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Sample records for achieve frame rates

  1. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  2. High frame-rate digital radiographic videography

    SciTech Connect

    King, N.S.P.; Cverna, F.H.; Albright, K.L.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Yates, G.J.; McDonald, T.E.; Flynn, M.J.; Tashman, S.

    1994-09-01

    High speed x-ray imaging can be an important tool for observing internal processes in a wide range of applications. In this paper we describe preliminary implementation of a system having the eventual goal of observing the internal dynamics of bone and joint reactions during loading. Two Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) gated and image intensified camera systems were used to record images from an x-ray image convertor tube to demonstrate the potential of high frame-rate digital radiographic videography in the analysis of bone and joint dynamics of the human body. Preliminary experiments were done at LANL to test the systems. Initial high frame-rate imaging (from 500 to 1000 frames/s) of a swinging pendulum mounted to the face of an X-ray image convertor tube demonstrated high contrast response and baseline sensitivity. The systems were then evaluated at the Motion Analysis Laboratory of Henry Ford Health Systems Bone and Joint Center. Imaging of a 9 inch acrylic disk with embedded lead markers rotating at approximately 1000 RPM, demonstrated the system response to a high velocity/high contrast target. By gating the P-20 phosphor image from the X-ray image convertor with a second image intensifier (II) and using a 100-microsecond wide optical gate through the second II, enough prompt light decay from the x-ray image convertor phosphor had taken place to achieve reduction of most of the motion blurring. Measurement of the marker velocity was made by using video frames acquired at 500 frames/s. The data obtained from both experiments successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technique. Several key areas for improvement are discussed along with salient test results and experiment details.

  3. Frame-layer rate control algorithm for H.264 based on improved frame MAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ziguan; Liu, Ningzhong

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we present an improved frame layer rate control algorithm for H.264/AVC video coding standard. An important step in many existing rate control algorithms is to determine the target bits for each P frame. In the standard rate control scheme of H.264, the target bit number is a weighted combination of remaining bits and bits calculated from buffer regulation. The problem is that the remaining bits are allocated to all non-coded frames equally. This will cause non-uniform image quality over a video sequence. To overcome this disadvantage, first we define frame complexity ratio (FC ratio) as a measure for global frame encoding complexity and then allocate initial target bit according to its FC ratio. We define FC ratio as a weighted combination of motion complexity and texture complexity which can predict current frame complexity more accurately using the statistics of previously encoded frame and the texture information of current frame. Experiment results show that our improved algorithm can acquire more accurate quantization parameter (QP) for each P frame through the quadratic rate-distortion (R-D) model, achieve an average PSNR gain of about 0.28 dB and meanwhile effectively alleviate the buffer's fluctuating range and frame PSNR variation.

  4. Achieving Alignment of Perspectival Framings in Problem-Solving Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Sande, Carla C.; Greeno, James G.

    2012-01-01

    We use a concept of framing to explain 3 cases in which participants initially lacked mutual understanding but then achieved significant mutual understanding. The cases were all consistent with a pattern of "positional framing" that includes a human participant who is inquiring, which we call a "listener", and a "source", which may be another…

  5. The Theoretical Highest Frame Rate of Silicon Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Etoh, Takeharu Goji; Nguyen, Anh Quang; Kamakura, Yoshinari; Shimonomura, Kazuhiro; Le, Thi Yen; Mori, Nobuya

    2017-01-01

    The frame rate of the digital high-speed video camera was 2000 frames per second (fps) in 1989, and has been exponentially increasing. A simulation study showed that a silicon image sensor made with a 130 nm process technology can achieve about 1010 fps. The frame rate seems to approach the upper bound. Rayleigh proposed an expression on the theoretical spatial resolution limit when the resolution of lenses approached the limit. In this paper, the temporal resolution limit of silicon image sensors was theoretically analyzed. It is revealed that the limit is mainly governed by mixing of charges with different travel times caused by the distribution of penetration depth of light. The derived expression of the limit is extremely simple, yet accurate. For example, the limit for green light of 550 nm incident to silicon image sensors at 300 K is 11.1 picoseconds. Therefore, the theoretical highest frame rate is 90.1 Gfps (about 1011 fps). PMID:28264527

  6. High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Papers and working group summaries presented at the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video (HHV) Workshop are compiled. HHV system is intended for future use on the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The Workshop was held for the dual purpose of: (1) allowing potential scientific users to assess the utility of the proposed system for monitoring microgravity science experiments; and (2) letting technical experts from industry recommend improvements to the proposed near-term HHV system. The following topics are covered: (1) State of the art in the video system performance; (2) Development plan for the HHV system; (3) Advanced technology for image gathering, coding, and processing; (4) Data compression applied to HHV; (5) Data transmission networks; and (6) Results of the users' requirements survey conducted by NASA.

  7. Towards hard X-ray imaging at GHz frame rate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Luo, Shengnian; Kwiatkowski, Kris K.; Kapustinsky, Jon S.

    2012-05-02

    Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard X-rays ({approx}> 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and X-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one X-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards X-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are (a) Avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) Microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

  8. Towards hard x-ray imaging at GHz frame rate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhehui; Morris, C. L.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Luo, S.-N.

    2012-10-15

    Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard x-rays ( Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research and applications using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and x-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one x-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards x-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are: (a) avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

  9. High frame rate retrospectively triggered Cine MRI for assessment of murine diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Coolen, Bram F; Abdurrachim, Desiree; Motaal, Abdallah G; Nicolay, Klaas; Prompers, Jeanine J; Strijkers, Gustav J

    2013-03-01

    To assess left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in mice with Cine MRI, a high frame rate (>60 frames per cardiac cycle) is required. For conventional electrocardiography-triggered Cine MRI, the frame rate is inversely proportional to the pulse repetition time (TR). However, TR cannot be lowered at will to increase the frame rate because of gradient hardware, spatial resolution, and signal-to-noise limitations. To overcome these limitations associated with electrocardiography-triggered Cine MRI, in this paper, we introduce a retrospectively triggered Cine MRI protocol capable of producing high-resolution high frame rate Cine MRI of the mouse heart for addressing left ventricular diastolic function. Simulations were performed to investigate the influence of MRI sequence parameters and the k-space filling trajectory in relation to the desired number of frames per cardiac cycle. An optimized protocol was applied in vivo and compared with electrocardiography-triggered Cine for which a high-frame rate could only be achieved by several interleaved acquisitions. Retrospective high frame rate Cine MRI proved superior to the interleaved electrocardiography-triggered protocols. High spatial-resolution Cine movies with frames rates up to 80 frames per cardiac cycle were obtained in 25 min. Analysis of left ventricular filling rate curves allowed accurate determination of early and late filling rates and revealed subtle impairments in left ventricular diastolic function of diabetic mice in comparison with nondiabetic mice.

  10. Using Temporal Fill Factor to Reduce Frame Reconstruction Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, James; Balram, Nikhil; Gille, Jennifer; Luszcz, Jeffery

    1997-01-01

    The newer active matrix display technologies such as TFT-LCD, DMD, PDP maintain their pixel values through the entire frame time, presenting a 100% temporal fill factor, in contrast to the duty cycle produced by the phosphor impulse response of the CRT. This sample-and-hold characteristic can be exploited to lower the displayed frame rate without affecting visual quality. The lower frame rate results in significantly lower transmission bandwidth, power, and cost.

  11. Rate-distortion analysis of SP and SI frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setton, Eric; Girod, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    SP and SI frames in the H.264 video coding standard can be used for error resilience, bitstream switching or random access. Despite a widespread interest in these new types of frames, no work so far has investigated, in a systematic way, their rate-distortion efficiency. In this paper, we propose a model for the rate-distortion performance of SI and SP frames. A comparison to experimental results, obtained with our implementation of an SP encoder, recently adopted by JVT, confirms its validity. The model predicts how the relative sizes of SP and SI frames can be traded off. We analyze, both theoretically and experimentally, how this can be used to minimize the transmitted bit-rate when SP frames are used for video streaming with packet losses.

  12. System selects framing rate for spectrograph camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Circuit using zero-order light is reflected to a photomultiplier in the incoming radiation of a spectrograph monitor to provide an error signal which controls the advancing and driving rate of the film through the camera.

  13. Rate control algorithm based on frame complexity estimation for MVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Tao; An, Ping; Shen, Liquan; Zhang, Zhaoyang

    2010-07-01

    Rate control has not been well studied for multi-view video coding (MVC). In this paper, we propose an efficient rate control algorithm for MVC by improving the quadratic rate-distortion (R-D) model, which reasonably allocate bit-rate among views based on correlation analysis. The proposed algorithm consists of four levels for rate bits control more accurately, of which the frame layer allocates bits according to frame complexity and temporal activity. Extensive experiments show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently implement bit allocation and rate control according to coding parameters.

  14. Reducing video frame rate increases remote optimal focus time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve observers made best optical focus adjustments to a microscope whose high-resolution pattern was video monitored and displayed first on a National Television System Committee (NTSC) analog color monitor and second on a digitally compressed computer monitor screen at frame rates ranging (in six steps) from 1.5 to 30 frames per second (fps). This was done to determine whether reducing the frame rate affects the image focus. Reducing frame rate has been shown to be an effective and acceptable means of reducing transmission bandwidth of dynamic video imagery sent from Space Station Freedom (SSF) to ground scientists. Three responses were recorded per trial: time to complete the focus adjustment, number of changes of focus direction, and subjective rating of final image quality. It was found that: the average time to complete the focus setting increases from 4.5 sec at 30 fps to 7.9 sec at 1.5 fps (statistical probability = 1.2 x 10(exp -7)); there is no significant difference in the number of changes in the direction of focus adjustment across these frame rates; and there is no significant change in subjectively determined final image quality across these frame rates. These data can be used to help pre-plan future remote optical-focus operations on SSF.

  15. FMO-based H.264 frame layer rate control for low bit rate video transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajote, Rhandley D.; Aramvith, Supavadee; Miyanaga, Yoshikazu

    2011-12-01

    The use of flexible macroblock ordering (FMO) in H.264/AVC improves error resiliency at the expense of reduced coding efficiency with added overhead bits for slice headers and signalling. The trade-off is most severe at low bit rates, where header bits occupy a significant portion of the total bit budget. To better manage the rate and improve coding efficiency, we propose enhancements to the H.264/AVC frame layer rate control, which take into consideration the effects of using FMO for video transmission. In this article, we propose a new header bits model, an enhanced frame complexity measure, a bit allocation and a quantization parameter adjustment scheme. Simulation results show that the proposed improvements achieve better visual quality compared with the JM 9.2 frame layer rate control with FMO enabled using a different number of slice groups. Using FMO as an error resilient tool with better rate management is suitable in applications that have limited bandwidth and in error prone environments such as video transmission for mobile terminals.

  16. The Effect of Frame Rate on 3D Video Quality and Bitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banitalebi-Dehkordi, Amin; Pourazad, Mahsa T.; Nasiopoulos, Panos

    2015-03-01

    Increasing the frame rate of a 3D video generally results in improved Quality of Experience (QoE). However, higher frame rates involve a higher degree of complexity in capturing, transmission, storage, and display. The question that arises here is what frame rate guarantees high viewing quality of experience given the existing/required 3D devices and technologies (3D cameras, 3D TVs, compression, transmission bandwidth, and storage capacity). This question has already been addressed for the case of 2D video, but not for 3D. The objective of this paper is to study the relationship between 3D quality and bitrate at different frame rates. Our performance evaluations show that increasing the frame rate of 3D videos beyond 60 fps may not be visually distinguishable. In addition, our experiments show that when the available bandwidth is reduced, the highest possible 3D quality of experience can be achieved by adjusting (decreasing) the frame rate instead of increasing the compression ratio. The results of our study are of particular interest to network providers for rate adaptation in variable bitrate channels.

  17. High frame rate photoacoustic imaging at 7000 frames per second using clinical ultrasound system

    PubMed Central

    Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Pramanik, Manojit

    2016-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography, a hybrid imaging modality combining optical and ultrasound imaging, is gaining attention in the field of medical imaging. Typically, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is used to excite the tissue and generate photoacoustic signals. But, such photoacoustic imaging systems are difficult to translate into clinical applications owing to their high cost, bulky size often requiring an optical table to house such lasers. Moreover, the low pulse repetition rate of few tens of hertz prevents them from being used in high frame rate photoacoustic imaging. In this work, we have demonstrated up to 7000 Hz photoacoustic imaging (B-mode) and measured the flow rate of a fast moving object. We used a ~140 nanosecond pulsed laser diode as an excitation source and a clinical ultrasound imaging system to capture and display the photoacoustic images. The excitation laser is ~803 nm in wavelength with ~1.4 mJ energy per pulse. So far, the reported 2-dimensional photoacoustic B-scan imaging is only a few tens of frames per second using a clinical ultrasound system. Therefore, this is the first report on 2-dimensional photoacoustic B-scan imaging with 7000 frames per second. We have demonstrated phantom imaging to view and measure the flow rate of ink solution inside a tube. This fast photoacoustic imaging can be useful for various clinical applications including cardiac related problems, where the blood flow rate is quite high, or other dynamic studies. PMID:26977342

  18. High frame rate photoacoustic imaging at 7000 frames per second using clinical ultrasound system.

    PubMed

    Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Pramanik, Manojit

    2016-02-01

    Photoacoustic tomography, a hybrid imaging modality combining optical and ultrasound imaging, is gaining attention in the field of medical imaging. Typically, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is used to excite the tissue and generate photoacoustic signals. But, such photoacoustic imaging systems are difficult to translate into clinical applications owing to their high cost, bulky size often requiring an optical table to house such lasers. Moreover, the low pulse repetition rate of few tens of hertz prevents them from being used in high frame rate photoacoustic imaging. In this work, we have demonstrated up to 7000 Hz photoacoustic imaging (B-mode) and measured the flow rate of a fast moving object. We used a ~140 nanosecond pulsed laser diode as an excitation source and a clinical ultrasound imaging system to capture and display the photoacoustic images. The excitation laser is ~803 nm in wavelength with ~1.4 mJ energy per pulse. So far, the reported 2-dimensional photoacoustic B-scan imaging is only a few tens of frames per second using a clinical ultrasound system. Therefore, this is the first report on 2-dimensional photoacoustic B-scan imaging with 7000 frames per second. We have demonstrated phantom imaging to view and measure the flow rate of ink solution inside a tube. This fast photoacoustic imaging can be useful for various clinical applications including cardiac related problems, where the blood flow rate is quite high, or other dynamic studies.

  19. Corrected High-Frame Rate Anchored Ultrasound with Software Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Amanda L.; Finch, Kenneth B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To improve lingual ultrasound imaging with the Corrected High Frame Rate Anchored Ultrasound with Software Alignment (CHAUSA; Miller, 2008) method. Method: A production study of the IsiXhosa alveolar click is presented. Articulatory-to-acoustic alignment is demonstrated using a Tri-Modal 3-ms pulse generator. Images from 2 simultaneous…

  20. High frame rate CCD camera with fast optical shutter

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.; McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Turko, B.T.

    1998-09-01

    A high frame rate CCD camera coupled with a fast optical shutter has been designed for high repetition rate imaging applications. The design uses state-of-the-art microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPII) technology fostered/developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory to support nuclear, military, and medical research requiring high-speed imagery. Key design features include asynchronous resetting of the camera to acquire random transient images, patented real-time analog signal processing with 10-bit digitization at 40--75 MHz pixel rates, synchronized shutter exposures as short as 200pS, sustained continuous readout of 512 x 512 pixels per frame at 1--5Hz rates via parallel multiport (16-port CCD) data transfer. Salient characterization/performance test data for the prototype camera are presented, temporally and spatially resolved images obtained from range-gated LADAR field testing are included, an alternative system configuration using several cameras sequenced to deliver discrete numbers of consecutive frames at effective burst rates up to 5GHz (accomplished by time-phasing of consecutive MCPII shutter gates without overlap) is discussed. Potential applications including dynamic radiography and optical correlation will be presented.

  1. Applying compressive sensing to TEM video: A substantial frame rate increase on any camera

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Andrew; Kovarik, Libor; Abellan, Patricia; Yuan, Xin; Carin, Lawrence; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-08-13

    One of the main limitations of imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution during in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments is the frame rate of the camera being used to image the dynamic process. While the recent development of direct detectors has provided the hardware to achieve frame rates approaching 0.1 ms, the cameras are expensive and must replace existing detectors. In this paper, we examine the use of coded aperture compressive sensing (CS) methods to increase the frame rate of any camera with simple, low-cost hardware modifications. The coded aperture approach allows multiple sub-frames to be coded and integrated into a single camera frame during the acquisition process, and then extracted upon readout using statistical CS inversion. Here we describe the background of CS and statistical methods in depth and simulate the frame rates and efficiencies for in-situ TEM experiments. Depending on the resolution and signal/noise of the image, it should be possible to increase the speed of any camera by more than an order of magnitude using this approach.

  2. Applying compressive sensing to TEM video: A substantial frame rate increase on any camera

    DOE PAGES

    Stevens, Andrew; Kovarik, Libor; Abellan, Patricia; ...

    2015-08-13

    One of the main limitations of imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution during in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments is the frame rate of the camera being used to image the dynamic process. While the recent development of direct detectors has provided the hardware to achieve frame rates approaching 0.1 ms, the cameras are expensive and must replace existing detectors. In this paper, we examine the use of coded aperture compressive sensing (CS) methods to increase the frame rate of any camera with simple, low-cost hardware modifications. The coded aperture approach allows multiple sub-frames to be coded and integratedmore » into a single camera frame during the acquisition process, and then extracted upon readout using statistical CS inversion. Here we describe the background of CS and statistical methods in depth and simulate the frame rates and efficiencies for in-situ TEM experiments. Depending on the resolution and signal/noise of the image, it should be possible to increase the speed of any camera by more than an order of magnitude using this approach.« less

  3. Cheetah: A high frame rate, high resolution SWIR image camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neys, Joel; Bentell, Jonas; O'Grady, Matt; Vermeiren, Jan; Colin, Thierry; Hooylaerts, Peter; Grietens, Bob

    2008-10-01

    A high resolution, high frame rate InGaAs based image sensor and associated camera has been developed. The sensor and the camera are capable of recording and delivering more than 1700 full 640x512pixel frames per second. The FPA utilizes a low lag CTIA current integrator in each pixel, enabling integration times shorter than one microsecond. On-chip logics allows for four different sub windows to be read out simultaneously at even higher rates. The spectral sensitivity of the FPA is situated in the SWIR range [0.9-1.7 μm] and can be further extended into the Visible and NIR range. The Cheetah camera has max 16 GB of on-board memory to store the acquired images and transfer the data over a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the PC. The camera is also equipped with a full CameralinkTM interface to directly stream the data to a frame grabber or dedicated image processing unit. The Cheetah camera is completely under software control.

  4. High frame rate photoacoustic imaging using clinical ultrasound system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Pramanik, Manojit

    2016-03-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a potential hybrid imaging modality which is gaining attention in the field of medical imaging. Typically a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is used to excite the tissue and generate photoacoustic signals. But, they are not suitable for clinical applications owing to their high cost, large size. Also, their low pulse repetition rate (PRR) of few tens of hertz prevents them from being used in real-time PAT. So, there is a growing need for an imaging system capable of real-time imaging for various clinical applications. In this work, we are using a nanosecond pulsed laser diode as an excitation source and a clinical ultrasound imaging system to obtain the photoacoustic imaging. The excitation laser is ~803 nm in wavelength with energy of ~1.4 mJ per pulse. So far, the reported frame rate for photoacoustic imaging is only a few hundred Hertz. We have demonstrated up to 7000 frames per second framerate in photoacoustic imaging (B-mode) and measured the flow rate of fast moving obje ct. Phantom experiments were performed to test the fast imaging capability and measure the flow rate of ink solution inside a tube. This fast photoacoustic imaging can be used for various clinical applications including cardiac related problems, where the blood flow rate is quite high, or other dynamic studies.

  5. Design and construction of a high frame rate imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Waugaman, John L.; Liu, Anjun; Lu, Jian-Yu

    2002-05-01

    A new high frame rate imaging method has been developed recently [Jian-yu Lu, ``2D and 3D high frame rate imaging with limited diffraction beams,'' IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 44, 839-856 (1997)]. This method may have a clinical application for imaging of fast moving objects such as human hearts, velocity vector imaging, and low-speckle imaging. To implement the method, an imaging system has been designed. The system consists of one main printed circuit board (PCB) and 16 channel boards (each channel board contains 8 channels), in addition to a set-top box for connections to a personal computer (PC), a front panel board for user control and message display, and a power control and distribution board. The main board contains a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and controls all channels (each channel has also an FPGA). We will report the analog and digital circuit design and simulations, multiplayer PCB designs with commercial software (Protel 99), PCB signal integrity testing and system RFI/EMI shielding, and the assembly and construction of the entire system. [Work supported in part by Grant 5RO1 HL60301 from NIH.

  6. Frequency-locked pulse sequencer for high-frame-rate monochromatic tissue motion imaging.

    PubMed

    Azar, Reza Zahiri; Baghani, Ali; Salcudean, Septimiu E; Rohling, Robert

    2011-04-01

    To overcome the inherent low frame rate of conventional ultrasound, we have previously presented a system that can be implemented on conventional ultrasound scanners for high-frame-rate imaging of monochromatic tissue motion. The system employs a sector subdivision technique in the sequencer to increase the acquisition rate. To eliminate the delays introduced during data acquisition, a motion phase correction algorithm has also been introduced to create in-phase displacement images. Previous experimental results from tissue- mimicking phantoms showed that the system can achieve effective frame rates of up to a few kilohertz on conventional ultrasound systems. In this short communication, we present a new pulse sequencing strategy that facilitates high-frame-rate imaging of monochromatic motion such that the acquired echo signals are inherently in-phase. The sequencer uses the knowledge of the excitation frequency to synchronize the acquisition of the entire imaging plane to that of an external exciter. This sequencing approach eliminates any need for synchronization or phase correction and has applications in tissue elastography, which we demonstrate with tissue-mimicking phantoms.

  7. Development of a high frame rate ultrasonic system for cardiac imaging in small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei; Cannata, Jonathan M.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Yen, Jesse T.; Feng, Ching; Shung, K. Kirk

    2006-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is a well established technology for echocardiography on humans. For cardiac imaging in small animals whose hearts beat at a rate higher than 300 beats per minute, the spatial and temporal resolution of current clinical ultrasonic scanners are far from ideal and simply inadequate for such applications. In this research, a real-time high frequency ultrasound imaging system was developed with a frame rate higher than 80 frames per second (fps) for cardiac applications in small animals. The device has a mechanical sector scanner using magnetic drive mechanism to reduce moving parts and ensure longevity. A very lightweight (< 0.28 g) single element transducer was specially designed and constructed for this research to achieve a frame rate of at least 80 fps. The 30-50 MHz transducers swept through an arc at the end of a pendulum for imaging the heart of small animals. The imaging electronics consisted of a low noise pulser/receiver, a high-speed data acquisition board, and digital signal processing algorithms. In vivo results on mouse embryos showed that real time ultrasound imaging at frame rate exceeding 80 fps could demonstrate detailed depiction of cardiac function with a spatial resolution of around 50 microns, which allows researchers to fully examine and monitor small animal cardiac functions.

  8. Visible light communication using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate.

    PubMed

    Chow, Chi-Wai; Chen, Chung-Yen; Chen, Shih-Hao

    2015-10-05

    Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors are widely used in mobile-phone and cameras. Hence, it is attractive if these image sensors can be used as the visible light communication (VLC) receivers (Rxs). However, using these CMOS image sensors are challenging. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a VLC link using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate of the CMOS image sensor. We first discuss and analyze the features of using CMOS image sensor as VLC Rx, including the rolling shutter effect, overlapping of exposure time of each row of pixels, frame-to-frame processing time gap, and also the image sensor "blooming" effect. Then, we describe the procedure of synchronization and demodulation. This includes file format conversion, grayscale conversion, column matrix selection avoiding blooming, polynomial fitting for threshold location. Finally, the evaluation of bit-error-rate (BER) is performed satisfying the forward error correction (FEC) limit.

  9. Deep-UV-sensitive high-frame-rate backside-illuminated CCD camera developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Robin M.; Andreas, Robert; Andrews, James T.; Bhaskaran, Mahalingham; Farkas, Robert; Furst, David; Gershstein, Sergey; Grygon, Mark S.; Levine, Peter A.; Meray, Grazyna M.; O'Neal, Michael; Perna, Steve N.; Proefrock, Donald; Reale, Michael; Soydan, Ramazan; Sudol, Thomas M.; Swain, Pradyumna K.; Tower, John R.; Zanzucchi, Pete

    2002-04-01

    New applications for ultra-violet imaging are emerging in the fields of drug discovery and industrial inspection. High throughput is critical for these applications where millions of drug combinations are analyzed in secondary screenings or high rate inspection of small feature sizes over large areas is required. Sarnoff demonstrated in1990 a back illuminated, 1024 X 1024, 18 um pixel, split-frame-transfer device running at > 150 frames per second with high sensitivity in the visible spectrum. Sarnoff designed, fabricated and delivered cameras based on these CCDs and is now extending this technology to devices with higher pixel counts and higher frame rates through CCD architectural enhancements. The high sensitivities obtained in the visible spectrum are being pushed into the deep UV to support these new medical and industrial inspection applications. Sarnoff has achieved measured quantum efficiencies > 55% at 193 nm, rising to 65% at 300 nm, and remaining almost constant out to 750 nm. Optimization of the sensitivity is being pursued to tailor the quantum efficiency for particular wavelengths. Characteristics of these high frame rate CCDs and cameras will be described and results will be presented demonstrating high UV sensitivity down to 150 nm.

  10. GPU accelerated processing of astronomical high frame-rate videosequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vítek, Stanislav; Švihlík, Jan; Krasula, Lukáš; Fliegel, Karel; Páta, Petr

    2015-09-01

    Astronomical instruments located around the world are producing an incredibly large amount of possibly interesting scientific data. Astronomical research is expanding into large and highly sensitive telescopes. Total volume of data rates per night of operations also increases with the quality and resolution of state-of-the-art CCD/CMOS detectors. Since many of the ground-based astronomical experiments are placed in remote locations with limited access to the Internet, it is necessary to solve the problem of the data storage. It mostly means that current data acquistion, processing and analyses algorithm require review. Decision about importance of the data has to be taken in very short time. This work deals with GPU accelerated processing of high frame-rate astronomical video-sequences, mostly originating from experiment MAIA (Meteor Automatic Imager and Analyser), an instrument primarily focused to observing of faint meteoric events with a high time resolution. The instrument with price bellow 2000 euro consists of image intensifier and gigabite ethernet camera running at 61 fps. With resolution better than VGA the system produces up to 2TB of scientifically valuable video data per night. Main goal of the paper is not to optimize any GPU algorithm, but to propose and evaluate parallel GPU algorithms able to process huge amount of video-sequences in order to delete all uninteresting data.

  11. Effects of frame rate and image resolution on pulse rate measured using multiple camera imaging photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackford, Ethan B.; Estepp, Justin R.

    2015-03-01

    Non-contact, imaging photoplethysmography uses cameras to facilitate measurements including pulse rate, pulse rate variability, respiration rate, and blood perfusion by measuring characteristic changes in light absorption at the skin's surface resulting from changes in blood volume in the superficial microvasculature. Several factors may affect the accuracy of the physiological measurement including imager frame rate, resolution, compression, lighting conditions, image background, participant skin tone, and participant motion. Before this method can gain wider use outside basic research settings, its constraints and capabilities must be well understood. Recently, we presented a novel approach utilizing a synchronized, nine-camera, semicircular array backed by measurement of an electrocardiogram and fingertip reflectance photoplethysmogram. Twenty-five individuals participated in six, five-minute, controlled head motion artifact trials in front of a black and dynamic color backdrop. Increasing the input channel space for blind source separation using the camera array was effective in mitigating error from head motion artifact. Herein we present the effects of lower frame rates at 60 and 30 (reduced from 120) frames per second and reduced image resolution at 329x246 pixels (one-quarter of the original 658x492 pixel resolution) using bilinear and zero-order downsampling. This is the first time these factors have been examined for a multiple imager array and align well with previous findings utilizing a single imager. Examining windowed pulse rates, there is little observable difference in mean absolute error or error distributions resulting from reduced frame rates or image resolution, thus lowering requirements for systems measuring pulse rate over sufficient length time windows.

  12. Laryngeal High-Speed Videoendoscopy: Sensitivity of Objective Parameters towards Recording Frame Rate

    PubMed Central

    Kunduk, Melda; Döllinger, Michael; Alexiou, Christoph; Dubrovskiy, Denis; Semmler, Marion; Seger, Anja; Bohr, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The current use of laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy in clinic settings involves subjective visual assessment of vocal fold vibratory characteristics. However, objective quantification of vocal fold vibrations for evidence-based diagnosis and therapy is desired, and objective parameters assessing laryngeal dynamics have therefore been suggested. This study investigated the sensitivity of the objective parameters and their dependence on recording frame rate. A total of 300 endoscopic high-speed videos with recording frame rates between 1000 and 15 000 fps were analyzed for a vocally healthy female subject during sustained phonation. Twenty parameters, representing laryngeal dynamics, were computed. Four different parameter characteristics were found: parameters showing no change with increasing frame rate; parameters changing up to a certain frame rate, but then remaining constant; parameters remaining constant within a particular range of recording frame rates; and parameters changing with nearly every frame rate. The results suggest that (1) parameter values are influenced by recording frame rates and different parameters have varying sensitivities to recording frame rate; (2) normative values should be determined based on recording frame rates; and (3) the typically used recording frame rate of 4000 fps seems to be too low to distinguish accurately certain characteristics of the human phonation process in detail. PMID:27990428

  13. Data rate management and real time operation: recursive adaptive frame integration of limited data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2006-08-01

    Recursive Limited Frame Integration was proposed as a way to improve frame integration performance and mitigate issues related to high data rate needed to support conventional frame integration. The technique uses two thresholds -one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate, and places integration process between those thresholds. This configuration allows a non-linear integration process that, along with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) gain, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability. However, Recursive Frame Integration Limited may have performance issues when single-frame SNR is really low. Recursive Adaptive Limited Frame Integration was proposed as a means to improve limited integration performance with really low single-frame SNR. It combines the benefits of nonlinear recursive limited frame integration and adaptive thresholds with a kind of conventional frame integration. Adding the third threshold may help in managing real time operations. In the paper the Recursive Frame Integration is presented in form of multiple parallel recursive integration. Such an approach can help not only in data rate management but in mitigation of low single frame SNR issue for Recursive Integration as well as in real time operations with frame integration.

  14. Efficient Hybrid Image Warping for High Frame-Rate Stereoscopic Rendering.

    PubMed

    Schollmeyer, Andre; Schneegans, Simon; Beck, Stephan; Steed, Anthony; Froehlich, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    Modern virtual reality simulations require a constant high-frame rate from the rendering engine. They may also require very low latency and stereo images. Previous rendering engines for virtual reality applications have exploited spatial and temporal coherence by using image-warping to re-use previous frames or to render a stereo pair at lower cost than running the full render pipeline twice. However these previous approaches have shown artifacts or have not scaled well with image size. We present a new image-warping algorithm that has several novel contributions: an adaptive grid generation algorithm for proxy geometry for image warping; a low-pass hole-filling algorithm to address un-occlusion; and support for transparent surfaces by efficiently ray casting transparent fragments stored in per-pixel linked lists of an A-Buffer. We evaluate our algorithm with a variety of challenging test cases. The results show that it achieves better quality image-warping than state-of-the-art techniques and that it can support transparent surfaces effectively. Finally, we show that our algorithm can achieve image warping at rates suitable for practical use in a variety of applications on modern virtual reality equipment.

  15. Very high frame rate volumetric integration of depth images on mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Kähler, Olaf; Adrian Prisacariu, Victor; Yuheng Ren, Carl; Sun, Xin; Torr, Philip; Murray, David

    2015-11-01

    Volumetric methods provide efficient, flexible and simple ways of integrating multiple depth images into a full 3D model. They provide dense and photorealistic 3D reconstructions, and parallelised implementations on GPUs achieve real-time performance on modern graphics hardware. To run such methods on mobile devices, providing users with freedom of movement and instantaneous reconstruction feedback, remains challenging however. In this paper we present a range of modifications to existing volumetric integration methods based on voxel block hashing, considerably improving their performance and making them applicable to tablet computer applications. We present (i) optimisations for the basic data structure, and its allocation and integration; (ii) a highly optimised raycasting pipeline; and (iii) extensions to the camera tracker to incorporate IMU data. In total, our system thus achieves frame rates up 47 Hz on a Nvidia Shield Tablet and 910 Hz on a Nvidia GTX Titan XGPU, or even beyond 1.1 kHz without visualisation.

  16. A study of video frame rate on the perception of moving imagery detail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.; Chuang, Sherry L.

    1993-01-01

    The rate at which each frame of color moving video imagery is displayed was varied in small steps to determine what is the minimal acceptable frame rate for life scientists viewing white rats within a small enclosure. Two, twenty five second-long scenes (slow and fast animal motions) were evaluated by nine NASA principal investigators and animal care technicians. The mean minimum acceptable frame rate across these subjects was 3.9 fps both for the slow and fast moving animal scenes. The highest single trial frame rate averaged across all subjects for the slow and the fast scene was 6.2 and 4.8, respectively. Further research is called for in which frame rate, image size, and color/gray scale depth are covaried during the same observation period.

  17. The effects of frame rate and resolution on users playing first person shooter games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claypool, Mark; Claypool, Kajal; Damaa, Feissal

    2006-01-01

    The rates and resolutions for frames rendered in a computer game directly impact the player performance, influencing both the overall game playability and the game's enjoyability. Insights into the effects of frame rates and resolutions can guide users in their choice for game settings and new hardware purchases, and inform system designers in their development of new hardware, especially for embedded devices that often must make tradeoffs between resolution and frame rate. While there have been studies detailing the effects of frame rate and resolution on streaming video and other multimedia applications, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies quantifying the effects of frame rate and resolution on user performance for computer games. This paper presents results of a carefully designed user study that measures the impact of frame rate and frame resolution on user performance in a first person shooter game. Contrary to previous results for streaming video, frame rate has a marked impact on both player performance and game enjoyment while resolution has little impact on performance and some impact on enjoyment.

  18. An assessment of high-power light-emitting diodes for high frame rate schlieren imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willert, Christian E.; Mitchell, Daniel M.; Soria, Julio

    2012-08-01

    The feasibility of using high-power light-emitting diodes (LED) as a light source for high frame rate schlieren imaging is investigated. Continuous sequences of high-intensity light pulses are achieved by overdriving the LED with current pulses up to a factor of ten beyond its specifications. In comparison to commonly used pulsed light sources such as gas discharge lamps and pulsed lasers, the pulsed LED has several attractive advantages: the pulse-to-pulse intensity variation is on the same order of magnitude as the detector (camera) noise permitting quantitative intensity measurements. The LED's narrow emission bandwidth reduces chromatic abberations, yet it is spectrally wide enough to prevent the appearance of speckle and diffraction effects in the images. Most importantly, the essentially lag-free light emission within tens of nanoseconds of the applied current pulse allows the LED to be operated at varying frequencies (i.e., asynchronously), which generally is not possible with neither lasers nor discharge lamps. The pulsed LED source, driven by a simple driver circuit, is demonstrated on two schlieren imaging setups. The first configuration visualizes the temporal evolution of shock structures and sound waves of an under-expanded jet that is impinging on a rigid surface at frame rates of 500 kHz to 1 MHz. In a second application, long sequences of several thousand high-resolution images are acquired on a free jet at a frame rate of 1 kHz. The low-intensity fluctuation and large sample number allow a reliable computation of two-point correlation data from the image sequences.

  19. Ultrafast Harmonic Coherent Compound (UHCC) imaging for high frame rate echocardiography and Shear Wave Elastography

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Mafalda; Provost, Jean; Chatelin, Simon; Villemain, Olivier; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Transthoracic shear wave elastography of the myocardium remains very challenging due to the poor quality of transthoracic ultrafast imaging and the presence of clutter noise, jitter, phase aberration, and ultrasound reverberation. Several approaches, such as, e.g., diverging-wave coherent compounding or focused harmonic imaging have been proposed to improve the imaging quality. In this study, we introduce ultrafast harmonic coherent compounding (UHCC), in which pulse-inverted diverging-waves are emitted and coherently compounded, and show that such an approach can be used to enhance both Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) and high frame rate B-mode Imaging. UHCC SWE was first tested in phantoms containing an aberrating layer and was compared against pulse-inversion harmonic imaging and against ultrafast coherent compounding (UCC) imaging at the fundamental frequency. In-vivo feasibility of the technique was then evaluated in six healthy volunteers by measuring myocardial stiffness during diastole in transthoracic imaging. We also demonstrated that improvements in imaging quality could be achieved using UHCC B-mode imaging in healthy volunteers. The quality of transthoracic images of the heart was found to be improved with the number of pulse-inverted diverging waves with reduction of the imaging mean clutter level up to 13.8-dB when compared against UCC at the fundamental frequency. These results demonstrated that UHCC B-mode imaging is promising for imaging deep tissues exposed to aberration sources with a high frame-rate. PMID:26890730

  20. Effect of sampling frames on response rates in the WHO MONICA risk factor surveys.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Hermann K; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Tolonen, Hanna; Sans, Susana; Molarius, Anu; Eastwood, Brian J

    2005-01-01

    Sample surveys are used to investigate occurrence and determinants of diseases in populations. Their reliability is influenced by quality of sampling frame and response rate. We investigated relationship between sampling frame type and response rates and assessed their impact on non-response bias, using data from the WHO MONICA Project, where 37 centres in 20 countries conducted sample surveys, employing the best locally available sampling frame. Sampling frames fell into three categories: Population registers (PR), electoral registers (ER), and health care registers (HR). Response rate (rrs) was factored into components reflecting quality of sampling frame (contact rate cr) and characterizing willingness of sample members to participate (enrolment rate er). The mean quality score for the sampling frames was 92% for PR, 87% for HR and 85% for ER; they contributed on average 23, 20, and 26% to the respective non-response rates. For all frame types and both sexes the lowest quality score occurred in the age group 35 - 44, suggesting a reduced ability to track migration of a highly mobile population group. The patterns in the age/sex distribution of er indicate at least for males in PR and females in HR a potential for non-response bias. Estimation of non-response bias through an abbreviated questionnaire failed because of low item response. We found that contact rate characterizes sampling frame quality. For all frame types it had a major influence on response rate. It is likely that low er and low cr cause different kind of bias, requiring different measures to minimize their effects.

  1. Reconstruction of high frame rate image sequences in biomechanical related areas.

    PubMed

    Costa, Monica; Soares, Salviano; Barroso, Joao

    2010-01-01

    Regular video cameras shoot normally at 25/30 frames per second (fps). Actually there are available in the market equipments that allow us to acquire video at 1.000.000 fps. When we observe a video sequence it becomes noticeable that great part of the information remains unchanged regardless of the bit rate or frame rate used. One origin of discontinuity in video signals is directly related to movement. Several areas use high frame rate images to analyze and comprehend certain events or effects, biomechanical engineering is one of them. Biomechanics engineering studies the mechanics of a living body, especially the forces exerted by muscles and gravity on the skeletal structure. Some examples are athlete assessment, were images are capture and then the acquired parameters are analyzed. This article describes a new methodology to decrease the space needed to store high frame rate image sequences in the specific case of biomechanical related areas.

  2. The impact of cine EPID image acquisition frame rate on markerless soft-tissue tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, Stephen Rottmann, Joerg; Berbeco, Ross

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Although reduction of the cine electronic portal imaging device (EPID) acquisition frame rate through multiple frame averaging may reduce hardware memory burden and decrease image noise, it can hinder the continuity of soft-tissue motion leading to poor autotracking results. The impact of motion blurring and image noise on the tracking performance was investigated. Methods: Phantom and patient images were acquired at a frame rate of 12.87 Hz with an amorphous silicon portal imager (AS1000, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The maximum frame rate of 12.87 Hz is imposed by the EPID. Low frame rate images were obtained by continuous frame averaging. A previously validated tracking algorithm was employed for autotracking. The difference between the programmed and autotracked positions of a Las Vegas phantom moving in the superior-inferior direction defined the tracking error (δ). Motion blurring was assessed by measuring the area change of the circle with the greatest depth. Additionally, lung tumors on 1747 frames acquired at 11 field angles from four radiotherapy patients are manually and automatically tracked with varying frame averaging. δ was defined by the position difference of the two tracking methods. Image noise was defined as the standard deviation of the background intensity. Motion blurring and image noise are correlated with δ using Pearson correlation coefficient (R). Results: For both phantom and patient studies, the autotracking errors increased at frame rates lower than 4.29 Hz. Above 4.29 Hz, changes in errors were negligible withδ < 1.60 mm. Motion blurring and image noise were observed to increase and decrease with frame averaging, respectively. Motion blurring and tracking errors were significantly correlated for the phantom (R = 0.94) and patient studies (R = 0.72). Moderate to poor correlation was found between image noise and tracking error with R −0.58 and −0.19 for both studies, respectively. Conclusions: Cine EPID

  3. The Family Bubble, Achievement Gap, and Development as Competition: Media Frames on Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Moira

    2009-01-01

    Identifying persistent media frames through a cognitive media analysis is an important step in the empirical measurement of public thinking about social issues. Based on a recent media analysis of racial disparities as they pertain to youth in major U.S. newspapers, this article explains three frames that were persistently evoked in media coverage…

  4. Left-ventricular peak ejection rate, filling rate, and ejection fraction--frame rate requirements at rest and exercise: concise communication.

    PubMed

    Bacharach, S L; Green, M V; Borer, J S; Hyde, J E; Farkas, S P; Johnston, G S

    1979-03-01

    The effect of framing rate on the measurement of left-ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), peak ejection rate (PER), and peak filling rate (PFR) was evaluated at rest and during exercise in 11 normal subjects and 21 patients who underwent gated equilibrium blood-pool imaging. Left-ventricular time-activity curves were obtained in each subject, at rest and during stress, at temporal resolutions of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 msec per frame. Ejection fraction, PER, and PFR were determined for each frame duration. By observing changes in the measured values of these quantities with framing rate we conclude that: a) for the measurement of EF, 50 msec per frame at rest and 40 msec per frame at exercise is sufficient; b) PER requires 40 msec per frame at rest and 20 msec per frame during exercise; and c) for the measurement of PFR, at least 40 msec per frame at rest and 20 msec per frame during exercise are needed. These results should hold for both first-pass and gated equilibrium studies.

  5. The effects of framing and fear on ratings and impact of antimarijuana PSAs.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rick S; Cupp, Pamela K; Abadi, Melissa; Donohew, R Lewis; Gray, Carla; Gordon, Leonard; Grossl, A Bailey

    2014-06-01

    A laboratory experiment, funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, involved 243 U.S. undergraduate students and employed a 2 (gain-framed vs. loss-framed) × 2 (high vs. low threat) plus control group pretest-posttest experimental design to assess the combined effects of frame (gain vs. loss) and level of threat of public service announcements (PSAs) about marijuana on attitudes, beliefs, and intentions related to marijuana, as well as the relationship of message condition to ratings of PSAs. Results suggest that loss-framed messages may lead to greater perceived threat, as well as reactance, and gain-framed messages may lead to a greater reduction in positive attitudes toward marijuana than loss-framed messages. Finally, frame and threat may interact in a complex way. Further research is suggested to replicate these findings. A substantial body of carefully crafted and systematic research studies examining both content and features of messages increasingly informs mass media prevention efforts, including the development of public service announcements (PSAs). Although the significance of messages on commercial broadcast stations may be diminishing with the increasing role and impact of new media, many of the basic questions addressed by this research are likely to apply across media channels. Nonetheless, important questions about what makes a message effective in changing an individual's attitudes or behavior remain to be answered. In this paper, the authors focus on two theoretically derived strategies that offer possibilities for developing persuasive messages: framing and threat.

  6. Replication Rate, Framing, and Format Affect Attitudes and Decisions about Science Claims.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Ralph M; Tobin, Stephanie J; Johnston, Heather M; MacKenzie, Noah; Taglang, Chelsea M

    2016-01-01

    A series of five experiments examined how the evaluation of a scientific finding was influenced by information about the number of studies that had successfully replicated the initial finding. The experiments also tested the impact of frame (negative, positive) and numeric format (percentage, natural frequency) on the evaluation of scientific findings. In Experiments 1 through 4, an attitude difference score served as the dependent measure, while a measure of choice served as the dependent measure in Experiment 5. Results from a diverse sample of 188 non-institutionalized U.S. adults (Experiment 2) and 730 undergraduate college students (Experiments 1, 3, and 4) indicated that attitudes became more positive as the replication rate increased and attitudes were more positive when the replication information was framed positively. The results also indicate that the manner in which replication rate was framed had a greater impact on attitude than the replication rate itself. The large effect for frame was attenuated somewhat when information about replication was presented in the form of natural frequencies rather than percentages. A fifth study employing 662 undergraduate college students in a task in which choice served as the dependent measure confirmed the framing effect and replicated the replication rate effect in the positive frame condition, but provided no evidence that the use of natural frequencies diminished the effect.

  7. Replication Rate, Framing, and Format Affect Attitudes and Decisions about Science Claims

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Ralph M.; Tobin, Stephanie J.; Johnston, Heather M.; MacKenzie, Noah; Taglang, Chelsea M.

    2016-01-01

    A series of five experiments examined how the evaluation of a scientific finding was influenced by information about the number of studies that had successfully replicated the initial finding. The experiments also tested the impact of frame (negative, positive) and numeric format (percentage, natural frequency) on the evaluation of scientific findings. In Experiments 1 through 4, an attitude difference score served as the dependent measure, while a measure of choice served as the dependent measure in Experiment 5. Results from a diverse sample of 188 non-institutionalized U.S. adults (Experiment 2) and 730 undergraduate college students (Experiments 1, 3, and 4) indicated that attitudes became more positive as the replication rate increased and attitudes were more positive when the replication information was framed positively. The results also indicate that the manner in which replication rate was framed had a greater impact on attitude than the replication rate itself. The large effect for frame was attenuated somewhat when information about replication was presented in the form of natural frequencies rather than percentages. A fifth study employing 662 undergraduate college students in a task in which choice served as the dependent measure confirmed the framing effect and replicated the replication rate effect in the positive frame condition, but provided no evidence that the use of natural frequencies diminished the effect. PMID:27920743

  8. On the accuracy of framing-rate measurements in ultra-high speed rotating mirror cameras.

    PubMed

    Conneely, Michael; Rolfsnes, Hans O; Main, Charles; McGloin, David; Campbell, Paul A

    2011-08-15

    Rotating mirror systems based on the Miller Principle are a mainstay modality for ultra-high speed imaging within the range 1-25 million frames per second. Importantly, the true temporal accuracy of observations recorded in such cameras is sensitive to the framing rate that the system directly associates with each individual data acquisition. The purpose for the present investigation was to examine the validity of such system-reported frame rates in a widely used commercial system (a Cordin 550-62 model) by independently measuring the framing rate at the instant of triggering. Here, we found a small but significant difference between such measurements: the average discrepancy (over the entire spectrum of frame rates used) was found to be 0.66 ± 0.48%, with a maximum difference of 2.33%. The principal reason for this discrepancy was traced to non-optimized sampling of the mirror rotation rate within the system protocol. This paper thus serves three purposes: (i) we highlight a straightforward diagnostic approach to facilitate scrutiny of rotating-mirror system integrity; (ii) we raise awareness of the intrinsic errors associated with data previously acquired with this particular system and model; and (iii), we recommend that future control routines address the sampling issue by implementing real-time measurement at the instant of triggering.

  9. High school students' science academic achievement: The effect of the Lemov positive framing trust-building technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigliette, Linda Marie

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of a trust-building technique called "positive-framing" (Lemov, 2010, p. 204) on the level of student-teacher trust and students' science academic achievement. The existing literature was reviewed under the constructs of trust, types of trust, trust-building strategies, and student academic achievement. The identified problem is a lack of research into the effect of trust from the high school student perspective and the effect of trust on student academic achievement in science. In addition, there is no empirical evidence to support the effectiveness of the "positive-framing" (Lemov, 2010, p. 204) trust-building intervention. The study involved a volunteer, convenience sample of 9th-grade science students at one high school in Northern California (N=240). The study employed a quasi-experimental, pretest, posttest non-equivalent control group design to examine the level of student trust in the teacher, using the "Student trust in faculty scale" (Forsyth, Adams, & Hoy, 2011, p. 180), and the students' academic achievement, according to the Integrated Process Skills Test II (Okey, Wise, & Burns, 1982). The independent variable was the "positive-framing" (Lemov, 2010, p. 204) trust-building intervention; the two dependent variables were the level of student-teacher trust and student academic achievement. The composite data from the "Student trust in faculty scale" and the academic achievement test were evaluated by a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results of this study indicated that the null hypothesis was accepted. The "positive-framing" (Lemov, 2010, p. 204) trust-building intervention did not have a significant effect on either the student-teacher trust level or academic achievement in science.

  10. High-frame-rate, motion-compensated 25.4 megapixel image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamasz, Stacy R.; Farrier, Michael G.; Ma, Shing-Fat F.; Sabila, Robert W.; Chamberlain, Savvas G.

    1994-05-01

    The applicability of large-area full-frame CCD image sensor technology to large optical format aerial reconnaissance applications has been recently demonstrated. The requirements of low-contrast, high-resolution imaging at high frame rates have generated the need for a manufacturable, multitap, small-pitch, wafer-scale CCD image sensor technology. The added requirement of incorporation of electronic motion compensation at the focal plane has generated the need for multisegmented full-frame area array architectures. Characterization results from the newly developed 5040 X 5040 element, eight-tap, full-frame image sensor with multisegmentation for electronic motion compensation are discussed. Experimental determination of resistive-capacitive time constants for metal strapped vertical clock busses on wafer-scale sensors is discussed.

  11. The effects of scene content parameters, compression, and frame rate on the performance of analytics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsifouti, A.; Triantaphillidou, S.; Larabi, M. C.; Doré, G.; Bilissi, E.; Psarrou, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation we study the effects of compression and frame rate reduction on the performance of four video analytics (VA) systems utilizing a low complexity scenario, such as the Sterile Zone (SZ). Additionally, we identify the most influential scene parameters affecting the performance of these systems. The SZ scenario is a scene consisting of a fence, not to be trespassed, and an area with grass. The VA system needs to alarm when there is an intruder (attack) entering the scene. The work includes testing of the systems with uncompressed and compressed (using H.264/MPEG-4 AVC at 25 and 5 frames per second) footage, consisting of quantified scene parameters. The scene parameters include descriptions of scene contrast, camera to subject distance, and attack portrayal. Additional footage, including only distractions (no attacks) is also investigated. Results have shown that every system has performed differently for each compression/frame rate level, whilst overall, compression has not adversely affected the performance of the systems. Frame rate reduction has decreased performance and scene parameters have influenced the behavior of the systems differently. Most false alarms were triggered with a distraction clip, including abrupt shadows through the fence. Findings could contribute to the improvement of VA systems.

  12. Frame rate up-conversion assisted with camera auto exposure information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Liang; Hung, Bob; Dane, Gokce

    2012-02-01

    Frame rate up conversion (FRC) is the process of converting between different frame rates for targeted display formats. Besides scanning format applications for large displays, FRC can be used to increase the frame rate of video at the receiver end for video telephony, video streaming or playback applications for mobile platforms where bandwidth savings are crucial. Many algorithms have been proposed for decoder/receiver side FRC. However, most of them are from video encoding/decoding point of view. We systematically studied the strategies of utilizing the camera 3A (auto exposure, auto white balance and auto focus) information to assist FRC process, while in this paper we focus on the technique using camera exposure information to assist the decoder FRC. In the proposed strategy the exposure information as well as other camera 3A related information is packetized as the meta data which is attached to the corresponding frame and transmitted together with the main video bit stream to the decoder side for FRC assistance. The meta data contains information such as zooming, auto focus, AE (auto exposure), AWB (auto white balance) statistics, scene change detection, global motion detected from motion sensors. The proposed meta data consists of camera specific information which is different than just sending motion vectors or mode information to aid FRC process. Compared to traditional FRC approaches used in mobile platforms, the proposed approach is a low-complexity, low-power solution which is crucial in resource constrained environments such as mobile platforms.

  13. Novel driver method to improve ordinary CCD frame rate for high-speed imaging diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tong-Ding; Li, Bin-Kang; Yang, Shao-Hua; Guo, Ming-An; Yan, Ming

    2016-06-01

    The use of ordinary Charge-coupled-Device (CCD) imagers for the analysis of fast physical phenomenon is restricted because of the low-speed performance resulting from their long output times. Even though the form of Intensified-CCD (ICCD), coupled with a gated image intensifier, has extended their use for high speed imaging, the deficiency remains to be solved that ICDD could record only one image in a single shot. This paper presents a novel driver method designed to significantly improve the ordinary interline CCD burst frame rate for high-speed photography. This method is based on the use of vertical registers as storage, so that a small number of additional frames comprised of reduced-spatial-resolution images obtained via a specific sampling operation can be buffered. Hence, the interval time of the received series of images is related to the exposure and vertical transfer times only and, thus, the burst frame rate can be increased significantly. A prototype camera based on this method is designed as part of this study, exhibiting a burst rate of up to 250,000 frames per second (fps) and a capacity to record three continuous images. This device exhibits a speed enhancement of approximately 16,000 times compared with the conventional speed, with a spatial resolution reduction of only 1/4.

  14. The Reciprocal Internal/External Frame of Reference Model: An Integration of Models of Relations between Academic Achievement and Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Jens; Retelsdorf, Jan; Koller, Olaf; Marsh, Herb W.

    2011-01-01

    The reciprocal internal/external frame of reference model (RI/EM) combines the internal/external frame of reference model and the reciprocal effects model. The RI/EM predicts positive effects of mathematics and verbal achievement and academic self-concepts (ASC) on subsequent mathematics and verbal achievements and ASCs within domains and negative…

  15. Application of X-Y Separable 2-D Array Beamforming for Increased Frame Rate and Energy Efficiency in Handheld Devices

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Kevin; Fuller, Michael I.; Hossack, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays present significant beamforming computational challenges because of their high channel count and data rate. These challenges are even more stringent when incorporating a 2-D transducer array into a battery-powered hand-held device, placing significant demands on power efficiency. Previous work in sonar and ultrasound indicates that 2-D array beamforming can be decomposed into two separable line-array beamforming operations. This has been used in conjunction with frequency-domain phase-based focusing to achieve fast volume imaging. In this paper, we analyze the imaging and computational performance of approximate near-field separable beamforming for high-quality delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming and for a low-cost, phaserotation-only beamforming method known as direct-sampled in-phase quadrature (DSIQ) beamforming. We show that when high-quality time-delay interpolation is used, separable DAS focusing introduces no noticeable imaging degradation under practical conditions. Similar results for DSIQ focusing are observed. In addition, a slight modification to the DSIQ focusing method greatly increases imaging contrast, making it comparable to that of DAS, despite having a wider main lobe and higher side lobes resulting from the limitations of phase-only time-delay interpolation. Compared with non-separable 2-D imaging, up to a 20-fold increase in frame rate is possible with the separable method. When implemented on a smart-phone-oriented processor to focus data from a 60 × 60 channel array using a 40 × 40 aperture, the frame rate per C-mode volume slice increases from 16 to 255 Hz for DAS, and from 11 to 193 Hz for DSIQ. Energy usage per frame is similarly reduced from 75 to 4.8 mJ/ frame for DAS, and from 107 to 6.3 mJ/frame for DSIQ. We also show that the separable method outperforms 2-D FFT-based focusing by a factor of 1.64 at these data sizes. This data indicates that with the optimal design choices, separable 2-D beamforming can

  16. Application of X-Y separable 2-D array beamforming for increased frame rate and energy efficiency in handheld devices.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kevin; Fuller, Michael; Hossack, John

    2012-07-01

    Two-dimensional arrays present significant beamforming computational challenges because of their high channel count and data rate. These challenges are even more stringent when incorporating a 2-D transducer array into a battery-powered hand-held device, placing significant demands on power efficiency. Previous work in sonar and ultrasound indicates that 2-D array beamforming can be decomposed into two separable line-array beamforming operations. This has been used in conjunction with frequency-domain phase-based focusing to achieve fast volume imaging. In this paper, we analyze the imaging and computational performance of approximate near-field separable beamforming for high-quality delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming and for a low-cost, phase-rotation-only beamforming method known as direct-sampled in-phase quadrature (DSIQ) beamforming. We show that when high-quality time-delay interpolation is used, separable DAS focusing introduces no noticeable imaging degradation under practical conditions. Similar results for DSIQ focusing are observed. In addition, a slight modification to the DSIQ focusing method greatly increases imaging contrast, making it comparable to that of DAS, despite having a wider main lobe and higher side lobes resulting from the limitations of phase-only time-delay interpolation. Compared with non-separable 2-D imaging, up to a 20-fold increase in frame rate is possible with the separable method. When implemented on a smart-phone-oriented processor to focus data from a 60 x 60 channel array using a 40 x 40 aperture, the frame rate per C-mode volume slice increases from 16 to 255 Hz for DAS, and from 11 to 193 Hz for DSIQ. Energy usage per frame is similarly reduced from 75 to 4.8 mJ/ frame for DAS, and from 107 to 6.3 mJ/frame for DSIQ. We also show that the separable method outperforms 2-D FFT-based focusing by a factor of 1.64 at these data sizes. This data indicates that with the optimal design choices, separable 2-D beamforming can

  17. A curricular frame for physics education: Development, comparison with students' interests, and impact on students' achievement and self-concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häussler, Peter; Hoffmann, Lore

    2000-11-01

    This article presents three interlinked studies aimed at: (1) developing a curricular frame for physics education; (2) assessing the students' interest in the contents, contexts, and activities that are suggested by that curricular frame; and (3) developing a curriculum that is in line with that frame and measuring its cognitive and emotional effects on students. The curricular frame was developed by adopting the Delphi technique and drawing on the expertise of 73 persons selected according to specified selection criteria. Interest data of some 8000 students and information of the presently taught physics curriculum were sampled longitudinally as well as cross-sectionally in various German Länder (states) by questionnaire. The third study comprised 23 experimental and 7 control classes. As a result of the comparison between the features of the curricular frame, the interest structure of students, and the current physics curriculum, there is a remarkable congruency between students' interest in physics and the kind of physics education identified in the Delphi study as being relevant. However, there is a considerable discrepancy between students' interest and the kind of physics instruction practiced in the physics classroom. Regression analysis revealed that students' interest in physics as a school subject is hardly related to their interest in physics, but mainly to the students' self-esteem of being good achievers. The data strongly suggest physics be taught so that students have a chance to develop a positive physics-related self-concept and to link physics with situations they encounter outside the classroom. A curriculum based on these principles proved superior compared to a traditional curriculum.

  18. Videopanorama Frame Rate Requirements Derived from Visual Discrimination of Deceleration During Simulated Aircraft Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furnstenau, Norbert; Ellis, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the required visual frame rate (FR) for minimizing prediction errors with out-the-window video displays at remote/virtual airport towers, thirteen active air traffic controllers viewed high dynamic fidelity simulations of landing aircraft and decided whether aircraft would stop as if to be able to make a turnoff or whether a runway excursion would be expected. The viewing conditions and simulation dynamics replicated visual rates and environments of transport aircraft landing at small commercial airports. The required frame rate was estimated using Bayes inference on prediction errors by linear FRextrapolation of event probabilities conditional on predictions (stop, no-stop). Furthermore estimates were obtained from exponential model fits to the parametric and non-parametric perceptual discriminabilities d' and A (average area under ROC-curves) as dependent on FR. Decision errors are biased towards preference of overshoot and appear due to illusionary increase in speed at low frames rates. Both Bayes and A - extrapolations yield a framerate requirement of 35 < FRmin < 40 Hz. When comparing with published results [12] on shooter game scores the model based d'(FR)-extrapolation exhibits the best agreement and indicates even higher FRmin > 40 Hz for minimizing decision errors. Definitive recommendations require further experiments with FR > 30 Hz.

  19. Precise reconstruction of fast moving cardiac valve in high frame rate synthetic transmit aperture ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Mayumi; Ikeda, Teiichiro; Ishihara, Chizue; Takano, Shinta; Masuzawa, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    To diagnose heart valve incompetence, i.e., one of the most serious cardiac dysfunctions, it is essential to obtain images of fast-moving valves at high spatial and temporal resolution. Ultrasound synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging has the potential to achieve high spatial resolution by synthesizing multiple pre-beamformed images obtained with corresponding multiple transmissions. However, applying STA to fast-moving targets is difficult due to serious target deformation. We propose a high-frame-rate STA (fast STA) imaging method that uses a reduced number of transmission events needed for each image. Fast STA is expected to suppress deformation of moving targets; however, it may result in deteriorated spatial resolution. In this study, we conducted a simulation study to evaluate fast STA. We quantitatively evaluated the reduction in deformation and deterioration of spatial resolution with a model involving a radially moving valve at the maximum speed of 0.5 m/s. The simulated raw channel data of the valve phantom was processed with offline beamforming programs. We compared B-mode images obtained through single received-line in a transmission (SRT) method, STA, and fast STA. The results show that fast STA with four-times-reduced events is superior in reconstructing the original shape of the moving valve to other methods. The accuracy of valve location is 97 and 100% better than those with SRT and STA, respectively. The resolution deterioration was found to be below the annoyance threshold considering the improved performance of the shape reconstruction. The obtained results are promising for providing more precise diagnostic information on cardiovascular diseases.

  20. High frame rate imaging systems developed in Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Binkang; Wang, Kuilu; Guo, Mingan; Ruan, Linbo; Zhang, Haibing; Yang, Shaohua; Feng, Bing; Sun, Fengrong; Chen, Yanli

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents high frame rate imaging systems developed in Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology in recent years. Three types of imaging systems are included. The first type of system utilizes EG&G RETICON Photodiode Array (PDA) RA100A as the image sensor, which can work at up to 1000 frame per second (fps). Besides working continuously, the PDA system is also designed to switch to capture flash light event working mode. A specific time sequence is designed to satisfy this request. The camera image data can be transmitted to remote area by coaxial or optic fiber cable and then be stored. The second type of imaging system utilizes PHOTOBIT Complementary Metal Oxygen Semiconductor (CMOS) PB-MV13 as the image sensor, which has a high resolution of 1280 (H) ×1024 (V) pixels per frame. The CMOS system can operate at up to 500fps in full frame and 4000fps partially. The prototype scheme of the system is presented. The third type of imaging systems adopts charge coupled device (CCD) as the imagers. MINTRON MTV-1881EX, DALSA CA-D1 and CA-D6 camera head are used in the systems development. The features comparison of the RA100A, PB-MV13, and CA-D6 based systems are given in the end.

  1. MCP detector read out with a bare quad Timepix at kilohertz frame rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerga, J.; Raffanti, R.; Tremsin, A.; McPhate, J.; Siegmund, O.

    2011-01-01

    The existing Berkeley neutron sensitive MCP/Timepix hybrid detector has been very successful at demonstrating energy resolved spatial imaging with a single Timepix ASIC read out at a ~ 30 Hz frame rate where each neutron's position and time (energy) is determined (X,Y,E). By increasing the detector format using a quad arrangement of Timepix readouts and increasing the frame rate to 1 kHz, we can increase our total event throughput by a factor of 120, thereby taking full advantage of the high fluxes of modern pulsed neutron sources (106 n cm-2 s-1). The key to this conversion is a new design for the ASIC readout, called the Berkeley Quad Timepix detector, consisting of 3 major subsystems. The first is a quad (2 × 2) bare Timepix ASIC board mounted directly behind the neutron sensitive MCPs in a hermetic vacuum enclosure with a sapphire window. The data from the Timepix ASICs flow to the second subsystem called the Interface board whose field programmable gate array (FPGA) rearranges and converts the digital bit stream to LVDS logic levels before sending downstream to the third subsystem, the Roach board. The Roach board is also FPGA based, and takes the data from all the ASICs and analyses the frames to extract information on the input events to pass on to the host PC. This paper describes in detail the hardware and firmware designs to accomplish this task.

  2. A New Method for Pseudo-increasing Frame Rates of Echocardiography Images Using Manifold Learning.

    PubMed

    Gifani, Parisa; Behnam, Hamid; Sani, Zahra Alizadeh

    2011-05-01

    Increasing frame rate is a challenging issue for better interpretation of medical images and diagnosis based on tracking the small transient motions of myocardium and valves in real time visualization. In this paper, manifold learning algorithm is applied to extract the nonlinear embedded information about echocardiography images from the consecutive images in two dimensional manifold spaces. In this method, we presume that the dimensionality of echocardiography images obtained from a patient is artificially high and the images can be described as functions of only a few underlying parameters such as periodic motion due to heartbeat. By this approach, each image is projected as a point on the reconstructed manifold; hence, the relationship between images in the new domain can be obtained according to periodicity of the heart cycle. To have a better tracking of the echocardiography, images during the fast motions of heart we have rearranged the similar frames of consecutive heart cycles in a sequence. This provides a full view slow motion of heart movement through increasing the frame rate to three times the traditional ultrasound systems.

  3. Development of high-frame-rate LED panel and its applications for stereoscopic 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, H.; Tsutsumi, M.; Yamamoto, R.; Kajimoto, K.; Suyama, S.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we report development of a high-frame-rate LED display. Full-color images are refreshed at 480 frames per second. In order to transmit such a high frame-rate signal via conventional 120-Hz DVI, we have introduced a spatiotemporal mapping of image signal. A processor of LED image signal and FPGAs in LED modules have been reprogrammed so that four adjacent pixels in the input image are converted into successive four fields. The pitch of LED panel is 20 mm. The developed 480-fps LED display is utilized for stereoscopic 3D display by use of parallax barrier. The horizontal resolution of a viewed image decreases to one-half by the parallax barrier. This degradation is critical for LED because the pitch of LED displays is as large as tens of times of other flat panel displays. We have conducted experiments to improve quality of the viewed image through the parallax barrier. The improvement is based on interpolation by afterimages. It is shown that the HFR LED provides detailed afterimages. Furthermore, the HFR LED has been utilized for unconscious imaging, which provide a sensation of discovery of conscious visual information from unconscious images.

  4. Accelerated high-frame-rate mouse heart cine-MRI using compressed sensing reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Motaal, Abdallah G; Coolen, Bram F; Abdurrachim, Desiree; Castro, Rui M; Prompers, Jeanine J; Florack, Luc M J; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J

    2013-04-01

    We introduce a new protocol to obtain very high-frame-rate cinematographic (Cine) MRI movies of the beating mouse heart within a reasonable measurement time. The method is based on a self-gated accelerated fast low-angle shot (FLASH) acquisition and compressed sensing reconstruction. Key to our approach is that we exploit the stochastic nature of the retrospective triggering acquisition scheme to produce an undersampled and random k-t space filling that allows for compressed sensing reconstruction and acceleration. As a standard, a self-gated FLASH sequence with a total acquisition time of 10 min was used to produce single-slice Cine movies of seven mouse hearts with 90 frames per cardiac cycle. Two times (2×) and three times (3×) k-t space undersampled Cine movies were produced from 2.5- and 1.5-min data acquisitions, respectively. The accelerated 90-frame Cine movies of mouse hearts were successfully reconstructed with a compressed sensing algorithm. The movies had high image quality and the undersampling artifacts were effectively removed. Left ventricular functional parameters, i.e. end-systolic and end-diastolic lumen surface areas and early-to-late filling rate ratio as a parameter to evaluate diastolic function, derived from the standard and accelerated Cine movies, were nearly identical.

  5. High frame-rate resolution of cell division during Candida albicans filamentation

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Darren D.; Berman, Judith; Brand, Alexandra C.

    2016-01-01

    The commensal yeast, Candida albicans, is an opportunistic pathogen in humans and forms filaments called hyphae and pseudohyphae, in which cell division requires precise temporal and spatial control to produce mononuclear cell compartments. High-frame-rate live-cell imaging (1 frame/min) revealed that nuclear division did not occur across the septal plane. We detected the presence of nucleolar fragments that may be extrachromosomal molecules carrying the ribosomal RNA genes. Cells occasionally maintained multiple nucleoli, suggesting either polyploidy, multiple nuclei and/or aneuploidy of ChrR., while the migration pattern of sister nuclei differed between unbranched and branched hyphae. The presented movie challenges and extends previous concepts of C. albicans cell division. PMID:26854071

  6. A change detection approach to moving object detection in low frame-rate video

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Harvey, Neal R; Theiler, James P

    2009-01-01

    Moving object detection is of significant interest in temporal image analysis since it is a first step in many object identification and tracking applications. A key component in almost all moving object detection algorithms is a pixel-level classifier, where each pixel is predicted to be either part of a moving object or part of the background. In this paper we investigate a change detection approach to the pixel-level classification problem and evaluate its impact on moving object detection. The change detection approach that we investigate was previously applied to multi-and hyper-spectral datasets, where images were typically taken several days, or months apart. In this paper, we apply the approach to low-frame rate (1-2 frames per second) video datasets.

  7. STA2500A: a 52-M pixel high frame rate CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, Kasey; Bredthauer, Richard; Bredthauer, Greg

    2008-11-01

    A 52-M pixel, 71mm x 54mm, full-frame CCD imager with 8.6 um x 8.6 um pixel size has been developed for use in high speed scanning applications. On-going interest for ultra-high resolution, high speed imagers for electronic imaging OEM customers in various scientific markets including spectroscopy and digital photography has led to the development of the STA2500A. Innovative design techniques were utilized in the production of this device. 32 outputs running at 40 Mhz yield a 20Hz frame rate with low RMS noise and high MTF. This paper will provide detailed information on design trades developed for high-speed imagers leading to the design and performance capabilities of the STA2500A, as well as a description of the electronics required for its use.

  8. High frame-rate resolution of cell division during Candida albicans filamentation.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Darren D; Berman, Judith; Brand, Alexandra C

    2016-03-01

    The commensal yeast, Candida albicans, is an opportunistic pathogen in humans and forms filaments called hyphae and pseudohyphae, in which cell division requires precise temporal and spatial control to produce mononuclear cell compartments. High-frame-rate live-cell imaging (1 frame/min) revealed that nuclear division did not occur across the septal plane. We detected the presence of nucleolar fragments that may be extrachromosomal molecules carrying the ribosomal RNA genes. Cells occasionally maintained multiple nucleoli, suggesting either polyploidy, multiple nuclei and/or aneuploidy of ChrR., while the migration pattern of sister nuclei differed between unbranched and branched hyphae. The presented movie challenges and extends previous concepts of C. albicans cell division.

  9. Happiness and arousal: framing happiness as arousing results in lower happiness ratings for older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bjalkebring, Par; Västfjäll, Daniel; Johansson, Boo E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to describe their happiness as lower in arousal when compared to younger adults. In addition, older adults prefer low arousal positive emotions over high arousal positive emotions in their daily lives. We experimentally investigated whether or not changing a few words in the description of happiness could influence a person’s rating of their happiness. We randomly assigned 193 participants, aged 22–92 years, to one of three conditions (high arousal, low arousal, or control). In line with previous findings, we found that older participants rated their happiness lower when framed as high in arousal (i.e., ecstatic, to be bursting with positive emotions) and rated their happiness higher when framed as low in arousal (i.e., satisfied, to have a life filled with positive emotions). Younger adults remained uninfluenced by the manipulation. Our study demonstrates that arousal is essential to understanding ratings of happiness, and gives support to the notion that there are age differences in the preference for arousal. PMID:26097459

  10. Effect of element directivity on adaptive beamforming applied to high-frame-rate ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    High-frame-rate ultrasound is a promising technique for measurement and imaging of cardiovascular dynamics. In high-frame-rate ultrasonic imaging, unfocused ultrasonic beams are used in transmit and multiple focused receiving beams are created by parallel beamforming using the delay and sum (DAS) method. However, the spatial resolution and contrast are degraded compared with conventional beamforming using focused transmit beams. In the present study, the minimum variance beamformer was examined for improvement of the spatial resolution in high-frame-rate ultrasound. In conventional minimum variance beamforming, the spatial covariance matrix of ultrasonic echo signals received by individual transducer elements is obtained without considering the directivity of the transducer element. By omitting the element directivity, the error in estimation of the desired signal (i.e., the echo from the focal point) increases, and as a result, the improvement of the spatial resolution is degraded. In the present study, the element directivity was taken into account in estimation of the spatial covariance matrix used in minimum variance beamforming. The effect of the element directivity on adaptive beamforming was evaluated by computer simulation and basic experiments using a phantom. In parallel beamforming with the conventional DAS beamformer, the lateral spatial resolution, which was evaluated from the lateral full width at half maximum of the echo amplitude profile in the basic experiment, was 0.50 mm. Using conventional amplitude and phase estimation (APES) beamforming, the lateral spatial resolution was improved to 0.37 mm. The lateral spatial resolution was further improved to 0.30 mm using the modified APES beamforming by considering the element directivity. Image contrast and contrast-to-noise ratios, respectively, were -12.3 and 6.5 dB (DAS), -32.8 and -11.3 dB (APES), and -7.0 and 3.1 dB (modified APES).

  11. Multi-wavelength laser sensor surface for high frame rate imaging refractometry (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Anders; Vannahme, Christoph; Sørensen, Kristian T.; Dufva, Martin

    2016-09-01

    A highly sensitive distributed feedback (DFB) dye laser sensor for high frame rate imaging refractometry without moving parts is presented. The laser sensor surface comprises areas of different grating periods. Imaging in two dimensions of space is enabled by analyzing laser light from all areas in parallel with an imaging spectrometer. Refractive index imaging of a 2 mm by 2 mm surface is demonstrated with a spatial resolution of 10 μm, a detection limit of 8 10-6 RIU, and a framerate of 12 Hz, limited by the CCD camera. Label-free imaging of dissolution dynamics is demonstrated.

  12. High Frame Rate Super Resolution Imaging Based on Ultrasound Synthetic Aperture Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Takayuki; Ho, Yihsin; Okubo, Kan; Tagawa, Norio; Hirose, Yoshiyasu

    This study addresses the efficient extension of the Super resolution FM-Chirp correlation Method (SCM) to the framework of synthetic aperture imaging. The original SCM needs to transmit focused beams many times while changing frequency little by little toward each direction to extract the carrier phase information which is useful for super resolution imaging. This multiple transmitting and receiving increase the amount of processing and puts a strict limit on the frame rate. Therefore, we extend the SCM to the synthetic aperture version called the SA-SCM, and confirm its performance through simulations based on the finite element method.

  13. FPGA-based voltage and current dual drive system for high frame rate electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shadab; Manwaring, Preston; Borsic, Andrea; Halter, Ryan

    2015-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is used to image the electrical property distribution of a tissue under test. An EIT system comprises complex hardware and software modules, which are typically designed for a specific application. Upgrading these modules is a time-consuming process, and requires rigorous testing to ensure proper functioning of new modules with the existing ones. To this end, we developed a modular and reconfigurable data acquisition (DAQ) system using National Instruments' (NI) hardware and software modules, which offer inherent compatibility over generations of hardware and software revisions. The system can be configured to use up to 32-channels. This EIT system can be used to interchangeably apply current or voltage signal, and measure the tissue response in a semi-parallel fashion. A novel signal averaging algorithm, and 512-point fast Fourier transform (FFT) computation block was implemented on the FPGA. FFT output bins were classified as signal or noise. Signal bins constitute a tissue's response to a pure or mixed tone signal. Signal bins' data can be used for traditional applications, as well as synchronous frequency-difference imaging. Noise bins were used to compute noise power on the FPGA. Noise power represents a metric of signal quality, and can be used to ensure proper tissue-electrode contact. Allocation of these computationally expensive tasks to the FPGA reduced the required bandwidth between PC, and the FPGA for high frame rate EIT. In 16-channel configuration, with a signal-averaging factor of 8, the DAQ frame rate at 100 kHz exceeded 110 frames s (-1), and signal-to-noise ratio exceeded 90 dB across the spectrum. Reciprocity error was found to be for frequencies up to 1 MHz. Static imaging experiments were performed on a high-conductivity inclusion placed in a saline filled tank; the inclusion was clearly localized in the reconstructions obtained for both absolute current and voltage mode data.

  14. Stand-alone front-end system for high- frequency, high-frame-rate coded excitation ultrasonic imaging.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinhyoung; Hu, Changhong; Shung, K Kirk

    2011-12-01

    A stand-alone front-end system for high-frequency coded excitation imaging was implemented to achieve a wider dynamic range. The system included an arbitrary waveform amplifier, an arbitrary waveform generator, an analog receiver, a motor position interpreter, a motor controller and power supplies. The digitized arbitrary waveforms at a sampling rate of 150 MHz could be programmed and converted to an analog signal. The pulse was subsequently amplified to excite an ultrasound transducer, and the maximum output voltage level achieved was 120 V(pp). The bandwidth of the arbitrary waveform amplifier was from 1 to 70 MHz. The noise figure of the preamplifier was less than 7.7 dB and the bandwidth was 95 MHz. Phantoms and biological tissues were imaged at a frame rate as high as 68 frames per second (fps) to evaluate the performance of the system. During the measurement, 40-MHz lithium niobate (LiNbO(3)) single-element lightweight (<;0.28 g) transducers were utilized. The wire target measure- ment showed that the -6-dB axial resolution of a chirp-coded excitation was 50 μm and lateral resolution was 120 μm. The echo signal-to-noise ratios were found to be 54 and 65 dB for the short burst and coded excitation, respectively. The contrast resolution in a sphere phantom study was estimated to be 24 dB for the chirp-coded excitation and 15 dB for the short burst modes. In an in vivo study, zebrafish and mouse hearts were imaged. Boundaries of the zebrafish heart in the image could be differentiated because of the low-noise operation of the implemented system. In mouse heart images, valves and chambers could be readily visualized with the coded excitation.

  15. High frame-rate intravascular optical frequency-domain imaging in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Han Saem; Jang, Sun-Joo; Kim, Kyunghun; Dan-Chin-Yu, Alexey V.; Shishkov, Milen; Bouma, Brett E.; Oh, Wang-Yuhl

    2013-01-01

    Intravascular optical frequency-domain imaging (OFDI), a second-generation optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology, enables imaging of the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of the vessel wall following a short and nonocclusive clear liquid flush. Although 3D vascular visualization provides a greater appreciation of the vessel wall and intraluminal structures, a longitudinal imaging pitch that is several times bigger than the optical imaging resolution of the system has limited true high-resolution 3D imaging, mainly due to the slow scanning speed of previous imaging catheters. Here, we demonstrate high frame-rate intravascular OFDI in vivo, acquiring images at a rate of 350 frames per second. A custom-built, high-speed, and high-precision fiber-optic rotary junction provided uniform and high-speed beam scanning through a custom-made imaging catheter with an outer diameter of 0.87 mm. A 47-mm-long rabbit aorta was imaged in 3.7 seconds after a short contrast agent flush. The longitudinal imaging pitch was 34 μm, comparable to the transverse imaging resolution of the system. Three-dimensional volume-rendering showed greatly enhanced visualization of tissue microstructure and stent struts relative to what is provided by conventional intravascular imaging speeds. PMID:24466489

  16. Real-time 3D ultrasound fetal image enhancment techniques using motion-compensated frame rate up-conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gun-Ill; Park, Rae-Hong; Song, Young-Seuk; Kim, Cheol-An; Hwang, Jae-Sub

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, we present a motion compensated frame rate up-conversion method for real-time three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound fetal image enhancement. The conventional mechanical scan method with one-dimensional (1-D) array converters used for 3-D volume data acquisition has a slow frame rate of multi-planar images. This drawback is not an issue for stationary objects, however in ultrasound images showing a fetus of more than about 25 weeks, we perceive abrupt changes due to fast motions. To compensate for this defect, we propose the frame rate up-conversion method by which new interpolated frames are inserted between two input frames, giving smooth renditions to human eyes. More natural motions can be obtained by frame rate up-conversion. In the proposed algorithm, we employ forward motion estimation (ME), in which motion vectors (MVs) ar estimated using a block matching algorithm (BMA). To smooth MVs over neighboring blocks, vector median filtering is performed. Using these smoothed MVs, interpolated frames are reconstructed by motion compensation (MC). The undesirable blocking artifacts due to blockwise processing are reduced by block boundary filtering using a Gaussian low pass filter (LPF). The proposed method can be used in computer aided diagnosis (CAD), where more natural 3-D ultrasound images are displayed in real-time. Simulation results with several real test sequences show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  17. Dynamic phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography at a true kilohertz frame-rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-Hao; Li, Jiasong; Schill, Alexander; Nair, Achuth; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic optical coherence elastography (OCE) techniques have rapidly emerged as a noninvasive way to characterize the biomechanical properties of tissue. However, clinical applications of the majority of these techniques have been unfeasible due to the extended acquisition time because of multiple temporal OCT acquisitions (M-B mode). Moreover, multiple excitations, large datasets, and prolonged laser exposure prohibit their translation to the clinic, where patient discomfort and safety are critical criteria. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of noncontact true kilohertz frame-rate dynamic optical coherence elastography by directly imaging a focused air-pulse induced elastic wave with a home-built phase-sensitive OCE system. The OCE system was based on a 4X buffered Fourier Domain Mode Locked swept source laser with an A-scan rate of ~1.5 MHz, and imaged the elastic wave propagation at a frame rate of ~7.3 kHz. Because the elastic wave directly imaged, only a single excitation was utilized for one line scan measurement. Rather than acquiring multiple temporal scans at successive spatial locations as with previous techniques, here, successive B-scans were acquired over the measurement region (B-M mode). Preliminary measurements were taken on tissue-mimicking agar phantoms of various concentrations, and the results showed good agreement with uniaxial mechanical compression testing. Then, the elasticity of an in situ porcine cornea in the whole eye-globe configuration at various intraocular pressures was measured. The results showed that this technique can acquire a depth-resolved elastogram in milliseconds. Furthermore, the ultra-fast acquisition ensured that the laser safety exposure limit for the cornea was not exceeded.

  18. Pixel-Level and Robust Vibration Source Sensing in High-Frame-Rate Video Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Mingjun; Aoyama, Tadayoshi; Takaki, Takeshi; Ishii, Idaku

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of appearance variations on the detectability of vibration feature extraction with pixel-level digital filters for high-frame-rate videos. In particular, we consider robust vibrating object tracking, which is clearly different from conventional appearance-based object tracking with spatial pattern recognition in a high-quality image region of a certain size. For 512 × 512 videos of a rotating fan located at different positions and orientations and captured at 2000 frames per second with different lens settings, we verify how many pixels are extracted as vibrating regions with pixel-level digital filters. The effectiveness of dynamics-based vibration features is demonstrated by examining the robustness against changes in aperture size and the focal condition of the camera lens, the apparent size and orientation of the object being tracked, and its rotational frequency, as well as complexities and movements of background scenes. Tracking experiments for a flying multicopter with rotating propellers are also described to verify the robustness of localization under complex imaging conditions in outside scenarios. PMID:27827860

  19. Joint non-Gaussian denoising and superresolving of raw high frame rate videos.

    PubMed

    Jinli Suo; Yue Deng; Liheng Bian; Qionghai Dai

    2014-03-01

    High frame rate cameras capture sharp videos of highly dynamic scenes by trading off signal-noise-ratio and image resolution, so combinational super-resolving and denoising is crucial for enhancing high speed videos and extending their applications. The solution is nontrivial due to the fact that two deteriorations co-occur during capturing and noise is nonlinearly dependent on signal strength. To handle this problem, we propose conducting noise separation and super resolution under a unified optimization framework, which models both spatiotemporal priors of high quality videos and signal-dependent noise. Mathematically, we align the frames along temporal axis and pursue the solution under the following three criterion: 1) the sharp noise-free image stack is low rank with some missing pixels denoting occlusions; 2) the noise follows a given nonlinear noise model; and 3) the recovered sharp image can be reconstructed well with sparse coefficients and an over complete dictionary learned from high quality natural images. In computation aspects, we propose to obtain the final result by solving a convex optimization using the modern local linearization techniques. In the experiments, we validate the proposed approach in both synthetic and real captured data.

  20. Algorithm for Automatic Behavior Quantification of Laboratory Mice Using High-Frame-Rate Videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yuman; Takaki, Takeshi; Ishii, Idaku; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm for automatic behavior quantification in laboratory mice to quantify several model behaviors. The algorithm can detect repetitive motions of the fore- or hind-limbs at several or dozens of hertz, which are too rapid for the naked eye, from high-frame-rate video images. Multiple repetitive motions can always be identified from periodic frame-differential image features in four segmented regions — the head, left side, right side, and tail. Even when a mouse changes its posture and orientation relative to the camera, these features can still be extracted from the shift- and orientation-invariant shape of the mouse silhouette by using the polar coordinate system and adjusting the angle coordinate according to the head and tail positions. The effectiveness of the algorithm is evaluated by analyzing long-term 240-fps videos of four laboratory mice for six typical model behaviors: moving, rearing, immobility, head grooming, left-side scratching, and right-side scratching. The time durations for the model behaviors determined by the algorithm have detection/correction ratios greater than 80% for all the model behaviors. This shows good quantification results for actual animal testing.

  1. In vivo sub-femtoliter resolution photoacoustic microscopy with higher frame rates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Szu-Yu; Lai, Yu-Hung; Huang, Kai-Chih; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Tseng, Tzu-Fang; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-10-21

    Microscopy based on non-fluorescent absorption dye staining is widely used in various fields of biomedicine for 400 years. Unlike its fluorescent counterpart, non-fluorescent absorption microscopy lacks proper methodologies to realize its in vivo applications with a sub-femtoliter 3D resolution. Regardless of the most advanced high-resolution photoacoustic microscopy, sub-femtoliter spatial resolution is still unattainable, and the imaging speed is relatively slow. In this paper, based on the two-photon photoacoustic mechanism, we demonstrated a in vivo label free laser-scanning photoacoustic imaging modality featuring high frame rates and sub-femtoliter 3D resolution simultaneously, which stands as a perfect solution to 3D high resolution non-fluorescent absorption microscopy. Furthermore, we first demonstrated in vivo label-free two-photon acoustic microscopy on the observation of non-fluorescent melanin distribution within mouse skin.

  2. In vivo sub-femtoliter resolution photoacoustic microscopy with higher frame rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Szu-Yu; Lai, Yu-Hung; Huang, Kai-Chih; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Tseng, Tzu-Fang; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-10-01

    Microscopy based on non-fluorescent absorption dye staining is widely used in various fields of biomedicine for 400 years. Unlike its fluorescent counterpart, non-fluorescent absorption microscopy lacks proper methodologies to realize its in vivo applications with a sub-femtoliter 3D resolution. Regardless of the most advanced high-resolution photoacoustic microscopy, sub-femtoliter spatial resolution is still unattainable, and the imaging speed is relatively slow. In this paper, based on the two-photon photoacoustic mechanism, we demonstrated a in vivo label free laser-scanning photoacoustic imaging modality featuring high frame rates and sub-femtoliter 3D resolution simultaneously, which stands as a perfect solution to 3D high resolution non-fluorescent absorption microscopy. Furthermore, we first demonstrated in vivo label-free two-photon acoustic microscopy on the observation of non-fluorescent melanin distribution within mouse skin.

  3. Data compression techniques applied to high resolution high frame rate video technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartz, William G.; Alexovich, Robert E.; Neustadter, Marc S.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation is presented of video data compression applied to microgravity space experiments using High Resolution High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT). An extensive survey of methods of video data compression, described in the open literature, was conducted. The survey examines compression methods employing digital computing. The results of the survey are presented. They include a description of each method and assessment of image degradation and video data parameters. An assessment is made of present and near term future technology for implementation of video data compression in high speed imaging system. Results of the assessment are discussed and summarized. The results of a study of a baseline HHVT video system, and approaches for implementation of video data compression, are presented. Case studies of three microgravity experiments are presented and specific compression techniques and implementations are recommended.

  4. Measuring submicrometer displacement vectors using high-frame-rate ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Kruizinga, Pieter; Mastik, Frits; Bosch, Johan G; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Anton F W; van Soest, Gijs

    2015-10-01

    Measuring the magnitude and direction of tissue displacement provides the basis for the assessment of tissue motion or tissue stiffness. Using conventional displacement tracking by ultrasound delay estimation, only one direction of tissue displacement can be estimated reliably. In this paper, we describe a new technique for estimating the complete two-dimensional displacement vector using high-frame-rate ultrasound imaging. We compute the displacement vector using phase delays that can be measured between pairs of elements within an array. By combining multiple element-pair solutions, we find a new robust estimate for the displacement vector. In this paper, we provide experimental proof that this method permits measurement of the displacement vector for isolated scatterers and diffuse scatterers with high (submicrometer) precision, without the need for beam steering. We also show that we can measure the axial and lateral distension of a carotid artery in a transverse view.

  5. High frame rate synthetic aperture vector flow imaging for transthoracic echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagómez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Stuart, Matthias B.; Bechsgaard, Thor; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the first in vivo results of 2-D high frame rate vector velocity imaging for transthoracic cardiac imaging. Measurements are made on a healthy volunteer using the SARUS experimental ultrasound scanner connected to an intercostal phased-array probe. Two parasternal long-axis view (PLAX) are obtained, one centred at the aortic valve and another centred at the left ventricle. The acquisition sequence was composed of 3 diverging waves for high frame rate synthetic aperture flow imaging. For verification a phantom measurement is performed on a transverse straight 5 mm diameter vessel at a depth of 100 mm in a tissue-mimicking phantom. A flow pump produced a 2 ml/s constant flow with a peak velocity of 0.2 m/s. The average estimated flow angle in the ROI was 86.22° +/- 6.66° with a true flow angle of 90°. A relative velocity bias of -39% with a standard deviation of 13% was found. In-vivo acquisitions show complex flow patterns in the heart. In the aortic valve view, blood is seen exiting the left ventricle cavity through the aortic valve into the aorta during the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle. In the left ventricle view, blood flow is seen entering the left ventricle cavity through the mitral valve and splitting in two ways when approximating the left ventricle wall. The work presents 2-D velocity estimates on the heart from a non-invasive transthoracic scan. The ability of the method detecting flow regardless of the beam angle could potentially reveal a more complete view of the flow patterns presented on the heart.

  6. SU-E-J-112: The Impact of Cine EPID Image Acquisition Frame Rate On Markerless Soft-Tissue Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, S; Rottmann, J; Berbeco, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Although reduction of the cine EPID acquisition frame rate through multiple frame averaging may reduce hardware memory burden and decrease image noise, it can hinder the continuity of soft-tissue motion leading to poor auto-tracking results. The impact of motion blurring and image noise on the tracking performance was investigated. Methods: Phantom and patient images were acquired at a frame rate of 12.87Hz on an AS1000 portal imager. Low frame rate images were obtained by continuous frame averaging. A previously validated tracking algorithm was employed for auto-tracking. The difference between the programmed and auto-tracked positions of a Las Vegas phantom moving in the superior-inferior direction defined the tracking error (δ). Motion blurring was assessed by measuring the area change of the circle with the greatest depth. Additionally, lung tumors on 1747 frames acquired at eleven field angles from four radiotherapy patients are manually and automatically tracked with varying frame averaging. δ was defined by the position difference of the two tracking methods. Image noise was defined as the standard deviation of the background intensity. Motion blurring and image noise were correlated with δ using Pearson correlation coefficient (R). Results: For both phantom and patient studies, the auto-tracking errors increased at frame rates lower than 4.29Hz. Above 4.29Hz, changes in errors were negligible with δ<1.60mm. Motion blurring and image noise were observed to increase and decrease with frame averaging, respectively. Motion blurring and tracking errors were significantly correlated for the phantom (R=0.94) and patient studies (R=0.72). Moderate to poor correlation was found between image noise and tracking error with R -0.58 and -0.19 for both studies, respectively. Conclusion: An image acquisition frame rate of at least 4.29Hz is recommended for cine EPID tracking. Motion blurring in images with frame rates below 4.39Hz can substantially reduce the

  7. Ultrasonic acoustic levitation for fast frame rate X-ray protein crystallography at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujino, Soichiro; Tomizaki, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    Increasing the data acquisition rate of X-ray diffraction images for macromolecular crystals at room temperature at synchrotrons has the potential to significantly accelerate both structural analysis of biomolecules and structure-based drug developments. Using lysozyme model crystals, we demonstrated the rapid acquisition of X-ray diffraction datasets by combining a high frame rate pixel array detector with ultrasonic acoustic levitation of protein crystals in liquid droplets. The rapid spinning of the crystal within a levitating droplet ensured an efficient sampling of the reciprocal space. The datasets were processed with a program suite developed for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX). The structure, which was solved by molecular replacement, was found to be identical to the structure obtained by the conventional oscillation method for up to a 1.8-Å resolution limit. In particular, the absence of protein crystal damage resulting from the acoustic levitation was carefully established. These results represent a key step towards a fully automated sample handling and measurement pipeline, which has promising prospects for a high acquisition rate and high sample efficiency for room temperature X-ray crystallography.

  8. Ultrasonic acoustic levitation for fast frame rate X-ray protein crystallography at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Tsujino, Soichiro; Tomizaki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the data acquisition rate of X-ray diffraction images for macromolecular crystals at room temperature at synchrotrons has the potential to significantly accelerate both structural analysis of biomolecules and structure-based drug developments. Using lysozyme model crystals, we demonstrated the rapid acquisition of X-ray diffraction datasets by combining a high frame rate pixel array detector with ultrasonic acoustic levitation of protein crystals in liquid droplets. The rapid spinning of the crystal within a levitating droplet ensured an efficient sampling of the reciprocal space. The datasets were processed with a program suite developed for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX). The structure, which was solved by molecular replacement, was found to be identical to the structure obtained by the conventional oscillation method for up to a 1.8-Å resolution limit. In particular, the absence of protein crystal damage resulting from the acoustic levitation was carefully established. These results represent a key step towards a fully automated sample handling and measurement pipeline, which has promising prospects for a high acquisition rate and high sample efficiency for room temperature X-ray crystallography. PMID:27150272

  9. Ultrasonic acoustic levitation for fast frame rate X-ray protein crystallography at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Soichiro; Tomizaki, Takashi

    2016-05-06

    Increasing the data acquisition rate of X-ray diffraction images for macromolecular crystals at room temperature at synchrotrons has the potential to significantly accelerate both structural analysis of biomolecules and structure-based drug developments. Using lysozyme model crystals, we demonstrated the rapid acquisition of X-ray diffraction datasets by combining a high frame rate pixel array detector with ultrasonic acoustic levitation of protein crystals in liquid droplets. The rapid spinning of the crystal within a levitating droplet ensured an efficient sampling of the reciprocal space. The datasets were processed with a program suite developed for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX). The structure, which was solved by molecular replacement, was found to be identical to the structure obtained by the conventional oscillation method for up to a 1.8-Å resolution limit. In particular, the absence of protein crystal damage resulting from the acoustic levitation was carefully established. These results represent a key step towards a fully automated sample handling and measurement pipeline, which has promising prospects for a high acquisition rate and high sample efficiency for room temperature X-ray crystallography.

  10. Modeling fault diagnosis as the activation and use of a frame system. [for pilot problem-solving rating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Giffin, Walter C.; Rockwell, Thomas H.; Thomas, Mark

    1986-01-01

    Twenty pilots with instrument flight ratings were asked to perform a fault-diagnosis task for which they had relevant domain knowledge. The pilots were asked to think out loud as they requested and interpreted information. Performances were then modeled as the activation and use of a frame system. Cognitive biases, memory distortions and losses, and failures to correctly diagnose the problem were studied in the context of this frame system model.

  11. TACImager: a high frame rate 320 x 256 SPAD time to amplitude converter array with adjustable time zoom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, Neil; Parmesan, Luca; Dutton, Neale A. W.; Calder, Neil J.; Henderson, Robert K.

    2016-10-01

    Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) in the form of high-resolution imaging pixel arrays are used in 3D cameras, motion-tracking, biomedical and time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) applications. Rapid spatial and temporal zoom onto objects of interest is an attractive feature. We present here novel high-speed time-zoom functionality achieved with the digital readout mode of the TACImager, a 256 x 256 TCSPC image sensor array based on sample and hold Time to Amplitude Converter (TAC) pixels. A column-parallel flash Analogue to Digital Converter (ADC) is implemented in the TACImager to support fast digital readout, allowing per-pixel, 3-bin TCSPC histogramming at frame rates of 4 kfps. New results related to this high-speed mode of operation are presented. The TACImager utilises a global ramp voltage as a timing reference, allowing time-zoom to be achieved through dynamic adjustment of comparator voltages, ramp offset voltages and ramp waveforms. We demonstrate the influence of fixed pattern noise in the pixels and column parallel ADCs on the results.

  12. High frame rate imaging system for limited diffraction array beam imaging with square-wave aperture weightings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian-Yu; Cheng, Jiqi; Wang, Jing

    2006-10-01

    A general-purpose high frame rate (HFR) medical imaging system has been developed. This system has 128 independent linear transmitters, each of which is capable of producing an arbitrary broadband (about 0.05-10 MHz) waveform of up to +/- 144 V peak voltage on a 75-ohm resistive load using a 12-bit/40-MHz digital-to-analog converter. The system also has 128 independent, broadband (about 0.25-10 MHz), and time-variable-gain receiver channels, each of which has a 12-bit/40-MHz analog-to-digital converter and up to 512 MB of memory. The system is controlled by a personal computer (PC), and radio frequency echo data of each channel are transferred to the same PC via a standard USB 2.0 port for image reconstructions. Using the HFR imaging system, we have developed a new limited-diffraction array beam imaging method with square-wave aperture voltage weightings. With this method, in principle, only one or two transmitters are required to excite a fully populated two-dimensional (2-D) array transducer to achieve an equivalent dynamic focusing in both transmission and reception to reconstruct a high-quality three-dimensional image without the need of the time delays of traditional beam focusing and steering, potentially simplifying the transmitter subsystem of an imager. To validate the method, for simplicity, 2-D imaging experiments were performed using the system. In the in vitro experiment, a custom-made, 128-element, 0.32-mm pitch, 3.5-MHz center frequency linear array transducer with about 50% fractional bandwidth was used to reconstruct images of an ATS 539 tissue-mimicking phantom at an axial distance of 130 mm with a field of view of more than 90 degrees. In the in vivo experiment of a human heart, images with a field of view of more than 90 degrees at 120-mm axial distance were obtained with a 128-element, 2.5-MHz center frequency, 0.15-mm pitch Acuson V2 phased array. To ensure that the system was operated under the limits set by the U.S. Food and Drug

  13. The Internal/External Frame of Reference Model of Self-Concept and Achievement Relations: Age-Cohort and Cross-Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Abduljabbar, Adel Salah; Parker, Philip D.; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Nagengast, Benjamin; Möller, Jens; Abu-Hilal, Maher M.

    2015-01-01

    The internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model and dimensional comparison theory posit paradoxical relations between achievement (ACH) and self-concept (SC) in mathematics (M) and verbal (V) domains; ACH in each domain positively affects SC in the matching domain (e.g., MACH to MSC) but negatively in the nonmatching domain (e.g., MACH to…

  14. The Longitudinal Interplay of Students' Academic Self-Concepts and Achievements within and across Domains: Replicating and Extending the Reciprocal Internal/External Frame of Reference Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niepel, Christoph; Brunner, Martin; Preckel, Franzis

    2014-01-01

    Students' cognitive and motivational profiles have a large impact on their academic careers. The development of such profiles can partly be explained by the reciprocal internal/external frame of reference model (RI/E model). The RI/E model predicts positive and negative longitudinal effects between academic self-concepts and achievements within…

  15. High resolution, high frame rate video technology development plan and the near-term system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) development effort is to provide technology advancements to remove constraints on the amount of high speed, detailed optical data recorded and transmitted for microgravity science and application experiments. These advancements will enable the development of video systems capable of high resolution, high frame rate video data recording, processing, and transmission. Techniques such as multichannel image scan, video parameter tradeoff, and the use of dual recording media were identified as methods of making the most efficient use of the near-term technology.

  16. Noiseless imaging detector for adaptive optics with kHz frame rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerga, John V.; McPhate, Jason; Mikulec, Bettina; Tremsin, Anton; Clark, Allan; Siegmund, Oswald

    2004-10-01

    A new hybrid optical detector is described that has many of the attributes desired for the next generation AO wavefront sensors. The detector consists of a proximity focused MCP read out by four multi-pixel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips developed at CERN ("Medipix2") with individual pixels that amplify, discriminate and count input events. The detector has 512 x 512 pixels, zero readout noise (photon counting) and can be read out at 1kHz frame rates. The Medipix2 readout chips can be electronically shuttered down to a temporal window of a few microseconds with an accuracy of 10 nanoseconds. When used in a Shack-Hartman style wavefront sensor, it should be able to centroid approximately 5000 spots using 7 x 7 pixel sub-apertures resulting in very linear, off-null error correction terms. The quantum efficiency depends on the optical photocathode chosen for the bandpass of interest. A three year development effort for this detector technology has just been funded as part of the first Adaptive Optics Development Program managed by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory.

  17. High-frame-rate intensified fast optically shuttered TV cameras with selected imaging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.; King, N.S.P.

    1994-08-01

    This invited paper focuses on high speed electronic/electro-optic camera development by the Applied Physics Experiments and Imaging Measurements Group (P-15) of Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Physics Division over the last two decades. The evolution of TV and image intensifier sensors and fast readout fast shuttered cameras are discussed. Their use in nuclear, military, and medical imaging applications are presented. Several salient characteristics and anomalies associated with single-pulse and high repetition rate performance of the cameras/sensors are included from earlier studies to emphasize their effects on radiometric accuracy of electronic framing cameras. The Group`s test and evaluation capabilities for characterization of imaging type electro-optic sensors and sensor components including Focal Plane Arrays, gated Image Intensifiers, microchannel plates, and phosphors are discussed. Two new unique facilities, the High Speed Solid State Imager Test Station (HSTS) and the Electron Gun Vacuum Test Chamber (EGTC) arc described. A summary of the Group`s current and developmental camera designs and R&D initiatives are included.

  18. Simultaneous Cinematographic PIV and PLIF measurements at kilohertz frame rate for turbulent cavity flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, S.; Ceccio, S. L.; Driscoll, J. F.

    2006-11-01

    A temporally-resolved flow visualization method has been developed for simultaneous measurement of velocity and concentration quantities in time-varying flows through the combination of cinematographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF). PIV images are acquired using two high-speed CMOS cameras that were optically combined and registered by using a non-polarizing beam splitter and a calibration target with known dimensions. The alignment uncertainty contributes up to 5% to the overall velocity measurement uncertainty. A third camera was added to simultaneously record PLIF images. The illumination of both particles and fluorescent dye is provided by two high repetition rate frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers. A long-pass color filter in front of PLIF camera eliminates the laser light reflected by PIV particles. A sequence length of 1083 image pairs with 1600 x 800 pixels was obtained at 1500 frames per second while simultaneous PLIF images with a full resolution of 800 x 600 pixels are taken through synchronizing signal generator. Both mean and instantaneous velocity and concentration fields are presented along with dynamic pressure data to illustrate the effect of the large-scale structures on the self-sustained oscillation inside the cavity. Correlations between the fluctuating velocities and concentration in the impinging shear layer reveal the dynamics of the transient mixing process.

  19. Ultra-scale vehicle tracking in low spatial resolution and low frame-rate overhead video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrano, Carmen J.

    2009-08-01

    Overhead persistent surveillance systems are becoming more capable at acquiring wide-field image sequences for long time-spans. The need to exploit this data is becoming ever greater. The ability to track a single vehicle of interest or to track all the observable vehicles, which may number in the thousands, over large, cluttered regions while they persist in the imagery either in real-time or quickly on-demand is very desirable. With this ability we can begin to answer a number of interesting questions such as, what are normal traffic patterns in a particular region or where did that truck come from? There are many challenges associated with processing this type of data, some of which we will address in the paper. Wide-field image sequences are very large with many thousands of pixels on a side and are characterized by lower resolutions (e.g. worse than 0.5 meters/pixel) and lower frame rates (e.g. a few Hz or less). The objects in the scenery can vary in size, density, and contrast with respect to the background. At the same time the background scenery provides a number of clutter sources both man-made and natural. We describe our current implementation of an ultrascale capable multiple-vehicle tracking algorithm for overhead persistent surveillance imagery as well as discuss the tracking and timing performance of the currently implemented algorithm which is aimed at utilizing grayscale electrooptical image sequences alone for the track segment generation.

  20. A dual-camera cinematographic PIV measurement system at kilohertz frame rate for high-speed, unsteady flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Shiyao; Ceccio, Steven L.; Driscoll, James F.

    2010-03-01

    A digital dual-camera cinematographic particle image velocimetry (CPIV) system has been developed to provide time-resolved, high resolution flow measurements in high-Reynolds number, turbulent flows. Two high-speed CMOS cameras were optically combined to acquire double-pulsed CPIV images at kilohertz frame rates. Bias and random errors due to camera misalignment, camera vibration, and lens aberration were corrected or estimated. Systematic errors due to the camera misalignment were reduced to less than 2 pixels throughout the image plane using mechanical alignment, resulting in 3.1% positional uncertainty of velocity measurements. Frame-to-frame uncertainties caused by mechanical vibration were eliminated with the aid of digital image calibration and frame-to-frame camera registration. This dual-camera CPIV system is capable of resolving high speed, unsteady flows with high temporal and spatial resolutions. It also allows time intervals between the two exposures down to 4 μs, enabling the measurements of speed flows 5-10 times higher than possible with frame-straddling using similar cameras. A turbulent shallow cavity was then chosen as the experimental object investigated by this dual-camera CPIV technique.

  1. How Fast Is Your Body Motion? Determining a Sufficient Frame Rate for an Optical Motion Tracking System Using Passive Markers.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Ho; Godøy, Rolf Inge

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses how to determine a sufficient frame (sampling) rate for an optical motion tracking system using passive reflective markers. When using passive markers for the optical motion tracking, avoiding identity confusion between the markers becomes a problem as the speed of motion increases, necessitating a higher frame rate to avoid a failure of the motion tracking caused by marker confusions and/or dropouts. Initially, one might believe that the Nyquist-Shannon sampling rate estimated from the assumed maximal temporal variation of a motion (i.e. a sampling rate at least twice that of the maximum motion frequency) could be the complete solution to the problem. However, this paper shows that also the spatial distance between the markers should be taken into account in determining the suitable frame rate of an optical motion tracking with passive markers. In this paper, a frame rate criterion for the optical tracking using passive markers is theoretically derived and also experimentally verified using a high-quality optical motion tracking system. Both the theoretical and the experimental results showed that the minimum frame rate is proportional to the ratio between the maximum speed of the motion and the minimum spacing between markers, and may also be predicted precisely if the proportional constant is known in advance. The inverse of the proportional constant is here defined as the tracking efficiency constant and it can be easily determined with some test measurements. Moreover, this newly defined constant can provide a new way of evaluating the tracking algorithm performance of an optical tracking system.

  2. How Fast Is Your Body Motion? Determining a Sufficient Frame Rate for an Optical Motion Tracking System Using Passive Markers

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min-Ho; Godøy, Rolf Inge

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses how to determine a sufficient frame (sampling) rate for an optical motion tracking system using passive reflective markers. When using passive markers for the optical motion tracking, avoiding identity confusion between the markers becomes a problem as the speed of motion increases, necessitating a higher frame rate to avoid a failure of the motion tracking caused by marker confusions and/or dropouts. Initially, one might believe that the Nyquist-Shannon sampling rate estimated from the assumed maximal temporal variation of a motion (i.e. a sampling rate at least twice that of the maximum motion frequency) could be the complete solution to the problem. However, this paper shows that also the spatial distance between the markers should be taken into account in determining the suitable frame rate of an optical motion tracking with passive markers. In this paper, a frame rate criterion for the optical tracking using passive markers is theoretically derived and also experimentally verified using a high-quality optical motion tracking system. Both the theoretical and the experimental results showed that the minimum frame rate is proportional to the ratio between the maximum speed of the motion and the minimum spacing between markers, and may also be predicted precisely if the proportional constant is known in advance. The inverse of the proportional constant is here defined as the tracking efficiency constant and it can be easily determined with some test measurements. Moreover, this newly defined constant can provide a new way of evaluating the tracking algorithm performance of an optical tracking system. PMID:26967900

  3. Full-Field Spectroscopy at Megahertz-frame-rates: Application of Coherent Time-Stretch Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, Peter Thomas Setsuda

    Outliers or rogue events are found extensively in our world and have incredible effects. Also called rare events, they arise in the distribution of wealth (e.g., Pareto index), finance, network traffic, ocean waves, and e-commerce (selling less of more). Interest in rare optical events exploded after the sighting of optical rogue waves in laboratory experiments at UCLA. Detecting such tail events in fast streams of information necessitates real-time measurements. The Coherent Time-Stretch Transform chirps a pulsed source of radiation so that its temporal envelope matches its spectral profile (analogous to the far field regime of spatial diffraction), and the mapped spectral electric field is slow enough to be captured by a real-time digitizer. Combining this technique with spectral encoding, the time stretch technique has enabled a new class of ultra-high performance spectrometers and cameras (30+ MHz), and analog-to-digital converters that have led to the discovery of optical rogue waves and detection of cancer cells in blood with one in a million sensitivity. Conventionally, the Coherent Time-Stretch Transform maps the spectrum into the temporal electric field, but the time-dilation process along with inherent fiber losses results in reduction of peak power and loss of sensitivity, a problem exacerbated by extremely narrow molecular linewidths. The loss issue notwithstanding, in many cases the requisite dispersive optical device is not available. By extending the Coherent Time-Stretch Transform to the temporal near field, I have demonstrated, for the first time, phase-sensitive absorption spectroscopy of a gaseous sample at millions of frames per second. As the Coherent Time-Stretch Transform may capture both near and far field optical waves, it is a complete spectro-temporal optical characterization tool. This is manifested as an amplitude-dependent chirp, which implies the ability to measure the complex refractive index dispersion at megahertz frame rates. This

  4. Optical cell tracking analysis using a straight-forward approach to minimize processing time for high frame rate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeto, Wen Jun; Lipke, Elizabeth Ann

    2016-03-01

    Tracking of rolling cells via in vitro experiment is now commonly performed using customized computer programs. In most cases, two critical challenges continue to limit analysis of cell rolling data: long computation times due to the complexity of tracking algorithms and difficulty in accurately correlating a given cell with itself from one frame to the next, which is typically due to errors caused by cells that either come close in proximity to each other or come in contact with each other. In this paper, we have developed a sophisticated, yet simple and highly effective, rolling cell tracking system to address these two critical problems. This optical cell tracking analysis (OCTA) system first employs ImageJ for cell identification in each frame of a cell rolling video. A custom MATLAB code was written to use the geometric and positional information of all cells as the primary parameters for matching each individual cell with itself between consecutive frames and to avoid errors when tracking cells that come within close proximity to one another. Once the cells are matched, rolling velocity can be obtained for further analysis. The use of ImageJ for cell identification eliminates the need for high level MATLAB image processing knowledge. As a result, only fundamental MATLAB syntax is necessary for cell matching. OCTA has been implemented in the tracking of endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC) rolling under shear. The processing time needed to obtain tracked cell data from a 2 min ECFC rolling video recorded at 70 frames per second with a total of over 8000 frames is less than 6 min using a computer with an Intel® Core™ i7 CPU 2.80 GHz (8 CPUs). This cell tracking system benefits cell rolling analysis by substantially reducing the time required for post-acquisition data processing of high frame rate video recordings and preventing tracking errors when individual cells come in close proximity to one another.

  5. High-frame rate four dimensional optoacoustic tomography enables visualization of cardiovascular dynamics and mouse heart perfusion.

    PubMed

    Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís; Ford, Steven James; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Functional imaging of mouse models of cardiac health and disease provides a major contribution to our fundamental understanding of the mammalian heart. However, imaging murine hearts presents significant challenges due to their small size and rapid heart rate. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of high-frame-rate, noninvasive optoacoustic imaging of the murine heart. The temporal resolution of 50 three-dimensional frames per second provides functional information at important phases of the cardiac cycle without the use of gating or other motion-reduction methods. Differentiation of the blood oxygenation state in the heart chambers was enabled by exploiting the wavelength dependence of optoacoustic signals. Real-time volumetric tracking of blood perfusion in the cardiac chambers was also evaluated using indocyanine green. Taken together, the newly-discovered capacities offer a unique tool set for in-vivo structural and functional imaging of the whole heart with high spatio-temporal resolution in all three dimensions.

  6. Multi-exposure laser speckle contrast imaging using a high frame rate CMOS sensor with a field programmable gate array.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shen; Hayes-Gill, Barrie R; He, Diwei; Zhu, Yiqun; Morgan, Stephen P

    2015-10-15

    A system has been developed in which multi-exposure laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is implemented using a high frame rate CMOS imaging sensor chip. Processing is performed using a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The system allows different exposure times to be simulated by accumulating a number of short exposures. This has the advantage that the image acquisition time is limited by the maximum exposure time and that regulation of the illuminating light level is not required. This high frame rate camera has also been deployed to implement laser Doppler blood flow processing, enabling a direct comparison of multi-exposure laser speckle imaging and laser Doppler imaging (LDI) to be carried out using the same experimental data. Results from a rotating diffuser indicate that both multi-exposure LSCI and LDI provide a linear response to changes in velocity. This cannot be obtained using single-exposure LSCI, unless an appropriate model is used for correcting the response.

  7. FShm: High-Rate Frame Manipulation in Kernel and User-Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14 . ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...However, on an AMD Opteron or Intel Xeon, the overhead for a single system call (exclud- ing any real work done by the OS) ranges from 171ns to 534ns...or a frame every 2207 ns. On a 2GHz machine (e.g., the AMD Opteron on which FShm was evaluated) this is the difference between 1338 processor cycles

  8. Associations between Teacher-Rated versus Self-Rated Student Temperament and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullola, Sari; Hintsanen, Mirka; Jokela, Markus; Lipsanen, Jari; Alatupa, Saija; Ravaja, Niklas; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether teacher-rated versus self-rated student temperaments are different in relation to the school grades in Maths and Mother language (ML) instruction in a nationally representative sample of Finnish Secondary School students (n?=?1,063, mean age 15.1 years). The results indicated that teacher-rated temperament was more…

  9. Probe Oscillation Shear Elastography (PROSE): A High Frame-Rate Method for Two-Dimensional Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography.

    PubMed

    Mellema, Daniel C; Song, Pengfei; Kinnick, Randall R; Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F; Manduca, Armando; Chen, Shigao

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) utilizes the propagation of induced shear waves to characterize the shear modulus of soft tissue. Many methods rely on an acoustic radiation force (ARF) "push beam" to generate shear waves. However, specialized hardware is required to generate the push beams, and the thermal stress that is placed upon the ultrasound system, transducer, and tissue by the push beams currently limits the frame-rate to about 1 Hz. These constraints have limited the implementation of ARF to high-end clinical systems. This paper presents Probe Oscillation Shear Elastography (PROSE) as an alternative method to measure tissue elasticity. PROSE generates shear waves using a harmonic mechanical vibration of an ultrasound transducer, while simultaneously detecting motion with the same transducer under pulse-echo mode. Motion of the transducer during detection produces a "strain-like" compression artifact that is coupled with the observed shear waves. A novel symmetric sampling scheme is proposed such that pulse-echo detection events are acquired when the ultrasound transducer returns to the same physical position, allowing the shear waves to be decoupled from the compression artifact. Full field-of-view (FOV) two-dimensional (2D) shear wave speed images were obtained by applying a local frequency estimation (LFE) technique, capable of generating a 2D map from a single frame of shear wave motion. The shear wave imaging frame rate of PROSE is comparable to the vibration frequency, which can be an order of magnitude higher than ARF based techniques. PROSE was able to produce smooth and accurate shear wave images from three homogeneous phantoms with different moduli, with an effective frame rate of 300 Hz. An inclusion phantom study showed that increased vibration frequencies improved the accuracy of inclusion imaging, and allowed targets as small as 6.5 mm to be resolved with good contrast (contrast-to-noise ratio ≥ 19 dB) between the target and

  10. A video event trigger for high frame rate, high resolution video technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1991-01-01

    When video replaces film the digitized video data accumulates very rapidly, leading to a difficult and costly data storage problem. One solution exists for cases when the video images represent continuously repetitive 'static scenes' containing negligible activity, occasionally interrupted by short events of interest. Minutes or hours of redundant video frames can be ignored, and not stored, until activity begins. A new, highly parallel digital state machine generates a digital trigger signal at the onset of a video event. High capacity random access memory storage coupled with newly available fuzzy logic devices permits the monitoring of a video image stream for long term or short term changes caused by spatial translation, dilation, appearance, disappearance, or color change in a video object. Pretrigger and post-trigger storage techniques are then adaptable for archiving the digital stream from only the significant video images.

  11. Meteor wake in high frame-rate images--implications for the chemistry of ablated organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Jenniskens, Peter; Stenbaek-Nielsen, Hans C

    2004-01-01

    Extraterrestrial organic matter may have been chemically altered into forms more ameanable for prebiotic chemistry in the wake of a meteor after ablation. We measured the rate of cooling of the plasma in the meteor wake from the intensity decay just behind a meteoroid by freezing its motion in high frame-rate 1000 frames/s video images, with an intensified camera that has a short phosphor decay time. Though the resulting cooling rate was found to be lower than theoretically predicted, our calculations indicated that there would have been insufficient collisions to break apart large organic compounds before most reactive radicals and electrons were lost from the air plasma. Organic molecules delivered from space to the early Earth via meteors might therefore have survived in a chemically altered form. In addition, we discovered that relatively small meteoroids generated far-ultraviolet emission that is absorbed in the immediate environment of the meteoroid, which may chemically alter the atmosphere over a much larger region than previously recognized.

  12. Meteor wake in high frame-rate images--implications for the chemistry of ablated organic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Stenbaek-Nielsen, Hans C.

    2004-01-01

    Extraterrestrial organic matter may have been chemically altered into forms more ameanable for prebiotic chemistry in the wake of a meteor after ablation. We measured the rate of cooling of the plasma in the meteor wake from the intensity decay just behind a meteoroid by freezing its motion in high frame-rate 1000 frames/s video images, with an intensified camera that has a short phosphor decay time. Though the resulting cooling rate was found to be lower than theoretically predicted, our calculations indicated that there would have been insufficient collisions to break apart large organic compounds before most reactive radicals and electrons were lost from the air plasma. Organic molecules delivered from space to the early Earth via meteors might therefore have survived in a chemically altered form. In addition, we discovered that relatively small meteoroids generated far-ultraviolet emission that is absorbed in the immediate environment of the meteoroid, which may chemically alter the atmosphere over a much larger region than previously recognized.

  13. High frame-rate imaging of surface pressure distribution using a porous pressure-sensitive paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamura, Y.; Matsumoto, M.; Suzuki, T.

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the feasibility of a porous pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) for time-resolved surface pressure measurements in unsteady high-speed flows. The porous PSP was composed of bathophenanthroline ruthenium(II) complex, Ru(Ph2-phen) and a silica-gel thin-layer chromatography aluminium plate. The dynamic response of the porous PSP was characterized by a point-wise luminescence intensity measurement conducted in a shock tube facility. The result showed that the time constant of the porous PSP was 13.6 µs. The porous PSP was then applied to the surface pressure distribution imaging of an unsteady flow induced in a two-dimensional Laval nozzle by using a fast-framing complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera. It was clearly shown that the porous PSP well captured the shock-wave motion of the order of kilohertz during the starting process of the supersonic nozzle in a qualitative manner.

  14. Mapping from frame-driven to frame-free event-driven vision systems by low-rate rate coding and coincidence processing--application to feedforward ConvNets.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Carrasco, José Antonio; Zhao, Bo; Serrano, Carmen; Acha, Begoña; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Chen, Shouchun; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé

    2013-11-01

    Event-driven visual sensors have attracted interest from a number of different research communities. They provide visual information in quite a different way from conventional video systems consisting of sequences of still images rendered at a given "frame rate." Event-driven vision sensors take inspiration from biology. Each pixel sends out an event (spike) when it senses something meaningful is happening, without any notion of a frame. A special type of event-driven sensor is the so-called dynamic vision sensor (DVS) where each pixel computes relative changes of light or "temporal contrast." The sensor output consists of a continuous flow of pixel events that represent the moving objects in the scene. Pixel events become available with microsecond delays with respect to "reality." These events can be processed "as they flow" by a cascade of event (convolution) processors. As a result, input and output event flows are practically coincident in time, and objects can be recognized as soon as the sensor provides enough meaningful events. In this paper, we present a methodology for mapping from a properly trained neural network in a conventional frame-driven representation to an event-driven representation. The method is illustrated by studying event-driven convolutional neural networks (ConvNet) trained to recognize rotating human silhouettes or high speed poker card symbols. The event-driven ConvNet is fed with recordings obtained from a real DVS camera. The event-driven ConvNet is simulated with a dedicated event-driven simulator and consists of a number of event-driven processing modules, the characteristics of which are obtained from individually manufactured hardware modules.

  15. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennie, Elizabeth; Bonneau, Kara; vanDellen, Michelle; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding…

  16. The Concurrent Validity of Standardized Achievement Tests by Content Area Using Teachers' Ratings as Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Kenneth D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Forty-two fourth- and fifth-grade teachers rated their 1,032 students in the five curricular subjects: reading, mathematics, language arts, science, and social science. The teachers' ratings substantially agreed with students' scores on the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills, indicating the concurrent validity of standardized achievement tests.…

  17. Diffuse shear wave imaging: toward passive elastography using low-frame rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Zorgani, Ali; Lescanne, Maxime; Boccara, Claude; Fink, Mathias; Catheline, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can map the stiffness of biological tissue by imaging mechanical perturbations (shear waves) propagating in the tissue. Most shear wave elastography (SWE) techniques rely on active shear sources to generate controlled displacements that are tracked at ultrafast imaging rates. Here, we propose a noise-correlation approach to retrieve stiffness information from the imaging of diffuse displacement fields using low-frame rate spectral-domain OCT. We demonstrated the method on tissue-mimicking phantoms and validated the results by comparison with classic ultrafast SWE. Then we investigated the in vivo feasibility on the eye of an anesthetized rat by applying noise correlation to naturally occurring displacements. The results suggest a great potential for passive elastography based on the detection of natural pulsatile motions using conventional spectral-domain OCT systems. This would facilitate the transfer of OCT-elastography to clinical practice, in particular, in ophthalmology or dermatology.

  18. High frame-rate real-time x-ray imaging of in situ high-velocity rifle bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aries, Lawrence J.; Miller, Stuart R.; Robertson, Rob; Singh, Bipin; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2016-05-01

    High frame-rate imaging is a valuable tool for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) as well as for ballistic impact studies (terminal ballistics), in-flight projectile imaging, studies of exploding ordnance and characterization of other high-speed phenomena. Current imaging systems exist for these studies, however, none have the ability to do in-barrel characterization (in-bore ballistics) to image kinetics of the moving projectile BEFORE it exits the barrel. The system uses an intensified high-speed CMOS camera coupled to a specially designed scintillator to serve as the X-ray detector. The X-ray source is a sequentially fired portable pulsed unit synchronized with the detector integration window and is able to acquire 3,600 frames per second (fps) with mega-pixel spatial resolution and up to 500,000 fps with reduced pixel resolution. This paper will discuss our results imaging .30 caliber bullets traveling at ~1,000 m/s while still in the barrel. Information on bullet deformation, pitch, yaw and integrity are the main goals of this experimentation. Planned future upgrades for imaging large caliber projectiles will also be discussed.

  19. Quantitative NO{sub 2} molecular tagging velocimetry at 500 kHz frame rate

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Naibo; Nishihara, Munetake; Lempert, Walter R.

    2010-11-29

    NO{sub 2} molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) is demonstrated at repetition rates as high as 500 kHz in a laboratory scale Mach 5 wind tunnel. A pulse burst laser and a home built optical parametric oscillator system were used to simultaneously generate the required 355 and 226 nm wavelengths for NO{sub 2} photodissociation (tagging) and NO planar laser induced fluorescence imaging (interrogation), respectively. NO{sub 2} MTV images were obtained both in front and behind the characteristic bow shock from a 5 mm diameter cylinder. From Gaussian curve fitting, an average free stream flow velocity of 719 m/s was obtained. Absolute statistical precision in velocity of {approx}11.5 m/s was determined, corresponding to relative precision of 1.6%-5%, depending upon the region of the flow probed.

  20. New progress in electron-injection detectors for NIR imagers with low noise and high frame rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Mohsen; Park, Min-Su; Wheaton, Skylar; Tan, Chee Leong; Fathipour, Vala; Guyon, Olivier; Ulmer, Melville P.; Mohseni, Hooman

    2016-07-01

    This article reports the progress on the development of a novel detector with the promise of addressing the needs of extreme AO (ExAO) in the near-IR band (NIR), 0.9-1.7 μm. The camera is based on the electron injection mechanism which resembles how the human eye processes light. The camera design allows high sensitivity operation at TEC reachable temperatures for ExAO at 1-4 kHz frame rates, and at the same time the concept produces sufficient gain to overcome the read noise of the device. Here we present the overall design, test results on Gen-1 (outdated but operable) camera, along with early results of our next generation of detectors.

  1. High-frame rate imaging of two-phase flow in a thin rectangular channel using fast neutrons.

    PubMed

    Zboray, R; Mor, I; Dangendorf, V; Stark, M; Tittelmeier, K; Cortesi, M; Adams, R

    2014-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of performing high-frame-rate, fast neutron radiography of air-water two-phase flows in a thin channel with rectangular cross section. The experiments have been carried out at the accelerator facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. A polychromatic, high-intensity fast neutron beam with average energy of 6 MeV was produced by 11.5 MeV deuterons hitting a thick Be target. Image sequences down to 10 ms exposure times were obtained using a fast-neutron imaging detector developed in the context of fast-neutron resonance imaging. Different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. Two phase flow parameters like the volumetric gas fraction, bubble size and mean bubble velocities have been measured. The first results are promising, improvements for future experiments are also discussed.

  2. HEPS-BPIX, a single photon counting pixel detector with a high frame rate for the HEPS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Ning, Zhe; Lu, Yunpeng; Fan, Lei; Li, Huaishen; Jiang, Xiaoshan; Lan, Allan K.; Ouyang, Qun; Wang, Zheng; Zhu, Kejun; Chen, Yuanbo; Liu, Peng

    2016-11-01

    China's next generation light source, named the High Energy Photon Source (HEPS), is currently under construction. HEPS-BPIX (HEPS-Beijing PIXel) is a dedicated pixel readout chip that operates in single photon counting mode for X-ray applications in HEPS. Designed using CMOS 0.13 μm technology, the chip contains a matrix of 104×72 pixels. Each pixel measures 150 μm×150 μm and has a counting depth of 20 bits. A bump-bonded prototyping detector module with a 300-μm thick silicon sensor was tested in the beamline of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. A fast stream of X-ray images was demonstrated, and a frame rate of 1.2 kHz was proven, with a negligible dead time. The test results showed an equivalent noise charge of 115 e- rms after bump bonding and a threshold dispersion of 55 e- rms after calibration.

  3. Cognitive, Parent and Teacher Rating Measures of Executive Functioning: Shared and Unique Influences on School Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Marielle C.; Ziermans, Tim B.; Spruijt, Andrea M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Very little is known about the relative influence of cognitive performance-based executive functioning (EF) measures and behavioral EF ratings in explaining differences in children's school achievement. This study examined the shared and unique influence of these different EF measures on math and spelling outcome for a sample of 84 first and second graders. Parents and teachers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), and children were tested with computer-based performance tests from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT). Mixed-model hierarchical regression analyses, including intelligence level and age, showed that cognitive performance and teacher's ratings of working memory and shifting concurrently explained differences in spelling. However, teacher's behavioral EF ratings did not explain any additional variance in math outcome above cognitive EF performance. Parent's behavioral EF ratings did not add any unique information for either outcome measure. This study provides support for the ecological validity of performance- and teacher rating-based EF measures, and shows that both measures could have a complementary role in identifying EF processes underlying spelling achievement problems. The early identification of strengths and weaknesses of a child's working memory and shifting capabilities, might help teachers to broaden their range of remedial intervention options to optimize school achievement. PMID:28194121

  4. Mapping from Frame-Driven to Frame-Free Event-Driven Vision Systems by Low-Rate Rate-Coding and Coincidence Processing. Application to Feed Forward ConvNets.

    PubMed

    Perez-Carrasco, J A; Zhao, B; Serrano, C; Acha, B; Serrano-Gotarredona, T; Chen, S; Linares-Barranco, B

    2013-04-10

    Event-driven visual sensors have attracted interest from a number of different research communities. They provide visual information in quite a different way from conventional video systems consisting of sequences of still images rendered at “frame rate”. Event-driven vision sensors take inspiration from biology. A special type of Event-driven sensor is the so called Dynamic-Vision-Sensor (DVS) where each pixel computes relative changes of light, or “temporal contrast”. Pixel events become available with micro second delays with respect to “reality”. These events can be processed “as they flow” by a cascade of event (convolution) processors. As a result, input and output event flows are practically coincident, and objects can be recognized as soon as the sensor provides enough meaningful events. In this paper we present a methodology for mapping from a properly trained neural network in a conventional Frame-driven representation, to an Event-driven representation. The method is illustrated by studying Event-driven Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNet) trained to recognize rotating human silhouettes or high speed poker card symbols. The Event-driven ConvNet is fed with recordings obtained from a real DVS camera. The Event-driven ConvNet is simulated with a dedicated Event-driven simulator, and consists of a number of Event-driven processing modules the characteristics of which are obtained from individually manufactured hardware modules.

  5. 10 Strategies for Raising Achievement and Improving High School Completion Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene

    2004-01-01

    No state can afford to have the percentage of young people who are failing to finish high school remain at the present levels nor can they afford to ease the standards. This document discusses the following 10 strategies that states can implement to raise achievement and increase high school completion rates: (1) Initiate a transition program for…

  6. Educational Seduction: The Effect of Instructor Expressiveness and Lecture Content on Student Ratings and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Raymond P.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Previous "educational seduction" research suggested that teacher differences in expressiveness controlled the degree to which lecture content affected student ratings differently from student achievement. We attempted to replicate this Expressiveness x Content x Measures interaction in four simulated college classes. Student incentive…

  7. The Impact of High School Size on Math Achievement and Dropout Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werblow, Jacob; Duesbery, Luke

    2009-01-01

    The study explores the ways in which school size influences two important student outcomes commonly used in school effects research: growth in mathematics achievement and dropout rate. Past research suggests that smaller high schools can lead to increased benefits for students. In this study, multilevel analytic models of the first two waves of…

  8. Prekindergarten Children's Executive Functioning Skills and Achievement Gains: The Utility of Direct Assessments and Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Farran, Dale Clark; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner

    2015-01-01

    An accumulating body of evidence suggests that young children who exhibit greater executive functioning (EF) skills in early childhood also achieve more academically. The goal of the present study was to examine the unique contributions of direct assessments and teacher ratings of children's EF skills at the beginning of prekindergarten (pre-k) to…

  9. In vivo imaging flow cytometry based on laser scanning two-photon microscopy at kHz cross-sectional frame rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingjie; Tang, Jianyong; Cui, Meng

    2016-03-01

    In vivo flow cytometry has found numerous applications in biology and pharmacology. However, conventional cytometry does not provide the detailed morphological information that is needed to fully determine the phenotype of individual circulating cells. Imaging cytometry, capable of visualizing the morphology and dynamics of the circulating cells at high spatiotemporal resolution, is highly desired. Current wide-field based image cytometers are limited in the imaging depth and provide only two-dimensional resolution. For deep tissue imaging, laser scanning two-photon fluorescence microscopy (TPM) is widely adopted. However, for applications in flow cytometry, the axial scanning speed of current TPMs is inadequate to provide high-speed cross-sectional imaging of vasculature. We have integrated an optical phase-locked ultrasound lens into a standard TPM and achieved microsecond-scale axial scanning. With a galvo scanner for transverse scanning, we achieved kHz cross-sectional frame rate. Here we report its applications for in vivo deformability cytometry and in vivo imaging flow cytometry, and demonstrate the capability of imaging dynamical morphologies of flowing cells, distinguishing cells and cellular clusters, and simultaneously quantifying different cell populations based on their fluorescent labels.

  10. Effect of scanline orientation on ventricular flow propagation: assessment using high frame-rate color Doppler echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, N. L.; Castro, P. L.; Drinko, J.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Color M-mode echocardiography has recently been utilized to describe diastolic flow propagation velocity (Vp) in the left ventricle. While increasing temporal resolution from 15 to 200 Hz, this M-mode technique requires the user to select a single scanline, potentially limiting quantification of Vp due to the complex three-dimensional inflow pattern. We previously performed computational fluid dynamics simulations to demonstrate the insignificance of the scanline orientation, however geometric complexity was limited. The purpose of this study was to utilize high frame-rate 2D color Doppler images to investigate the importance of scanline selection in patients for the quantification of Vp. 2D color Doppler images were digitally acquired at 50 frames/s in 6 subjects from the apical 4-chamber window (System 5, GE/Vingmed, Milwaukee, WI). Vp was determined for a set of scanlines positioned through 5 locations across the mitral annulus (from the anterior to posterior mitral annulus). An analysis of variance was performed to examine the differences in Vp as a function of scanline position. Vp was not effected by scanline position in sampled locations from the center of the mitral valve towards the posterior annulus. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend to slower propagation velocities on the anterior side of the valve (60.8 +/- 16.7 vs. 54.4 +/- 13.6 cm/s). This study clinically validates our previous numerical experiment showing that Vp is insensitive to small perturbations of the scanline through the mitral valve. However, further investigation is necessary to examine the impact of ventricular geometry in pathologies including dilated cardiomyopathy.

  11. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    GLENNIE, ELIZABETH; BONNEAU, KARA; VANDELLEN, MICHELLE; DODGE, KENNETH A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. Purpose/Objective/Focus This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Research Design Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time—that is, between one year’s achievement and the subsequent year’s dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. Findings/Results This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved

  12. Achievable information rates estimates in optically amplified transmission systems using nonlinearity compensation and probabilistic shaping.

    PubMed

    Semrau, Daniel; Xu, Tianhua; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Paskov, Milen; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I; Bayvel, Polina

    2017-01-01

    Achievable information rates (AIRs) of wideband optical communication systems using a ∼40  nm (∼5  THz) erbium-doped fiber amplifier and ∼100  nm (∼12.5  THz) distributed Raman amplification are estimated based on a first-order perturbation analysis. The AIRs of each individual channel have been evaluated for DP-64QAM, DP-256QAM, and DP-1024QAM modulation formats. The impact of full-field nonlinear compensation (FF-NLC) and probabilistically shaped constellations using a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution were studied and compared to electronic dispersion compensation. It has been found that a probabilistically shaped DP-1024QAM constellation, combined with FF-NLC, yields achievable information rates of ∼75  Tbit/s for the EDFA scheme and ∼223  Tbit/s for the Raman amplification scheme over a 2000 km standard single-mode fiber transmission.

  13. Predictive validity of curriculum-based measurement and teacher ratings of academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kettler, Ryan J; Albers, Craig A

    2013-08-01

    Two alternative universal screening approaches to identify students with early learning difficulties were examined, along with a combination of these approaches. These approaches, consisting of (a) curriculum-based measurement (CBM) and (b) teacher ratings using Performance Screening Guides (PSGs), served as predictors of achievement tests in reading and mathematics. Participants included 413 students in grades 1, 2, and 3 in Tennessee (n=118) and Wisconsin (n=295) who were divided into six subsamples defined by grade and state. Reading and mathematics achievement tests with established psychometric properties were used as criteria within a concurrent and predictive validity framework. Across both achievement areas, CBM probes shared more variance with criterion measures than did teacher ratings, although teacher ratings added incremental validity among most subsamples. PSGs tended to be more accurate for identifying students in need of assistance at a 1-month interval, whereas CBM probes were more accurate at a 6-month interval. Teachers indicated that (a) false negatives are more problematic than are false positives, (b) both screening methods are useful for identifying early learning difficulties, and (c) both screening methods are useful for identifying students in need of interventions. Collectively, these findings suggest that the two types of measures, when used together, yield valuable information about students who need assistance in reading and mathematics.

  14. Self-concept and self-efficacy: a test of the internal/external frame of reference model and predictions of subsequent motivation and achievement.

    PubMed

    Skaalvik, Einar M; Skaalvik, Sidsel

    2004-12-01

    We examined how final grades in mathematics and verbal arts in the first year of high school (Grade 11) were predicted in a Norwegian population by sex, previous grades in middle school (Grade 10), self-concept, self-efficacy at a domain-specific level, and intrinsic motivation. Direct and indirect relations were examined by means of a series of regression analyses. Participants were 483 students from six Norwegian high schools. End of term grades in high school correlated positively with grades in middle school in both mathematics (r = .62) and verbal arts (r = .55). The relation between grades at the two points of time was to a large extent mediated through mathematics, verbal self-concept, and self-efficacy. Intrinsic motivation also correlated positively with subsequent achievement (r = .63 and .42 in mathematics and verbal arts, respectively). However, intrinsic motivation had little predictive value for subsequent grades over and above the prediction made by self-concept and self-efficacy. Thus, self-concept and self-efficacy were the strongest predictors of subsequent grades. Predictions from the Internal/External frame of reference model were supported for self-concept but not for domain-specific self-efficacy.

  15. Multiple-samples-method enabling high dynamic range imaging for high frame rate CMOS image sensor by FPGA and co-processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquot, Blake C.; Johnson-Williams, Nathan

    2014-09-01

    We present results from a prototype CMOS camera system implementing a multiple sampled pixel level algorithm ("Last Sample Before Saturation") to create High-Dynamic Range (HDR) images that approach the dynamic range of CCDs. The system is built around a commercial 1280 × 1024 CMOS image sensor with 10-bits per pixel and up to 500 Hz full frame rate with higher frame rates available through windowing. We analyze imagery data collected at room temperature for SNR versus photocurrent, among other figures of merit. Results conform to expectations of a model that uses only dark current, read noise, and photocurrent as input parameters.

  16. Ultra-scale vehicle tracking in low spatial-resolution and low frame-rate overhead video

    SciTech Connect

    Carrano, C J

    2009-05-20

    Overhead persistent surveillance systems are becoming more capable at acquiring wide-field image sequences for long time-spans. The need to exploit this data is becoming ever greater. The ability to track a single vehicle of interest or to track all the observable vehicles, which may number in the thousands, over large, cluttered regions while they persist in the imagery either in real-time or quickly on-demand is very desirable. With this ability we can begin to answer a number of interesting questions such as, what are normal traffic patterns in a particular region or where did that truck come from? There are many challenges associated with processing this type of data, some of which we will address in the paper. Wide-field image sequences are very large with many thousands of pixels on a side and are characterized by lower resolutions (e.g. worse than 0.5 meters/pixel) and lower frame rates (e.g. a few Hz or less). The objects in the scenery can vary in size, density, and contrast with respect to the background. At the same time the background scenery provides a number of clutter sources both man-made and natural. We describe our current implementation of an ultrascale capable multiple-vehicle tracking algorithm for overhead persistent surveillance imagery as well as discuss the tracking and timing performance of the currently implemented algorithm which is aimed at utilizing grayscale electrooptical image sequences alone for the track segment generation.

  17. Categorization of Fetal Heart Rate Decelerations in American and European Practice: Importance and Imperative of Avoiding Framing and Confirmation Biases.

    PubMed

    Sholapurkar, Shashikant L

    2015-09-01

    Interpretation of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) remains controversial and unsatisfactory. Fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations are the commonest aberrant feature on cardiotocographs and considered "center-stage" in the interpretation of EFM. A recent American study suggested that the lack of correlation of American three-tier system to neonatal acidemia may be due to the current peculiar nomenclature of FHR decelerations leading to loss of meaning. The pioneers like Hon and Caldeyro-Barcia classified decelerations based primarily on time relationship to contractions and not on etiology per se. This critical analysis debates pros and cons of significant anchoring/framing and confirmation biases in defining different types of decelerations based primarily on the shape (slope) or time of descent. It would be important to identify benign early decelerations correctly to avoid unnecessary intervention as well as to improve the positive predictive value of the other types of decelerations. Currently the vast majority of decelerations are classed as "variable". This review shows that the most common rapid decelerations during contractions with trough corresponding to peak of contraction cannot be explained by "cord-compression" hypothesis but by direct/pure (defined here as not mediated through baro-/chemoreceptors) or non-hypoxic vagal reflex. These decelerations are benign, most likely and mainly a result of head-compression and hence should be called "early" rather than "variable". Standardization is important but should be appropriate and withstand scientific scrutiny. Significant framing and confirmation biases are necessarily unscientific and the succeeding three-tier interpretation systems and structures embodying these biases would be dysfunctional and clinically unhelpful. Clinical/pathophysiological analysis and avoidance of flaws/biases suggest that a more physiological and scientific categorization of decelerations should be based on time relationship to

  18. Categorization of Fetal Heart Rate Decelerations in American and European Practice: Importance and Imperative of Avoiding Framing and Confirmation Biases

    PubMed Central

    Sholapurkar, Shashikant L.

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) remains controversial and unsatisfactory. Fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations are the commonest aberrant feature on cardiotocographs and considered “center-stage” in the interpretation of EFM. A recent American study suggested that the lack of correlation of American three-tier system to neonatal acidemia may be due to the current peculiar nomenclature of FHR decelerations leading to loss of meaning. The pioneers like Hon and Caldeyro-Barcia classified decelerations based primarily on time relationship to contractions and not on etiology per se. This critical analysis debates pros and cons of significant anchoring/framing and confirmation biases in defining different types of decelerations based primarily on the shape (slope) or time of descent. It would be important to identify benign early decelerations correctly to avoid unnecessary intervention as well as to improve the positive predictive value of the other types of decelerations. Currently the vast majority of decelerations are classed as “variable”. This review shows that the most common rapid decelerations during contractions with trough corresponding to peak of contraction cannot be explained by “cord-compression” hypothesis but by direct/pure (defined here as not mediated through baro-/chemoreceptors) or non-hypoxic vagal reflex. These decelerations are benign, most likely and mainly a result of head-compression and hence should be called “early” rather than “variable”. Standardization is important but should be appropriate and withstand scientific scrutiny. Significant framing and confirmation biases are necessarily unscientific and the succeeding three-tier interpretation systems and structures embodying these biases would be dysfunctional and clinically unhelpful. Clinical/pathophysiological analysis and avoidance of flaws/biases suggest that a more physiological and scientific categorization of decelerations should be based on

  19. The utility of kindergarten teacher ratings for predicting low academic achievement in first grade.

    PubMed

    Teisl, J T; Mazzocco, M M; Myers, G F

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive value of kindergarten teachers' ratings of pupils for later first-grade academic achievement. Kindergarten students were rated by their teachers on a variety of variables, including math and reading performance, teacher concerns, and amount of learning relative to peers. These variables were then analyzed with respect to outcome measures for math and reading ability administered in the first grade. The teachers' ratings of academic performance were significantly correlated with scores on the outcome measures. Analyses were also carried out to determine sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the different teacher ratings. The results indicated high overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value for the ratings. Positive predictive value tended to be lower. A recommendation to follow from these results is that teacher ratings of this sort be used to determine which children should receive cognitive screening measures to further enhance identification of children at risk for learning disability. However, this recommendation is limited by the lack of empirically supported screening measures for math disability versus well-supported screening tools for reading disability.

  20. Coding order decision of B frames for rate-distortion performance improvement in single-view video and multiview video coding.

    PubMed

    Kang, Je-Won; Lee, Young-Yoon; Kim, Chang-Su; Lee, Sang-Uk

    2010-08-01

    The coding gain that can be achieved by improving the coding order of B frames in the H.264/AVC standard is investigated in this work. We first represent the coding order of B frames and their reference frames with a binary tree. We then formulate a recursive equation to find out the binary tree that provides a suboptimal, but very efficient, coding order. The recursive equation is efficiently solved using a dynamic programming method. Furthermore, we extend the coding order improvement technique to the case of multiview video sequences, in which the quadtree representation is used instead of the binary tree representation. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm provides significantly better R-D performance than conventional prediction structures.

  1. Efficient Photometry In-Frame Calibration (EPIC) Gaussian Corrections for Automated Background Normalization of Rate-Tracked Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesbach, J.; Wetterer, C.; Sydney, P.; Gerber, J.

    Photometric processing of non-resolved Electro-Optical (EO) images has commonly required the use of dark and flat calibration frames that are obtained to correct for charge coupled device (CCD) dark (thermal) noise and CCD quantum efficiency/optical path vignetting effects respectively. It is necessary to account/calibrate for these effects so that the brightness of objects of interest (e.g. stars or resident space objects (RSOs)) may be measured in a consistent manner across the CCD field of view. Detected objects typically require further calibration using aperture photometry to compensate for sky background (shot noise). For this, annuluses are measured around each detected object whose contained pixels are used to estimate an average background level that is subtracted from the detected pixel measurements. In a new photometric calibration software tool developed for AFRL/RD, called Efficient Photometry In-Frame Calibration (EPIC), an automated background normalization technique is proposed that eliminates the requirement to capture dark and flat calibration images. The proposed technique simultaneously corrects for dark noise, shot noise, and CCD quantum efficiency/optical path vignetting effects. With this, a constant detection threshold may be applied for constant false alarm rate (CFAR) object detection without the need for aperture photometry corrections. The detected pixels may be simply summed (without further correction) for an accurate instrumental magnitude estimate. The noise distribution associated with each pixel is assumed to be sampled from a Poisson distribution. Since Poisson distributed data closely resembles Gaussian data for parameterized means greater than 10, the data may be corrected by applying bias subtraction and standard-deviation division. EPIC performs automated background normalization on rate-tracked satellite images using the following technique. A deck of approximately 50-100 images is combined by performing an independent median

  2. Optical coherence elastography based on high speed imaging of single-hot laser-induced acoustic waves at 16 kHz frame rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shaozhen; Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Wei, Wei; Shen, Tueng; Pelivanov, Ivan; O'Donnell, Matthew; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Shear wave OCE (SW-OCE) is a novel technique that relies on the detection of the localized shear wave speed to map tissue elasticity. In this study, we demonstrate high speed imaging to capture single-shot transient shear wave propagation for SW-OCE. The fast imaging speed is achieved using a Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) high-speed swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system. The frame rate of shear wave imaging is 16 kHz, at an A-line rate of ~1.62 MHz, enabling the detection of high-frequency shear waves up to 8 kHz in bandwidth. Several measures are taken to improve the phase-stability of the SS-OCT system, and the measured displacement sensitivity is ~10 nanometers. To facilitate non-contact elastography, shear waves are generated with the photo-thermal effect using an ultra-violet pulsed laser. High frequency shear waves launched by the pulsed laser contain shorter wavelengths and carry rich localized elasticity information. Benefiting from single-shot acquisition, each SWI scan only takes 2.5 milliseconds, and the reconstruction of the elastogram can be performed in real-time with ~20 Hz refresh rate. SW-OCE measurements are demonstrated on porcine cornea ex vivo. This study is the first demonstration of an all-optical method to perform real-time 3D SW-OCE. It is hoped that this technique will be applicable in the clinic to obtain high-resolution localized quantitative measurements of tissue biomechanical properties.

  3. Intracardiac Vortex Dynamics by High-Frame-Rate Doppler Vortography-In Vivo Comparison With Vector Flow Mapping and 4-D Flow MRI.

    PubMed

    Faurie, Julia; Baudet, Mathilde; Assi, Kondo Claude; Auger, Dominique; Gilbert, Guillaume; Tournoux, Francois; Garcia, Damien

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that intracardiac vortex flow imaging could be of clinical interest to early diagnose the diastolic heart function. Doppler vortography has been introduced as a simple color Doppler method to detect and quantify intraventricular vortices. This method is able to locate a vortex core based on the recognition of an antisymmetric pattern in the Doppler velocity field. Because the heart is a fast-moving organ, high frame rates are needed to decipher the whole blood vortex dynamics during diastole. In this paper, we adapted the vortography method to high-frame-rate echocardiography using circular waves. Time-resolved Doppler vortography was first validated in vitro in an ideal forced vortex. We observed a strong correlation between the core vorticity determined by high-frame-rate vortography and the ground-truth vorticity. Vortography was also tested in vivo in ten healthy volunteers using high-frame-rate duplex ultrasonography. The main vortex that forms during left ventricular filling was tracked during two-three successive cardiac cycles, and its core vorticity was determined at a sampling rate up to 80 duplex images per heartbeat. Three echocardiographic apical views were evaluated. Vortography-derived vorticities were compared with those returned by the 2-D vector flow mapping approach. Comparison with 4-D flow magnetic resonance imaging was also performed in four of the ten volunteers. Strong intermethod agreements were observed when determining the peak vorticity during early filling. It is concluded that high-frame-rate Doppler vortography can accurately investigate the diastolic vortex dynamics.

  4. Applying high frame-rate digital radiography and dual-energy distributed-sources for advanced tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travish, Gil; Rangel, Felix J.; Evans, Mark A.; Schmiedehausen, Kristin

    2013-09-01

    Conventional radiography uses a single point x-ray source with a fan or cone beam to visualize various areas of the human body. An imager records the transmitted photons—historically film and now increasingly digital radiography (DR) flat panel detectors—followed by optional image post-processing. Some post-processing techniques of particular interest are tomosynthesis, and dual energy subtraction. Tomosynthesis adds the ability to recreate quasi-3D images from a series of 2D projections. These exposures are typically taken along an arc or other path; and, tomosynthesis reconstruction is used to form a three-dimensional representation of the area of interest. Dual-energy radiography adds the ability to enhance or "eliminate" structures based on their different attenuation of well-separated end-point energies in two exposures. These advanced capabilities come at a high cost in terms of complexity, imaging time, capital equipment, space, and potentially reduced image quality due to motion blur if acquired sequentially. Recently, the prospect of creating x-ray sources, which are composed of arrays of micro-emitters, has been put forward. These arrays offer a flat-panel geometry and may afford advantages in fabrication methodology, size and cost. They also facilitate the use of the dual energy technology. Here we examine the possibility of using such an array of x-ray sources combined with high frame-rate (~kHz) DR detectors to produce advanced medical images without the need for moving gantries or other complex motion systems. Combining the advantages of dual energy imaging with the ability to determine the relative depth location of anatomical structures or pathological findings from imaging procedures should prove to be a powerful diagnostic tool. We also present use cases that would benefit from the capabilities of this modality.

  5. Recursive frame integration of limited data: RAFAIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.; Soli, Robert A.

    2005-08-01

    Real time infrared imaging and tracking usually requires a high probability of target detection along with a low false alarm rate, achievable only with a high "Signal-to-Noise Ratio" (SNR). Frame integration--summing of non-correlated frames--is commonly used to improve the SNR. But conventional frame integration requires significant processing to store full frames and integrate intermediate results, normalize frame data, etc. It may drive acquisition of highly specialized hardware, faster processors, dedicated frame integration circuit cards and extra memory cards. Non-stationary noise, low frequency noise correlation, non-ergodic noise, scene dynamics, or pointing accuracy may also limit performance. Recursive frame integration of limited data--RAFAIL, is proposed as a means to improve frame integration performance and mitigate the issues. The technique applies two thresholds--one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate--and allows a non-linear integration process that, along with optimal noise management, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability.

  6. A Method for Achieving Constant Rotation Rates in a Micro-Orthogonal Linkage System

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.; Romero, L.A.

    1999-05-12

    Silicon micromachine designs include engines that consist of orthog- onally oriented linear comb drive actuators mechanically connected to a rotating gear. These gears are as small as 50 {micro}m in diameter and can be driven at rotation rates exceeding 300,000 rpm. Generally, these en- gines will run with non-uniform rotation rates if the drive signals are not properly designed and maintained over a range of system parameters. We present a method for producing constant rotation rates in a micro-engine driven by an orthogonal linkage system. We show that provided the val- ues of certain masses, springs, damping factors, and lever arms are in the right proportions, the system behaves as though it were symmetrical. We will refer to systems built in this way as being quasi-symmetrical. We show that if a system is built quasi-symmetrically , then it is possible to achieve constant rotation rates even if one does not know the form of the friction function, or the value of the friction. We analyze this case in some detail.

  7. Achieving High Rates and High Uniformity in Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Lucy Marjorie

    The chemical mechanical polishing of Copper (Cu-CMP) is a complex and poorly understood process. Despite this, it is widely used throughout the semiconductor and microelectronics industries, and makes up a significant portion of wafer processing costs. In these contexts, desirable polishing outcomes such as a high rate of removal from the copper surface, and high removal rate uniformity, are achieved largely by trial-and-error. In this study, the same outcomes are pursued through a systematic investigation of polishing lubrication characteristics and abrasive and oxidiser concentrations in the polishing slurry. A strong link between lubrication characteristics, quantified by the dimensionless Sommerfield number, and the uniformity of polishing is demonstrated. A mechanism for the observed relationship is proposed, based on an adaptation of hydrodynamic lubrication theory. The overall rate of removal is maximized by polishing in a slurry containing oxidiser and abrasives in a synergistic ratio. Polishing away from this ratio has additional effects on the overall quality of the surface produced. Transport of slurry across the polishing pad is investigated by using tracers; the results demonstrate that slurry usage can be reduced in many circumstances with no impact on overall polishing outcomes, reducing overall processing costs. These findings are combined to design a polishing process, with good results.

  8. Examining the Motivational Impact of Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Goal Framing and Autonomy-Supportive Versus Internally Controlling Communication Style on Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Simons, Joke; Lens, Willy; Soenens, Bart; Matos, Lennia

    2005-01-01

    The present experimental research examined whether framing early adolescents' (11- to 12-year-olds) learning activity in terms of the attainment of an extrinsic (i.e., physical attractiveness) versus intrinsic (i.e., health) goal and communicating these different goal contents in an internally controlling versus autonomy-supportive way affect…

  9. Development of a high speed laser scanning confocal microscope with an acquisition rate up to 200 frames per second.

    PubMed

    Choi, S; Kim, P; Boutilier, R; Kim, M Y; Lee, Y J; Lee, H

    2013-10-07

    There has been an increasing interest for observing fast biological phenomena such as cell movements in circulations and action potentials. The laser scanning confocal microscopy offers a good spatial resolution and optical sectioning ability to observe various in vivo animal models. We developed a high speed laser scanning confocal microscope capable of acquiring 512 by 512 pixel images at 200 fps (frames per second). We have incorporated a fast rotating polygonal scanning mirror with 128 facets for the X-axis scanner. In order to increase the throughput of the Y-axis scanner, we applied a bi-directional scanning method for vertical scanning. This made it possible to scan along the Y-axis two times during each scanner motion cycle. For the image acquisition, we used a custom photomultiplier tube amplifier with a broad frequency band. In addition, custom imaging software was written for the new microscope. In order to verify the acquisition speed of the developed confocal microscope, a resolution target moving at a series of constant speeds and a sedated mouse with slight movements due to heartbeats were observed. By comparing successive frames, the frame acquisition speeds were calculated.

  10. High Frame-Rate, High Resolution Ultrasound Imaging with Multi-Line Transmission and Filtered-Delay Multiply And Sum Beamforming.

    PubMed

    Matrone, Giulia; Ramalli, Alessandro; Savoia, Alessandro; Tortoli, Piero; Magenes, Giovanni

    2016-10-04

    Multi-Line Transmission (MLT) was recently demonstrated as a valuable tool to increase the frame rate of ultrasound images. In this approach, the multiple beams that are simultaneously transmitted may determine cross-talk artifacts that are typically reduced, although not eliminated, by the use of Tukey apodization on both transmission and reception apertures, which unfortunately worsens the image lateral resolution. In this paper we investigate the combination, and related performance, of Filtered-Delay Multiply And Sum (F-DMAS) beamforming with MLT for high frame-rate ultrasound imaging. F-DMAS is a non-linear beamformer based on the computation of the receive aperture spatial autocorrelation, which was recently proposed for use in ultrasound B-mode imaging by some of the authors. The main advantages of such beamformer are the improved contrast resolution, obtained by lowering the beam side lobes and narrowing the main lobe, and the increased noise rejection. This study shows that in MLT images, compared to standard Delay And Sum (DAS) beamforming including Tukey apodization, F-DMAS beamforming yields better suppression of cross-talk and improved lateral resolution. The method's effectiveness is demonstrated by simulations and phantom experiments. Preliminary in vivo cardiac images also show that the frame rate can be improved up to 8-fold by combining FDMAS and MLT without affecting the image quality.

  11. Quantum frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Matthew J.

    2014-02-01

    The framework of quantum frames can help unravel some of the interpretive difficulties i the foundation of quantum mechanics. In this paper, I begin by tracing the origins of this concept in Bohr's discussion of quantum theory and his theory of complementarity. Engaging with various interpreters and followers of Bohr, I argue that the correct account of quantum frames must be extended beyond literal space-time reference frames to frames defined by relations between a quantum system and the exosystem or external physical frame, of which measurement contexts are a particularly important example. This approach provides superior solutions to key EPR-type measurement and locality paradoxes.

  12. Achievable information rates calculation for optical OFDM few-mode fiber long-haul transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Lin, Changyu; Djordjevic, Ivan B; Zou, Ding

    2015-06-29

    We propose a method to estimate the lower bound of achievable information rates (AIRs) of high speed orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) in spatial division multiplexing (SDM) optical long-haul transmission systems. The estimation of AIR is based on the forward recursion of multidimensional super-symbol efficient sliding-window Bahl-Cocke-Jelinek-Raviv (BCJR) algorithm. We consider most of the degradations of fiber links including nonlinear effects in few-mode fiber (FMF). This method does not consider the SDM as a simple multiplexer of independent data streams, but provides a super-symbol version for AIR calculation over spatial channels. This super-symbol version of AIR calculation algorithm, in principle, can be used for arbitrary multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO)-SDM system with channel memory consideration. We illustrate this method by performing Monte Carlo simulations in a complete FMF model. Both channel model and algorithm for calculation of the AIRs are described in details. We also compare the AIRs results for QPSK/16QAM in both single mode fiber (SMF)- and FMF-based optical OFDM transmission.

  13. The Relationship between Professional Learning Community Implementation and Academic Achievement and Graduation Rates in Georgia High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardinger, Regina Gail

    2013-01-01

    Many educational administrators in Georgia continue to struggle with low student academic achievement and low high school graduation rates. DuFour's professional learning community (PLC) theory suggests a positive relationship between levels of PLC implementation and academic achievement and between levels of PLC implementation and graduation…

  14. Recursive adaptive frame integration limited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2006-05-01

    Recursive Frame Integration Limited was proposed as a way to improve frame integration performance and mitigate issues related to high data rate needed for conventional frame integration. The technique applies two thresholds - one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate - and allows a non-linear integration process that, along with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) gain, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability. However, Recursive Frame Integration Limited may have performance issues when single frame SNR is really low. Recursive Adaptive Frame Integration Limited is proposed as a means to improve limited integration performance with really low single frame SNR. It combines the benefits of nonlinear recursive limited frame integration and adaptive thresholds with a kind of conventional frame integration.

  15. Season of Birth Is Related to Child Retention Rates, Achievement, and Rate of Diagnosis of Specific LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Roy P.; Foels, Patricia; Clanton, Greg; Moon, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    A sizable literature has demonstrated that the achievement of children in early elementary school is related to their season of birth: Those born in summer typically perform less well than those born in the fall. A small literature indicates that more children diagnosed with specific learning disabilities (SLD) are born in the summer. We have…

  16. Teacher Ratings of the Achievement-Related Classroom Behaviors of Maltreated and Non-maltreated Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyome, Nancy Dodge

    1994-01-01

    Study investigated ways maltreated children (MC) differ from nonmaltreated children in regard to achievement-related classroom behaviors. MC exhibited less classroom behavior positively linked with academic achievement than did nonmaltreated public assistance children (PAC). MC, though, paralleled PAC in most behaviors negatively linked with…

  17. Mothers' Expressive Style and Emotional Responses to Children's Behavior Predict Children's Prosocial and Achievement-Related Self-Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Bradburn, Isabel S.; Costanzo, Philip R.; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether mothers' typical expressive style and specific emotional responses to children's behaviors are linked to children's prosocial and competence self-ratings. Eight- to 12-year-old children and their mothers rated how mothers had felt when children behaved prosocially and antisocially, achieved and failed to…

  18. PanDAR: a wide-area, frame-rate, and full color lidar with foveated region using backfilling interpolation upsampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundhenk, T. Nathan; Kim, Kyungnam; Owechko, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    LIDAR devices for on-vehicle use need a wide field of view and good fidelity. For instance, a LIDAR for avoidance of landing collisions by a helicopter needs to see a wide field of view and show reasonable details of the area. The same is true for an online LIDAR scanning device placed on an automobile. In this paper, we describe a LIDAR system with full color and enhanced resolution that has an effective vertical scanning range of 60 degrees with a central 20 degree fovea. The extended range with fovea is achieved by using two standard Velodyne 32-HDL LIDARs placed head to head and counter rotating. The HDL LIDARS each scan 40 degrees vertical and a full 360 degrees horizontal with an outdoor effective range of 100 meters. By positioning them head to head, they overlap by 20 degrees. This creates a double density fovea. The LIDAR returns from the two Velodyne sensors do not natively contain color. In order to add color, a Point Grey LadyBug panoramic camera is used to gather color data of the scene. In the first stage of our system, the two LIDAR point clouds and the LadyBug video are fused in real time at a frame rate of 10 Hz. A second stage is used to intelligently interpolate the point cloud and increase its resolution by approximately four times while maintaining accuracy with respect to the 3D scene. By using GPGPU programming, we can compute this at 10 Hz. Our backfilling interpolation methods works by first computing local linear approximations from the perspective of the LIDAR depth map. The color features from the image are used to select point cloud support points that are the best points in a local group for building the local linear approximations. This makes the colored point cloud more detailed while maintaining fidelity to the 3D scene. Our system also makes objects appearing in the PanDAR display easier to recognize for a human operator.

  19. Achievement and Attrition Rate Differences between Traditional and Internet-Based Beginning Spanish Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despain, J. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 2.5 year study on the achievement and attrition ate differences between a beginning university-level Spanish course delivered in the classroom and the same course taught over the Internet. Results are discussed. (Author/VWL)

  20. Achievable rate maximization for decode-and-forward MIMO-OFDM networks with an energy harvesting relay.

    PubMed

    Du, Guanyao; Yu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the system achievable rate for the multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system with an energy harvesting (EH) relay. Firstly we propose two protocols, time switching-based decode-and-forward relaying (TSDFR) and a flexible power splitting-based DF relaying (PSDFR) protocol by considering two practical receiver architectures, to enable the simultaneous information processing and energy harvesting at the relay. In PSDFR protocol, we introduce a temporal parameter to describe the time division pattern between the two phases which makes the protocol more flexible and general. In order to explore the system performance limit, we discuss the system achievable rate theoretically and formulate two optimization problems for the proposed protocols to maximize the system achievable rate. Since the problems are non-convex and difficult to solve, we first analyze them theoretically and get some explicit results, then design an augmented Lagrangian penalty function (ALPF) based algorithm for them. Numerical results are provided to validate the accuracy of our analytical results and the effectiveness of the proposed ALPF algorithm. It is shown that, PSDFR outperforms TSDFR to achieve higher achievable rate in such a MIMO-OFDM relaying system. Besides, we also investigate the impacts of the relay location, the number of antennas and the number of subcarriers on the system performance. Specifically, it is shown that, the relay position greatly affects the system performance of both protocols, and relatively worse achievable rate is achieved when the relay is placed in the middle of the source and the destination. This is different from the MIMO-OFDM DF relaying system without EH. Moreover, the optimal factor which indicates the time division pattern between the two phases in the PSDFR protocol is always above 0.8, which means that, the common division of the total transmission time into two equal phases in

  1. Blending Academic, Career/Technical and Fine Arts Instruction to Increase Achievement and Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Teachers who work together to blend academic and career/technical (CT) instruction have found a key to motivating students to complete high school and prepare for college, advanced training and careers. This newsletter highlights key strategies schools are using to join academic and technical studies to advance student motivation and achievement.…

  2. Comparing the Contribution of Teacher versus Tutor Ratings of Inattentive Behavior in Predicting Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Amelia S.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relative contribution of teacher and tutor ratings of inattentive behavior in two different instructional settings in predicting students' performance on fraction concepts and whole-number calculations. Classroom teachers rated each student's attentive behavior in a whole-class setting and tutors rated…

  3. Ultrahigh-frame-rate OH fluorescence imaging in turbulent flames using a burst-mode optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph D; Slipchenko, Mikhail; Meyer, Terrence R; Jiang, Naibo; Lempert, Walter R; Gord, James R

    2009-05-01

    Burst-mode planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of the OH radical is demonstrated in laminar and turbulent hydrogen-air diffusion flames with pulse repetition rates up to 50 kHz. Nearly 1 mJ/pulse at 313.526 nm is used to probe the OH P(2)(10) rotational transition in the (0,0) band of the A-X system. The UV radiation is generated by a high-speed-tunable, injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator pumped by a frequency-doubled megahertz-rate burst-mode Nd:YAG laser. Preliminary kilohertz-rate wavelength scanning of the temperature-broadened OH transition during PLIF imaging is also presented for the first time (to our knowledge), and possible strategies for spatiotemporally resolved planar OH spectroscopy are discussed.

  4. Student Academic Achievement and Dropout Rate in Traditional and Online Courses at a Community College in New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The academic achievement, dropout rate, and demographics of students enrolled in traditional face-to-face and online courses at a community college located in the suburbs of New York State were examined. Courses offered during the fall 2010 semester in both instructional delivery models were selected from arts and humanities, behavioral science,…

  5. Extraordinary rate capability achieved by a 3D "skeleton/skin" carbon aerogel-polyaniline hybrid with vertically aligned pores.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingkai; Li, Bomin; Zhou, Hang; Chen, Cong; Liu, Yuqing; Liu, Tianxi

    2017-03-02

    A 3D "skeleton/skin" carbon aerogel-polyaniline (CA-PANI) hybrid with vertically aligned pores exhibits an extraordinary rate capability. A high capacity retention (95%) has been achieved when the current density is increased from 1 to 100 A g(-1).

  6. Teacher Ratings of Academic Achievement of Children between 6 and 12 Years Old from Intact and Non-Intact Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molepo, Lephodisa S.; Maunganidze, Levison; Mudhovozi, Pilot; Sodi, Tholene

    2010-01-01

    We investigated teacher ratings of the impact of parental divorce on academic achievement of children between 6 and 12 years old up to 12 months after their parents divorced. A purposive sample of 120 children attending four different primary schools in a small South African town took part in the study. One third (n = 40) of the children had…

  7. Mn2O3 Slurry Reuse by Circulation Achieving High Constant Removal Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishii, Sadahiro; Nakamura, Ko; Hanawa, Kenzo; Watanabe, Satoru; Arimoto, Yoshihiro; Kurokawa, Syuhei; Doi, Toshiro K.

    2012-04-01

    Fumed silica is widely used in SiO2 chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). In semiconductor processes, only fresh slurry is used, and used slurry is disposed. Sustainable development demands a reduction in waste. Since reuse of slurry is effective for reducing the amount of used slurry generated, we investigated the reuse of Mn2O3 slurry and conventional fumed silica slurry. In both cases, abrasive concentration decreases as reuse time increases. The removal rate for Mn2O3 slurry maintains a value 4 times that of the conventional fumed silica slurry during slurry reuse, because the removal rate for Mn2O3 slurry is almost constant for solid concentrations between 1.0 and 10 wt %. Pad conditioning was not performed for Mn2O3 slurry. The removal rate for conventional slurry decreases as the number of times of reuse increases, even when pad conditioning is appropriately performed.

  8. Age of Entrance Into the First Grade as Related to Rate of Scholastic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilika, Joseph

    The influence of age of entrance to first grade on subsequent rate of scholastic development was tested in this longitudinal investigation. Forty-one pairs of boys and forty-nine pairs of girls, matched according to sex, intelligence, and socioeconomic status, were subjects. The mean chronological age of late entrants was 81 months, opposed to 72…

  9. T-cell receptor gamma chain alternate reading frame protein (TARP) expression in prostate cancer cells leads to an increased growth rate and induction of caveolins and amphiregulin.

    PubMed

    Wolfgang, C D; Essand, M; Lee, B; Pastan, I

    2001-11-15

    Previously, we showed that prostate and prostate cancer cells express a truncated T-cell receptor gamma chain mRNA that uses an alternative reading frame to produce a novel nuclear T-cell receptor gamma chain alternate reading frame protein (TARP). TARP is expressed in the androgen-sensitive LNCaP prostate cancer cell line but not in the androgen-independent PC3 prostate cancer cell line, indicating that TARP may play a role in prostate cancer progression. To elucidate the function of TARP, we generated a stable PC3 cell line that expresses TARP in a constitutive manner. Expression of TARP in PC3 cells resulted in a more rapid growth rate with a 5-h decrease in doubling time. cDNA microarray analysis of 6538 genes revealed that caveolin 1, caveolin 2, amphiregulin, and melanoma growth stimulatory activity alpha were significantly up-regulated, whereas IL-1beta was significantly down-regulated in PC3 cells expressing TARP. We also demonstrated that TARP expression is up-regulated by testosterone in LNCaP cells that express a functional androgen receptor. These results suggest that TARP has a role in regulating growth and gene expression in prostate cancer cells.

  10. Effect of cooling rate on achieving thermodynamic equilibrium in uranium-plutonium mixed oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C.; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Hodaj, Fiqiri

    2016-02-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction was used to study the structural changes occurring in uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x with y = 0.15; 0.28 and 0.45 during cooling from 1773 K to room-temperature under He + 5% H2 atmosphere. We compare the fastest and slowest cooling rates allowed by our apparatus i.e. 2 K s-1 and 0.005 K s-1, respectively. The promptly cooled samples evidenced a phase separation whereas samples cooled slowly did not due to their complete oxidation in contact with the atmosphere during cooling. Besides the composition of the annealing gas mixture, the cooling rate plays a major role on the control of the Oxygen/Metal ratio (O/M) and then on the crystallographic properties of the U1-yPuyO2-x uranium-plutonium mixed oxides.

  11. Pulsating low-mass white dwarfs in the frame of new evolutionary sequences. IV. The secular rate of period change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcaferro, Leila M.; Córsico, Alejandro H.; Althaus, Leandro G.

    2017-04-01

    Context. An increasing number of low-mass (M⋆/M⊙ ≲ 0.45) and extremely low-mass (ELM, M⋆/M⊙ ≲ 0.18-0.20) white-dwarf stars are being discovered in the field of the Milky Way. Some of these stars exhibit long-period g-mode pulsations, and are called ELMV variable stars. Also, some low-mass pre-white dwarf stars show short-period p-mode (and likely radial-mode) photometric variations, and are designated as pre-ELMV variable stars. The existence of these new classes of pulsating white dwarfs and pre-white dwarfs opens the prospect of exploring the binary formation channels of these low-mass white dwarfs through asteroseismology. Aims: We aim to present a theoretical assessment of the expected temporal rates of change of periods (\\dot{Π}) for such stars, based on fully evolutionary low-mass He-core white dwarf and pre-white dwarf models. Methods: Our analysis is based on a large set of adiabatic periods of radial and nonradial pulsation modes computed on a suite of low-mass He-core white dwarf and pre-white dwarf models with masses ranging from 0.1554 to 0.4352 M⊙, which were derived by computing the non-conservative evolution of a binary system consisting of an initially 1 M⊙ ZAMS star and a 1.4 M⊙ neutron star companion. Results: We computed the secular rates of period change of radial (ℓ = 0) and nonradial (ℓ = 1,2) g and p modes for stellar models representative of ELMV and pre-ELMV stars, as well as for stellar objects that are evolving just before the occurrence of CNO flashes at the early cooling branches. We find that the theoretically expected magnitude of \\dot{Π} of g modes for pre-ELMVs is by far larger than for ELMVs. In turn, \\dot{Π} of g modes for models evolving before the occurrence of CNO flashes are larger than the maximum values of the rates of period change predicted for pre-ELMV stars. Regarding p and radial modes, we find that the larger absolute values of \\dot{Π} correspond to pre-ELMV models. Conclusions: We

  12. Achieving Size Independent Hit-Rate in Single Particle Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Yang, Juan; Imre, Dan G.; Choi, Eric Y.

    2009-04-01

    Recent improvements in single particle mass spectrometers make it possible to optically detect, size, and characterize the compositions of individual particles with diameters larger than a micron and smaller than 100 nm. Based on particle detection in two stages of optical detection these instruments generate a precisely timed trigger pulse, which is used to fire the ion generation laser or lasers. Practical experience shows that the wide size range results in small, but significant differences in laser trigger timing between small and large particles. If not treated, the instrument hit-rate becomes size dependent and instrument operator is forced to optimize the instrument for the desired size range, while having to contend with a lower hit-rate for the other. The present paper presents an analysis of the problem, demonstrating that size dependence of laser trigger timing stems from the differences in the particle position within the detection laser beam at the instant of detection. It shows that it is possible to compensate for these differences by generation a laser trigger delay coefficient for individual particles as a function of particle time of flight, i.e. its size. The study also shows that a single function can be used to characterize particles with a wide range of densities.

  13. Guidelines to achieve seals with minimal leak rates for HWR-NPR coolant system components

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.

    1991-03-01

    Seal design practices that are acceptable in pressurized-water and boiling-water reactors in the United States are not usable for the Heavy Water Reactor-New Production Reactor (HWR-NPR) because of the stringent requirement on tritium control for the atmosphere within its containment building. To maintain an atmosphere in which workers do not need protective equipment, the components of the coolant system must have a cumulative leak rate less than 0.00026 L/s. Existing technology for seal systems was reviewed with regard to flange, elastomer, valve, and pump design. A technology data base for the designers of the HWR-NPR coolant system was derived from operating experience and seal development work on reactors in the United States, Canada, and Europe. This data base was then used to generate guidelines for the design of seals and/or joints for the HWR-NPR coolant system. Also discussed are needed additional research and development, as well as the necessary component qualification tests for an effective quality control program. 141 refs., 21 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. Space and time diversity in indoor wireless optical links achieving higher data rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqudah, Yazan A.

    2013-02-01

    Multispot diffusing configuration (MSDC) in optical wireless links provide uniform optical power needed for multiaccess and spatial dependence that can be used to allow space diversity techniques over the link. The spatial channels are furnished in MSDC through utilizing multibeam transmitter that produces spatially confined diffusing spots, and a multibranch receiver with small enough branch field-of-view (FOV) to restrict the number of diffusing spots within its FOV. Here, we study different encoding techniques that use space and time diversity to reduce the bit error rate. An improved technique, constellation rotation, is proposed for pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) to increase the Euclidian distance between signal points, and thus reduce bit error. Our study shows that when a cap is placed on the amount of power allocated per channel, the performance of the improved 4-PAM using three spatial channels and soft binary decision provide the optimal performance. When the power allocated per user is restricted, the best performance is obtained through soft binary decision and by using symbols identified by their level and spatial channel to carry 2 bits per signal level-channel.

  15. Operational Limitations of the High Rate Frame Multiplexer (HRFM) Onboard the International Space Station(ISS)-and How These Limitations Affect Payload Developers (PDs) and International Partners (IPs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, Charles D.; McElyea, Richard M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The data system onboard the United States Operating Segment (USOS) of the ISS is currently used to capture, route, record and downlink high-rate science data from experiments inside the US Lab. Once NASDA's Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) and ESA's Attached Pressurized Module (APM) are launched - in the 2004 to 2005 timeframe - data from these facilities will also be routed to the ground using the USOS data system. A critical component of the USOS data system is the High Rate Frame Multiplexer (HRFM). The HRFM combines multiple data/video inputs and combines them into one data stream. This Ku-band data stream is then routed through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) system to the ground. The Data Management Coordinator (DMC) - located at the Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Center (POC) - is responsible for commanding and controlling the HRFM. The HRFM can multiplex a maximum of eight digital data sources and four digital video sources. Thus far, this limitation has not been constraining to operations. However, once the JEM and APM are integrated, the HRFM limitations will become a major constraint to science operations onboard. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the limitations of the HRFM and to explain how these limitations can be successfully managed. With this information, Payload Developers and International Partners will be able to more effectively utilize the data systems onboard the ISS. Ultimately, more science data can be captured and downlinked to Flight Controllers and Scientists on the ground.

  16. Examining the relation between ratings of executive functioning and academic achievement: findings from a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Thorell, Lisa B; Veleiro, Alberto; Siu, Angela F Y; Mohammadi, Hiwa

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation between academic performance and ratings of executive functioning in children aged 6-11 from four countries: Sweden, Spain, Iran, and China. Ratings of executive functioning were made by both parents and teachers using the Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI). The results showed that the Chinese sample was generally rated as having more executive deficits compared to the other samples. The finding that executive functioning deficits are exacerbated in China is most likely the result of cultural biases. Boys were generally rated as having poorer executive functioning compared to girls, except in Iran where parents, but not teachers, rated girls as having poorer executive functioning compared to boys. However, this opposite pattern of results found for Iran is not likely to reflect true gender differences in executive functioning. Despite some differences in the levels of executive functioning across countries, both the inhibition and working memory subscales of the CHEXI were related to academic achievement in all four countries, except for CHEXI parent ratings in China. Altogether, the results indicate that the CHEXI may be used as a screening measure for early academic difficulties, although cultural biases clearly have to be taken into consideration.

  17. Strictest (0,G/I) constraints achieved by high-rate block codes for class-IV PRML channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Khaled A. S.; Weber, Jos H.

    1995-12-01

    Significant improvements in magnetic storage densities have been made feasible recently by the application of partial response signaling combined with maximum-likelihood sequence estimation (PRML). To enhance the performance of this technique when applied to the class- IV partial response channel, which is recognized as being appropriate to model the magnetic recording channel, it is often required to bound the number of consecutive zeros in the recorded data sequence by some positive integer G and the number of consecutive zeros in each of the odd and the even subsequences of the recorded data sequence by some positive integer I. Such a constraint is referred to as a (0, G/I) constraint. Codes are used to map arbitrary unconstrained sequences to (0, G/I) constrained sequences. We investigate the strictest possible constraints that can be achieved by block codes of high rates and compare between these constraints and the strictest possible constraints that can be achieved by arbitrary coding schemes.

  18. Constant rate control algorithm for Wyner-Ziv video codec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowski, Mariusz

    2009-06-01

    In a distributed video coding (DVC) system, the total bit-rate depends on bit-rate of the key frames (Intra frames) and the Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frames. The key frames bit-rate is relatively easy to control since they are encoded with an Intra coding scheme (e.g. H.264/AVC Intra), and there are many proposed solutions in literature which address this issue1, 2. On the other hand, rate control (RC) of the WZ frames at the encoder is more difficult since the bit-rate of WZ frames is difficult to predict and control due to the absence of the side information at the decoder side. In this work, an RC algorithm developed within the VISNET II, the European Network of Excellence, is presented as an efficient solution to achieve and maintain the target bit-rate for the overall Intra frames and WZ bitstream, mainly by changing the degree of compression of the Intra frames which is controlled by quantization parameter (QP). In order to maintain a similar quality for the Intra and WZ frames, the WZ quantization index (QIndex) follows the QP changes. A statistical model is used to describe the relationship between QIndex and the WZ frames bit-rate. Additionally, an analysis of influence of the key frames residuum complexity on WZ frames bitrate was conducted. The proposed algorithm adapted to the VISNET2 WZ video codec3 confirms its efficiency in terms of achieving and maintaining the target bit-rate.

  19. A 9 megapixel large-area back-thinned CMOS sensor with high sensitivity and high frame-rate for the TAOS II program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratlong, Jérôme; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Lehner, Matthew; Jorden, Paul; Jerram, Paul; Johnson, Steven

    2016-07-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) is a robotic telescope system using three telescopes in San Pedro Martir Observatory in Mexico. It measures occultation of background stars by small TransNeptunian Objects (TNO) in order to determine their size distribution. Each telescope focal plane uses ten buttable backthinned CMOS sensors. Key performance features of the sensors are: Large array format 4608 x 1920, Pixel size 16μm, Multi ROIs, 8 analogue video channels, Frame rate of 20-40 fps [using ROIs], Low noise <3e-, Cryogenic dark current <0.1e-/pixel/s, backthinned for >90% peak quantum efficiency. The paper describes top level application requirements for the TAOS II detector. The sensor design including the pixel and buttable package are described together with performance at room temperature and cryogenic temperature of backthinned devices. The key performance specifications have been demonstrated and will be presented. The production set of 40 devices are due for completion within 2017.

  20. Dispersion of Relaxation Rates in the Rotating Frame Under the Action of Spin-Locking Pulses and Diffusion in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Spear, John T.; Zu, Zhongliang; Gore, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A method is described for characterizing magnetically inhomogeneous media and the spatial scales of intrinsic susceptibility variations within samples. The rate of spin-lattice relaxation in the rotating frame, R1ρ, is affected by diffusion effects to a degree that depends on the magnitude of an applied spin-locking field. Appropriate analysis of the dispersion of R1ρ with locking field may be used to characterize susceptibility variations in inhomogeneous tissues. Theory and Methods The contribution of diffusion to R1ρ is quantified by an analytic expression derived by analyzing of the effects of diffusion through periodic variations of magnetic susceptibility and is used to predict the effects of inhomogeneities in simple phantoms. The theory is further applied to imaging to derive parametric images that portray the dimensions of susceptibility inhomogeneities independent of their magnitude. Results Significant dispersion of R1ρ with locking field was predicted and measured experimentally for suspensions of microspheres ranging from 1 to 90 µm in diameter. For scales of practical interest, these dispersion effects occur at much lower locking fields than the range in which chemical exchange effects cause similar dispersion. Conclusion There is good agreement between theory and experiment, and the method has potential for quantitative tissue characterization and functional imaging. PMID:23804212

  1. Achieving higher pathological complete response rates in HER-2-positive patients with induction chemotherapy without trastuzumab in operable breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Abrial, Catherine; Mouret-Reynier, Marie-Ange; Raoelfils, Inès; Durando, Xavier; Leheurteur, Marianne; Gimbergues, Pierre; Tortochaux, Jacques; Curé, Hervé; Chollet, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    Recent trials of induction chemotherapy in bulky operable breast cancer have shown much higher pathological complete response (pCR) rates with trastuzumab-driven combinations. However, it is useful to take into account the specific chemosensitivity of HER-2-positive tumors. The aim of this study was to assess the pCR rate according to HER-2 status in response to chemotherapy, without an anti-HER-2 specific biological agent, in 710 operable breast cancer patients. Since 1982, these patients have been treated with several different neoadjuvant chemotherapy combinations. During this period, HER-2 overexpression was most often not assessed. Subsequently, we assessed HER-2 expression using archival paraffin-embedded tissue. A technically usable specimen was available for 413 of the 710 patients. Before treatment, 51 patients were HER-2 positive, 287 patients were HER-2 negative, and the results were inconclusive for 75 patients. Of these patients, a pCR in breast and nodes was obtained in 94 patients (14.3%), but this event was threefold more frequent for HER-2-positive patients (23.5%) than for HER-2-negative patients (7%). The overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates at 10 years were 66.6% and 57.4%, respectively. The DFS rate was, as expected, better for HER-2-negative patients, with HER-2 status assessed before as well as after chemotherapy. A significant difference was found for OS in favor of HER-2-negative patients only with postchemotherapy assessment of HER-2, a fact similar to our previous findings. Finally, there was a tendency toward a higher DFS rate for HER-2-positive patients who achieved a pCR compared with HER-2-positive patients who did not.

  2. A methodology for achieving high-speed rates for artificial conductance injection in electrically excitable biological cells.

    PubMed

    Butera, R J; Wilson, C G; Delnegro, C A; Smith, J C

    2001-12-01

    We present a novel approach to implementing the dynamic-clamp protocol (Sharp et al., 1993), commonly used in neurophysiology and cardiac electrophysiology experiments. Our approach is based on real-time extensions to the Linux operating system. Conventional PC-based approaches have typically utilized single-cycle computational rates of 10 kHz or slower. In thispaper, we demonstrate reliable cycle-to-cycle rates as fast as 50 kHz. Our system, which we call model reference current injection (MRCI); pronounced merci is also capable of episodic logging of internal state variables and interactive manipulation of model parameters. The limiting factor in achieving high speeds was not processor speed or model complexity, but cycle jitter inherent in the CPU/motherboard performance. We demonstrate these high speeds and flexibility with two examples: 1) adding action-potential ionic currents to a mammalian neuron under whole-cell patch-clamp and 2) altering a cell's intrinsic dynamics via MRCI while simultaneously coupling it via artificial synapses to an internal computational model cell. These higher rates greatly extend the applicability of this technique to the study of fast electrophysiological currents such fast a currents and fast excitatory/inhibitory synapses.

  3. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  4. Performance improvement of two-dimensional EUV spectroscopy based on high-frame-rate CCD and signal normalization method in Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongming; Morita, Shigeru; Oishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi; Huang, Xianli

    2015-08-01

    In the Large Helical Device (LHD), two-dimensional (2D) distribution of edge impurity line emissions from the ergodic layer with a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field structure has been observed in the wavelength range of 30-650 Å by horizontally scanning a space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer during a steady phase in electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and ion cyclotron range of heating (ICRF) discharges with long pulse duration (τd ≥ 10 s). The 2D distribution of impurity line emissions can be measured at the upper or lower half in the full vertical range of LHD plasmas by a single horizontal scan. The performance of 2D EUV spectroscopy, however, was not sufficient for discussing the impurity transport in the ergodic layer from the viewpoints of the quality of 2D images and the requirement of long pulse discharges. The 2D EUV spectrometer is therefore modified by installing a high-frame-rate charge-coupled detector (CCD) and increasing its horizontal scanning speed. As a result, the quality of 2D images is significantly improved with increased horizontal spatial resolution, and then the 2D measurement is also possible for neutral beam injection (NBI) discharges with short pulse duration (τd ˜ 3 s). In addition, temporal and shot-by-shot intensity variations in the edge EUV emission are significantly reduced by applying a signal normalization method using another EUV spectrometer with high time resolution. A 0.5 µm poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) filter is also installed in front of an entrance slit of the space-resolved EUV spectrometer. The spike noise originating from high-energy neutral particles, which are enhanced in low-density NBI discharges, has been successfully reduced. Typical examples of the 2D distribution of impurity line emissions with improved quality are presented for several impurity species.

  5. Estimating the possible range of recycling rates achieved by dump waste pickers: The case of Bantar Gebang in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Shunsuke; Araki, Tetsuya

    2014-06-01

    This article presents informal recycling contributions made by scavengers in the surrounding area of Bantar Gebang final disposal site for municipal solid waste generated in Jakarta. Preliminary fieldwork was conducted through daily conversations with scavengers to identify recycling actors at the site, and then quantitative field surveys were conducted twice. The first survey (n = 504 households) covered 33% of all households in the area, and the second survey (n = 69 households) was conducted to quantify transactions of recyclables among scavengers. Mathematical equations were formulated with assumptions made to estimate the possible range of recycling rates achieved by dump waste pickers. Slightly over 60% of all respondents were involved in informal recycling and over 80% of heads of households were waste pickers, normally referred to as live-in waste pickers and live-out waste pickers at the site. The largest percentage of their spouses were family workers, followed by waste pickers and housewives. Over 95% of all households of respondents had at least one waste picker or one small boss who has a coequal status of a waste picker. Average weight of recyclables collected by waste pickers at the site was estimated to be approximately 100 kg day(-1) per household on the net weight basis. The recycling rate of solid wastes collected by all scavengers at the site was estimated to be in the range of 2.8-7.5% of all solid wastes transported to the site.

  6. Fast frame scanning camera system for light-sheet microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Zhou, Xing; Yao, Baoli; Li, Runze; Yang, Yanlong; Peng, Tong; Lei, Ming; Dan, Dan; Ye, Tong

    2015-10-10

    In the interest of improving the temporal resolution for light-sheet microscopy, we designed a fast frame scanning camera system that incorporated a galvanometer scanning mirror into the imaging path of a home-built light-sheet microscope. This system transformed a temporal image sequence to a spatial one so that multiple images could be acquired during one exposure period. The improvement factor of the frame rate was dependent on the number of sub-images that could be tiled on the sensor without overlapping each other and was therefore a trade-off with the image size. As a demonstration, we achieved 960 frames/s (fps) on a CCD camera that was originally capable of recording images at only 30 fps (full frame). This allowed us to observe millisecond or sub-millisecond events with ordinary CCD cameras.

  7. Role of amplifiers gain on the achievable information rate of M-ary PSK and QAM constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Nuno A.; Pinto, Armando N.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of optical amplification on the achievable information rate (AIR) is evaluated, considering continuous and discrete modulation formats. The theoretical model for the AIR considers the optical amplification noise, the nonlinear optical noise, and the coherent receiver shot and thermal noise sources. Two different scenarios for the AIR are analyzed. First, we admit that the gain of each optical amplifier under or over compensate the previous fiber span loss. After that, we consider the case where we remove optical amplifiers from the transmission link. Results show that for the first scenario, when we under or over compensate the span loss the AIR tends to decrease. Nevertheless, for low cardinality constellations the AIR is not primarily limited by the gain of the optical amplifiers. In the second scenario, results show that it is possible to remove amplification stages from the end to the beginning of the transmission link without decreasing the AIR. We observe that for a polarization multiplexing (PM) 4-PSK constellation the plateau of 4 bits/symbol is preserved even if we remove the last two amplifiers from the transmission link.

  8. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  9. Optical loop framing

    SciTech Connect

    Kalibjian, R.; Chong, Y.P.; Prono, D.S.; Cavagnolo, H.R.

    1984-06-01

    The ATA provides an electron beam pulse of 70-ns duration at a 1-Hz rate. Our present optical diagnostics technique involve the imaging of the visible light generated by the beam incident onto the plant of a thin sheet of material. It has already been demonstrated that the light generated has a sufficiently fast temporal reponse in performing beam diagnostics. Notwithstanding possible beam emittance degradation due to scattering in the thin sheet, the observation of beam spatial profiles with relatively high efficiencies has provided data complementary to that obtained from beam wall current monitors and from various x-ray probes and other electrical probes. The optical image sensor consists of a gated, intensified television system. The gate pulse of the image intensifier can be appropriately delayed to give frames that are time-positioned from the head to the tail of the beam with a minimum gate time of 5-ns. The spatial correlation of the time frames from pulse to pulse is very good for a stable electron beam; however, when instabilities do occur, it is difficult to properly assess the spatial composition of the head and the tail of the beam on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Multiple gating within a pulse duration becomes desirable but cannot be performed because the recycle time (20-ms) of the TV system is much longer than the beam pulse. For this reason we have developed an optical-loop framing technique that will allow the recording of two frames within one pulse duration with our present gated/intensified TV system.

  10. Markedly Improved Success Rate of Endoscopically Assisted Third Ventriculostomy Is Achieved by Routine Placement of External Lumbar Drain

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Justen; Cabanne, Marc; Miulli, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Hydrocephalus is a major cause of patient decreased quality of life and high health care financial burden in the United States and throughout the world. The placement of ventricular shunts (ventriculoperitoneal shunt) has proven to be a safe treatment for hydrocephalus, but it is associated with a high complication rate leading to a lower quality of life and continued financial burden for patients, their families, and society as a whole. The endoscopically assisted third ventriculostomy (ETV) has been practiced as an alternative to ventricular shunting since the 1990s. Success rates vary widely and there are many factors which contribute to the varying success rates. The ETV procedure has the potential to alleviate much of the overall quality of life issues and some of the financial burdens associated with hydrocephalus provided success rates can be increased and the procedure and management techniques are adopted more widely. Common techniques have been published in the past which report associated improvements in success rates amongst individual surgeons. Here, we report a novel perioperative technique and management strategy that displays a higher than reported success rate. Our methods and results show potential to significantly improve overall ETV success rates if reproduced and subsequently adopted widely. We retrospectively studied records of 24 adult patients with hydrocephalus who were treated with an ETV procedure. Routinely, we placed an external lumbar drain postoperatively which was continued for a minimum of 2 days. There was a 95.8% success rate at 30 days. The overall success rate was 83.3%. This is significantly higher than the average of the predicted success scores calculated by the ETV success scoring system (71.8%). It is also significantly higher than previous studies' reported ETV success rates in adults. We propose additional similar studies to be performed to test the reproducibility of increased success rates using our technique, ideally

  11. Investigations on the heat transport capability of a cryogenic oscillating heat pipe and its application in achieving ultra-fast cooling rates for cell vitrification cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Han, Xu; Ma, Hongbin; Jiao, Anjun; Critser, John K

    2008-06-01

    Theoretically, direct vitrification of cell suspensions with relatively low concentrations ( approximately 1 M) of permeating cryoprotective agents (CPA) is suitable for cryopreservation of almost all cell types and can be accomplished by ultra-fast cooling rates that are on the order of 10(6-7) K/min. However, the methods and devices currently available for cell cryopreservation cannot achieve such high cooling rates. In this study, we constructed a novel cryogenic oscillating heat pipe (COHP) using liquid nitrogen as its working fluid and investigated its heat transport capability to assess its application for achieving ultra-fast cooling rates for cell cryopreservation. The experimental results showed that the apparent heat transfer coefficient of the COHP can reach 2 x 10(5) W/m(2).K, which is two orders of the magnitude higher than traditional heat pipes. Theoretical analyzes showed that the average local heat transfer coefficient in the thin film evaporation region of the COHP can reach 1.2 x 10(6) W/m(2).K, which is approximately 10(3) times higher than that achievable with standard pool-boiling approaches. Based on these results, a novel device design applying the COHP and microfabrication techniques is proposed and its efficiency for cell vitrification is demonstrated through numerical simulation. The estimated average cooling rates achieved through this approach is 10(6-7)K/min, which is much faster than the currently available methods and sufficient for achieving vitrification with relatively low concentrations of CPA.

  12. Effects of a Gluten-Free Diet on Rate of Achievement in Autistic Children in an Applied Behavioral Analysis Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemmell, Melissa; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study used both between-subjects and within-subjects analyses to examine the effects of a gluten-free diet on the academic achievement of autistic children. The between-subjects analysis included data from eight autistic children (ages 5 to 7) with four on a gluten-free diet and four serving as controls. The number of attempts needed before…

  13. Examining an Executive Function Rating Scale as a Predictor of Achievement in Children at Risk for Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeh, Shanna S.; Burns, Matthew K.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that executive function (EF) may be a potent and malleable predictor of academic achievement in children. Schools may be able to use this predictive power if researchers develop EF measures that not only have ecological and construct validity, but also are also efficient and affordable. To this end, Garcia-Barrera and colleagues…

  14. Automating Frame Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Franklin, Lyndsey; Tratz, Stephen C.; Danielson, Gary R.; Mileson, Nicholas D.; Riensche, Roderick M.; McGrath, Liam

    2008-04-01

    Frame Analysis has come to play an increasingly stronger role in the study of social movements in Sociology and Political Science. While significant steps have been made in providing a theory of frames and framing, a systematic characterization of the frame concept is still largely lacking and there are no rec-ognized criteria and methods that can be used to identify and marshal frame evi-dence reliably and in a time and cost effective manner. Consequently, current Frame Analysis work is still too reliant on manual annotation and subjective inter-pretation. The goal of this paper is to present an approach to the representation, acquisition and analysis of frame evidence which leverages Content Analysis, In-formation Extraction and Semantic Search methods to provide a systematic treat-ment of a Frame Analysis and automate frame annotation.

  15. Relations among Academic Enablers and Academic Achievement in Children with and without High Levels of Parent-Rated Symptoms of Inattention, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among academic enablers (i.e., engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, study skills) and academic achievement in children with and without high levels of parent-rated symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity (Symptoms of IIH Group). The study included 69 participants (29 [42%] in the IIH…

  16. Comment on "Ribosome utilizes the minimum free energy changes to achieve the highest decoding rate and fidelity"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savir, Yonatan; Tlusty, Tsvi

    2016-05-01

    We examined [Y. Savir and T. Tlusty, Cell 153, 471 (2013), 10.1016/j.cell.2013.03.032] the decoding performance of tRNA by the ribosome. For this purpose, we specified the kinetics of tRNA decoding and the corresponding energy landscape, from which we calculated the steady-state decoding rate RC. Following our work, Xie reexamined [P. Xie, Phys. Rev. E 92, 022716 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.022716] the energy landscape of tRNA decoding. His analysis relies on an alternative expression for RC, while claiming that the expression we use is missing some terms. In this Comment we rederive in detail our expression for the steady-state decoding rate RC, show they hold, explain why the alternative expression for RC is inaccurate, and discuss the underlying intuition.

  17. Note: Fully integrated active quenching circuit achieving 100 MHz count rate with custom technology single photon avalanche diodes.

    PubMed

    Acconcia, G; Labanca, I; Rech, I; Gulinatti, A; Ghioni, M

    2017-02-01

    The minimization of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) dead time is a key factor to speed up photon counting and timing measurements. We present a fully integrated Active Quenching Circuit (AQC) able to provide a count rate as high as 100 MHz with custom technology SPAD detectors. The AQC can also operate the new red enhanced SPAD and provide the timing information with a timing jitter Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) as low as 160 ps.

  18. Note: Fully integrated active quenching circuit achieving 100 MHz count rate with custom technology single photon avalanche diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acconcia, G.; Labanca, I.; Rech, I.; Gulinatti, A.; Ghioni, M.

    2017-02-01

    The minimization of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) dead time is a key factor to speed up photon counting and timing measurements. We present a fully integrated Active Quenching Circuit (AQC) able to provide a count rate as high as 100 MHz with custom technology SPAD detectors. The AQC can also operate the new red enhanced SPAD and provide the timing information with a timing jitter Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) as low as 160 ps.

  19. FRAME: the early days.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Andrew N

    2009-12-01

    The article reviews the early history of FRAME from the perspective of its first "Scientific Administrator". The roles of Mrs Hegarty the founder, and other early contributors to FRAME's development are described. In addition, the article discusses FRAME's strategic approach to the subject and how Mrs Hegarty's background influenced the development of that approach.

  20. A new frame-based registration algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, C. H.; Whalen, R. T.; Beaupre, G. S.; Sumanaweera, T. S.; Yen, S. Y.; Napel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for frame registration. Our algorithm requires only that the frame be comprised of straight rods, as opposed to the N structures or an accurate frame model required by existing algorithms. The algorithm utilizes the full 3D information in the frame as well as a least squares weighting scheme to achieve highly accurate registration. We use simulated CT data to assess the accuracy of our algorithm. We compare the performance of the proposed algorithm to two commonly used algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable to the best existing techniques with knowledge of the exact mathematical frame model. For CT data corrupted with an unknown in-plane rotation or translation, the proposed technique is also comparable to the best existing techniques. However, in situations where there is a discrepancy of more than 2 mm (0.7% of the frame dimension) between the frame and the mathematical model, the proposed technique is significantly better (p < or = 0.05) than the existing techniques. The proposed algorithm can be applied to any existing frame without modification. It provides better registration accuracy and is robust against model mis-match. It allows greater flexibility on the frame structure. Lastly, it reduces the frame construction cost as adherence to a concise model is not required.

  1. Coincidence ion imaging with a fast frame camera

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Suk Kyoung; Cudry, Fadia; Lin, Yun Fei; Lingenfelter, Steven; Winney, Alexander H.; Fan, Lin; Li, Wen

    2014-12-15

    A new time- and position-sensitive particle detection system based on a fast frame CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductors) camera is developed for coincidence ion imaging. The system is composed of four major components: a conventional microchannel plate/phosphor screen ion imager, a fast frame CMOS camera, a single anode photomultiplier tube (PMT), and a high-speed digitizer. The system collects the positional information of ions from a fast frame camera through real-time centroiding while the arrival times are obtained from the timing signal of a PMT processed by a high-speed digitizer. Multi-hit capability is achieved by correlating the intensity of ion spots on each camera frame with the peak heights on the corresponding time-of-flight spectrum of a PMT. Efficient computer algorithms are developed to process camera frames and digitizer traces in real-time at 1 kHz laser repetition rate. We demonstrate the capability of this system by detecting a momentum-matched co-fragments pair (methyl and iodine cations) produced from strong field dissociative double ionization of methyl iodide.

  2. Large-scale survey of rates of achieving targets for blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipids and prevalence of complications in type 2 diabetes (JDDM 40)

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Hiroki; Oishi, Mariko; Takamura, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Katsuya; Shirabe, Shin-ichiro; Uchida, Daigaku; Sugimoto, Hidekatsu; Kurihara, Yoshio; Araki, Shin-ichi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective The fact that population with type 2 diabetes mellitus and bodyweight of patients are increasing but diabetes care is improving makes it important to explore the up-to-date rates of achieving treatment targets and prevalence of complications. We investigated the prevalence of microvascular/macrovascular complications and rates of achieving treatment targets through a large-scale multicenter-based cohort. Research design and methods A cross-sectional nationwide survey was performed on 9956 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who consecutively attended primary care clinics. The prevalence of nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and macrovascular complications and rates of achieving targets of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <7.0%, blood pressure <130/80 mm Hg, and lipids of low-density/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <3.1/≥1.0 mmol/L and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <3.8 mmol/L were investigated. Results The rates of achieving targets for HbA1c, blood pressure, and lipids were 52.9%, 46.8% and 65.5%, respectively. The prevalence of microvascular complications was ∼28% each, 6.4% of which had all microvascular complications, while that of macrovascular complications was 12.6%. With an increasing duration of diabetes, the rate of achieving target HbA1c decreased and the prevalence of each complication increased despite increased use of diabetes medication. The prevalence of each complication decreased according to the number achieving the 3 treatment targets and was lower in subjects without macrovascular complications than those with. Adjustments for considerable covariates exhibited that each complication was closely inter-related, and the achievement of each target was significantly associated with being free of each complication. Conclusions Almost half of the subjects examined did not meet the recommended targets. The risk of each complication was significantly affected by 1 on-target treatment (inversely) and the

  3. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  4. Metal-framed spectacles and implants and specific absorption rate among adults and children using mobile phones at 900/1800/2100 MHz.

    PubMed

    Joó, Ervin; Szász, András; Szendrö, Péter

    2006-01-01

    The specific absorption rate (SAR) from mobile telephones at horizontal and vertical positions is investigated in human adult and child heads wearing metal-rim spectacles and having metallic implants. The SAR values calculated by Finite Difference Time Domain (FTDT) method are compared to the actual ANSI/IEEE standards and to the 900/1800/2100 MHz electromagnetic radiation limits according to EU standards. Our calculation shows a maximum of the cellular SAR in the child head, which in the case of metallic implant could be as much as 100% higher than in the adult head. The averaging on 1 and 10 g tissue-masses shows SAR generally under the limit of 519/1999/EC standards. However, in the case of 2100 MHz with vertical position of the phone for adults and of the 900 MHz for children with metallic implants the ANSI/IEEE limits are exceeded.

  5. Increased rate of missense/in-frame mutations in individuals with NF1-related pulmonary stenosis: a novel genotype-phenotype correlation.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shachar, Shay; Constantini, Shlomi; Hallevi, Hen; Sach, Emma K; Upadhyaya, Meena; Evans, Gareth D; Huson, Susan M

    2013-05-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and its related disorders (NF1-Noonan syndrome (NFNS) and Watson syndrome (WS)) are caused by heterozygous mutations in the NF1 gene. Pulmonary stenosis (PS) occurs more commonly in NF1 and its related disorders than in the general population. This study investigated whether PS is associated with specific types of NF1 gene mutations in NF1, NFNS and WS. The frequency of different NF1 mutation types in a cohort of published and unpublished cases with NF1/NFNS/WS and PS was examined. Compared with NF1 in general, NFNS patients had higher rates of PS (9/35=26% vs 25/2322=1.1%, P value<0.001). Stratification according to mutation type showed that the increased PS rate appears to be driven by the NFNS group with non-truncating mutations. Eight of twelve (66.7%) NFNS cases with non-truncating mutations had PS compared with a 1.1% PS frequency in NF1 in general (P<0.001); there was no increase in the frequency of PS in NFNS patients with truncating mutations. Eight out of eleven (73%) individuals with NF1 and PS, were found to have non-truncating mutations, a much higher frequency than the 19% reported in NF1 cohorts (P<0.015). Only three cases of WS have been published with intragenic mutations, two of three had non-truncating mutations. Therefore, PS in NF1 and its related disorders is clearly associated with non-truncating mutations in the NF1 gene providing a new genotype-phenotype correlation. The data indicate a specific role of non-truncating mutations on the NF1 cardiac phenotype.

  6. Multiple frame cluster tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadaleta, Sabino; Klusman, Mike; Poore, Aubrey; Slocumb, Benjamin J.

    2002-08-01

    Tracking large number of closely spaced objects is a challenging problem for any tracking system. In missile defense systems, countermeasures in the form of debris, chaff, spent fuel, and balloons can overwhelm tracking systems that track only individual objects. Thus, tracking these groups or clusters of objects followed by transitions to individual object tracking (if and when individual objects separate from the groups) is a necessary capability for a robust and real-time tracking system. The objectives of this paper are to describe the group tracking problem in the context of multiple frame target tracking and to formulate a general assignment problem for the multiple frame cluster/group tracking problem. The proposed approach forms multiple clustering hypotheses on each frame of data and base individual frame clustering decisions on the information from multiple frames of data in much the same way that MFA or MHT work for individual object tracking. The formulation of the assignment problem for resolved object tracking and candidate clustering methods for use in multiple frame cluster tracking are briefly reviewed. Then, three different formulations are presented for the combination of multiple clustering hypotheses on each frame of data and the multiple frame assignments of clusters between frames.

  7. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Presentación, M Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers' performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents' and teachers' ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  8. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Presentación, M. Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers’ performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents’ and teachers’ ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25972833

  9. The Frame Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Michael Todd; Cox, Dana C.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore framing, a non-multiplicative technique commonly employed by students as they construct similar shapes. When students frame, they add (or subtract) a "border" of fixed width about a geometric object. Although the approach does not yield similar shapes in general, the mathematical underpinnings of…

  10. That Article: Frame Relay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Compares Frame Relay with digital and analog alternatives for connecting sites on a Wide Area Network. Cost considerations, the concepts on which the technology is based, its carrying capacity, the use of CD-ROM and Graphical User Interface (GUI) on Frame Relay, and engineering bandwidth limitations are covered. (KRN)

  11. A guide frame for the Taylor Spatial Frame.

    PubMed

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios D; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Kanellopoulos, Nikolaos D; Magnissalis, Evangellos A; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2009-08-01

    The Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) is a versatile multiplanar external fixator that combines ease of application with computer accuracy to effectively reduce fractures and correct all aspects of deformity in reconstructive orthopaedic surgery. However, postapplication adjustments depend on adequate anteroposterior and lateral radiographic measurements to yield the most accurate output from the program. These radiographs need to be taken in an orthogonal plane to the reference ring. We describe a noninvasive technique using a specifically designed radiolucent frame that can be attached to the TSF to guide the surgeon and radiologist in obtaining lateral and anteroposterior radiographs, with the reference ring perfectly orthogonal in single exposures for each radiographic view. By using this guiding frame, reproducible and consistent x-rays oriented orthogonally to the reference ring at different points in the correction may be achieved, thus eliminating the need for repeat radiographs and radiation exposure for patients, radiologists, and surgeons. In this manner, the mounting parameters and the orientation of the bony deformity will be consistent. This should lead to enhanced accuracy of the TSF correction.

  12. Decreased Sperm Motility Retarded ICSI Fertilization Rate in Severe Oligozoospermia but Good-Quality Embryo Transfer Had Achieved the Prospective Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jufeng; Lu, Yongning; Qu, Xianqin; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Luiwen; Gao, Minzhi; Shi, Huijuan; Jin, Xingliang

    2016-01-01

    . Overall rates in all groups were 41.26% clinical pregnancy, 25.74% implantation and 36.32% live birth, which gave live birth to 252 girls and 252 boys. Conclusions The reduction of motile spermatozoa in severe oligozoospermia decreased the rates of fertilization and good-quality embryo. Obtaining and transfer of good-quality embryos was the good prognostic to achieve prospective clinical outcomes regardless of the severity of oligozoospermia. PMID:27661081

  13. Informative-frame filtering in endoscopy videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yong Hwan; Hwang, Sae; Oh, JungHwan; Lee, JeongKyu; Tavanapong, Wallapak; de Groen, Piet C.; Wong, Johnny

    2005-04-01

    Advances in video technology are being incorporated into today"s healthcare practice. For example, colonoscopy is an important screening tool for colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy allows for the inspection of the entire colon and provides the ability to perform a number of therapeutic operations during a single procedure. During a colonoscopic procedure, a tiny video camera at the tip of the endoscope generates a video signal of the internal mucosa of the colon. The video data are displayed on a monitor for real-time analysis by the endoscopist. Other endoscopic procedures include upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, enteroscopy, bronchoscopy, cystoscopy, and laparoscopy. However, a significant number of out-of-focus frames are included in this type of videos since current endoscopes are equipped with a single, wide-angle lens that cannot be focused. The out-of-focus frames do not hold any useful information. To reduce the burdens of the further processes such as computer-aided image processing or human expert"s examinations, these frames need to be removed. We call an out-of-focus frame as non-informative frame and an in-focus frame as informative frame. We propose a new technique to classify the video frames into two classes, informative and non-informative frames using a combination of Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Texture Analysis, and K-Means Clustering. The proposed technique can evaluate the frames without any reference image, and does not need any predefined threshold value. Our experimental studies indicate that it achieves over 96% of four different performance metrics (i.e. precision, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy).

  14. The Effects of Framing Grades on Student Learning and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bies-Hernandez, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether framing effects, in terms of losses and gains, can be extended to student learning and grading preferences. In Experiment 1, participants rated psychology course syllabi to investigate preferences for differently framed grading systems: a loss versus gain grading system. The results showed a clear framing effect…

  15. Frame modal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guyan, R. J.; Heckenlaible, R. N.

    1971-01-01

    Computer model calculates natural frequencies and modal displacements of three-dimensional frame structures, and generates stiffness and mass matrices. Structures may be divided into several substructures prior to calculation of modal characteristics.

  16. Celestial Reference Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-03-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  17. Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-09-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  18. Space-Frame Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    The space-frame antenna is a conceptual antenna structure that would be lightweight, deployable from compact stowage, and capable of deforming itself to a size, shape, and orientation required for a specific use. The space-frame antenna would be a trusslike structure consisting mostly of a tetrahedral mesh of nodes connected by variable-length struts. The deformation of the antenna to a desired size, shape, and orientation would be effected through coordinated lengthening and shorting of the struts.

  19. Unravelling the correlation between the aspect ratio of nanotubular structures and their electrochemical performance to achieve high-rate and long-life lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuxin; Zhang, Yanyan; Deng, Jiyang; Qi, Dianpeng; Leow, Wan Ru; Wei, Jiaqi; Yin, Shengyan; Dong, Zhili; Yazami, Rachid; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Xiaodong

    2014-12-01

    The fundamental understanding of the relationship between the nanostructure of an electrode and its electrochemical performance is crucial for achieving high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, the relationship between the nanotubular aspect ratio and electrochemical performance of LIBs is elucidated for the first time. The stirring hydrothermal method was used to control the aspect ratio of viscous titanate nanotubes, which were used to fabricate additive-free TiO2 -based electrode materials. We found that the battery performance at high charging/discharging rates is dramatically boosted when the aspect ratio is increased, due to the optimization of electronic/ionic transport properties within the electrode materials. The proof-of-concept LIBs comprising nanotubes with an aspect ratio of 265 can retain more than 86 % of their initial capacity over 6000 cycles at a high rate of 30 C. Such devices with supercapacitor-like rate performance and battery-like capacity herald a new paradigm for energy storage systems.

  20. A neuroimaging investigation of attribute framing and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Murch, Kevin B; Krawczyk, Daniel C

    2014-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the neural basis of framing effects. We tested the reflexive and reflective systems model of social cognition as it relates to framing. We also examined the relationships among frame susceptibility, intelligence and personality measures. Participants evaluated whether personal attributes applied to themselves from multiple perspectives and in positive and negative frames. Participants rated whether each statement was descriptive or not and endorsed positive frames more than negative frames. Individual differences on frame decisions enabled us to form high and low frame susceptibility groups. Endorsement of frame-consistent attributes was associated with personality factors, cognitive reflection and intelligence. Reflexive brain regions were associated with positive frames while reflective areas were associated with negative frames. Region of Interest analyses showed that frame-inconsistent responses were associated with increased activation within reflective cognitive control regions including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC and left ventrolateral PFC. Frame-consistent responses were associated with increased activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that individual differences in frame susceptibility influence personal attribute evaluations. Overall, this study clarifies the neural correlates of the reflective and reflexive systems of social cognition as applied to decisions about social attributions.

  1. FREEZE-FRAME: Fast Action Stress Relief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childre, Doc Lew

    Recent scientific research has proven that we can, not only manage our stress, we can even prevent it. Ways to achieve stress management are presented in this book. It details a method called FREEZE-FRAME, a process in which individuals mentally stop the chaos that surrounds them and then calmly contemplate their situation. The text opens with an…

  2. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  3. Frame dragging and superenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, L.; Di Prisco, A.; Carot, J.

    2007-08-15

    We show that the vorticity appearing in stationary vacuum spacetimes is always related to the existence of a flow of superenergy on the plane orthogonal to the vorticity vector. This result, together with the previously established link between vorticity and superenergy in radiative (Bondi-Sachs) spacetimes, strengthens further the case for this latter quantity as the cause of frame dragging.

  4. Framing for Scientific Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berland, Leema K.; Hammer, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, research on students' scientific argumentation has progressed to a recognition of nascent resources: Students can and do argue when they experience the need and possibility of persuading others who may hold competing views. Our purpose in this article is to contribute to this progress by applying the perspective of framing to the…

  5. Acute Response of Well-Trained Sprinters to a 100-m Race: Higher Sprinting Velocity Achieved With Increased Step Rate Compared With Speed Training.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Mitsuo; Kawahara, Taisuke; Isaka, Tadao

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the contribution of differences in step length and step rate to sprinting velocity in an athletic race compared with speed training. Nineteen well-trained male and female sprinters volunteered to participate in this study. Sprinting motions were recorded for each sprinter during both 100-m races and speed training (60-, 80-, and 100-m dash from a block start) for 14 days before the race. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance was used to compare the step characteristics and sprinting velocity between race and speed training, adjusted for covariates including race-training differences in the coefficients of restitution of the all-weather track, wind speed, air temperature, and sex. The average sprinting velocity to the 50-m mark was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (8.26 ± 0.22 m·s vs. 8.00 ± 0.70 m·s, p < 0.01). Although no significant difference was seen in the average step length to the 50-m mark between the race and speed training (1.81 ± 0.09 m vs. 1.80 ± 0.09 m, p = 0.065), the average step rate was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (4.56 ± 0.17 Hz vs. 4.46 ± 0.13 Hz, p < 0.01). These findings suggest that sprinters achieve higher sprinting velocity and can run with higher exercise intensity and more rapid motion during a race than during speed training, even if speed training was performed at perceived high intensity.

  6. Seven-Day Nonbismuth Containing Quadruple Therapy Could Achieve a Grade "A" Success Rate for First-Line Helicobacter pylori Eradication.

    PubMed

    Tai, Wei-Chen; Liang, Chih-Ming; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Chiu, Chien-Hua; Hu, Ming-Luen; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Kuo, Yuan-Hung; Kuo, Chung-Mou; Yen, Yi-Hao; Kuo, Chung-Huang; Chiou, Shue-Shian; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2015-01-01

    This prospective study was to assess the efficacy of nonbismuth containing quadruple therapy as first-line H. pylori treatment and to determine the clinical factors influencing patient outcome. We enrolled 200 H. pylori-infected naïve patients. They were prescribed either a 7-day nonbismuth containing quadruple therapy group (EACM, esomeprazole 40 mg twice daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, metronidazole 500 mg twice daily, and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily) or a 7-day standard triple therapy group (EAC, esomeprazole 40 mg twice daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily). Follow-up studies to assess treatment responses were carried out 8 weeks later. The eradication rates attained by EACM and EAC groups were 95.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 89.4%-98.3%) and 79.3% (95% CI = 70%-86.4%) in the per-protocol analysis (P < 0.001) and 88% (95% CI = 80.2%-93.0%) and 73% (95% I = 63.6%-80.3%) in the intention-to-treat analysis (P = 0.007). Clarithromycin resistance, metronidazole resistance, and dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistances were the clinical factors influencing H. pylori eradication in EACM group. Clarithromycin resistance and dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistances were the influential factor for EAC treatment. In conclusion, the results suggest that 7-day nonbismuth containing quadruple therapy could achieve a grade "A" report card for first-line H. pylori treatment.

  7. Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K. L.; Stewart, R. E.; Steele, P. T.; Vernon, S. P.; Hsing, W. W.; Remington, B. A.

    2013-10-07

    A high speed solid-state framing camera has been developed which can operate over a wide range of photon energies. This camera measures the two-dimensional spatial profile of the flux incident on a cadmium selenide semiconductor at multiple times. This multi-frame camera has been tested at 3.1 eV and 4.5 keV. The framing camera currently records two frames with a temporal separation between the frames of 5 ps but this separation can be varied between hundreds of femtoseconds up to nanoseconds and the number of frames can be increased by angularly multiplexing the probe beam onto the cadmium selenide semiconductor.

  8. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  9. Impact of an acute coronary syndrome pathway in achieving target heart rate and utilization of evidence-based doses of beta-blockers.

    PubMed

    Irani, Farzan; Herial, Nabeel; Colyer, William R

    2012-11-01

    Beta-blockers remain a cornerstone of therapy in the management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The 2007 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association unstable angina/non-ST elevation myocardial infarction guideline revisions recommend a target heart rate (HR) of 50-60 beats per minute (bpm). Despite improved trends toward utilization of beta-blockers therapy, beta-blockers continue to be underdosed. Guideline-based tools have been shown to improve adherence to evidence-based therapy in patients with ACS. Implementation of a standardized ACS pathway would lead to titration of beta-blockers to recommended dosages with improved HRs in eligible patients. The ACS clinical protocol was implemented at the University of Toledo Medical Center in May 2007. A retrospective study of 516 patients admitted during a comparable 6-month period, before and after the institution of the protocol, was conducted. The preprotocol and protocol group included 237 and 279 patients, respectively. Patient information extracted from the medical records included age, gender, HR on admission, blood pressure on admission, duration of hospital stay, preadmission use of beta-blocker, type of beta-blocker and dosage, discharge beta-blocker and dosage, peak troponin levels, and therapeutic intervention. A target HR of less than 60 bpm was achieved in 19% of the protocol group, as compared with 6% in the preprotocol group (P < 0.001). The protocol group had a significantly lower mean discharge HR than the preprotocol group (67 vs. 74 bpm; P < 0.001). The mean discharge dose of metoprolol in the protocol group was noted to be significantly higher (118 vs. 80 mg/d; P < 0.001). The institution of an ACS clinical pathway led to utilization of beta-blockers in significantly higher dosages, resulting in improved HR control and increased attainment of target HR.

  10. Electrically insulating and sealing frame

    DOEpatents

    Guthrie, Robin J.

    1983-11-08

    A combination gas seal and electrical insulator having a closed frame shape interconnects a fuel cell stack and a reactant gas plenum of a fuel cell generator. The frame can be of rectangular shape including at least one slidable spline connection in each side to permit expansion or contraction consistent with that of the walls of the gas plenum and fuel cell stack. The slidable spline connections in the frame sides minimizes lateral movement between the frame side members and sealing material interposed between the frame and the fuel cell stack or between the frame and the reactant gas plenum.

  11. Frame for a firearm

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2008-03-04

    A firearm frame which is adapted to be disposed in operative relationship as a component part of a firearm, the firearm having disposed in operative relationships each with one or more of the others, a barrel, a receiver, and at least one firing mechanism; wherein the barrel and receiver form operative parts of a movable assembly and the at least one firing mechanism is disposed in a substantially stationary operative relationship therewith; the firearm frame including at least one elongated support structure discrete from the barrel and receiver, the elongated support structure being adapted to directly support the movable assembly in an operative movable relationship therewith; whereby at least one of the barrel and receiver is in direct contact with and movable on the elongated support structure; and, a firing mechanism support structure connected to the at least one elongated support structure, the firing mechanism support structure being adapted to have the firing mechanism connected thereto; the firearm frame also directly supporting the movable assembly and the firing mechanism in corresponding movable and stationary operative relationships each with the other.

  12. Are Strengths the Solution? An Exploration of the Relationships among Teacher-Rated Strengths, Classroom Behaviour, and Academic Achievement of Young Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Jessica; Rawana, Edward P.; Pye, Melissa; Brownlee, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Strength-based approaches are being increasingly validated for use in clinical settings with children and youth. However, the role that strengths play in educational settings with typically-achieving students has yet to be examined. The present study explored the relationship among strengths, classroom behaviour, and academic achievement for a…

  13. MedlinePlus FAQ: Framing

    MedlinePlus

    ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/faq/framing.html I'd like to link to MedlinePlus, ... as HealthDay. Our license agreements do not permit framing of their content from our site. For more ...

  14. Conformal frame dependence of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2015-04-01

    Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case.

  15. The Levels of Visual Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Lulu; Dimitrova, Daniela V.

    2011-01-01

    While framing research has centered mostly on the evaluations of media texts, visual news discourse has remained relatively unexamined. This study surveys the visual framing techniques and methods employed in previous studies and proposes a four-tiered model of identifying and analyzing visual frames: (1) visuals as denotative systems, (2) visuals…

  16. The effect of framing incentives as either losses or gains with contingency management for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Romanowich, Paul; Lamb, R J

    2013-04-01

    Cumulative prospect theory predicts that losses motivate behavior more than equal gains. Contingency management procedures effectively reduce drug use by placing incentives in direct competition with the drug taking behavior. Therefore, framing incentives as losses, rather than gains should decrease drug use to a greater extent, given equivalent incentives. We examined whether contingent vouchers described as either losses or gains differentially affected smoking abstinence rates. Over 5 consecutive days, participants could either gain $75 per day for verified abstinence or lose $75 per day (initial endowment=$375) for continuing to smoke. As a result, loss-framed participants were more likely to achieve at least one day of abstinence. There was a trend towards loss-framed participants reducing the amount smoked more than gain-framed participants. However, participants in the gain-framed group were more likely to maintain abstinence, once initiated. The results partially support cumulative prospect theory and suggest additional ways to initiate behavior change using incentives, outside of using larger magnitude incentives in contingency management procedures.

  17. Framing Vision: An Examination of Framing, Sensegiving, and Sensemaking during a Change Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, William

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this short article is to review the findings from an instrumental case study that examines how a college president used what this article refers to as "frame alignment processes" to mobilize internal and external support for a college initiative--one that achieved success under the current president. Specifically, I…

  18. Identifying Issue Frames in Text

    PubMed Central

    Sagi, Eyal; Diermeier, Daniel; Kaufmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Framing, the effect of context on cognitive processes, is a prominent topic of research in psychology and public opinion research. Research on framing has traditionally relied on controlled experiments and manually annotated document collections. In this paper we present a method that allows for quantifying the relative strengths of competing linguistic frames based on corpus analysis. This method requires little human intervention and can therefore be efficiently applied to large bodies of text. We demonstrate its effectiveness by tracking changes in the framing of terror over time and comparing the framing of abortion by Democrats and Republicans in the U.S. PMID:23874909

  19. Cognitive framing in action.

    PubMed

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition.

  20. Frame junction vibration transmission with a modified frame deformation model.

    PubMed

    Moore, J A

    1990-12-01

    A previous paper dealt with vibration transmission through junctions of connected frame members where the allowed frame deformations included bending, torsion, and longitudinal motions [J.A. Moore, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2766-2776 (1990)]. In helicopter and aircraft structures the skin panels can constitute a high impedance connection along the length of the frames that effectively prohibits in-plane motion at the elevation of the skin panels. This has the effect of coupling in-plane bending and torsional motions within the frame. This paper discusses the transmission behavior through frame junctions that accounts for the in-plane constraint in idealized form by assuming that the attached skin panels completely prohibit inplane motion in the frames. Also, transverse shear deformation is accounted for in describing the relatively deep web frame constructions common in aircraft structures. Longitudinal motion in the frames is not included in the model. Transmission coefficient predictions again show the importance of out-of-plane bending deformation to the transmission of vibratory energy in an aircraft structure. Comparisons are shown with measured vibration transmission data along the framing in the overhead of a helicopter airframe, with good agreement. The frame junction description has been implemented within a general purpose statistical energy analysis (SEA) computer code in modeling the entire airframe structure including skin panels.

  1. Microlens frames for laser diode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Skidmore, Jay A.; Freitas, Barry L.

    1999-01-01

    Monolithic microlens frames enable the fabrication of monolithic laser diode arrays and are manufactured inexpensively with high registration, and with inherent focal length compensation for any lens diameter variation. A monolithic substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost microlens array. The substrate is wet-etched or sawed with a series of v-grooves. The v-grooves can be created by wet-etching, by exploiting the large etch-rate selectivity of different crystal planes. The v-grooves provide a support frame for either cylindrical or custom-shaped microlenses. Because the microlens frames are formed by photolithographic semiconductor batch-processing techniques, they can be formed inexpensively over large areas with precise lateral and vertical registration. The v-groove has an important advantage for preserving the correct focus for lenses of varying diameter.

  2. Microlens frames for laser diode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Skidmore, J.A.; Freitas, B.L.

    1999-07-13

    Monolithic microlens frames enable the fabrication of monolithic laser diode arrays and are manufactured inexpensively with high registration, and with inherent focal length compensation for any lens diameter variation. A monolithic substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost microlens array. The substrate is wet-etched or sawed with a series of v-grooves. The v-grooves can be created by wet-etching, by exploiting the large etch-rate selectivity of different crystal planes. The v-grooves provide a support frame for either cylindrical or custom-shaped microlenses. Because the microlens frames are formed by photolithographic semiconductor batch-processing techniques, they can be formed inexpensively over large areas with precise lateral and vertical registration. The v-groove has an important advantage for preserving the correct focus for lenses of varying diameter. 12 figs.

  3. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    SciTech Connect

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-12-22

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

  4. Testing a Multi-Stage Screening System: Predicting Performance on Australia's National Achievement Test Using Teachers' Ratings of Academic and Social Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Davies, Michael; Griffin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the predictive validity of results from a screening system of academic enablers, with a sample of Australian elementary school students, when the criterion variable is end-of-year achievement. The investigation included (a) comparing the predictive validity of a brief criterion-referenced nomination system with more…

  5. Louisiana High School Weathers the Storm to Become a Leader in Student Achievement and High Graduation Rates. "High Schools That Work" Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Warren Easton Charter High School in New Orleans, Louisiana, has weathered changes of many types, including Hurricane Katrina in 2005. After having to close for the 2005-2006 school year, the school reopened as a charter school with a board and stepped up its efforts to raise student achievement. Now the school is receiving attention for the…

  6. The Effects of a School-Family-Community Partnership on the Academic Achievement, High School Graduation, and College Enrollment Rate of Economically Disadvantaged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Yvette

    2012-01-01

    A school-family-community partnership to improve student achievement was examined at a comprehensive high school located in a low income urban community in Long Island City, New York. In this causal comparative analyses study, the researcher examines the effect of a school-family-community partnership on the educational outcomes of economically…

  7. The Empirical Relationship between Administrator Ratings of Teacher Effectiveness and Student Achievement on the State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveras, Yanira

    2014-01-01

    The quality of education and the teachers' effectiveness impact students' lives beyond classroom performance (Chetty, Friedman, & Rockoff, 2012) and achievement on standardized tests. However, some claim there is a prevalent failure to recognize teacher's effectiveness, to effectively document poor teacher performance and to provide teachers…

  8. Investigating the Robustness of School-Performance Ratings to Three Factors Affecting the Underlying Student-Level Academic-Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Hui Leng

    2012-01-01

    Standardized-test scores are increasingly important indicators of school success. But how robust are school-performance ratings when they are based on measures derived from these scores? In my thesis, using data from Houston Independent School District (HISD) and New York State (NYS), I examined the robustness of school-performance ratings across…

  9. Design of 300 frames per second 16-port CCD video processing circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shao-hua; Guo, Ming-an; Li, Bin-kang; Xia, Jing-tao; Wang, Qunshu

    2011-08-01

    It is hard to achieve the speed of hundreds frames per second in high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) cameras, because the pixels' charge must be read out one by one in serial mode, this cost a lot of time. The multiple-port CCD technology is a new efficiency way to realize high frame rate high resolution solid state imaging systems. The pixel charge is read out from a multiple-port CCD through several ports in parallel mode, witch decrease the reading time of the CCD. But it is hard for the multiple-port CCDs' video processing circuit design, and the real time high speed image data acquisition is also a knotty problem. A 16-port high frame rate CCD video processing circuit based on Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) and VSP5010 has been developed around a specialized back illuminated, 512 x 512 pixels, 400fps (frames per second) frame transfer CCD sensor from Sarnoff Ltd. A CPLD is used to produce high precision sample clock and timing, and the high accurate CCD video voltage sample is achieved with Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) technology. 8 chips of VSP5010 with CDS function is adopted to achieve sample and digitize CCD analog signal into 12 bit digital image data. Thus the 16 analog CCD output was digitized into 192 bit 6.67MHz parallel digital image data. Then CPLD and Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) technology are used to encode the 192 bit wide data into two 640MHz serial data and transmitted to remote data acquisition module via two fibers. The acquisition module decodes the serial data into original image data and stores the data into a frame cache, and then the software reads the data from the frame cache based on USB2.0 technology and stores the data in a hard disk. The digital image data with 12bit per pixel was collected and displayed with system software. The results show that the 16-por 300fps CCD output signals could be digitized and transmitted with the video processing circuit, and the remote data acquisition has been realized.

  10. STARS[R] Spring 2012 Quarterly Review: Framing Campus Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbanski, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The Spring 2012 SQR: "Framing Campus Sustainability," features stories that frame the evolving concept of sustainability in higher education. Included in this issue are a snapshot of ratings-to-date, a focus on credits within the Operations (OP) category, and insights into how institutions are defining and interpreting the evolving…

  11. Semiclassical framed BPS states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory W.; Royston, Andrew B.; Van den Bleeken, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    We provide a semiclassical description of framed BPS states in four-dimensional {N}=2 super Yang-Mills theories probed by 't Hooft defects, in terms of a supersymmetric quantum mechanics on the moduli space of singular monopoles. Framed BPS states, like their ordinary counterparts in the theory without defects, are associated with the L 2 kernel of certain Dirac operators on moduli space, or equivalently with the L 2 cohomology of related Dolbeault operators. The Dirac/Dolbeault operators depend on two Cartan-valued Higgs vevs. We conjecture a map between these vevs and the Seiberg-Witten special coordinates, consistent with a one-loop analysis and checked in examples. The map incorporates all perturbative and nonperturbative corrections that are relevant for the semiclassical construction of BPS states, over a suitably defined weak coupling regime of the Coulomb branch. We use this map to translate wall crossing formulae and the no-exotics theorem to statements about the Dirac/Dolbeault operators. The no-exotics theorem, concerning the absence of nontrivial SU(2) R representations in the BPS spectrum, implies that the kernel of the Dirac operator is chiral, and further translates into a statement that all L 2 cohomology of the Dolbeault operator is concentrated in the middle degree. Wall crossing formulae lead to detailed predictions for where the Dirac operators fail to be Fredholm and how their kernels jump. We explore these predictions in nontrivial examples. This paper explains the background and arguments behind the results announced in the short note [1].

  12. Brain potentials associated with the outcome processing in framing effects.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Feng, Yandong; Xu, Qing; Bian, Jun; Tang, Huixian

    2012-10-24

    Framing effect is a cognitive bias referring to the phenomenon that people respond differently to different but objectively equivalent descriptions of the same problem. By measuring event-related potentials, the present study aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the framing effect, especially how the negative and positive frames influence the outcome processing in our brain. Participants were presented directly with outcomes framed either positively in terms of lives saved or negatively in terms of lives lost in large and small group conditions, and were asked to rate the favorableness of each of them. The behavioral results showed that the framing effect occurred in both group size conditions, with more favorable evaluations associated with positive framing. Compared with outcomes in positive framing condition, a significant feedback-related negativity (FRN) effect was elicited by outcomes in negative framing condition, even though the outcomes in different conditions were objectively equivalent. The results are explained in terms of the associative model of attribute framing effect which states that attribute framing effect occurs as a result of a valence-based associative processing.

  13. Framing the Game: Examining Frame Choice in Bargaining.

    PubMed

    Blount; Larrick

    2000-01-01

    This article introduces the study of frame choice in negotiation. Here, the selection of a procedural frame is treated as a dependent variable-a choice that bargainers make in addition to determining their offers. The empirical focus of the article is on whether, when given a choice between two alternative versions of the ultimatum bargaining game, negotiators choose the description that maximizes their expected payoffs. For example, in one frame-choice task, negotiators assigned to the Player 1 role were asked to select between framing the game as "Player 1 proposes a division and Player 2 accepts or rejects it" or "Player 1 makes a claim from a common pool and Player 2 makes a counterclaim." Past research has shown that the second frame leads to higher expected payoffs for Player 1 than does the first. Across four studies and three established framing effects, it is found that participants consistently fail to select the procedural frames that optimize monetary outcomes. Subsequent analyses suggest that this tendency is due to two factors: (a) nonmonetary motivations, such as fairness and respect, that influence frame-choice preferences and (b) cognitive limitations that inhibit the ability to accurately predict the effect of alternative procedural frames on opponents' responses Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  14. Virtual Frame Buffer Interface Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as generic frame buffer with specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write codes that run unmodified on all supported hardware. Converts generic commands to actual device commands. Consists of definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines called by application programs. Developed in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX 11/780 or DEC VAX 11/750 computer under VMS 4.X.

  15. Efficient bit allocation using new intra and inter-frame modeling for H.264/AVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrarti, Miryem; Saadane, Abdelhakim; Larabi, Mohamed-Chaker; Tamtaoui, Ahmed; Aboutajdine, Driss

    2012-01-01

    Rate control is a critical issue in H.264/AVC video coding standard because it suffers from some shortcomings that make the bit allocation process not optimal. This leads to a video quality that may vary significantly from frame to frame. Our aim is to enhance the rate control efficiency in H.264/AVC baseline profile by handling two of its defects: the initial quantization parameter (QP) estimation for Intra-Frames (I-Frames) and the target number of bits determination for Inter-Frames (P-Frames) encoding. First, we propose a Rate-Quantization (R-Q) model for the I-Frame constructed empirically after extensive experiments. The optimal initial QP calculation is based on both target bit-rate and I-Frame complexity. The I-Frame target bit-rate is derived from the global target bit-rate by using a new non-linear model. Secondly, we propose an enhancement of the bit allocation process by exploiting frame complexity measures. The target number of bits determination for P-Frames is adjusted by combining two temporal measures: the first is a motion ratio based on actual bits used to encode previous frames; the second measure exploits the difference between two consecutive frames and the histogram of this difference. The simulation results, carried out using the JM15.0 reference software and the JVT-O016 rate control algorithm, show that the right choice of initial QP for I-Frame and first P-Frame allows improvement of both the bit-rate and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). Finally, the Inter-Frame bit allocation process further improves the bit-rates while keeping the same PSNR improvement (up to +1.33 dB/+2 dB for QCIF/CIF resolutions). Moreover, this process reduces the buffer level variation leading to a more consistent quality of reconstructed videos.

  16. Relationships among achieved heart rate, β-blocker dose and long-term outcomes in patients with heart failure with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, Jonathan G; Chiu, Michael H; Southern, Danielle A; Knudtson, Merril; Wilton, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    Objective Higher β-blocker dose and lower heart rate are associated with decreased mortality in patients with systolic heart failure (HF) and sinus rhythm. However, in the 30% of patients with HF with atrial fibrillation (AF), whether β-blocker dose or heart rate predict mortality is less clear. We assessed the association between β-blocker dose, heart rate and all-cause mortality in patients with HF and AF. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study in 935 patients (60% men, mean age 74, 44.7% with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)) discharged with concurrent diagnoses of HF and AF. We used Cox models to test independent associations between higher versus lower predischarge heart rate (dichotomised at 70/min) and higher versus lower β-blocker dose (dichotomised at 50% of the evidence-based target), with the primary composite end point of mortality or cardiovascular rehospitalisation over a median of 2.9 years. All analyses were stratified by the presence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVEF≤40%). Results After adjustment for covariates, neither β-blocker dose nor predischarge heart rate was associated with the primary composite end point. However, tachycardia at admission (heart rate >120/min) was associated with a reduced risk of the composite outcome in patients with both reduced LVEF (adjusted HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.88, p<0.01) and preserved LVEF (adjusted HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.98, p=0.04). Conclusions We found no associations between predischarge heart rate or β-blocker dosage and clinical outcomes in patients with recent hospitalisations for HF and AF. PMID:28123760

  17. Backreaction of frame dragging

    SciTech Connect

    Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Rebelo, Carmen; Warnick, Claude M.

    2009-10-15

    The backreaction on black holes due to dragging heavy, rather than test, objects is discussed. As a case study, a five-dimensional regular black Saturn system where the central black hole has vanishing intrinsic angular momentum, J{sup BH}=0, is considered. It is shown that there is a correlation between the sign of two response functions. One is interpreted as a moment of inertia of the black ring in the black Saturn system. The other measures the variation of the black ring horizon angular velocity with the central black hole mass, for fixed ring mass and angular momentum. The two different phases defined by these response functions collapse, for small central black hole mass, to the thin and fat ring phases. In the fat phase, the zero area limit of the black Saturn ring has reduced spin j{sup 2}>1, which is related to the behavior of the ring angular velocity. Using the 'gravitomagnetic clock effect', for which a universality property is exhibited, it is shown that frame dragging measured by an asymptotic observer decreases, in both phases, when the central black hole mass increases, for fixed ring mass and angular momentum. A close parallelism between the results for the fat phase and those obtained recently for the double Kerr solution is drawn, considering also a regular black Saturn system with J{sup BH}{ne}0.

  18. Energy savings and higher volumetric loading rate achieved in the conventional anoxic-oxic process for sewage treatment by enhancing biomass retention in the secondary clarifier.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueyu; Liu, Fengyuan; Zheng, Shaokui

    2017-06-01

    This is the first study to achieve a short HRT (∼2h for the A/O reactor), high MLSS (∼10gL(-1)), and high volumetric loading (∼3.7kg CODm(-3)d(-1) and ∼0.6kg NH4-Nm(-3)d(-1)) in the A/O process for sewage treatment by enhancing biomass retention in the secondary clarifier (∼4h settling time), which we refer to as the high-performance A/O process (HP-A/O) in this paper. Over 258days of continuous operation, with a decrease in HRT from 12 to 2h, remarkable COD (95±3%), NH4(+)-N (98±2%), TN (79±5%), and TP (74±10%) removals were stably achieved, while the air requirement significantly decreased by 22%. The HP-A/O process offers advantages over the conventional A/O process (6-8h for A/O reactor, 3-5gL(-1)MLSS, and ∼1.0kg CODm(-3)d(-1)) for sewage treatment in terms of its lower energy consumption, smaller footprint and reactor requirements.

  19. Measures of Heart Rate Variability and How They Relate to Age, Gender, Emotional Behavior, and Academic Achievement in Elementary School Children in Adventist and Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Marilee Serns

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is one tool shown to be of value in examining heart-brain interactions. HRV is remarkably responsive to emotion, and the importance of emotional state in cognitive function is increasingly being recognized and socio-emotional learning strategies being utilized in the classroom. Consequently, the…

  20. The Impact of Low, Moderate, and High Military Family Mobility School District Transfer Rates on Graduating Senior High School Dependents' Achievement and School Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rippe, Jeffrey K.

    2012-01-01

    The results of this study suggest that there were no significant differences in the academic performance of military dependents' with low (n = 20), moderate (n = 20), and high (n = 20) mobility school district transfer rates compared to non-military control students (n = 20) before completing high school. The findings were not consistent with…

  1. [The framing effect: medical implications].

    PubMed

    Mazzocco, Ketti; Cherubini, Paolo; Rumiati, Rino

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, many studies explored how the way information is presented modifies choices. This sort of effect, referred to as "framing effects", typically consists of the inversion of choices when presenting structurally identical decision problems in different ways. It is a common assumption that physicians are unaffected (or less affected) by the surface description of a decision problem, because they are formally trained in medical decision making. However, several studies showed that framing effects occur even in the medical field. The complexity and variability of these effects are remarkable, making it necessary to distinguish among different framing effects, depending on whether the effect is obtained by modifying adjectives (attribute framing), goals of a behavior (goal framing), or the probability of an outcome (risky choice framing). A further reason for the high variability of the framing effects seems to be the domain of the decision problem, with different effects occurring in prevention decisions, disease-detection decisions, and treatment decisions. The present work reviews the studies on framing effects, in order to summarize them and clarify their possible role in medical decision making.

  2. Putting a Frame on Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Robin R.; Berube, William B.; Perry, Suzanne M.; Stader, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Teachers are learning more about the theories that support conceptual frameworks as a learning tool. A literature review revealed that frame theory is an accepted principle used to describe how the brain organizes experiences and new information. Frame theory supports the understanding that individuals can organize their thoughts to better…

  3. FRAMES and Other IEM Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    A presentation package is developed that describes the FRAMES software technology system. The philosophy of FRAMES is discussed; its components and editors are reviewed; its relationship to integrated environmental modeling technologies; such as D4EM and SuperMUSE, are described;...

  4. Framing the patent troll debate.

    PubMed

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system?

  5. Eckart frames for planar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hua

    2003-04-01

    Explicit analytic expressions of Eckart frames for planar molecules in Radau, Jacobi and bond coordinates have been presented. The orientation of the frame axis system with respect to the molecular plane at equilibrium is specified by an angle θ1e.

  6. Stress Analysis of Circular Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahlbusch, H; Wegner, W

    1941-01-01

    The stresses in circular frames of constant bending stiffnesses, as encountered in thin-wall shells, are investigated from the point of view of finite depth of sectional area of frame. The solution is carried out for four fundamental load conditions. The method is illustrated on a worked out example.

  7. Daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir, with or without ribavirin, achieved high sustained virological response rates in patients with HCV infection and advanced liver disease in a real-world cohort

    PubMed Central

    Welzel, Tania M; Petersen, Jörg; Herzer, Kerstin; Ferenci, Peter; Gschwantler, Michael; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Berg, Thomas; Spengler, Ulrich; Weiland, Ola; van der Valk, Marc; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Zhao, Yue; Jimenez-Exposito, Maria Jesus; Zeuzem, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Objective We assessed the effectiveness and safety of daclatasvir (DCV) plus sofosbuvir (SOF), with or without ribavirin (RBV), in a large real-world cohort, including patients with advanced liver disease. Design Adults with chronic HCV infection at high risk of decompensation or death within 12 months and with no available treatment options were treated in a European compassionate use programme. The recommended regimen was DCV 60 mg plus SOF 400 mg for 24 weeks; RBV addition or shorter duration was allowed at physicians' discretion. The primary endpoint was sustained virological response at post-treatment week 12 (SVR12). Results Of the 485 evaluable patients, 359 received DCV+SOF and 126 DCV+SOF+RBV. Most patients were men (66%), white (93%) and treatment-experienced (70%). The most frequent HCV genotypes were 1b (36%), 1a (33%) and 3 (21%), and 80% of patients had cirrhosis (42% Child–Pugh B/C; 46% Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score >10). SVR12 (modified intention-to-treat) was achieved by 91% of patients (419/460); 1 patient had virological breakthrough and 13 patients relapsed. Virological failure was not associated with treatment group (adjusted risk difference DCV+SOF minus DCV+SOF+RBV: 1.06%; 95% CI −2.22% to 4.35%). High SVR12 was observed regardless of HCV genotype or cirrhosis, liver transplant or HIV/HCV coinfection status. Twenty eight patients discontinued treatment due to adverse events (n=18) or death (n=10) and 18 died during follow-up. Deaths and most safety events were associated with advanced liver disease and not considered treatment related. Conclusions DCV+SOF with or without RBV achieved high SVR12 and was well tolerated in a diverse cohort of patients with severe liver disease. Trial registration number NCT0209966. PMID:27605539

  8. Automatic method to manufacture 2D Multiwire Proportional Counter frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, J. C.; Ramos-Lerate, I.; Fernández, F.; Beltrán, D.; Bordas, J.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, a complete solution to manufacture anodes and cathodes for a Multiwire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is described. The solution consists of a semiautomatic winding machine and a soldering method by radiation. This method allows manufacturing one frame (electrode) in 3 h with a minimum human intervention. The machine can work with several types of frames and a great accuracy in the position and the stress of the wires can be achieved.

  9. Correction of deformities in children using the Taylor spatial frame.

    PubMed

    Eidelman, Mark; Bialik, Viktor; Katzman, Alexander

    2006-11-01

    The Taylor spatial frame is a unique external fixator. Despite its growing popularity, few reports on its use have been published. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Taylor spatial frame in the treatment of various deformities in 31 children and adolescents. All but one patient were anatomically corrected. Complications included superficial pin tract infection (45%), three fractures of the femoral regenerate, transient peroneal palsy, and injury to the genicular artery. Despite many challenging problems, our results compared favorably with the results achieved by others. We believe that the Taylor spatial frame is a very capable and accurate fixator for the precise correction of complex deformities.

  10. FRAMING EFFECTS ON PHYSICIANS' JUDGMENT AND DECISION MAKING.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh C; Krieger, Heather A; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer S

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to assess physicians' susceptibility to framing effects in clinical judgment and decision making. A survey was administered online to 159 general internists in the United States. Participants were randomized into two groups, in which clinical scenarios varied in their framings: frequency vs percentage, with cost information vs without, female patient vs male patient, and mortality vs survival. Results showed that physicians' recommendations for patients in hypothetical scenarios were significantly different when the predicted probability of the outcomes was presented in frequency versus percentage form and when it was presented in mortality rate vs survival rate of the same magnitude. Physicians' recommendations were not different for other framing effects.

  11. Effects of news frames on perceived risk, emotions, and learning.

    PubMed

    Otieno, Christine; Spada, Hans; Renkl, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The media play a key role in forming opinions by influencing people´s understanding and perception of a topic. People gather information about topics of interest from the internet and print media, which employ various news frames to attract attention. One example of a common news frame is the human-interest frame, which emotionalizes and dramatizes information and often accentuates individual affectedness. Our study investigated effects of human-interest frames compared to a neutral-text condition with respect to perceived risk, emotions, and knowledge acquisition, and tested whether these effects can be "generalized" to common variants of the human-interest frame. Ninety-one participants read either one variant of the human-interest frame or a neutrally formulated version of a newspaper article describing the effects of invasive species in general and the Asian ladybug (an invasive species) in particular. The framing was achieved by varying the opening and concluding paragraphs (about invasive species), as well as the headline. The core text (about the Asian ladybug) was the same across all conditions. All outcome variables on framing effects referred to this common core text. We found that all versions of the human-interest frame increased perceived risk and the strength of negative emotions compared to the neutral text. Furthermore, participants in the human-interest frame condition displayed better (quantitative) learning outcomes but also biased knowledge, highlighting a potential dilemma: Human-interest frames may increase learning, but they also lead to a rather unbalanced view of the given topic on a "deeper level".

  12. Effects of News Frames on Perceived Risk, Emotions, and Learning

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, Christine; Spada, Hans; Renkl, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The media play a key role in forming opinions by influencing people´s understanding and perception of a topic. People gather information about topics of interest from the internet and print media, which employ various news frames to attract attention. One example of a common news frame is the human-interest frame, which emotionalizes and dramatizes information and often accentuates individual affectedness. Our study investigated effects of human-interest frames compared to a neutral-text condition with respect to perceived risk, emotions, and knowledge acquisition, and tested whether these effects can be "generalized" to common variants of the human-interest frame. Ninety-one participants read either one variant of the human-interest frame or a neutrally formulated version of a newspaper article describing the effects of invasive species in general and the Asian ladybug (an invasive species) in particular. The framing was achieved by varying the opening and concluding paragraphs (about invasive species), as well as the headline. The core text (about the Asian ladybug) was the same across all conditions. All outcome variables on framing effects referred to this common core text. We found that all versions of the human-interest frame increased perceived risk and the strength of negative emotions compared to the neutral text. Furthermore, participants in the human-interest frame condition displayed better (quantitative) learning outcomes but also biased knowledge, highlighting a potential dilemma: Human-interest frames may increase learning, but they also lead to a rather unbalanced view of the given topic on a “deeper level”. PMID:24223999

  13. Framed School--Frame Factors, Frames and the Dynamics of Social Interaction in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to show how the Goffman frame perspective can be used in an analysis of school and education and how it can be combined, in such analysis, with the frame factor perspective. The latter emphasizes factors that are determined outside the teaching process, while the former stresses how actors organize their experiences and define…

  14. Framing Obesity: How News Frames Shape Attributions and Behavioral Responses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Krakow, Melinda; John, Kevin K; Liu, Miao; Weaver, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Based on a public health model of obesity, this study set out to examine whether a news article reporting the obesity issue in a societal versus individual frame would increase perceptions of societal responsibilities for the obesity problem and motivate responsibility-taking behaviors. Responsibility-taking behaviors were examined at 3 levels: personal, interpersonal, and societal. Data from a Web-based experiment revealed significant framing effects on behaviors via causal and treatment responsibility attributions. The societal frame increased societal causal and treatment attribution, which led to greater likelihoods of interpersonal and social responsibility-taking behaviors as well as personal behaviors. Our findings suggest that news framing can be an effective venue for raising awareness of obesity as a societal issue and mobilizing collective efforts.

  15. Effect of carbon source on acclimatization of nitrifying bacteria to achieve high-rate partial nitrification of wastewater with high ammonium concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Seyyed Alireza; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2014-08-01

    Experiments in two laboratory-scale sequential batch reactors were carried out to investigate the effect of heterotrophic bacteria on nitrifying bacteria using external carbon sources. Partial nitrification of ammonium-rich wastewater during short-term acclimatization enriched the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in both reactors. Heterotrophic bacteria exhibited a minor effect on nitrifying bacteria, and complete removal of ammonium occurred at a rate of 41 mg L-1 h-1 in both reactors. The main strategy of this research was to carry out partial nitrification using high-activity ammonia-oxidizing bacteria with a high concentration of free ammonia (70 mg L-1). The NO2 -/(NO3 - + NO2 -) ratio was greater than 0.9 in both reactors most of the time.

  16. Dragging of inertial frames inside the rotating neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Chandrachur; Modak, Kamakshya Prasad; Bandyopadhyay, Debades E-mail: kamakshya.modak@saha.ac.in

    2014-07-20

    We derive the exact frame-dragging rate inside rotating neutron stars. This formula is applied to show that the frame-dragging rate monotonically decreases from the center to the surface of the neutron star along the pole. In the case of the frame-dragging rate along the equatorial distance, it decreases initially away from the center, becomes negligibly small well before the surface of the neutron star, rises again, and finally approaches to a small value at the surface. The appearance of a local maximum and minimum in this case is the result of the dependence of frame-dragging frequency on the distance and angle. Moving from the equator to the pole, it is observed that this local maximum and minimum in the frame-dragging rate along the equator disappear after crossing a critical angle. It is also noted that the positions of the local maximum and minimum of the frame-dragging rate along the equator depend on the rotation frequency and central energy density of a particular pulsar.

  17. Framing as a Theory of Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    1999-01-01

    Systematizes the fragmented approaches to framing in political communication and integrates them into a comprehensive model. Classifies previous approaches to framing research along two dimensions: media frames versus audience frames; and the way frames are operationalized (independent variable or dependent variable). Identifies four key processes…

  18. Frame Indifferent (Truly Covariant) Formulation of Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christov, Christo

    2010-10-01

    The Electromagnetic field is considered from the point of view of mechanics of continuum. It is shown that Maxwell's equations are mathematically strict corollaries form the equation of motions of an elastic incompressible liquid. If the concept of frame-indifference (material invariance) is applied to the model of elastic liquid, then the partial time derivatives have to be replaced by the convective time derivative in the momentum equations, and by the Oldroyd upper-convected derivative in the constitutive relation. The convective/convected terms involve the velocity at a point of the field, and as a result, when deriving the Maxwell form of the equations, one arrives at equations which contain both the terms of Maxwell's equation and the so-called laws of motional EMF: Faraday's, Oersted--Ampere's, and the Lorentz-force law. Thus a unification of the electromagnetism is achieved. Since the new model is frame indifferent, it is truly covariant in the sense that the governing system is invariant when changing to a coordinate frame that can accelerate or even deform in time.

  19. Vibrations of elastically restrained frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarracín, Carlos Marcelo; Grossi, Ricardo Oscar

    2005-07-01

    This paper deals with the determination of eigenfrequencies of a frame which consists of a beam supported by a column and is submitted to intermediate elastic constraints. The ends of the frame are elastically restrained against rotation and translation. The individual members of the frame are assumed to be governed by the transverse and axial vibration theory of an Euler-Bernoulli beam. The boundary and eigenvalue problem which governs the dynamical behavior of the frame structure is derived using the techniques of calculus of variations. Exact values of eigenfrequencies are determined by the application of the separation of variables method. Also, results are obtained by the use of the finite element method. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are presented for a wide range of values of the restraint parameters. Several particular cases are presented and some of these have been compared with those available in the literature.

  20. Performance-based plastic design method for steel concentric braced frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banihashemi, M. R.; Mirzagoltabar, A. R.; Tavakoli, H. R.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a performance-based plastic design (PBPD) methodology for the design of steel concentric braced frames. The design base shear is obtained based on energy-work balance equation using pre-selected target drift and yield mechanism. To achieve the intended yield mechanism and behavior, plastic design is applied to detail the frame members. For validity, three baseline frames (3, 6, 9-story) are designed according to AISC (Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, 2005) seismic provisions (baseline frames). Then, the frames are redesigned based on the PBPD method. These frames are subjected to extensive nonlinear dynamic time-history analyses. The results show that the PBPD frames meet all the intended performance objectives in terms of yield mechanisms and target drifts, whereas the baseline frames show very poor response due to premature brace fractures leading to unacceptably large drifts and instability.

  1. Smooth affine shear tight frames: digitization and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Xiaosheng

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we mainly discuss one of the recent developed directional multiscale representation systems: smooth affine shear tight frames. A directional wavelet tight frame is generated by isotropic dilations and translations of directional wavelet generators, while an affine shear tight frame is generated by anisotropic dilations, shears, and translations of shearlet generators. These two tight frames are actually connected in the sense that the affine shear tight frame can be obtained from a directional wavelet tight frame through subsampling. Consequently, an affine shear tight frame indeed has an underlying filter bank from the MRA structure of its associated directional wavelet tight frame. We call such filter banks affine shear filter banks, which can be designed completely in the frequency domain. We discuss the digitization of affine shear filter banks and their implementations: the forward and backward digital affine shear transforms. Redundancy rate and computational complexity of digital affine shear transforms are also investigated in this paper. Numerical experiments and comparisons in image/video processing show the advantages of digital affine shear transforms over many other state-of-art directional multiscale representation systems.

  2. Multi-Frame Object Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    was originally developed by Intel, but is now sup- ported by Willow Garage and Itseez [13]. The library includes many applications including facial...apply two- dimensional features to each frame of a multi-frame sample in the same locations and sum the results, as shown in the following equation and...Dataset We created a synthetic dataset that depicts a circular object undergoing a diagonal back-and- forth motion. 200 sequences, each spanning three

  3. Preferred Frame Effects in Relativistic Binary Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, M.; Wex, N.

    2008-03-01

    We summarize our recently presented consistent, theory-independent methodology to measure preferred-frame effects (PFEs) in binary pulsars that exhibit a high rate of periastron advance. In these systems the existence of a preferred frame for gravity leads to an observable characteristic signature in the timing data. A newly developed PFE timing model can be used to either measure or constrain the parameters related to a violation of the local Lorentz invariance of gravity in the strong internal fields of neutron stars. In particular, in the presence of PFEs we expect a set of the new timing parameters to have a unique relationship that can be measured and tested incontrovertibly. A combination of several suitable systems in a PFE antenna array provides full sensitivity to possible violations of local Lorentz invariance in strong gravitational fields in all directions of the sky.

  4. Directed Energy Beam Jitter Mitigation Using the Line-of-Sight Reference Frame

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-10

    frame . Small angular differences in the reference frames would indicate coupled rotational motion in one reference frame while another may indicate a...not available outside of the laboratory environment. Therefore, on -platform sensors, such as accelerometers and angular rate sensors, must be used to...Systems.” Second IEEE Conference on Control Applications, Sep 1993. 25 frame can be determined. Therefore, the expected position of the beam at

  5. Video frame classification for learning media content understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Dorai, Chitra

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents our latest work on analyzing and understanding the content of learning media such as instructional and training videos, based on the identification of video frame types. In particular, we achieve this goal by first partitioning a video sequence into homogeneous segments where each segment contains frames of the same image type such as slide or web-page; then we categorize the frames within each segment into one of the following four classes: slide, web-page, instructor and picture-in-picture, by analyzing various visual and text features. Preliminary experiments carried out on two seminar talks have yielded encouraging results. It is our belief that by classifying video frames into semantic image categories, we are able to better understand and annotate the learning media content and subsequently facilitate its content access, browsing and retrieval.

  6. Balian-Low phenomenon for subspace Gabor frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabardo, Jean-Pierre; Han, Deguang

    2004-08-01

    In this work, the Balian-Low theorem is extended to Gabor (also called Weyl-Heisenberg) frames for subspaces and, more particularly, its relationship with the unique Gabor dual property for subspace Gabor frames is pointed out. To achieve this goal, the subspace Gabor frames which have a unique Gabor dual of type I (resp. type II) are defined and characterized in terms of the Zak transform for the rational parameter case. This characterization is then used to prove the Balian-Low theorem for subspace Gabor frames. Along the same line, the same characterization is used to prove a duality theorem for the unique Gabor dual property which is an analogue of the Ron and Shen duality theorem.

  7. Hamiltonian approach to frame dragging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Kenneth J.

    2008-07-01

    A Hamiltonian approach makes the phenomenon of frame dragging apparent “up front” from the appearance of the drag velocity in the Hamiltonian of a test particle in an arbitrary metric. Hamiltonian (1) uses the inhomogeneous force equation (4), which applies to non-geodesic motion as well as to geodesics. The Hamiltonian is not in manifestly covariant form, but is covariant because it is derived from Hamilton’s manifestly covariant scalar action principle. A distinction is made between manifest frame dragging such as that in the Kerr metric, and hidden frame dragging that can be made manifest by a coordinate transformation such as that applied to the Robertson-Walker metric in Sect. 2. In Sect. 3 a zone of repulsive gravity is found in the extreme Kerr metric. Section 4 treats frame dragging in special relativity as a manifestation of the equivalence principle in accelerated frames. It answers a question posed by Bell about how the Lorentz contraction can break a thread connecting two uniformly accelerated rocket ships. In Sect. 5 the form of the Hamiltonian facilitates the definition of gravitomagnetic and gravitoelectric potentials.

  8. Framing and Frame Shifting in a Higher Education Merger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pick, David

    2003-01-01

    Late in 1996, Kalgoorlie College and the Western Australian School of Mines in Western Australia were merged to form an expanded campus of Curtin University, based in the state capital city of Perth. This paper uses a frame analytical approach to examining how differing and competing interpretations and commitments affected how the merger was…

  9. District Administrator Perspectives on Student Learning in an Era of Standards and Accountability: A Collective Frame Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen E.; Macri, Joelle Rodway

    2009-01-01

    Our analysis explores the agenda for student learning communicated in interviews with school district officials from four Ontario districts. Using research methods drawn from collective action framing theory, we identified six core frames and one broader frame in the discourse on student learning: (a) measureable academic achievement, (b)…

  10. 49 CFR 393.201 - Frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frames. 393.201 Section 393.201 Transportation... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.201 Frames. (a) The frame or chassis of each commercial motor vehicle shall not be cracked, loose, sagging...

  11. 49 CFR 393.201 - Frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frames. 393.201 Section 393.201 Transportation... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.201 Frames. (a) The frame or chassis of each commercial motor vehicle shall not be cracked, loose, sagging...

  12. Examining the Linkage Between FRAMES and GMS

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Gene; Castleton, Karl J.

    2006-02-13

    Because GMS provides so many features, of which some are also addressed by FRAMES, it could represent a platform to link to FRAMES, or FRAMES could represent a platform to link to GMS. The focus of this summary is to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the potential linkage direction and provide recommendations for the linkage between FRAMES and GMS.

  13. Tiny videos: a large data set for nonparametric video retrieval and frame classification.

    PubMed

    Karpenko, Alexandre; Aarabi, Parham

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we present a large database of over 50,000 user-labeled videos collected from YouTube. We develop a compact representation called "tiny videos" that achieves high video compression rates while retaining the overall visual appearance of the video as it varies over time. We show that frame sampling using affinity propagation-an exemplar-based clustering algorithm-achieves the best trade-off between compression and video recall. We use this large collection of user-labeled videos in conjunction with simple data mining techniques to perform related video retrieval, as well as classification of images and video frames. The classification results achieved by tiny videos are compared with the tiny images framework [24] for a variety of recognition tasks. The tiny images data set consists of 80 million images collected from the Internet. These are the largest labeled research data sets of videos and images available to date. We show that tiny videos are better suited for classifying scenery and sports activities, while tiny images perform better at recognizing objects. Furthermore, we demonstrate that combining the tiny images and tiny videos data sets improves classification precision in a wider range of categories.

  14. Single-shot compressed ultrafast photography at one hundred billion frames per second

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Liang, Jinyang; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-12-01

    The capture of transient scenes at high imaging speed has been long sought by photographers, with early examples being the well known recording in 1878 of a horse in motion and the 1887 photograph of a supersonic bullet. However, not until the late twentieth century were breakthroughs achieved in demonstrating ultrahigh-speed imaging (more than 105 frames per second). In particular, the introduction of electronic imaging sensors based on the charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology revolutionized high-speed photography, enabling acquisition rates of up to 107 frames per second. Despite these sensors' widespread impact, further increasing frame rates using CCD or CMOS technology is fundamentally limited by their on-chip storage and electronic readout speed. Here we demonstrate a two-dimensional dynamic imaging technique, compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), which can capture non-repetitive time-evolving events at up to 1011 frames per second. Compared with existing ultrafast imaging techniques, CUP has the prominent advantage of measuring an x-y-t (x, y, spatial coordinates; t, time) scene with a single camera snapshot, thereby allowing observation of transient events with temporal resolution as tens of picoseconds. Furthermore, akin to traditional photography, CUP is receive-only, and so does not need the specialized active illumination required by other single-shot ultrafast imagers. As a result, CUP can image a variety of luminescent--such as fluorescent or bioluminescent--objects. Using CUP, we visualize four fundamental physical phenomena with single laser shots only: laser pulse reflection and refraction, photon racing in two media, and faster-than-light propagation of non-information (that is, motion that appears faster than the speed of light but cannot convey information). Given CUP's capability, we expect it to find widespread applications in both fundamental and applied sciences, including biomedical

  15. Dispositional optimism, self-framing and medical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Huang, Chunlei; Li, Xuesong; Zhao, Xin; Peng, Jiaxi

    2015-03-01

    Self-framing is an important but underinvestigated area in risk communication and behavioural decision-making, especially in medical settings. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship among dispositional optimism, self-frame and decision-making. Participants (N = 500) responded to the Life Orientation Test-Revised and self-framing test of medical decision-making problem. The participants whose scores were higher than the middle value were regarded as highly optimistic individuals. The rest were regarded as low optimistic individuals. The results showed that compared to the high dispositional optimism group, participants from the low dispositional optimism group showed a greater tendency to use negative vocabulary to construct their self-frame, and tended to choose the radiation therapy with high treatment survival rate, but low 5-year survival rate. Based on the current findings, it can be concluded that self-framing effect still exists in medical situation and individual differences in dispositional optimism can influence the processing of information in a framed decision task, as well as risky decision-making.

  16. SEOS frame camera applications study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A research and development satellite is discussed which will provide opportunities for observation of transient phenomena that fall within the fixed viewing circle of the spacecraft. The evaluation of possible applications for frame cameras, for SEOS, are studied. The computed lens characteristics for each camera are listed.

  17. Space-Frame Lunar Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    The space-frame lunar lander was originally intended to (1) land on rough lunar terrain, (2) deform itself to conform to the terrain so as to be able to remain there in a stable position and orientation, and (3) if required, further deform itself to perform various functions. In principle, the space-frame lunar lander could be used in the same way on Earth, as might be required, for example, to place meteorological sensors or a radio-communication relay station on an otherwise inaccessible mountain peak. the space-frame lunar lander would include a truss-like structure consisting mostly of a tetrahedral mesh of nodes connected by variable-length struts, the lengths of which would be altered in coordination to impart the desired overall size and shape to the structure. Thrusters (that is, small rocket engines), propellant tanks, a control system, and instrumentation would be mounted in and on the structure (see figure). Once it had landed and deformed itself to the terrain through coordinated variations in the lengths of the struts, the structure could be further deformed into another space-frame structure

  18. Handedness differences in information framing.

    PubMed

    Jasper, John D; Fournier, Candice; Christman, Stephen D

    2014-02-01

    Previous research has shown that strength of handedness predicts differences in sensory illusions, Stroop interference, episodic memory, and beliefs about body image. Recent evidence also suggests handedness differences in the susceptibility to common decision biases such as anchoring and sunk cost. The present paper extends this line of work to attribute framing effects. Sixty-three undergraduates were asked to advise a friend concerning the use of a safe allergy medication during pregnancy. A third of the participants received negatively-framed information concerning the fetal risk of the drug (1-3% chance of having a malformed child); another third received positively-framed information (97-99% chance of having a normal child); and the final third received no counseling information and served as the control. Results indicated that, as predicted, inconsistent (mixed)-handers were more responsive than consistent (strong)-handers to information changes and readily update their beliefs. Although not significant, the data also suggested that only inconsistent handers were affected by information framing. Theoretical implications as well as ongoing work in holistic versus analytic processing, contextual sensitivity, and brain asymmetry will be discussed.

  19. Gold plating on spectacle frames.

    PubMed

    Kenny, I; Mitchell, J W; Walsh, G

    1997-05-01

    An investigation was carried out into the thickness and standard of application of the plating and lacquer coatings applied to three metal spectacle frames. All conform to BS 6625 (1991) for plating thickness, but there was considerable variation in regularity and porosity.

  20. Seismic Performance Evaluation of Concentrically Braced Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Po-Chien

    Concentrically braced frames (CBFs) are broadly used as lateral-load resisting systems in buildings throughout the US. In high seismic regions, special concentrically braced frames (SCBFs) where ductility under seismic loading is necessary. Their large elastic stiffness and strength efficiently sustains the seismic demands during smaller, more frequent earthquakes. During large, infrequent earthquakes, SCBFs exhibit highly nonlinear behavior due to brace buckling and yielding and the inelastic behavior induced by secondary deformation of the framing system. These response modes reduce the system demands relative to an elastic system without supplemental damping. In design the re reduced demands are estimated using a response modification coefficient, commonly termed the R factor. The R factor values are important to the seismic performance of a building. Procedures put forth in FEMAP695 developed to R factors through a formalized procedure with the objective of consistent level of collapse potential for all building types. The primary objective of the research was to evaluate the seismic performance of SCBFs. To achieve this goal, an improved model including a proposed gusset plate connection model for SCBFs that permits accurate simulation of inelastic deformations of the brace, gusset plate connections, beams and columns and brace fracture was developed and validated using a large number of experiments. Response history analyses were conducted using the validated model. A series of different story-height SCBF buildings were designed and evaluated. The FEMAP695 method and an alternate procedure were applied to SCBFs and NCBFs. NCBFs are designed without ductile detailing. The evaluation using P695 method shows contrary results to the alternate evaluation procedure and the current knowledge in which short-story SCBF structures are more venerable than taller counterparts and NCBFs are more vulnerable than SCBFs.

  1. Two-Layer Tight Frame Sparsifying Model for Compressed Sensing Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xi; Dong, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Compressed sensing magnetic resonance imaging (CSMRI) employs image sparsity to reconstruct MR images from incoherently undersampled K-space data. Existing CSMRI approaches have exploited analysis transform, synthesis dictionary, and their variants to trigger image sparsity. Nevertheless, the accuracy, efficiency, or acceleration rate of existing CSMRI methods can still be improved due to either lack of adaptability, high complexity of the training, or insufficient sparsity promotion. To properly balance the three factors, this paper proposes a two-layer tight frame sparsifying (TRIMS) model for CSMRI by sparsifying the image with a product of a fixed tight frame and an adaptively learned tight frame. The two-layer sparsifying and adaptive learning nature of TRIMS has enabled accurate MR reconstruction from highly undersampled data with efficiency. To solve the reconstruction problem, a three-level Bregman numerical algorithm is developed. The proposed approach has been compared to three state-of-the-art methods over scanned physical phantom and in vivo MR datasets and encouraging performances have been achieved. PMID:27747226

  2. Spin transport in non-inertial frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debashree; Basu, B.

    2014-09-01

    The influence of acceleration and rotation on spintronic applications is theoretically investigated. In our formulation, considering a Dirac particle in a non-inertial frame, different spin related aspects are studied. The spin current appearing due to the inertial spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is enhanced by the interband mixing of the conduction and valence band states. Importantly, one can achieve a large spin current through the k → . p → method in this non-inertial frame. Furthermore, apart from the inertial SOC term due to acceleration, for a particular choice of the rotation frequency, a new kind of SOC term can be obtained from the spin rotation coupling (SRC). This new kind of SOC is of Dresselhaus type and controllable through the rotation frequency. In the field of spintronic applications, utilizing the inertial SOC and SRC induced SOC term, theoretical proposals for the inertial spin filter, inertial spin galvanic effect are demonstrated. Finally, one can tune the spin relaxation time in semiconductors by tuning the non-inertial parameters.

  3. Progresses in tritium accident modelling in the frame of IAEA EMRAS II

    SciTech Connect

    Galeriu, D.; Melintescu, A.

    2015-03-15

    The assessment of the environmental impact of tritium release from nuclear facilities is a topic of interest in many countries. In the IAEA's Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS I) programme, progresses for routine releases were done and in the EMRAS II programme a dedicated working group (WG 7 - Tritium Accidents) focused on the potential accidental releases (liquid and atmospheric pathways). The progresses achieved in WG 7 were included in a complex report - a technical document of IAEA covering both liquid and atmospheric accidental release consequences. A brief description of the progresses achieved in the frame of EMRAS II WG 7 is presented. Important results have been obtained concerning washout rate, the deposition on the soil of HTO and HT, the HTO uptake by leaves and the subsequent conversion to OBT (organically bound tritium) during daylight. Further needs of the processes understanding and the experimental efforts are emphasised.

  4. Nine Frames as Jupiter Turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This sequence of nine true-color, narrow-angle images shows the varying appearance of Jupiter as it rotated through more than a complete 360-degree turn. The smallest features seen in this sequence are no bigger than about 380 kilometers (about 236 miles). Rotating more than twice as fast as Earth, Jupiter completes one rotation in about 10 hours. These images were taken on Oct. 22 and 23, 2000. From image to image (proceeding left to right across each row and then down to the next row), cloud features on Jupiter move from left to right before disappearing over the edge onto the nightside of the planet. The most obvious Jovian feature is the Great Red Spot, which can be seen moving onto the dayside in the third frame (below and to the left of the center of the planet). In the fourth frame, taken about 1 hour and 40 minutes later, the Great Red Spot has been carried by the planet's rotation to the east and does not appear again until the final frame, which was taken one complete rotation after the third frame.

    Unlike weather systems on Earth, which change markedly from day to day, large cloud systems in Jupiter's colder, thicker atmosphere are long-lived, so the two frames taken one rotation apart have a very similar appearance. However, when this sequence of images is eventually animated, strong winds blowing eastward at some latitudes and westward at other latitudes will be readily apparent. The results of such differential motions can be seen even in the still frames shown here. For example, the clouds of the Great Red Spot rotate counterclockwise. The strong westward winds northeast of the Great Red Spot are deflected around the spot and form a wake of turbulent clouds downstream (visible in the fourth image), just as a rock in a rapidly flowing river deflects the fluid around it.

    The equatorial zone on Jupiter is currently bright white, indicating the presence of clouds much like cirrus clouds on Earth, but made of ammonia instead of water ice. This

  5. Frame synchronization of satellite based on AIS signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shexiang; Zhao, Dawei

    2016-10-01

    Frame synchronization play a very important role in coding of AIS. There are much arithmetic like maximum-likelihood, correlation and so on. But most of those cannot achieve good performance with large frequency offset. As satellite-based AIS system exist larger time delay and Doppler frequency offset, this paper propose arithmetic of frame synchronization. It is based on folding auto-correlation, where the top half and second half of training sequence have largest correlation after it is modulated by GMSK. Simulation experiments indicate that this arithmetic has good anti-frequency-offset performance.

  6. Ultra-fast framing camera tube

    DOEpatents

    Kalibjian, Ralph

    1981-01-01

    An electronic framing camera tube features focal plane image dissection and synchronized restoration of the dissected electron line images to form two-dimensional framed images. Ultra-fast framing is performed by first streaking a two-dimensional electron image across a narrow slit, thereby dissecting the two-dimensional electron image into sequential electron line images. The dissected electron line images are then restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operated synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen is equal to the number of dissecting slits in the tube. The distinguishing features of this ultra-fast framing camera tube are the focal plane dissecting slits, and the synchronously-operated restorer deflector which restores the dissected electron line images into a two-dimensional framed image. The framing camera tube can produce image frames having high spatial resolution of optical events in the sub-100 picosecond range.

  7. Reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Laing, Anthony; Rarity, John G.; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Scarani, Valerio

    2010-07-15

    We describe a quantum key distribution protocol based on pairs of entangled qubits that generates a secure key between two partners in an environment of unknown and slowly varying reference frame. A direction of particle delivery is required, but the phases between the computational basis states need not be known or fixed. The protocol can simplify the operation of existing setups and has immediate applications to emerging scenarios such as earth-to-satellite links and the use of integrated photonic waveguides. We compute the asymptotic secret key rate for a two-qubit source, which coincides with the rate of the six-state protocol for white noise. We give the generalization of the protocol to higher-dimensional systems and detail a scheme for physical implementation in the three-dimensional qutrit case.

  8. Lattice QCD in rotating frames.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Arata; Hirono, Yuji

    2013-08-23

    We formulate lattice QCD in rotating frames to study the physics of QCD matter under rotation. We construct the lattice QCD action with the rotational metric and apply it to the Monte Carlo simulation. As the first application, we calculate the angular momenta of gluons and quarks in the rotating QCD vacuum. This new framework is useful to analyze various rotation-related phenomena in QCD.

  9. Monolithic LTCC seal frame and lid

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, Daniel S.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Stockdale, Dave; Duncan, James Brent; Riggs, Bristen

    2016-06-21

    A method for forming a monolithic seal frame and lid for use with a substrate and electronic circuitry comprises the steps of forming a mandrel from a ceramic and glass based material, forming a seal frame and lid block from a ceramic and glass based material, creating a seal frame and lid by forming a compartment and a plurality of sidewalls in the seal frame and lid block, placing the seal frame and lid on the mandrel such that the mandrel fits within the compartment, and cofiring the seal frame and lid block.

  10. Image denoising using a tight frame.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lixin; Papadakis, Manos; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A; Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Kouri, Donald; Hoffman, David

    2006-05-01

    We present a general mathematical theory for lifting frames that allows us to modify existing filters to construct new ones that form Parseval frames. We apply our theory to design nonseparable Parseval frames from separable (tensor) products of a piecewise linear spline tight frame. These new frame systems incorporate the weighted average operator, the Sobel operator, and the Laplacian operator in directions that are integer multiples of 45 degrees. A new image denoising algorithm is then proposed, tailored to the specific properties of these new frame filters. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm on a diverse set of images with very encouraging results.

  11. The Kepler Full Frame Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotson, Jessie L.; Batalha, Natalie; Bryson, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's exoplanet discovery mission Kepler provides uninterrupted 1-min and 30-min optical photometry of a 100 square degree field over a 3.5 yr nominal mission. Downlink bandwidth is filled at these short cadences by selecting only detector pixels specific to 105 preselected stellar targets. The majority of the Kepler field, comprising 4 x 10(exp 6) m_v < 20 sources, is sampled at much lower 1-month cadence in the form of a full-frame image. The Full Frame Images (FFIs) are calibrated by the Science Operations Center at NASA Ames Research Center. The Kepler Team employ these images for astrometric and photometric reference but make the images available to the astrophysics community through the Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST). The full-frame images provide a resource for potential Kepler Guest Observers to select targets and plan observing proposals, while also providing a freely-available long-cadence legacy of photometric variation across a swathe of the Galactic disk.

  12. Mars Science Laboratory Frame Manager for Centralized Frame Tree Database and Target Pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Leger, Chris; Peters, Stephen; Carsten, Joseph; Diaz-Calderon, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The FM (Frame Manager) flight software module is responsible for maintaining the frame tree database containing coordinate transforms between frames. The frame tree is a proper tree structure of directed links, consisting of surface and rover subtrees. Actual frame transforms are updated by their owner. FM updates site and saved frames for the surface tree. As the rover drives to a new area, a new site frame with an incremented site index can be created. Several clients including ARM and RSM (Remote Sensing Mast) update their related rover frames that they own. Through the onboard centralized FM frame tree database, client modules can query transforms between any two frames. Important applications include target image pointing for RSM-mounted cameras and frame-referenced arm moves. The use of frame tree eliminates cumbersome, error-prone calculations of coordinate entries for commands and thus simplifies flight operations significantly.

  13. Enhancement Strategies for Frame-To Uas Stereo Visual Odometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, J.; Rodehorst, V.

    2016-06-01

    Autonomous navigation of indoor unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) requires accurate pose estimations usually obtained from indirect measurements. Navigation based on inertial measurement units (IMU) is known to be affected by high drift rates. The incorporation of cameras provides complementary information due to the different underlying measurement principle. The scale ambiguity problem for monocular cameras is avoided when a light-weight stereo camera setup is used. However, also frame-to-frame stereo visual odometry (VO) approaches are known to accumulate pose estimation errors over time. Several valuable real-time capable techniques for outlier detection and drift reduction in frame-to-frame VO, for example robust relative orientation estimation using random sample consensus (RANSAC) and bundle adjustment, are available. This study addresses the problem of choosing appropriate VO components. We propose a frame-to-frame stereo VO method based on carefully selected components and parameters. This method is evaluated regarding the impact and value of different outlier detection and drift-reduction strategies, for example keyframe selection and sparse bundle adjustment (SBA), using reference benchmark data as well as own real stereo data. The experimental results demonstrate that our VO method is able to estimate quite accurate trajectories. Feature bucketing and keyframe selection are simple but effective strategies which further improve the VO results. Furthermore, introducing the stereo baseline constraint in pose graph optimization (PGO) leads to significant improvements.

  14. Heavy viewing: emergent frames in contemporary news coverage of obesity.

    PubMed

    Shugart, Helene A

    2011-10-01

    In the last 10 years, rising rates of obesity in the United States have drawn significant and increasing public attention from various quarters, which has led to commensurately increased news coverage of the issue. A handful of scholars to date have examined how obesity has been "framed" in the news, given that news framing of issues has proven effects on cultural and political attitudes, practices, and policies as regards the subject of coverage. Consistent with these studies, this qualitative framing analysis assesses how obesity is framed in more recent mainstream news coverage. Framing patterns identified in this analysis represent a notable departure from those identified in earlier studies, specifically as relevant to troubling the individual/environmental attribution binary that historically has characterized public discourse around obesity, in particular, and health more broadly. These findings signal important shifts for contemporary cultural attitudes toward obesity and, accordingly, public health policies designed to redress the issue. Further, the findings suggest a reconsideration and elaboration of established tenets of framing theory.

  15. Millimeter wave imaging at up to 40 frames per second using an optoelectronic photo-injected Fresnel zone plate lens antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Duncan A.; Gallacher, Thomas F.; Søndenâ, Rune; Macfarlane, David G.

    2016-05-01

    Optoelectronic methods are promising for rapid and highly reconfigurable beam steering across the microwave to the terahertz range. In particular, the photo-injected Fresnel zone plate antenna (piFZPA) offers high speed, wide angle, precise beam steering with good beam quality, to enable video rate millimeter wave imagery with no moving parts. We present a piFZPA demonstrator based on a commercial digital light projector (DLP) and high power laser which achieves steering rates up to 17,500 beams per second at 94 and 188 GHz. We also demonstrate radar imaging at 94 GHz at frame rates of 40 Hz (2D PPI) and 7 Hz (3D volumetric).

  16. Undersampled MR Image Reconstruction with Data-Driven Tight Frame

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianbo; Wang, Shanshan; Peng, Xi; Liang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Undersampled magnetic resonance image reconstruction employing sparsity regularization has fascinated many researchers in recent years under the support of compressed sensing theory. Nevertheless, most existing sparsity-regularized reconstruction methods either lack adaptability to capture the structure information or suffer from high computational load. With the aim of further improving image reconstruction accuracy without introducing too much computation, this paper proposes a data-driven tight frame magnetic image reconstruction (DDTF-MRI) method. By taking advantage of the efficiency and effectiveness of data-driven tight frame, DDTF-MRI trains an adaptive tight frame to sparsify the to-be-reconstructed MR image. Furthermore, a two-level Bregman iteration algorithm has been developed to solve the proposed model. The proposed method has been compared to two state-of-the-art methods on four datasets and encouraging performances have been achieved by DDTF-MRI. PMID:26199641

  17. Intraoperative measurement of mounting parameters for the Taylor Spatial Frame.

    PubMed

    Gantsoudes, George D; Fragomen, Austin T; Rozbruch, S Robert

    2010-04-01

    The Taylor Spatial Frame (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN) is a powerful tool in providing gradual correction of deformity. The Taylor Spatial Frame has the potential to allow for very accurate corrections achieved over one or more schedules through the use of the software on www.spatialframe.com. The accuracy of the frame is contingent upon the input of precise parameters. The correction occurs about a virtual hinge in space called the origin. The location of the origin is defined by its spatial relationship to the reference ring. Mounting parameters are the measurements that define the location of the origin (virtual hinge). We present a simple practical method for obtaining mounting parameters during surgery using standard equipment.

  18. Pediatric and adolescent applications of the Taylor Spatial Frame.

    PubMed

    Paloski, Michael; Taylor, Benjamin C; Iobst, Christopher; Pugh, Kevin J

    2012-06-01

    Limb deformity can occur in the pediatric and adolescent populations from multiple etiologies: congenital, traumatic, posttraumatic sequelae, oncologic, and infection. Correcting these deformities is important for many reasons. Ilizarov popularized external fixation to accomplish this task. Taylor expanded on this by designing an external fixator in 1994 with 6 telescoping struts that can be sequentially manipulated to achieve multiaxial correction of deformity without the need for hinges or operative frame alterations. This frame can be used to correct deformities in children and has shown good anatomic correction with minimal morbidity. The nature of the construct and length of treatment affects psychosocial factors that the surgeon and family must be aware of prior to treatment. An understanding of applications of the Taylor Spatial Frame gives orthopedic surgeons an extra tool to correct simple and complex deformities in pediatric and adolescent patients.

  19. Deriving a unique reference frame for GPS measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malla, Rajendra P.; Wu, Sien-Chong

    1988-01-01

    Two strategies for deriving a unique reference frame for GPS (Global Positioning System) measurements are discussed. The first strategy utilizes the precise relative positions which have been predetermined by VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) to fix the frame orientation and the absolute scaling, while the offset from the geocenter is determined from GPS measurements. Three different cases are presented under this strategy. The second strategy establishes a reference frame by holding only the longitudinal of one of the tracking sites fixed. The absolute scaling is determined by the adopted gravitational constant (GM) of the earth; and the latitude is inferred from the time signature of the earth's rotation in the GPS measurements. The coordinate system thus defined will be a geocentric earth fixed coordinate system. A covariance analysis shows that geometric positioning to an accuracy of a few centimeters can be achieved with just one day of precise GPS pseudorange and carrier phase data.

  20. Framing effects on metacognitive monitoring and control

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Bridgid

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments explored the contribution of framing effects on metamemory judgments. In Experiment 1, participants studied word pairs. After each presentation, they made an immediate judgment of learning (JOL), framed in terms of either remembering or forgetting. In the remember frame, participants made judgments about how likely it was that they would remember each pair on the upcoming test. In the forget frame, participants made judgments about how likely it was that they would forget each pair. Confidence differed as a result of the frame. Forget frame JOLs, equated to the remember frame JOL scale by a 1-judgment conversion, were lower and demonstrated a smaller overconfidence bias than did remember frame JOLs. When judgments were made at a delay, framing effects did not occur. In Experiment 2, people chose to restudy more items when choices were made within a forget frame. In Experiment 3, people studied Spanish–English vocabulary pairs ranging in difficulty. The framing effect was replicated with judgments and choices. Moreover, forget frame participants included more easy and medium items to restudy. These results demonstrated the important consequences of framing effects on assessment and control of study. PMID:18604963

  1. Fabric panel clean change-out frame

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ronald M.

    1995-01-31

    A fabric panel clean change-out frame, for use on a containment structure having rigid walls, is formed of a compression frame and a closure panel. The frame is formed of elongated spacers, each carrying a plurality of closely spaced flat springs, and each having a hooked lip extending on the side of the spring facing the spacer. The closure panel is includes a perimeter frame formed of flexible, wedge-shaped frame members that are receivable under the springs to deflect the hooked lips. A groove on the flexible frame members engages the hooked lips and locks the frame members in place under the springs. A flexible fabric panel is connected to the flexible frame members and closes its center.

  2. 100-ps framing-camera tube.

    PubMed

    Kalibjian, R

    1978-07-01

    The optoelectronic framing-camera tube described is capable of recording two-dimensional image frames with high spatial resolution in the <100-ps range. Framing is performed by streaking a two-dimensional electron image across narrow slits. The resulting dissected electron line images from the slits are restored into framed images by a restorer deflector operating synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen equals the number of dissecting slits in the tube. Performance has been demonstrated in a prototype tube by recording 135-ps-duration framed images of 2.5-mm patterns at the cathode. The limitation in the framing speed is in the external drivers for the deflectors and not in the tube design characteristics. Faster frame speeds in the <100-ps range can be obtained by use of faster deflection drivers.

  3. Pushover Analysis of GFRP Pultruded Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalegno, C.; Russo, S.

    2015-11-01

    Results of a pushover analysis of GFRP pultruded frames aimed at the evaluation of their overall ductility are presented. It is assumed that the dissipation capacity of the frame structures is concentrated in joints due to their nonlinear behavior induced by progressive damage, while a brittle-elastic behavior is assumed for frame members. A two-storey one-bay GFRP pultruded frame is considered for a case study in which the column-base and beam-column joints are modeled with nonlinear rotational springs with different moment-rotation laws derived from experimental results available in the literature. For comparison, frames with hinged connections and moment-resisting frames are also analyzed. Finally, the results obtained are compared with those for a similar steel frame. The final results bear witness, in particular, to the absence of a significant ductility of pultruded frames and the relevant influence of the characteristics of bracings on their structural response.

  4. Spitzer Instrument Pointing Frame (IPF) Kalman Filter Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Kang, Bryan H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the Spitzer Instrument Pointing Frame (IPF) Kalman Filter algorithm. The IPF Kalman filter is a high-order square-root iterated linearized Kalman filter, which is parametrized for calibrating the Spitzer Space Telescope focal plane and aligning the science instrument arrays with respect to the telescope boresight. The most stringent calibration requirement specifies knowledge of certain instrument pointing frames to an accuracy of 0.1 arcseconds, per-axis, 1-sigma relative to the Telescope Pointing Frame. In order to achieve this level of accuracy, the filter carries 37 states to estimate desired parameters while also correcting for expected systematic errors due to: (1) optical distortions, (2) scanning mirror scale-factor and misalignment, (3) frame alignment variations due to thermomechanical distortion, and (4) gyro bias and bias-drift in all axes. The resulting estimated pointing frames and calibration parameters are essential for supporting on-board precision pointing capability, in addition to end-to-end 'pixels on the sky' ground pointing reconstruction efforts.

  5. Advanced High-Speed Framing Camera Development for Fast, Visible Imaging Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Amy Lewis, Stuart Baker, Brian Cox, Abel Diaz, David Glass, Matthew Martin

    2011-05-11

    The advances in high-voltage switching developed in this project allow a camera user to rapidly vary the number of output frames from 1 to 25. A high-voltage, variable-amplitude pulse train shifts the deflection location to the new frame location during the interlude between frames, making multiple frame counts and locations possible. The final deflection circuit deflects to five different frame positions per axis, including the center position, making for a total of 25 frames. To create the preset voltages, electronically adjustable {+-}500 V power supplies were chosen. Digital-to-analog converters provide digital control of the supplies. The power supplies are clamped to {+-}400 V so as not to exceed the voltage ratings of the transistors. A field-programmable gated array (FPGA) receives the trigger signal and calculates the combination of plate voltages for each frame. The interframe time and number of frames are specified by the user, but are limited by the camera electronics. The variable-frame circuit shifts the plate voltages of the first frame to those of the second frame during the user-specified interframe time. Designed around an electrostatic image tube, a framing camera images the light present during each frame (at the photocathode) onto the tube’s phosphor. The phosphor persistence allows the camera to display multiple frames on the phosphor at one time. During this persistence, a CCD camera is triggered and the analog image is collected digitally. The tube functions by converting photons to electrons at the negatively charged photocathode. The electrons move quickly toward the more positive charge of the phosphor. Two sets of deflection plates skew the electron’s path in horizontal and vertical (x axis and y axis, respectively) directions. Hence, each frame’s electrons bombard the phosphor surface at a controlled location defined by the voltages on the deflection plates. To prevent the phosphor from being exposed between frames, the image tube

  6. Developing a Portable NRL Fast Frame Rate Seeing Monitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    8.0 9.0 22:33 23:02 23:31 0:00 0:28 0:57 1:26 1:55 2:24 2:52 Local Time (HH:MM) r0 (c m ) Aldebaran (0.84) Betelgeuse (0.43) Procyon (0.37) Figure...r0 (c m ) Betelgeuse Procyon Aldebaran Proc. of SPIE Vol. 5550 77 Figure 7.2 Full Aperture Method March 26, 2004 Full Aperture 0.0 3.0

  7. A Frame Analysis of Barth's "Menelaiad".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, C. Janene

    Frame analysis is an approach to social situations that can be applied profitably to literature and performance. A frame is the reality status of a situation; keys are the characteristics that define a frame. Most literary works are keying on real life frameworks. Literary works that are based on other literary works, such as parodies, are…

  8. Mechanical Energy Change in Inertial Reference Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanbari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical energy change of a system in an inertial frame of reference equals work done by the total nonconservative force in the same frame. This relation is covariant under the Galilean transformations from inertial frame S to S', where S' moves with constant velocity relative to S. In the presence of nonconservative forces, such as normal…

  9. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5842 Spectacle frame. (a) Identification. A spectacle frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by...

  10. Popcorn Story Frames from a Multicultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLella, Carol Ann

    Popcorn story frames from a multicultural perspective are holistic outlines that in the reading/writing process facilitate comprehension for all cultures learning to read and write stories. Popcorn story frames are structured and modeled in a horizontal fashion just like popcorn pops in a horizontal fashion. The frames are designed for learners…

  11. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  12. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  13. Simultaneous message framing and error detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, A. H., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Circuitry simultaneously inserts message framing information and detects noise errors in binary code data transmissions. Separate message groups are framed without requiring both framing bits and error-checking bits, and predetermined message sequence are separated from other message sequences without being hampered by intervening noise.

  14. Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…

  15. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  16. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  17. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  18. Frames of Reference in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The classic film "Frames of Reference" effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating--all with…

  19. Non-Syntactic Antecedents and Frame Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gensler, Orin

    A polemic is made for frame semantics and the linguistic phenomenon of anaphoric reference without noun phrase (NP) antecedent is examined within this frame. Non-syntactic anaphora is that which does not point out into the real world but rather points back into the discourse in a frame which has been built up between the speaker and hearer in a…

  20. Influence of framing on medical decision making

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jun; Huang, Yonghua; Wei, Yazhou; Zhang, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts, especially in medical decision making. Unfortunately, research is still inconsistent as to how so many variables impact framing effects in medical decision making. Additionally, much attention should be paid to the framing effect not only in hypothetical scenarios but also in clinical experience. PMID:27034630

  1. Algebraic and geometric spread in finite frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Emily J.

    2015-08-01

    When searching for finite unit norm tight frames (FUNTFs) of M vectors in FN which yield robust representations, one is concerned with finding frames consisting of frame vectors which are in some sense as spread apart as possible. Algebraic spread and geometric spread are the two most commonly used measures of spread. A frame with optimal algebraic spread is called full spark and is such that any subcollection of N frame vectors is a basis for FN. A Grassmannian frame is a FUNTF which satisfies the Grassmannian packing problem; that is, the frame vectors are optimally geometrically spread given fixed M and N. A particular example of a Grassmannian frame is an equiangular frame, which is such that the absolute value of all inner products of distinct vectors is equal. The relationship between these two types of optimal spread is complicated. The folk knowledge for many years was that equiangular frames were full spark; however, this is now known not to hold for an infinite class of equiangular frames. The exact relationship between these types of spread will be further explored in this talk, as well as Plücker coordinates and coherence, which are measures of how much a frame misses being optimally algebraically or geometrically spread.

  2. Ambient-Light-Canceling Camera Using Subtraction of Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morookian, John Michael

    2004-01-01

    during one frame period, and would be illuminated with only ambient (background) light during the next frame period. The camera output would be digitized and sent to a computer, wherein the pixel values of the background-only frame would be subtracted from the pixel values of the signal-plus-background frame to obtain signal-only pixel values (see figure). To prevent artifacts of motion from entering the images, it would be necessary to acquire image data at a rate greater than the standard video rate of 30 frames per second. For this purpose, the ALCC would exploit a novel control technique developed at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory for advanced charge-coupled-device (CCD) cameras. This technique provides for readout from a subwindow [region of interest (ROI)] within the image frame. Because the desired reflections from the eye would typically occupy a small fraction of the area within the image frame, the ROI capability would make it possible to acquire and subtract pixel values at rates of several hundred frames per second considerably greater than the standard video rate and sufficient to both (1) suppress motion artifacts and (2) track the motion of the eye between consecutive subtractive frame pairs.

  3. One frame subnanosecond spectroscopy camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silkis, E. G.; Titov, V. D.; Fel'Dman, G. G.; Zhilkina, V. M.; Petrokovich, O. A.; Syrtsev, V. N.

    1991-04-01

    The recording of ultraweak spectra is presently undertaken by a high-speed multichannel-spectrum camera (HSMSC) with a subnanosec-range time resolution in its photon-counting mode. This HSMSC's photodetector is a one-frame streak tube equipped with a grid shutter which is connected via fiber-optic contact to a linear CCD. The grain furnished by the streak tube on the basis of a microchannel plate is sufficiently high for recording single photoelectron signals. The HSMSC is compact and easy to handle.

  4. Distraction osteogenesis for tibial nonunion with bone loss using combined Ilizarov and Taylor spatial frames versus a conventional circular frame.

    PubMed

    Abuomira, Ibrahim Elsayed Abdellatif; Sala, Francesco; Elbatrawy, Yasser; Lovisetti, Giovanni; Alati, Salvatore; Capitani, Dario

    2016-11-01

    This retrospective review assesses 55 tibial nonunions with bone loss to compare union achieved with combined Ilizarov and Taylor spatial frames (I-TSF) versus a conventional circular frame with the standard Ilizarov procedure. Seventeen (31 %) of the 55 nonunions were infected. Thirty patients treated with I-TSF were compared with 25 patients treated with a conventional circular frame. In the I-TSF group, an average of 7.6 cm of bone was resected and the lengthening index (treatment time in months divided by lengthening amount in centimeters) was 1.97. In the conventional circular frame group, a mean of 6.5 cm was resected and the lengthening index was 2.1. Consolidation at the docking site and at the regenerate bone occurred in 49 (89 %) of 55 cases after the first procedure. No statistically significant difference was shown between the two groups. Superiority of one modality of treatment over the other cannot be concluded from our data. Application of combined Ilizarov and Taylor spatial frames for bone transport is useful for treatment of tibial nonunion with bone loss. Level of evidence Case series, Level III.

  5. Wafer-level hermetic thermo-compression bonding using electroplated gold sealing frame planarized by fly-cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farisi, Muhammad Salman Al; Hirano, Hideki; Frömel, Jörg; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel wafer-level hermetic packaging technology for heterogeneous device integration is presented. Hermetic sealing is achieved by low-temperature thermo-compression bonding using electroplated Au micro-sealing frame planarized by single-point diamond fly-cutting. The proposed technology has significant advantages compared to other established processes in terms of integration of micro-structured wafer, vacuum encapsulation and electrical interconnection, which can be achieved at the same time. Furthermore, the technology is also achievable for a bonding frame width as narrow as 30 μm, giving it an advantage from a geometry perspective, and bonding temperatures as low as 300 °C, making it advantageous for temperature-sensitive devices. Outgassing in vacuum sealed cavities is studied and a cavity pressure below 500 Pa is achieved by introducing annealing steps prior to bonding. The pressure of the sealed cavity is measured by zero-balance method utilizing diaphragm-structured bonding test devices. The leak rate into the packages is determined by long-term sealed cavity pressure measurement for 1500 h to be less than 2.0× {{10}-14} Pa m3s-1. In addition, the bonding shear strength is also evaluated to be higher than 100 MPa.

  6. Framing Effects: Dynamics and Task Domains

    PubMed

    Wang

    1996-11-01

    The author examines the mechanisms and dynamics of framing effects in risky choices across three distinct task domains (i.e., life-death, public property, and personal money). The choice outcomes of the problems presented in each of the three task domains had a binary structure of a sure thing vs a gamble of equal expected value; the outcomes differed in their framing conditions and the expected values, raging from 6000, 600, 60, to 6, numerically. It was hypothesized that subjects would become more risk seeking, if the sure outcome was below their aspiration level (the minimum requirement). As predicted, more subjects preferred the gamble when facing the life-death choice problems than facing the counterpart problems presented in the other two task domains. Subjects' risk preference varied categorically along the group size dimension in the life-death domain but changed more linearly over the expected value dimension in the monetary domain. Framing effects were observed in 7 of 13 pairs of problems, showing a positive frame-risk aversion and negative frame-risk seeking relationship. In addition, two types of framing effects were theoretically defined and empirically identified. A bidirectional framing effect involves a reversal in risk preference, and occurs when a decision maker's risk preference is ambiguous or weak. Four bidirectional effects were observed; in each case a majority of subjects preferred the sure outcome under a positive frame but the gamble under a negative frame. In contrast, a unidirectional framing effect refers to a preference shift due to the framing of choice outcomes: A majority of subjects preferred one choice outcome (either the sure thing or the gamble) under both framing conditions, with positive frame augmented the preference for the sure thing and negative frame augmented the preference for the gamble. These findings revealed some dynamic regularities of framing effects and posed implications for developing predictive and testable

  7. TH-A-9A-05: Initial Setup Accuracy Comparison Between Frame-Based and Frameless Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, T; Sheu, R; Todorov, B; Green, S; Blacksburg, S; Lo, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate initial setup accuracy for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) between Brainlab frame-based and frameless immobilization system, also to discern the magnitude frameless system has on setup parameters. Methods: The correction shifts from the original setup were compared for total 157 SRS cranial treatments (69 frame-based vs. 88 frameless). All treatments were performed on a Novalis linac with ExacTrac positioning system. Localization box with isocenter overlay was used for initial setup and correction shift was determined by ExacTrac 6D auto-fusion to achieve submillimeter accuracy for treatment. For frameless treatments, mean time interval between simulation and treatment was 5.7 days (range 0–13). Pearson Chi-Square was used for univariate analysis. Results: The correctional radial shifts (mean±STD, median) for the frame and frameless system measured by ExacTrac were 1.2±1.2mm, 1.1mm and 3.1±3.3mm, 2.0mm, respectively. Treatments with frameless system had a radial shift >2mm more often than those with frames (51.1% vs. 2.9%; p<.0001). To achieve submillimeter accuracy, 85.5% frame-based treatments did not require shift and only 23.9% frameless treatment could succeed with initial setup. There was no statistical significant system offset observed in any direction for either system. For frameless treatments, those treated ≥ 3 days from simulation had statistically higher rates of radial shifts between 1–2mm and >2mm compared to patients treated in a shorter amount of time from simulation (34.3% and 56.7% vs. 28.6% and 33.3%, respectively; p=0.006). Conclusion: Although image-guided positioning system can also achieve submillimeter accuracy for frameless system, users should be cautious regarding the inherent uncertainty of its capability of immobilization. A proper quality assurance procedure for frameless mask manufacturing and a protocol for intra-fraction imaging verification will be crucial for frameless system. Time interval between

  8. Image restoration by minimizing zero norm of wavelet frame coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Chenglong; Dong, Bin; Hou, Likun; Shen, Zuowei; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Xue

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we propose two algorithms, namely the extrapolated proximal iterative hard thresholding (EPIHT) algorithm and the EPIHT algorithm with line-search, for solving the {{\\ell }}0-norm regularized wavelet frame balanced approach for image restoration. Under the theoretical framework of Kurdyka-Łojasiewicz property, we show that the sequences generated by the two algorithms converge to a local minimizer with linear convergence rate. Moreover, extensive numerical experiments on sparse signal reconstruction and wavelet frame based image restoration problems including CT reconstruction, image deblur, demonstrate the improvement of {{\\ell }}0-norm based regularization models over some prevailing ones, as well as the computational efficiency of the proposed algorithms.

  9. Effects of floor location on response of composite fuselage frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.; Jones, Lisa E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental and analytical results are presented which show the effect of floor placement on the structural response and strength of circular fuselage frames constructed of graphite-epoxy composite material. The research was conducted to study the behavior of conventionally designed advanced composite aircraft components. To achieve desired new designs which incorporate improved energy absorption capabilities requires an understanding of how these conventional designs behave under crash type loadings. Data are presented on the static behavior of the composite structure through photographs of the frame specimen, experimental strain distributions, and through analytical data from composite structural models. An understanding of this behavior can aid dynamist in predicting the crash behavior of these structures and may assist the designer achieve improved designs for energy absorption and crash behavior of future structures.

  10. Effects of floor location on response of composite fuselage frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.; Jones, Lisa E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental and analytical results are presented which show the effect of floor placement on the structural response and strength of circular fuselage frames constructed of graphite-epoxy composite material. The research was conducted to study the behavior of conventionally designed advanced composite aircraft components. To achieve desired new designs which incorporate improved energy absorption capabilities requires an understanding of how these conventional designs behave under crash type loadings. Data are presented on the static behavior of the composite structure through photographs of the frame specimen, experimental strain distributions, and through analytical data from composite structural models. An understanding of this behavior can aid the dynamist in predicting the crash behavior of these structures and may assist the designer in achieving improved designs for energy absorption and crash behavior of future structures.

  11. Message framing in social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Kao, Danny Tengti; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Sui-Min; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Online social networking sites represent significant new opportunities for Internet advertisers. However, results based on the real world cannot be generalized to all virtual worlds. In this research, the moderating effects of need for cognition (NFC) and knowledge were applied to examine the impact of message framing on attitudes toward social networking sites. A total of 216 undergraduates participated in the study. Results reveal that for social networking sites, while high-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages, low-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. In addition, low-knowledge individuals demonstrate more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages; however, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-knowledge individuals. Furthermore, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-NFC individuals with high knowledge. In contrast, low-NFC individuals with low knowledge hold more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages.

  12. "Think" versus "feel" framing effects in persuasion.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Nicole D; Tormala, Zakary L

    2010-04-01

    Three studies explored think ("I think . . . ") versus feel ("I feel . . . ") message framing effects on persuasion.The authors propose a matching hypothesis, suggesting that think framing will be more persuasive when the target attitude or message recipient is cognitively oriented, whereas feel framing will be more persuasive when the target attitude or message recipient is affectively oriented. Study 1 presented cognitively and affectively oriented individuals with a think- or feel-framed message. Study 2 primed cognitive or affective orientation and then presented a think- or feel-framed message. Study 3 presented male and female participants with an advertisement containing think- or feel-framed arguments. Results indicated that think (feel) framing was more persuasive when the target attitude or recipient was cognitively (affectively) oriented. Moreover, Study 2 demonstrated that this matching effect was mediated by processing fluency. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  13. Nonlinear pushover analysis of infilled concrete frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao Hsun; Tuan, Yungting Alex; Hsu, Ruo Yun

    2006-12-01

    Six reinforced concrete frames with or without masonry infills were constructed and tested under horizontal cyclic loads. All six frames had identical details in which the transverse reinforcement in columns was provided by rectangular hoops that did not meet current ACI specifications for ductile frames. For comparison purposes, the columns in three of these frames were jacketed by carbon-fiber-reinforced-polymer (CFRP) sheets to avoid possible shear failure. A nonlinear pushover analysis, in which the force-deformation relationships of individual elements were developed based on ACI 318, FEMA 356, and Chen’s model, was carried out for these frames and compared to test results. Both the failure mechanisms and impact of infills on the behaviors of these frames were examined in the study. Conclusions from the present analysis provide structural engineers with valuable information for evaluation and design of infilled concrete frame building structures.

  14. Adding HDLC Framing to CCSDS Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Parise, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Current Space IP missions use High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) framing to provide standard serial link interfaces over a space link. HDLC is the standard framing technique used by all routers over clock and data serial lines and is also the basic framing used in all Frame Relay services which are widely deployed in national and international communication networks. In late 2003 a presentation was made to CCSDS committees to initiate discussion on including HDLC in the CCSDS recommendations for space systems. This presentation will summarize the differences between variable length HDLC frames and fixed length CCSDS frames. It will also discuss where and how HDLC framing would fit into the overall CCSDS structures.

  15. Numeracy and framing bias in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyunmi; Wong, John B; Mendiratta, Anil; Heiman, Gary A; Hamberger, Marla J

    2011-01-01

    Patients with epilepsy are frequently confronted with complex treatment decisions. Communicating treatment risks is often difficult because patients may have difficulty with basic statistical concepts (i.e., low numeracy) or might misconceive the statistical information based on the way information is presented, a phenomenon known as "framing bias." We assessed numeracy and framing bias in 95 adults with chronic epilepsy and explored cognitive correlates of framing bias. Compared with normal controls, patients with epilepsy had significantly poorer performance on the Numeracy scale (P=0.02), despite a higher level of education than normal controls (P<0.001). Compared with patients with higher numeracy, patients with lower numeracy were significantly more likely to exhibit framing bias. Abstract problem solving performance correlated with the degree of framing bias (r=0.631, P<0.0001), suggesting a relationship between aspects of executive functioning and framing bias. Poor numeracy and susceptibility framing bias place patients with epilepsy at risk for uninformed decisions.

  16. An Automated Reference Frame Selection (ARFS) Algorithm for Cone Imaging with Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Alexander E.; Cooper, Robert F.; Langlo, Christopher S.; Baghaie, Ahmadreza; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop an automated reference frame selection (ARFS) algorithm to replace the subjective approach of manually selecting reference frames for processing adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) videos of cone photoreceptors. Methods Relative distortion was measured within individual frames before conducting image-based motion tracking and sorting of frames into distinct spatial clusters. AOSLO images from nine healthy subjects were processed using ARFS and human-derived reference frames, then aligned to undistorted AO-flood images by nonlinear registration and the registration transformations were compared. The frequency at which humans selected reference frames that were rejected by ARFS was calculated in 35 datasets from healthy subjects, and subjects with achromatopsia, albinism, or retinitis pigmentosa. The level of distortion in this set of human-derived reference frames was assessed. Results The average transformation vector magnitude required for registration of AOSLO images to AO-flood images was significantly reduced from 3.33 ± 1.61 pixels when using manual reference frame selection to 2.75 ± 1.60 pixels (mean ± SD) when using ARFS (P = 0.0016). Between 5.16% and 39.22% of human-derived frames were rejected by ARFS. Only 2.71% to 7.73% of human-derived frames were ranked in the top 5% of least distorted frames. Conclusion ARFS outperforms expert observers in selecting minimally distorted reference frames in AOSLO image sequences. The low success rate in human frame choice illustrates the difficulty in subjectively assessing image distortion. Translational Relevance Manual reference frame selection represented a significant barrier to a fully automated image-processing pipeline (including montaging, cone identification, and metric extraction). The approach presented here will aid in the clinical translation of AOSLO imaging. PMID:28392976

  17. Enhanced adaptive loop filter for motion compensated frame.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Young-Joe; Seo, Chan-Won; Han, Jong-Ki; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2011-08-01

    We propose an adaptive loop filter to remove the redundancy between current and motion compensated frames so that the residual signal is minimized, thus coding efficiency increases. The loop filter coefficients and offset are optimized for each frame or a set of blocks to minimize the total energy of the residual signal resulting from motion estimation and compensation. The optimized loop filter with offset is applied for the set of blocks where the filtering process gives coding gain based upon rate-distortion cost. The proposed loop filter is used for the motion compensated frame whereas the conventional adaptive interpolation filter (AIF) is applied to the reference frames to interpolate the subpixel values. Another conventional scheme adaptive loop filter (ALF), is used after deblocking filtering to enhance quality of reconstructed frames, not to minimize energy of residual signal. The proposed loop filter can be used in combination with the AIF and ALF. Experimental results show that proposed algorithm provides the averaged bit reduction of 8% compared to conventional H.264/AVC scheme. When the proposed scheme is combined with AIF and ALF, the coding gain increases even further.

  18. Relation of the frame in a portable rod-and-frame apparatus to judgements of perceived verticality.

    PubMed

    Blowers, G H

    1977-02-01

    To assess the effect of the frame on the mean error in the portable rod-and-frame 18 subjects were tested once with frame present and once without it. 11 frame-dependent subjects produced smaller mean error without the frame; 7 frame-independent subjects were not significantly affected by removal of the frame. Nyborg's statistical method of differentiating frame-dependent and frame-independent subjects appears validated.

  19. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  20. Moving frames and prolongation algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, F. B.

    1982-01-01

    Differential ideals generated by sets of 2-forms which can be written with constant coefficients in a canonical basis of 1-forms are considered. By setting up a Cartan-Ehresmann connection, in a fiber bundle over a base space in which the 2-forms live, one finds an incomplete Lie algebra of vector fields in the fields in the fibers. Conversely, given this algebra (a prolongation algebra), one can derive the differential ideal. The two constructs are thus dual, and analysis of either derives properties of both. Such systems arise in the classical differential geometry of moving frames. Examples of this are discussed, together with examples arising more recently: the Korteweg-de Vries and Harrison-Ernst systems.

  1. Parallel integrated frame synchronizer chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghuman, Parminder Singh (Inventor); Solomon, Jeffrey Michael (Inventor); Bennett, Toby Dennis (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A parallel integrated frame synchronizer which implements a sequential pipeline process wherein serial data in the form of telemetry data or weather satellite data enters the synchronizer by means of a front-end subsystem and passes to a parallel correlator subsystem or a weather satellite data processing subsystem. When in a CCSDS mode, data from the parallel correlator subsystem passes through a window subsystem, then to a data alignment subsystem and then to a bit transition density (BTD)/cyclical redundancy check (CRC) decoding subsystem. Data from the BTD/CRC decoding subsystem or data from the weather satellite data processing subsystem is then fed to an output subsystem where it is output from a data output port.

  2. Framing European Politics: A Content Analysis of Press and Television News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valkenburg, Patti M.; Semetko, Holli A.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the prevalence of five news frames in the four national newspapers and three national television outlets with the highest audience ratings in Holland. Finds the most common frames were, in order of predominance, attribution of responsibility, conflict, economic consequences, human interest, and morality. (NH)

  3. Dynamic frame selection for in vivo ultrasound temperature estimation during radiofrequency ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Matthew J.; Varghese, Tomy

    2010-08-01

    Minimally invasive therapies such as radiofrequency ablation have been developed to treat cancers of the liver, prostate and kidney without invasive surgery. Prior work has demonstrated that ultrasound echo shifts due to temperature changes can be utilized to track the temperature distribution in real time. In this paper, a motion compensation algorithm is evaluated to reduce the impact of cardiac and respiratory motion on ultrasound-based temperature tracking methods. The algorithm dynamically selects the next suitable frame given a start frame (selected during the exhale or expiration phase where extraneous motion is reduced), enabling optimization of the computational time in addition to reducing displacement noise artifacts incurred with the estimation of smaller frame-to-frame displacements at the full frame rate. A region of interest that does not undergo ablation is selected in the first frame and the algorithm searches through subsequent frames to find a similarly located region of interest in subsequent frames, with a high value of the mean normalized cross-correlation coefficient value. In conjunction with dynamic frame selection, two different two-dimensional displacement estimation algorithms namely a block matching and multilevel cross-correlation are compared. The multi-level cross-correlation method incorporates tracking of the lateral tissue expansion in addition to the axial deformation to improve the estimation performance. Our results demonstrate the ability of the proposed motion compensation using dynamic frame selection in conjunction with the two-dimensional multilevel cross-correlation to track the temperature distribution.

  4. The Mechanics of Human Achievement.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Ungar, Lyle H

    2015-07-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers.

  5. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  6. Framing effects: behavioral dynamics and neural basis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongming; Wang, X T; Zhu, Liqi

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the neural basis of framing effects using life-death decision problems framed either positively in terms of lives saved or negatively in terms of lives lost in large group and small group contexts. Using functional MRI we found differential brain activations to the verbal and social cues embedded in the choice problems. In large group contexts, framing effects were significant where participants were more risk seeking under the negative (loss) framing than under the positive (gain) framing. This behavioral difference in risk preference was mainly regulated by the activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, including the homologue of the Broca's area. In contrast, framing effects diminished in small group contexts while the insula and parietal lobe in the right hemisphere were distinctively activated, suggesting an important role of emotion in switching choice preference from an indecisive mode to a more consistent risk-taking inclination, governed by a kith-and-kin decision rationality.

  7. Do framing effects reveal irrational choice?

    PubMed

    Mandel, David R

    2014-06-01

    Framing effects have long been viewed as compelling evidence of irrationality in human decision making, yet that view rests on the questionable assumption that numeric quantifiers used to convey the expected values of choice options are uniformly interpreted as exact values. Two experiments show that when the exactness of such quantifiers is made explicit by the experimenter, framing effects vanish. However, when the same quantifiers are given a lower bound (at least) meaning, the typical framing effect is found. A 3rd experiment confirmed that most people spontaneously interpret the quantifiers in standard framing tests as lower bounded and that their interpretations strongly moderate the framing effect. Notably, in each experiment, a significant majority of participants made rational choices, either choosing the option that maximized expected value (i.e., lives saved) or choosing consistently across frames when the options were of equal expected value.

  8. Multiple-Frame Detection of Subpixel Targets in Thermal Image Sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.; Kremens, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The new technology in this approach combines the subpixel detection information from multiple frames of a sequence to achieve a more sensitive detection result, using only the information found in the images themselves. It is taken as a constraint that the method is automated, robust, and computationally feasible for field networks with constrained computation and data rates. This precludes simply downloading a video stream for pixel-wise co-registration on the ground. It is also important that this method not require precise knowledge of sensor position or direction, because such information is often not available. It is also assumed that the scene in question is approximately planar, which is appropriate for a high-altitude airborne or orbital view.

  9. Real-time volumetric lipid imaging in vivo by intravascular photoacoustics at 20 frames per second

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Springeling, Geert; Lovrak, Matija; Mastik, Frits; Iskander-Rizk, Sophinese; Wang, Tianshi; van Beusekom, Heleen M. M.; van der Steen, A. F. W.; Van Soest, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    Lipid deposition can be assessed with combined intravascular photoacoustic/ultrasound (IVPA/US) imaging. To date, the clinical translation of IVPA/US imaging has been stalled by a low imaging speed and catheter complexity. In this paper, we demonstrate imaging of lipid targets in swine coronary arteries in vivo, at a clinically useful frame rate of 20 s−1. We confirmed image contrast for atherosclerotic plaque in human samples ex vivo. The system is on a mobile platform and provides real-time data visualization during acquisition. We achieved an IVPA signal-to-noise ratio of 20 dB. These data show that clinical translation of IVPA is possible in principle. PMID:28270995

  10. Gabor frame sets of invariance: a Hamiltonian approach to Gabor frame deformations.

    PubMed

    Faulhuber, Markus

    In this work we study families of pairs of window functions and lattices which lead to Gabor frames which all possess the same frame bounds. To be more precise, for every generalized Gaussian g, we will construct an uncountable family of lattices [Formula: see text] such that each pairing of g with some [Formula: see text] yields a Gabor frame, and all pairings yield the same frame bounds. On the other hand, for each lattice we will find a countable family of generalized Gaussians [Formula: see text] such that each pairing leaves the frame bounds invariant. Therefore, we are tempted to speak about Gabor Frame Sets of Invariance.

  11. Pyramidal space frame and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Ryan Michael; White, David; Farr, Jr, Adrian Lawrence

    2016-07-19

    A space frame having a high torsional strength comprising a first square bipyramid and two planar structures extending outward from an apex of the first square bipyramid to form a "V" shape is disclosed. Some embodiments comprise a plurality of edge-sharing square bipyramids configured linearly, where the two planar structures contact apexes of all the square bipyramids. A plurality of bridging struts, apex struts, corner struts and optional internal bracing struts increase the strength and rigidity of the space frame. In an embodiment, the space frame supports a solar reflector, such as a parabolic solar reflector. Methods of fabricating and using the space frames are also disclosed.

  12. Pilotless Frame Synchronization Using LDPC Code Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Christopher; Vissasenor, John

    2009-01-01

    A method of pilotless frame synchronization has been devised for low- density parity-check (LDPC) codes. In pilotless frame synchronization , there are no pilot symbols; instead, the offset is estimated by ex ploiting selected aspects of the structure of the code. The advantag e of pilotless frame synchronization is that the bandwidth of the sig nal is reduced by an amount associated with elimination of the pilot symbols. The disadvantage is an increase in the amount of receiver data processing needed for frame synchronization.

  13. Asteroid Ida - Five Frame Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This view of the asteroid 243 Ida is a mosaic of five image frames acquired by the Galileo spacecraft's solid-state imaging system at ranges of 3,057 to 3,821 kilometers (1,900 to 2,375 miles) on August 28, 1993, about 3-1/2 minutes before the spacecraft made its closest approach to the asteroid. Galileo flew about 2,400 kilometers (1,500 miles) from Ida at a relative velocity of 12.4 km/sec (28,000 mph). Asteroid and spacecraft were 441 million kilometers (274 million miles) from the Sun. Ida is the second asteroid ever encountered by a spacecraft. It appears to be about 52 kilometers (32 miles) in length, more than twice as large as Gaspra, the first asteroid observed by Galileo in October 1991. Ida is an irregularly shaped asteroid placed by scientists in the S class (believed to be like stony or stony iron meteorites). It is a member of the Koronis family, presumed fragments left from the breakup of a precursor asteroid in a catastrophic collision. This view shows numerous craters, including many degraded craters larger than any seen on Gaspra. The extensive cratering seems to dispel theories about Ida's surface being geologically youthful. This view also seems to rule out the idea that Ida is a double body. The south pole is believed to be in the darkside near the middle of the asteroid. The camera's clear filter was used to produce this extremely sharp picture. Spatial resolution is 31 to 38 meters (roughly 100 feet) per pixel. A 30-frame mosaic was taken to assure capturing Ida; its position was somewhat uncertain before the Galileo encounter. Galileo shuttered and recorded a total of 150 images in order to capture Ida 21 different times during a five hour period (about one rotation of the asteroid). Color filters were used at many of these times to allow reconstruction of color images. Playback to Earth of the remaining images is planned for April through June 1994. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995

  14. Subjective evaluation of MPEG-2 video with and without B frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermak, Gregory W.; Tweedy, Ernest P.

    1999-11-01

    Two studies examined the effect of B-frames on subjective quality of MPEG-2 video. One study used consumer judgments in a variant of the standard CCIR Recommendation 500-5 procedure for collecting subjective evaluations. The other study used the judgments of a single expert in adjusting the bit rate necessary for MPEG-2 without B-frames to be subjectively equal to MPEG-2 with B-frames at a given bit rate. The results of the two studies were qualitatively similar. Summary of results: Picture quality improved with increase in bit rate until a saturation point was reached. The introduction of B-frames improved picture quality, especially for difficult source material. This was more noticeable at the lower bit rates (e.g., 3 Mb/s). The difference in bit rate between MPEG-2 with and without B-frames varied substantially with the source material. For example, for basketball, 5 Mb/s with B-frames was subjectively equal to 8 Mb/s without B-frames, but for other material the difference was near zero.

  15. ML Frame Synchronization for OFDM Systems Using a Known Pilot and Cyclic Prefixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Heon

    Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a popular air interface technology that is adopted as a standard modulation scheme for 4G communication systems owing to its excellent spectral efficiency. For OFDM systems, synchronization problems have received much attention along with peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction. In addition to frequency offset estimation, frame synchronization is a challenging problem that must be solved to achieve optimal system performance. In this paper, we present a maximum likelihood (ML) frame synchronizer for OFDM systems. The synchronizer exploits a synchronization word and cyclic prefixes together to improve the synchronization performance. Numerical results show that the performance of the proposed frame synchronizer is better than that of conventional schemes. The proposed synchronizer can be used as a reference for evaluating the performance of other suboptimal frame synchronizers. We also modify the proposed frame synchronizer to reduce the implementation complexity and propose a near-ML synchronizer for time-varying fading channels.

  16. Network-based H.264/AVC whole frame loss visibility model and frame dropping methods.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yueh-Lun; Lin, Ting-Lan; Cosman, Pamela C

    2012-08-01

    We examine the visual effect of whole frame loss by different decoders. Whole frame losses are introduced in H.264/AVC compressed videos which are then decoded by two different decoders with different common concealment effects: frame copy and frame interpolation. The videos are seen by human observers who respond to each glitch they spot. We found that about 39% of whole frame losses of B frames are not observed by any of the subjects, and over 58% of the B frame losses are observed by 20% or fewer of the subjects. Using simple predictive features which can be calculated inside a network node with no access to the original video and no pixel level reconstruction of the frame, we developed models which can predict the visibility of whole B frame losses. The models are then used in a router to predict the visual impact of a frame loss and perform intelligent frame dropping to relieve network congestion. Dropping frames based on their visual scores proves superior to random dropping of B frames.

  17. Antecedents of Academic Emotions: Testing the Internal/External Frame of Reference Model for Academic Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Hall, Nathan C.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    The present study focused on students' academic enjoyment as predicted by achievement in multiple academic domains. Assumptions were based on Marsh's internal/external (I/E) frame of reference model and Pekrun's control-value theory of achievement emotions, and were tested in a sample of 1380 German students from grades 5 to 10. Students' academic…

  18. Using School-Level Student Achievement to Engage in Formative Evaluation: Comparative School-Level Rates of Oral Reading Fluency Growth Conditioned by Initial Skill for Second Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Kelli D.; Stoolmiller, Michael L.; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank; Kame'enui, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for data-based decision making at the school level using student achievement data. We demonstrate the potential of a national assessment database [i.e., the University of Oregon DIBELS Data System (DDS)] to provide comparative levels of school-level data on average student achievement gains. Through the DDS as a data source,…

  19. Price-Responsive Load (PRL) Program - Framing Paper No.1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles A.

    2002-03-01

    By definition, effective and efficient competitive markets need a supply side and a demand side. One criticism of electric restructuring efforts in many states is that most of the attention has been focused on the supply side, in a market focused on the short term. In general, the demand side of the market has been under-addressed. The objective of the New England Demand Response Initiative (NEDRI) is to develop a comprehensive, coordinated set of demand response programs for the New England regional power markets. NEDRI aims to maximize the capability of demand response to compete in the wholesale market and to improve the economic efficiency and environmental profile of the electric sector. To those ends, NEDRI is focusing its efforts in four interrelated areas: (1) ISO-level reliability programs, (2) Market-based price-responsive load programs, (3) Demand response at retail through pricing, rate design, and advanced metering, and (4) End-use energy efficiency resources as demand response. The fourth area, energy efficiency, is the subject of this framing paper. Energy efficiency reduces the energy used by specific end-use devices and systems, typically without affecting the level of service and without loss of amenity. Energy savings and peak load reductions are achieved by substituting technically more advanced equipment, processes, or operational strategies to produce the same or an improved level of end-use service with less electricity. In contrast, load management programs lower peak demand during specific, limited time periods by either (1) influencing the timing of energy use by shifting load to another time period, or (2) reducing the level of energy use by curtailing or interrupting the load, typically with some loss of service or amenity.

  20. Modeling laser wakefield accelerators in a Lorentz boosted frame

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J.-L.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Grote, D.P.

    2010-09-15

    Modeling of laser-plasma wakefield accelerators in an optimal frame of reference [1] is shown to produce orders of magnitude speed-up of calculations from first principles. Obtaining these speedups requires mitigation of a high frequency instability that otherwise limits effectiveness in addition to solutions for handling data input and output in a relativistically boosted frame of reference. The observed high-frequency instability is mitigated using methods including an electromagnetic solver with tunable coefficients, its extension to accomodate Perfectly Matched Layers and Friedman's damping algorithms, as well as an efficient large bandwidth digital filter. It is shown that choosing theframe of the wake as the frame of reference allows for higher levels of filtering and damping than is possible in other frames for the same accuracy. Detailed testing also revealed serendipitously the existence of a singular time step at which the instability level is minimized, independently of numerical dispersion, thus indicating that the observed instability may not be due primarily to Numerical Cerenkov as has been conjectured. The techniques developed for Cerenkov mitigation prove nonetheless to be very efficient at controlling the instability. Using these techniques, agreement at the percentage level is demonstrated between simulations using different frames of reference, with speedups reaching two orders of magnitude for a 0.1 GeV class stages. The method then allows direct and efficient full-scale modeling of deeply depleted laser-plasma stages of 10 GeV-1 TeV for the first time, verifying the scaling of plasma accelerators to very high energies. Over 4, 5 and 6 orders of magnitude speedup is achieved for the modeling of 10 GeV, 100 GeV and 1 TeV class stages, respectively.

  1. Frame semantics-based study of verbs across medical genres.

    PubMed

    Wandji Tchami, Ornella; L'Homme, Marie-Claude; Grabar, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The field of medicine gathers actors with different levels of expertise. These actors must interact, although their mutual understanding is not always completely successful. We propose to study corpora (with high and low levels of expertise) in order to observe their specificities. More specifically, we perform a contrastive analysis of verbs, and of the syntactic and semantic features of their participants, based on the Frame Semantics framework and the methodology implemented in FrameNet. In order to achieve this, we use an existing medical terminology to automatically annotate the semantics classes of participants of verbs, which we assume are indicative of semantics roles. Our results indicate that verbs show similar or very close semantics in some contexts, while in other contexts they behave differently. These results are important for studying the understanding of medical information by patients and for improving the communication between patients and medical doctors.

  2. Realizing a terrestrial reference frame using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Bruce J.; Bar-Sever, Yoaz E.; Bertiger, Willy I.; Desai, Shailen D.; Harvey, Nate; Sibois, Aurore E.; Weiss, Jan P.

    2015-08-01

    We describe a terrestrial reference frame (TRF) realization based on Global Positioning System (GPS) data alone. Our approach rests on a highly dynamic, long-arc (9 day) estimation strategy and on GPS satellite antenna calibrations derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment and TOPEX/Poseidon low Earth orbit receiver GPS data. Based on nearly 17 years of data (1997-2013), our solution for scale rate agrees with International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF)2008 to 0.03 ppb yr-1, and our solution for 3-D origin rate agrees with ITRF2008 to 0.4 mm yr-1. Absolute scale differs by 1.1 ppb (7 mm at the Earth's surface) and 3-D origin by 8 mm. These differences lie within estimated error levels for the contemporary TRF.

  3. Effect of framing on adolescents' decision making.

    PubMed

    Chien, Y C; Lin, C; Worthley, J

    1996-12-01

    92 young adolescents were tested using Tversky and Kahneman's (1981) decision problems for framing effects. A notable number of young adolescents tested were not influenced by the context of the decision problems, thus they selected the same response option for positively and negatively framed problems. Parallel information was not available in Tversky and Kahneman's study for adults because they used a between-subjects design. However, for present adolescents who selected different response options for different framing problems, the response pattern exhibited by them resembled the general pattern exhibited by the adults tested in Tversky and Kahneman's study-negative frames led them to accept risk to avoid certain loss; positive frames prevented them from risking what they were certain to gain. Boys and girls were similar in their susceptibility to framing effects as were honors students in mathematics as compared to nonhonors students. Although the positive vs negative framing only influenced some of the young adolescents tested in this study, because the influence was consistent, researchers and educators interested in adolescents' decisions involving risky choices might use framing principles to design and assess cognitive interventions for high-risk behaviors among young adolescents.

  4. A Framing Primer for Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nausieda, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to be a tool for community college leaders, as well as campus members, to positively and effectively utilize framing on their campuses. The fictional case of Maggie Pascal at Midwestern Community College illustrates the process of framing the change of a new partnership with Wind Energy Corporation to internal…

  5. Framing Behaviours in Novice Interaction Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz, Nicole; Sharp, Helen; Woodroffe, Mark; Blyth, Richard; Rajah, Dino; Ranganai, Turugare

    2015-01-01

    Framing design problems and solutions has been recognised in design studies as a central designerly activity. Some recent findings with expert designers relate framing practices to problem-solution co-evolution and analogy use, two further widely recognised design strategies. We wanted to understand if interaction design novices also use…

  6. Simple circuit positions film frames in projector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, R. H.

    1965-01-01

    Individual frames on a photographic film strip in a projector are automatically positioned by a simple circuit. The circuit uses a photodiode that senses frame registry position and a relay that stops the film-advance motor to suspend the film at point of registry.

  7. Framing in the Field: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Strategic Frame Analysis can inform the daily practice of policy advocates by bringing an evidence-based communications approach to their work. This case study of FrameWorks' decade-long association with the national Kids Count Network shares stories from advocates who are transforming their communications strategies, resulting in more effective…

  8. Teaching the Dynamics of Framing Competitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinke, Eike Mark

    2012-01-01

    Framing theory is one of the most thriving and complex fields of communication theory, and as such it has grown to be an integral part of many political communication, public opinion, and communication theory courses. Part of the complexity stems from scholars' efforts to develop accounts of framing processes that are closer to the "real world" of…

  9. A Relational Frame Theory Account of Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilardaga, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The current paper proposes a Relational Frame Theory (RFT, Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001a) conceptualization of empathy and perspective taking that follows previous literature outlining a relationship between those phenomena and general functioning. Deictic framing, a relational operant investigated by RFT researchers, constitutes the…

  10. Limb lengthening combined with deformity correction in children with the Taylor Spatial Frame.

    PubMed

    Iobst, Christopher

    2010-11-01

    It is difficult to replicate the regular rate and rhythm described by Ilizarov while lengthening with the Taylor Spatial Frame. The purpose of the study was to examine whether this breach of Ilizarov's principles has any deleterious effect on the ability of children to make healthy regenerate bone. A retrospective case-control study was performed comparing pediatric patients undergoing primarily lengthening with Taylor Spatial Frame rings and struts, and patients undergoing lengthening with Taylor Spatial Frame rings and Ilizarov clickers. Fifteen patients had primarily lengthening with Taylor Spatial Frame rings and struts, and six patients had lengthening with Taylor Spatial Frame rings and Ilizarov clickers. Statistically, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, latency, pre-operative bone length percentage, and average length gained. The lengthening index for the strut group (1.79 months/cm) was significantly different from the clicker group (1.33 months/cm) with P=0.012. For a pediatric patient with lower extremity long bone deformities in multiple planes, the Taylor Spatial Frame is an excellent option. However, the surgeon should anticipate a slightly longer duration of treatment with the Taylor Spatial Frame compared to Ilizarov frames and plan his/her fixation accordingly. For the straightforward lengthening of pediatric long bones without significant concomitant deformity, our results indicate that the Ilizarov method appears to be superior to the Taylor Spatial Frame struts and should still be considered the gold standard.

  11. The Uniformly Accelerated Reference Frame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, J. Dwayne

    1978-01-01

    The observations that would be made by a uniformly accelerated observer, including the observer's event horizon, the variation of clock rates with position, and the effects of following a freely falling object are considered in detail. (SL)

  12. High-quality frame-synchronization for satellite video signal transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Shuji; Morikura, Masahiro; Kato, Shuzo

    1995-01-01

    A high-quality frame-synchronizer for video signal switching and freezing is proposed. In order to realize high-quality frame-synchronization, a novel high-speed and high-definition 11 bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converter which achieves the quite high unweighted S/N ratio performance of 63 dB is developed. It provides synchronized video signal switching by field freezing for high-quality video signal transmission.

  13. Geodetic precession or dragging of inertial frames

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, N. ); Shahid-Saless, B. )

    1990-08-15

    In metric theories of gravity the principle of general covariance allows one to describe phenomena by means of any convenient choice of coordinate system. In this paper it is shown that in an appropriately chosen coordinate system, geodetic precession of a gyroscope orbiting a spherically symmetric, spinning mass can be recast as a Lense-Thirring frame-dragging effect without invoking spatial curvature. The origin of this reference frame moves around the source but the frame axes point in fixed directions. The drag can be interpreted to arise from the orbital angular momentum of the source around the origin of the reference frame. In this reference frame the effects of geodetic precession and Lense-Thirring drag due to intrinsic angular momentum of the source have the same origin, namely, gravitomagnetism.

  14. Multipliers for continuous frames in Hilbert spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balazs, P.; Bayer, D.; Rahimi, A.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we examine the general theory of continuous frame multipliers in Hilbert space. These operators are a generalization of the widely used notion of (discrete) frame multipliers. Well-known examples include anti-Wick operators, STFT multipliers or Calderón-Toeplitz operators. Due to the possible peculiarities of the underlying measure spaces, continuous frames do not behave quite as their discrete counterparts. Nonetheless, many results similar to the discrete case are proven for continuous frame multipliers as well, for instance compactness and Schatten-class properties. Furthermore, the concepts of controlled and weighted frames are transferred to the continuous setting. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’.

  15. Integrated seat frame and back support

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Leo

    1999-01-01

    An integrated seating device comprises a seat frame having a front end and a rear end. The seat frame has a double wall defining an exterior wall and an interior wall. The rear end of the seat frame has a slot cut therethrough both the exterior wall and the interior wall. The front end of the seat frame has a slot cut through just the interior wall thereof. A back support comprising a generally L shape has a horizontal member, and a generally vertical member which is substantially perpendicular to the horizontal member. The horizontal member is sized to be threaded through the rear slot and is fitted into the front slot. Welded slat means secures the back support to the seat frame to result in an integrated seating device.

  16. Parallel Key Frame Extraction for Surveillance Video Service in a Smart City

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hai; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Qin; Deng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance video service (SVS) is one of the most important services provided in a smart city. It is very important for the utilization of SVS to provide design efficient surveillance video analysis techniques. Key frame extraction is a simple yet effective technique to achieve this goal. In surveillance video applications, key frames are typically used to summarize important video content. It is very important and essential to extract key frames accurately and efficiently. A novel approach is proposed to extract key frames from traffic surveillance videos based on GPU (graphics processing units) to ensure high efficiency and accuracy. For the determination of key frames, motion is a more salient feature in presenting actions or events, especially in surveillance videos. The motion feature is extracted in GPU to reduce running time. It is also smoothed to reduce noise, and the frames with local maxima of motion information are selected as the final key frames. The experimental results show that this approach can extract key frames more accurately and efficiently compared with several other methods. PMID:26284923

  17. Parallel Key Frame Extraction for Surveillance Video Service in a Smart City.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ran; Yao, Chuanwei; Jin, Hai; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Qin; Deng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance video service (SVS) is one of the most important services provided in a smart city. It is very important for the utilization of SVS to provide design efficient surveillance video analysis techniques. Key frame extraction is a simple yet effective technique to achieve this goal. In surveillance video applications, key frames are typically used to summarize important video content. It is very important and essential to extract key frames accurately and efficiently. A novel approach is proposed to extract key frames from traffic surveillance videos based on GPU (graphics processing units) to ensure high efficiency and accuracy. For the determination of key frames, motion is a more salient feature in presenting actions or events, especially in surveillance videos. The motion feature is extracted in GPU to reduce running time. It is also smoothed to reduce noise, and the frames with local maxima of motion information are selected as the final key frames. The experimental results show that this approach can extract key frames more accurately and efficiently compared with several other methods.

  18. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) composite fan frame design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, S. C.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced composite frame which is flight-weight and integrates the functions of several structures was developed for the over the wing (OTW) engine and for the under the wing (UTW) engine. The composite material system selected as the basic material for the frame is Type AS graphite fiber in a Hercules 3501 epoxy resin matrix. The frame was analyzed using a finite element digital computer program. This program was used in an iterative fashion to arrive at practical thicknesses and ply orientations to achieve a final design that met all strength and stiffness requirements for critical conditions. Using this information, the detail design of each of the individual parts of the frame was completed and released. On the basis of these designs, the required tooling was designed to fabricate the various component parts of the frame. To verify the structural integrity of the critical joint areas, a full-scale test was conducted on the frame before engine testing. The testing of the frame established critical spring constants and subjected the frame to three critical load cases. The successful static load test was followed by 153 and 58 hours respectively of successful running on the UTW and OTW engines.

  19. On avoiding framing effects in experienced decision makers.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Dhami, Mandeep K

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) demonstrate the effect of positive-negative framing on experienced criminal justice decision makers, (b) examine the debiasing effect of visually structured risk messages, and (c) investigate whether risk perceptions mediate the debiasing effect of visual aids on decision making. In two phases, 60 senior police officers estimated the accuracy of a counterterrorism technique in identifying whether a known terror suspect poses an imminent danger and decided whether they would recommend the technique to policy makers. Officers also rated their confidence in this recommendation. When information about the effectiveness of the counterterrorism technique was presented in a numerical format, officers' perceptions of accuracy and recommendation decisions were susceptible to the framing effect: The technique was perceived to be more accurate and was more likely to be recommended when its effectiveness was presented in a positive than in a negative frame. However, when the information was represented visually using icon arrays, there were no such framing effects. Finally, perceptions of accuracy mediated the debiasing effect of visual aids on recommendation decisions. We offer potential explanations for the debiasing effect of visual aids and implications for communicating risk to experienced, professional decision makers.

  20. Broadcast quality 3840 × 2160 color imager operating at 30 frames/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iodice, Robert M.; Joyner, Michael; Hong, Canaan S.; Parker, David P.

    2003-05-01

    Both the active column sensor (ACS) pixel sensing technology and the PVS-Bus multiplexer technology have been applied to a color imaging array to produce an extraordinarily high resolution, color imager of greater than 8 million pixels with image quality and speed suitable for a broad range of applications including digital cinema, broadcast video and security/surveillance. The imager has been realized in a standard 0.5 μm CMOS technology using double-poly and triple metal (DP3M) construction and features a pixel size of 7.5 μm by 7.5 μm. Mask level stitching enables the construction of a high quality, low dark current imager having an array size of 16.2 mm by 28.8 mm. The image array aspect ratio is 16:9 with a diagonal of 33 mm making it suitable for HDTV applications using optics designed for 35 mm still photography. A high modulation transfer function (MTF) is maintained by utilizing micro lenses along with an RGB Bayer pattern color filter array. The frame rate of 30 frames/s in progressive mode is achieved using the PVS-Bus technology with eight output ports, which corresponds to an overall pixel rate of 248 M-pixel per second. High dynamic range and low fixed pattern noise are achieved by combining photodiode pixels with the ACS pixel sensing technology and a modified correlated double-sampling (CDS) technique. Exposure time can be programmed by the user from a full frame of integration to as low as a single line of integration in steps of 14.8 μs. The output gain is programmable from 0dB to +12dB in 256 steps; the output offset is also programmable over a range of 765 mV in 256 steps. This QuadHDTV imager has been delivered to customers and has been demonstrated in a prototype camera that provides full resolution video with all image processing on board. The prototype camera operates at 2160p24, 2160p30 and 2160i60.

  1. GPS-derived ground deformation (2005-2014) within the Gulf of Mexico region referred to a stable Gulf of Mexico reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiangbo; Wang, Guoquan

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates current ground deformation derived from the GPS geodesy infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico region. The positions and velocity vectors of 161 continuous GPS (CGPS) stations are presented with respect to a newly established local reference frame, the Stable Gulf of Mexico Reference Frame (SGOMRF). Thirteen long-term (> 5 years) CGPS are used to realize the local reference frame. The root mean square (RMS) of the velocities of the 13 SGOMRF reference stations achieves 0.2 mm yr-1 in the horizontal and 0.3 mm yr-1 in the vertical directions. GPS observations presented in this study indicate significant land subsidence in the coastal area of southeastern Louisiana, the greater Houston metropolitan area, and two cities in Mexico (Aguascalientes and Mexico City). The most rapid subsidence is recorded at the Mexico City International airport, which is up to 26.6 cm yr-1 (2008-2014). Significant spatial variation of subsidence rates is observed in both Mexico City and the Houston area. The overall subsidence rate in the Houston area is decreasing. The subsidence rate in southeastern Louisiana is relatively smaller (4.0-6.0 mm yr-1) but tends to be steady over time. This poses a potential threat to the safety of coastal infrastructure in the long-term.

  2. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  3. Wavelet frames and admissibility in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Führ, Hartmut

    1996-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the relations between discrete and continuous wavelet transforms on k-dimensional Euclidean space. We start with the construction of continuous wavelet transforms with the help of square-integrable representations of certain semidirect products, thereby generalizing results of Bernier and Taylor. We then turn to frames of L2(Rk) and to the question, when the functions occurring in a given frame are admissible for a given continuous wavelet transform. For certain frames we give a characterization which generalizes a result of Daubechies to higher dimensions.

  4. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael B.; Epstein, Jonathan S.; Lloyd, W. Randolph

    1994-01-01

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed crosshead, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame.

  5. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOEpatents

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  6. Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    A method for space frame synthesis based on the application of a full gamut of approximation concepts is presented. It is found that with the thoughtful selection of design space, objective function approximation, constraint approximation and mathematical programming problem formulation options it is possible to obtain near minimum mass designs for a significant class of space frame structural systems while requiring fewer than 10 structural analyses. Example problems are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for frame structures subjected to multiple static loading conditions with limits on structural stiffness and strength.

  7. Good things don't come easy (to mind): explaining framing effects in judgments of truth.

    PubMed

    Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the general phenomenon of a positive-negative-asymmetry was extended to judgments of truth. That is, negatively framed statements were shown to receive substantially higher truth ratings than formally equivalent statements framed positively. However, the cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown, so far. In the current work, two potential accounts are introduced and tested against each other in three experiments: On the one hand, negative framing may induce increased elaboration and thereby persuasion. Alternatively, negative framing could yield faster retrieval or generation of evidence and thus influence subjective veracity via experiential fluency. Two experiments drawing on response latencies and one manipulating the delay between information acquisition and judgment provide support for the fluency-based account. Overall, results replicate and extend the negatively-biased framing effect in truth judgments and show that processing fluency may account for it.

  8. Impact resistance of ophthalmic lenses of various strengths and the influence of frame design.

    PubMed

    Keeney, A H; Renaldo, D P

    1975-07-01

    Protection of the eyes by safety type spectacle, sunglass and goggle lenses has received considerable attention in recent years. Such protection can be enhanced by design of the frame. We report from 476 lenses mounted in 238 frames and subjected to 9,397 impacts. Maximum blows were delivered by a one inch diameter steel ball falling from a height of 122 inches. Results indicated that the force required to fracture lenses in plastic frame mountings was more than twice that required for fracture of identical strength lenses in wire rims. Minus cylindrical lenses were the most frangible. The lowest fracture and posterior dislocation rates were found in industrial plastic frames with a retaining lip. Greater energy attenuation can be induced in a heat tempered glass lens by even edge compression. Good lens and frame design, when properly correlated, should provide impact attenuation distinctly exceeding conventional standards.

  9. Survey of MapReduce frame operation in bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Zou, Quan; Li, Xu-Bin; Jiang, Wen-Rui; Lin, Zi-Yu; Li, Gui-Lin; Chen, Ke

    2014-07-01

    Bioinformatics is challenged by the fact that traditional analysis tools have difficulty in processing large-scale data from high-throughput sequencing. The open source Apache Hadoop project, which adopts the MapReduce framework and a distributed file system, has recently given bioinformatics researchers an opportunity to achieve scalable, efficient and reliable computing performance on Linux clusters and on cloud computing services. In this article, we present MapReduce frame-based applications that can be employed in the next-generation sequencing and other biological domains. In addition, we discuss the challenges faced by this field as well as the future works on parallel computing in bioinformatics.

  10. An operational rate control scheme for H.264 with two-stage encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Do-Kyoung; Shen, Mei-Yin; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2005-08-01

    An operational rate control (RC) scheme based on two-stage encoding is studied in this research, where frame-layer rate control with a constant bit rate to achieve constant video quality is examined. In the first encoding stage, the R-D optimized mode decision and its associated motion estimation (RDO) as well as DCT/Q, IQ/IDCT and entropy coding are performed for all macroblocks (MBs) for a target frame using an initial quantization parameter (QP), which is the QP of its previous frame. In the second encoding stage, the residual signal from the first stage is encoded using several QP values around the initial QP. Given the target bits and distortion for the current frame, the residual signal is finally encoded using the QP determined by comparing target bits and distortion with actual bits and distortion. To reduce the additional coding complexity of the two-stage encoding, upper and lower bounds around target bits and distortion are employed to reduce the number of encoding required in the second stage. Experimental results are given to show the superior performance of two proposed rate control algorithms, where one targets at the constant bit rate while the other at constant quality.

  11. Framing effect following bilateral amygdala lesion.

    PubMed

    Talmi, Deborah; Hurlemann, René; Patin, Alexandra; Dolan, Raymond J

    2010-05-01

    A paradigmatic example of an emotional bias in decision making is the framing effect, where the manner in which a choice is posed--as a potential loss or a potential gain--systematically biases an ensuing decision. Two fMRI studies have shown that the activation in the amygdala is modulated by the framing effect. Here, contrary to an expectation based on these studies, we show that two patients with Urbach-Wiethe (UW) disease, a rare condition associated with congenital, complete bilateral amygdala degeneration, exhibit an intact framing effect. However, choice preference in these patients did show a qualitatively distinct pattern compared to controls evident in an increased propensity to gamble, indicating that loss of amygdala function does exert an overall influence on risk-taking. These findings suggest either that amygdala does contribute to decision making but does not play a causal role in framing, or that UW is not a pure lesion model of amygdala function.

  12. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by a patient to correct refractive errors. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

  13. Atwood's Machine: Experiments in an Accelerating Frame.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, Chia Teck; Hong, Chia Yee

    1999-01-01

    Experiments in an accelerating frame are hard to perform. Illustrates how simple computer software allows sufficiently rapid and accurate measurements to be made on an arrangement of weights and pulleys known as Atwood's machine. (Author/CCM)

  14. Design optimization of cold-formed steel portal frames taking into account the effect of building topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Duoc T.; Lim, James B. P.; Sha, Wei; Siew, Calvin Y. M.; Tanyimboh, Tiku T.; Issa, Honar K.; Mohammad, Fouad A.

    2013-04-01

    Cold-formed steel portal frames are a popular form of construction for low-rise commercial, light industrial and agricultural buildings with spans of up to 20 m. In this article, a real-coded genetic algorithm is described that is used to minimize the cost of the main frame of such buildings. The key decision variables considered in this proposed algorithm consist of both the spacing and pitch of the frame as continuous variables, as well as the discrete section sizes. A routine taking the structural analysis and frame design for cold-formed steel sections is embedded into a genetic algorithm. The results show that the real-coded genetic algorithm handles effectively the mixture of design variables, with high robustness and consistency in achieving the optimum solution. All wind load combinations according to Australian code are considered in this research. Results for frames with knee braces are also included, for which the optimization achieved even larger savings in cost.

  15. Using frames to influence consumer willingness to pay for the patient health record: a randomized experiment.

    PubMed

    Vishwanath, Arun

    2009-07-01

    The American College of Medical Informatics rated the lack of willingness to pay for the patient health record (PHR) as the biggest obstacles to its rapid diffusion. Extending research propositions from the decision sciences and political communication, this study tests the influence of different types of emphasis frames on increasing consumer willingness to pay for the PHR. Using a randomized experiment embedded within a probability survey, the effects of 3 different types of emphasis frames (individual-focused, collective-focused, and joint), along with a no-frames control, are tested on a sample of early and later technology adopters. The results indicate a significant relationship between the type of frame and the type of adopter. Early adopters were more susceptible to individual-focused frames that made causal attributions at the individual level, whereas later adopters were significantly influenced by collective-focused frames that made causal attributions at the societal level. Interestingly, the framing effect continued and significantly influenced both early and later adopters' willingness to pay for the PHR. The findings demonstrate the need to carefully communicate the value of a technology to adopters and suggest the possibility of using frames to spur the diffusion of PHRs.

  16. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  17. Geodetic precession or dragging of inertial frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Neil; Shahid-Saless, Bahman

    1989-01-01

    In General Relativity, the Principle of General Covariance allows one to describe phenomena by means of any convenient choice of coordinate system. Here, it is shown that the geodetic precession of a gyroscope orbiting a spherically symmetric, nonrotating mass can be recast as a Lense-Thirring frame-dragging effect, in an appropriately chosen coordinate frame whose origin falls freely along with the gyroscope and whose spatial coordinate axes point in fixed directions.

  18. Frame-Guided Assembly of Amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuanchen; Liu, Dongsheng

    2015-12-07

    Frame-guided assembly, a recently discovered strategy for amphiphilic assembly, is discussed as a strategy for constructing vesicle assemblies with programmed geometries and dimensions under identical surrounding conditions. The strategy is inspired by the cytoskeletal-membrane protein-lipid bilayer structure and shows great potential in the understanding and controlling of the amphiphilic assembly process. Both the principles and basic requirements are discussed, along with recently reported examples. The prospects and potential investigations of frame-guided assembly are also proposed.

  19. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  20. Test Frame for Gravity Offload Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Alexander R.

    2005-01-01

    Advances in space telescope and aperture technology have created a need to launch larger structures into space. Traditional truss structures will be too heavy and bulky to be effectively used in the next generation of space-based structures. Large deployable structures are a possible solution. By packaging deployable trusses, the cargo volume of these large structures greatly decreases. The ultimate goal is to three dimensionally measure a boom's deployment in simulated microgravity. This project outlines the construction of the test frame that supports a gravity offload system. The test frame is stable enough to hold the gravity offload system and does not interfere with deployment of, or vibrations in, the deployable test boom. The natural frequencies and stability of the frame were engineered in FEMAP. The test frame was developed to have natural frequencies that would not match the first two modes of the deployable beam. The frame was then modeled in Solidworks and constructed. The test frame constructed is a stable base to perform studies on deployable structures.

  1. Celestial Reference Frames at Multiple Radio Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    In 1997 the IAU adopted the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) built from S/X VLBI data. In response to IAU resolutions encouraging the extension of the ICRF to additional frequency bands, VLBI frames have been made at 24, 32, and 43 gigahertz. Meanwhile, the 8.4 gigahertz work has been greatly improved with the 2009 release of the ICRF-2. This paper discusses the motivations for extending the ICRF to these higher radio bands. Results to date will be summarized including evidence that the high frequency frames are rapidly approaching the accuracy of the 8.4 gigahertz ICRF-2. We discuss current limiting errors and prospects for the future accuracy of radio reference frames. We note that comparison of multiple radio frames is characterizing the frequency dependent systematic noise floor from extended source morphology and core shift. Finally, given Gaia's potential for high accuracy optical astrometry, we have simulated the precision of a radio-optical frame tie to be approximately10-15 microarcseconds ((1-sigma) (1-standard deviation), per component).

  2. Line defects and (framed) BPS quivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirafici, Michele

    2013-11-01

    The BPS spectrum of certain = 2 supersymmetric field theories can be determined algebraically by studying the representation theory of BPS quivers. We introduce methods based on BPS quivers to study line defects. The presence of a line defect opens up a new BPS sector: framed BPS states can be bound to the defect. The defect can be geometrically described in terms of laminations on a curve. To a lamination we associate certain elements of the Leavitt path algebra of the BPS quiver and use them to compute the framed BPS spectrum. We also provide an alternative characterization of line defects by introducing framed BPS quivers. Using the theory of (quantum) cluster algebras, we derive an algorithm to compute the framed BPS spectra of new defects from known ones. Line defects are generated from a framed BPS quiver by applying certain sequences of mutation operations. Framed BPS quivers also behave nicely under a set of "cut and join" rules, which can be used to study how = 2 systems with defects couple to produce more complicated ones. We illustrate our formalism with several examples.

  3. Scaling laws for homogeneous turbulent shear flows in a rotating frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speziale, Charles G.; Mhuiris, Nessan Macgiolla

    1988-01-01

    The scaling properties of plane homogeneous turbulent shear flows in a rotating frame are examined mathematically by a direct analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations. It is proved that two such shear flows are dynamically similar if and only if their initial dimensionless energy spectrum E star (k star, 0), initial dimensionless shear rate SK sub 0/epsilon sub 0, initial Reynolds number K squared sub 0/nu epsilon sub 0, and the ration of the rotation rate to the shear rate omega/S are identical. Consequently, if universal equilibrium states exist, at high Reynolds numbers, they will only depend on the single parameter omega/S. The commonly assumed dependence of such equilibrium states on omega/S through the Richardson number Ri=-2(omega/S)(1-2 omega/S) is proven to be inconsistent with the full Navier-Stokes equations and to constitute no more than a weak approximation. To be more specific, Richardson number similarity is shown to only rigorously apply to certain low-order truncations of the Navier-Stokes equations (i.e., to certain second-order closure models) wherein closure is achieved at the second-moment level by assuming that the higher-order moments are a small perturbation of their isotropic states. The physical dependence of rotating turbulent shear flows on omega/S is discussed in detail along with the implications for turbulence modeling.

  4. Representation of the inverse of a frame multiplier.

    PubMed

    Balazs, P; Stoeva, D T

    2015-02-15

    Certain mathematical objects appear in a lot of scientific disciplines, like physics, signal processing and, naturally, mathematics. In a general setting they can be described as frame multipliers, consisting of analysis, multiplication by a fixed sequence (called the symbol), and synthesis. In this paper we show a surprising result about the inverse of such operators, if any, as well as new results about a core concept of frame theory, dual frames. We show that for semi-normalized symbols, the inverse of any invertible frame multiplier can always be represented as a frame multiplier with the reciprocal symbol and dual frames of the given ones. Furthermore, one of those dual frames is uniquely determined and the other one can be arbitrarily chosen. We investigate sufficient conditions for the special case, when both dual frames can be chosen to be the canonical duals. In connection to the above, we show that the set of dual frames determines a frame uniquely. Furthermore, for a given frame, the union of all coefficients of its dual frames is dense in [Formula: see text]. We also introduce a class of frames (called pseudo-coherent frames), which includes Gabor frames and coherent frames, and investigate invertible pseudo-coherent frame multipliers, allowing a classification for frame-type operators for these frames. Finally, we give a numerical example for the invertibility of multipliers in the Gabor case.

  5. Representation of the inverse of a frame multiplier☆

    PubMed Central

    Balazs, P.; Stoeva, D.T.

    2015-01-01

    Certain mathematical objects appear in a lot of scientific disciplines, like physics, signal processing and, naturally, mathematics. In a general setting they can be described as frame multipliers, consisting of analysis, multiplication by a fixed sequence (called the symbol), and synthesis. In this paper we show a surprising result about the inverse of such operators, if any, as well as new results about a core concept of frame theory, dual frames. We show that for semi-normalized symbols, the inverse of any invertible frame multiplier can always be represented as a frame multiplier with the reciprocal symbol and dual frames of the given ones. Furthermore, one of those dual frames is uniquely determined and the other one can be arbitrarily chosen. We investigate sufficient conditions for the special case, when both dual frames can be chosen to be the canonical duals. In connection to the above, we show that the set of dual frames determines a frame uniquely. Furthermore, for a given frame, the union of all coefficients of its dual frames is dense in ℓ2. We also introduce a class of frames (called pseudo-coherent frames), which includes Gabor frames and coherent frames, and investigate invertible pseudo-coherent frame multipliers, allowing a classification for frame-type operators for these frames. Finally, we give a numerical example for the invertibility of multipliers in the Gabor case. PMID:25843976

  6. Treatment of complex foot deformities in children with the taylor spatial frame.

    PubMed

    Eidelman, Mark; Katzman, Alexander

    2008-10-01

    The Taylor spatial frame is a relatively new external fixator able to correct 6-axis deformities with computer accuracy using a virtual hinge. The Taylor spatial frame has gained tremendous popularity, but its use for the correction of foot deformities is still limited. Various ring configurations and a new foot program have recently become available and allow correction of the most difficult foot deformities. This article reports the results of 13 patients (15 frames) with various foot deformities treated at our institution with 3 different Taylor spatial frame configurations (standard rings construction, miter frame, and butt frame). Treatment goals were achieved in 11 patients, while mild residual deformities persisted in 2 patients. Most complications during treatment consisted of pin tract infections. One patient had premature consolidation, which was treated with additional midtarsal osteotomy; 1 had metatarsophalangeal joint subluxation, which was fixed with tendon lengthening and pining of the joint; and 1 had talar subluxation, which was reduced with residual program correction. Based on our experience, we believe the Taylor spatial frame is a very powerful and accurate surgical modality with a relatively short learning curve for the correction for most difficult foot deformities.

  7. Locking Corners Speed Solar-Array Frame Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olah, S.; Sampson, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    Mitered corners of solar-array frames joined together by single angle brace and two springs. Locking corner braces and mating frame members pushed together by hand or assembled automatically. Fastening system used to assemble window screens and picture frames.

  8. A perceptual optimization of H.264/AVC bit allocation at the frame and macroblock levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrarti, M.; Saadane, H.; Larabi, M.-C.; Tamtaoui, A.; Aboutajdine, D.

    2012-01-01

    In H.264/AVC rate control algorithm, the bit allocation process and the QP determination are not optimal. At frame layer, there is an implicit assumption considering that the video sequence is more or less stationary and consequently the neighbouring frames have similar characteristics. So, the target Bit-Rate for each frame is estimated using a straightforward process that allocates an equal bit budget for each frame regardless of its temporal and spatial complexities. This uniform allocation is surely not suited especially for all types of video sequences. The target bits determination at macroblock layer uses the MAD (Mean Absolute Difference) ratio as a complexity measure in order to promote interesting macroblocks, but this measure remains inefficient in handling macroblock characteristics. In a previous work we have proposed Rate-Quantization (R-Q) models for Intra and Inter frames used to deal with the QP determination shortcoming. In this paper, we look to overcome the limitation of the bit allocation process at the frame and the macroblock layers. At the frame level, we enhance the bit allocation process by exploiting frame complexity measures. Thereby, the target bit determination for P-frames is adjusted by combining two temporal measures: The first one is a motion ratio determined from actual bits used to encode previous frames. The second measure exploits both the difference between two consecutive frames and the histogram of this difference. At macroblock level, the visual saliency is used in the bit allocation process. The basic idea is to promote salient macroblocks. Hence, a saliency map, based on a Bottom-Up approach, is generated and a macroblock classification is performed. This classification is then used to accurately adjust UBitsH264 which represents the usual bit budget estimated by H.264/AVC bit allocation process. For salient macroblocks the adjustment leads to a bit budget which is always larger than UBitsH264. The extra bits added to

  9. Framing Effects on End-of-Life Preferences Among Latino Elders.

    PubMed

    Vélez Ortiz, Daniel; Martinez, Rubén O; Espino, David V

    2015-01-01

    This study compared how the presentation of end-of-life (EOL) choices influences responses by Latino and White older adults relative to resuscitation preferences. The authors apply prospect theory, which deals with decision making based on how choices are framed. Participants were presented with differently ordered questions framing a resuscitation scenario and asked to rate their preferences. Results show that Latino participants were significantly influenced by the framing order of treatment options with regard to resuscitation while Whites were not. Health professionals need to be aware that the ways they present EOL options are likely to affect the choices of Latino older adults. Further research is needed with Latino subgroups.

  10. A novel key-frame extraction approach for both video summary and video index.

    PubMed

    Lei, Shaoshuai; Xie, Gang; Yan, Gaowei

    2014-01-01

    Existing key-frame extraction methods are basically video summary oriented; yet the index task of key-frames is ignored. This paper presents a novel key-frame extraction approach which can be available for both video summary and video index. First a dynamic distance separability algorithm is advanced to divide a shot into subshots based on semantic structure, and then appropriate key-frames are extracted in each subshot by SVD decomposition. Finally, three evaluation indicators are proposed to evaluate the performance of the new approach. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves good semantic structure for semantics-based video index and meanwhile produces video summary consistent with human perception.

  11. A Novel Key-Frame Extraction Approach for Both Video Summary and Video Index

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shaoshuai; Xie, Gang; Yan, Gaowei

    2014-01-01

    Existing key-frame extraction methods are basically video summary oriented; yet the index task of key-frames is ignored. This paper presents a novel key-frame extraction approach which can be available for both video summary and video index. First a dynamic distance separability algorithm is advanced to divide a shot into subshots based on semantic structure, and then appropriate key-frames are extracted in each subshot by SVD decomposition. Finally, three evaluation indicators are proposed to evaluate the performance of the new approach. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves good semantic structure for semantics-based video index and meanwhile produces video summary consistent with human perception. PMID:24757431

  12. Formation of the properties of antimony matrix alloys for frame-type composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulevskii, V. A.; Antipov, V. I.; Vinogradov, L. V.; Kolmakov, A. G.; Lazarev, E. M.; Samarina, A. M.; Mukhina, Yu. E.

    2009-12-01

    A frame-type composite material (CM) produced upon impregnation represents a system consisting of a rigid porous frame and a matrix material filling its voids. When metals are used as a matrix material, they bring up specific problems related to melting of a metal, such as the thermal effect of the metal on the frame and the chemical interaction of the matrix and frame with the formation of brittle compounds. A CM that combines the best characteristics of its components can be produced. Since impregnation is, as a rule, performed under vacuum, melting of a matrix metal is accompanied by an increase in the evaporation rate. The evaporation of a matrix metal can be decreased by controlling its chemical composition, decreasing the melting temperature of the melt, and controlling the cooling rate. In this work, antimony alloys are used as a matrix material and their properties are studied.

  13. GPS derived ground motions (2005-2014) within the Gulf of Mexico region referred to a stable Gulf of Mexico reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Wang, G.

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates current ground motions derived from the GPS geodesy infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico region. The positions and velocity vectors of 161 continuous GPS (CGPS) stations are presented with respect to a newly established local reference frame, the Stable Gulf of Mexico Reference Frame (SGOMRF). Thirteen long-term (> 5 years) CGPS are used to realize the local reference frame. The root-mean-square (RMS) of the velocities of the 13 SGOMRF reference stations achieves 0.2 mm yr-1 in the horizontal and 0.3 mm yr-1 in the vertical directions. GPS observations presented in this study indicate significant land subsidence in the coastal area of southeastern Louisiana, the greater Houston metropolitan area, and two cities in Mexico (Aguascalientes and Mexico City). The most rapid subsidence is recorded at the Mexico City International airport, which is up to 26.6 cm yr-1 (2008-2014). Significant spatial variation of subsidence rates is observed in both Mexico City and the Houston area. The overall subsidence rate in the Houston area is decreasing. GPS observations in southeastern Louisiana indicate minor (4.0-6.0 mm yr-1) but consistent subsidence over time and space. This poses a potential threat to the safety of costal infrastructure in the long-term.

  14. The Impact of Gain- and Loss-Framed Messages on Young Adults’ Sexual Decision Making: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Janssen, Erick; Matson, Margaret; Finn, Peter R.; Heiman, Julia R.

    2015-01-01

    Messages that frame a target behavior in terms of its benefits (gain frame) or costs (loss frame) have been widely and successfully used for health promotion and risk reduction. However, the impact of framed messages on decisions to have sex and sexual risk, as well as moderators of these effects, has remained largely unexplored. We used a computerized laboratory task to test the effects of framed messages about condom use on young adults’ sexual decision making. Participants (N = 127) listened to both gain- and loss-framed messages and rated their intentions to have sex with partners who posed a high and low risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The effects of message frame, partner risk, participant gender, ability to adopt the messages, and message presentation order on intentions to have sex were examined. Intentions to have sex with high-risk partners significantly decreased after the loss-framed message, but not after the gain-framed message, and intentions to have sex increased for participants who received the gain-framed message first. Yet, participants found it easier to adopt the gain-framed message. Results suggest that loss-framed messages may be particularly effective in reducing intentions to have sex with partners who might pose a higher risk for STIs, and that message presentation order may alter the relative effectiveness of gain- and loss-framed messages on sexual decision making. Future studies should examine the precise conditions under which gain- and loss-framed messages can promote healthy sexual behaviors and reduce sexual risk behaviors. PMID:26696408

  15. The Impact of Gain- and Loss-Framed Messages on Young Adults' Sexual Decision Making: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Janssen, Erick; Matson, Margaret; Finn, Peter R; Heiman, Julia R

    2017-02-01

    Messages that frame a target behavior in terms of its benefits (gain frame) or costs (loss frame) have been widely and successfully used for health promotion and risk reduction. However, the impact of framed messages on decisions to have sex and sexual risk, as well as moderators of these effects, has remained largely unexplored. We used a computerized laboratory task to test the effects of framed messages about condom use on young adults' sexual decision making. Participants (N = 127) listened to both gain- and loss-framed messages and rated their intentions to have sex with partners who posed a high and low risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The effects of message frame, partner risk, participant gender, ability to adopt the messages, and message presentation order on intentions to have sex were examined. Intentions to have sex with high-risk partners significantly decreased after the loss-framed message, but not after the gain-framed message, and intentions to have sex increased for participants who received the gain-framed message first. Yet, participants found it easier to adopt the gain-framed message. Results suggest that loss-framed messages may be particularly effective in reducing intentions to have sex with partners who might pose a higher risk for STIs, and that message presentation order may alter the relative effectiveness of gain- and loss-framed messages on sexual decision making. Future studies should examine the precise conditions under which gain- and loss-framed messages can promote healthy sexual behaviors and reduce sexual risk behaviors.

  16. JPEG2000 vs. full frame wavelet packet compression for smart card medical records.

    PubMed

    Leehan, Joaquín Azpirox; Lerallut, Jean-Francois

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison among different compression methods to be used in the context of electronic health records in the newer version of "smart cards". The JPEG2000 standard is compared to a full-frame wavelet packet compression method at high (33:1 and 50:1) compression rates. Results show that the full-frame method outperforms the JPEG2K standard qualitatively and quantitatively.

  17. Experimental and Numerical Examination of the Thermal Transmittance of High Performance Window Frames

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen Ph.D., Arild; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh P.E., Dariush; Uvslokk, Sivert; Talev, Goce; Petter Jelle Ph.D., Bjorn

    2010-06-17

    While window frames typically represent 20-30percent of the overall window area, their impact on the total window heat transfer rates may be much larger. This effect is even greater in low-conductance (highly insulating) windows which incorporate very low conductance glazings. Developing low-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. The Passivhaus Institute in Germany states that windows (glazing and frames, combined) should have U-values not exceeding 0.80 W/(m??K). This has created a niche market for highly insulating frames, with frame U-values typically around 0.7-1.0 W/(m2 cdot K). The U-values reported are often based on numerical simulations according to international simulation standards. It is prudent to check the accuracy of these calculation standards, especially for high performance products before more manufacturers begin to use them to improve other product offerings. In this paper the thermal transmittance of five highly insulating window frames (three wooden frames, one aluminum frame and one PVC frame), found from numerical simulations and experiments, are compared. Hot box calorimeter results are compared with numerical simulations according to ISO 10077-2 and ISO 15099. In addition CFD simulations have been carried out, in order to use the most accurate tool available to investigate the convection and radiation effects inside the frame cavities. Our results show that available tools commonly used to evaluate window performance, based on ISO standards, give good overall agreement, but specific areas need improvement.

  18. A genetic scale of reading frame coding.

    PubMed

    Michel, Christian J

    2014-08-21

    The reading frame coding (RFC) of codes (sets) of trinucleotides is a genetic concept which has been largely ignored during the last 50 years. A first objective is the definition of a new and simple statistical parameter PrRFC for analysing the probability (efficiency) of reading frame coding (RFC) of any trinucleotide code. A second objective is to reveal different classes and subclasses of trinucleotide codes involved in reading frame coding: the circular codes of 20 trinucleotides and the bijective genetic codes of 20 trinucleotides coding the 20 amino acids. This approach allows us to propose a genetic scale of reading frame coding which ranges from 1/3 with the random codes (RFC probability identical in the three frames) to 1 with the comma-free circular codes (RFC probability maximal in the reading frame and null in the two shifted frames). This genetic scale shows, in particular, the reading frame coding probabilities of the 12,964,440 circular codes (PrRFC=83.2% in average), the 216 C(3) self-complementary circular codes (PrRFC=84.1% in average) including the code X identified in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes (PrRFC=81.3%) and the 339,738,624 bijective genetic codes (PrRFC=61.5% in average) including the 52 codes without permuted trinucleotides (PrRFC=66.0% in average). Otherwise, the reading frame coding probabilities of each trinucleotide code coding an amino acid with the universal genetic code are also determined. The four amino acids Gly, Lys, Phe and Pro are coded by codes (not circular) with RFC probabilities equal to 2/3, 1/2, 1/2 and 2/3, respectively. The amino acid Leu is coded by a circular code (not comma-free) with a RFC probability equal to 18/19. The 15 other amino acids are coded by comma-free circular codes, i.e. with RFC probabilities equal to 1. The identification of coding properties in some classes of trinucleotide codes studied here may bring new insights in the origin and evolution of the genetic code.

  19. In vivo near-realtime volumetric optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a high-repetition-rate nanosecond fiber-laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Hajireza, Parsin; Shao, Peng; Forbrich, Alexander; Zemp, Roger J.

    2011-08-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is capable of achieving optical-absorption-contrast images with micron-scale spatial resolution. Previous OR-PAM systems have been frame-rate limited by mechanical scanning speeds and laser pulse repetition rate (PRR). We demonstrate OR-PAM imaging using a diode-pumped nanosecond-pulsed Ytterbium-doped 532-nm fiber laser with PRR up to 600 kHz. Combined with fast-scanning mirrors, our proposed system provides C-scan and 3D images with acquisition frame rate of 4 frames per second (fps) or higher, two orders of magnitude faster than previously published systems. High-contrast images of capillary-scale microvasculature in a live Swiss Webster mouse ear with ~6-μm optical lateral spatial resolution are demonstrated.

  20. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, Arild; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Curcija, Charlie; Kohler, Christian

    2008-09-11

    While window frames typically represent 20-30% of the overall window area, their impact on the total window heat transfer rates may be much larger. This effect is even greater in low-conductance (highly insulating) windows that incorporate very low-conductance glazing. Developing low-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. Based on a literature review and an evaluation of current methods of modeling heat transfer through window frames, we conclude that current procedures specified in ISO standards are not sufficiently adequate for accurately evaluating heat transfer through the low-conductance frames. We conclude that the near-term priorities for improving the modeling of heat transfer through low-conductance frames are: (1) Add 2D view-factor radiation to standard modeling and examine the current practice of averaging surface emissivity based on area weighting and the process of making an equivalent rectangular frame cavity. (2) Asses 3D radiation effects in frame cavities and develop recommendation for inclusion into the design fenestration tools. (3) Assess existing correlations for convection in vertical cavities using CFD. (4) Study 2D and 3D natural convection heat transfer in frame cavities for cavities that are proven to be deficient from item 3 above. Recommend improved correlations or full CFD modeling into ISO standards and design fenestration tools, if appropriate. (5) Study 3D hardware short-circuits and propose methods to ensure that these effects are incorporated into ratings. (6) Study the heat transfer effects of ventilated frame cavities and propose updated correlations.

  1. Relativistic effects in local inertial frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Neil; Bertotti, Bruno

    1986-01-01

    The concept of a generalized Fermi frame is introduced with the aim of describing the relativistic effects due to a third, distant body (such as the sun) upon the motion of an earth satellite. This extends Fermi's construction of a local inertial frame to the case in which there are local gravitating masses. This is done in the slow-motion, weak-field approximation by splitting the metric into an external part and a local part; Fermi's construction of local inertial coordinates defined with respect to the external metric is then used to transform the complete metric. The results show that the main relativistic effects on an earth satellite are due to the nonlinear correction in the earth's own Schwarzschild field. There are much smaller relativistic corrections in the tidal field of the sun, and an earth-sun interaction term. The spatial axes of the local frame also undergo geodetic precession. Particular care must be taken with respect to the definition of the time coordinate in the generalized Fermi frame in order that the unit of time be consistent with readings of reasonable physical clocks on earth's surface. Also discussed more rigorously is the generalized Fermi frame for a system of two bodies revolving in circular orbits around a common barycenter.

  2. Dynamic Study of Bicycle Frame Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, M. S. M.; Nazri, N. A.; Zahari, S. N.; Abdullah, N. A. Z.; Priyandoko, G.

    2016-11-01

    Bicycle frames have to bear variety of loads and it is needed to ensure the frame can withstand dynamic loads to move. This paper focusing on dynamic study for bicycle frame structure with a purpose to avoid the problem regarding loads on the structure and to ensure the structure is safe when multiple loads are applied on it. The main objectives of dynamic study are to find the modal properties using two method; finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental modal analysis (EMA). The correlation between two studies will be obtained using percentage error. Firstly, 3D model of mountain bike frame structure has been draw using computer-aided design (CAD) software and normal mode analysis using MSC Nastran Patran was executed for numerical method meanwhile modal testing using impact hammer was performed for experimental counterpart. From the correlation result, it show that percentage error between FEA and EMA were below 10% due to noise, imperfect experiment setup during perform EMA and imperfect modeling of mountain bike frame structure in CAD software. Small percentage error differences makes both of the method can be applied to obtain the dynamic characteristic of structure. It is essential to determine whether the structure is safe or not. In conclusion, model updating method is required to reduce more percentage error between two results.

  3. X/Ka Celestial Frame Improvements: Vision to Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, C. S.; Bagri, D. S.; Britcliffe, M. J.; Clark, J. E.; Franco, M. M.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Goodhart, C. E.; Horiuchi, S.; Lowe, S. T.; Moll, V. E.; Navarro, R.; Rogstad, S. P.; Proctor, R. C.; Sigman, E. H.; Skjerve, L. J.; Soriano, M. A.; Sovers, O. J.; Tucker, B. C.; Wang, D.; White, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to extend the International Celestial Reference Frame from its S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) basis to a complementary frame at X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz), we began in mid-2005 an ongoing series of X/Ka observations using NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) radio telescopes. Over the course of 47 sessions, we have detected 351 extra-galactic radio sources covering the full 24 hours of right ascension and declinations down to -45 degrees. Angular source position accuracy is at the part-per-billion level. We developed an error budget which shows that the main errors arise from limited sensitivity, mismodeling of the troposphere, uncalibrated instrumental effects, and the lack of a southern baseline. Recent work has improved sensitivity by improving pointing calibrations and by increasing the data rate four-fold. Troposphere calibration has been demonstrated at the mm-level. Construction of instrumental phase calibrators and new digital baseband filtering electronics began in recent months. We will discuss the expected effect of these improvements on the X/Ka frame.

  4. X/Ka Celestial Reference Frame Improvements: Vision to Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Bagri, D. S.; Brticliffe, M. J.; Clark, J. E.; Franco, M. M.; García-Miró, C.; Goodhart, C. E.; Horiuchi, S.; Lowe, S. T.; Moll, V. E.; Navarro, R.; Rogstad, S. P.; Proctor, R. C.; Skjerve, L. J.; Soriano, M. A.; Sovers, O. J.; Tucker, B. C.; Wang, D.; White, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    In order to extend the International Celestial Reference Frame from its S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) basis to a complementary frame at X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz), we began in mid-2005 an ongoing series of X/Ka observations using NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) radio telescopes. Over the course of 47 sessions, we have detected 351 extra-galactic radio sources covering the full 24 hours of right ascension and declinations down to -45 degrees. Angular source position accuracy is at the part-per-billion level. We developed an error budget which shows that the main errors arise from limited sensitivity, mismodeling of the troposphere, uncalibrated instrumental effects, and the lack of a southern baseline. Recent work has improved sensitivity by improving pointing calibrations and by increasing the data rate four-fold. Troposphere calibration has been demonstrated at the mm-level. Construction of instrumental phase calibrators and new digital baseband filtering electronics began in recent months. We will discuss the expected effect of these improvements on the X/Ka frame.

  5. Low-frequency and wideband vibration energy harvester with flexible frame and interdigital structure

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Pengwei Wang, Yanfen; Luo, Cuixian; Li, Gang; Hu, Jie; Zhang, Wendong; Liu, Ying; Liu, Wei

    2015-04-15

    As an alternative to traditional cantilever beam structures and their evolutions, a flexible beam based, interdigital structure, vibration energy harvester has been presented and investigated. The proposed interdigital-shaped oscillator consists of a rectangular flexible frame and series of cantilever beams interdigitally bonded to it. In order to achieve low frequency and wide-bandwidth harvesting, Young’s modulus of materials, frame size and the amount of the cantilevers have been studied systematically. The measured frequency responses of the designed device (PDMS frame, quintuple piezoelectric cantilever beams) show a 460% increase in bandwidth below 80Hz. When excited at an acceleration of 1.0 g, the energy harvester achieves to a maximum open-circuit voltage of 65V, and the maximum output power 4.5 mW.

  6. Failure to Achieve a PSA Level {<=}1 ng/mL After Neoadjuvant LHRHA Therapy Predicts for Lower Biochemical Control Rate and Overall Survival in Localized Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Darren M. McAleese, Jonathan; Park, Richard M.; Stewart, David P.; Stranex, Stephen; Eakin, Ruth L.; Houston, Russell F.; O'Sullivan, Joe M.

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether failure to suppress the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level to {<=}1 ng/mL after {>=}2 months of neoadjuvant luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy in patients scheduled to undergo external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate carcinoma is associated with reduced biochemical failure-free survival. Methods and Materials: A retrospective case note review of consecutive patients with intermediate- or high-risk localized prostate cancer treated between January 2001 and December 2002 with neoadjuvant hormonal deprivation therapy, followed by concurrent hormonal therapy and radiotherapy was performed. Patient data were divided for analysis according to whether the PSA level in Week 1 of radiotherapy was {<=}1.0 ng/mL. Biochemical failure was determined using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (Phoenix) definition. Results: A total of 119 patients were identified. The PSA level after neoadjuvant hormonal deprivation therapy was {<=}1 ng/mL in 67 patients and >1 ng/mL in 52. At a median follow-up of 49 months, the 4-year actuarial biochemical failure-free survival rate was 84% vs. 60% (p = 0.0016) in favor of the patients with a PSA level after neoadjuvant hormonal deprivation therapy of {<=}1 ng/mL. The overall survival rate was 94% vs. 77.5% (p = 0.0045), and the disease-specific survival rate at 4 years was 98.5% vs. 82.5%. Conclusions: The results of our study have shown that patients with a PSA level >1 ng/mL at the beginning of external beam radiotherapy after {>=}2 months of neoadjuvant luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy have a significantly greater rate of biochemical failure and lower survival rate compared with those with a PSA level of {<=}1 ng/mL. Patients without adequate PSA suppression should be considered a higher risk group and considered for dose escalation or the use of novel treatments.

  7. SNR improvement for hyperspectral application using frame and pixel binning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Sami Ur; Kumar, Ankush; Banerjee, Arup

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging spectrometer systems are increasingly being used in the field of remote sensing for variety of civilian and military applications. The ability of such instruments in discriminating finer spectral features along with improved spatial and radiometric performance have made such instruments a powerful tool in the field of remote sensing. Design and development of spaceborne hyper spectral imaging spectrometers poses lot of technological challenges in terms of optics, dispersion element, detectors, electronics and mechanical systems. The main factors that define the type of detectors are the spectral region, SNR, dynamic range, pixel size, number of pixels, frame rate, operating temperature etc. Detectors with higher quantum efficiency and higher well depth are the preferred choice for such applications. CCD based Si detectors serves the requirement of high well depth for VNIR band spectrometers but suffers from smear. Smear can be controlled by using CMOS detectors. Si CMOS detectors with large format arrays are available. These detectors generally have smaller pitch and low well depth. Binning technique can be used with available CMOS detectors to meet the large swath, higher resolution and high SNR requirements. Availability of larger dwell time of satellite can be used to bin multiple frames to increase the signal collection even with lesser well depth detectors and ultimately increase the SNR. Lab measurements reveal that SNR improvement by frame binning is more in comparison to pixel binning. Effect of pixel binning as compared to the frame binning will be discussed and degradation of SNR as compared to theoretical value for pixel binning will be analyzed.

  8. Hamiltonian deformations of Gabor frames: First steps

    PubMed Central

    de Gosson, Maurice A.

    2015-01-01

    Gabor frames can advantageously be redefined using the Heisenberg–Weyl operators familiar from harmonic analysis and quantum mechanics. Not only does this redefinition allow us to recover in a very simple way known results of symplectic covariance, but it immediately leads to the consideration of a general deformation scheme by Hamiltonian isotopies (i.e. arbitrary paths of non-linear symplectic mappings passing through the identity). We will study in some detail an associated weak notion of Hamiltonian deformation of Gabor frames, using ideas from semiclassical physics involving coherent states and Gaussian approximations. We will thereafter discuss possible applications and extensions of our method, which can be viewed – as the title suggests – as the very first steps towards a general deformation theory for Gabor frames. PMID:25892903

  9. Hamiltonian deformations of Gabor frames: First steps.

    PubMed

    de Gosson, Maurice A

    2015-03-01

    Gabor frames can advantageously be redefined using the Heisenberg-Weyl operators familiar from harmonic analysis and quantum mechanics. Not only does this redefinition allow us to recover in a very simple way known results of symplectic covariance, but it immediately leads to the consideration of a general deformation scheme by Hamiltonian isotopies (i.e. arbitrary paths of non-linear symplectic mappings passing through the identity). We will study in some detail an associated weak notion of Hamiltonian deformation of Gabor frames, using ideas from semiclassical physics involving coherent states and Gaussian approximations. We will thereafter discuss possible applications and extensions of our method, which can be viewed - as the title suggests - as the very first steps towards a general deformation theory for Gabor frames.

  10. All Frames Are Not Created Equal: A Typology and Critical Analysis of Framing Effects.

    PubMed

    Levin; Schneider; Gaeth

    1998-11-01

    Accentuate the positive or accentuate the negative? The literature has been mixed as to how the alternative framing of information in positive or negative terms affects judgments and decisions. We argue that this is because different studies have employed different operational definitions of framing and thus have tapped different underlying processes. We develop a typology to distinguish between three different kinds of valence framing effects. First we discuss the standard risky choice framing effect introduced by Tversky and Kahneman (1981) to illustrate how valence affects willingness to take a risk. Then we discuss attribute framing, which affects the evaluation of object or event characteristics, and goal framing, which affects the persuasiveness of a communication. We describe the distinctions, provide a number of examples of each type, and discuss likely theoretical mechanisms underlying each type of framing effect. Our typology helps explain and resolve apparent confusions in the literature, ties together studies with common underlying mechanisms, and serves as a guide to future research and theory development. We conclude that a broader perspective, focused on the cognitive and motivational consequences of valence-based encoding, opens the door to a deeper understanding of the causes and consequences of framing effects. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  11. Strategic Framing Study Circles: Toward a Gold Standard of Framing Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This article explains how communities of practice have been developed as part of FrameWorks' field-building efforts. Strategic Framing Study Circles, as they are known, have been conducted with four statewide coalitions, one group of national organizations, and an emerging regional coalition. The goal of each community of practice is to build…

  12. All framing effects are not created equal: Low convergent validity between two classic measurements of framing.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-07-20

    Human risk-taking attitudes can be influenced by two logically equivalent but descriptively different frames, termed the framing effect. The classic hypothetical vignette-based task (Asian disease problem) and a recently developed reward-based gambling task have been widely used to assess individual differences in the framing effect. Previous studies treat framing bias as a stable trait that has genetic basis. However, these two paradigms differ in terms of task domain (loss vs. gain) and task context (vignette-based vs. reward-based) and the convergent validity of these measurements remains unknown. Here, we developed a vignette-based task and a gambling task in both gain and loss domains and tested correlations of the framing effect among these tasks in 159 young adults. Our results revealed no significant correlation between the vignette-based task in the loss domain and the gambling task in the gain domain, indicating low convergent validity. The current findings raise the question of how to measure the framing effect precisely, especially in individual difference studies using large samples and expensive neuroscience methods. Our results suggest that the framing effect is influenced by both task domain and task context and future research should be cautious about the operationalization of the framing effect.

  13. All framing effects are not created equal: Low convergent validity between two classic measurements of framing

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Human risk-taking attitudes can be influenced by two logically equivalent but descriptively different frames, termed the framing effect. The classic hypothetical vignette-based task (Asian disease problem) and a recently developed reward-based gambling task have been widely used to assess individual differences in the framing effect. Previous studies treat framing bias as a stable trait that has genetic basis. However, these two paradigms differ in terms of task domain (loss vs. gain) and task context (vignette-based vs. reward-based) and the convergent validity of these measurements remains unknown. Here, we developed a vignette-based task and a gambling task in both gain and loss domains and tested correlations of the framing effect among these tasks in 159 young adults. Our results revealed no significant correlation between the vignette-based task in the loss domain and the gambling task in the gain domain, indicating low convergent validity. The current findings raise the question of how to measure the framing effect precisely, especially in individual difference studies using large samples and expensive neuroscience methods. Our results suggest that the framing effect is influenced by both task domain and task context and future research should be cautious about the operationalization of the framing effect. PMID:27436680

  14. FRAMES-2.0 Software System: Frames 2.0 Pest Integration (F2PEST)

    SciTech Connect

    Castleton, Karl J.; Meyer, Philip D.

    2009-06-17

    The implementation of the FRAMES 2.0 F2PEST module is described, including requirements, design, and specifications of the software. This module integrates the PEST parameter estimation software within the FRAMES 2.0 environmental modeling framework. A test case is presented.

  15. BioFrameNet: A FrameNet Extension to the Domain of Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolbey, Andrew Eric

    2009-01-01

    In this study I introduce BioFrameNet, an extension of the Berkeley FrameNet lexical database to the domain of molecular biology. I examine the syntactic and semantic combinatorial possibilities exhibited in the lexical items used in this domain in order to get a better understanding of the grammatical properties of the language used in scientific…

  16. On the Assessment of Global Terrestrial Reference Frame Temporal Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ampatzidis, Dimitrios; Koenig, Rolf; Zhu, Shengyuan

    2015-04-01

    Global Terrestrial Reference Frames (GTRFs) as the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) provide reliable 4-D position information (3-D coordinates and their evolution through time). The given 3-D velocities play a significant role in precise position acquisition and are estimated from long term coordinate time series from the space-geodetic techniques DORIS, GNSS, SLR, and VLBI. GTRFs temporal evolution is directly connected with their internal stability: The more intense and inhomogeneous velocity field, the less stable TRF is derived. The assessment of the quality of the GTRF is mainly realized by comparing it to each individual technique's reference frame. E.g the comparison of GTRFs to SLR-only based TRF gives the sense of the ITRF stability with respect to the Geocenter and scale and their associated rates respectively. In addition, the comparison of ITRF to the VLBI-only based TRF can be used for the scale validation. However, till now there is not any specified methodology for the total assessment (in terms of origin, orientation and scale respectively) of the temporal evolution and GTRFs associated accuracy. We present a new alternative diagnostic tool for the assessment of GTRFs temporal evolution based on the well-known time-dependent Helmert type transformation formula (three shifts, three rotations and scale rates respectively). The advantage of the new methodology relies on the fact that it uses the full velocity field of the TRF and therefore all points not just the ones common to different techniques. It also examines simultaneously rates of origin, orientation and scale. The methodology is presented and implemented to the two existing GTRFs on the market (ITRF and DTRF which is computed from DGFI) , the results are discussed. The results also allow to compare directly each GTRF dynamic behavior. Furthermore, the correlations of the estimated parameters can also provide useful information to the proposed GTRFs assessment scheme.

  17. 'No delays achiever'.

    PubMed

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  18. Vicarious Achievement Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others

    This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…

  19. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  20. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  1. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  2. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  3. Notes for Brazil sampling frame evaluation trip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, R. (Principal Investigator); Hicks, D. R. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Field notes describing a trip conducted in Brazil are presented. This trip was conducted for the purpose of evaluating a sample frame developed using LANDSAT full frame images by the USDA Economic and Statistics Service for the eventual purpose of cropland production estimation with LANDSAT by the Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting Project of the AgRISTARS program. Six areas were analyzed on the basis of land use, crop land in corn and soybean, field size and soil type. The analysis indicated generally successful use of LANDSAT images for purposes of remote large area land use stratification.

  4. Ray Effect Mitigation Through Reference Frame Rotation

    DOE PAGES

    Tencer, John

    2016-05-01

    The discrete ordinates method is a popular and versatile technique for solving the radiative transport equation, a major drawback of which is the presence of ray effects. Mitigation of ray effects can yield significantly more accurate results and enhanced numerical stability for combined mode codes. Moreover, when ray effects are present, the solution is seen to be highly dependent upon the relative orientation of the geometry and the global reference frame. It is an undesirable property. A novel ray effect mitigation technique of averaging the computed solution for various reference frame orientations is proposed.

  5. The Reciprocal Internal/External Frame of Reference Model Using Grades and Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Möller, Jens; Zimmermann, Friederike; Köller, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Background: The reciprocal I/E model (RI/EM) combines the internal/external frame of reference model (I/EM) with the reciprocal effects model (REM). The RI/EM extends the I/EM longitudinally and the REM across domains. The model predicts that, within domains, mathematics and verbal achievement (VACH) and academic self-concept have positive effects…

  6. Correction of tibial deformity in Paget's disease using the Taylor spatial frame.

    PubMed

    Tsaridis, E; Sarikloglou, S; Papasoulis, E; Lykoudis, S; Koutroumpas, I; Avtzakis, V

    2008-02-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with a severe deformity of the tibia caused by Paget's disease and osteoarthritis of the ipsilateral knee. Total knee replacement required preliminary correction of the tibial deformity. This was successfully achieved by tibial osteotomy followed by distraction osteogenesis using the Taylor spatial frame. The subsequent knee replacement was successful, with no recurrence of deformity.

  7. Frame of Reference Rater Training Issues: Recall, Time and Behavior Observation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roch, Sylvia G.; O'Sullivan, Brian J.

    2003-01-01

    Graduate students were trained as raters either using frame of reference (FOR, n=220, behavior observation training (BOT, n=21), or performance appraisal (controls, n=21). They rated videotaped lecturers twice. FOR increased number of behaviors recalled; FOR and BOT improved recall quality. FOR improved rating accuracy even after 2 weeks.…

  8. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender frames shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. (b) Height difference....

  9. Transitions in Students' Epistemic Framing along Two Axes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Paul W.; Martinuk, Mathew Sandy; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    We use epistemological framing to interpret participants' behavior during group problem-solving sessions in an intermediate mechanics course. We are interested in how students frame discussion and in how the groups shift discussion framings. Our analysis includes two framing axes, expansive vs narrow and serious vs silly, which together…

  10. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  11. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender frames shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. (b) Height difference....

  12. Effects of Problem Frame and Gender on Principals' Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul M.; Fagley, Nancy S.; Casella, Nancy E.

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates people's decisions can sometimes be influenced by seemingly trivial differences in the "framing" (i.e., wording) of alternative options. The tendency to prefer risk averse options when framed positively and risky options when framed negatively is known as the framing effect. The current study examined the susceptibility of…

  13. Section BB Hatch Coating; Framing Plan on Line C Lodging ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B-B Hatch Coating; Framing Plan on Line C Lodging Knees at Hatch; Elevation A-A Hull Framing; Section at Hatch Frame 36, Starboard Looking Aft; Midship Section Frame 37, Port Looking Aft - Steam Schooner WAPAMA, Kaiser Shipyard No. 3 (Shoal Point), Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  14. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  15. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  16. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  17. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  18. Remarks on Viewing Situation in a Rotating Frame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    Representations of centrifugal forces are derived in a variety of rotating frames. Although the rotating angle of a point mass relative to an inertial frame is often confused with the rotating angle of a rotating frame relative to the inertial frame, they should be differentiated. (Contains 4 figures and 1 table.)

  19. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance and inspection. Frames, decks, plates, tailpieces, pedestals, and braces shall be maintained in a safe and... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section...

  20. Achievability for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.

    2001-02-01

    Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .

  1. The Contributions of Orthographic Processing Factors to the Spelling Achievement of Middle-Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radaj, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the contributions of "orthographic processing" factors to the spelling achievement of typically developing middle-elementary students. The researcher framed orthographic processing as a multilinguistic, multidimensional construct involving process factors related to procedural orthographic operations and product…

  2. The framing effect and skin conductance responses.

    PubMed

    Ring, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Individuals often rely on simple heuristics when they face complex choice situations under uncertainty. Traditionally, it has been proposed that cognitive processes are the main driver to evaluate different choice options and to finally reach a decision. Growing evidence, however, highlights a strong interrelation between judgment and decision-making (JDM) on the one hand, and emotional processes on the other hand. This also seems to apply to judgmental heuristics, i.e., decision processes that are typically considered to be fast and intuitive. In this study, participants are exposed to different probabilities of receiving an unpleasant electric shock. Information about electric shock probabilities is either positively or negatively framed. Integrated skin conductance responses (ISCRs) while waiting for electric shock realization are used as an indicator for participants' emotional arousal. This measure is compared to objective probabilities. I find evidence for a relation between emotional body reactions measured by ISCRs and the framing effect. Under negative frames, participants show significantly higher ISCRs while waiting for an electric shock to be delivered than under positive frames. This result might contribute to a better understanding of the psychological processes underlying JDM. Further studies are necessary to reveal the causality underlying this finding, i.e., whether emotional processes influence JDM or vice versa.

  3. Frame Field Singularity Correction for Automatic Hexahedralization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tengfei; Huang, Jin; Wang, Yuanzhen; Tong, Yiying; Bao, Hujun

    2014-08-01

    We present an automatic hexahedralization tool, based on a systematic treatment that removes some of the singularities that would lead to degenerate volumetric parameterization. Such singularities could be abundant in automatically generated frame fields guiding the interior and boundary layouts of the hexahedra in an all hexahedral mesh. We first give the mathematical definitions of the inadmissible singularities prevalent in frame fields, including newly introduced surface singularity types. We then give a practical framework for adjusting singularity graphs by automatically modifying the rotational transition of frames between charts (cells of a tetrahedral mesh for the volume) to resolve the issues detected in the internal and boundary singularity graph. After applying an additional re-smoothing of the frame field with the modified transition conditions, we cut the volume into a topologically trivial domain, with the original topology encoded by the self-intersections of the boundary of the domain, and solve a mixed integer problem on this domain for a global parameterization. Finally, a properly connected hexahedral mesh is constructed from the integer isosurfaces of (u,v,w) in the parameterization. We demonstrate the applicability of the method on complex shapes, and discuss its limitations.

  4. Four questions for passive frame theory.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-01-01

    Four questions are raised about the passive frame theory of Morsella et al.: (1) What is the relation of the theory to the response-selection-bottleneck view of attention? (2) Does the theory accommodate the contents of consciousness? (3) What about animals without skeletal muscles? (4) How do the contents of consciousness change with the development of automaticity?

  5. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  6. Fermionic entanglement ambiguity in noninertial frames

    SciTech Connect

    Montero, Miguel; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo

    2011-06-15

    We analyze an ambiguity in previous works on entanglement of fermionic fields in noninertial frames. This ambiguity, related to the anticommutation properties of field operators, leads to nonunique results when computing entanglement measures for the same state. We show that the ambiguity disappears when we introduce detectors, which are in any case necessary as a means to probe the field entanglement.

  7. Leaders as Linchpins for Framing Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    Community college leaders serve as linchpins for framing meaning on campus. The current pressures on institutions (given declining financial resources, demands for accountability, changing faculty ranks, and societal need for new knowledge) require presidents to juggle multiple priorities while presenting a cohesive message to campus constituents.…

  8. Hoisting frame facilitates handling of large objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colpean, K. V.; Holcomb, D. F.

    1968-01-01

    Hoisting frame can be used with a standard 5-ton forklift to handle the large spreader bars, or other bulky pieces of equipment, much faster and more efficiently than with a boom or gantry crane. In addition forklifts of this type are more readily available.

  9. Productivity of Noun Slots in Verb Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theakston, Anna L.; Ibbotson, Paul; Freudenthal, Daniel; Lieven, Elena V. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Productivity is a central concept in the study of language and language acquisition. As a test case for exploring the notion of productivity, we focus on the noun slots of verb frames, such as __"want"__, __"see"__, and __"get"__. We develop a novel combination of measures designed to assess both the flexibility and…

  10. Cultural Framing: Foreign Correspondents and Their Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starck, Kenneth; Villanueva, Estela

    With the notion of cultural framing as a theoretical backdrop, a study examined the role of culture in the work of foreign correspondents. The aim was to explore cultural aspects of international news reporting that may suggest avenues for more systematic inquiry into the role of culture in the work of the foreign correspondent. Of 75 examined…

  11. Framing Learning Conditions in Geography Excursions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonasson, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate and frame some learning conditions involved in the practice of geographical excursions. The empirical material from this study comes from several excursions made by students in human geography and an ethnomethodological approach through participant observation is used. The study is informed by theories from…

  12. The Hot Hand Belief and Framing Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport--where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance--indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and…

  13. Frames of Reference in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Joshua

    2012-12-01

    The classic film "Frames of Reference"1,2 effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating—all with respect to the Earth frame. The film is a classic for good reason, but today it does have a couple of drawbacks: 1) The film by nature only accommodates passive learning. It does not give students the opportunity to try any of the experiments themselves. 2) The dated style of the 50-year-old film can distract students from the physics content. I present here a simple setup that can recreate many of the movies demonstrations in the classroom. The demonstrations can be used to supplement the movie or in its place, if desired. All of the materials except perhaps the inexpensive web camera should likely be available already in most teaching laboratories. Unlike previously described activities, these experiments do not require travel to another location3 or an involved setup.4,5

  14. Cognitive Style, Creativity Framing and Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how individuals with different cognitive styles respond to choices involving framing effects. The results suggest that cognitive style as defined by Kirton (1976) is far more complex than previous studies indicate. Kirton characterises "Innovators" as rule breakers and "Adaptors" as conformists. The most…

  15. Emergent Bilinguals: Framing Students as Statistical Data?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Jill; Menken, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant youth who are designated as English language learners in American schools--whom we refer to as "emergent bilinguals"--are increasingly framed by numerical calculations. Utilizing the notion of assemblage from actor-network theory (ANT), we trace how emergent bilinguals are discursively constructed by officials, administrators,…

  16. Construction Cluster Volume I [Wood Structural Framing].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is the first of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials at the basic skills level for the construction cluster. It focuses on wood structural framing and contains 20 units: (1) occupational information; (2) blueprint reading; (3) using leveling instruments and laying out building lines; (4)…

  17. The framing effect and skin conductance responses

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Individuals often rely on simple heuristics when they face complex choice situations under uncertainty. Traditionally, it has been proposed that cognitive processes are the main driver to evaluate different choice options and to finally reach a decision. Growing evidence, however, highlights a strong interrelation between judgment and decision-making (JDM) on the one hand, and emotional processes on the other hand. This also seems to apply to judgmental heuristics, i.e., decision processes that are typically considered to be fast and intuitive. In this study, participants are exposed to different probabilities of receiving an unpleasant electric shock. Information about electric shock probabilities is either positively or negatively framed. Integrated skin conductance responses (ISCRs) while waiting for electric shock realization are used as an indicator for participants' emotional arousal. This measure is compared to objective probabilities. I find evidence for a relation between emotional body reactions measured by ISCRs and the framing effect. Under negative frames, participants show significantly higher ISCRs while waiting for an electric shock to be delivered than under positive frames. This result might contribute to a better understanding of the psychological processes underlying JDM. Further studies are necessary to reveal the causality underlying this finding, i.e., whether emotional processes influence JDM or vice versa. PMID:26300747

  18. Building Trades. Block III. Floor Framing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This document contains three units of a course on floor framing to be used as part of a building trades program. Each unit consists, first, of an informational lesson, with complete lesson plan for the teacher's use. Included in each lesson plan are the lesson aim; lists of teaching aids, materials, references, and prerequisites for students;…

  19. Persuasive performance feedback: the effect of framing on self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Choe, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Bongshin; Munson, Sean; Pratt, Wanda; Kientz, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    Self-monitoring technologies have proliferated in recent years as they offer excellent potential for promoting healthy behaviors. Although these technologies have varied ways of providing real-time feedback on a user's current progress, we have a dearth of knowledge of the framing effects on the performance feedback these tools provide. With an aim to create influential, persuasive performance feedback that will nudge people toward healthy behaviors, we conducted an online experiment to investigate the effect of framing on an individual's self-efficacy. We identified 3 different types of framing that can be applicable in presenting performance feedback: (1) the valence of performance (remaining vs. achieved framing), (2) presentation type (text-only vs. text with visual), and (3) data unit (raw vs. percentage). Results show that the achieved framing could lead to an increased perception of individual's performance capabilities. This work provides empirical guidance for creating persuasive performance feedback, thereby helping people designing self-monitoring technologies to promote healthy behaviors.

  20. Spatial resampling of IDR frames for low bitrate video coding with HEVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosking, Brett; Agrafiotis, Dimitris; Bull, David; Easton, Nick

    2015-03-01

    As the demand for higher quality and higher resolution video increases, many applications fail to meet this demand due to low bandwidth restrictions. One factor contributing to this problem is the high bitrate requirement of the intra-coded Instantaneous Decoding Refresh (IDR) frames featuring in all video coding standards. Frequent coding of IDR frames is essential for error resilience in order to prevent the occurrence of error propagation. However, as each one consumes a huge portion of the available bitrate, the quality of future coded frames is hindered by high levels of compression. This work presents a new technique, known as Spatial Resampling of IDR Frames (SRIF), and shows how it can increase the rate distortion performance by providing a higher and more consistent level of video quality at low bitrates.