourier-Laplace series in those subclasses. In this note, the almost everywhere convergence rates of the Cesaro means for Fourier-Laplace series of the logarithmic subclasses are obtained. The strong approximation order of the Cesaro means and the partial summation operators are also presented.
Beyond division: convergences between postmodern qualitative research and family therapy.
De Haene, Lucia
2010-01-01
Starting from examples of postmodern research and therapeutic practice, we raise the question on the role of the research-therapy dichotomy within these approaches. The article aims to show the profound convergence between postmodern ethnographic research and constructionist, collaborative therapeutic approaches on a double, epistemological and practice level. First, we point out their converging development toward narrative and constructionist epistemologies. Second, an inquiry into the core features of these disciplinary activities' goal, process, and expert role reveals their profound convergence into a dialogical practice in which the boundaries between research and therapy are radically transgressed. We conclude by questioning the implications and acceptability of this convergence for researchers' and therapists' understanding of their practices.
Rainfall Morphology in Semi-Tropical Convergence Zones
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shepherd, J. Marshall; Ferrier, Brad S.; Ray, Peter S.
2000-01-01
Central Florida is the ideal test laboratory for studying convergence zone-induced convection. The region regularly experiences sea breeze fronts and rainfall-induced outflow boundaries. The focus of this study is the common yet poorly-studied convergence zone established by the interaction of the sea breeze front and an outflow boundary. Previous studies have investigated mechanisms primarily affecting storm initiation by such convergence zones. Few have focused on rainfall morphology yet these storms contribute a significant amount precipitation to the annual rainfall budget. Low-level convergence and mid-tropospheric moisture have both been shown to correlate with rainfall amounts in Florida. Using 2D and 3D numerical simulations, the roles of low-level convergence and mid-tropospheric moisture in rainfall evolution are examined. The results indicate that time-averaged, vertical moisture flux (VMF) at the sea breeze front/outflow convergence zone is directly and linearly proportional to initial condensation rates. This proportionality establishes a similar relationship between VMF and initial rainfall. Vertical moisture flux, which encompasses depth and magnitude of convergence, is better correlated to initial rainfall production than surface moisture convergence. This extends early observational studies which linked rainfall in Florida to surface moisture convergence. The amount and distribution of mid-tropospheric moisture determines how rainfall associated with secondary cells develop. Rainfall amount and efficiency varied significantly over an observable range of relative humidities in the 850- 500 mb layer even though rainfall evolution was similar during the initial or "first-cell" period. Rainfall variability was attributed to drier mid-tropospheric environments inhibiting secondary cell development through entrainment effects. Observationally, 850-500 mb moisture structure exhibits wider variability than lower level moisture, which is virtually always
Generation of high pressure and temperature by converging detonation waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, V. P.; Shukla, S. K.
1987-07-01
Generation of high pressure and temperature has various applications in defense. Several techniques, viz flying plate method, collapsing of linear, convergence of detonation waves in solid explosives, have been established in this connection. In this paper, converging detonation waves in solid explosives, where variable heat of detonation is being added to the front, are studied by using Whitham's characteristics rule. Results are compared with those reported elsewhere.
Convergence theorems for generalized nonexpansive multivalued mappings in hyperbolic spaces.
Kim, Jong Kyu; Pathak, Ramesh Prasad; Dashputre, Samir; Diwan, Shailesh Dhar; Gupta, Rajlaxmi
2016-01-01
In this paper, we establish the existence of a fixed point for generalized nonexpansive multivalued mappings in hyperbolic spaces and we prove some [Formula: see text]-convergence and strong convergence theorems for the iterative scheme proposed by Chang et al. (Appl Math Comp 249:535-540, 2014) to approximate a fixed point for generalized nonexpansive multivalued mapping under suitable conditions. Our results are the extension and improvements of the recent well-known results announced in the current literature.
Bayesian Optimization Algorithm, Population Sizing, and Time to Convergence
Pelikan, M.; Goldberg, D.E.; Cantu-Paz, E.
2000-01-19
This paper analyzes convergence properties of the Bayesian optimization algorithm (BOA). It settles the BOA into the framework of problem decomposition used frequently in order to model and understand the behavior of simple genetic algorithms. The growth of the population size and the number of generations until convergence with respect to the size of a problem is theoretically analyzed. The theoretical results are supported by a number of experiments.
Regularization of diagrammatic series with zero convergence radius.
Pollet, Lode; Prokof'ev, Nikolay V; Svistunov, Boris V
2010-11-19
The divergence of perturbative expansions which occurs for the vast majority of macroscopic systems and follows from Dyson's collapse argument prevents the direct use of Feynman's diagrammatic technique for controllable studies of strongly interacting systems. We show how the problem of divergence can be solved by replacing the original model with a convergent sequence of successive approximations which have a convergent perturbative series while maintaining the diagrammatic structure. As an instructive model, we consider the zero-dimensional |ψ|⁴ theory.
Relations between convergence rates in Schatten p-norms
Albini, Paolo; Toigo, Alessandro; Umanita, Veronica
2008-01-15
In quantum estimation theory and quantum tomography, the quantum state obtained by sampling converges to the ''true'' unknown density matrix under topologies that are different from the natural notion of distance in the space of quantum states, i.e., the trace class norm. In this paper, we address such problem, finding relations between the rates of convergence in the Schatten p-norms and in the trace class norm.
Convergent spectral representation for three-dimensional inverse MHD equilibria
Hirshman, S.P.
1984-10-01
By rearranging terms in a polar representation for the cylindrical spatial coordinates (R, theta, Z), a renormalized Fourier series moment expansion is obtained that possesses superior convergence properties in mode number space. This convergent spectral representation also determines a unique poloidal angle and thus resolves the underdetermined structure of previous moment expansions. A conformal mapping technique is used to demonstrate the existence and uniqueness of the new representation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, Tianye; Ye, Xiaojing; Fruhauf, Quentin; Petrongolo, Michael; Zhu, Lei
2014-04-01
Recently, we proposed a new algorithm of accelerated barrier optimization compressed sensing (ABOCS) for iterative CT reconstruction. The previous implementation of ABOCS uses gradient projection (GP) with a Barzilai-Borwein (BB) step-size selection scheme (GP-BB) to search for the optimal solution. The algorithm does not converge stably due to its non-monotonic behavior. In this paper, we further improve the convergence of ABOCS using the unknown-parameter Nesterov (UPN) method and investigate the ABOCS reconstruction performance on clinical patient data. Comparison studies are carried out on reconstructions of computer simulation, a physical phantom and a head-and-neck patient. In all of these studies, the ABOCS results using UPN show more stable and faster convergence than those of the GP-BB method and a state-of-the-art Bregman-type method. As shown in the simulation study of the Shepp-Logan phantom, UPN achieves the same image quality as those of GP-BB and the Bregman-type methods, but reduces the iteration numbers by up to 50% and 90%, respectively. In the Catphan©600 phantom study, a high-quality image with relative reconstruction error (RRE) less than 3% compared to the full-view result is obtained using UPN with 17% projections (60 views). In the conventional filtered-backprojection reconstruction, the corresponding RRE is more than 15% on the same projection data. The superior performance of ABOCS with the UPN implementation is further demonstrated on the head-and-neck patient. Using 25% projections (91 views), the proposed method reduces the RRE from 21% as in the filtered backprojection (FBP) results to 7.3%. In conclusion, we propose UPN for ABOCS implementation. As compared to GP-BB and the Bregman-type methods, the new method significantly improves the convergence with higher stability and fewer iterations.
On the convergence and accuracy of the FDTD method for nanoplasmonics.
Lesina, Antonino Calà; Vaccari, Alessandro; Berini, Pierre; Ramunno, Lora
2015-04-20
Use of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method to model nanoplasmonic structures continues to rise - more than 2700 papers have been published in 2014 on FDTD simulations of surface plasmons. However, a comprehensive study on the convergence and accuracy of the method for nanoplasmonic structures has yet to be reported. Although the method may be well-established in other areas of electromagnetics, the peculiarities of nanoplasmonic problems are such that a targeted study on convergence and accuracy is required. The availability of a high-performance computing system (a massively parallel IBM Blue Gene/Q) allows us to do this for the first time. We consider gold and silver at optical wavelengths along with three "standard" nanoplasmonic structures: a metal sphere, a metal dipole antenna and a metal bowtie antenna - for the first structure comparisons with the analytical extinction, scattering, and absorption coefficients based on Mie theory are possible. We consider different ways to set-up the simulation domain, we vary the mesh size to very small dimensions, we compare the simple Drude model with the Drude model augmented with two critical points correction, we compare single-precision to double-precision arithmetic, and we compare two staircase meshing techniques, per-component and uniform. We find that the Drude model with two critical points correction (at least) must be used in general. Double-precision arithmetic is needed to avoid round-off errors if highly converged results are sought. Per-component meshing increases the accuracy when complex geometries are modeled, but the uniform mesh works better for structures completely fillable by the Yee cell (e.g., rectangular structures). Generally, a mesh size of 0.25 nm is required to achieve convergence of results to ∼ 1%. We determine how to optimally setup the simulation domain, and in so doing we find that performing scattering calculations within the near-field does not necessarily produces large
Niu, Tianye; Ye, Xiaojing; Fruhauf, Quentin; Petrongolo, Michael; Zhu, Lei
2014-01-01
Recently, we proposed a new algorithm of accelerated barrier optimization compressed sensing (ABOCS) for iterative CT reconstruction. The previous implementation of ABOCS uses gradient projection (GP) with a Barzilai-Borwein (BB) step-size selection scheme (GP-BB) to search for the optimal solution. The algorithm does not converge stably due to its non-monotonic behavior. In this paper, we further improve the convergence of ABOCS using the unknown-parameter Nesterov (UPN) method and investigate the ABOCS reconstruction performance on clinical patient data. Comparison studies are carried out on reconstructions of computer simulation, a physical phantom and a head-and-neck patient. In all of these studies, the ABOCS results using UPN show more stable and faster convergence than those of the GPBB method and a state-of-the-art Bregman-type method. As shown in the simulation study of the Shepp-Logan phantom, UPN achieves the same image quality as those of GPBB and the Bregman-type method, but reduces the iteration numbers by up to 50% and 90%, respectively. In the Catphan©600 phantom study, a high-quality image with relative reconstruction error (RRE) less than 3% compared to the full-view result is obtained using UPN with 17% projections (60 views). In the conventional filtered-backprojection (FBP) reconstruction, the corresponding RRE is more than 15% on the same projection data. The superior performance of ABOCS with the UPN implementation is further demonstrated on the head-and-neck patient. Using 25% projections (91 views), the proposed method reduces the RRE from 21% as in the FBP results to 7.3%. In conclusion, we propose UPN for ABOCS implementation. As compared to GPBB and the Bregman-type methods, the new method significantly improves the convergence with higher stability and less iterations. PMID:24625411
Slow and fast light in semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sedgwick, Forrest Grant
Slow and fast light are the propagation of optical signals at group velocities below and above the speed of light in a given medium. There has been great interest in the use of nonlinear optics to engineer slow and fast light dispersion for applications in optical communications and radio-frequency or microwave photonics. Early results in this field were primarily confined to dilute atomic systems. While these results were impressive, they had two major barriers to practical application. First, the wavelengths were not compatible with fiber optic telecommunications. More importantly, the bandwidth obtainable in these experiments was inherently low; 100 kHz or less. Within the last five years slow and fast light effects have been observed and engineered in a much wider variety of systems. In this work, we detail our efforts to realize slow and fast light in semiconductor systems. There are three primary advantages of semiconductor systems: fiber-compatible wavelengths, larger bandwidth, and simplification of integration with other optical components. In this work we will explore three different types of physical mechanisms for implementing slow and fast light. The first is electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). In transporting this process to semiconductors, we initially turn our attention to quantum dots or "artificial atoms". We present simulations of a quantum dot EIT-based device within the context of an optical communications link and we derive results which are generally applicable to a broad class of slow light devices. We then present experimental results realizing EIT in quantum wells by using long-lived electron spin coherence. The second mechanism we will explore is coherent population oscillations (CPO), also known as carrier density pulsations (CDP). We examine for the first time how both slow and fast light may be achieved in a quantum well semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) while operating in the gain regime. Again, we simulate the device
Intercontinental community convergence of ecology and morphology in desert lizards
Melville, Jane; Harmon, Luke J; Losos, Jonathan B
2005-01-01
Evolutionary ecologists have long debated the extent to which communities in similar environments but different geographic regions exhibit convergence. On the one hand, if species' adaptations and community structure are determined by environmental features, convergence would be expected. However, if historical contingencies have long-lasting effects convergence would be unlikely. Most studies to date have emphasized the differences between communities in similar environments and little quantitative evidence for convergence exists. The application of comparative phylogenetic methods to ecological studies provides an opportunity to further investigate hypotheses of convergence. We compared the evolutionary patterns of structural ecology and morphology of 42 species of iguanian lizards from deserts of Australia and North America. Using a comparative approach, we found that evolutionary convergence of ecology and morphology occurs both in overall, community-wide patterns and in terms of pairs of highly similar intercontinental pairs of species. This result indicates that in these desert lizards, deterministic adaptive evolution shapes community patterns and overrides the historical contingencies unique to particular lineages. PMID:16537126
Intercontinental community convergence of ecology and morphology in desert lizards.
Melville, Jane; Harmon, Luke J; Losos, Jonathan B
2006-03-07
Evolutionary ecologists have long debated the extent to which communities in similar environments but different geographic regions exhibit convergence. On the one hand, if species' adaptations and community structure are determined by environmental features, convergence would be expected. However, if historical contingencies have long-lasting effects convergence would be unlikely. Most studies to date have emphasized the differences between communities in similar environments and little quantitative evidence for convergence exists. The application of comparative phylogenetic methods to ecological studies provides an opportunity to further investigate hypotheses of convergence. We compared the evolutionary patterns of structural ecology and morphology of 42 species of iguanian lizards from deserts of Australia and North America. Using a comparative approach, we found that evolutionary convergence of ecology and morphology occurs both in overall, community-wide patterns and in terms of pairs of highly similar intercontinental pairs of species. This result indicates that in these desert lizards, deterministic adaptive evolution shapes community patterns and overrides the historical contingencies unique to particular lineages.
Software Defined Networking for Next Generation Converged Metro-Access Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruffini, M.; Slyne, F.; Bluemm, C.; Kitsuwan, N.; McGettrick, S.
2015-12-01
While the concept of Software Defined Networking (SDN) has seen a rapid deployment within the data center community, its adoption in telecommunications network has progressed slowly, although the concept has been swiftly adopted by all major telecoms vendors. This paper presents a control plane architecture for SDN-driven converged metro-access networks, developed through the DISCUS European FP7 project. The SDN-based controller architecture was developed in a testbed implementation targeting two main scenarios: fast feeder fiber protection over dual-homed Passive Optical Networks (PONs) and dynamic service provisioning over a multi-wavelength PON. Implementation details and results of the experiment carried out over the second scenario are reported in the paper, showing the potential of SDN in providing assured on-demand services to end-users.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sbarbaro, D.; Vauhkonen, M.; Johansen, T. A.
2015-04-01
Solving electrical impedance tomography (EIT) inverse problems in real-time is a challenging task due to their dimension, the nonlinearities involved and the fact that they are ill-posed. Thus, efficient algorithms are required to address the application of tomographic technologies in process industry. In practical applications the EIT inverse problem is often linearized for fast and robust reconstruction. The aim of this paper is to analyse the solution of linearized EIT inverse problem from the perspective of a state estimation problem, providing links between regularization, observability and convergence of the algorithms. In addition, also a new way to define the fictitious outputs is proposed, leading to observers with fewer parameters than with the approach widely used in literature. Simulation of EIT examples illustrate the main ideas and algorithmic improvements of the proposed approaches.
New second order Mumford-Shah model based on Γ-convergence approximation for image processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Jinming; Lu, Wenqi; Pan, Zhenkuan; Bai, Li
2016-05-01
In this paper, a second order variational model named the Mumford-Shah total generalized variation (MSTGV) is proposed for simultaneously image denoising and segmentation, which combines the original Γ-convergence approximated Mumford-Shah model with the second order total generalized variation (TGV). For image denoising, the proposed MSTGV can eliminate both the staircase artefact associated with the first order total variation and the edge blurring effect associated with the quadratic H1 regularization or the second order bounded Hessian regularization. For image segmentation, the MSTGV can obtain clear and continuous boundaries of objects in the image. To improve computational efficiency, the implementation of the MSTGV does not directly solve its high order nonlinear partial differential equations and instead exploits the efficient split Bregman algorithm. The algorithm benefits from the fast Fourier transform, analytical generalized soft thresholding equation, and Gauss-Seidel iteration. Extensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed model.
Convergence acceleration for a three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes zonal approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flores, J.
1985-01-01
A fast diagonal algorithm is coupled with a zonal approach to solve the three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. Transonic viscous solutions are obtained on a 150,000 point mesh for a NACA 0012 wing. The new computational approach yields a speedup by as much as a factor of 40 over the standard Beam-Warming algorithm/zonal method originally coded. A three-order-of-magnitude drop in the L2-norm of the residual requires approximately 500 iterations, which takes about 45 min of CPU time on a Cray-XMP. The numerically computed solutions are in good agreement with experimental results. Effects on convergence rate owing to increasing the zonal boundary overlap regions, different stretching distributions in the viscous regions, and different CFL values are also explored.
Three Specialized Innovations for FAST Wideband Receiver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xia; Yu, Xinying; Duan, Ran; Hao, Jie; Li, Di
2015-08-01
The National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) will soon finish the largest antenna in the world. Known as FAST, the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope will be the most sensitive single-dish radio telescope in the low frequency radio bands between 70 MHz and 3 GHz.To take advantage of its giant aperture, all relevant cutting-edge technology should be applied to FAST to ensure that it achieves the best possible overall performance. The wideband receiver that is currently under development can not only be directly applied to FAST, but also used for other Chinese radio telescopes, such as the Shanghai 65-meter telescope and the Xinjiang 110-meter telescope, to ensure that these telescopes are among the best in the world. Recently, rapid development related to this wideband receiver has been underway. In this paper, we will introduce three key aspects of the FAST wideband receiver project. First is the use of a high-performance analog-to-digital converter (ADC). With the cooperation of Hao Jie’s team from the Institute of Automation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(CASIA), we have developed 3-Gsps,12-bit ADCs, which have not been used previously in astronomy, and we expect to realize the 3-GHz bandwidth in a single step by covering the entire bandwidth via interleaving or a complex fast Fourier transform (FFT).Second is the front-end analog signal integrated circuit board. We wish to achieve a series of amplification, attenuation, and mixing filtering operations on a single small board, thereby achieving digital control of the bandpass behavior both flexibly and highly-efficiently. This design will not only greatly reduce the required cost and power but will also make the best use of the digital-system’s flexibility. Third is optimization of the FFT: the existing FFT is not very efficient; therefore, we will optimize the FFT for large-scale operation. For this purpose, we intend to cascade two FFTs. Another
In Search of Grid Converged Solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lockard, David P.
2010-01-01
Assessing solution error continues to be a formidable task when numerically solving practical flow problems. Currently, grid refinement is the primary method used for error assessment. The minimum grid spacing requirements to achieve design order accuracy for a structured-grid scheme are determined for several simple examples using truncation error evaluations on a sequence of meshes. For certain methods and classes of problems, obtaining design order may not be sufficient to guarantee low error. Furthermore, some schemes can require much finer meshes to obtain design order than would be needed to reduce the error to acceptable levels. Results are then presented from realistic problems that further demonstrate the challenges associated with using grid refinement studies to assess solution accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vernant, P.; Bilham, R.; Szeliga, W.; Drupka, D.; Kalita, S.; Bhattacharyya, A. K.; Gaur, V. K.; Pelgay, P.; Cattin, R.; Berthet, T.
2014-08-01
GPS data reveal that the Brahmaputra Valley has broken from the Indian Plate and rotates clockwise relative to India about a point a few hundred kilometers west of the Shillong Plateau. The GPS velocity vectors define two distinct blocks separated by the Kopili fault upon which 2-3 mm/yr of dextral slip is observed: the Shillong block between longitudes 89 and 93°E rotating clockwise at 1.15°/Myr and the Assam block from 93.5°E to 97°E rotating at ≈1.13°/Myr. These two blocks are more than 120 km wide in a north-south sense, but they extend locally a similar distance beneath the Himalaya and Tibet. A result of these rotations is that convergence across the Himalaya east of Sikkim decreases in velocity eastward from 18 to ≈12 mm/yr and convergence between the Shillong Plateau and Bangladesh across the Dauki fault increases from 3 mm/yr in the west to >8 mm/yr in the east. This fast convergence rate is inconsistent with inferred geological uplift rates on the plateau (if a 45°N dip is assumed for the Dauki fault) unless clockwise rotation of the Shillong block has increased substantially in the past 4-8 Myr. Such acceleration is consistent with the reported recent slowing in the convergence rate across the Bhutan Himalaya. The current slip potential near Bhutan, based on present-day convergence rates and assuming no great earthquake since 1713 A.D., is now ~5.4 m, similar to the slip reported from alluvial terraces that offsets across the Main Himalayan Thrust and sufficient to sustain a Mw ≥ 8.0 earthquake in this area.
Fast convolution with free-space Green's functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vico, Felipe; Greengard, Leslie; Ferrando, Miguel
2016-10-01
We introduce a fast algorithm for computing volume potentials - that is, the convolution of a translation invariant, free-space Green's function with a compactly supported source distribution defined on a uniform grid. The algorithm relies on regularizing the Fourier transform of the Green's function by cutting off the interaction in physical space beyond the domain of interest. This permits the straightforward application of trapezoidal quadrature and the standard FFT, with superalgebraic convergence for smooth data. Moreover, the method can be interpreted as employing a Nystrom discretization of the corresponding integral operator, with matrix entries which can be obtained explicitly and rapidly. This is of use in the design of preconditioners or fast direct solvers for a variety of volume integral equations. The method proposed permits the computation of any derivative of the potential, at the cost of an additional FFT.
Sea ice classification using fast learning neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dawson, M. S.; Fung, A. K.; Manry, M. T.
1992-01-01
A first learning neural network approach to the classification of sea ice is presented. The fast learning (FL) neural network and a multilayer perceptron (MLP) trained with backpropagation learning (BP network) were tested on simulated data sets based on the known dominant scattering characteristics of the target class. Four classes were used in the data simulation: open water, thick lossy saline ice, thin saline ice, and multiyear ice. The BP network was unable to consistently converge to less than 25 percent error while the FL method yielded an average error of approximately 1 percent on the first iteration of training. The fast learning method presented can significantly reduce the CPU time necessary to train a neural network as well as consistently yield higher classification accuracy than BP networks.
Simplified fast neutron dosimeter
Sohrabi, Mehdi
1979-01-01
Direct fast-neutron-induced recoil and alpha particle tracks in polycarbonate films may be enlarged for direct visual observation and automated counting procedures employing electrochemical etching techniques. Electrochemical etching is, for example, carried out in a 28% KOH solution at room temperature by applying a 2000 V peak-to-peak voltage at 1 kHz frequency. Such recoil particle amplification can be used for the detection of wide neutron dose ranges from 1 mrad. to 1000 rads. or higher, if desired.
DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.
1992-01-01
This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bishop, Matt
1988-01-01
The organization of some tools to help improve passwork security at a UNIX-based site is described along with how to install and use them. These tools and their associated library enable a site to force users to pick reasonably safe passwords (safe being site configurable) and to enable site management to try to crack existing passworks. The library contains various versions of a very fast implementation of the Data Encryption Standard and of the one-way encryption functions used to encryp the password.
Cabrillat, M. Th.; Lions, N.
1985-01-08
The invention relates to a fast neutron nuclear reactor of the integrated type comprising a cylindrical inner vessel. The inner vessel comprises two concentric ferrules and the connection between the hot collector defined within this vessel and the inlet port of the exchangers is brought about by a hot structure forming a heat baffle and supported by the inner ferrule and by a cold structure surrounding the hot structure, supported by the outer ferrule and sealingly connected to the exchanger. Application to the generation of electric power in nuclear power stations.
Snell, A.H.
1957-12-01
This patent relates to a reactor and process for carrying out a controlled fast neutron chain reaction. A cubical reactive mass, weighing at least 920 metric tons, of uranium metal containing predominantly U/sup 238/ and having a U/sup 235/ content of at least 7.63% is assembled and the maximum neutron reproduction ratio is limited to not substantially over 1.01 by insertion and removal of a varying amount of boron, the reactive mass being substantially freed of moderator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, I. J.; Sheppard, R. C. J.
In a scalar treatment, the three dimensional irradiance distribution in the focal region of a monochromatic convergent uniform spherical wave diffracted at a circular aperture in an opaque screen is calculated by the direct integration of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral of the first kind by a matrix method that uses a two dimensional form of Simpson's 1/3 rule. The method described can be used for both large and small Fresnel numbers and for large numerical apertures, off axis beams, filters and aberrations. By operating on matrices using the software package Matlab, the calculations can be done in minutes on a fast PC computer.
Fasting and sport: an introduction.
Maughan, R J
2010-06-01
Most humans observe an overnight fast on a daily basis, and the human body copes well with short duration fasting. Periodic fasting is widely practised for cultural, religious or health reasons. Fasting may take many different forms. Prolonged restriction of food and fluid is harmful to health and performance, and it is often automatically assumed that intermittent fasting will lead to decrements in exercise performance. Athletes who choose to fast during training or competitions may therefore be at a disadvantage. The available evidence does not entirely support this view, but there is little or no information on the effects on elite athletes competing in challenging environments. Prolonged periods of training in the fasted state may not allow optimum adaptation of muscles and other tissues. Further research on a wide range of athletes with special nutrition needs is urgently required. In events where performance might be affected, other strategies to eliminate or minimise any effects must be sought.