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Sample records for achieve gender equality

  1. Gender Achievement and Social, Political and Economic Equality: A European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireson, Gren

    2017-01-01

    Differences in gender equality based on social, political and economic factors is cited, by some writers, as a contributory factor in the differentially greater achievement of boys in STEM subjects through the concept of gender stratification. Gender differences, especially in mathematics, have been linked directly to gender parity in wider…

  2. Gender, Technology, and Mathematics Education: Working Together To Achieve "Equality."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Mary E.

    The launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union in 1957 initiated a series of reform movements in mathematics education. These reform movements provide a framework from which to chronicle the development of interest into gender differences in mathematics learning. The paper examines these issues and is presented in six sections. The first section…

  3. Fostering Gender Equality and Achievement in Natural Science and Mathematics Instruction in Higher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, K.; Liddicoat, J.

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally in the United States, males have been drawn to careers in the natural sciences and mathematics for a variety of social and economic reasons, but in recent decades females have demonstrated a similar aptitude in these fields when provided with equal opportunities. Because the percentage of women attending colleges and universities in the developing and developed countries often surpasses the percentage of males, and as non-traditional students who might be older woman are returning to college and universities for training to make themselves competitive in the workforce, it is important that instruction in the natural sciences and mathematics be relevant to student needs. We will present the results of a recent campus-initiated discussion about improving the instruction of women in the natural sciences and mathematics as it applies to our institution in the fashion industries.

  4. Achieving Gender Equality in Families: The Role of Males. Innocenti Global Seminar Summary Report (Kingston, Jamaica, May 8-18, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John

    This report summarizes the proceedings of UNICEF's Global Innocenti Seminar on "Achieving Gender Equality in Families: The Role of Males." The seminar examined how, as more women become economic providers for families, the role of males in families needs to develop new dimensions so that they can contribute to improved health and…

  5. Midwives, gender equality and feminism.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Gender inequality and the harmful effects of patriarchy are sustaining the wide spread oppression of women across the world and this is also having an impact on maternity services with unacceptable rates of maternal mortality, the continued under investment in the midwifery profession and the limiting of women's place of birth options. However alongside these effects, the current zeitgeist is affirming an alignment of feminism and gender equality such that both have a high profile in public discourse. This presents a once in a generation opportunity for midwives to self-declare as feminists and commit to righting the wrongs of this most pernicious form of discrimination.

  6. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  7. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  8. Gender equality and violent behavior: how neighborhood gender equality influences the gender gap in violence.

    PubMed

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys' and girls' violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys' rates of violence decrease whereas girls' rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls' violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs.

  9. The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same? Examining Gender Equality in Prior Achievement and Entry into STEM College Majors over Time

    PubMed Central

    King, Barbara; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the empirical basis for often-repeated arguments that gender differences in entrance into STEM majors are largely explained by disparities in prior achievement. Analyses use data from three national cohorts of college matriculates across three decades to consider differences across several indicators of high school math and science achievement at the mean and also at the top of the test distribution. Analyses also examine the different comparative advantages men and women enjoy in math/science vs. English/reading. Regardless of how prior achievement is measured, very little of the strong and persistent gender gap in physical science and engineering majors over time is explained. Findings highlight the limitations of theories focusing on gender differences in skills and suggest directions for future research. PMID:24371330

  10. Moving beyond gender: processes that create relationship equality.

    PubMed

    Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Mahoney, Anne Rankin

    2005-04-01

    Equality is related to relationship success, yet few couples achieve it. In this qualitative study, we examine how couples with children in two time cohorts (1982 and 2001) moved toward equality. The analysis identifies three types of couples: Postgender, gender legacy, and traditional. Movement toward equality is facilitated by: (a) Stimulus for change, including awareness of gender, commitment to family and work, and situational pressures; and (b) patterns that promote change, including active negotiation, challenges to gender entitlement, development of new competencies, and mutual attention to relationship and family tasks. Implications for practice are discussed.

  11. Gender Equality Policies and Higher Education Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Gender equality policies regulate the Swedish labour market, including higher education. This study analyses and discusses the career development of postgraduate students in the light of labour market influences. The principle of gender separation is used to understand these effects. Swedish register data encompassing information on 585…

  12. Gender Equality in Academia: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Hilary P. M.; Browning, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Gender equality in academia has been monitored in Australia for the past three decades so it is timely to reflect on what progress has been made, what works, and what challenges remain. When data were first published on the gender composition of staff in Australian universities in the mid-1980s women comprised 20 per cent of academic staff and…

  13. [Gender equality activity in the Bioimaging Society].

    PubMed

    Suzaki, Etsuko

    2013-09-01

    Gender equality activity in the Bioimaging Society was initiated in 2005 when it joined the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE). The Gender Equality Committee of the Bioimaging Society is acting on this issue by following the policy of the EPMEWSE, and has also been planning and conducting lectures at annual meetings of the society to gain the understanding, consents, and cooperation of the members of the society to become conscious of gender equality. Women's participation in the society has been promoted through the activities of the Gender Equality Committee, and the number of women officers in the society has since increased from two women out of 40 members in 2005 to five out of 44 in 2013. The activities of the Gender Equality Committee of the Japanese Association of Anatomists (JAA) have just started. There are more than 400 women belonging to the JAA. When these women members join together and collaborate, women's participation in the JAA will increase.

  14. Troubling Gender Equality: Revisiting Gender Equality Work in the Famous Nordic Model Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edström, Charlotta; Brunila, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This article concerns gender equality work, that is, those educational and workplace activities that involve the promotion of gender equality. It is based on research conducted in Sweden and Finland, and focuses on the period during which the public sector has become more market-oriented and project-based all over the Nordic countries. The…

  15. Reflections on Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Adult Basic Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    This article is about mainstreaming gender equality in adult basic learning and education (ABLE). Gender equality is defined as equal rights of both women and men to influence, participate in and benefit from a programme. It is argued that specific gender analyses of emerging patterns of gender relations is helpful in formulating gender equality…

  16. Gender equality observations and actions by the European Research Council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydin, Claudia Alves de Jesus; Farina Busto, Luis; Penny, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Women have historically been underrepresented in science. Much positive progress in attracting women to research careers has been achieved in recent years; however, the most influential and high profile positions in most countries are still predominantly occupied by men. The European Research Council (ERC), Europe's premiere funding agency for frontier research, views gender equality as an important challenge. The ERC monitors closely gender figures on every call and has taken actions to tackle gender imbalances and potential unconscious biases. The ERC talk is focused on efforts made to understand and ensure equal treatment of all candidates, with particular focus on gender balance and with specific attention to geosciences. Data and statistics collected from ERC's internationally recognised funding schemes are presented.

  17. Gender (in)equality among employees in elder care: implications for health

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Gendered practices of working life create gender inequalities through horizontal and vertical gender segregation in work, which may lead to inequalities in health between women and men. Gender equality could therefore be a key element of health equity in working life. Our aim was to analyze what gender (in)equality means for the employees at a woman-dominated workplace and discuss possible implications for health experiences. Methods All caregiving staff at two workplaces in elder care within a municipality in the north of Sweden were invited to participate in the study. Forty-five employees participated, 38 women and 7 men. Seven focus group discussions were performed and led by a moderator. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the focus groups. Results We identified two themes. "Advocating gender equality in principle" showed how gender (in)equality was seen as a structural issue not connected to the individual health experiences. "Justifying inequality with individualism" showed how the caregivers focused on personalities and interests as a justification of gender inequalities in work division. The justification of gender inequality resulted in a gendered work division which may be related to health inequalities between women and men. Gender inequalities in work division were primarily understood in terms of personality and interests and not in terms of gender. Conclusion The health experience of the participants was affected by gender (in)equality in terms of a gendered work division. However, the participants did not see the gendered work division as a gender equality issue. Gender perspectives are needed to improve the health of the employees at the workplaces through shifting from individual to structural solutions. A healthy-setting approach considering gender relations is needed to achieve gender equality and fairness in health status between women and men. PMID:22217427

  18. Measuring Structural Gender Equality in Mexico: A State Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frias, Sonia M.

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to assess the level of gender equality across the 32 Mexican states. After reviewing conceptual and methodological issues related to previous measures of structural inequality I detail the logic and methodology involved in the construction of a composite and multidimensional measure of gender equality, at the…

  19. Promoting Gender Equality in Digital Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertl, Bernhard; Helling, Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with gender phenomena in the context of digital literacy. Studies show that computer use, computer skills, and computer-related self-concepts are subject to gender differences. These differences may affect classroom interactions as well as learning processes and have therefore to be considered carefully by teachers who apply…

  20. [Gender, equality, and health services access: an empirical approximation].

    PubMed

    Gómez Gómez, Elsa

    2002-01-01

    This piece describes the conceptual framework and the objectives that guided a research initiative in the Region of the Americas that was called "Gender, Equity, and Access to Health Services" and that was sponsored in 2001 by the Pan American Health Organization. The piece does not summarize the results of the six projects that were carried under the initiative, whose analyses have not all been completed. Instead, the piece discusses some of the foundations of the initiative and provides a general introduction to the country studies that were done. The six studies were done in Barbados/Jamaica, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The primary objective of the initiative was to stimulate the use of existing quantitative information in the countries, with the goal of starting a process of systematically documenting two things: 1) the unfair, unnecessary, and avoidable inequalities between men and women in their access to health care and 2) the linkages between those inequalities and other socioeconomic factors. The concept of gender equity that guided this examination of health care was not the usual one calling for the equal distribution of resources. Rather, it was the notion that resources should be allocated differentially, according to the particular needs of men and of women, and that persons should pay for health services according to their economic ability rather than their risk level. The starting point for the initiative was the premise that gender inequities in utilizing and paying for health care result from gender differences in the macroeconomic and microeconomic distribution of resources. The piece concludes that achieving equity in health care access will require a better understanding of the gender needs and gender barriers that are linked to social structures and health systems.

  1. Towards gender equality in health in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Samar, Sima; Aqil, Anwer; Vogel, Joanna; Wentzel, Lora; Haqmal, Sharifullah; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Vuolo, Elena; Abaszadeh, Nigina

    2014-01-01

    The Afghanistan gender inequality index shows that 70% loss in development is due to the limited participation of women in the workforce, low education and poor women's health outcomes. However, since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2002, gender inequalities in health have improved. This paper will review factors that led to these improvements. The review draws upon information from various sources, including formative and applied research, surveys and existing information systems. The review showed gender differentials in morbidity, mortality and accessing and utilising health services. Health professionals have expressed inadequate medical knowledge and interpersonal skills to address sensitive issues, such as domestic, physical and sexual violence. Discussing sexuality and its impact on health remains taboo both within and outside of the medical profession. Strict cultural norms restrict a woman's autonomy to seek health care, choose a marriage partner and have control over her body, indicating a need to increase awareness about how harmful social practices adversely affect health. The policy review showed that the Ministry of Public Health has made a commitment to reducing gender inequity in health and developed a two-pronged action plan to improve health providers' skills in handling gender-sensitive issues and mass media campaigns to change social norms.

  2. Patterns of gender equality at workplaces and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Elwér, Sofia; Harryson, Lisa; Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health

  3. Women and Gender Equality in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Miriam E.

    2015-01-01

    I look at the changes in higher education (HE) and women's lives over the last 50 years, drawing on my recent book "Feminism, Gender & Universities: Politics, Passion & Pedagogies" which is a life history of feminism entering academe. The Robbins Report (cmnd 2154 1963) on HE was published in the same year that I went to…

  4. An Analysis of Citizenship and Democracy Education Text Book in the Context of Gender Equality and Determining Students' Perceptions on Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalayci, Nurdan; Hayirsever, Fahriye

    2014-01-01

    Gender equality has been explained as both the equal treatment of women and men before the law and women's and men's equal usage of resources, opportunities, and services within the family and society. Today, although the conditions that support gender inequality have relatively decreased, gender discrimination still persists. Gender equality is…

  5. The Invisible Obstacle to Educational Equality: Gender Bias in Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Rae Lesser

    2008-01-01

    Gender bias in textbooks (GBIT) is a low-profile education issue, given the 72,000,000 children who still have no access to schooling, but this article argues that GBIT is: (1) an important, (2) near-universal, (3) remarkably uniform, (4) quite persistent but (5) virtually invisible obstacle on the road to gender equality in education--an obstacle…

  6. Gender Diversity in Planetary Volcanology: Encouraging Equality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, T. K.; Lopes, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    We have brought together a group of respected and well-known female planetary volcanologists to create a book designed to encourage young women to pursue scientific careers. The book, entitled "Volcanic Worlds: Exploring the Solar System's Volcanoes," published by Praxis, is written for undergraduates who may have no background in geology or planetary sciences. Each chapter covers a different Solar System body or volcanic process, and is authored by a woman who is an expert in her field. Subjects covered include: the relation of plate tectonics to volcanism on Earth; the study of Mars' volcanoes from space and using rovers; geysers on Neptune's moon Triton and on Earth; eruptions on Io; and studying submarine lava flows from a submarine. Each chapter is written in a comfortable, readily accessible tone, with authors presenting not only science, but also some of the unique challenges faced by women conducting volcanological research today-and how these are overcome. Although not intended to be a textbook, this work could easily form the basis of an undergraduate geology seminar, honors course, or as a valuable accessory to an introductory geology course. In addition, it could be used in courses that would be cross-listed between geology departments and sociology departments. We will present more information on the book, and suggestions of how it could be used in the classroom to enhance gender diversity in the Earth and Space Sciences.

  7. All Are Equal, but Some Are More Equal than Others: Managerialism and Gender Equality in Higher Education in Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teelken, Christine; Deem, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate what impact new regimes of management and governance, including new managerialism, have had on perceptions of gender equality at universities in three Western European countries. While in accordance with national laws and EU directives, contemporary current management approaches in universities…

  8. The European Gender Equality Index: Conceptual and Analytical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bericat, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a composite indicator designed to measure and compare existing structural gender equality in the countries of the European Union. The construction of an index is always a complex task which requires making a great many important conceptual, analytical and empirical decisions. This complexity explains the wide variety of…

  9. Observations on gender equality in a UK Earth Sciences department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imber, Jonathan; Allen, Mark; Chamberlain, Katy; Foulger, Gillian; Gregory, Emma; Hoult, Jill; Macpherson, Colin; Winship, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    female staff fall at the extreme ends of this distribution. Recently appointed female staff achieved promotion within 3 years of first appointment, compared with up to 13 years for long-standing female colleagues. The reasons for this discrepancy are complex, but probably include changing attitudes towards gender equality issues, and greater awareness of conscious and unconscious biases against women. The Department's long term goal is fairness of opportunity for all, with a gender balance amongst academic staff that reflects the balance at postgraduate and postdoctoral levels. Our strategy is to attract greater numbers of high quality female applicants to academic positions, by making the application process more transparent, and by promoting positive cultural changes at all levels within the Department. As an example, we have recently introduced a mentoring scheme for postdoctoral staff, and plan to extend the scheme to academic staff. Nevertheless, we are conscious that achieving a representative gender balance amongst academic colleagues will take many years, based on historic staff turnover rates, and that lasting cultural change can be difficult to achieve.

  10. Cross-national variation in the size of sex differences in values: effects of gender equality.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Shalom H; Rubel-Lifschitz, Tammy

    2009-07-01

    How does gender equality relate to men's and women's value priorities? It is hypothesized that, for both sexes, the importance of benevolence, universalism, stimulation, hedonism, and self-direction values increases with greater gender equality, whereas the importance of power, achievement, security, and tradition values decreases. Of particular relevance to the present study, increased gender equality should also permit both sexes to pursue more freely the values they inherently care about more. Drawing on evolutionary and role theories, the authors postulate that women inherently value benevolence and universalism more than men do, whereas men inherently value power, achievement, and stimulation more than women do. Thus, as gender equality increases, sex differences in these values should increase, whereas sex differences in other values should not be affected by increases in gender equality. Studies of 25 representative national samples and of students from 68 countries confirmed the hypotheses except for tradition values. Implications for cross-cultural research on sex differences in values and traits are discussed.

  11. Addressing poverty, education, and gender equality to improve the health of women worldwide.

    PubMed

    Tyer-Viola, Lynda A; Cesario, Sandra K

    2010-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) that target alleviating poverty, improving primary education, and fostering gender equity are important as a foundation to promote world health. Achieving these goals will create an environment for healthy lives for women and children. Poverty, education, and gender equality, although undeniably linked, need to be addressed individually. Nurses have the capacity and political will to address MDGs and to contribute to the health and well-being of the world population.

  12. Gender Equality in Media Content and Operations: Articulating Academic Studies and Policy--A Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourenço, Mirta Edith

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Mirta Lourenço explains the prospects when higher education studies interface with UNESCO for policy change. The baseline is that education institutions' articulation with media organizations, media professionals, policy-makers, and civil society groups is essential to achieve gender equality in and through media.

  13. Creating Gender Equality at Professorial Level: Review of the Swedish Government's Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the Social Democrats' (the Swedish government party) policy to create a more equal division of professional positions between the genders. Explores two central issues: (1) the factors that influence the design and implementation of the policy; and (2) whether the Social Democrats policy goals are being achieved. (CMK)

  14. Recent Progress in Promoting Gender Equality for Japanese Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Setsuko; Nishitani-Gamo, Mikka

    2009-04-01

    The last three years have been an epoch-making period in promoting gender equality in the Japanese science community. Motivated by recommendations we made on the basis of a large-scale survey, the Japanese government started several projects in 2006 for supporting women scientists and attracting girls to science and technology. In spite of these efforts, we see only very slow increase in the number of women researchers in professional positions.

  15. Islamic politics and women's quest for gender equality in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hoodfar, Homa; Sadr, Shadi

    2010-01-01

    The unification of a strong and authoritarian state with religious laws and institutions after the 1979 revolution in Iran has resulted in the creation of a dualistic state structure in which non-elected and non-accountable state authorities and institutions-the majority of whom have not accepted either the primacy of democracy nor the premise of equality between men and women (or Muslims and non-Muslims)-are able to oversee the elected authorities and institutions. The central question posed by this paper is whether a religious state would be capable of democratising society and delivering gender equality. By analysing the regime's gender policies and political development, the paper suggests that, at least in the case of Iran and Shi'ism, the larger obstacle to gender (and minorities') equality has more to do with the undemocratic state-society relations that persist in Iran and less to do with the actual or potential compatibility (or lack thereof) of religious traditions or practices with democratic principles.

  16. Attitude, Gender and Achievement in Computer Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baser, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the relationship among students' attitudes toward programming, gender and academic achievement in programming. The scale used for measuring students' attitudes toward programming was developed by the researcher and consisted of 35 five-point Likert type items in four subscales. The scale was administered to…

  17. The influence of gender equality policies on gender inequalities in health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Palència, Laia; Malmusi, Davide; De Moortel, Deborah; Artazcoz, Lucía; Backhans, Mona; Vanroelen, Christophe; Borrell, Carme

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have addressed the effect of gender policies on women's health and gender inequalities in health. This study aims to analyse the relationship between the orientation of public gender equality policies and gender inequalities in health in European countries, and whether this relationship is mediated by gender equality at country level or by other individual social determinants of health. A multilevel cross-sectional study was performed using individual-level data extracted from the European Social Survey 2010. The study sample consisted of 23,782 men and 28,655 women from 26 European countries. The dependent variable was self-perceived health. Individual independent variables were gender, age, immigrant status, educational level, partner status and employment status. The main contextual independent variable was a modification of Korpi's typology of family policy models (Dual-earner, Traditional-Central, Traditional-Southern, Market-oriented and Contradictory). Other contextual variables were the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), to measure country-level gender equality, and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). For each country and country typology the prevalence of fair/poor health by gender was calculated and prevalence ratios (PR, women compared to men) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. Multilevel robust Poisson regression models were fitted. Women had poorer self-perceived health than men in countries with traditional family policies (PR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.07-1.21 in Traditional-Central and PR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.19-1.35 in Traditional-Southern) and in Contradictory countries (PR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.05-1.11). In multilevel models, only gender inequalities in Traditional-Southern countries were significantly higher than those in Dual-earner countries. Gender inequalities in self-perceived health were higher, women reporting worse self-perceived health than men, in countries with family policies that were less oriented to gender equality

  18. Achieving equal pay for comparable worth through arbitration.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, S C

    1982-01-01

    Traditional "women's jobs" often pay relatively low wages because of the effects of institutionalized stereotypes concerning women and their role in the work place. One way of dealing with sex discrimination that results in job segregation is to narrow the existing wage differential between "men's jobs" and "women's jobs." Where the jobs are dissimilar on their face, this narrowing of pay differences involves implementing the concept of "equal pay for jobs of comparable worth." Some time in the future, far-reaching, perhaps even industrywide, reductions in male-female pay differentials may be achieved by pursuing legal remedies based on equal pay for comparable worth. However, as the author demonstrates, immediate, albeit more limited, relief for sex-based pay inequities found in specific work places can be obtained by implementing equal pay for jobs of comparable worth through the collective bargaining and arbitration processes.

  19. "Engendering" Agenda 21: gender equality and water resource management: five years after Rio.

    PubMed

    Hannan-andersson, C

    1997-01-01

    Agenda 21 acknowledges women's role in natural resources management at the local level and emphasizes the need for more women in senior positions to contribute positively to the implementation of environmental policy. This article assesses Agenda 21's approach to gender equality and its achievements. A few explicit references to women and water resource management (WRM) without consideration on the gender implications of the WRM policies and strategies were noted. The macro-oriented, technology-focused and supply-oriented approach of Agenda 21 on WRM hinders the inclusion of a gender perspective. There are two levels of implications of gender-blind intervention in relation to WRM: the issue of social justice and rights, and the negative impact of the neglect of gender inequality on overall planning and success of interventions. The inclusion of a gender perspective at policy and planning levels to facilitate the resolution of inconsistencies, as well as the importance of water sources and patterns of use knowledge for adequate policy development and planning was suggested. It is important that the WRM principle application utilize a sociocultural and gender perspective at both community and household levels before decisions are made on WRM interventions.

  20. Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Science in the European Union: The "ETAN Report."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Teresa

    2001-01-01

    Examines the underrepresentation of European women in science, engineering, and technology, discussing the European Technology Assessment Network (ETAN)report on promoting excellence through mainstreaming gender equality. Women leave scientific careers in disproportionate numbers. Gender equality can be developed through equal treatment, positive…

  1. Access or Inclusion? Conceptualisation and Operationalisation of Gender Equality in Zimbabwean State Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauraya, Efiritha

    2014-01-01

    This article explores concerns about gender inequality in Zimbabwean state universities. The researcher's interest arose from the realisation of persistent gender inequalities despite initiatives to close gender gaps. Of particular concern is the conceptualization and operationalisation of gender equality in institutions. Focusing only on the…

  2. The Dynamics of Gender Impact on Group Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sormunen-Jones, Carolee; Chalupa, Marilyn R.; Charles, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    In cooperative learning groups of business students (n=38, 27, 28), half were self-selected, half were assigned. No differences in achievement were found across majors, gender, or membership choice. Groups with only one representative of a gender achieved significantly less than mixed or single-gender groups. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  3. Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship: Final Report to the MCM 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Gender equality is not just about economic empowerment. It is a moral imperative, it is about fairness and equity, and includes many political, social and cultural dimensions. Gender equality, however, is also a key factor in self-reported well-being and happiness across the world. In the aftermath of the Great Recession, there is now an urgent…

  4. 3 CFR - Coordination of Policies and Programs To Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women and Girls...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Equality and Female Empowerment Policy. The Millennium Challenge Corporation issued Gender Integration... Internationally. (a) Enhancing U.S. global leadership on gender equality requires dedicated resources, personnel... senior leadership, as exemplified by the critical and historic role played by the Office of Global...

  5. A Scorecard on Gender Equality and Girls' Education in Asia, 1990-2000. Advocacy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine; Rajagopalan, Rajee; Challender, Chloe

    2005-01-01

    Background: Existing measures for access to and efficiency in the school system are very limited as measures of gender equality, even though there have been marked improvements in sex-disaggregated data. A methodology for developing a scorecard which measures gender equality in schooling and education partly based on Amartya Sen's capability…

  6. Securing Gender Equality through a Nexus of Energy Policy Performance and Relative Political Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins-Ozuagiemhe, Andrea Christen

    This dissertation presents what is believed to be the first empirical study that measures the effect of increasing access to modern household energy sources upon advancing gender equality within developing countries. As a powerful and fundamental public infrastructural socio-economic building block, improved access to modern energy in developing countries delivers the necessary economic ingredient of time as a major component of household production and consumption and captures the interdependence between market and household economies. Thus, because it has been empirically proven that men and women differ in their utilization of household energy with women spending more time engaged in non-market household labor than men, improving access to modern household energy in developing countries, especially in rural areas, theoretically would disproportionately affect women's lives. Essentially, the element of "time" not only extends the day for women to use towards more economically and educationally productive activities, but also lessens the burden of domestic chores from women with technological advancements in more time-efficient household appliances and cleaner modern energy sources. This dissertation introduces gender differentiation in a model in the form of a gender relative status composite measure comparing socio-economic achievements in secondary education, life expectancy, and labor force participation rates by varying degree of demographic transition, thereby, measuring the effect of improved access to modern household energy upon overall gender equality. Fixed effects panel regressions employing a Driscoll-Kraay non-parametric covariance matrix, and estimated and interpreted adjusted predictions and marginal effects of the two-way interaction between a country's available access to residential electric power (kWh per capita) and the level of relative political performance against predicted values of gender relative status are employed. The models confirm

  7. Gender equality as a means to improve maternal and child health in Africa.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kavita; Bloom, Shelah; Brodish, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In this article we examine whether measures of gender equality, household decision making, and attitudes toward gender-based violence are associated with maternal and child health outcomes in Africa. We pooled Demographic and Health Surveys data from eight African countries and used multilevel logistic regression on two maternal health outcomes (low body mass index and facility delivery) and two child health outcomes (immunization status and treatment for an acute respiratory infection). We found protective associations between the gender equality measures and the outcomes studied, indicating that gender equality is a potential strategy to improve maternal and child health in Africa.

  8. "We Understand Better Because We Have Been Mothers": Teaching, Maternalism, and Gender Equality in Bolivian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Julie A.; Miller, Amy Chasteen

    2014-01-01

    This article explores Bolivian schoolteachers' attitudes and practices surrounding gender in the context of a national educational reform law that mandated gender equity. Teacher interviews and primary school classroom observations indicate teachers' discourses and practices reflect a sometimes paradoxical blend of advocacy for gender equality and…

  9. The ABC of Gender Equality in Education: Aptitude, Behaviour, Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have made significant progress in narrowing or closing long-standing gender gaps in many areas of education and employment, including educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. But new gender gaps in education are opening. Young men…

  10. Community understandings of and responses to gender equality and empowerment in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mullinax, Margo; Higgins, Jenny; Wagman, Jennifer; Nakyanjo, Neema; Kigozi, Godfrey; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria; Gray, Ronald; Nalugoda, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Women's rights and gender empowerment programmes are now part of the international agenda for improving global public health, the benefits of which are well documented. However, the public health community has, yet, to address how people define and understand gender equality and how they enact the process of empowerment in their lives. This study uses safe homes and respect for everyone (SHARE), an anti-violence intervention in rural Rakai, Uganda, as a case study to investigate perceptions of gender equality. Investigators analysed 12 focus groups of adult women and men to explore how macro-level concepts of gender equality are being processed on an interpersonal level and the effects on health outcomes. Respondents generally agreed that women lack basic rights. However, they also expressed widespread disagreement about the meanings of gender equality, and reported difficulties integrating the concepts of gender equality into their interpersonal relationships. Community members reported that equality, with the resulting shift in gender norms, could expose women to adverse consequences such as violence, infidelity and abandonment with increased sexual health risks, and potential adverse effects on education. Efforts to increase women's rights must occur in conjunction with community-based work on understandings of gender equality.

  11. Workplace violence and gender discrimination in Rwanda's health workforce: Increasing safety and gender equality

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Workplace violence has been documented in all sectors, but female-dominated sectors such as health and social services are at particular risk. In 2007-2008, IntraHealth International assisted the Rwanda Ministries of Public Service and Labor and Health to study workplace violence in Rwanda's health sector. This article reexamines a set of study findings that directly relate to the influence of gender on workplace violence, synthesizes these findings with other research from Rwanda, and examines the subsequent impact of the study on Rwanda's policy environment. Methods Fifteen out of 30 districts were selected at random. Forty-four facilities at all levels were randomly selected in these districts. From these facilities, 297 health workers were selected at random, of whom 205 were women and 92 were men. Researchers used a utilization-focused approach and administered health worker survey, facility audits, key informant and health facility manager interviews and focus groups to collect data in 2007. After the study was disseminated in 2008, stakeholder recommendations were documented and three versions of the labor law were reviewed to assess study impact. Results Thirty-nine percent of health workers had experienced some form of workplace violence in year prior to the study. The study identified gender-related patterns of perpetration, victimization and reactions to violence. Negative stereotypes of women, discrimination based on pregnancy, maternity and family responsibilities and the 'glass ceiling' affected female health workers' experiences and career paths and contributed to a context of violence. Gender equality lowered the odds of health workers experiencing violence. Rwandan stakeholders used study results to formulate recommendations to address workplace violence gender discrimination through policy reform and programs. Conclusions Gender inequality influences workplace violence. Addressing gender discrimination and violence simultaneously should

  12. Developing an Equal Protection Standard for Gender Discrimination Cases--Where's the Rub?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Deborah E.

    1980-01-01

    The equal protection clause permits gender classification and discrimination and cannot support a broadening concept of sexual equality. An equal rights amendment is needed to remedy the situation. Available from Rutgers School of Law-Camden, 5th and Penn Streets, Camden, NJ 08102. (Author/IRT)

  13. Macro-level gender equality and depression in men and women in Europe.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, Sarah; Huijts, Tim; Bracke, Piet; Bambra, Clare

    2013-06-01

    A recurrent finding in international literature is a greater prevalence of depression in women than in men. While explanations for this gender gap have been studied extensively at the individual level, few researchers have studied macro-level determinants of depression in men and women. In the current study we aim to examine the micro-macro linkage of the relationship between gender equality and depression by gender in Europe, using data from the European Social Survey, 2006-2007 (N=39,891). Using a multilevel framework we find that a high degree of macro-level gender equality is related to lower levels of depression in both women and men. It is also related to a smaller gender difference in depression, but only for certain social subgroups and only for specific dimensions of gender equality.

  14. The reproduction of gender: housework and attitudes towards gender equality in the home among Swedish boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Evertsson, Marie

    2006-09-01

    The housework Swedish girls and boys age 10 to 18 do, and their attitudes towards gender equality in the home are studied. One aim is to see whether the work children do is gendered and if so, whether they follow their parents', often gendered, pattern in housework. A second aim is to see whether children's attitudes are influenced by their parents' attitudes and practices. When it comes to issues like these, Sweden is of special interest because in 1995, Sweden was appointed the most gender equal country in the world by the United Nations. The data used were the Swedish Child Level of Living Survey 2000 (see http://www.sofi.su.se/LNU2000/english.htm), a data set that includes extensive first-hand information from both children and their parents. The results indicate that girls and boys in two-parent families are more prone to engage in gender atypical work the more their parent of the same sex engages in this kind of work. The fact that girls still do more housework than boys in all families independent of, among other things, the parental division of housework and the mother's educational level indicates that housework to some extent signifies gender also to children. However, no clear relation is found between the parents' division of work and the child's attitude towards gender equality in the home. Neither is there any clear relation between the parents' attitude towards gender equality in the home and the children's attitude to the same topic.

  15. The Gender Confidence Gap in Fractions Knowledge: Gender Differences in Student Belief-Achievement Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that in many countries gender differences in mathematics achievement have virtually disappeared. Expectancy-value theory and social cognition theory both predict that if gender differences in achievement have declined there should be a similar decline in gender differences in self-beliefs. Extant literature is…

  16. Ethical reflections of gender equality and equity in adolescence medicine.

    PubMed

    Tozzo, P; Caenazzo, L

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences, in both clinical and research environment, exist also in a particular category of patients, adolescents, who constitute a vulnerable group with respect to healthcare decisions. In clinical context, the main ethical issues that may be identified within gender medicine for adolescent patients are related to the information given to the patient and its parents, the adolescent's capacity of understanding considering his/her maturity, vulnerability and autonomy, the consent to medical treatment in relation to the different possible approaches to their different efficacy and possible side effects. Also, with regard to the research context, ethical issues may arise from the participation of female minors in clinical trials. Ethical concerns may also arise in the field of resource allocation in health policies, such as the equitable distribution and access to resources, considering the young age of the subjects involved. A bioethical reflection, which takes into account not only the differences biologically and epidemiologically relevant, but also the main determinants of health in adolescence, might find a role in structured education for diversity and gender equity. Given the magnitude of the problem, to encourage the pursuit of gender equity in health and, in some situations, also to promote the full recognition of the right to health of women are some of the most effective and direct ways to reduce inequalities and to ensure a rational and efficient use of available resources, including through a bioethical reflection on the topic. The Authors show the necessity to differentiate the various aspects of gender differences in adolescence medicine, providing arguments in support of the fact that interventions for health prevention and promotion should be modulated in relation to the gender of the recipients, emphasizing the most important aspects for each group of individuals. This approach could implement personalized medicine, even and especially

  17. The effect of gender equality on happiness: Statistical modeling and analysis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ge

    2017-02-01

    In this article, the researcher presents linear regression models that describe how five gender-equality indexes affect individuals' perceptions of well-being and happiness, controlling for their economic income and weighed by the population of the countries that contribute to the models. The logical premise of this study is that gender equality is not only favorable for women, but it is also conducive to fostering the greatest level of happiness for all people. The researcher believes that most findings confirmed this assumption and the opinion of John Stuart Mill regarding gender equality, while two exceptions are explained by social quality theory and the male breadwinner model.

  18. Gender Differences in Values and Their Impact on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglehart, Marita Rosch; Brown, Donald R.

    Gender differences in academic achievement of students in the medical school at the University of Michigan were investigated in this study. Observed achievement differences were attributed to gender differences in values which influence student motivation. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) that men place more importance on mastery-related issues,…

  19. Emancipation or Neo-Colonisation? Global Gender Mainstreaming Policies, Swedish Gender Equality Politics and Local Negotiations about Putting Gender into Education Reforms in the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silfver, Ann-Louise

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on gender mainstreaming policies post Beijing and their impact on development cooperation and relations between the Global North and Global South. The analysis is based on an examination of gender equality politics in Sweden, their connection with an interpretation of gender mainstreaming and the application of this approach…

  20. Achieving Equality of Student Internet Access within Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Janet Ward; Davidson, Ann Locke

    One benefit often expected to flow from Internet use in schools is an increase in equality of educational opportunity as all kinds of schools gain access to the same extraordinary set of resources and opportunities for interaction with the outside world. Yet, prior research suggests that patterns of technology access often mirror existing…

  1. Attitudes to Gender Equality Issues in British and German Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Rosalind M. O.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a range of perceived similarities and differences between male and female academics in the context of contemporary European Union "gender mainstreaming" policy. It concentrates upon the higher education systems of Germany and the United Kingdom, and is based upon questionnaire responses. A large majority of…

  2. Teaching to Ethnicity, Gender, and Race: The Quest for Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla, Carlos A., Ed.; Goss, Joyce, Ed.

    This book contains seven chapters, written by graduate students in teacher education, on educational strategies to promote multiculturalism and combat racial, ethnic, and gender bias in the classroom. Chapters are: (1) "Diversity and Multiculturalism: Quo Vadis? What Is Multiculturalism?" (Deborah Bradford Basey, Michelle Danner, Stacy…

  3. Gender Equality in Swedish Higher Education: Patterns and Shifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Leif; Riis, Ulla; Silander, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    In most European countries, more women than men attend undergraduate Higher Education (HE) and more women than men obtain degrees. In Sweden the proportion of female students has long been in the vicinity of 51-60%. The number of doctoral entrants and degrees meet a "balanced gender criterion," defined as no sex constituting more than…

  4. Race and Gender: Equal Opportunities Policies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnot, Madeleine, Ed.

    This reader is one of four parts of the Open University (in the United Kingdom) Course E333, "Policy-making in Education." The ten articles included focus on the patterns of race and gender inequalities in British education, and the methods used by central and local government and educational institutions to address those inequalities.…

  5. Community Mobilisation, Gender Equality and Resource Mobilisation in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Komal; Patel, Ila

    2006-01-01

    Despite an overall improvement in the educational situation of girls and women in India, there are considerable gender inequalities in education. In the last decade, the Government of India introduced the campaign approach to tackle the problem of widespread illiteracy among women and other socio-economically disadvantaged groups in collaboration…

  6. Equality and Illusion: Gender and Tenure in Art History Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Elizabeth; Morrison, Emory; Sadrozinski, Renate; Nerad, Maresi; Cerny, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Using a national survey of 508 art history Ph.D.s including data on graduate school performance and careers 10-15 years post-Ph.D., this study investigates gender, family, and academic tenure in art history, the humanities field with the highest proportion of women. Alternative hypotheses derived from three perspectives--termed here "clockwork,"…

  7. Cosmopolitanism, Global Social Justice and Gender Equality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    This article attempts to locate approaches to understanding gender, education and notions of the international within debates on global social justice and cosmopolitanism. It looks at the work of three feminist scholars (Martha Nussbaum, Onora O'Neill and Iris Young) on this theme, draws out some ways in which they engage critiques of…

  8. Gender Equality in the Academy: The Pipeline Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Kristen Renwick; Chiu, William F.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the ongoing work by the Committee on the Status of Women in the Profession (CSWP), we offer an empirical analysis of the pipeline problem in academia. The image of a pipeline is a commonly advanced explanation for persistent discrimination that suggests that gender inequality will decline once there are sufficient numbers of qualified…

  9. Sustaining advocacy and action on women's participation and gender equality in adult education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn; Bernhardt, Anna

    2011-08-01

    This article gives an overview of the development of gender equality and women's participation in adult learning and education in the history of the International Conferences on Adult Education (CONFINTEA). Though the equality of rights was highlighted throughout the various conferences, the first Global Report on Adult Learning and Education (GRALE) observed that a gender gap in the participation in adult learning and education still persisted in 2009. This is especially remarkable with regard to the impact of CONFINTEA V in 1997, because it focused on the issue of women's participation and gender equality. A review of the CONFINTEA VI programme elements and the national reports prepared by UNESCO Member States in 2008 reveals that gender issues have to some extent moved from the centre of attention to the periphery. This article therefore tries to explore how gender principles are acknowledged in CONFINTEA VI and its follow-up.

  10. Gender equality and women's absolute status: a test of the feminist models of rape.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kimberly; Vieraitis, Lynne M; Britto, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    Feminist theory predicts both a positive and negative relationship between gender equality and rape rates. Although liberal and radical feminist theory predicts that gender equality should ameliorate rape victimization, radical feminist theorists have argued that gender equality may increase rape in the form of male backlash. Alternatively, Marxist criminologists focus on women's absolute socioeconomic status rather than gender equality as a predictor of rape rates, whereas socialist feminists combine both radical and Marxist perspectives. This study uses factor analysis to overcome multicollinearity limitations of past studies while exploring the relationship between women's absolute and relative socioeconomic status on rape rates in major U.S. cities using 2000 census data. The findings indicate support for both the Marxist and radical feminist explanations of rape but no support for the ameliorative hypothesis. These findings support a more inclusive socialist feminist theory that takes both Marxist and radical feminist hypotheses into account.

  11. Gender Equality in SOCRATES. Final Report. SCRE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirrie, Anne; Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hamilton, Sheila

    SOCRATES is the European Community education action program. SOCRATES I began in 1995 and ended in 1999. SOCRATES II, begun in 2000, continues until December 31, 2006. This study sought to identify how both the principles and practices of equal opportunities between women and men were interpreted in a sample of 100 centralized and 113…

  12. 78 FR 7987 - Coordination of Policies and Programs To Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women and Girls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Programs To Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women and Girls Globally #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents... and Programs To Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women and Girls Globally Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Promoting gender equality and advancing the status of all...

  13. Feminist Attitudes and Support for Gender Equality: Opinion Change in Women and Men, 1974-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolzendahl, Catherine I.; Myers, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines attitudes related to feminism and gender equality by evaluating the trends in, and determinants of, women and men's attitudes from 1974 to 1998. Past accounts suggest two clusters of explanations based on interests and exposure. Using these, we examine opinions on abortion, sexual behavior, public sphere gender roles, and…

  14. Shaping a Gender Equality Policy in Higher Education: Which Human Capabilities Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loots, Sonja; Walker, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    South African institutions still confront gendered inequalities, irrespective of transformative national policies, compounded by the absence of a national gender equality policy for higher education. We therefore explore the potential of the capabilities approach (CA) to inform policy formation and argue for the development of a policy for higher…

  15. When Traditional Ethnic Culture Encounters Gender Equality: The Dilemma of Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shan-Hua

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the government of Taiwan has been actively promoting gender equality, the positive results of which are already apparent among the younger generation. This research examines the views of indigenous girls attending secondary school with respect to the gender divide in their traditional culture, whether or not they support the…

  16. Women in the Physical Sciences in Sweden: Do We Have True Gender Equality in a ``Gender-Neutral'' Country?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Stacey L.; Rachlew, Elisabeth; Wiesner, Karoline; Engblom, Pia Thorngren

    2005-10-01

    Sweden, together with the other Nordic countries, seems at first glance to offer an environment where women and men enjoy equal treatment at all levels of society. Governments proclaim policies invoking gender-neutral regulations and legal frameworks. Government-supported parental leave programs provide paid leave for both parents, the child-care system is well developed, women are represented at high levels in the government, and educational levels are high. Clearly, awareness of gender issues and openness in the classroom and workplace must be very high. Why, then, is the career pipeline for women in physics leaking so badly? Why are there so few women in high-level management positions in industry? How can salaries for women on all levels, not least within the public sector, be consistently lower than for their male counterparts? What factors are important and how can we influence the situation so that women receive their fair share of power and recognition for their achievements? We discuss some of these issues, and describe the present situation in Sweden.

  17. Gender and Education for All: Progress and Problems in Achieving Gender Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisamya, Grace; DeJaeghere, Joan; Kendall, Nancy; Khan, Marufa Aziz

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores the effects of rapid increases in gender parity in primary schooling in Bangladesh and Malawi on gender inequities in schools and communities. Based on an analysis of comparative case studies of marginalized communities, we argue that educational initiatives focused on achieving gender parity provide limited evidence that girls'…

  18. Gender equality or patriarchal dividend: Structural change in Turkish nursing.

    PubMed

    Herdman, Elizabeth; Badir, Aysel

    2008-06-01

    Turkey is attempting to join the European Union and is facing pressure to eliminate many forms of discrimination, including discrimination based on gender. In keeping with these aims, in early 2007 the Turkish government changed the law to permit Turkish men to become nurses. Given that Turkey is a highly patriarchal society and that occupational segregation by sex is a persistent feature, it is important to examine the potential outcome of the legislative changes. The aim of this paper is to explore the paradoxical potential for Turkish female nurses to experience increased discrimination in a system that is restructured by legislation to be non-discriminatory.

  19. Sustaining Advocacy and Action on Women's Participation and Gender Equality in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn; Bernhardt, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the development of gender equality and women's participation in adult learning and education in the history of the International Conferences on Adult Education (CONFINTEA). Though the equality of rights was highlighted throughout the various conferences, the first Global Report on Adult Learning and Education…

  20. IRIS, Gender, and Student Achievement at University of Genova

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonfa, Antonella; Freddano, Michela

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses the gender effects on student achievement at University of Genova and it is a part of the research performed by the University of Genova called "Benchmarks interfaculty students: Development of a gender perspective to find strategies to understand what leads students to success in their studies", financed by the…

  1. "Brains before "Beauty"?" High Achieving Girls, School and Gender Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky; Read, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In recent years educational policy on gender and achievement has concentrated on boys' underachievement, frequently comparing it with the academic success of girls. This has encouraged a perception of girls as the "winners" of the educational stakes and assumes that they no longer experience the kinds of gender inequalities identified in…

  2. Cultural variations in the sexual marketplace: gender equality correlates with more sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Roy F; Mendoza, Juan Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Sexual economics theory assumes that heterosexual communities can be analyzed as marketplaces in which men offer women resources such as love, respect, money, and commitment in exchange for sex. In response to economic, political, and other disadvantages, women collectively restrict their sexuality to maintain a low supply relative to male demand, thereby ensuring a high price. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that sexual norms and practices would be more restrictive in countries marked by gender inequality than in countries where the genders were more equal. An international online sex survey (N>317,000) yielded four measures of sexual activity, and 37 nations' means on all four measures were correlated with independent (World Economic Forum) ratings of gender equality. Consistent with predictions, relatively high gender equality was associated with more casual sex, more sex partners per capita, younger ages for first sex, and greater tolerance/approval of premarital sex.

  3. Pioneers and laggards - is the effect of gender equality on health dependent on context?

    PubMed

    Backhans, Mona Christina; Burström, Bo; Lindholm, Lars; Månsdotter, Anna

    2009-04-01

    This study combines data at individual and area level to examine interactions between equality within couples and gender equality in the municipality in which individuals live. The research question is whether the context impacts on the association between gender equality and health. The material consists of data on 37,423 men and 37,616 women in 279 Swedish municipalities, who had their first child in 1978. The couples were classified according to indicators of their level of gender equality in 1980 in the public sphere (occupation and income) and private sphere (child care leave and parental leave) compared to that of their municipality. The health outcome is compensated days from sickness insurance during 1986-1999 with a cut-off at the 85% percentile. Data were analysed using logistic regression with the overall odds as reference. The results concerning gender equality in the private sphere show that among fathers, those who are equal in an equal municipality have lower levels of sick leave than the average while laggards (less equal than their municipality) and modest laggards have higher levels. In the public sphere, pioneers (more equal t han their municipality) fare better than the average while laggards fare worse. For mothers, those who are traditional in their roles in the public sphere are protected from high levels of sick leave, while the reverse is true for those who are equal. Traditional mothers in a traditional municipality have the lowest level of sick leave and pioneers the highest. These results show that there are distinct benefits as well as disadvantages to being a gender pioneer and/or a laggard in comparison to your municipality. The associations are markedly different for men and women.

  4. Gender Differences in Kindergarteners' Robotics and Programming Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood is a critical period for introducing girls to traditionally masculine fields of science and technology before more extreme gender stereotypes surface in later years. This study looks at the TangibleK Robotics Program in order to determine whether kindergarten boys and girls were equally successful in a series of building and…

  5. Gendered Habitus and Gender Differences in Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, Jason; Peter, Tracey; Roberts, Lance

    2014-01-01

    Bourdieu's theory of cultural and social reproduction posits that students' habitus--learned behavioural and perceptual dispositions rooted in family upbringing--is a formative influence on how they react to their educational environments, affecting academic practices and academic achievement. Although originally conceived as a "class"…

  6. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being: Comparing Societies with Respect to Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…

  7. Everyday (in)equality at home: complex constructions of gender in South African families.

    PubMed

    Helman, Rebecca; Ratele, Kopano

    2016-01-01

    Background High rates of violence and HIV have been documented within the South African context. Constructions of masculinity and femininity that position men as dominant and highly sexually active and women as subordinate and acquiescent have been found to contribute towards gender inequality. This inequality is in turn related to negative health consequences, specifically violence against women, children, and other men, as well as sexual risk. Within this context it becomes important to explore how problematic constructions of gender are being (re)produced and how these constructions are being challenged. Families have been identified as key sites in which gender is both constructed and enacted on a daily basis and it is within this space that children are first exposed to notions of gender. Objective This article draws from a study that was intended to expand on the limited understandings of the ways in which gender (in)equality is constructed and conveyed within the context of South African families on an everyday basis. Design Children and parents in 18 families from a range of different material and cultural backgrounds were interviewed about the meanings and practices of gender within their homes. Data were analysed using a Foucauldian discourse analysis. Results The data reveal how problematic constructions of masculinity and femininity are (re)produced but also challenged within a range of different families. Gender and gender (in)equality are therefore routinely accomplished in complex ways. Conclusions These findings have important implications for promoting gender equality and therefore for disrupting violence and sexual risk as gendered health issues.

  8. Everyday (in)equality at home: complex constructions of gender in South African families

    PubMed Central

    Helman, Rebecca; Ratele, Kopano

    2016-01-01

    Background High rates of violence and HIV have been documented within the South African context. Constructions of masculinity and femininity that position men as dominant and highly sexually active and women as subordinate and acquiescent have been found to contribute towards gender inequality. This inequality is in turn related to negative health consequences, specifically violence against women, children, and other men, as well as sexual risk. Within this context it becomes important to explore how problematic constructions of gender are being (re)produced and how these constructions are being challenged. Families have been identified as key sites in which gender is both constructed and enacted on a daily basis and it is within this space that children are first exposed to notions of gender. Objective This article draws from a study that was intended to expand on the limited understandings of the ways in which gender (in)equality is constructed and conveyed within the context of South African families on an everyday basis. Design Children and parents in 18 families from a range of different material and cultural backgrounds were interviewed about the meanings and practices of gender within their homes. Data were analysed using a Foucauldian discourse analysis. Results The data reveal how problematic constructions of masculinity and femininity are (re)produced but also challenged within a range of different families. Gender and gender (in)equality are therefore routinely accomplished in complex ways. Conclusions These findings have important implications for promoting gender equality and therefore for disrupting violence and sexual risk as gendered health issues. PMID:27293123

  9. 76 FR 4193 - Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs-Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... orientation or gender identity to the list of hate crimes covered by existing Federal law. See Matthew Shepard.... Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs--Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity; Proposed... Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs--Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity...

  10. Biological Gender Differences in Students' Errors on Mathematics Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Christie; Root, Melissa M.; Koriakin, Taylor; Choi, Dowon; Luria, Sarah R.; Bray, Melissa A.; Sassu, Kari; Maykel, Cheryl; O'Rourke, Patricia; Courville, Troy

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated developmental gender differences in mathematics achievement, using the child and adolescent portion (ages 6-19 years) of the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Third Edition (KTEA-3). Participants were divided into two age categories: 6 to 11 and 12 to 19. Error categories within the Math Concepts & Applications…

  11. The "Renaissance Child": High Achievement and Gender in Late Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the concept of the "Renaissance Child" to illustrate the ways in which gender influences the opportunities and possibilities of high-achieving pupils. Using data from a study of 12-13-year high-achieving boys and girls based in schools in England, the paper considers the ways in which a group of popular boys was able…

  12. Classroom Environment, Achievement Goals and Maths Performance: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was…

  13. Basotho Teachers' Constructions of Gender: Implications on Gender Equality in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morojele, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives prominence to rural teachers' own accounts of gender in three co-educational primary schools in Lesotho. The paper employs the social constructionist paradigm as its theoretical framework. Drawing from ethnographic data (observations and informal discussions), it discusses factors that inform teachers' constructions of gender and…

  14. Creating Gender Equality: Cross-National Gender Stratification and Mathematical Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David P.; Jones, Deborah Perkins

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of eighth-grade mathematical performance of 77,000 students in 19 countries, data from 1964 and 1982 studies in 9 countries, and data on gender stratification and its impact on mathematics performance. Finds that a cross-national variation exists and that it is related to gender stratification. (CFR)

  15. Equality or Equity: Gender Awareness Issues in Secondary Schools in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halai, Anjum

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on gender awareness issues as a dimension of addressing the wider issue of the quality of education in Pakistan from the perspective of social justice. In Pakistan classrooms, boys and girls learn separately and therefore teachers and others tend to think that there are no gender issues once access is achieved and the learners…

  16. The health of women and girls: how can we address gender equality and gender equity?

    PubMed

    Payne, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the health of women and girls, and the role of addressing gender inequalities experienced by women and girls. The health of both males and females is influenced by sex, or biological factors, and gender, or socially constructed influences, including gender differences in the distribution and impact of social determinants of health, access to health promoting resources, health behaviors and gender discourse, and the ways in which health systems are organized and financed, and how they deliver care. Various strategies to address the health of women and girls have been developed at intergovernmental, regional, and national level, and by international nongovernmental organizations. These include vertical programs which aim to target specific health risks and deliver services to meet women and girl's needs, and more cross-cutting approaches which aim at "gender" policy making. Much of this work has developed following the adoption of gender mainstreaming principles across different policy arenas and scales of policy making, and this article reviews some of these strategies and the evidence for their success, before concluding with a consideration of future directions in global policy.

  17. Gender equality and childbirth in a health facility: Nigeria and MDG5.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kavita; Bloom, Shelah; Haney, Erica; Olorunsaiye, Comfort; Brodish, Paul

    2012-09-01

    This paper examined how addressing gender equality can lead to reductions in maternal mortality in Nigeria through an increased use of facility delivery. Because the majority of maternal complications cannot be predicted and often arise suddenly during labor, delivery and the immediate postpartum period, childbirth in a health facility is key to reducing maternal mortality. This paper used data from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to examine associations of gender measures on the utilization of facility delivery after controlling for socio-demographic factors. Four gender equality measures were studied: household decision-making, financial decision-making, attitudes towards wife beating, and attitudes regarding a wife's ability to refuse sex. Results found older, more educated, wealthier, urban, and working women were more likely to have a facility delivery than their counterparts. In addition ethnicity was a significant variable indicating the importance of cultural and regional diversity. Notably, after controlling for the socioeconomic variables, two of the gender equality variables were significant: household decision-making and attitudes regarding a wife's ability to refuse sex. In resource-poor settings such as Nigeria, women with more decision-making autonomy are likely better able to advocate for and access a health facility for childbirth. Thus programs and policies that focus on gender in addition to focusing on education and poverty have the potential to reduce maternal mortality even further.

  18. Promoting Gender Equality at Work: Turning Vision into Reality for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Date-Bah, Eugenia, Ed.

    This document contains papers in which 12 experienced gender specialists examine the various developments and elements affecting women's participation as equal players in the workplace and propose actions and policies promoting sex equity in the workplace. The following papers are included: "Preface" (Mary Chinery-Hesse); "Introduction " (Eugenia…

  19. Creating a Shared Society in Northern Ireland: Why We Need to Focus on Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ann Marie; Neill, Gail

    2011-01-01

    International evidence has increasingly highlighted the necessity to understand the impact of conflict on the lives of girls and women and the importance of addressing gender equality as part of peace processes. This article argues that women, and especially young women, have been left out of much of the conflict discourse within Northern Ireland…

  20. Addressing Child Marriage and Adolescent Pregnancy as Barriers to Gender Parity and Equality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psaki, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    A girl's success in school--and after leaving school--is determined in part by the characteristics of and factors in her household and community. Many policies and programmes are based on an assumption that early marriage and adolescent pregnancy hamper continued progress toward gender equality in education. While education and age at marriage and…

  1. The Role of an International Higher Education Partnership to Improve Gender Equality and Empower Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Sandra Louise Clements

    2014-01-01

    This is a research case study of an International Higher Education Partnership (IHEP) between Vanguard University of Southern California (VUSC) and the University of Duhok (UoD) in the Kurdistan Region of northern Iraq funded by the British Council DelPHE-Iraq project targeting Millennial Development Goal (MDG) #3 to promote gender equality and…

  2. Curriculum-Making in South Africa: Promoting Gender Equality and Empowering Women (?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmonds, Shan

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015) are clearly embedded in South Africa's education policy documents. However, they are not adequately infused into the curriculum. This article focuses specifically on the third Millennium Development Goal (MDG) - promoting gender equality and empowering women - and the need to place this…

  3. Gender (In)equality in Internet Pornography: A Content Analysis of Popular Pornographic Internet Videos.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Marleen J E; Peter, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Although Internet pornography is widely consumed and researchers have started to investigate its effects, we still know little about its content. This has resulted in contrasting claims about whether Internet pornography depicts gender (in)equality and whether this depiction differs between amateur and professional pornography. We conducted a content analysis of three main dimensions of gender (in)equality (i.e., objectification, power, and violence) in 400 popular pornographic Internet videos from the most visited pornographic Web sites. Objectification was depicted more often for women through instrumentality, but men were more frequently objectified through dehumanization. Regarding power, men and women did not differ in social or professional status, but men were more often shown as dominant and women as submissive during sexual activities. Except for spanking and gagging, violence occurred rather infrequently. Nonconsensual sex was also relatively rare. Overall, amateur pornography contained more gender inequality at the expense of women than professional pornography did.

  4. Improving models of democracy: the example of lagged effects of economic development, education, and gender equality.

    PubMed

    Balaev, Mikhail

    2014-07-01

    The author examines how time delayed effects of economic development, education, and gender equality influence political democracy. Literature review shows inadequate understanding of lagged effects, which raises methodological and theoretical issues with the current quantitative studies of democracy. Using country-years as a unit of analysis, the author estimates a series of OLS PCSE models for each predictor with a systematic analysis of the distributions of the lagged effects. The second set of multiple OLS PCSE regressions are estimated including all three independent variables. The results show that economic development, education, and gender have three unique trajectories of the time-delayed effects: Economic development has long-term effects, education produces continuous effects regardless of the timing, and gender equality has the most prominent immediate and short term effects. The results call for the reassessment of model specifications and theoretical setups in the quantitative studies of democracy.

  5. Analysis of health sector gender equality and social inclusion strategy 2009 of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Mahara, G B; Dhital, S R

    2014-01-01

    The policy on gender equality and social inclusion (GESI) in health sector of Nepal is formulated in 2009 targeting toward poor, vulnerable, marginalized social and ethnic groups. Gender inequality and social discrimination are a social problem that affect on individual health finally. The main objective of this paper is to critically analysis and evaluates the Government's strategy on health sector gender equality and social inclusion in Nepal. We collected published and unpublished information assessing the public health, policy analysis and research needs from different sources. A different policy approaches for the analysis and evaluation of GESI strategies is applied in this paper. Universal education, community participation, individual, group and mass communication approaches, and social capital are the key aspects of effective implementation of policy at target levels.

  6. Recent Activities of the Physical Society of Japan for the Promotion of Gender Equality (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Atsutaka; Yonenaga, Ichiro; Tajima, Setsuko; Hiyama, Emiko; Torikai, Eiko

    2009-04-01

    We present activities of the Gender Equality Promotion Committee of the Physical Society of Japan (JPS) untaken after the Second IUPAP Women in Physics Conference, Rio de Janiero, 2005. These include: (1) summer and spring classes for high school girls, (2) symposia on the promotion of gender equality at annual JPS meetings, (3) continuous cooperation with the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE), (4) consultation for JPS members on the Restart Postdoctoral Fellowship (RPD) program conducted by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), (5) publication of a series of articles in the JPS membership journal, and (6) presentation at international meetings such as the Asia Pacific Physics Conference 10 (APPC10). We report that these activities were successful.

  7. SFB 754 - Enhancing Gender Equality within a large interdisciplinary project: the example of the SFB 754

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamm, Ruth; Schelten, Christiane K.

    2016-04-01

    This poster is linked to the oral presentation by Dr. Christiane K. Schelten. One requirement of a successful application for funding under the DFGs Collaborative Research Centres (SFBs) programme is to integrate a strategy to increase the number of female principal investigators and to support younger women scientists in pursuing their academic career. The DGF provides a lump sum of 30.000 € per year for measures to promote women scientists, to raise awareness for gender imbalances and to create a family friendly working environment. The SFB 754 'Climate - Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean' based at Kiel University and the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research developed an innovative strategy to develop and implement new measures for more gender equality within the SFB 754 by building on existing expertise and structures. Together with the Cluster of Excellence 'The Future Ocean' (funded within the German Excellence Initiative), the SFB 754 finances the position of a coordinator for gender measures based at Kiel University's Central Office for Gender Equality, Diversity & Family. Due to this close cooperation of SFB 754 coordination and the university's gender office a successful framework for the SFB 754 gender equality activities has been developed. Measures taken are both integrated into the overall activities of the university, and tailored to the needs of women scientists in marine sciences in general, in the SFB 754 in particular. One outcome of this successful cooperation is, for example, the via:mento_ocean programme, the marine science focused line of the university's mentoring programme via:mento for female postdocs. But the SFB 754 also offers internal workshops and plenary presentations to raise gender awareness within the whole SFB 754 community and trainings to its female doctoral students and postdocs such as a very successful 'assertiveness and self-defence training'.

  8. Racial and gender science achievement gaps in secondary education.

    PubMed

    Bacharach, Verne R; Baumeister, Alfred A; Furr, R Michael

    2003-03-01

    A substantial disparity exists for academic achievement in science between Black and White primary-school children. A similar gap exists between boys and girls. The extent to which secondary education influences these achievement gaps has not been established. The authors report analyses showing how these science achievement gaps change as a function of secondary education. Analyses of data from a large, nationally representative longitudinal study of academic achievement showed that racial disparities and disparities associated with gender continue to increase throughout high school.

  9. Achieving Real Equality: A Work in Progress for LGBT Youth in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galan, Jose Ignacio Pichardo; Puras, Belen Molinuevo; Riley, Robin L.

    2009-01-01

    Although lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people have achieved a great level of legal equality in Spain, social equality is still to come, especially for adolescents. This article reports results from three different studies. The first, in 2005, using a multidisciplinary approach, confirmed that homophobia is present in secondary…

  10. Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born…

  11. Gender Differences in School Achievement: A Within-Class Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Barneron, Meir; Kassim, Suhad

    2014-01-01

    Relying on the results of the achievement tests in mathematics, science, native language (Hebrew/Arabic) and English, administered to 1430 5th-grade co-educational classes in Israel, this study examines the between-class variability of the within-class mean score gender differences and its class and school correlates. The four main results of the…

  12. Mathematics Education in Lebanon: Gender Differences in Attitudes and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.; Chartouny, Madona

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in students' mathematics achievement and in their attitudes toward mathematics. Another purpose was to examine mathematics teachers' beliefs and their perceptions of their male and female students' ability. The sample consisted of 692 students (353 girls, 339 boys) between the ages of…

  13. Gender Balance in Teaching Debate: Tensions between Gender Theory and Equality Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Tett, Lyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on findings from a research project funded by the Scottish Executive which analysed the gender balance in teaching and explored the underlying reasons for the decline in the number and proportion of men, particularly in secondary schools. As in other developed countries, such as Australia, the USA and Canada, the proportion of men…

  14. Predicting Mathematics Achievement by Motivation and Self-Efficacy across Gender and Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartawi, AbdelAziz; Alsawaie, Othman N.; Dodeen, Hamzeh; Tibi, Sana; Alghazo, Iman M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which self-efficacy and motivation served as a predictor for mathematics achievement of fifth grade students in United Arab Emirates (UAE) across gender and achievement levels. Self-efficacy was measured by two scales, which differed in levels of specificity--Category Specific and Task Specific. Motivation was…

  15. Pathways of equality through education: impact of gender (in)equality and maternal education on exclusive breastfeeding among natives and migrants in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vanderlinden, Karen; Van de Putte, Bart

    2017-04-01

    Even though breastfeeding is typically considered the preferred feeding method for infants worldwide, in Belgium, breastfeeding rates remain low across native and migrant groups while the underlying determinants are unclear. Furthermore, research examining contextual effects, especially regarding gender (in)equality and ideology, has not been conducted. We hypothesized that greater gender equality scores in the country of origin will result in higher breastfeeding chances. Because gender equality does not operate only at the contextual level but can be mediated through individual level resources, we hypothesized the following for maternal education: higher maternal education will be an important positive predictor for exclusive breastfeeding chances in Belgium, but its effects will differ over subsequent origin countries. Based on IKAROS data (GeÏntegreerd Kind Activiteiten en Regio Ondersteunings Systeem), we perform multilevel analyses on 27 936 newborns. Feeding method is indicated by exclusive breastfeeding 3 months after childbirth. We measure gender (in)equality using Global Gender Gap scores from the mother's origin country. Maternal education is a metric variable based on International Standard Classification of Education indicators. Results show that 3.6% of the variation in breastfeeding can be explained by differences between the migrant mother's country of origin. However, the effect of gender (in)equality appears to be non-significant. After adding maternal education, the effect for origin countries scoring low on gender equality turns significant. Maternal education on its own shows strong positive association with exclusive breastfeeding and, furthermore, has different effects for different origin countries. Possible explanations are discussed in-depth setting direction for further research regarding the different pathways gender (in)equality and maternal education affect breastfeeding. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Gender Equality in Public Higher Education Institutions of Ethiopia: The Case of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egne, Robsan Margo

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring gender equality in higher education system is high on the agenda worldwide particularly in science disciplines. This study explores the problems and prospects of gender equality in public higher education institutions of Ethiopia, especially in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Descriptive survey and analytical research…

  17. The Effect of Prior Knowledge and Gender on Physics Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John; Henderson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Gender differences on the Conceptual Survey in Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) have been extensively studied. Ten semesters (N=1621) of CSEM data is presented showing male students outperform female students on the CSEM posttest by 5 % (p < . 001). Male students also outperform female students on qualitative in-semester test questions by 3 % (p = . 004), but no significant difference between male and female students was found on quantitative test questions. Male students enter the class with superior prior preparation in the subject and score 4 % higher on the CSEM pretest (p < . 001). If the sample is restricted to students with little prior knowledge who answer no more than 8 of the 32 questions correctly (N=822), male and female differences on the CSEM and qualitative test questions cease to be significant. This suggests no intrinsic gender bias exists in the CSEM itself and that gender differences are the result of prior preparation measured by CSEM pretest score. Gender differences between male and female students increase with pretest score. Regression analyses are presented to further explore interactions between preparation, gender, and achievement.

  18. Gender Equality in Education in the Context of the Millennium Development Goals: Challenges and Opportunities for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moletsane, Relebohile

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the question: In the context of poverty, gender-based violence (GBV) and HIV/AIDS currently ravaging under-resourced countries, dare we set our hopes for gender- equitable development in general, and gender equality in education in particular, on the Millenium Development Goals MDGs? The article analyses the…

  19. 77 FR 5661 - Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... ``the language be changed to simply include `actual and perceived sexual orientation and gender identity... inquiries would have on low-income transgender people who cannot afford to access legal gender change.... Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity; Final...

  20. Recent activities for the promotion of gender equality in the societies of physics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, H.; Sasao, M.; Nemoto, K.; Tamechika, E.; Watanabe, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Although the percentage of women members increases from 2% to 6% in the last 30 years, the ratio is still low in both the Physical Society of Japan and the Japan Society of Applied Physics. Recent activities for the promotion of gender equality in both societies, the development of the next generation of members, organizing international workshops and domestic symposiums, and so on, are introduced in this paper.

  1. Activities for the Promotion of Gender Equality in Japan—Physical Society of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agui, Akane; Tanida, Kiyoshi; Torikai, Eiko

    2005-10-01

    The Gender Equality Promotion Committee of the Physical Society of Japan (JPS) was established as a result of the First International IUPAP Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, 2002). It is a gender-balanced team of 12 full members and a group of net-commentators. The former chairperson of the committee, Masako Bando, was selected to be the president of JPS between September 2006 and August 2007. Based on the survey on the present status of the gender equality and the research environment of the JPS members in 2001, JPS advanced two recommendations to the governmental authorities, academic institutes, and organizations: for flexible childcare supports and for improved research granting systems for post-doctoral fellows and part-time researchers in August 2003. Now these activities have become nationwide with the establishment in October 2002 of the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE). It has 44 member societies, including 19 observers, from various academic fields. An extended survey was carried out by EPMEWSE in November 2003; 20,000 respondents revealed diverse visions of scientists and engineers. These activities effectively help foster public understanding and awareness of the state of women in physics, especially among policy-making authorities. In 2005 the Cabinet is drawing up two Basic Plans for 2006-2010: the Science and Technology Basic Plan for the third term and the Basic Plan for the Gender-Equal Society for the second term. To attract girls into science and engineering, JPS is organizing the Girls Science Summer School to be held in August 2005 in collaboration with the National Women Education Center and EPMEWSE.

  2. Gender issues in US science and technology policy: equality of what?

    PubMed

    Cozzens, Susan E

    2008-09-01

    Fairness in evaluation processes for women in science and engineering is only one of a set of issues that need to be addressed to reach gender equality. This article uses concepts from Amartya Sen's work on inequality to frame gender issues in science and technology policy. Programs that focus on increasing the number of women in science and engineering careers have not generally addressed a broader set of circumstances that intersect with gender at various economic levels and stages of life. The agendas in research and innovation policies also need to reflect these issues, and fair allocation of resources within both science and technology needs to be on the agenda. Getting women into high-level positions is not enough. Articulating the full research and innovation agendas for women will require broader participatory processes.

  3. Gender and Student Achievement in English Schools. CEE DP 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Stephen; McNally, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    In the UK, there is a marked gender gap in the educational attainment of boys and girls. At the end of compulsory education, 10 per cent fewer boys achieve 5 or more good GCSEs. This gap is by no means confined to GCSE. It is evident at all Key Stages. Furthermore, some indicators suggest that the gap has widened over time. In this paper, we…

  4. Gender gaps in achievement and participation in multiple introductory biology classrooms.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Sarah L; Brownell, Sara E; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-01-01

    Although gender gaps have been a major concern in male-dominated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines such as physics and engineering, the numerical dominance of female students in biology has supported the assumption that gender disparities do not exist at the undergraduate level in life sciences. Using data from 23 large introductory biology classes for majors, we examine two measures of gender disparity in biology: academic achievement and participation in whole-class discussions. We found that females consistently underperform on exams compared with males with similar overall college grade point averages. In addition, although females on average represent 60% of the students in these courses, their voices make up less than 40% of those heard responding to instructor-posed questions to the class, one of the most common ways of engaging students in large lectures. Based on these data, we propose that, despite numerical dominance of females, gender disparities remain an issue in introductory biology classrooms. For student retention and achievement in biology to be truly merit based, we need to develop strategies to equalize the opportunities for students of different genders to practice the skills they need to excel.

  5. Macro-level gender equality and alcohol consumption: a multi-level analysis across U.S. States.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Sarah C M

    2012-07-01

    Higher levels of women's alcohol consumption have long been attributed to increases in gender equality. However, only limited research examines the relationship between gender equality and alcohol consumption. This study examined associations between five measures of state-level gender equality and five alcohol consumption measures in the United States. Survey data regarding men's and women's alcohol consumption from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were linked to state-level indicators of gender equality. Gender equality indicators included state-level women's socioeconomic status, gender equality in socioeconomic status, reproductive rights, policies relating to violence against women, and women's political participation. Alcohol consumption measures included past 30-day drinker status, drinking frequency, binge drinking, volume, and risky drinking. Other than drinker status, consumption is measured for drinkers only. Multi-level linear and logistic regression models adjusted for individual demographics as well as state-level income inequality, median income, and % Evangelical Protestant/Mormon. All gender equality indicators were positively associated with both women's and men's drinker status in models adjusting only for individual-level covariates; associations were not significant in models adjusting for other state-level characteristics. All other associations between gender equality and alcohol consumption were either negative or non-significant for both women and men in models adjusting for other state-level factors. Findings do not support the hypothesis that higher levels of gender equality are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption by women or by men. In fact, most significant findings suggest that higher levels of equality are associated with less alcohol consumption overall.

  6. Women Physicists in the European Union : how Brussels is moving toward gender equality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancheri, Giulia

    2008-04-01

    The policies of the European Union towards gender equality in science occupation will be discussed along three aspects: 1. Current statistics recently published by the EU will be illustrated with some comparison with similar US statistics. The latest recommendations of the Helsinki group will be presented, together with the conclusions of the Women in Science meetings organized by the EU. 2. The implementation of these recommendations will be illustrated by this speaker's experience both as independent expert for Physics Research Programs for the European Commission for the last 10 years, as well as from the point of view of having been European Coordinator of three Research Networks in Theoretical Physics from 1992 until 2006: the impact of this on young women students will be described. 3. National policies enforced through the Equal Opportunity Committees will be illustrated, with the specific case of the Affirmative Actions of Italian INFN Equal Opportunity Committe and their impact on hiring and promotion of women physicists.

  7. Working through resistance in engaging boys and men towards gender equality and progressive masculinities

    PubMed Central

    Ratele, Kopano

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, a focus on challenging and transforming dominant forms of masculinity and engaging boys and men towards gender equality and healthy masculinities has permeated South African social and health sciences and the humanities. This focus on men and boys has also been evident in intervention and activist work. However, the turn to boys, men and masculinities has not gone without resistance, contestation and contradictions. A range of localised and global realities has frustrated much of the enthusiasm for rapid, sweeping and concrete changes regarding gender justice and the making of progressive masculinities. Among the discursive and material forces that oppose work that engages boys and men are those to do with income-related issues, race and racism, cultural traditions and gender itself. Because of this, it is contended that engagement with boys and men needs to consider not only gender but also economic inequality, poverty and unemployment, divisions created by race, and struggles around tradition. This paper discusses these forces that undermine and counteract work with boys and men and how we might work through resistance in engaging with men and boys. PMID:26073936

  8. Working through resistance in engaging boys and men towards gender equality and progressive masculinities.

    PubMed

    Ratele, Kopano

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, a focus on challenging and transforming dominant forms of masculinity and engaging boys and men towards gender equality and healthy masculinities has permeated South African social and health sciences and the humanities. This focus on men and boys has also been evident in intervention and activist work. However, the turn to boys, men and masculinities has not gone without resistance, contestation and contradictions. A range of localised and global realities has frustrated much of the enthusiasm for rapid, sweeping and concrete changes regarding gender justice and the making of progressive masculinities. Among the discursive and material forces that oppose work that engages boys and men are those to do with income-related issues, race and racism, cultural traditions and gender itself. Because of this, it is contended that engagement with boys and men needs to consider not only gender but also economic inequality, poverty and unemployment, divisions created by race, and struggles around tradition. This paper discusses these forces that undermine and counteract work with boys and men and how we might work through resistance in engaging with men and boys.

  9. Religion, politics and gender equality in Turkey: implications of a democratic paradox?

    PubMed

    Arat, Yeşim

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the gendered implications of the intertwining of Islam and politics that took shape after the process of democratisation in Turkey had brought a political party with an Islamist background to power. This development revived the spectre of restrictive sex roles for women. The country is thus confronted with a democratic paradox: the expansion of religious freedoms accompanying potential and/or real threats to gender equality. The ban on the Islamic headscarf in universities has been the most visible terrain of public controversy on Islam. However, the paper argues that a more threatening development is the propagation of patriarchal religious values, sanctioning secondary roles for women through the public bureaucracy as well as through the educational system and civil society organisations.

  10. Between universal feminism and particular nationalism: politics, religion and gender (in)equality in Israel.

    PubMed

    Halperin-Kaddari, Ruth; Yadgar, Yaacov

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that one of the many "idiosyncrasies" of the Israeli case, namely Israel's continuing, violent conflict with its Arab neighbours, is of highly influential relevance to the issue of gender relations. Viewed by many Israeli Jews as a struggle for the very existence of the Jewish state, the Arab-Israeli conflict has overshadowed most other civil and social issues, rendering them "secondary" to the primary concern of securing the safe existence of the state. This has pushed such pressing issues as gender equality and women's rights aside, thus allowing for the perpetuation of discriminatory, sometimes rather repressive treatment of women in Israel. The most blatant expression of this is the turning of the struggle for civil marriage and divorce into a non-issue. Following a short introduction of the relevant political context, we discuss women's positivist and legal status, then conclude with an analysis of the women's movement, highlighting the emergence of religious feminism.

  11. Gender equity and equality on Korean student scientists: A life history narrative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Changsoo

    Much research, including that by Koreans (e.g., Mo, 1999), agrees on two major points relating to the inequitable and unequal condition of women in the scientific community: (1) the fact that the under-representation of women in the scientific community has been taken for granted for years (e.g., Rathgeber, 1998), and (2) documenting women's lives has been largely excluded in women's studies (e.g., Sutton, 1998). The basis for the design of this study relates to the aforementioned observations. This study addresses two major research questions: how do social stereotypes exist in terms of gender equity and equality in the South Korean scientific and educational fields, and how do these stereotypes influence women and men's socializations, in terms of gender equity and equality, in the South Korean scientific and educational fields? To investigate the research questions, this qualitative study utilizes a life history narrative approach in examining various theoretical perspectives, such as critical theory, post-structuralism, and postmodernism. Through the participants' perceptions and experiences in the scientific community and in South Korean society, this study fords gendered stereotypes, practices, and socializations in school, family, and the scientific community. These findings demonstrate asymmetric gendered structures in South Korea. Moreover, with the comparison among male and female participants, this study shows how they perceive and experience differently in school, family, and the scientific community. This study attempts to understand the South Korean scientific community as represented by four student scientists through social structures. Education appears to function significantly as an hegemonic power in conveying legitimating ideologies. This process reproduces man-centered social structures, especially in the scientific community. This suggests that to emancipate women's under-representations in the scientific community, educational administrators

  12. Access to Gender-Sensitive Higher Education in Eastern and Central Europe: Reflections on the CEPES Project "Good Practice in Promoting Gender Equality in Higher Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunberg, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Summarizing the incomplete results of the United Nations Educational and Scientific Organization (UNESCO) program "Good Practice in Promoting Gender Equality in Higher Education," the author asks that any assessment of the progress made in the area of gender-sensitive education take regional specificities into account. The regional…

  13. The unhappy marriage of religion and politics: problems and pitfalls for gender equality.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Shahra; Jenichen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how religion as a political force shapes and deflects the struggle for gender equality in contexts marked by different histories of nation building and challenges of ethnic diversity, different state-society relations (from the more authoritarian to the more democratic), and different relations between state power and religion (especially in the domain of marriage, family and personal laws). It shows how 'private' issues, related to the family, sexuality and reproduction, have become sites of intense public contestation between conservative religious actors wishing to regulate them based on some transcendent moral principle, and feminist and other human rights advocates basing their claims on pluralist and time- and context-specific solutions. Not only are claims of 'divine truth' justifying discriminatory practices against women hard to challenge, but the struggle for gender equality is further complicated by the manner in which it is closely tied up with, and inseparable from, struggles for social and economic justice, ethnic/racial recognition, and national self-determination vis--vis imperial/global domination.

  14. Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2013-12-01

    This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born females, and immigrant females on their scores on teacher-assigned grades in science and on the SAIP science literacy test, and across a range of dispositions, beliefs, and behaviors suggested in the literature as predictive of achievement in science. Study findings show that Canadian-born students, particularly boys, have higher performance in the science literacy test despite their lower achievement in the science classroom and the least investments of time in doing science homework. In contrast, immigrant female students demonstrate the highest academic effort and achievement in science courses which are not matched by similar results in the science literacy test. We discuss these results in relation to different socialization experiences with science and technology that limit female and immigrant students' abilities to transfer knowledge to new situations that have not been learned in the classroom.

  15. The compassionate sexist? How benevolent sexism promotes and undermines gender equality in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Hideg, Ivona; Ferris, D Lance

    2016-11-01

    Although sexist attitudes are generally thought to undermine support for employment equity (EE) policies supporting women, we argue that the effects of benevolent sexism are more complex. Across 4 studies, we extend the ambivalent sexism literature by examining both the positive and the negative effects benevolent sexism has for the support of gender-based EE policies. On the positive side, we show that individuals who endorse benevolent sexist attitudes on trait measures of sexism (Study 1) and individuals primed with benevolent sexist attitudes (Study 2) are more likely to support an EE policy, and that this effect is mediated by feelings of compassion. On the negative side, we find that this support extends only to EE policies that promote the hiring of women in feminine, and not in masculine, positions (Study 3 and 4). Thus, while benevolent sexism may appear to promote gender equality, it subtly undermines it by contributing to occupational gender segregation and leading to inaction in promoting women in positions in which they are underrepresented (i.e., masculine positions). (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Changing masculinities: land-use, family communication and prospects for working with older men towards gender equality in a livelihoods intervention.

    PubMed

    Jobson, Geoffrey

    2010-04-01

    Engaging men in work towards gender equality is a critical aspect of gender and development. However, there are few documented grassroots-level approaches to undertaking such work. This paper argues that context specific stresses on local constructions of masculinity, such as unemployment, poverty and high HIV prevalence, may provide useful entry points for work with men towards gender equality. While these stresses may act to undermine men's ability to 'achieve' the requirements of traditional constructions of masculinity, particularly the role of men as providers, they simultaneously create spaces for change. In this research, land-use provided a basis from which to engage with a group of older men (45-75 years) around a range of issues, including HIV and AIDS and health. Increases in levels of communication around HIV, household resources and health are used as indicative of the men's moves towards gender-equal behaviour. The paper argues that this was achieved by supporting positive aspects of traditional masculine identities, particularly the role of men as breadwinners, in a social and economic context where these roles are threatened or placed under pressure, while simultaneously working around 'sensitive' issues.

  17. A blow to gender equality. Supreme Court judgement on Manushi's case on women's land rights.

    PubMed

    Reddy, V

    1999-01-01

    Many scholars take the view that personal laws of various communities are not subject to the constitution. Thus, the constitutional mandate of gender equality, which is to be found in articles 14 and 15 of the constitution, need not be taken into account by community-determined personal laws. The effect of such reasoning is that personal laws are given a free hand to discriminate against women. In the case of Madhu Kishwar against State of Bihar, the Apex Court decision caused a good deal of confusion on this aspect. A three-judge bench considered sections 7 and 8 of the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act, which is applicable to the Scheduled Tribes in Bihar and denies the right of succession to females in favor of males, as constitutional. This decision implies that general principles of equality as laid down in other succession laws cannot be applied to the laws of tribals. In addition, it reflects the general reluctance to let women be economically independent. However, it is proved that the decision is not in accordance with the constitution, making it clear that tribal women are entitled to equal succession rights, as are all women in India.

  18. From motherhood penalties to husband premia: the new challenge for gender equality and family policy, lessons from Norway.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Trond; Penner, Andrew M; Høgsnes, Geir

    2014-03-01

    Given the key role that processes occurring in the family play in creating gender inequality, the family is a central focus of policies aimed at creating greater gender equality. We examine how family status affects the gender wage gap using longitudinal matched employer-employee data from Norway, 1979-96, a period with extensive expansion of family policies. The motherhood penalty dropped dramatically from 1979 to 1996. Among men the premia for marriage and fatherhood remained constant. In 1979, the gender wage gap was primarily due to the motherhood penalty, but by 1996 husband premia were more important than motherhood penalties.

  19. Activities for the Promotion of Gender Equality in Japan—Japan Society of Applied Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodate, Kashiko; Tanaka, Kazuo

    2005-10-01

    Since 1946, the Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP) has strived to promote research and development in applied physics for benefits beyond national boundaries. Activities of JSAP involve multidisciplinary fields, from physics and engineering to life sciences. Of its 23,000 members, 48% are from industry, 29% from academia, and about 7% from semi-autonomous national research laboratories. Its large industrial membership is one of the distinctive features of JSAP. In preparation for the First IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, 2002), JSAP members took the first step under the strong leadership of then-JSAP President Toshio Goto, setting up the Committee for the Promotion Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Technology. Equality rather than women's advancement is highlighted to further development in science and technology. Attention is also paid to balancing the number of researchers from different age groups and affiliations. The committee has 22 members: 12 female and 10 male; 7 from corporations, 12 from universities, and 3 from semi-autonomous national research institutes. Its main activities are to organize symposia and meetings, conduct surveys among JSAP members, and provide child-care facilities at meetings and conferences. In 2002 the Japan Physics Society and the Chemical Society of Japan jointly created the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association for the Promotion of Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering. Membership has grown to 44 societies (of which 19 are observers) ranging from mathematics, information, and life sciences to civil engineering. Joint activities across sectors and empower the whole. The Gender Equality Bureau in the Cabinet Office recently launched a large-scale project called "Challenge Campaign" to encourage girls to major in natural science and engineering, which JSAP is co-sponsoring.

  20. Gender, Student Motivation and Academic Achievement in a Midsized Wisconsin High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutzke, Steven Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated relationships among gender, academic motivation and achievement in a mid-sized Wisconsin high school. A questionnaire was developed that focused on perceived ability, achievement motives and achievement goals. Interviews with teachers focused on relationships among academic motivation and gender achievement.…

  1. Gender equality and education: Increasing the uptake of HIV testing among married women in Kenya, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kavita; Luseno, Winnie; Haney, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Gender equality and education are being promoted as strategies to combat the HIV epidemic in Africa, but few studies have looked at the role of gender equality and education in the uptake of a vital service - HIV testing. This study looks at the associations between education (a key input needed for gender equality) and key gender equality measures (financial decision making and attitudes toward violence) with ever tested for HIV and tested for HIV in the past year. The study focused on currently married women ages between15-24 and 25-34 in three countries - Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The data came from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Logistic regression was used to study the role of gender equality and education on the HIV testing outcomes after controlling for both social and biological factors. Results indicated that education had a consistent positive relationship with testing for both age groups, and the associations were always significant for young women aged 15-24 years (p<0.01). The belief that gender-based violence is unacceptable was positively associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in all the three countries, although the associations were only significant in Kenya (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.58, p<0.00; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.34, p<0.05) and Zambia (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.24, p<0.10; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.29, p<0.05). High financial decision making was associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in Zimbabwe only (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.66, p<0.01). Overall, the findings indicate that the education and the promotion of gender equality are important strategies for increasing uptake of a vital HIV service, and thus are important tools for protecting girls and young women against HIV.

  2. Effects of gender and role selection in cooperative learning groups on science inquiry achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affhalter, Maria Geralyn

    An action research project using science inquiry labs and cooperative learning groups examined the effects of same-gender and co-educational classrooms on science achievement and teacher-assigned or self-selected group roles on students' role preferences. Fifty-nine seventh grade students from a small rural school district participated in two inquiry labs in co-educational classrooms or in an all-female classroom, as determined by parents at the beginning of the academic year. Students were assigned to the same cooperative groups for the duration of the study. Pretests and posttests were administered for each inquiry-based science lab. Posttest assessments included questions for student reflection on role assignment and role preference. Instruction did not vary and a female science teacher taught all class sections. The same-gender classroom and co-ed classrooms produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Students' cooperative group roles, whether teacher-assigned or self-selected, produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Male and female students shared equally in favorable and unfavorable reactions to their group roles during the science inquiry labs. Reflections on the selection of the leader role revealed a need for females in co-ed groups to be "in charge". When reflecting on her favorite role of leader, one female student in a co-ed group stated, "I like to have people actually listen to me".

  3. Processing by equal-channel angular pressing: Potential for achieving superplasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Minoru; Nemoto, Minoru; Horita, Zenji; Langdon, T.G.

    2000-07-01

    Equal-channel angular (ECA) pressing is a processing procedure whereby a very severe plastic strain is imposed on a sample without any change in the cross-sectional dimensions of the material. This processing method leads to a substantial grain refinement, producing grains which are within the submicrometer or even the nanometer scale. This paper discusses the potential for using this method to prepare materials for superplasticity. The results demonstrate that it is possible to achieve superplastic deformation in selected materials subjected to ECA pressing and, in addition, there is the possibility of extending the superplastic region so that it occurs at very rapid strain rates.

  4. Women in surgery: little change in gender equality in Japanese medical societies over the past 3 years.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2013-10-01

    Japan lags behind other industrialized nations in terms of gender equality. To improve the work environment for surgeons, the opinions of female surgeons must be respected. The Committee on Women Surgeons of the Japan Surgical Society (JSS) conducted two surveys 3 years apart of the numbers of female councilors and directors in the member societies of the Japanese Association of Medical Sciences. In the nonsurgical medical societies, although there was an increase in the number of female councilors, only one female director was named over the past 3 years. On the other hand, there were no female directors in any of the 12 surgical societies in 2011. The JSS was founded in 1899. No female surgeon has ever been elected as director and there are currently no female councilors due to the new election system. The Gender Equality Bureau of the Cabinet Office should therefore provide greater support to improve gender equality in Japan.

  5. Patterns of Change in U.S. Gender Achievement Gaps during Elementary and Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahle, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Research on gender achievement gaps shows they exist, and are largest in the tails of the distribution, starting as early as Kindergarten and persisting through eighth grade. In mathematics, studies find small average gender achievement gaps and larger systematically male-favoring gaps among the highest achieving students. This paper seeks to…

  6. What Can Alcohol Researchers Learn from Research about the Relationship Between Macro-Level Gender Equality and Violence against Women?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sarah C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This systematic review focuses on research about macro-level gender equality and violence against women (VAW) and identifies conceptually and theoretically driven hypotheses as well as lessons relevant for alcohol research. Hypotheses include: amelioration—increased equality decreases VAW; backlash—increased equality increases VAW; and convergence—increased equality reduces the gender gap; and hypotheses that distinguish between relative and absolute status, with relative status comparing men's and women's status and absolute status measuring women's status without regard to men. Methods: Systematic review of studies published through June 2009 identified through PubMed and Web of Science, as well as citing and cited articles. Results: A total of 30 studies are included. Of 85 findings examining amelioration/backlash, 25% support amelioration, 22% backlash; and 53% are null. Of 13 findings examining convergence, 31% support and 23% are inconsistent with convergence; 46% are null. Conclusion: Neither the existence nor the direction of the equality and VAW relationship can be assumed. This suggests that the relationship between macro-level gender equality and alcohol should also not be assumed, but rather investigated through research. PMID:21239417

  7. Single-Parent Families: The Role of Parent's and Child's Gender on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Kushner, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Using national survey data, the present study investigated whether adolescents living with parents of their same gender fare better on academic achievement than their peers living with opposite-gender parents. Multiple analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) procedures were employed to examine the effects of the children's gender in single-father and…

  8. Can Gender Differences in Educational Performance of 15-Year-Old Migrant Pupils Be Explained by Societal Gender Equality in Origin and Destination Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronkers, Jaap; Kornder, Nils

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to explain the differences between reading and math scores of migrants' children (8430 daughters and 8526 sons) in 17 OECD destination countries, coming from 45 origin countries or regions, using PISA 2009 data. In addition to the societal gender equality levels of the origin and destination countries (the gender…

  9. Responding to the Gender and Education Millennium Development Goals in South Africa and Kenya: Reflections on Education Rights, Gender Equality, Capabilities and Global Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine; North, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores understandings of gender equality and education and the nature of global goal and target setting, drawing on empirical data collected in central and local government departments in Kenya and South Africa reflecting on their implementation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1, concerned with poverty, MDG 2, concerned with…

  10. Recent activities of the physical society of Japan and the Japan society of applied physics gender equality promotion committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaki, K.; Okiharu, F.; Tajima, S.; Takayama, H.; Watanabe, M. O.

    2013-03-01

    The results of a 2007 large-scale survey of gender equality in scientific and technological professions in Japan are reported. The activities of two Japanese physics societies in the three years since the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics was held in 2008 are reported.

  11. Making non-discrimination and equal opportunity a reality in Kenya's health provider education system: results of a gender analysis.

    PubMed

    Newman, Constance; Kimeu, Anastasiah; Shamblin, Leigh; Penders, Christopher; McQuide, Pamela A; Bwonya, Judith

    2011-01-01

    IntraHealth International's USAID-funded Capacity Kenya project conducted a performance needs assessment of the Kenya health provider education system in 2010. Various stakeholders shared their understandings of the role played by gender and identified opportunities to improve gender equality in health provider education. Findings suggest that occupational segregation, sexual harassment and discrimination based on pregnancy and family responsibilities present problems, especially for female students and faculty. To grow and sustain its workforce over the long term, Kenyan human resource leaders and managers must act to eliminate gender-based obstacles by implementing existing non-discrimination and equal opportunity policies and laws to increase the entry, retention and productivity of students and faculty. Families and communities must support girls' schooling and defer early marriage. All this will result in a fuller pool of students, faculty and matriculated health workers and, ultimately, a more robust health workforce to meet Kenya's health challenges.

  12. Health with equality: a proposal for the incorporation of the gender perspective in health care systems.

    PubMed

    Panisello, Maria Luisa; Pastor, Inma

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the incorporation of the gender perspective in health care-related policies. Based on the recommendations of international organizations, the importance of the incorporation of the gender concept in the health field is analyzed, in order to design health policies that seeking to redress existing inequalities by virtue of sex/gender. This paper presents an analysis of the published guidelines in order to facilitate the incorporation of the gender perspective in health care systems. The article concludes with a proposal of gender-sensitive health indicators that can ensure the gender perspective in health care policies.

  13. Gender Differences in Achievement in a Large, Nationally Representative Sample of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiber, Caroline; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Hajovsky, Daniel B.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate developmental gender differences in academic achievement areas, with the primary focus on writing, using the child and adolescent portion (ages 6-21 years) of the "Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Second Edition, Brief Form," norming sample (N = 1,574). Path analytic models with gender,…

  14. Test Format and the Variation of Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates the existence of gender achievement gaps and the variation in the magnitude of these gaps across states. This paper characterizes the extent to which the variation of gender achievement gaps on standardized tests across the United States can be explained by differing state accountability test formats. A comprehensive…

  15. Examining the Evidence from TIMSS: Gender Differences in Year 8 Science Achievement in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Australia's continuing participation in international science studies such as TIMSS provides a useful lens through which to monitor achievement in science over time. Gender differences in science were not evident in the early years of TIMSS but appear to be growing. This article examines gender differences in science achievement in early secondary…

  16. Achievement and Behaviour in Undergraduate Mathematics: Personality Is a Better Predictor than Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, Lara; Attridge, Nina; Kenny, Steven; Inglis, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We investigated two factors that predict students' achievement and behaviour in undergraduate mathematics: gender and personality. We found that gender predicted students' achievement and behaviour when considered in isolation, but ceased to be predictive when personality profiles were taken into account. Furthermore, personality accounted for…

  17. Is Equal Access to Higher Education in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa Achievable by 2030?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilie, Sonia; Rose, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is back in the spotlight, with post-2015 sustainable development goals emphasising equality of access. In this paper, we highlight the long distance still to travel to achieve the goal of equal access to higher education for all, with a focus on poorer countries which tend to have lower levels of enrolment in higher education.…

  18. Steps towards equal gender representation: TANDEMplusIDEA - an international mentoring and personal development scheme for female scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefli, Bettina; Breuer, Elke

    2010-05-01

    TANDEMplusIDEA was a European mentoring programme conducted by the technical universities RWTH Aachen, Imperial College London, ETH Zurich and TU Delft between 2007 and 2010 to achieve more gender equality in science. Given the continuing underrepresentation of women in science and technology and the well-known structural and systematic disadvantages in male-dominated scientific cultures, the main goal of this programme was to promote excellent female scientists through a high-level professional and personal development programme. Based on the mentoring concept of the RWTH Aachen, TANDEMplusIDEA was the first mentoring programme for female scientists realized in international cooperation. As a pilot scheme funded by the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission, the scientific evaluation was an essential part of the programme, in particular in view of the development of a best practice model for international mentoring. The participants of this programme were female scientists at an early stage of their academic career (postdoc or assistant professor) covering a wide range of science disciplines, including geosciences. This transdisciplinarity as well as the international dimension of the programme have been identified by the participants as one of the keys of success of the programme. In particular, the peer-mentoring across discipline boarders proved to have been an invaluable component of the development programme. This presentation will highlight some of the main findings of the scientific evaluation of the programme and focus on some additional personal insights from the participants.

  19. State Constitutional Equal Rights Provisions: Legal Tools for Achieving Sex Equity in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Phyllis N.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews court cases and decisions in several states that show how state equal rights amendments have been relied upon to promote sex equality in educational institutions. Illustrates how state equal rights amendments can be applied and/or should be relied upon even when other statutory or constitutional provisions exist. (Author/MJL)

  20. School Context and the Gender Gap in Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legewie, Joscha; DiPrete, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Today, boys generally underperform relative to girls in schools throughout the industrialized world. Building on theories about gender identity and reports from prior ethnographic classroom observations, we argue that school environment channels conceptions of masculinity in peer culture, fostering or inhibiting boys' development of anti-school…

  1. Achieving the Best: Gender and the Literacy Hour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Helen

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 30 British elementary children investigated the relationship between reading and gender and attitudes towards the literacy hour. Findings indicate boys wanted shorter time spans of learning activities, preferred independent work, and liked computer work. Both sexes liked working in small groups and disliked sharing their work…

  2. Correlates of gender and achievement in introductory algebra based physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Rachel Clara

    The field of physics is heavily male dominated in America. Thus, half of the population of our country is underrepresented and underserved. The identification of factors that contribute to gender disparity in physics is necessary for educators to address the individual needs of students, and, in particular, the separate and specific needs of female students. In an effort to determine if any correlations could be established or strengthened between sex, gender identity, social network, algebra skill, scientific reasoning ability, and/or student attitude, a study was performed on a group of 82 students in an introductory algebra based physics course. The subjects each filled out a survey at the beginning of the semester of their first semester of algebra based physics. They filled out another survey at the end of that same semester. These surveys included physics content pretests and posttests, as well as questions about the students' habits, attitudes, and social networks. Correlates of posttest score were identified, in order of significance, as pretest score, emphasis on conceptual learning, preference for male friends, number of siblings (negatively correlated), motivation in physics, algebra score, and parents' combined education level. Number of siblings was also found to negatively correlate with, in order of significance, gender identity, preference for male friends, emphasis on conceptual learning, and motivation in physics. Preference for male friends was found to correlate with, in order of significance, emphasis on conceptual learning, gender identity, and algebra score. Also, gender identity was found to correlate with emphasis on conceptual learning, the strongest predictor of posttest score other than pretest score.

  3. Effects of Single-Gender Middle School Classes on Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Tanisha

    Many girls continue to achieve below their male counterparts and portray negative attitudes towards science classes. Some school districts are using single-gender education as a way to shrink the gender gap in school achievement and science related attitude. The purpose of this study was to compare achievement and science-related attitudes of 7th grade girls in single-gender education to 7th grade girls in mixed-gender education. The theoretical base for this study included knowledge from brain-based learning and assimilation, accommodation and age factors of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. The 12-week study included 48 7th grade girls, 21 in the single-gender classroom and 14 in each mixed-gender classroom. This quantitative randomized posttest only control group design utilized the TerraNova Science Assessment and the Test of Science Related Attitudes. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine if significant differences existed in the achievement and attitudes of girls in single and mixed-gender science classes. ANOVA analyses revealed that the girls in the single-gender classroom showed a significantly higher achievement level when compared to girls in the mixed-gender classrooms. Results showed no significant difference in attitude between the two groups. The results of this study contribute to social change by raising awareness about gender issues in science achievement and attitude, addressing a deficiency in the single-gender science education literature, and assisting educational systems in decision making to address achievement gaps while moving toward adequate yearly progress and meeting the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.

  4. Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Differences of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire across Gender and Age in a Sample of Spanish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; Castejon, Juan L.; Nunez, Jose Carlos; Valle, Antonio; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Delgado, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of scores on the Spanish version of the "Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire" (AGTQ) across gender and age groups in 2022 Spanish students (51.1% boys) in grades 7 through 10. The equality of factor structures was compared using multi-group confirmatory factor…

  5. The Different Worlds of Academia: A Horizontal Analysis of Gender Equality in Swedish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silander, Charlotte; Haake, Ulrika; Lindberg, Leif

    2013-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in advanced positions in higher education in Europe. This study takes a horizontal perspective and focuses on the relationship between gender and discipline in order to combine research on gender in higher education with theories of disciplinary differences in academic cultures. The study points out substantial…

  6. Separate Spheres or Increasing Equality? Changing Gender Beliefs in Postwar Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kristen Schultz; Tufis, Paula A.; Alwin, Duane F.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates change in gender beliefs in Japan during a period of economic hard times in the late 1990s. Using data from the International Social Survey Programme on the Japanese population from 1994 (n = 1,054) and 2002 (n = 872), we examined how cohort replacement and intracohort change contributed to changes in gender beliefs. We…

  7. Women, Gender and Work: What Is Equality and How Do We Get There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loutfi, Martha Fetherolf, Ed.

    This anthology contains 22 articles published in the "International Labor Review" between 1996-2000 on many dimensions of women, gender, and work. Part I is an introduction called "Women, Gender, and Work--An Overview" (Martha F. Loutfi), sets the framework in terms of the value of work, rights, and goals. Part II on concepts…

  8. Care for Sick Children as a Proxy for Gender Equality in the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Rickard; Nermo, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Swedish parents are entitled to government paid benefits to take care of sick children. In this paper we show that the gender distribution of paid care for sick children is a good proxy for the gender division of household work. Using two examples we show that registry data on care for sick children is a useful data source for studies on gender…

  9. Science and Technology in the Early Years. An Equal Opportunities Approach. Gender and Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Naima, Ed.

    During the early 1980s there was a lack of research regarding gender issues for early childhood and elementary education. This document attempts to fill this chasm by addressing gender issues in science and technology for primary education schooling and early-years education. The following chapters are included: (1) "Science and Technology in the…

  10. Achieving equal opportunity in NASA: An assessment of needs and recommendations for action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Measures designed by NASA to improve its equal opportunity program are reported. Attempts made to increase the ratios and level of placement of women and minority men in the work force were emphasized, upward mobility for those employees already in the work force was also studied. Ways for improving the track record for NASA's equal opportunity profile are recommended.

  11. Do Birth Order, Family Size and Gender Affect Arithmetic Achievement in Elementary School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desoete, Annemie

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: For decades birth order and gender differences have attracted research attention. Method: Birth order, family size and gender, and the relationship with arithmetic achievement is studied among 1152 elementary school children (540 girls, 612 boys) in Flanders. Children were matched on socioeconomic status of the parents and…

  12. Gender and Achievement: What Have Exams Got to Do with It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwood, Jannette

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that examinations have a complex role in creating and defining gender differences in performance in public examinations. To illustrate this argument three aspects of examining are reviewed: styles of examinations and how they define achievement; coursework and the role it plays in contributing to gender differences in…

  13. A Professor Like Me: The Influence of Instructor Gender on College Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, Florian; Oreopoulos, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Many wonder whether teacher gender plays an important role in higher education by influencing student achievement and subject interest. The data used in this paper help identify average effects from male and female college students assigned to male or female teachers. We find instructor gender plays only a minor role in determining college student…

  14. Gender Disparity Analysis in Academic Achievement at Higher Education Preparatory Schools: Case of South Wollo, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshetu, Amogne Asfaw

    2015-01-01

    Gender is among the determinant factors affecting students' academic achievement. This paper tried to investigate the impact of gender on academic performance of preparatory secondary school students based on 2014 EHEECE result. Ex post facto research design was used. To that end, data were collected from 3243 students from eight purposively…

  15. Achievement Goal Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Gender Invariance in a Sample of Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Jing; Bai, Yu; He, Yini; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Ling, Yu; Smith, Hannah; Huebner, E. Scott

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the gender invariance of the Chinese version of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-C) utilizing a sample of 1,115 Chinese university students. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis supported the configural, metric, and scalar invariance of the AGQ-C across genders. Analyses also revealed that the latent…

  16. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F-Sophie; Spinath, Frank M; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

  17. The Effects of Single Gender Education on Sixth through Eighth Grade Female Student Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Deanna Sherrise

    Currently, students in the United States are educated in either single or mixed gender learning environments. An achievement gap between male and female students in the area of science indicates a need for instructional strategies and environments that will address these learning needs. Single gender classrooms are one possible solution as males and females have gender differences that may contribute to the way they learn. This quantitative, causal comparative study compared the differences in the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards science achievement scores of middle school females in single and mixed gender environments in a state in the Southeastern United States. Independent samples t tests, Chi-Square Tests, and two-way ANOVA analyses determined if group differences in science achievement existed between sixth through eighth grade female students in single and mixed gender classrooms. Results of the study revealed there was no significant difference in achievement scores between the two groups. The research findings provide the stakeholders with information that can potentially influence the implementation of single gender programs to improve the achievement of female students in middle grades science. Keywords: single gender, science, female students, education

  18. Unequal Depression for Equal Work? How the wage gap explains gendered disparities in mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Jonathan; Prins, Seth; Bates, Lisa; Keyes, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are more prevalent among women than men. This disparity may be partially due to the effects of structural gender discrimination in the work force, which acts to perpetuate gender differences in opportunities and resources and may manifest as the gender wage gap. We sought to quantify and operationalize the wage gap in order to explain the gender disparity in depression and anxiety disorders, using data from a 2001–2002 US nationally representative survey of 22,581 working adults ages 30–65. Using established Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition methods to account for gender differences in individual-level productivity, our models reduced the wage gap in our sample by 13.5%, from 54% of men’s pay to 67.5% of men’s pay. We created a propensity-score matched sample of productivity indicators to test if the direction of the wage gap moderated the effects of gender on depression or anxiety. Where female income was less than the matched male counterpart, odds of both disorders were significantly higher among women versus men (major depressive disorder OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.95–3.04; generalized anxiety disorder OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 2.80–6.02). Where female income was greater than the matched male, the higher odds ratios for women for both disorders were significantly attenuated (Major Depressive Disorder OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.96–1.52) (Generalized Anxiety Disorder OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.04–2.29). The test for effect modification by sex and wage gap direction was statistically significant for both disorders. Structural forms of discrimination may explain mental health disparities at the population level. Beyond prohibiting overt gender discrimination, policies must be created to address embedded inequalities in procedures surrounding labor markets and compensation in the workplace. PMID:26689629

  19. Unequal depression for equal work? How the wage gap explains gendered disparities in mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Platt, Jonathan; Prins, Seth; Bates, Lisa; Keyes, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are more prevalent among women than men. This disparity may be partially due to the effects of structural gender discrimination in the work force, which acts to perpetuate gender differences in opportunities and resources and may manifest as the gender wage gap. We sought to quantify and operationalize the wage gap in order to explain the gender disparity in depression and anxiety disorders, using data from a 2001-2002 US nationally representative survey of 22,581 working adults ages 30-65. Using established Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition methods to account for gender differences in individual-level productivity, our models reduced the wage gap in our sample by 13.5%, from 54% of men's pay to 67.5% of men's pay. We created a propensity-score matched sample of productivity indicators to test if the direction of the wage gap moderated the effects of gender on depression or anxiety. Where female income was less than the matched male counterpart, odds of both disorders were significantly higher among women versus men (major depressive disorder OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.95-3.04; generalized anxiety disorder OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 2.80-6.02). Where female income was greater than the matched male, the higher odds ratios for women for both disorders were significantly attenuated (Major Depressive Disorder OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.96-1.52) (Generalized Anxiety Disorder OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.04-2.29). The test for effect modification by sex and wage gap direction was statistically significant for both disorders. Structural forms of discrimination may explain mental health disparities at the population level. Beyond prohibiting overt gender discrimination, policies must be created to address embedded inequalities in procedures surrounding labor markets and compensation in the workplace.

  20. Catalyzing Gender Equality-Focused Clean Energy Development in West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Regional Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ECREEE) partnered with the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center), the African Development Bank and other institutions to develop a Situation Analysis of Energy and Gender Issues in ECOWAS Member States. Through a systematic approach to assess interlinked gender and energy issues in the region, the report puts forth a number of key findings. This brochure highlights ECREEE's partnership with the Solutions Center and key findings from the report.

  1. An Alternative Way to Achieve Kepler's Laws of Equal Areas and Ellipses for the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiang, W. Y.; Chang, H. C.; Yao, H.; Chen, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Kepler's laws of planetary motion are acknowledged as highly significant to the construction of universal gravitation. This paper demonstrates different ways to derive the law of equal areas for the Earth by general geometrical and trigonometric methods, which are much simpler than the original derivation depicted by Kepler. The established law of…

  2. Teacher and Speech-Language Therapist Collaboration: Being Equal and Achieving a Common Goal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartas, D.

    2004-01-01

    Collaboration is a key aspect in developing effective educational provision for pupils with special educational needs. In this study, collaboration is conceptualized as a dynamic system for educational efforts which endorses collegial, interdependent and co-equal styles of interaction between teachers and speech and language therapists (SLTs).…

  3. Gender and Sexuality: The Discursive Limits of "Equality" in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrish, Liz; Sauntson, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This special issue sets out to investigate a number of areas of concern, regarding gender and sexuality, which are identifiable in the current British higher education environment. We argue that current dominant "neoliberal" discourses, which emphasise the commodification of higher education in the U.K., function to set limits upon…

  4. Discussing Gender Roles and Equality by Reading "Max: The Stubborn Little Wolf"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, Gilberto P.; Leija, María G.

    2014-01-01

    In the beginning of this article, the authors share the story of Mr. Paredes, a fourth grade teacher in a bilingual classroom, who explains his approach in selecting particular pieces of children's literature that address gender roles and equity. His hope, he states, is that the students will be able to identify the stereotype and challenge…

  5. Relational Harmony: A New Model of Collectivism and Gender Equality among Chinese American Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quek, Karen Mui-Teng; Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Rue, Deborah; Alabiso, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Social harmony is a valued relational rule in collectivism. Using data from in-depth interviews with 20 Chinese American couples, the authors study how husbands and wives interpret and negotiate marital harmony within a multicultural context and how gender relates to this process. Although all participants appear to seek harmony, the result…

  6. Discourses on Gender in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) Setting: Equally Discriminated Against

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breneselovic, Dragana Pavlovic; Krnjaja, Živka

    2016-01-01

    The paper addresses gender issues in the practice of ECEC through research with children. The research examines children's perspectives of kindergarten practice, acknowledging the importance of the child's perspective in critical investigations of this nature. In total, fifty children from thirty kindergartens across Serbia participated in the…

  7. Two Careers/One Family. The Promise of Gender Equality. Sage Series on Close Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino

    This book describes the frontier of close relationships, where traditional gender roles are being reevaluated in light of what is both functional and optimal for persons in dual-career partnerships. Because social environments are crucial to understanding personal relationships and individual behavior, the three chapters in part 1 describe the…

  8. Physical Education Teacher Educators' Professional Identities, Continuing Professional Development and the Issue of Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Fiona

    2006-01-01

    Background: Despite the evidence that many girls and some boys are regularly subjected to inequalities within school physical education (PE) in Norway today, and international research showing how physical education teacher education (PETE) courses often construct unequal learning opportunities for their students on the basis of gender, few…

  9. Pedagogical Discourses of Gender, Peace, and Equality: Jane Addams Children's Book Awards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a feminist critical discourse analysis research project of award-winning books of the Jane Addams Peace Association. Children's books carry societal messages that are gendered, raced, and classed, with award-winning books carrying an additional message of exceptionality as they are viewed as deserving of attention.…

  10. Do Mothers in Rural China Practice Gender Equality in Educational Aspirations for Their Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuping; Kao, Grace; Hannum, Emily

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on a poor rural area in northwestern China and investigates whether the gender attitudes of mothers can be linked to their plans for educating their own children in the future. Using recent longitudinal data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families (GSCF), a survey of rural 9-12-year-old children, families,…

  11. Gender Equality for a New Generation: Expect Male Involvement in ECE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piburn, Donald E.

    2006-01-01

    The world is in the midst of societal shifts in gender role expectations. In many societies, traditional norms of woman as nurturer/caregiver and man as provider/disciplinarian are yielding to new social practices where women and men are expected to fulfill a full range of adult roles and responsibilities. The clearest evidence of this change lies…

  12. Gender Equality and Outsourcing of Domestic Work, Childbearing, and Relationship Stability among British Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Pia S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether gender inequality in the division of housework and child care may be an obstacle to childbearing and relationship stability among different groups of British couples. Furthermore, it explores whether outsourcing of domestic labor ameliorates any negative effects of domestic work inequality. The empirical…

  13. Successful Girls? Complicating Post-Feminist, Neoliberal Discourses of Educational Achievement and Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringrose, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how an ongoing educational panic over failing boys has contributed to a new celebratory discourse about successful girls. Rather than conceive of this shift as an anti-feminist feminist backlash, the paper examines how the successful girl discourse is postfeminist, and how liberal feminist theory has contributed to narrowly…

  14. The impact of single-gender classrooms on science achievement of middle school gifted girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulkins, David S.

    Studies indicate a gap in science achievement and positive attitudes towards science between gifted male and female students with females performing less than the males. This study investigated the impact of a single-gender classroom environment as opposed to a mixed-gender classroom, on motivation, locus of control, self-concept, and science achievement of middle school gifted girls. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), Review of Personal Effectiveness with Locus of Control (ROPELOC), Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA), and Stanford Achievement Test 10th Edition, were used to measure the dependent variables respectively. The independent-measure t test was used to compare the differences between girls in a single-gender classroom with the ones in a mixed-gender classroom. A significant difference in the external locus of control resulted for girls in the single gender classroom. However, there were no significant differences found in science achievement, motivation, and the attitudes toward science between the two groups. The implication is that a single-gender learning environment and the use of differentiated teaching strategies can help lessen the negative effects of societal stereotypes in today's classrooms. These, along with being cognizant of the differences in learning styles of girls and their male counterparts, will result in a greater level of success for gifted females in the area of science education.

  15. Gender and High School Chemistry: Student Perceptions on Achievement in a Selective Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Andrew; Mills, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on research undertaken in a middle-class Australian school. The focus of the research was on the relationship between gender and students' engagement with high school chemistry. Achievement data from many OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] countries suggest that middle-class girls are achieving equally…

  16. Independent Reading: The Relationship of Challenge, Non-Fiction and Gender to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, K. J.; Samuels, J.; Paul, T.

    2008-01-01

    To explore whether different balances of fiction/non-fiction reading and challenge might help explain differences in reading achievement between genders, data on 45,670 pupils who independently read over 3 million books were analysed. Moderate (rather than high or low) levels of challenge were positively associated with achievement gain, but…

  17. Gender and Ethnicity Differences Manifested in Chemistry Achievement and Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Hong, Lee Hooi; Lee, Seung Chun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether gender and ethnicity differences are manifested in chemistry achievement and self-regulated learning among a matriculation programme students in Malaysia. The result of students' midterm chemistry exam was used as the measure of chemistry achievement. The information of self-regulated learning was…

  18. Gender Differences in the Factor Structure of the 2x2 Achievement Goal Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Aldhafri, Said

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in the factor structure of the 2x2 achievement goal framework using a multi-sample invariance analysis. A total of 117 male and 125 female undergraduate teacher education students completed Elliot and Murayama's (2008) Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R). Results provided empirical evidence…

  19. Students' Achievement in Human Circulatory System Unit: The Effect of Reasoning Ability and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effect of gender and reasoning ability on the human circulatory system concepts achievement and attitude toward biology. Reports a statistically significant mean difference between concrete and formal students with regard to achievement and attitude toward biology. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/YDS)

  20. The Effects of Gender and Attributions on Achievement Motivation and Subsequent Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Sibylle J.; Latta, R. Michael

    One attributional model of achievement proposes that individuals attribute their own and others' performance outcomes to one or more of four causes, i.e., ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck, and that such attributions have motivational significance for subsequent achievement-related behavior. The effects of gender, level of resultant…

  1. The Effect of Gender on the Achievement of Students in Biology Using the Jigsaw Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amedu, Odagboyi Isaiah

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined the effect of gender on the achievement of students in biology using the jigsaw method. The sample was made up of 87 students in SS1 in a secondary school. The study utilized an intact class because the study took place in a normal school term. There were 39 males and 49 females. The Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was…

  2. Understanding Science Achievement Gaps by Race/Ethnicity and Gender in Kindergarten and First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, F. Chris; Kellogg, Ann T.

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in science achievement across race and gender have been well documented in secondary and postsecondary school; however, the science achievement gap in the early years of elementary school remains understudied. We present findings from the recently released Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011 that…

  3. The Effect of Gender upon Heritability and Common Environmental Estimates in Measures of Scholastic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee Anne

    1994-01-01

    Examined the effects of gender on academic achievement for 138 mono- and 125 dizygotic twin pairs, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years. Results suggested that individual differences in academic achievement may be more influenced by genetic than environmental variance in females, and by environmental than genetic variance in males. (BC)

  4. Boys Meet Girls' Rights: Bolivian Adolescent Males' Claims of Commitment to Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervais, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study exploring the effects of community-based human rights and pro-equality education on Bolivian adolescent boys. By privileging the boys' own voices, the study examines how the boys' sense of solidarity toward others, derived from the citizenship duties and collegiality emphasised in non-governmental…

  5. A double standard for "Hooking Up": How far have we come toward gender equality?

    PubMed

    Allison, Rachel; Risman, Barbara J

    2013-09-01

    While sexual attitudes have liberalized in the past half century, research is mixed as to whether attitudes have become less gendered over time. Recent studies on college students' sexual and romantic relationships suggest that a sexual double standard continues to organize sexuality on many campuses. Data from the Online College Social Life Survey shed light on students' evaluation of casual sex, or "hooking up." In addition to exploring gendered attitudinal patterns, we use gender structure theory to explore how individual characteristics and normative expectations of campus group affiliations shape attitudes. While three quarters of students do not hold different standards for men and women's hooking up, attitudes are more conservative than liberal, with almost half of students losing respect for men and women who hook up "a lot." However, men are more likely to hold a traditional double standard, while women are more likely to espouse egalitarian conservative attitudes. Individual characteristics, including age, religion, race, social class and sexual orientation are frequently related to sexual attitudes, as are number of hook ups, fraternity/sorority affiliation and varsity athletic participation.

  6. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    PubMed

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  7. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Noncognitive Factors Related to Achievement in Organic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Ronna C.; Lindsay, Harriet A.

    2003-05-01

    For many college students in the sciences, organic chemistry poses a difficult challenge. Indeed, success in organic chemistry has proven pivotal in the careers of a vast number of students in a variety of science disciplines. A better understanding of the factors that contribute to achievement in this course should contribute to efforts to increase the number of students in the science disciplines. Further, an awareness of gender differences in factors associated with achievement should aid efforts to bolster the participation of women in chemistry and related disciplines. Using a correlation research design, the individual relationships between organic chemistry achievement and each of several cognitive variables and noncognitive variables were assessed. In addition, the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and combinations of these independent variables were explored. Finally, gender- and instructor-related differences in the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables were investigated. Cognitive variables included the second-semester general chemistry grade, the ACT English, math, reading, and science-reasoning scores, and scores from a spatial visualization test. Noncognitive variables included anxiety, confidence, effectance motivation, and usefulness. The second-semester general chemistry grade was found to be the best indicator of performance in organic chemistry, while the effectiveness of other predictors varied between instructors. In addition, gender differences were found in the explanations of organic chemistry achievement variance provided by this study. In general, males exhibited stronger correlations between predictor variables and organic chemistry achievement than females.

  8. Early Behavioral Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Gender: Longitudinal Findings from France, Germany, and Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gestsdottir, Steinunn; von Suchodoletz, Antje; Wanless, Shannon B.; Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; McClelland, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, but few studies have explored such links among young children in Europe. This study examined the contribution of early self-regulation to academic achievement gains among children in France, Germany, and Iceland. Gender differences in behavioral…

  9. Gender Gaps in Mathematics, Science and Reading Achievements in Muslim Countries: A Quantile Regression Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2013-01-01

    Using quantile regression analyses, this study examines gender gaps in mathematics, science, and reading in Azerbaijan, Indonesia, Jordan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Qatar, Tunisia, and Turkey among 15-year-old students. The analyses show that girls in Azerbaijan achieve as well as boys in mathematics and science and overachieve in reading. In Jordan,…

  10. Achievement, Agency, Gender, and Socioeconomic Background as Predictors of Postschool Choices: A Multicontext Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Philip D.; Schoon, Ingrid; Tsai, Yi-Miau; Nagy, Gabriel; Trautwein, Ulrich; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors develop and test a differential effects model of university entry versus major selection using a set of common predictors, including background factors (gender and socioeconomic status), academic achievement, and academic self-concept. The research used data from 2 large longitudinal databases from Germany (N = 5,048)…

  11. Gender Differences regarding Mathematics Achievement: The Case of Turkish Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isiksal, Mine; Cakiroglu, Erdine

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in mathematics achievement as demonstrated by performance on the mathematics subsection of a nationwide high school entrance examination in Turkey. In this study, the cities in Turkey were separated into five groups according to their level of economic development. The analysis was based…

  12. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  13. Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K.J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

  14. Science Anxiety: Relation with Gender, Year in Chemistry Class, Achievement, and Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynstra, Sharon; Cummings, Corenna

    The relationships of science anxiety to measures of achievement, test anxiety, year of chemistry taken, and gender were investigated for high school students; the study also attemped to establish reliability data on the Czerniak Assessment of Science Anxiety (CASA) of L. Chiarelott and C. Czerniak (1987). Subjects were 101 students (45 males and…

  15. Teachers and the Gender Gaps in Student Achievement. NBER Working Paper No. 11660

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    In the United States, girls outperform boys in measures of reading achievement while generally underperforming in science and mathematics. One major class of explanations for these gaps involves the gender-based interactions between students and teachers (e.g., role-model and Pygmalion effects). However, the evidence on whether these interactions…

  16. Analyzing the Gender Gap in Math Achievement: Evidence from a Large-Scale US Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Galluzzo, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The US portion of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 student questionnaire comprising of 4,733 observations was used in a multiple regression framework to predict math achievement from demographic variables, such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status, and two student-specific measures of perception, math anxiety and…

  17. Numerical Ability, Course of Study and Gender Differences in Students' Achievement in Practical Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falaye, F. V.

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of gender, course of study and numerical ability (independent variables) on secondary school students' achievement in Practical Geography (dependent variable). Purposive sampling was used to select four co-educational secondary schools established in the same year. A sample of 367 Geography students (157…

  18. Influence of Creative Style and Gender on Students' Achievement in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkpanang, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The research investigated the influence of creative style and gender on students' achievement in physics. The sample consisting one hundred (100) Senior Secondary II physics students, made up of 50 males and 50 females in Oruk Anam Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, were administered the Kirton Adaptor-Innovator Inventory (KAI),…

  19. Correlation Study of Physics Achievement, Learning Strategy, Attitude and Gender in an Introductory Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezgin Selcuk, Gamze

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between multiple predictors of physics achievement including reported use of four learning strategy clusters (elaboration, organization, comprehension monitoring and rehearsal), attitudes towards physics (sense of care and sense of interest) and a demographic variable (gender) in order to determine the…

  20. Emotional Intelligence and Gender as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Some University Students in Barbados

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayombo, Grace A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated emotional intelligence (attending to emotion, positive expressivity and negative expressivity) and gender as predictors of academic achievement among 163 undergraduate psychology students in The University of the West Indies (UWI), Cave Hill Campus, Barbados. Results revealed significant positive and negative correlations…

  1. Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement and Retention Scores: A Case of Problem-Based Learning Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajai, John T.; Imoko, Benjamin I.

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess gender differences in mathematics achievement and retention by using Problem-Based Learning (PBL). The design of the study was pre-posttest quasi-experimental. Four hundred and twenty eight senior secondary one (SS I) students using multistage sampling from ten grant-aided and government schools were involved in…

  2. Effect of Foreign Language Anxiety on Gender and Academic Achievement among Yemeni University EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razak, Norizan Abdul; Yassin, Amr Abdullatif; Maasum, Tengku Nor Rizan Bt Tengku Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the gender differences in terms of anxiety among Yemeni university EFL learners. It also aimed to investigate the correlation between the level of anxiety and the academic achievement of the students. The participants of this study were 155 students chosen from the population through stratified random sampling. The…

  3. The Relationship of Time Perspective to Age, Gender, and Academic Achievement among Academically Talented Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…

  4. Students' Achievement in Relation to Reasoning Ability, Prior Knowledge and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenilmez, Ayse; Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated students' achievement regarding photosynthesis and respiration in plants in relation to reasoning ability, prior knowledge and gender. A total of 117 eighth-grade students participated in the study. Test of logical thinking and the two-tier multiple choice tests were administered to determine students' reasoning ability and…

  5. Emotional Design in Multimedia: Does Gender and Academic Achievement Influence Learning Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Jeya Amantha; Muniandy, Balakrishnan; Yahaya, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed as a preliminary study (N = 33) to explore the effects of gender and academic achievement (Cumulative Grade Point Average-CGPA) on polytechnic students' learning outcomes when exposed to Multimedia Learning Environments (MLE) designed to induce emotions. Three designs namely positive (PosD), neutral (NeuD) and negative…

  6. Gender Differences in Academic Achievement among Turkish Prospective Teachers of English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erten, Ismail Hakki

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to explain prevalent gender differences in academic achievement of 84 third-year students enrolled in a pre-service ELT (English Language Teaching) teacher training department. The study collected both qualitative and quantitative data through semi-structured interviews from a sample of 38 students. A content analysis of the data…

  7. Educational Encouragement, Parenting Styles, Gender and Ethnicity as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Aqeel; Ahmad, Roslee; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif

    2014-01-01

    Current study examines the predictors of academic achievement: role of parenting styles, educational encouragement, gender and ethnicity among special education students. Participants of this study consisted 200 special education students (N = 105 boys and N = 95 girls) age varies 14 to 19 years from one school located at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.…

  8. Geographic Variation of District-Level Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Gender achievement gaps on national and state assessments have been a popular research topic over the last few decades. Many prior studies examine these gaps in different subjects (e.g., mathematics, reading, and science) and grades (typically kindergarten through eighth grade) for students living in various regions (typically states or countries)…

  9. Politics, religion and gender equality in contemporary Mexico: women's sexuality and reproductive rights in a contested secular state.

    PubMed

    Amuchástegui, Ana; Cruz, Guadalupe; Aldaz, Evelyn; Mejía, María Consuelo

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the complexities of the interaction between politics, religion and gender equality in contemporary Mexico, by analysing recent developments in public debate, legal changes and implementation of government policies in two areas: 1) the inclusion of emergency contraception in public health services in 2004; and 2) the decriminalisation of abortion in Mexico City in 2008, which was followed by a massive campaign to re-criminalise abortion in the federal states. Three main findings emerge from our analysis: first, that women's sexual and reproductive autonomy has become an issue of intense public debate that is being addressed by both state-public policy and society; second, that the gradual democratisation of the Mexican political system and society is forcing the Catholic Church to play by the rules of democracy; and third, that the character and nature of the Mexican (secular) state has become an arena of intense struggle within which traditional political boundaries and ideologies are being reconfigured.

  10. Educational standardization and gender differences in mathematics achievement: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ayalon, Hanna; Livneh, Idit

    2013-03-01

    We argue that between-country variations in the gender gap in mathematics are related to the level of educational system standardization. In countries with standardized educational systems both genders are exposed to similar knowledge and are motivated to invest in studying mathematics, which leads to similar achievements. We hypothesize that national examinations and between-teacher uniformity in covering major mathematics topics are associated with a smaller gender gap in a country. Based on Trends of International Mathematical and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003, we use multilevel regression models to compare the link of these two factors to the gender gap in 32 countries, controlling for various country characteristics. The use of national examinations and less between-teacher instructional variation prove major factors in reducing the advantage of boys over girls in mathematics scores and in the odds of excelling. Factors representing gender stratification, often analyzed in comparative gender-gap research in mathematics, are at most marginal in respect of the gap.

  11. Achievement, agency, gender, and socioeconomic background as predictors of postschool choices: a multicontext study.

    PubMed

    Parker, Philip D; Schoon, Ingrid; Tsai, Yi-Miau; Nagy, Gabriel; Trautwein, Ulrich; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2012-11-01

    In this article, the authors develop and test a differential effects model of university entry versus major selection using a set of common predictors, including background factors (gender and socioeconomic status), academic achievement, and academic self-concept. The research used data from 2 large longitudinal databases from Germany (N = 5,048) and England (N = 15,995) to explore the generalizability of the hypothesized model in 2 cultural contexts. For both countries, the results suggested that (a) socioeconomic status was a key predictor of university entry, whereas gender was a key predictor of major selection; (b) achievement and self-concept in both math and English were positive predictors of university entry; and (c) math achievement and self-concept predicted math-intensive major choice and lower likelihood of entering verbal-intensive majors (and vice versa). Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  12. Precollege science achievement growth: Racial-ethnic and gender differences in cognitive and psychosocial constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Patricia Ann

    The purpose of this study was to gain a more complete understanding of the differences in science, mathematics and engineering education among racial-ethnic and gender subgroups by exploring factors related to precollege science achievement growth rates. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and multi-wave, longitudinal data from the first three waves of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988--1994 (NELS:88/94), this study examined precollege science achievement growth rates during the 8th to 10th grade period and the 10th to 12th grade period for African American males, African American females, Latino males, Latina females, Asian American males, Asian American females, White males and White females. For the 8th--10th grade period, previous grades were significantly and positively related to science achievement growth for all subgroups; and socio-economic status and high school program were significantly and positively related to science achievement growth for all subgroups except one (Latino males, and Asian American males respectively). For the 10th--12th grade period, the quantity of science courses completed (science units) was the only variable that was statistically significant for more than one racial-ethnic by gender subgroup. Science units taken were significantly and positively related to 10 th--12th grade growth rates for all racial-ethnic by gender subgroups except Latino males. Locus-of-control was the only cognitive or psychosocial factor included from Eccles, Adler, Futterman, Goff, Kaczala, Meece and Midgley's (1983) theoretical framework for achievement behaviors that appeared to exhibit any pattern across race-ethnicities. Locus-of-control was positively related to 8th--10 th grade science achievement growth for females across all racial-ethnic subgroups, as well as for African American males. However, for both the 8 th--10th grade and 10th--12 th grade periods, there was no consistency across racial-ethnic or gender subgroups in

  13. Achieving Gender Equity in Science Class: Shift from Competition to Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esiobu, G. O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to verify the impact of cooperative learning as an intervention strategy towards the achievement of peace, equality and equity in the science classroom as part of the democratic process necessary for sustainable development. Design/methodology/approach: The study sample comprised 56 SSS 2 students in one public…

  14. Mathematics achievement based on gender among eight grade school students in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabab'h, Belal Sadiq Hamed; Veloo, Arsaythamby; Perumal, Selvan

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the differences in gender base on numbers, algebra, geometry and mathematics achievement among Jordanian 8th grade school students. The respondent of this study were 337 students from eight public secondary schools in Alkoura district and selected by using stratified random sampling. The study comprised of 179 (53%) males and 158 (47%) females students. The mathematics test comprises of 30 items which has eight items for numbers, 14 items for algebra and eight items for geometry. Finding from independent sample t-test shows that female student score higher than male students in numbers, algebra, mathematics achievement and spatial visualization. There is no significant difference in geometry base for gender. This study also indicates that numbers, algebra and mathematics achievement favorable to female and bias to male students. The main recommendations from this study are for teachers and other educational professionals to focus on the numbers and algebra for male students to improve the learning of mathematics, and feeding program through benefiting from tutorial classes to avoid of weakness in different aspects of mathematics achievement. Gender differences in mathematics in secondary school students in Jordan continue to exist and these differences may influence future educational and occupational pathways.

  15. Educational achievement of immigrant adolescents in Spain: do gender and region of origin matter?

    PubMed

    Vaquera, Elizabeth; Kao, Grace

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the educational achievement of immigrant youth in Spain employing data from 3 waves of the Longitudinal Study of Families and Childhood (Pànel de Famílies i Infància), a representative sample of children in Catalonia first interviewed at ages 13-16 in 2006 (N = 2,710). Results suggest consistent disadvantage in achievement among first-generation students. Differences in achievement between the second and third generations are apparent in bivariate analyses, but are explained by observable characteristics in multivariate analyses. Gender-specific analyses uncover a large achievement gap between first-generation girls and their third-generation counterparts, but no equivalent gap for boys. Region-of-origin differences are modest, with the exception of Latin American adolescents who exhibit the lowest educational outcomes. The significance of perceptions about school on achievement are discussed.

  16. Suicide proneness in college students: relationships with gender, procrastination, and achievement motivation.

    PubMed

    Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was also examined for each gender. Participants included 475 (336 women, 139 men) undergraduates from a southeastern university. For both genders, procrastination and achievement motivation were significantly correlated at the univarate level with the suicide proneness indices. However, for college women, but not men, procrastination significantly accounted for unique amounts of variance in both suicide indices above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem. Implications for suicide intervention efforts directed toward college women and men are offered.

  17. National differences in gender-science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement.

    PubMed

    Nosek, Brian A; Smyth, Frederick L; Sriram, N; Lindner, Nicole M; Devos, Thierry; Ayala, Alfonso; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Bergh, Robin; Cai, Huajian; Gonsalkorale, Karen; Kesebir, Selin; Maliszewski, Norbert; Neto, Félix; Olli, Eero; Park, Jaihyun; Schnabel, Konrad; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Tulbure, Bogdan Tudor; Wiers, Reinout W; Somogyi, Mónika; Akrami, Nazar; Ekehammar, Bo; Vianello, Michelangelo; Banaji, Mahzarin R; Greenwald, Anthony G

    2009-06-30

    About 70% of more than half a million Implicit Association Tests completed by citizens of 34 countries revealed expected implicit stereotypes associating science with males more than with females. We discovered that nation-level implicit stereotypes predicted nation-level sex differences in 8th-grade science and mathematics achievement. Self-reported stereotypes did not provide additional predictive validity of the achievement gap. We suggest that implicit stereotypes and sex differences in science participation and performance are mutually reinforcing, contributing to the persistent gender gap in science engagement.

  18. School Health Promotion to Increase Empowerment, Gender Equality and Pupil Participation: A Focus Group Study of a Swedish Elementary School Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadin, Katja Gillander; Weiner, Gaby; Ahlgren, Christina

    2013-01-01

    A school health promotion project was carried out in an elementary school in Sweden where active participation, gender equality, and empowerment were leading principles. The objective of the study was to understand challenges and to identify social processes of importance for such a project. Focus group interviews were conducted with 6 single-sex…

  19. Gender-typed behaviors, achievement, and adjustment among racially and ethnically diverse boys during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carlos E; Galligan, Kathrine; Pahlke, Erin; Fabes, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the relations between adherence to gender-typed behaviors in boys' friendships, achievement, and self-esteem. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse adolescent boys in grade 8 (Mage  = 13.05; range = 12-14). The study was completed at a public junior high school that offered both single- and mixed-gender classes. Data were collected in 2 waves, the first wave in fall of 2010 and the second in spring of 2011. At each wave, participants completed assessments of gender concepts and self-esteem. Standardized tests scores from the end of the previous academic year and the end of the year of the study were utilized. Results revealed that the boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors in their friendships was negatively associated with math standardized test scores and self-esteem from Time I to Time II. Indirect effects analyses revealed a relation between boys' adherence to emotional stoicism behaviors in friendships and math achievement and self-esteem via boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors. Implications of these findings and the links between masculinity, boys' friendships, performance in school, and psychological adjustment are discussed.

  20. Reducing the gender achievement gap in college science: a classroom study of values affirmation.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Akira; Kost-Smith, Lauren E; Finkelstein, Noah D; Pollock, Steven J; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Ito, Tiffany A

    2010-11-26

    In many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines, women are outperformed by men in test scores, jeopardizing their success in science-oriented courses and careers. The current study tested the effectiveness of a psychological intervention, called values affirmation, in reducing the gender achievement gap in a college-level introductory physics class. In this randomized double-blind study, 399 students either wrote about their most important values or not, twice at the beginning of the 15-week course. Values affirmation reduced the male-female performance and learning difference substantially and elevated women's modal grades from the C to B range. Benefits were strongest for women who tended to endorse the stereotype that men do better than women in physics. A brief psychological intervention may be a promising way to address the gender gap in science performance and learning.

  1. Not only what you do, but how you do it: working with health care practitioners on gender equality.

    PubMed

    Fonn, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    The Women's Health Project, School of Public Health, Johannesburg, South Africa, has for more than the past decade been running various gender and health training courses for participants from at least 20 different countries. In this paper I interrogate the motivation behind and methods of the gender training and offer three prompts that assist facilitators in promoting participants' understanding of gender theory. (1) Does this program/action take gender into account? (2) Does this program/action challenge gender norms? (3) Does this program/action promote women's autonomy? Examples of training sessions are described to illustrate how our methods iterate with the content of the courses and, in particular, how the training links to actions practitioners may engage in to redress gender inequalities at work. I go on to argue that both structural and inter-relational aspects of health programs are important in addressing gender and health concerns and discuss the impact of such training on participants and health services.

  2. The role of difficulty and gender in numbers, algebra, geometry and mathematics achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabab'h, Belal Sadiq Hamed; Veloo, Arsaythamby; Perumal, Selvan

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to identify the role of difficulty and gender in numbers, algebra, geometry and mathematics achievement among secondary schools students in Jordan. The respondent of the study were 337 students from eight public secondary school in Alkoura district by using stratified random sampling. The study comprised of 179 (53%) males and 158 (47%) females students. The mathematics test comprises of 30 items which has eight items for numbers, 14 items for algebra and eight items for geometry. Based on difficulties among male and female students, the findings showed that item 4 (fractions - 0.34) was most difficult for male students and item 6 (square roots - 0.39) for females in numbers. For the algebra, item 11 (inequality - 0.23) was most difficult for male students and item 6 (algebraic expressions - 0.35) for female students. In geometry, item 3 (reflection - 0.34) was most difficult for male students and item 8 (volume - 0.33) for female students. Based on gender differences, female students showed higher achievement in numbers and algebra compare to male students. On the other hand, there was no differences between male and female students achievement in geometry test. This study suggest that teachers need to give more attention on numbers and algebra when teaching mathematics.

  3. Associations of Student Temperament and Educational Competence with Academic Achievement: The Role of Teacher Age and Teacher and Student Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullola, Sari; Jokela, Markus; Ravaja, Niklas; Lipsanen, Jari; Hintsanen, Mirka; Alatupa, Saija; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    We examined associations of teacher-perceived student temperament and educational competence with school achievement, and how these associations were modified by students' gender and teachers' gender and age. Participants were 1063 Finnish ninth-graders (534 boys) and their 29 Mother Language teachers (all female) and 43 Mathematics teachers (17…

  4. Gender and Achievement Differences in Secondary Students' Verbal Self-Concepts: A Closer Look beyond Bivariate Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Gunter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Against the background of contradictory research findings in the field the present study aimed at unraveling the structural complexities of gender differences in secondary students' verbal self-concepts and, thus, analyzing possible gender x achievement interaction effects in the L1 German and L2 English language subject. According…

  5. Have Gender Gaps in Math Closed? Achievement, Teacher Perceptions, and Learning Behaviors across Two ECLS-K Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimpian, Joseph R.; Lubienski, Sarah T.; Timmer, Jennifer D.; Makowski, Martha B.; Miller, Emily K.

    2016-01-01

    Studies using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K:1999) revealed gender gaps in mathematics achievement and teacher perceptions. However, recent evidence suggests that gender gaps have closed on state tests, raising the question of whether such gaps are absent in the ECLS-K:2011 cohort.…

  6. Gender and Bilingual Education: An Exploratory Study of the Academic Achievement of Latina and Latino English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapayese, Yvette; Huchting, Karen; Grimalt, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Although biliteracy plays a vital role in academic achievement, there has been little research on the unique needs of female and male English language learners. Becoming biliterate is a complex process, compounded by other variables such as 1st-language background, class, culture, and gender. Among these variables, gender has been the least…

  7. A Comparison of Students' Achievement in Private and Conventional Public Secondary Schools in Malawi from a Gender Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwendo, Martha

    2010-01-01

    This article explores differences in achievement between private and conventional public schools with reference to gender in the face of Education for All targets and Millennium Development Goals. It shows that on average the gender gap is narrower in public schools than in private schools and that the pass rate for public school girls is higher…

  8. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Miriam; Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  9. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994–2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  10. Gender and Middle School Science: An Examination of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Affecting Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Jennifer

    Gender differences in middle school science were examined utilizing a mixed-methods approach. The intrinsic and extrinsic experiences of male and female non-gifted high-achieving students were investigated through the administration of the CAIMI, student interviews, teacher questionnaires, observations, and document examination. Male and female students were selected from a rural Northeast Georgia school district based on their high performance and high growth during middle school science. Eighty-three percent of the student participants were white and 17% were Hispanic. Half of the male participants and one third of the female participants were eligible for free and reduced meals. Findings revealed that male participants were highly motivated, whereas female participants exhibited varying levels of motivation in science. Both male and female students identified similar instructional strategies as external factors that were beneficial to their success. Due to their selection by both genders, these instructional strategies were considered to be gender-neutral and thereby useful for inclusion within coeducational middle school science classrooms.

  11. Assessing the Progress of Gender Parity in Education through Achieving Millennium Development Goals: A Case Study of Quetta District Balochistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashid, Abdul; Bibi, Zainab; Din, Siraj ud

    2012-01-01

    Using secondary data of Government Schools and literacy department for 10 years that is 2000-2010, this paper assesses the progress on the issue of gender equality within the framework of education related Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in district Quetta. The assessment is based on the selected indicators of goals by applying descriptive…

  12. Complementing Gender Analysis Methods.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anant

    2016-01-01

    The existing gender analysis frameworks start with a premise that men and women are equal and should be treated equally. These frameworks give emphasis on equal distribution of resources between men and women and believe that this will bring equality which is not always true. Despite equal distribution of resources, women tend to suffer and experience discrimination in many areas of their lives such as the power to control resources within social relationships, and the need for emotional security and reproductive rights within interpersonal relationships. These frameworks believe that patriarchy as an institution plays an important role in women's oppression, exploitation, and it is a barrier in their empowerment and rights. Thus, some think that by ensuring equal distribution of resources and empowering women economically, institutions like patriarchy can be challenged. These frameworks are based on proposed equality principle which puts men and women in competing roles. Thus, the real equality will never be achieved. Contrary to the existing gender analysis frameworks, the Complementing Gender Analysis framework proposed by the author provides a new approach toward gender analysis which not only recognizes the role of economic empowerment and equal distribution of resources but suggests to incorporate the concept and role of social capital, equity, and doing gender in gender analysis which is based on perceived equity principle, putting men and women in complementing roles that may lead to equality. In this article the author reviews the mainstream gender theories in development from the viewpoint of the complementary roles of gender. This alternative view is argued based on existing literature and an anecdote of observations made by the author. While criticizing the equality theory, the author offers equity theory in resolving the gender conflict by using the concept of social and psychological capital.

  13. A Culture of (In)Equality?: A Cross-National Study of Gender Parity and Gender Segregation in National School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Alexander W.

    2008-01-01

    Recent international education reports have highlighted some of the progress (as well as remaining disparity) in gendered education enrollment rates. But, the problem of gender segregation is still a very real issue even in some nations where girls are enrolled at levels on par with boys. Separate classes, curricula, and in many countries separate…

  14. Measuring Gender (In)Equality: Introducing the Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base (GID). OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 247

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutting, Johannes P.; Morrisson, Christian; Dayton-Johnson, Jeff; Drechsler, Denis

    2006-01-01

    Efforts to establish, test and analyse hypotheses regarding cross-country variations in women's economic status are hampered by the lack of a readily accessible and easily used information resource on the various dimensions of gender inequality. Addressing this gap, this paper introduces the Gender, Institutions and Development data base (GID)…

  15. Sex differences in mental rotation and line angle judgments are positively associated with gender equality and economic development across 53 nations.

    PubMed

    Lippa, Richard A; Collaer, Marcia L; Peters, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Mental rotation and line angle judgment performance were assessed in more than 90,000 women and 111,000 men from 53 nations. In all nations, men's mean performance exceeded women's on these two visuospatial tasks. Gender equality (as assessed by United Nations indices) and economic development (as assessed by per capita income and life expectancy) were significantly associated, across nations, with larger sex differences, contrary to the predictions of social role theory. For both men and women, across nations, gender equality and economic development were significantly associated with better performance on the two visuospatial tasks. However, these associations were stronger for the mental rotation task than for the line angle judgment task, and they were stronger for men than for women. Results were discussed in terms of evolutionary, social role, and stereotype threat theories of sex differences.

  16. Stereotypes in Four Current AOUM Sexuality Education Curricula: Good Girls, Good Boys, and the New Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon; Graling, Kelly; Lustig, Kara

    2011-01-01

    It has long been noted that sexuality education curricula contain gender stereotypes and heterosexism that may be harmful to people of all genders. Many of the stereotypes and sources of heterosexism that have been discussed in the literature have to do with old-fashioned and restrictive roles for men and women and focus on heterosexual sex and…

  17. Promoting Gender Equality in the Context of Nigerian Cultural and Religious Expression: Beyond Increasing Female Access to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Para-Mallam, Funmi J.

    2010-01-01

    National education policies in Nigeria aim at addressing female disprivilege by improving girl-child enrolment in schools in line with Millennium Development Goal targets. In addition, the National Gender Policy and its Strategic Implementation Framework stress the importance of mainstreaming gender perspectives within the education sector by…

  18. All STEM fields are not created equal: People and things interests explain gender disparities across STEM fields

    PubMed Central

    Su, Rong; Rounds, James

    2015-01-01

    The degree of women's underrepresentation varies by STEM fields. Women are now overrepresented in social sciences, yet only constitute a fraction of the engineering workforce. In the current study, we investigated the gender differences in interests as an explanation for the differential distribution of women across sub-disciplines of STEM as well as the overall underrepresentation of women in STEM fields. Specifically, we meta-analytically reviewed norm data on basic interests from 52 samples in 33 interest inventories published between 1964 and 2007, with a total of 209,810 male and 223,268 female respondents. We found gender differences in interests to vary largely by STEM field, with the largest gender differences in interests favoring men observed in engineering disciplines (d = 0.83–1.21), and in contrast, gender differences in interests favoring women in social sciences and medical services (d = −0.33 and −0.40, respectively). Importantly, the gender composition (percentages of women) in STEM fields reflects these gender differences in interests. The patterns of gender differences in interests and the actual gender composition in STEM fields were explained by the people-orientation and things-orientation of work environments, and were not associated with the level of quantitative ability required. These findings suggest potential interventions targeting interests in STEM education to facilitate individuals' ability and career development and strategies to reform work environments to better attract and retain women in STEM occupations. PMID:25762964

  19. Risk Factors for Men’s Lifetime Perpetration of Physical Violence against Intimate Partners: Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Eight Countries

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Paul J.; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men’s lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men’s support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming. PMID:25734544

  20. Risk factors for men's lifetime perpetration of physical violence against intimate partners: results from the international men and gender equality survey (IMAGES) in eight countries.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Paul J; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men's lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men's support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming.

  1. Effect of School Belonging Trajectories in Grades 6–8 on Achievement: Gender and Ethnic Differences

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jan N.; Im, Myung Hee; Allee, Paula J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association between trajectories of school belonging across grades 6–8 and academic achievement in grade 8 in an ethnically diverse sample of 527 academically at-risk adolescents. Students reported annually on school belonging. Reading and math achievement were assessed at grade 5 (baseline) and grade 8. Interactive effects of gender and ethnicity were found in the conditional growth models for school belonging. Girls of all ethnicities had identical growth trajectories and reported higher initial school belonging than Euro-American or Latino boys. Latino and Euro-American males had lower initial level of school belonging than African American males, and Latino males had lower growth in school belonging than Euro-American males. In structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses, initial level of school belonging predicted grade 8 reading for girls and grade 8 math for boys and girls, above prior achievement and school and child covariates, but growth in school belonging predicted grade 8 achievement only for African American students. Implications for strategies to improve school belonging among academically at-risk youth are discussed. PMID:26563601

  2. Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls’ STEM participation. PMID:27100631

  3. Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls.

    PubMed

    Stoet, Gijsbert; Bailey, Drew H; Moore, Alex M; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls' STEM participation.

  4. What Does It Take to Achieve Equality of Opportunity in Education?: An Empirical Investigation Based on Brazilian Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltenberg, Fabio D.; Vandenberghe, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Roemer's [Roemer, J. (1998). "Equality of opportunity". Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.] seminal work on equality of opportunity has contributed to the emergence of a theory of justice that is modern, conceptually clear and easy to mobilize in policy design. Inspired by Roemer's theory, this paper is fundamentally a…

  5. Factors affecting academic achievement among sexual minority and gender-variant youth.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Mereish, Ethan H

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of victimization among sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; LGBT) and gender-variant youth remain pronounced in many schools. Although much work has shown the connection between homophobic bullying and mental and physical health, there has been limited attention to how victimization impedes learning, academic achievement, and other school-related outcomes for these youth. In this chapter, we propose several pathways through which victimization leads to academic disparities among sexual minority and gender-variant youth, with attention to its effects on individual learning processes (e.g., motivation, concentration, self efficacy, and other cognitive stressors) as well as broader psychological and social processes (e.g., mental health, school avoidance, harmful coping strategies, exclusionary discipline). We also consider protective factors (e.g., social support, Gay-Straight Alliances, extracurricular involvement, nondiscrimination policies, inclusive curriculum) that could promote resilience and suggest potential mechanisms by which they may operate. In doing so, we aim to stimulate ideas for an advancement of research in this area.

  6. Social jetlag, academic achievement and cognitive performance: Understanding gender/sex differences.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Morales, Juan F; Escribano, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents in high school suffer from circadian misalignment, undersleeping on weekdays and oversleeping on weekends. Since high schools usually impose early schedules, adolescents suffer from permanent social jetlag (SJL) and thus are a suitable population to study the effects of SJL on both academic and cognitive performance. In this study, 796 adolescents aged 12-16 years reported information about their sleep habits, morningness-eveningness (M-E), cognitive abilities and grade point average (GPA). Time in bed on both weekdays and weekends was not related to cognitive abilities, and only time in bed on weekdays was related to academic achievement. SJL was negatively related to academic achievement, cognitive abilities (except for vocabulary and verbal fluency abilities) and general cognitive ability (g), whereas M-E was slightly positively related to academic achievement and marginally negatively related to inductive reasoning. Results separated by sex/gender indicated that SJL may be more detrimental to girls' performance, as it was negatively related to a greater number of cognitive abilities and GPA.

  7. Teachers' perceptions of students' mathematics proficiency may exacerbate early gender gaps in achievement.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Cimpian, Joseph P; Lubienski, Sarah Theule; Ganley, Colleen M; Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin

    2014-04-01

    A recent wave of research suggests that teachers overrate the performance of girls relative to boys and hold more positive attitudes toward girls' mathematics abilities. However, these prior estimates of teachers' supposed female bias are potentially misleading because these estimates (and teachers themselves) confound achievement with teachers' perceptions of behavior and effort. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), Study 1 demonstrates that teachers actually rate boys' mathematics proficiency higher than that of girls when conditioning on both teachers' ratings of behavior and approaches to learning as well as past and current test scores. In other words, on average girls are only perceived to be as mathematically competent as similarly achieving boys when the girls are also seen as working harder, behaving better, and being more eager to learn. Study 2 uses mediation analysis with an instrumental-variables approach, as well as a matching strategy, to explore the extent to which this conditional underrating of girls may explain the widening gender gap in mathematics in early elementary school. We find robust evidence suggesting that underrating girls' mathematics proficiency accounts for a substantial portion of the development of the mathematics achievement gap between similarly performing and behaving boys and girls in the early grades.

  8. Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  9. Examination of Gender Differences on Cognitive and Motivational Factors That Influence 8th Graders' Science Achievement in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Ömer; Türkmen, Lütfullah; Bilgin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of several students' cognitive and motivational factors on 8th graders' science achievement and also gender differences on factors that significantly contribute to the science achievement model. A total of 99 girls and 83 boys responded all the instruments used in this study. Results showed that girls outperformed boys on…

  10. Understanding Gender Differences in Achievement on the Social Studies Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills: An Interactive Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungurait, Michelle D.

    2007-01-01

    The Texas Education Agency's Social Studies Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills results show an achievement gap between males and females for every criteria on every test given since 2003. The most dramatic achievement difference is in the area of "traditional" U.S. History. The Texas results mimic a gender gap reported by College…

  11. Global pathways to men's caregiving: mixed methods findings from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey and the Men Who Care study.

    PubMed

    Kato-Wallace, Jane; Barker, Gary; Eads, Marci; Levtov, Ruti

    2014-01-01

    Promoting men's participation in unpaid care work is part of the Programme of Action for the International Conference on Population and Development. However, men's involvement in care work does not mirror the advances women have made in paid work outside the home. This mixed method study explores which men are more involved in caregiving, and what childhood and adulthood factors influence their level of involvement. Quantitative research presents findings from 1169 men across six countries with children aged 0-4, and a qualitative study presents findings from in-depth interviews with 83 men engaged in atypical caregiving practices. Survey research finds that being taught to care for children, witnessing one's father take care of one's siblings, respondents' present attitudes about gender equality and having outside help (or none, in some cases) were all also associated with men's higher level of involvement. Qualitative research reveals that men's experiences of violence, the normalisation of domestic work as children and life circumstances rather than greater-than-average beliefs in gender equality all propelled them into care work. Findings suggest that engaging more men into care work implies changes to policies and structural realities in the workplace coupled with changing gender attitudes. These insights inform policy and practice aimed at promoting greater involvement in care work by men.

  12. Gender Differences in Achievement in Costa Rican Students: Science, Mathematics and Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esquivel, Juan Manuel; Brenes, Margarita

    Gender differences have been reported in the United States in the areas of mathematical reasoning favoring males and verbal abilities favoring females. Results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress Science Assessment also have consistently revealed small gender differences favoring males. This paper reports gender differences in…

  13. MECCA (Making Equity Count for Classroom Achievement). Utah Gender Equity Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This gender equity trainer's guide has three purposes: to raise awareness in Utah's preservice and inservice teachers of harmful, often unconscious, behaviors; to encourage gender fairness; and to help teachers develop strategies that result in gender fairness in schools. The guide contains 12 modules of instruction that cover the following…

  14. Friendship networks and achievement goals: an examination of selection and influence processes and variations by gender.

    PubMed

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M

    2014-09-01

    Interactions with friends are a salient part of students' experience at school. Thus, friends are likely to be an important source of influence on achievement goals. This study investigated processes within early adolescent friendships (selection and influence) with regard to achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals) among sixth graders (N = 587, 50% girls at wave 1, N = 576, 52% girls at wave 2) followed from fall to spring within one academic year. Students' gender was examined as a moderator in these processes. Longitudinal social network analysis found that friends were similar to each other in mastery goals and that this similarity was due to both selection and influence effects. Influence but not selection effects were found for performance-approach goals. Influence effects for performance-approach goals were stronger for boys compared to girls in the classroom. Neither selection, nor influence, effects were found in relation to performance-avoidance goals. However, the higher a student was in performance-avoidance goals, the less likely they were to be named as a friend by classmates. Implications for early adolescents' classroom adjustment are discussed.

  15. Gendered Distances: A Methodological Inquiry into Spatial Analysis as an Instrument for Assessing Gender Equality in Access to Secondary Schools in Mukono District, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wawro, Patrick R.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on how accessibility to secondary schools in the Mukono District of Uganda is related to the sex and gender of the student and the distance that separates the student's home from the school they attend. This research is a methodological inquiry exploring the use of spatial analysis, specifically how cognitive and metric…

  16. Participating on Equal Terms? The Gender Dimensions of Direct Participation in Organisational Change: Findings from the EPOC Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnabel, Annette; Webster, Juliet

    The gender dimensions of direct participation in organizational change were examined in a survey of general managers at 32,582 workplaces in the following European countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Responses were received from 5,786 managers (response rate,…

  17. Cultural Differences in Face-ism: Male Politicians Have Bigger Heads in More Gender-Equal Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrath, Sara; Au, Josephine; Ramsey, Laura R.

    2012-01-01

    Women are visually depicted with lower facial prominence than men, with consequences for perceptions of their competence. The current study examines the relationship between the size of this "face-ism" bias (i.e., individual or micro-level sexism) and a number of gender inequality indicators (i.e., institutional or macro-level sexism) at the…

  18. Celebrating Difference: Gender Equality and Lifelong Learning. Proceedings of the AONTAS Millennium Conference (Limerick, Ireland, October 20, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Fiona

    This document presents papers and other information from a 1-day conference that was held to address the issue of gender equity and lifelong learning in Ireland. The proceedings begin with a brief preamble, a summary of the welcome and introductions, and a summary and selected passages of the opening address by Willie O'Dea, the minister of state…

  19. Gender Equality and Equity: A Summary Review of UNESCO's Accomplishments since the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlic, Breda; Ruprecht, Lydia; Sam-Vargas, Susana

    The current process of reform of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the preparation of a new 6-year strategy for 2001-2006 provide an opportunity to integrate fully into its planning, programming, implementation, and evaluation a gender mainstreaming practice advocated by the United Nations and other…

  20. Good Practice in Promoting Gender Equality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Studies on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunberg, Laura

    This volume publishes the results of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) European Centre for Higher Education (CEPES) project, Good Practice in Promoting Gender Inequality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Countries. These case studies offer hope for a future in which…

  1. Mission Completed? Changing Visibility of Women's Colleges in England and Japan and Their Roles in Promoting Gender Equality in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodate, Naonori; Kodate, Kashiko; Kodate, Takako

    2010-01-01

    The global community, from UNESCO to NGOs, is committed to promoting the status of women in science, engineering and technology, despite long-held prejudices and the lack of role models. Previously, when equality was not firmly established as a key issue on international or national agendas, women's colleges played a great role in mentoring female…

  2. An Investigation of Students' Meaningful Causal Thinking Abilities in Terms of Academic Achievement, Reading Comprehension and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkant, Hasan Guner

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether students' meaningful causal thinking abilities vary with their academic achievement levels, reading comprehension abilities, and gender. The sample of the study consisted of 124 ninth grade students attending a secondary school in Adana City Seyhan District during 2008-2009 academic year.…

  3. The Relationship between Gender, Ethnicity, and Technology on the Impact of Mathematics Achievement in an After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xudong; Craig, Scotty D.; Xie, Jun; Graesser, Arthur C.; Okwumabua, Theresa; Cheney, Kyle R.; Hu, Xiangen

    2013-01-01

    The gap among ethnicities and gender in mathematics achievement is a well-known problem. While the gap has been shrinking over the past three decades, it has not completely diminished (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; McGraw, Lubienski, & Strutchens, 2006). The ALEKS, Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces, tutoring system is one promising…

  4. Gender Differences among Elementary School-Aged Gifted Students in Achievement, Perceptions of Ability, and Subject Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Turner, Dana

    2002-01-01

    A study examined gender differences for 5,544 gifted students (grades 4-5). On an off-level achievement test, males outperformed females in mathematics beginning in grade 3. Both groups had a preference for mathematics over other subjects. Students' perceptions of academic strengths corresponded to their performance on the off-level test.…

  5. Teaching Strategies and Gender Based Learning Environments: How They Relate to Self-Efficacy, Participatory Behaviors, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This mixed method participatory action research study investigated the relationships of effective teaching strategies and gender based learning environments to pre-adolescent females' self-efficacy of mathematical ability, classroom participatory behaviors, and academic achievement in the area of mathematics. Research-based teaching…

  6. The Influence of Gender, School Location and Socio-Economic Status on Students' Academic Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alordiah, Caroline Ochuko; Akpadaka, Grace; Oviogbodu, Christy Oritseweyimi

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of gender, school location, and socio-economic status (SES) on students' academic achievement in mathematics. The study was an ex-post factor design in which the variables were not manipulated nor controlled. Four research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The stratified random…

  7. Self-Discipline Gives Girls the Edge: Gender in Self-Discipline, Grades, and Achievement Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout elementary, middle, and high school, girls earn higher grades than boys in all major subjects. Girls, however, do not out perform boys on achievement or IQ tests. To date, explanations for the underprediction of girls' GPAs by standardized tests have focused on gender differences favoring boys on such tests. The authors' investigation…

  8. Investigating the Relationship among Test Anxiety, Gender, Academic Achievement and Years of Study: A Case of Iranian EFL University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezazadeh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mansoor

    2009-01-01

    The construct of anxiety plays a major role in one's life. One of these anxieties is test anxiety or apprehension over academic evaluation. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between gender, academic achievement, years of study and levels of test anxiety. This investigation is a descriptive analytic study and was done…

  9. Two-year study relating adolescents' self-concept and gender role perceptions to achievement and attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handley, Herbert M.; Morse, Linda W.

    To assess the developmental relationship of perceptions of self-concept and gender role identification with adolescents' attitudes and achievement in science, a two-year longitudinal study was conducted. A battery of instruments assessing 16 dimensions of self-concept/gender role identifications was employed to predict students' achievement and attitudes toward science. Specific behaviors studied included self-concept in school and science and mathematics, attitudes toward appropriate gender roles in science activities and careers, and self-perceptions of masculine and feminine traits. One hundred and fifty-five adolescents, enrolled, respectively, in the seventh and eighth grades, participated in the study. Through Fisher z transformations of correlation coefficients, differences in relationships between these two sets of variables were studied for males and females during the two years. Results indicated that students' self-concepts/gender role perceptions were related to both achievement and attitudes toward science, but more related to attitudes than achievement. These relationships became more pronounced for students as they matured from seventh to eighth graders.

  10. Gender Differences in Korean High School Students' Science Achievements and Attitudes towards Science in Three Different School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, EunJin; Baker, Dale R.

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of high schools' gender organization on Korean tenth-grade students' science achievements, and their attitudes towards science. The high schools involved included an all-male institution, an all-female institution, and a co-educational institution. Three schools, three principals, three science teachers, and 302…

  11. The School Age Gender Gap in Reading Achievement: Examining the Influences of Item Format and Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwabe, Franziska; McElvany, Nele; Trendtel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The importance of reading competence for both individuals and society underlines the strong need to understand the gender gap in reading achievement. Beyond mean differences in reading comprehension, research has indicated that girls possess specific advantages on constructed-response items compared with boys of the same reading ability. Moreover,…

  12. Longitudinal Investigation of Elementary Students' Science Academic Achievement in 4-8th Grades: Grade Level and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursal, Murat

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the change of the science academic achievement by grade level and gender where 222 elementary students' science and technology course scores between the 4th and 8th grades and science success percentages in 6th and 8th grades Level Determination Exam were longitudinally analyzed. Based on the findings of this study,…

  13. Gender Differences in Achievement in Calculating Reacting Masses from Chemical Equations among Secondary School Students in Makurdi Metropols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriba, Joel O.; Ande, Sesugh

    2006-01-01

    Over the years there exists gender inequality in science achievement among senior secondary school students the world over. It is observed that the males score higher than the females in science and science- related examinations. This has created a big psychological alienation or depression in the minds of female students towards science and…

  14. The Gender and Science Digital Library: Affecting Student Achievement in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Sarita

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Gender and Science Digital Library (GSDL), an online collection of high-quality, interactive science resources that are gender-fair, inclusive, and engaging to students. Considers use by teachers and school library media specialists to encourage girls to enter careers in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). (LRW)

  15. Gender, Self-Efficacy and Achievement among South African Technology Teacher Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, James; Parkinson, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the relationship between gender and self-efficacy in teacher trainees engaged in an electricity-related design and construction task. Quantitative data (examination scores, task assessment, and questionnaire) and qualitative data (interviews and written student reflections) were collected. There is a gender bias in student…

  16. America's progress in achieving the legalization of same-gender adoption: analysis of public opinion, 1994 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Montero, Darrel M

    2014-10-01

    The struggle to achieve the legalization of same-gender adoption is ongoing. Notably, not until 2011 was adoption by a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individual legalized in all 50 states and the District of Columbia, and adoption by same-gender couples is still illegal in many states. Anti-adoption forces are ever-present: From 2011 to 2013, at least five states passed laws granting faith-based agencies the right to refuse service to same-gender couples or to give preference to heterosexual couples. The aim of this article is, first, to examine the challenges confronting the legalization of same-gender adoption; second, to report the current legal status of same-gender adoption for each state; third, to report on Americans' attitudes toward the legalization of same-gender adoption from 1994 to 2012, drawing from previously published surveys of a cross section of Americans; and, fourth, to explore the implications for social work practice, including social advocacy and social policy implementation.

  17. Science self-efficacy of African American middle school students: Relationship to motivation self-beliefs, achievement, gender, and gender orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britner, Shari Lynn

    Motivation researchers have established that students' self-efficacy beliefs, the confidence they have in their academic capabilities, are related to academic outcomes. Self-efficacy has been amply researched in mathematics and language arts and nearly exclusively with White students. African American students and the area of science have each received scant attention. Typically, gender differences favor boys in mathematics and girls in language arts. Researchers have also found that these differences may be a function of gender orientation beliefs. The purpose of this study was to extend findings in science self-efficacy and to African American middle school students. I sought to determine whether self-efficacy assessed at differing levels of specificity (lab skills versus science grades) would each predict science achievement assessed at corresponding levels, to discover whether mean scores in academic motivation and achievement would differ by gender, and to determine whether these differences are a function of gender orientation (N = 268). Science grade self-efficacy was positively associated with the grades obtained by boys and by girls. For girls, grades were also associated positively with science self-concept and negatively with value of science. For reasons resulting from problematic instructional practices, lab skills self-efficacy was not associated with lab grades. Girls reported stronger science self-efficacy and received higher grades in science class. Gender orientation beliefs did not account for these differences, but masculinity and femininity were each associated with science grade self-efficacy, suggesting that androgyny is an adaptive orientation for the science self-efficacy beliefs of African American students. Findings are interpreted within the framework of A. Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory.

  18. A research synthesis of student achievement in high school Chemistry: Effect of Algebra 1, English 1, gender, and teacher perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abusalih, Lula H.

    This study investigated the effect of prior enrollment in Algebra 1 and freshman English 1 on student performance in College Preparatory Chemistry. It further examined the effects of gender on student achievement in chemistry. The chemistry teachers' perceptions of student success in Chemistry as it relate to Algebra 1, English 1, and gender was explored. A sample of 200 students from within Littleton Unified School District was used, of whom 100 were females and 100 were males. This explanatory mixed-design study has a quantitative phase examining student success in Chemistry in relation to freshman English, Algebra 1, and gender and a qualitative phase focusing on teachers' perceptions. In the quantitative phase, data for four consecutive school years was used. In the qualitative phase, four teachers from three school districts located in Northern California were interviewed. The results signified a moderate relationship between chemistry achievement and the predictor-criterion achievement in Algebra 1 and English 1. Gender had no effect on student performance in Chemistry. The findings will offer school districts suggestions to place students in appropriate science courses, which will help school districts', incorporate core curriculum as illustrated in the neo essentialism theory. Furthermore, this study can provide school districts with an effective approach to design individual programs of study that suit each student. The researcher's goal is to provide the school districts with the needed resources to strengthen science education nationally and internationally, specifically in chemistry.

  19. Learning Microbiology with Computer Simulations: Students' Academic Achievement by Method and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huppert, Jehuda; Yaakobi, Judith; Lazarowitz, Reuven

    1998-01-01

    Studies the use of a computer-assisted learning simulation episode during a unit on the growth curve of microorganisms in grade ten. Finds no significant gender differences in either the experimental or control groups. Contains 25 references. (DDR)

  20. Influence of gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling on students' enjoyment and achievement in mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendergast, Mark; O'Donoghue, John

    2014-11-01

    This research investigates the influence that gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling can have on students' mathematics education in second-level Irish classrooms. Although gender differences in mathematics education have been the subject of research for many years, recent results from PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) show that there are still marked differences between the achievement and attitude of male and female students in Irish mathematics classrooms. This paper examines the influence of gender in more detail and also investigates the impact of single-sex or co-educational schooling. This is a follow on study which further analyses data collected by the authors when they designed a pedagogical framework and used this to develop, implement and evaluate a teaching intervention in four second-level Irish schools. The aim of this pedagogical framework was to promote student interest in the topic of algebra through effective teaching of the domain. This paper further analyses the quantitative data collected and investigates whether there were differences in students' enjoyment and achievement scores based on their gender and whether they attended single-sex or co-educational schools.

  1. Parental Resources, Schooling Achievements, and Gender Schooling Gaps: Evidence of Change over 25 years in Rural Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Maluccio, John A.; Behrman, Jere R.; Hoddinott, John; Murphy, Alexis; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2013-01-01

    We use village census data and linear regression models to examine changes between 1975 and 2002 in the associations of parental resources with boys' and girls' schooling in four rural Guatemalan villages. Levels of schooling in 1975 were universally low for children 7–17 years. Large increases in schooling achievements occurred between 1975 and 2002. By 2002, schooling levels were comparable for younger boys and girls (7–12 years, N = 3,525) and favored older boys compared to older girls (13–17 years, N = 2,440) by about 0.5 grades. The associations of household standard of living and maternal schooling with schooling among girls diminished over time and became more comparable with these associations among boys, and the associations of household standard of living with schooling among older boys declined and became more comparable with these associations among girls. Thus, as increased social investments reduce the costs of schooling or increase the supply and quality of schooling to families, the magnitudes of the associations between parental resources and children's schooling decline and become more gender equitable at all ages. However, our results show that older boys may benefit more than older girls from social investments in schooling. These changes suggest potential needs to monitor gender gaps in schooling retention among older children, to insure gender equitable access to social investments in schooling, and to encourage parents to invest in schooling as joint measures to achieve greater schooling achievements of girls and boys. PMID:23888089

  2. The Quality of Equity? Reframing Gender, Development and Education in the Post-2020 Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baily, Supriya; Holmarsdottir, Halla B.

    2015-01-01

    The year 2015 marks the twentieth anniversary of the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, with a goal to contribute to gender equality globally. As scholars continue in their quest to "take stock" of the ways in which gender and education work in tandem to achieve greater gender equality, we observe a revival in interest…

  3. Gender Difference in Achievement and Attitude of Public Secondary School Students towards Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluwatelure, Temitayo Abayomi

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on the gender difference in attitude and academic performance of students in selected public secondary schools in Akoko Land. The population for this study was made up of all the Junior Secondary Schools Three (JSS3) students in Akoko Land. Three hypotheses were raised to guide this study. 1626 student, (810 males, 816…

  4. Differences in Elementary School Achievement between Girls and Boys: Does the Teacher Gender Play a Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burusic, Josip; Babarovic, Toni; Seric, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Elementary schools in many countries record an unequal representation of male and female teachers with female teachers in huge majority. At the same time, numerous studies reveal that girls generally outmatch boys in the majority of school subjects. Consequently, possible effects of teacher-pupil gender interaction are becoming an important topic…

  5. Gender Differences in Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive (PASS) Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naglieri, Jack A.; Rojahn, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    Examined 1,100 boys and 1,100 girls who matched the U.S. population using the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive (PASS) cognitive-processing theory, built on the neuropsychological work of A.R. Luria (1973). Results illustrate that the PASS theory offers a useful way to examine gender differences in cognitive performance. (BF)

  6. Gender and Achievement in English Language Arts, Science and Mathematics in Secondary Schools in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etim, James S.; Etim, Alice S.; Heilman, George; Mathiyalakan, S.; Ntukidem, Eno

    2016-01-01

    The education of girls and women in the areas of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) has long been thought of as very crucial for national development. This study investigated whether gender differences might occur in scores attained by Nigerian students on standard subject matter examinations for English Language, Mathematics…

  7. Gender Issues in Gifted Achievement: Are Girls Making Inroads While Boys Fall Behind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimm, Sylvia B.

    2015-01-01

    School and life achievement patterns for girls and women differ from those of boys and men. While girls have made dramatic progress in school, they need to be inspired to connect to lifelong achievement. Both research and clinical work at the Ohio-based Family Achievement Clinic find that more boys than girls underachieve in school. There is much…

  8. Women Physicists of Color Achieving at the Intersection of Race and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, K. Renee

    2006-03-01

    As minority women physicists, we stand at the intersection of race and gender. We are physicists to be sure, but we are also women of Native, African and Hispanic descent. We are colleagues, mothers, sisters, and wives, as are our white counterparts, but our experiences cannot be distilled to only gender or race. As Prudence Carter and Scott Page remind us, women of color emerge from the interaction between race and gender. This distinction is important since most researchers who study American women's participation in science focus exclusively on the participation of white American women. Of those who acknowledge the existence of non-white women, most do so by disclaiming the exclusion of women of color because the numbers are so small or the experiences are different from white American women. There are some important differences however. While American women are 15 percent of all scientists and engineers, black American women are 60 percent of all black scientists and engineers. Yet less than 3 black women and 3 Hispanic women earn PhDs each year, out of about 1100. As Rachel Ivie and Kim Nies Ray point out, ``Minority women especially represent a great, untapped resource that could be drawn on to increase the size of the scientific workforce in the U.S." Donna Nelson's study of diversity in science and engineering faculties further finds that there are no female black or Native American full professors. In physics, there are no black women professors and no Native American women professors at all. Despite such a bleak picture, there is hope. Of the 18 departments that award at least 40 percent of bachelor's degrees to women, 7 are Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Black women are earning degrees from HBCUs at rates above equity, and many singles and firsts at predominantly white institutions continue to persevere despite the obstacles. Prudence Carter. 2005. Intersectional Matters and Meanings: Ethnicity, Gender, and Resistance to ``Acting White

  9. Is the Achievement Motive Gender-Biased? The Validity of TAT/PSE in Women and Men.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    In picture story exercises like the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Heckhausen, 1963), different pictures are presented to a person with the instruction to create a story using the scenes portrayed in the image. It is assumed, that people identify themselves with the people in the images and project their unconscious motives (e.g., achievement motive) onto them. As the TAT shows only men in the pictures, critics claimed the test is gender-biased; assuming women cannot identify with men in pictures. However, it was not assessed, whether female protagonists of the picture really trigger the same achievement motive as men. Therefore, two studies were conducted to address the gender difference and validity of the TAT using a version with only men in the pictures (study 1) or only women in the pictures (study 2). The results shows that the original TAT of Heckhausen is a valid instrument for women and men, but the modified version with only women in the pictures cannot validly measure the achievement motive in the male sample.

  10. Is the Achievement Motive Gender-Biased? The Validity of TAT/PSE in Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    In picture story exercises like the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Heckhausen, 1963), different pictures are presented to a person with the instruction to create a story using the scenes portrayed in the image. It is assumed, that people identify themselves with the people in the images and project their unconscious motives (e.g., achievement motive) onto them. As the TAT shows only men in the pictures, critics claimed the test is gender-biased; assuming women cannot identify with men in pictures. However, it was not assessed, whether female protagonists of the picture really trigger the same achievement motive as men. Therefore, two studies were conducted to address the gender difference and validity of the TAT using a version with only men in the pictures (study 1) or only women in the pictures (study 2). The results shows that the original TAT of Heckhausen is a valid instrument for women and men, but the modified version with only women in the pictures cannot validly measure the achievement motive in the male sample. PMID:28261126

  11. Who Is Most Responsible for Gender Differences in Scholastic Achievements: Pupils or Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The disparities between the scholastic achievements of girls and boys have been attributed to biological and sociological factors. The present study investigated the validity of these explanations in a multi-variable situation similar to field conditions. Achievement scores of 3446 pupils in the 5th through 11th grades, half girls and half boys,…

  12. Gender Differences in Achievement Goals and Performances in English Language and Mathematics of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Dauda, Bala; Umar, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper investigated gender difference in achievement goals and performance in English Language and Mathematics of senior secondary schools students in Borno State, Nigeria. The study specifically sought to determine gender differences in students' academic performances in English Language, Mathematics and overall academic performance as well as…

  13. Persistent gender inequities in mathematics achievement and expectations in Australia, Canada and the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgasz, Helen J.; Leder, Gilah C.

    2017-02-01

    We report the general public's perceptions and those of 15-year-old school students, about aspects of mathematics learning. For the adult sample, survey data were gathered from pedestrians and Facebook users in Australia, Canada and the UK—countries in which English is the dominant language spoken. Participants responded to items about the teaching and learning of mathematics, the gender stereotyping of mathematics and the perceived importance of studying mathematics for future careers. Collection of the data from the pedestrian samples partially overlapped with the period of data gathering via Facebook and coincided loosely with the administration of the Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] 2012 in the three countries of interest. We examined participants' views/beliefs by country and by respondent age. We also compared the results of the adult samples with student responses to four PISA 2012 attitudinal items for which the foci were comparable to items administered to the general public. Thus, we were able to compare the responses of three different age groups. While participants considered mathematics to be important for everyone to study, and important for employment, vestiges of traditional gender stereotyped beliefs and expectations were evident, more so among the younger than older respondents.

  14. Parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic achievement: ethnic, gender, and SES differences.

    PubMed

    Radziszewska, B; Richardson, J L; Dent, C W; Flay, B R

    1996-06-01

    This paper examines whether the relationship between parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic grades varies according to ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Four parenting styles are distinguished, based on patterns of parent-adolescent decision making: autocratic (parents decide), authoritative (joint process but parents decide), permissive (joint process but adolescent decides), and unengaged (adolescent decides). The sample included 3993 15-year-old White, Hispanic, African-American, and Asian adolescents. Results are generally consistent with previous findings: adolescents with authoritative parents had the best outcomes and those with unengaged parents were least well adjusted, while the permissive and the autocratic styles produced intermediate results. For the most part, this pattern held across ethnic and sociodemographic subgroups. There was one exception, suggesting that the relationship between parenting styles, especially the unengaged style, and depressive symptoms may vary according to gender and ethnicity. More research is needed to replicate and explain this pattern in terms of ecological factors, cultural norms, and socialization goals and practices.

  15. Tenure Track Policy Increases Representation of Women in Senior Academic Positions, but Is Insufficient to Achieve Gender Balance

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Martha M.; Jacobs, Maarten H.

    2016-01-01

    Underrepresentation of women in senior positions is a persistent problem in universities worldwide, and a wide range of strategies to combat this situation is currently being contemplated. One such strategy is the introduction of a tenure track system, in which decisions to promote scientific staff to higher ranks are guided by a set of explicit and transparent criteria, as opposed to earlier situations in which decisions were based on presumably more subjective impressions by superiors. We examined the effect of the introduction of a tenure track system at Wageningen University (The Netherlands) on male and female promotion rates. We found that chances on being promoted to higher levels were already fairly equal between men and women before the tenure track system was introduced, and improved–more for women than for men–after the introduction of the tenure track system. These results may partly be explained by affirmative actions, but also by the fact that legacy effects of historical discrimination have led to a more competitive female population of scientists. In spite of these outcomes, extrapolations of current promotion rates up to 2025 demonstrate that the equal or even higher female promotion rates do not lead to substantial improvement of the gender balance at higher levels (i.e., associate professor and higher). Since promotion rates are small compared to the total amount of staff, the current distribution of men and women will, especially at higher levels, exhibit a considerable degree of inertia—unless additional affirmative action is taken. PMID:27684072

  16. Minority American Women Physicists Achieving at the Intersection of Race and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, K. Renee

    2005-10-01

    As minority women physicists, we stand at the intersection of race and gender. We are physicists to be sure, but we are also women of Native, African, Hispanic, and Asian descent. We are colleagues, mothers, sisters, friends and wives, as are our white counterparts, but our experiences cannot be distilled to only gender or race. As Prudence Carter (2005 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association) and Scott Page (``The Logic of Diversity,'' private communication, 2004) remind us, women of color emerge from the interaction between race and gender. This distinction is important because most researchers who study American women's participation in science focus exclusively on the participation of white American women. Of those who acknowledge the existence of non-white women, most do so by disclaiming the exclusion of women of color because the numbers are so small or the experiences are different from white American women. There are some important differences, however. While American women are 15% of all scientists and engineers, black American women are 60% of all black scientists and engineers. Yet an average of less than 3 black women and less than 3 Hispanic women earn PhDs in the U.S. each year, out of about 1100. As Rachel Ivie and Kim Nies Ray point out in AIP Publication R-430.02, ``Minority women especially represent a great, untapped resource that could be drawn on to increase the size of the scientific workforce in the U.S.'' Donna Nelson's (University of Oklahoma) study of diversity in science and engineering faculties further finds that (with the exception of one black woman in astronomy) there are no female black or Native American full professors. In physics, there are no black women professors and no Native American women professors. Despite such a bleak picture, there is hope. Of the 18 departments that award at least 40% of bachelors degrees to women, 7 are in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). Black women are

  17. Family Policies and Gender Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferber, Marianne A.

    Public policies intended to help those who are disadvantaged by the traditional sexual division of family and work responsibilities often tend to perpetuate the very system responsible for many inequalities. One example of such policies is the present income tax structure. Because goods and services produced in the household are not taxed,…

  18. Interaction Effects between Exposure to Sexually Explicit Online Materials and Individual, Family, and Extrafamilial Factors on Hong Kong High School Students' Beliefs about Gender Role Equality and Body-Centered Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    To, Siu-ming; Kan, Siu-mee Iu; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the interaction effects between Hong Kong adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit online materials (SEOM) and individual, family, peer, and cultural factors on their beliefs about gender role equality and body-centered sexuality. Based on a survey design with a sample of 503 high school students in Hong Kong, the results…

  19. Gender Differences in Mathematical Achievement Related to the Ratio of Girls to Boys in School Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manger, Terje; Gjestad, Rolf

    1997-03-01

    The relationship between mathematical achievement and the ratio of boys to girls in school classes was investigated in a sample of third-grade Norwegian elementary school students (440 girls and 480 boys). Belonging to classes with a numerical majority of boys or girls did not affect the achievement of either of the sexes. The results from the study do not support the single-sexing of mathematics teaching.

  20. Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Mathematics Proficiency May Exacerbate Early Gender Gaps in Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson-Cimpian, Joseph P.; Lubienski, Sarah Theule; Ganley, Colleen M.; Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    A recent wave of research suggests that teachers overrate the performance of girls relative to boys and hold more positive attitudes toward girls' mathematics abilities. However, these prior estimates of teachers' supposed female bias are potentially misleading because these estimates (and teachers themselves) confound achievement with teachers'…

  1. Gender and Race Differences in Achievement, Enjoyment of Academic Subjects and Persistence in Freshmen Engineering Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaer, Barbara; And Others

    This study was developed to investigate differences between black and white freshmen (both men and women) entering engineering programs. Specifically the study determined the relationships between enjoyment of course studied, achievement in those courses, and persistence, as reported by black/white, male/female students entering the engineering…

  2. Examining Gender and the Academic Achievement of Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Elisabeth Hess; Yen, Cherng-Jyh

    2010-01-01

    Students with emotional disturbance (ED) have significant academic deficits (Trout, Nordness, Pierce, & Epstein, 2003; Lane, 2004). Even after identification and school intervention, students with ED continue to demonstrate limited academic achievement and high rates of drop out and school failure, with 80-90% scoring below grade level on tests of…

  3. The Single-Gender Classroom: Improving Middle School Students' Achievement in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, William V., III.

    2012-01-01

    At Joseph Case Junior High School, a school located in Swansea, Massachusetts for students in grades six through eight; there was a problematic trend in regard to student achievement in mathematics. Upon completion of an analysis of student cohort results in mathematics on the MCAS (Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System), there was an…

  4. Suicide Proneness in College Students: Relationships with Gender, Procrastination, and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was…

  5. Promote Equality in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sharon; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents suggestions to help physical educators treat all students equally and avoid unconsciously making inequitable gender-based statements and practicing other gender discrimination. Suggestions include encouraging girls to talk more, praising girls' performance and boys' appearance, using gender-neutral language, not stereotyping either sex,…

  6. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students’ motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women’s underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices. PMID:25741292

  7. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students' motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women's underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices.

  8. Effects of Single Gender Classrooms and Coeducational Classrooms on Student Achievement and School Climate for Middle School Students in a Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Nickalous A.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared student achievement and student attitudes for students in single-gender classrooms and students in coeducational classrooms in the seventh grade. The study utilized the TCAP reading and math tests and the Renaissance reading and math formative assessments for the measures on student achievement. The school district's climate…

  9. The Effects of On-Time, Delayed and Early Kindergarten Enrollment on Children's Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Gender, Race, and Family Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesil Dagli, Ummuhan; Jones, Ithel

    2012-01-01

    This study was an examination of the effect of delayed, early, and on-time kindergarten enrollment on children's kindergarten mathematics achievement. Central for this study was to explore if the relationship between the kindergarten enrollment status and mathematics achievement varies by children's gender, race, and family SES status. It used a…

  10. Investigating the Relationships among Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Their Perceptions of Classroom Learning Environment, Gender, and Chemistry Achievement through Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz, Yezdan; Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Aydemir, Nurdane; Aydemir, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Investigating factors contributing to chemistry achievement is important since it enables us to make more concrete instructional decisions related to improving students' chemistry achievement. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate how students' perceptions of learning environment, self-efficacy and gender are related to chemistry…

  11. The Effect of Same-Gender Teacher Assignment on Student Achievement in the Elementary and Secondary Grades: Evidence from Panel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Marcus A.; Haight, Robert C.; Swaim, Thomas T.; Pickering, Katarzyna A.

    2013-01-01

    We utilize information from a rich administrative panel dataset following the universe of test-taking public school students in Florida over a period of five years to estimate the relationship between same-gender teacher assignment and student achievement. We estimate how a student's achievement changes as he/she is assigned to teachers of…

  12. "I Would Study Harder if I Was a Girl": Gendered Narratives of Low-Achieving Male and High-Achieving Female EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hangyan; Luk, Jasmine

    2014-01-01

    Informed by a social and critical turn of reading practices and a poststructuralist paradigm of gender, this study delved into the commonly held belief that reading and language learning is a feminine domain, and examined the connection between the construction of gendered subjectivities and English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) reading practices…

  13. Realizing Gender Equality in Higher Education: The Need To Integrate Work/Family Issues. 1991 ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Nancy

    This monograph examines gender differences and related issues in higher education faculty and proposes steps to change the current climate to resolve gender inequalities, solve the impending shortage of faculty, and improve diversity among faculty. A look at the status of women in academia finds that women are an under-represented group in tenured…

  14. Markers of achievement for assessing and monitoring gender equity in translational research organisations: a rationale and study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Laurel D; Pololi, Linda H; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Henderson, Lorna R; Williamson, Catherine; Grant, Jonathan; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Lechler, Robert I; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Translational research organisations (TROs) are a core component of the UK's expanding research base. Equity of career opportunity is key to ensuring a diverse and internationally competitive workforce. The UK now requires TROs to demonstrate how they are supporting gender equity. Yet, the evidence base for documenting such efforts is sparse. This study is designed to inform the acceleration of women's advancement and leadership in two of the UK's leading TROs—the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) in Oxford and London—through the development, application and dissemination of a conceptual framework and measurement tool. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional retrospective evaluation. A conceptual framework with markers of achievement and corresponding candidate metrics has been specifically designed for this study based on an adapted balanced scorecard approach. It will be refined with an online stakeholder consultation and semistructured interviews to test the face validity and explore practices and mechanisms that influence gender equity in the given settings. Data will be collected via the relevant administrative databases. A comparison of two funding periods (2007–2012 and 2012–2017) will be carried out. Ethics and dissemination The University of Oxford Clinical Trials and Research Governance Team and the Research and Development Governance Team of Guy's and St Thomas’ National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust reviewed the study and deemed it exempt from full ethics review. The results of the study will be used to inform prospective planning and monitoring within the participating NIHR BRCs with a view to accelerating women's advancement and leadership. Both the results of the study and its methodology will be further disseminated to academics and practitioners through the networks of collaborating TROs, relevant conferences and articles in peer-reviewed journals. PMID:26743702

  15. Combined structural interventions for gender equality and livelihood security: a critical review of the evidence from southern and eastern Africa and the implications for young people

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Andrew; Willan, Samantha; Misselhorn, Alison; Mangoma, Jaqualine

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people in southern and eastern Africa remain disproportionately vulnerable to HIV with gender inequalities and livelihood insecurities being key drivers of this. Behavioural HIV prevention interventions have had weak outcomes and a new generation of structural interventions have emerged seeking to challenge the wider drivers of the HIV epidemic, including gender inequalities and livelihood insecurities. Methods We searched key academic data bases to identify interventions that simultaneously sought to strengthen people's livelihoods and transform gender relationships that had been evaluated in southern and eastern Africa. Our initial search identified 468 articles. We manually reviewed these and identified nine interventions that met our criteria for inclusion. Results We clustered the nine interventions into three groups: microfinance and gender empowerment interventions; supporting greater participation of women and girls in primary and secondary education; and gender empowerment and financial literacy interventions. We summarise the strengths and limitations of these interventions, with a particular focus on what lessons may be learnt for young people (18–24). Conclusions Our review identified three major lessons for structural interventions that sought to transform gender relationships and strengthen livelihoods: 1) interventions have a narrow conceptualisation of livelihoods, 2) there is limited involvement of men and boys in such interventions, 3) studies have typically been done in stable populations. We discuss what this means for future interventions that target young people through these methods. PMID:22713350

  16. Assessing Eating Disorder Risk: The Pivotal Role of Achievement Anxiety, Depression and Female Gender in Non-Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Fragkos, Konstantinos C.; Frangos, Christos C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess factors predicting eating disorder risk in a sample of undergraduate students. A structured questionnaire was employed on a random sample (n = 1865) consisting of the following sections: demographics, SCOFF (Sick, Control, One stone, Fat, Food) questionnaire for screening eating disorders and the Achievement Anxiety Test and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. The students at risk for eating disorders (SCOFF score ≥2) were 39.7%. Eating disorder risk was more frequent in females, students with divorced parents, students who lived alone, students who were seeking a romantic relationship or were married, students who were at a post-secondary vocational institute/college (private-public) educational level and who were more likely to have marks under merit level. Also, the mean scores for the psychological factors of depression, stress and anxiety were higher in students with eating disorder risk. A logistic regression model was produced depicting that depression, stress, female gender, being married and searching for a romantic relationship were risk factors of having an eating disorder risk. The suggested psychological model examined with structural equation modelling signified the role of academic anxiety as an immediate precursor of general anxiety. Hence, college populations in Greece need organized infrastructures of nutrition health services and campaigns to assist in reducing the risk of eating disorders. PMID:23482057

  17. The Economic and Human Development Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Ghaida, Dina; Klasen, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic…

  18. Gender Differences of Neighborhood and Social Control Processes: A Study of the Timing of First Intercourse among Low- Achieving, Urban, African American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Juarez, Lucia

    2002-01-01

    Investigated gender-specific contextual and individual socioeconomic predictors of the timing of first intercourse among low-achieving African American high school students, following financial deprivation and collective socialization theories. Data from 3 years of surveys indicated that males and females were affected differently by social…

  19. Gender Differences in Gifted and Average-Ability Students: Comparing Girls' and Boys' Achievement, Self-Concept, Interest, and Motivation in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preckel, Franzis; Goetz, Thomas; Pekrun, Reinhard; Kleine, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates gender differences in 181 gifted and 181 average-ability sixth graders in achievement, academic self-concept, interest, and motivation in mathematics. Giftedness was conceptualized as nonverbal reasoning ability and defined by a rank of at least 95% on a nonverbal reasoning subscale of the German Cognitive Abilities Test.…

  20. Field Dependence-Field Independence Cognitive Style, Gender, Career Choice and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyekuru, Bruno Uchenna

    2015-01-01

    This is a descriptive study that investigated the relationships among field dependence-field independence cognitive style and gender, career choice and academic achievement of secondary school students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. From the initial sample of 320 senior secondary school one (SS1) students drawn from the…

  1. Evaluating the Geography of Gendered Achievement Using Large-Scale Assessment Data from the Primary School System of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lisle, Jerome; Smith, Peter; Jules, Vena

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the spatial distribution of gender differentials in Mathematics and Language Arts on national assessments of educational achievement in the primary school system of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The findings indicate statistically significant medium-sized differences favouring females on Language Arts primarily in the…

  2. The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same? Prior Achievement Fails to Explain Gender Inequality in Entry into Stem College Majors over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; King, Barbara; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the empirical basis for often-repeated arguments that gender differences in entrance into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors are largely explained by disparities in prior achievement. Analyses use data from three national cohorts of college matriculates across three decades to consider…

  3. The Effect of Grouping by Formal Reasoning Ability, Formal Reasoning Ability Levels, Group Size, and Gender on Achievement in Laboratory Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Judith D.; Gifford, Vernon D.

    This study investigated the grouping effect on student achievement in a chemistry laboratory when homogeneous and heterogeneous formal reasoning ability, high and low levels of formal reasoning ability, group sizes of two and four, and homogeneous and heterogeneous gender were used for grouping factors. The sample consisted of all eight intact…

  4. Associations between Students' Perceptions of Teacher-Student Relationship Quality, Academic Achievement, and Classroom Behavior: Are They Moderated by Ethnicity, Gender, or Socio Economic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Khushwinder Kaur

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to explore the correlations between students' perceptions of their relationships with teachers, students' academic achievement and students' classroom behavior. A secondary purpose of the study was to investigate if students' ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status moderate the…

  5. Sticks and Stones Will Break My Bones but Failure Feedback May Not Hurt Me: Gender Differences in the Relationship between Achievement Motive, Coping Strategies and Environmental Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ser Hong; Pang, Joyce S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the processes through which achievement motivation guides the selection of coping strategies which in turn affects environmental mastery post-failure feedback. Seventy-six college students received failure feedback after completing a professional aptitude test. Findings showed that gender moderated the relationship between…

  6. Influence of Gender, Single-Sex and Co-Educational Schooling on Students' Enjoyment and Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendergast, Mark; O'Donoghue, John

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the influence that gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling can have on students' mathematics education in second-level Irish classrooms. Although gender differences in mathematics education have been the subject of research for many years, recent results from PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment)…

  7. Equal Justice Under Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Earl, Jr., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This special theme issue of "Update on Law-Related Education""tells about the past, present, and future of equal legal representation for all in our society." It is dedicated to the history and heroes of legal aid for the poor and the need to further that cause if the United States hopes to achieve equal justice for all. In his…

  8. Equal, but not the same.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Gabriel

    2006-10-19

    In April 2007, the gender equality duty will make it obligatory for all health providers to actively demonstrate equity in service provision. Good practice tends to exist in small projects with little evidence of national progress towards gender equity. The DoH says trusts should already be working towards

  9. Towards Gender Equality in Basic Education: Major Challenges in Meeting Dakar EFA Goals. Regional Seminar in Asia (Kyoto, Japan, November 28-30, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    A regional UNESCO seminar aimed to follow up on the goals set at the World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000 and to contribute to the "Ten Year UN Girls' Education Initiative" (UNGEI). The seminar established three primary aims: (1) to develop a regional cooperation mechanism or network of Education for All (EFA) gender focal points, to…

  10. Searching for Sexual Revolutions in India: Non-Governmental Organisation-Designed Sex Education Programmes as a Means towards Gender Equality and Sexual Empowerment in New Delhi, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabler, Mette

    2012-01-01

    At the foundation of most inequalities in expression of sexuality lie social constructions of gender. In this paper, sex education is considered as a possibility to challenge sexism and promote healthy and self-affirmative sex lives. In the past decade, the discourse of sex education in India has become a "battle of morality" where…

  11. Guidelines for Preparing Gender Responsive EFA Plans. Education for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    These guidelines have been prepared to assist individuals and "teams" to produce EFA (Education for All) plans that are gender responsive. The guidelines aim to raise awareness about issues that need to be considered to produce plans leading to the achievement of gender equality in education. Further information and guidance regarding…

  12. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  13. [Gender mainstreaming and nursing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2011-12-01

    Gender mainstreaming is one of the most important strategies in promoting global gender equality. The Taiwan government launched policies on gender mainstreaming and gender impact assessment in 2007 in response to strong public and academic advocacy work. With rising awareness of gender issues, nursing professionals in Taiwan should keep pace with global trends and become actively involved in advancing gender-mainstreaming policies. This article shows that nursing professionals should prepare themselves by cultivating gender competence, understanding gender-related regulations, recognizing the importance of gender impact assessment implementation, integrating gender issues into nursing education, conducting gender-related research and participating in decision-making processes that promote gender mainstreaming. Nursing professionals should enhance their knowledge and understanding of gender mainstreaming-related issues and get involved in the gender-related decision-making process in order to enhance gender awareness and women's health and further the professional development of nurses.

  14. College Chemistry and Piaget: An Analysis of Gender Difference, Cognitive Abilities, and Achievement Measures Seventeen Years Apart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Milakofsky, Louis M.; Bender, David S.; Patterson, Henry O.

    2003-05-01

    This study revisits an analysis of gender difference in the cognitive abilities of college chemistry students using scores from "Inventory of Piaget's Developmental Tasks" (IPDT), the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), and final grades from an introductory college chemistry course. Comparison of 1998 scores with those from 1981 showed an overall decline on most of the measures and a changing pattern among males and females. Gender differences were found in the IPDT subtests measuring imagery, classification, and proportional reasoning, but not conservation, a pattern that differs from the findings reported 17 years earlier. The generational and gender differences revealed in this study suggest that instructors should be cognizant of, and should periodically assess, the diversity of students' cognitive abilities.

  15. Adaptive equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, S. U. H.

    1985-09-01

    Theoretical work which has been effective in improving data transmission by telephone and radio links using adaptive equalization (AE) techniques is reviewed. AE has been applied to reducing the temporal dispersion effects, such as intersymbol interference, caused by the channel accessed. Attention is given to the Nyquist telegraph transmission theory, least mean square error adaptive filtering and the theory and structure of linear receive and transmit filters for reducing error. Optimum nonlinear receiver structures are discussed in terms of optimality criteria as a function of error probability. A suboptimum receiver structure is explored in the form of a decision-feedback equalizer. Consideration is also given to quadrature amplitude modulation and transversal equalization for receivers.

  16. The Influence of 16-Year-Old Students' Gender, Mental Abilities, and Motivation on Their Reading and Drawing Submicrorepresentations Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devetak, Iztok; Glazar, Sasa Aleksij

    2010-01-01

    Submicrorepresentations (SMRs) are a powerful tool for identifying misconceptions of chemical concepts and for generating proper mental models of chemical phenomena in students' long-term memory during chemical education. The main purpose of the study was to determine which independent variables (gender, formal reasoning abilities, visualization…

  17. Relations among Body Size Discrepancy, Gender, and Indices of Motivation and Achievement in High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodewyk, Ken R.; Gammage, Kimberley L.; Sullivan, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing dropout rates in senior high school physical education, particularly among females, and unhealthy activity and obesity levels in youth have led to recommendations to assess potential contributing factors in physical education participation. Drawing from gender, body image, and social-cognitive theory, this study investigated relations…

  18. The Relationship between Students' Approaches to Studying, Formal Reasoning Ability, Prior Knowledge, and Gender and Their Achievement in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma B.; Giuliano, Frank J.

    The main purposes of this study were to investigate the relationships among approaches to studying, prior knowledge, logical thinking ability, attitude, and performance in college freshman chemistry and to explore the effect of gender on the same variables. Subjects were 199 students (114 females, 85 males) enrolled in the second semester of a…

  19. Spatial Rotation, Aggression, and Gender in First-Person-Shooter Video Games and Their Influence on Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krone, Beth K.

    2012-01-01

    As shown by the neuropsychological educational approach to the cognitive remediation model, first-person-shooter video game play eliminates gender-related deficits in spatial rotation. Spatial rotation increases academic success and decreases social and economic disparities. Per the general aggression model, first-person-shooter video game play…

  20. The Effects of Gender on Group Work Process and Achievement: An Analysis through Self- and Peer-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Sachiko; Homberg, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The importance of teamwork skills as part of employability has been widely acknowledged and accompanied by active research on successful cooperative learning. However, relatively few studies have focused on the effects of gender on students' group work, and only a limited number of empirical studies exist that examine students' group work process…

  1. Gender Issues within Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Students' Union (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This handbook functions as a crown on the European Students' Union's work on gender equality over the past two years. Since the establishment of the Gender Equality Committee, a lot of work has been done to improve gender equality in higher education generally, and in student unions more particularly. This handbook gathers the experiences and…

  2. Project HAPI (Handicapped Achievement Program Improvement): Assessment plus Intervention equals IEP. A Handbook on How to Write an Individualized Education Program for the Educationally Handicapped. Book Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Jean; And Others

    The second of five handbooks developed by Project HAPI (Handicapped Achievement Program Improvement), a multimedia staff development program to help teachers and specialists write effective individualized education programs (IEPs), is in looseleaf workbook format and focuses on children with severe education handicaps. It is reported that students…

  3. Undergraduate Women's Gender Awareness and Status Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko

    A study was conducted to determine women's realization toward the quality of life, identifying their status aspirations. The study's primary purpose was to achieve a better understanding of how undergraduate women of Guam and Japan would aspire to their academic and social goals and how they would become aware of their gender equality. The…

  4. Evidence of systematic bias in sexual over- and underperception of naturally occurring events: a direct replication of Haselton (2003) in a more gender-equal culture.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Mons

    2014-11-17

    Error Management Theory (Haselton and Buss, 2000; Haselton and Nettle, 2006) maintains that natural selection has engineered adaptations for judgment under uncertainty to minimize the overall cost of making errors, leading to universal biases in judgments of sexual interest in men and women. This study, using a sample of het erosexual Norwegian students (n = 308), was carried out as a direct replication of Haselton's (2003) original study of naturally occurring events of sexual misperception. The results strongly supported the main hypotheses in the original study, showing that women reported being subject to opposite-sex sexual overperception far more often relative to underperception, and that this difference was small for men. In support of Error Management Theory, and in contrast to Social Role / Structure Theory expectations, the pattern of misperception for women and men was largely invariant across studies and across demographic groups within a culture. The findings suggest that cross-national differences in the level of gender inequality do not influence reports of sexual over- and underperception in women and men. Beyond sex, factors associated with more sexual overperception relative to underperception were being single, young, and having attitudes condoning casual sex.

  5. The inclusion of women, girls and gender equality in National Strategic Plans for HIV and AIDS in southern and eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Andrew; Crone, Elizabeth Tyler; Willan, Samantha; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2012-01-01

    The global HIV and AIDS epidemics disproportionately affect women, particularly young women in southern and eastern Africa. UNAIDS, amongst other actors, has singled out National Strategic Plans for HIV and AIDS (NSPs) as a critical platform for ensuring that women and girls are meaningfully included in national HIV and AIDS responses. Despite this, there is little evidence as to how or whether NSPs integrate responses to women and girls. Using a collaboratively developed framework, we assessed how 20 countries in southern and eastern Africa integrated women and girls in their NSPs. We identified that in general there is poor inclusion, apart from access to post-exposure prophylaxis in the case of sexual violence and access to vertical transmission services. Drawing on Moser's distinction between women's practical and strategic interests, we suggest that overall women and girls are poorly included in NSPs, and where there are policies and programmes, there is an overwhelming focus on women's practical interests, without any consideration of women's strategic interests. We argue that this limits the potential of NSPs to be platforms for national responses that meaningfully seek to transform gender relations.

  6. From Gender Bias to Gender Awareness in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was "gender blind" by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly,…

  7. Is Primatology an equal-opportunity discipline?

    PubMed

    Addessi, Elsa; Borgi, Marta; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues.

  8. College Students' Achievement Goal Orientation and Motivational Regulations in Physical Activity Classes: A Test of Gender Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Xiaoxia; McBride, Ron E.; Xiang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the measurement invariance across 361 male and female college students' 2 × 2 achievement goal orientation and motivational regulations. Participants completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and motivational regulations. Multigroup CFA analyses showed that male and female students' scores were fully…

  9. Gender Disparities and Socio-Economic Factors on Learning Achievements in Agricultural Science in Rural and Urban Secondary Schools of Ogbomoso North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amao, S. R.; Gbadamosi, J.

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the agricultural and science achievement of urban and rural, male and female students in Ogbomoso North Local Government…

  10. Motivation and Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, John G.; Burton, John T.

    1982-01-01

    Argues that if teachers maintain task involvement in all children, they will achieve justifiable form of educational equality. Discusses social and personal factors which influence task involvement, including value framework of school (i.e., purpose school is seen to serve), organizational strategies adopted to facilitate learning, and specific…

  11. Fight For Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mink, Patsy T.

    1973-01-01

    In this presentation to the annual conventions of the NAWDAC and the ACPA (Cleveland 1973) the author, a Congresswoman from Hawaii, deplores the practice of some counselors of directing women students into traditional women's courses. She urges college counselors and personnel workers to join in the struggle to achieve equal educational and…

  12. 3 CFR 8502 - Proclamation 8502 of April 20, 2010. National Equal Pay Day, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., helps women achieve wage fairness. This law brings us closer to ending pay disparities based on gender... Pay Day, 2010 8502 Proclamation 8502 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8502 of April 20, 2010 Proc. 8502 National Equal Pay Day, 2010By the President of the United States of America...

  13. Examining the relationship of ethnicity, gender and social cognitive factors with the academic achievement of first-year engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Bruce Henry

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of social cognitive factors and their influence on the academic performance of first-year engineering students. The nine social cognitive variables identified were under the groupings of personal support, occupational self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, vocational interests, coping, encouragement, discouragement, outcome expectations, and perceived stress. The primary student participants in this study were first-year engineering students from underrepresented groups which include African American, Hispanic American students and women. With this in mind, the researcher sought to examine the interactive influence of race/ethnicity and gender based on the aforementioned social cognitive factors. Differences in academic performance (university GPA of first-year undergraduate engineering students) were analyzed by ethnicity and gender. There was a main effect for ethnicity only. Gender was found not to be significant. Hispanics were not found to be significantly different in their GPAs than Whites but Blacks were found to have lower GPAs than Whites. Also, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between and among the nine identified social cognitive variables. The data from the analysis uncovered ten significant correlations which were as follows: occupational self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy, occupational self-efficacy and vocational interest, occupational self-efficacy and perceived stress, academic self-efficacy and encouragement, academic self-efficacy and outcome expectations, academic self-efficacy and perceived stress, vocational interest and outcome expectations, discouragement and encouragement, coping and perceived stress, outcome expectations and perceived stress. Next, a Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to examine the relationship between academic performance (college GPA) of first-year undergraduate engineering students and the nine identified

  14. Scientific Reasoning, School Achievement and Gender: A Multilevel Study of between and within School Effects in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuneberg, Helena; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Hotulainen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between reasoning and school achievement were studied taking into account the multilevel nature (school- and class-levels) of the data. We gathered data from 51 classes at seven schools in metropolitan and Eastern Finland (N = 769, 395 males, 15-year-old students). To study scientific reasoning, we used a modified version of…

  15. Patterns and Trends in Achievement Gaps in Malaysian Secondary Schools (1999-2011): Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saw, Guan Kung

    2016-01-01

    Educational inequality is a highly debated yet empirically understudied topic in Malaysia. This paper examines the patterns and trends of academic achievement gaps by student social groups in Malaysia, drawing upon nationally representative data for the most recent four cohorts (1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011) of eighth-grade Malaysian students from…

  16. Indirect Effects in the Peer Victimization-Academic Achievement Relation: The Role of Academic Self-Concept and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2015-01-01

    Peer victimization is a concern because victimized youth are more likely to have social, emotional, and academic difficulties. The current study examined the link between peer victimization and academic achievement by exploring the indirect effect of academic self-concept on two variables. The sample consisted of 140 middle school students (40%…

  17. The Effects of Single-Gender Classrooms on the Mathematics Achievement of 9th Grade, African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    An achievement gap exists in mathematics between low-income African American male students and their European American counterparts. Although this problem has been approached using different interventions with minimal results, the impact of homogenous grouping is not well understood in spite of its use. As a result, this study was conducted to…

  18. The Effects of Age and Gender on Student Achievement in Face-To-Face and Online College Algebra Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amro, Hanan Jamal; Mundy, Marie-Anne; Kupczynski, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Demand for online learning has increased in recent years due to the convenience of course delivery. However, some students appear to have difficulties with online education resulting in lack of completion. The study utilized a quantitative approach with archival data. The factors of achievement and demographics were compared for face-to-face and…

  19. Learning about Genetic Engineering in an Outreach Laboratory: Influence of Motivation and Gender on Students' Cognitive Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Marlen; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    During the last 10 years, outreach science laboratories have become increasingly popular due to resource and time limitations in schools. Outreach laboratories offer hands-on projects in a situated and authentic learning setting, thereby promoting the development of students' scientific literacy. However, students' cognitive achievement within…

  20. Relationship of Second-Year College Student Wellness Behaviors to Academic Achievement by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate second-year college student wellness behaviors and their relationship to academic achievement. The ten constructs of wellness within Hettler's model of wellness are physical fitness, nutrition, self-care and safety, environmental wellness, social awareness, emotional awareness and sexuality, emotional…

  1. Achievement in and attitudes toward the science of sound, by middle school students, grades five through eight, both overall and by gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariaschin-Melenson, Cynthia Faith

    2001-07-01

    This study explores the relationship, among middle school students, between the understanding of a physical science topic, sound, and expressed attitudes toward topics with a strong sound component. Further, it assesses these differences in achievement and attitude by grade level and by gender. An attitude inventory, comprised of 30 Likert-type questions, and a concepts-of-sound achievement instrument, comprised of 30 multiple-choice questions, were administered to approximately 1300 students in grades five, six, seven, and eight, the middle-school grades, in a variety of locations within a single school district in the Intermountain West. Results indicate that during the middle school years there is no significant difference between males and females in physical science achievement on the topic of sound energy. Results additionally indicate that, contrary to researched literature, throughout the middle school years females, as a group, do not have poorer attitudes than males toward the physical sciences; indeed, in grades five and eight female attitude responses were significantly more positive than male attitude responses. Overall, attitude correlates with knowledge. When positive attitude toward learning about sound diminishes, incremental knowledge about sound diminishes. Results of this study may be utilized in determining whether instructional and further research efforts should be directed toward methods for improving achievement in and attitudes toward the physical sciences. It is anticipated that improved methods for instilling positive attitudes and imparting greater knowledge would result in more students, especially females, pursuing advanced physical science studies and related occupations.

  2. Bridges with Trigonometry Equals Engineering Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathing, Ahmed L.

    2011-01-01

    Exemplary and fun technology education classes in high schools are always welcome. The author introduces bridge building to his ninth graders and other students who comprise the Introduction to Engineering and Technology course within the first two months of the fall semester. In Georgia, Introduction to Engineering and Technology is the first of…

  3. Teaching the Economics of Equal Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ownby, Arnola C.; Rhea, Jeanine N.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on equal opportunities--for education, pay, and with gender bias for individuals and business organizations. Suggests that business educators can expand the implications to include ethnic-based inequalities as well. (JOW)

  4. Equal Pay for Equal Work; Women in Special Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Special Libraries Association, New York, NY.

    The Special Libraries Association (SLA) provides information on achieving equal pay for equal work for women librarians in special libraries. A 1973 SLA study is cited to show pay differences between men and women. Then relevant legislation and executive orders are listed for the United States, along with similar legislation for Canada. Attention…

  5. Reframing Inclusive Education: Educational Equality as Capability Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that rethinking questions of inclusive education in the light of the value of educational equality--specifically conceived as capability equality, or genuine opportunities to achieve educational functionings--adds some important insights to the current debate on inclusive education. First, it provides a cohesive value…

  6. Education from a Gender Equality Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Education is universally acknowledged to benefit individuals and promote national development. Educating females and males produces similar increases in their subsequent earnings and expands future opportunities and choices for both boys and girls. However, educating girls produces many additional socio-economic gains that benefit entire…

  7. Longitudinal relations among inattention, working memory, and academic achievement: testing mediation and the moderating role of gender.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah A; Rogers, Maria; Martinussen, Rhonda; Tannock, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Behavioral inattention, working memory (WM), and academic achievement share significant variance, but the direction of relationships across development is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether WM mediates the pathway between inattentive behaviour and subsequent academic outcomes. Methods. 204 students from grades 1-4 (49.5% female) were recruited from elementary schools. Participants received assessments of WM and achievement at baseline and one year later. WM measures included a visual-spatial storage task and auditory-verbal storage and manipulation tasks. Teachers completed the SWAN behaviour rating scale both years. Mediation analysis with PROCESS (Hayes, 2013) was used to determine mediation pathways. Results. Teacher-rated inattention indirectly influenced math addition fluency, subtraction fluency and calculation scores through its effect on visual-spatial WM, only for boys. There was a direct relationship between inattention and math outcomes one year later for girls and boys. Children who displayed better attention had higher WM scores, and children with higher WM scores had stronger scores on math outcomes. Bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals for the indirect effects were entirely below zero for boys, for the three math outcomes. WM did not mediate the direct relationship between inattention and reading scores. Discussion. Findings identify inattention and WM as longitudinal predictors for math addition and subtraction fluency and math calculation outcomes one year later, with visual-spatial WM as a significant mediator for boys. Results highlight the close relationship between inattention and WM and their importance in the development of math skills.

  8. Gender equity.

    PubMed

    Shiva, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on gender equity. Gender equity is difficult to achieve when there is no economic, social, or political equity. The Gender Development Index evidenced this. There were a lot of instances where women are psychologically traumatized, whether it is through domestic rape, purchased sexual services in the red light area, and seduction or violation of neighbors, relatives, daughter or child. The economic changes linked with globalization and media's influence have worsened women's position. The policy for empowerment of women is an attempt toward ensuring equity. Furthermore, many women and women's organizations are trying to address these inequities; wherein they fight for strong acceptance of women's rights, social, economic, and political rights, as well as equities between gender and within gender.

  9. Is Primatology an Equal-Opportunity Discipline?

    PubMed Central

    Borgi, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of “equal-opportunity” discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an “equal-opportunity” discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of “glass ceiling” as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues. PMID:22272353

  10. Gender Equity in Education: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucidi, Alison Danielle

    This document reviews literature on gender equity in U.S. schools. The paper reports that there is an unconscious ignorance on the growing achievement gap between male and female students. Young women in the United States today still are not participating equally in the education system. A 1992 report found that girls do not receive equitable…

  11. An examination of single-gender and coeducational classes: Their impact on the academic achievement of middle school students enrolled in mathematics and science at selected schools in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elam, Jeanette H.

    The purpose of this study was to compare the academic performance of students enrolled in coeducational instruction and single-gender instruction. Within this framework, the researcher examined class type, gender, and racial/ethnicity using the sixth grade CRCT scores of selected students in the areas of mathematics and science. The fifth-grade mathematics and science scores for the same population were used to control for prior knowledge. This study examined the academic achievement of students based on class type, gender, and racial/ethnicity in relation to academic achievement. The study included the CRCT scores for mathematics and science of 6th-grade students at the middle school level who were tested during the 2007--2008 school year. Many studies conducted in the past have stressed females performed better in mathematics and science, while others have stated males performed better in the same areas. Yet, other studies have found conflicting results. A large Australian study (1996), compared the academic performance of students at single-gender and coeducational schools. The conclusion of this study indicated that both males and females who were educated in single-gender classrooms scored significantly higher than did males and females in coeducational classes. A study conducted by Graham Able (2003) documented superior academic performance of students in single-gender schools, after controlling for socioeconomic class and other variables. Able's most significant finding was that the advantage of single-gender schooling was greater for males in terms of academic results than for females. This directly contradicted the educational myth that males performed better in classrooms if females were present. The sample in this study consisted of CRCT scores for 304 sixth-grade students from four different middle schools. Due to the racial composition of the sample, the study only focused on black and white students. School 1 and School 2 involved single-gender

  12. Gender Equity Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    This document reports on the implementation of two bills adopted by the Washington State legislature in 1989 to achieve gender equity in higher education. The gender equity statute prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender against any student, and, in particular, it forbids discrimination in student assistance and services, academic…

  13. Central gender theoretical concepts in health research: the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Hammarström, Anne; Johansson, Klara; Annandale, Ellen; Ahlgren, Christina; Aléx, Lena; Christianson, Monica; Elwér, Sofia; Eriksson, Carola; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine; Gilenstam, Kajsa; Gustafsson, Per E; Harryson, Lisa; Lehti, Arja; Stenberg, Gunilla; Verdonk, Petra

    2014-02-01

    Despite increasing awareness of the importance of gender perspectives in health science, there is conceptual confusion regarding the meaning and the use of central gender theoretical concepts. We argue that it is essential to clarify how central concepts are used within gender theory and how to apply them to health research. We identify six gender theoretical concepts as central and interlinked-but problematic and ambiguous in health science: sex, gender, intersectionality, embodiment, gender equity and gender equality. Our recommendations are that: the concepts sex and gender can benefit from a gender relational theoretical approach (i.e., a focus on social processes and structures) but with additional attention to the interrelations between sex and gender; intersectionality should go beyond additive analyses to study complex intersections between the major factors which potentially influence health and ensure that gendered power relations and social context are included; we need to be aware of the various meanings given to embodiment, which achieve an integration of gender and health and attend to different levels of analyses to varying degrees; and appreciate that gender equality concerns absence of discrimination between women and men while gender equity focuses on women's and men's health needs, whether similar or different. We conclude that there is a constant need to justify and clarify our use of these concepts in order to advance gender theoretical development. Our analysis is an invitation for dialogue but also a call to make more effective use of the knowledge base which has already developed among gender theorists in health sciences in the manner proposed in this paper.

  14. Moral Orientation, Gender, and Salary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Roger W.

    A study examined the relationship among gender, moral orientation, and pay. Although the participants were about equal in terms of gender, 48 males and 53 females, males tended to hold higher degrees. The researcher hypothesized that salaries would be differentiated based on gender and moral orientation. Assumptions were that care-oriented males…

  15. Forget about equality.

    PubMed

    Powers, Madison

    1996-06-01

    Justice is widely thought to consist in equality. For many theorists, the central question has been: Equality of what? The author argues that the ideal of equality distorts practical reasoning and has deeply counterintuitive implications. Moreover, an alternative view of distributive justice can give a better account of what egalitarians should care about than can any of the competing ideals of equality.

  16. Troubling Discourses on Gender and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahelma, Elina

    2014-01-01

    Background: In educational policies, two discourses on gender have existed since the 1980s. I call them the "gender equality discourse" and the "boy discourse". The gender equality discourse in education is based on international and national declarations and plans, and is focused predominantly on the position of girls and…

  17. 76 FR 21221 - National Equal Pay Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... economic equality for all, regardless of gender. When the Equal Pay Act was signed into law in 1963, women... exist for working women, who still earn less on average than working men. Each year, National Equal Pay... harder to close the gaps that still exist. At a time when families across this country are struggling...

  18. Closing the Gender Gap: Act Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Gender gaps are pervasive in all walks of economic life and imply large losses in terms of foregone productivity and living standards to the individuals concerned and the economy. This new OECD report focuses on how best to close these gender gaps under four broad headings: (1) Gender equality, social norms and public policies; and gender equality…

  19. Gender Differences in Mathematics and Science: The Role of the Actiotope in Determining Individuals' Achievements and Confidence in Their Own Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun; Harder, Bettina; Park, Kyungbin; Portešová, Šárka; Porath, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Despite changes, gender differences in math and science continue to exist in some countries. We examined whether the actiotopes of boys and girls at the high school level in math and science differed and the extent to which (a) their actiotope components, (b) the progressive development of their actiotopes (dynamic perspective), and (c) the…

  20. "Lernen" and Learning Styles: A Comparative Analysis of the Learning Styles of German Adolescents by Age, Gender, and Academic Achievement Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlawaty, Heide

    2009-01-01

    Students in every nation of the world learn new and difficult material in ways that are often similar and, at the same time, different from the way other students of the same age, gender, race, religion, culture, and nationality prefer to learn. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the preferred learning-style characteristics of…

  1. Does Gender Have an Impact on the Potential Benefits Learners May Achieve in Two Contexts Compared: Formal Instruction and Formal Instruction + Content and Language Integrated Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roquet, Helena; Llopis, Jaume; Pérez-Vidal, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the degree of influence of one individual factor, namely gender, on the level of English competence attained in two different groups of intermediate-level Catalan Spanish adolescent learners of English as a foreign language: the first group (Group A) is 1 year younger and follows formal instruction (FI) and in parallel…

  2. Gender Differences in Sustained Attentional Control Relate to Gender Inequality across Countries.

    PubMed

    Riley, Elizabeth; Okabe, Hidefusa; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy; Esterman, Michael; DeGutis, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Sustained attentional control is critical for everyday tasks and success in school and employment. Understanding gender differences in sustained attentional control, and their potential sources, is an important goal of psychology and neuroscience and of great relevance to society. We used a large web-based sample (n = 21,484, from testmybrain.org) to examine gender differences in sustained attentional control. Our sample included participants from 41 countries, allowing us to examine how gender differences in each country relate to national indices of gender equality. We found significant gender differences in certain aspects of sustained attentional control. Using indices of gender equality, we found that overall sustained attentional control performance was lower in countries with less equality and that there were greater gender differences in performance in countries with less equality. These findings suggest that creating sociocultural conditions which value women and men equally can improve a component of sustained attention and reduce gender disparities in cognition.

  3. Gender Differences in Sustained Attentional Control Relate to Gender Inequality across Countries

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Elizabeth; Okabe, Hidefusa; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy; Esterman, Michael; DeGutis, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Sustained attentional control is critical for everyday tasks and success in school and employment. Understanding gender differences in sustained attentional control, and their potential sources, is an important goal of psychology and neuroscience and of great relevance to society. We used a large web-based sample (n = 21,484, from testmybrain.org) to examine gender differences in sustained attentional control. Our sample included participants from 41 countries, allowing us to examine how gender differences in each country relate to national indices of gender equality. We found significant gender differences in certain aspects of sustained attentional control. Using indices of gender equality, we found that overall sustained attentional control performance was lower in countries with less equality and that there were greater gender differences in performance in countries with less equality. These findings suggest that creating sociocultural conditions which value women and men equally can improve a component of sustained attention and reduce gender disparities in cognition. PMID:27802294

  4. Science EQUALS Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Kitty B., Ed.; Conwell, Catherine R., Ed.

    The purpose of the EQUALS programs is to increase the interest and awareness that females and minorities have concerning mathematics and science related careers. This book, produced by an EQUALS program in North Carolina, contains 35 hands-on, discovery science activities that center around four EQUALS processes--problem solving, cooperative…

  5. Connecting the Equals Sign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Pratt, Dave

    2006-01-01

    Children tend to view the equals sign as an operator symbol bereft of the rich relational properties of equality statements. It has been argued by some that this restricted view of the equals sign is due to cultural or cognitive factors. We suggest a significant factor is that rich relational meanings lack relevance within the context of…

  6. Some Equalities Are More Equal Than Others: Quality Equality Emerges Later Than Numerical Equality.

    PubMed

    Sheskin, Mark; Nadal, Amber; Croom, Adam; Mayer, Tanya; Nissel, Jenny; Bloom, Paul

    2016-09-01

    By age 6, children typically share an equal number of resources between themselves and others. However, fairness involves not merely that each person receive an equal number of resources ("numerical equality") but also that each person receive equal quality resources ("quality equality"). In Study 1, children (N = 87, 3-10 years) typically split four resources "two each" by age 6, but typically monopolized the better two resources until age 10. In Study 2, a new group of 6- to 8-year-olds (N = 32) allocated resources to third parties according to quality equality, indicating that children in this age group understand that fairness requires both types of equality.

  7. Beijing fifteen years on: the persistence of barriers to gender mainstreaming in health policy.

    PubMed

    Payne, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, fifteen years after the Beijing declaration on women's rights, the UN Commission on the Status of Women met to review progress in gender mainstreaming. Reports on gender equality by member states revealed differences in the degree of change achieved in this period, while highlighting common barriers to gender mainstreaming. The same barriers have long been identified by academics and activists, but prove remarkably resistant to strategies to address gender inequalities. This paper reviews approaches to gender mainstreaming in the context of health policy, and suggests that a model of the obstacles to gender mainstreaming, which identifies barriers as essentially pragmatic, conceptual, or political in origin, might enable a more explicit discussion of the factors underlying this resistance and the ways in which they might be challenged.

  8. Equality of Opportunity and Equality of Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodelja, Zdenko

    2016-01-01

    The report on the findings of extensive empirical research on equality of educational opportunities carried out in the United States on a very large sample of public schools by Coleman and his colleagues has had a major impact on education policy and has given rise to a large amount of research and various interpretations. However, as some…

  9. The Successful Education Sector Development in Tanzania--Comment on Gender Balance and Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okkolin, Mari-Anne; Lehtomaki, Elina; Bhalalusesa, Eustella

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss to what extent the international and national equality goals regarding gender balance and inclusive education have been reached in the education sector development in Tanzania. According to recent reports, the development trend has been generally positive, and the country is close to achieving its primary education…

  10. Peer Relations and School Resistance: Does Oppositional Culture Apply to Race or to Gender?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Garvey F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2005-01-01

    Oppositional culture accounts for race/ethnic differences in school achievement and the theory explains why male students tend to receive lower grades despite standardized test scores that equal or exceed the scores of female students. It is concluded that resistance to school is gender based and researchers should be more sensitive to gender…

  11. Gender in Schools and Culture: Taking Stock of Education in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemmi, Irene

    2015-01-01

    When politicians discuss Italy's position in terms of achieving equality between men and women, the school environment is rarely called into question or mentioned. This is despite the fact that gender inequality remains a prominent feature of the Italian education system. The reason for this failure to perceive the problem, and the consequent lack…

  12. [Gender, paid work, domestic chores and health in Spain].

    PubMed

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Cortès, Imma

    2004-01-01

    The present study reviews gender-related differences and inequalities in paid work and domestic chores in Spain. The impact of both types of work on health are analyzed and the main policies of the European Union (EU) and Spain to achieve gender equality at work are described. In Spain, fewer women are in paid work than in other EU countries. The labor market displays horizontal segregation (men and women work in different sectors), as well as vertical segregation (men hold more senior positions), leading to gender-related differences in employment conditions and exposure to occupational hazards. The precariousness of work is significantly higher in women (19% unemployment in women versus 9% in men) and women are more likely than men to have temporary contracts. Men are more frequently exposed to physical risks and suffer a greater number of occupational accidents; women, especially manual workers, are more frequently exposed to psychosocial risks. Most domestic chores continue to be performed by women, even by working women, which negatively affects their health. The EU has made an increase in female employment a priority, which means that from 2000-2010 Spain should create 3 million jobs for women and implement work/family policies. Achieving gender equality at work requires employment policies that would guarantee equal opportunities for both sexes, as well as shared responsibility for domestic chores between men and women. In Spain, moreover, there is an urgent need to significantly increase public childcare facilities and resources for the care of other dependent individuals.

  13. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  14. 78 FR 53231 - Women's Equality Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... of organizing, agitating, and demonstrating, our country achieved a major victory for women's rights... August 28, 2013 Part IV The President Proclamation 9003--Women's Equality Day, 2013 Proclamation 9004...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 9003 of August 23, 2013 Women's Equality...

  15. 47 CFR 73.2080 - Equal employment opportunities (EEO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... gender from among those who share their religious affiliation or belief. For purposes of this rule, a... other measures needed to ensure genuine equality of opportunity to participate fully in all..., national origin, religion, or gender. (i) A station employment unit shall use recruitment sources for...

  16. Effects of Computer-Assisted STAD, LTM and ICI Cooperative Learning Strategies on Nigerian Secondary School Students' Achievement, Gender and Motivation in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrari, Isiaka Amosa; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Thomas, David Akpa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction on Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) and Learning Together Model (LTM) cooperative learning strategies on Nigerian secondary students' achievement and motivation in physics. The efficacy of Authors developed computer assisted instructional package (CAI) for teaching…

  17. Effects of Computer-Assisted STAD, LTM and ICI Cooperative Learning Strategies on Nigerian Secondary School Students' Achievement, Gender and Motivation in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Thomas, David Akpa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction on Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) and Learning Together (LT) cooperative learning strategies on Nigerian secondary students' achievement and motivation in physics. The effectiveness of computer assisted instructional package (CAI) for teaching physics concepts in…

  18. Integer Equal Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, C A; Schulz, A S

    2009-01-07

    The integer equal flow problem is an NP-hard network flow problem, in which all arcs in given sets R{sub 1}, ..., R{sub {ell}} must carry equal flow. We show this problem is effectively inapproximable, even if the cardinality of each set R{sub k} is two. When {ell} is fixed, it is solvable in polynomial time.

  19. Equality and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The two big events in higher education during 2010 were the implementation of the Equality Act, and the introduction of a new dispensation on fees and funding. The former is intended to promote equality, the latter is premised on the need for economy. In this article, the author focuses on the effect of the latter on the former. He considers this…

  20. EQUAL PAY FACTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    EQUAL PAY MEANS PAYMENT OF "RATE OF THE JOB" WITHOUT REGARD TO SEX. EQUAL PAY LAWS WERE ENACTED IN 29 STATES FROM 1919 TO 1965. FOUR ADDITIONAL STATES HAVE FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES LAWS. SUPPORT FOR SUCH LEGISLATION HAS COME FROM WOMEN'S AND CIVIC ORGANIZATIONS, AFL-CIO, AND THE PRESIDENT'S AND STATE COMMISSIONS ON THE STATUS OF WOMEN. THE…

  1. Early Understanding of Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairéad; McMahon, Áine

    2013-01-01

    Quite a bit of the arithmetic in elementary school contains elements of algebraic reasoning. After researching and testing a number of instructional strategies with Irish third graders, these authors found effective methods for cultivating a relational concept of equality in third-grade students. Understanding equality is fundamental to algebraic…

  2. Gender and the JRME.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennema, Elizabeth; Hart, Laurie E.

    1994-01-01

    Addresses two questions: (1) How has gender and mathematics been treated in the "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education" (JRME), and how does that record fit into the broader societal concern with gender and mathematics? (2) What kinds of studies should be published in the future to achieve equity for females in mathematics? (31…

  3. GENDERED CHALLENGE, GENDERED RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, ERIN L.; AMMONS, SAMANTHA K.; CHERMACK, KELLY; MOEN, PHYLLIS

    2010-01-01

    This article integrates research on gendered organizations and the work-family interface to investigate an innovative workplace initiative, the Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE), implemented in the corporate headquarters of Best Buy, Inc. While flexible work policies common in other organizations “accommodate” individuals, this initiative attempts a broader and deeper critique of the organizational culture. We address two research questions: How does this initiative attempt to change the masculinized ideal worker norm? And what do women's and men's responses reveal about the persistent ways that gender structures work and family life? Data demonstrate the ideal worker norm is pervasive and powerful, even as employees begin critically examining expectations regarding work time that have historically privileged men. Employees' responses to ROWE are also gendered. Women (especially mothers) are more enthusiastic, while men are more cautious. Ambivalence about and resistance to change is expressed in different ways depending on gender and occupational status. PMID:20625518

  4. Focus on gender and academic achievement. When girls learn more than boys: the influence of time in school and pedagogy in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Fuller, B; Hua, H; Snyder Cw

    1994-08-01

    Girls often outperform boys in language and reading achievement. The recent study of reading skills by the International Association for the Evaluation of Education Achievement found female students at the junior-secondary level to have comparatively higher proficiencies in 28 of 31 countries. The authors explore in the context of Botswana's junior-secondary schools how school and family factors influence young females' widespread advantage in acquiring literacy and reading skills. Research on female school attainment is reviewed; the Botswana Teacher, Classroom, and Achievement Study described; and empirical findings presented on how time in school, teacher characteristics, and their pedagogical practices influence female and male achievement. The study assessed how much English and Math was learned over one academic year among 4948 form 1 and form 2 students from 31 junior-secondary schools. 214 teachers were observed during at least two class periods for one week. It is noted in closing that time in school can be a very influential factor, Botswana's junior-secondary schools seem to be reducing differences in educational attainment across different local communities, and specific school and classroom features which are raising achievement remain a mystery. Study findings have implications for how learning gains for girls may be raised.

  5. Gender and Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Jim; Gunther, Georg; Walters, Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    Studied the relationship between gender and mathematical problem solving in 83 male and 76 female high achieving Canadian 12-year-olds. Gender differences were found on the Canadian Test of Basic Skills but not on the GAUSS assessment. Implications for the discussion of the origin of gender differences in mathematics are discussed. (SLD)

  6. The Relationship of Leadership Styles, Gender and Years of Experience of Middle School Principals in North Carolina on Achievement and Growth Trends on the End of Grade Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Morris, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Leadership is an ever changing process and principals play a key role in the instructional focus of a school which often times created success in instruction (Riordan, 2003). Principals face different challenges today while improving schools and student academic achievement. The perceptions of an effective school leader has changed over the years…

  7. The Role of Parental Support, Parental Monitoring, and Time Spent with Parents in Adolescent Academic Achievement in Iceland: A Structural Model of Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between parental support, parental monitoring, and time spent with parents and academic achievement among adolescent girls and boys in Iceland, a high-income per-capita Nordic country. The indirect role of school effort is also examined. Data of 7430 9th and 10th graders is analyzed in the study. Structural…

  8. Influences of Disciplinary Classroom Climate on High School Student Self-Efficacy and Mathematics Achievement: A Look at Gender and Racial-Ethnic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of disciplinary climate in the classroom and student math self-efficacy on math achievement. The student part of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 survey containing 4,199 U.S. observations was employed in a weighted least squares nested multiple regression framework to predict math…

  9. Does Gender Matter? an Exploratory Study of Perspectives Across Genders, Age and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carinci, Sherrie; Wong, Pia Lindquist

    2009-11-01

    Using a convenience sample and survey research methods, the authors seek to better understand how perspectives on gender are shaped by individuals' age, level of education and gender. Study participants responded in writing to scenarios and survey questions, revealing their personal views on gender as an identity category and as a marker in the social hierarchy. Analysis indicated that there were differences between male and female views on these dimensions of gender, and that age and educational levels were also influential. While younger respondents from both genders demonstrated flexibility in their definitions of gender and expressed strong support for gender equality, they were noticeably lacking in their knowledge of the historical context of gender relations and did not show the skills required to realise their ideals of gender equality, especially when compared to older respondents of both genders with higher levels of educational attainment.

  10. Equal is as equal does: challenging Vatican views on women.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The authors of this piece are women from the Roman Catholic tradition who are critical of the Vatican position on women's rights. The Report of the Holy See in Preparation for the Fourth World Conference on Women reveals a religious fundamentalism that misuses tradition and anthropology to limit women's roles and rights. The Vatican is itself a self-proclaimed state that offers women neither opportunities nor protections within its own organization, and there is no evidence of women's participation in the preparation of its report. The Vatican document constructs a vision of women and men in which men are normative persons, whose dignity is conferred by their humanity, and women are the variant other, defined by and granted dignity by their reproductive and mothering functions. The Vatican document is anti-feminist. It criticizes the "radical feminists" of the 1960s for trying to deny sexual differences, and accuses today's Western feminists of ignoring the needs of women in developing countries while pursuing selfish and hedonistic goals. It makes no recognition of the work of feminists to improve the lives of women worldwide. The Vatican document claims to support women's equality, but it qualifies each statement of equality with a presumption of difference. The document defines women as vulnerable without naming men as responsible for the oppression and violence to which women are vulnerable. It ridicules as feminist cant the well-documented fact that the home is the setting of most violence against women. The Vatican decries the suffering families undergo as a result of cumpulsory birth control and abortion policies, while it would deny families sex education, contraceptives, and safe abortion, thereby making pregnancy cumpulsory. A new vision of social justice is needed, one that: 1) rests on a radical equality, in which both women and men are expected to contribute to work, education, culture, morality, and reproduction; 2) accepts a "discipleship of equals

  11. Gender Tales: Tensions in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfeld, Judith S., Ed.; Yerian, Suzanne, Ed.

    This casebook is intended to supplement textbooks and readings that present theory and research findings on gender equity. Many of these cases originated in real classroom settings and are intended for use with preservice teachers. Part 1, "The Meaning of Gender Equality in the Schools," contains: "'Girlspeak' and "Boyspeak': Gender Differences in…

  12. Working toward Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Doug

    2003-01-01

    Significant obstacles stand in the way of analyzing the integration of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered (GLBT) faculty members into the U.S. professoriate. Whereas the National Center for Education Statistics, the U.S. Census Bureau, and other agencies collect voluminous, valuable data on race, gender, and ethnicity, few data exist for…

  13. Gender Segregation in the Employment of Higher Education Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuorinen-Lampila, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the employment and placement in the working life of Finnish higher education graduates (i.e. graduates from universities and polytechnics), focusing on gender equality. It reports a study on gender segregation in higher education and working life, considered in relation to Nordic gender equality policies. The data were…

  14. Transhumanism and moral equality.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James

    2007-10-01

    Conservative thinkers such as Francis Fukuyama have produced a battery of objections to the transhumanist project of fundamentally enhancing human capacities. This article examines one of these objections, namely that by allowing some to greatly extend their capacities, we will undermine the fundamental moral equality of human beings. I argue that this objection is groundless: once we understand the basis for human equality, it is clear that anyone who now has sufficient capacities to count as a person from the moral point of view will continue to count as one even if others are fundamentally enhanced; and it is mistaken to think that a creature which had even far greater capacities than an unenhanced human being should count as more than an equal from the moral point of view.

  15. Investigating gender violence in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Spiring, Fred

    2014-01-01

    As Jamaica moves through implementation of their National Policy on Gender Equality and develops harassment legislation, this article attempts to investigate current levels and trends of gender-based violence in Jamaica. All analyses make use of existing data and data formats in developing performance indicators that illustrate the current state of gender violence in Jamaica. The analyses provide a baseline for the future assessment and comparison with internationally accepted gender-based violence indicators. All source data has been included to facilitate comparisons and discussions regarding related levels and trends of violence as well as addressing performance indicator effectiveness.

  16. The Equal Pay Boondoggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Richard A.

    1975-01-01

    Problems of extending the Equal Pay Act to university faculty are examined in light of the complicated market forces and merit systems affecting faculty appointments and salaries. Solutions to the problem are suggested including guidelines for the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor to use in identifying sex discrimination. (JT)

  17. Equality Versus Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that political equality and democracy are attainable only through the distribution of access to political resources and the willingness to use them. Discusses the broad philosophical and sociological components that contribute to a system marked by advantage and inequalities, as well as opportunities for opposition and resistance. (MJP)

  18. EQUALS Investigations: Remote Rulers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Karen; Whitlow, Robert

    EQUALS is a teacher education program that helps elementary and secondary educators acquire methods and materials to attract minority and female students to mathematics. It supports a problem-solving approach to mathematics which has students working in groups, uses active assessment methods, and incorporates a broad mathematics curriculum…

  19. EQUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLEMAN, JAMES S.; AND OTHERS

    THE PRODUCT OF AN EXTENSIVE SURVEY REQUESTED BY THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, THIS REPORT DOCUMENTS THE AVAILABILITY OF EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS FOR MINORITY GROUP NEGROES, PUERTO RICANS, MEXICAN-AMERICANS, ORIENTAL-AMERICANS, AND AMERICAN INDIANS, AS COMPARED WITH OPPORTUNITIES FOR MAJORITY GROUP WHITES. COMPARATIVE…

  20. The Equal Access Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catron, J. Gregory

    1987-01-01

    Reviews past history of access of religious activities in public schools in relation to the establishment clause of the First Amendment and sets forth the prerequisites in the Equal Access Act of 1984 for creating a well-defined forum for student-initiated free speech including religious groups in public high schools. (MD)

  1. Granting Each Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Linda Lucas

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes federal legislation regarding equal access for students with disabilities and discusses environmental barriers to accessibility in the library media center. Solutions to these design problems are suggested in the following areas: material formats and space requirements; the physical setting, including furniture, floor coverings,…

  2. Equality and Academic Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardarson, Atli

    2013-01-01

    A recent national curriculum guide for upper secondary schools in my home country, Iceland, requires secondary schools to work towards equality and five other overarching aims. This requirement raises questions about to what extent secondary schools have to change their curricula in order to approach these aims or work towards them in an adequate…

  3. The Equal Rights Amendment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Eileen

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) including questions often asked of social studies teachers in the classroom. A map of the United States shows which states have passed the ERA to date. Also includes a bibliography of 43 resources about ERA. (BC)

  4. Equal Educational Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Lorenzo

    1980-01-01

    Holds that the "Bakke" decision simply reaffirmed an insufficient commitment to equal opportunities for Blacks in higher education. Reviews several studies, including research conducted at the Institute for the Study of Educational Policy (ISEP) that has focused on the social and economic context of educational discrimination. (GC)

  5. Equal Opportunity in Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Paul

    This book focuses on discrimination in employment, defined as the denial of equal opportunity in the labor market to qualified persons on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, or any other factor not related to their individual qualifications for work. The average nonwhite college graduate can expect to earn less during…

  6. Frames in contestation: gendering domestic violence policies in five central and eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Krizsan, Andrea; Popa, Raluca Maria

    2014-07-01

    The article looks at the translation of international norms on domestic violence to the national level in five Central and Eastern European countries. It argues that translation brings a concept of domestic violence, which stretches gender equality ideas underpinning international norms so as to be easier to endorse by mainstream policy actors, and results in policies framed in degendered individual rights terms. The potential for keeping gender equality in focus is then guaranteed by gendering policy processes through empowerment of gender equality actors at all stages. Absence of ownership of the policy by gender equality actors risks co-optation by frames contesting gender equality.

  7. Time to address gender discrimination and inequality in the health workforce

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gender is a key factor operating in the health workforce. Recent research evidence points to systemic gender discrimination and inequalities in health pre-service and in-service education and employment systems. Human resources for health (HRH) leaders’ and researchers’ lack of concerted attention to these inequalities is striking, given the recognition of other forms of discrimination in international labour rights and employment law discourse. If not acted upon, gender discrimination and inequalities result in systems inefficiencies that impede the development of the robust workforces needed to respond to today’s critical health care needs. This commentary makes the case that there is a clear need for sex- and age-disaggregated and qualitative data to more precisely illuminate gender-related trends and dynamics in the health workforce. Because of their importance for measurement, the paper also presents definitions and examples of sex or gender discrimination and offers specific case examples. At a broader level, the commentary argues that gender equality should be an HRH research, leadership, and governance priority, where the aim is to strengthen health pre-service and continuing professional education and employment systems to achieve better health systems outcomes, including better health coverage. Good HRH leadership, governance, and management involve recognizing the diversity of health workforces, acknowledging gender constraints and opportunities, eliminating gender discrimination and equalizing opportunity, making health systems responsive to life course events, and protecting health workers’ labour rights at all levels. A number of global, national and institution-level actions are proposed to move the gender equality and HRH agendas forward. PMID:24885565

  8. Gendered war and gendered peace: truth commissions and postconflict gender violence: lessons from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Borer, Tristan Anne

    2009-10-01

    That war is profoundly gendered has long been recognized by feminist international relations scholars. What is less recognized is that the postwar period is equally gendered. Currently undertheorized is how truth-seeking exercises in the aftermath of conflict should respond to this fact. What happens to women victims of war violence? The difficulties of foregrounding gendered wartime violence in truth telling are illustrated by the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. The article explores some consequences of the failure to uncover gendered truth, including its impact on the government's reparations policy, and continued "peacetime" violence perpetrated against women in South Africa.

  9. Report examines links among women's equality, smaller families, healthier children.

    PubMed

    1997-06-01

    This article reports on a new study by Nancy Riley about the relationship between gender equality and fertility and mortality declines in developing countries. Findings indicate that mortality and fertility has declined in countries without gender equality. Fertility and child mortality decline is related to women's educational status and employment. Riley argues that women's power to make decisions about health care, contraception, and the timing and number of children, if affected by education and paid employment, is more likely to lower mortality and fertility. Women's power may decline in countries where women's education and employment are advanced, but their role in society remains that of mothers. All developing countries showed a relationship between the amount of education and family size and child health. Fertility tends to be lowest among highly educated women. However, women's education has a stronger effect on child health and mortality. Maternal education also affects child nutritional status. Women's education offers women the option of job opportunities and new values or ideas. Women's employment may result in increased resources and status or in poverty and heavy physical labor. Societal views of women's work may reflect an increased self-worth for working women or lower status or the failure of a husband to adequately provide for family welfare. The key to the impact of women's employment is whether work becomes a way to achieve greater power for women in decision making about child welfare and family planning. Employment outside the home educates. In most countries, women who worked for cash had fewer children, but differences in fertility between working and nonworking women range from small to large. Higher income for Nigerian women means more children. Women's work also has inconsistent effects on child health.

  10. 78 FR 28717 - Advancing Pay Equality in the Federal Government and Learning From Successful Practices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... promote gender pay equality in the Federal Government and more broadly, I hereby direct the following... Government-wide strategy to address any gender pay gap in the Federal workforce. This strategy shall include... addressing any gender pay gap; (b) proposed guidance to agencies to promote greater transparency...

  11. Battery equalization active methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  12. Gender, mathematics, reading comprehension and science reasoning as predictors of science achievement among African-American students at a historical black college or university

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Consuella Artiemese

    This study investigated predictors that influence the science achievement of African-American non-science majors in a Physical Science class. The population consisted of male and female college students enrolled in Physical Science courses at a historical black college or university (HBCU) located in the southeastern portion of the United States. A personal data information sheet was administered to 120 participants during the Fall of 2008. The personal data information sheet consisted of questions pertaining to the high school courses, students took in math, language arts and science. It also consisted of basic background information. Students also gave written consent for their midterm and final grades earned in Physical Science to be used in the study as part of the analyses. A t-Test including chi-square tests revealed that there was not a significant difference in the raw scores of African-American females and African American males on the American College Test. A significant difference was not observed between the females and males on the ACT math subtest, t (118) = -.78, p = .43; reading comprehension subtest, t (118) = -1.44, .15 or on the science reasoning subtest, t (118) = -1.46, p = .15. A significant difference was not found between the final grades of African American females and the final grades of African American males. Chi-square tests were conducted to determine goodness of fit, X2 = 6.11, df = 1, p = .191. Although the grades of females were higher than males, results were not significant. The correlation between math ACT and final grades were not significant, r = .131, N = 120, p = .155, reading comprehension ACT and final grades were not significant, r = .072, N = 120, p = .434 and science reasoning ACT and final grades were found not to be significant, r = .109, N = 120, p = .237. Being that the majority of students who participated in the study were from one state, had similar high school backgrounds, had similar majors and were similar in

  13. Equality in Education: An Equality of Condition Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kathleen; Baker, John

    2005-01-01

    Transforming schools into truly egalitarian institutions requires a holistic and integrated approach. Using a robust conception of "equality of condition", we examine key dimensions of equality that are central to both the purposes and processes of education: equality in educational and related resources; equality of respect and recognition;…

  14. Gender, technology and jobs.

    PubMed

    Brynin, Malcolm

    2006-09-01

    Men have traditionally gained more than women from access to technologies at work which bring prestige, job security, more satisfying work and higher pay. Typically female jobs have centred on technologies, if they have at all, which tend towards routine and possibly deskilled work. Typing is a prime example. It is possible that this is changing through computerization, which is extensive but also equally distributed by gender. Does the wage premium, which use of a computer has been found to confer on users, benefit women sufficiently to suggest some sort of equalization through technology, or possibly even a female advantage? This is tested using data from four European countries. There is no across-the-board benefit from the use of computers. For both men and women it depends on the nature of their occupation. Some, more routine usages of computers are associated with a negative outcome. However, this occupational balance itself varies by gender.

  15. Why the Equal Rights Amendment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denmark, Florence L.

    The Equal Rights Amendment proposes to ensure constitutional protection against all legislative sex discrimination. "Separate but Equal" standards, be they legal, social or psychological, are inevitably incompatable with equal protection under the law and act as a barrier to each individual's freedom for self determination. Equal rights,…

  16. Gender differences in depression.

    PubMed

    Sagud, M; Hotujac, Lj; Mihaljević-Peles, A; Jakovljević, M

    2002-06-01

    Depression is twice as common in women as in men, although some concern has been raised in terms of misdiagnosing depression in men. The incidence of depression in women varies during the life span. The peak incidence during childbearing years appears to be associated with cyclic hormonal changes. Women also present with reproductive -specific mood disorders: pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), depression in pregnancy, postpartal mood disorder (PDD) and perimenopausal depressive disorder. Gender differences were repeatedly observed in response to antidepressant medication. Premenopausal women appear to respond poorly and to show low tolerability to TCAs, but they tend to show greater responsiveness to the SSRIs. In contrast, men and postmenopausal women can respond equally to the TCAs and SSRIs. These differences are contributed to gender differences in pharmacokinetics of antidepressants and to the influence of menstrual cycle. These findings suggest the need for a gender-specific approach to the evaluation and management of depression.

  17. Constructions of gender in Vietnam: in pursuit of the 'Three Criteria'.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Hoang, Tu Anh; Vu, Song Ha; Tan, Hung Minh; Bui, Thi Thanh Mai; Pham, Vu Thien

    2006-01-01

    Vietnam has advanced far beyond most other developing countries and, indeed, surpasses many developed countries in adopting a legal framework based on gender equality, and in creating institutions and programmes to support women's advancement. Inegalitarian gender norms have also persisted, however. The Vietnam Women's Union promotes women's educational, political and economic advancement but simultaneously exhorts women to pay attention to their Confucian role of maintaining family hierarchy and harmony. This paper presents findings from qualitative research examining gender relations at the grassroots level in central Vietnam. It argues that the Vietnam Women's Union could support women more effectively by promoting greater diversity in gender norms and by initiating a public discussion to address the pressures women face in trying to achieve ideals that are often experienced as contradictory and unattainable.

  18. The Role of Graduate Employee Unions in Gender Equality (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Nicholas A.; Freeland, Emily

    2009-04-01

    Graduate employee unions represent a significant fraction of graduate employees in the United States, Canada, and other nations. The collective bargaining process is a unique forum where issues ranging from paid parental leave, hostile work environment, and access to lactation rooms can be addressed on an even footing with the employing universities. Because employment is governed by a collective bargaining agreement, violations are subject to a grievance policy. The Teaching Assistants' Association at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is one of the oldest graduate employee unions in the world. We discuss this example union, including successes in both the collective bargaining process and the grievance procedure. In particular, we find that graduate employee unions are an effective means of fighting pregnancy discrimination. We also provide a comparison of parental leave policies for graduate students at various universities.

  19. Upper Extremity Length Equalization

    PubMed Central

    DeCoster, Thomas A.; Ritterbusch, John; Crawford, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Significant upper extremity length inequality is uncommon but can cause major functional problems. The ability to position and use the hand may be impaired by shortness of any of the long bones of the upper extremity. In many respects upper and lower extremity length problems are similar. They most commonly occur after injury to a growing bone and the treatment modalities utilized in the lower extremity may be applied to the upper extremity. These treatment options include epiphysiodesis, shortening osteotomy, angulatory correction osteotomy and lengthening. This report reviews the literature relative to upper extremity length inequality and equalization and presents an algorithm for evaluation and planning appropriate treatment for patients with this condition. This algorithm is illustrated by two clinical cases of posttraumatic shortness of the radius which were effectively treated. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  20. Failing Boys? Issues in Gender and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Debbie, Ed.; Elwood, Jannette, Ed.; Hey, Valerie, Ed.; Maw, Janet, Ed.

    Issues surrounding boys'"underachievement" have been at the center of public debate about education and the raising of standards in recent years. Media and political responses to the "problem of boys" have tended to be simplistic, partial, and owe more to quick fixes than investigation and research. This book provides a…

  1. The Cracked Glass Ceiling: Equal Work but Unequal Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobele, Angela R.; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Kopanidis, Foula

    2014-01-01

    The achievement of gender equity in universities continues to warrant attention. Globally, universities have much work ahead of them if they are to redress the gender imbalance in senior positions and remuneration rates. To examine this issue, multiple sources of evidence were used to observe teaching and research workload of academic staff…

  2. Equality Matters: The Critical Implications of Precisely Defining Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Valerie; Walkowiak, Temple; Cain, Chris; Lee, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Equality is such an important concept for children to develop. In this article it is argued that a precise definition is needed to ensure that students are provided with a consistent "picture" of what it is that equality really means.

  3. Gender Mainstreaming in Education at the Level of Field Operations: The Case of CARE USA's Indicator Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miske, Shirley; Meagher, Margaret; DeJaeghere, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Following the adoption of gender mainstreaming at the Beijing Conference for Women in 1995 as a major strategy to promote gender equality and the recognition of gender analysis as central to this process, Gender and Development (GAD) frameworks have provided tools for gender analysis in various sectors. Gender mainstreaming in basic education has…

  4. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  5. Equal Opportunities for Women in Marine Sciences in Kiel: Activities and Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamm, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Women are still largely underrepresented in geosciences in general. Particularly at the level of professorships and permanent research staff positions this also applies to marine science institutions in Kiel, i.e. the research focus Kiel Marine Sciences at Kiel University and the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel. Both institutions are closely collaborating, for instance in the frame of two major third-party funded collaborative projects: The Cluster of Excellence 'The Future Ocean', funded within the German Excellence Initiative, and the Collaborative Research Centre 'Climate - Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean' (SFB 754) financed through the German Research Foundation (DFG). Both funding schemes request for measures to increase the participation of female scientists in leading positions. As an innovative approach, The Future Ocean and SFB 754 jointly finance the position of a coordinator for gender measures who is based at the university's Central Office for Gender Equality, Diversity & Family since 2012. This allows for the coordinated development and implementation of programmes to support female marine scientists, with a focus on the postdoctoral phase, and to offer a broader spectrum of activities to raise awareness of gender imbalance in the research community. The aim of this presentation is to give insight into activities and achievements, among them the mentoring programme via:mento_ocean for female postdocs in marine sciences. The programme via:mento_ocean has been acknowledged as a best practice instrument to support women scientists in a close disciplinary but international setting and was incorporated into the DFG's online toolbox of gender equality measures.

  6. Sex and gender: the challenges for epidemiologists.

    PubMed

    Doyal, Lesley

    2003-01-01

    Gender issues are now receiving more attention on global and national health agendas. However, the evidence base for policy and practice in this area remains limited and conceptual confusion is still common. This article reviews the challenges facing epidemiologists and other researchers who aim to make their work more "gender sensitive." It begins by exploring the concepts of biological "sex" and social "gender" and assesses their implications for the health of both women and men. It then reviews a range of strategies for mainstreaming sex and gender into health research. The article concludes with brief comments on the links between gender equity and wider equality concerns.

  7. Beyond the feminisation of poverty: gender-aware poverty reduction.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, M; Baden, S

    1995-09-01

    There must be an awareness of gender issues in poverty reduction programs. For example, program efforts that direct aid to the promotion of labor intensive employment options disregard women's already overburdened work regime. Public expenditures to benefit the poor, such as primary education or reformed agricultural extension, may be based on the assumption that men and women will benefit equally, yet there is often gender bias in the delivery of services. One recommendation is to target female headed households in budget-constrained anti-poverty programs. One of the few examples of such programs provides urban female household heads in Chile with employment training, housing, health care, child care, and legal aid services. Causes of female headship vary, and a simple correlation with poverty is not always the case. Well-intentioned women-in-development credit programs in Ghana and Bangladesh have been "hijacked" by men. Programs to address gender discrimination only among the poor may overlook other oppressed women. In India gender discrimination is often greatest among women in wealthy households. Programs must offer more than economic resources, they must help women stretch traditional gender boundaries and obtain skills such as literacy or financial management. They must help women organize collectively to protest injustices and achieve institutional reforms.

  8. Tests: The Foundation for Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Kenneth L.

    1982-01-01

    Testing and tests are shown to have played a positive and dramatic role in increased opportunities through identification of educational talent. It is argued that tests, far from denying equality, are necessary conditions for equality and quality. (Author/CM)

  9. Gendered education in a gendered world: looking beyond cosmetic solutions to the gender gap in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnes, Astrid T.; Løken, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    Young people in countries considered to be at the forefront of gender equity still tend to choose very traditional science subjects and careers. This is particularly the case in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects (STEM), which are largely male dominated. This article uses feminist critiques of science and science education to explore the underlying gendered assumptions of a research project aiming to contribute to improving recruitment, retention and gender equity patterns in STEM educations and careers. Much research has been carried out to understand this gender gap phenomenon as well as to suggest measures to reduce its occurrence. A significant portion of this research has focused on detecting the typical "female" and "male" interest in science and has consequently suggested that adjustments be made to science education to cater for these interests. This article argues that adjusting science subjects to match perceived typical girls' and boys' interests risks being ineffective, as it contributes to the imposition of stereotyped gender identity formation thereby also imposing the gender differences that these adjustments were intended to overcome. This article also argues that different ways of addressing gender issues in science education themselves reflects different notions of gender and science. Thus in order to reduce gender inequities in science these implicit notions of gender and science have to be made explicit. The article begins with an overview of the current situation regarding gender equity in some so- called gender equal countries. We then present three perspectives from feminist critiques of science on how gender can be seen to impact on science and science education. Thereafter we analyze recommendations from a contemporary research project to explore which of these perspectives is most prevalent.

  10. 75 FR 21155 - National Equal Pay Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... still exists. Nearly half of all working Americans are women, yet they earn only about 80 cents for.... This law brings us closer to ending pay disparities based on gender, age, race, ethnicity, religion, or... give our daughters and granddaughters the gift of true equality. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK...

  11. Why "Gender" Disappeared from the Gender Gap: (Re-)Introducing Gender Identity Theory to Educational Gender Gap Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vantieghem, Wendelien; Vermeersch, Hans; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    Educational gender gap research tries to explain the differential achievement of boys and girls at secondary school, which manifests in many western countries. Several explanatory frameworks are used for this purpose, such as masculinities theory. In this review article, the history of educational gender gap research in Anglo-Saxon literature and…

  12. Gender issues on occupational safety and health.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Eugenio; Vona, Rosa; Monterosso, Davide; Giammarioli, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    The increasing proportion of women in the workforce raises a range of gender-related questions about the different effects of work-related risks on men and women. Few studies have characterized gender differences across occupations and industries, although at this time, the gender sensitive approach is starting to acquire relevance in the field of human preventive medicine. The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work has encouraged a policy of gender equality in all European member states. Italy has adopted European provisions with new specific legislation that integrates the previous laws and introduces the gender differences into the workplace. Despite the fact that gender equal legislation opportunities have been enacted in Italy, their application is delayed by some difficulties. This review examines some of these critical aspects.

  13. Genetic Diversity and Human Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobzhansky, Theodosius

    The idea of equality often, if not frequently, bogs down in confusion and apparent contradictions; equality is confused with identity, and diversity with inequality. It would seem that the easiest way to discredit the idea of equality is to show that people are innately, genetically, and, therefore, irremediably diverse and unlike. The snare is,…

  14. Equality, Adequacy, and Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satz, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In this article I argue that the distinction between an adequate education and an equal education has been overdrawn. In my view, a certain type of equality--civic equality--is internal to the idea of educational adequacy. An education system that completely separates the children of the poor and minorities from those of the wealthy and middle…

  15. Suicidality, Economic Shocks, and Egalitarian Gender Norms.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2016-02-01

    Durkheim conceived of suicide as a product of social integration and regulation. Although the sociology of suicide has focused on the role of disintegration, to our knowledge, the interaction between integration and regulation has yet to be empirically evaluated. In this article we test whether more egalitarian gender norms, an important form of macro-regulation, protects men and women against suicidality during economic shocks. Using cross-national data covering 20 European Union countries from the years 1991 to 2011, including the recent economic crises in Europe, we first assessed the relation between unemployment and suicide. Then we evaluated potential effect modification using three measures of gender equality, the gender ratio in labour force participation, the gender pay gap, and women's representation in parliament using multiple measures. We found no evidence of a significant, direct link between greater gender equality and suicide rates in either men or women. However, a greater degree of gender equality helped protect against suicidality associated with economic shocks. At relatively high levels of gender equality in Europe, such as those seen in Sweden and Austria, the relationship between rising unemployment rates and suicide in men disappeared altogether. Our findings suggest that more egalitarian forms of gender regulation may help buffer the suicidal consequences of economic shocks, especially in men.

  16. Suicidality, Economic Shocks, and Egalitarian Gender Norms

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Durkheim conceived of suicide as a product of social integration and regulation. Although the sociology of suicide has focused on the role of disintegration, to our knowledge, the interaction between integration and regulation has yet to be empirically evaluated. In this article we test whether more egalitarian gender norms, an important form of macro-regulation, protects men and women against suicidality during economic shocks. Using cross-national data covering 20 European Union countries from the years 1991 to 2011, including the recent economic crises in Europe, we first assessed the relation between unemployment and suicide. Then we evaluated potential effect modification using three measures of gender equality, the gender ratio in labour force participation, the gender pay gap, and women’s representation in parliament using multiple measures. We found no evidence of a significant, direct link between greater gender equality and suicide rates in either men or women. However, a greater degree of gender equality helped protect against suicidality associated with economic shocks. At relatively high levels of gender equality in Europe, such as those seen in Sweden and Austria, the relationship between rising unemployment rates and suicide in men disappeared altogether. Our findings suggest that more egalitarian forms of gender regulation may help buffer the suicidal consequences of economic shocks, especially in men. PMID:26877572

  17. Gender Differences in Musical Instrument Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Creech, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music…

  18. Gender Differences in Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, John; Kaufman, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Research on gender differences in creativity, including creativity test scores, creative achievements, and self-reported creativity is reviewed, as are theories that have been offered to explain such differences and available evidence that supports or refutes such theories. This is a difficult arena in which to conduct research, but there is a…

  19. Transgender social inclusion and equality: a pivotal path to development

    PubMed Central

    Divan, Vivek; Cortez, Clifton; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Keatley, JoAnne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rights of trans people are protected by a range of international and regional mechanisms. Yet, punitive national laws, policies and practices targeting transgender people, including complex procedures for changing identification documents, strip transgender people of their rights and limit access to justice. This results in gross violations of human rights on the part of state perpetrators and society at large. Transgender people's experience globally is that of extreme social exclusion that translates into increased vulnerability to HIV, other diseases, including mental health conditions, limited access to education and employment, and loss of opportunities for economic and social advancement. In addition, hatred and aggression towards a group of individuals who do not conform to social norms around gender manifest in frequent episodes of extreme violence towards transgender people. This violence often goes unpunished. Discussion The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) views its work in the area of HIV through the lens of human rights and advances a range of development solutions such as poverty reduction, improved governance, active citizenship, and access to justice. This work directly relates to advancing the rights of transgender people. This manuscript lays out the various aspects of health, human rights, and development that frame transgender people's issues and outlines best practice solutions from transgender communities and governments around the globe on how to address these complex concerns. The examples provided in the manuscript can help guide UN agencies, governments, and transgender activists in achieving better standards of health, access to justice, and social inclusion for transgender communities everywhere. Conclusions The manuscript provides a call to action for countries to urgently address the violations of human rights of transgender people in order to honour international obligations, stem HIV epidemics, promote

  20. Culture, Gender and Growth. Policy Insights, No. 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutting, Johannes; Morrisson, Christian

    2005-01-01

    While the overall picture for gender equality is still gloomy, recent changes in family institutions in some countries provide an enlightening example. Developing countries are starting to reform cultural barriers to gender equality that limit their growth prospects. Morocco, Algeria, Egypt and some states of India are some examples of countries…

  1. Gender, bullying victimization, and education.

    PubMed

    Popp, Ann Marie; Peguero, Anthony A; Day, Kristin R; Kahle, Lindsay L

    2014-01-01

    School bullying has detrimental consequences for its victims, including undermining students' educational outcomes. Furthermore, gender has been shown to play a significant role in determining the type of bullying victimization experienced and educational outcomes. This research examines whether an interaction between gender and bullying victimization exists as well as its impact on educational outcomes (i.e., academic self-efficacy and educational achievement). Multivariate regression analyses, drawing on the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002, reveal that the interaction between gender and bullying victimization is linked to disparate educational outcomes. The findings and their implications are discussed regarding understanding the relationship between gender, bullying victimization, and education.

  2. Gender Bias in the Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Wanda E.

    The term gender bias was coined by the National Judicial Education Program to Promote Equality for Women and Men in the Courts and is defined as the predisposition or tendency to think about and behave toward people primarily on the basis of their sex rather than their status, professional accomplishments, or aspirations. An effective method for…

  3. On Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James Q.

    1993-01-01

    Explores differences between males and females and their manifestation in biology and culture. Cultures differ, not in whether they cope with the socialization of males to invest in child rearing, but in how they deal with this problem. Issues of gender and power and gender and child rearing are discussed. (SLD)

  4. Gender Fictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lesley

    1992-01-01

    Reviews and compares "Gender and Mathematics" edited by Leone Burton and Valerie Walkerdine's book "Schoolgirl Fictions" on proposed truths related to gender issues in mathematics. Issues include (1) attention given to boys and girls in mathematics class; (2) the effects of noncompetitive classroom environments; and (3) sex differences in…

  5. Gender Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen Blakemore, Judith E.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2008-01-01

    This new text offers a unique developmental focus on gender. Gender development is examined from infancy through adolescence, integrating biological, socialization, and cognitive perspectives. The book's current empirical focus is complemented by a lively and readable style that includes anecdotes about children's everyday experiences. The book's…

  6. Gender Imputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In late 2007, the National Student Clearinghouse (NSC) expanded its Enrollment Reporting service to include several additional data elements (commonly referred to as the "A2" or "expanded" data elements). One of these expanded data elements is student gender. Although gender is potentially important to a number of research…

  7. Gender identities and gender dysphoria in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kuyper, Lisette; Wijsen, Ciel

    2014-02-01

    Several studies estimate the prevalence of gender dysphoria among adults by examining the number of individuals turning to health services. Since individuals might be hesitant to seek medical care related to gender dysphoria, these studies could underestimate the prevalence. The studies also lack information regarding the variance among different aspects of gender dysphoric conditions. Therefore, the current study estimated the prevalence by examining self-reported gender identity and dysphoria in a Dutch population sample (N = 8,064, aged 15-70 years old). Three measures assessed aspects of gender dysphoria: gender identity, dislike of the natal female/male body, and wish to obtain hormones/sex reassignment surgery. Results showed that 4.6 % of the natal men and 3.2 % of the natal women reported an ambivalent gender identity (equal identification with other sex as with sex assigned at birth) and 1.1 % of the natal men and 0.8 % of the natal women reported an incongruent gender identity (stronger identification with other sex as with sex assigned at birth). Lower percentages reported a dislike of their natal body and/or a wish for hormones/surgery. Combining these figures estimated the percentage of men reporting an ambivalent or incongruent gender identity combined with a dislike of their male body and a wish to obtain hormones/surgery at 0.6 %. For women, this was 0.2 %. These novel findings show that studies based on the number of individuals seeking medical care might underestimate the prevalence of gender dysphoria. Furthermore, the findings argue against a dichotomous approach to gender dysphoria.

  8. The Perfect Womb: Promoting Equality of (Fetal) Opportunity.

    PubMed

    Kendal, Evie

    2017-02-21

    This paper aims to address how artificial gestation might affect equality of opportunity for the unborn and any resultant generation of "ectogenetic" babies. It will first explore the current legal obstacles preventing the development of ectogenesis, before looking at the benefits of allowing this technology to control fetal growth and development. This will open up a discussion of the treatment/enhancement divide regarding the use of reproductive technologies, a topic featured in various bioethical debates on the subject. Using current maternity practices in Western society as a comparator, this paper will conclude that neither naturally nor artificially gestated fetuses have interests that can conflict with those of potential parents who might want to use this technology to control fetal development. Such control may include selective implantation of embryos of a desired gender, deliberate choice of genetic traits, or maintenance of an ideal incubation environment to avoid fetal damage. Objections on the basis of disability as well as concerns regarding eugenics will be addressed. The paper will conclude that none of these objections are compelling grounds to prevent the development and use of ectogenesis technologies for the purpose of achieving specific reproductive goals, particularly when compared to current practices in pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and selective abortion on the grounds of undesired traits. As such, when deciding whether to support ectogenesis research, the enduring interests of parents must be the primary consideration, with societal concerns regarding potential misuse the only valid secondary consideration.

  9. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  10. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  11. Gender Representation in the Public Sector Schools Textbooks of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Hazir; Skelton, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines gender biases in school textbooks after a decade long effort by the ministry of education (MoE) Pakistan and international organisation (IOs) to eliminate all forms of gender inequality in education. The intention underpinning these initiatives was to nurture a view of gender equality based consciousness through the…

  12. Wimpy Boys and Macho Girls: Gender Equity at the Crossroads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Lisa J.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that language is the primary vehicle through which stereotyping is perpetuated. Outlines assignments that offer students an opportunity to explore gender stereotyping, to learn to recognize and combat gender bias, and to treat others equally, regardless of gender. Notes also some statewide programs that address these issues and help…

  13. [Gender in view].

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    A manual recently published by Mexico¿s National System for Integral Development of the Family, ¿The gender perspective: a tool for constructing equity between men and women¿, is intended to put into practice the Cairo accords. The gender perspective has been applied in recent years to interpretation of the situation of women in past and present societies. Gender is not sex; it is the manner in which societies have symbolized and understood relations between men and women. The manual concludes that the main difference between the sexes beyond the obvious genital differences is in the greater musculature and strength of males. In contemporary societies, these attributes are less needed than technical knowledge and skills, which may be obtained by either sex. Economic evolution has led increasing numbers of women to work outside their homes. The gender roles assigned for millennia, and accepted as the natural order, are no longer adequate. The power of men has been preserved by attributing the gigantic cultural differences resulting from specialization into male and female roles to the small physical differences between the sexes. Governments have slowly established legal equity, but discrimination against women has not disappeared in the workplace, public offices, or any other social sphere, and their incorporation into the work force has left them with the double workday as they continue to perform the great bulk of domestic work. It is therefore necessary to seek equity as well as equality, understood as the creation of equivalent opportunities for men and women.

  14. [Gender discourses and bioethics].

    PubMed

    Aparisi Miralles, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some of the contributions of the gender discourse to the bioethical debate, specifically in the field of nursing. At the same time, it will explain the contribution of the different feminist theories to the recognition and respect of human dignity. Basically, it will describe the three fundamental models in the gender discourse: the egalitarian model, the difference model, and the model of reciprocity or complementarity. The starting point is that even though the first two models have made significant contributions in the field of bioethics, they have nonetheless brought with them some deficiencies and reductionisms inherent in their thinking. The complementarity model, on the contrary, when properly understood, allows for the combination of the principles of equality and difference between man and woman, which places it at a much more enriching standpoint within the bioethical debate.

  15. Medical Need, Equality, and Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Horne, L Chad

    2016-10-01

    Many hold that distributing healthcare according to medical need is a requirement of equality. Most egalitarians believe, however, that people ought to be equal on the whole, by some overall measure of well-being or life-prospects; it would be a massive coincidence if distributing healthcare according to medical need turned out to be an effective way of promoting equality overall. I argue that distributing healthcare according to medical need is important for reducing individuals' uncertainty surrounding their future medical needs. In other words, distributing healthcare according to medical need is a natural feature of healthcare insurance; it is about indemnity, not equality.

  16. Gender identity and autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Klingensmith, Katherine; Volkmar, Fred R

    2015-03-01

    In this review, we briefly summarize much of the existing literature on gender-related concerns and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), drawing attention to critical shortcomings in our current understanding and potential clinical implications. Some authors have concluded that gender identity disorder (GID), or gender dysphoria (GD), is more common in individuals with ASD, providing a range of potential explanations. However, existing literature is quantitatively limited, and our capacity to draw conclusions is further complicated by conceptual challenges regarding how gender identity is best understood. Discourses that emphasize gender as a component of identity formation are gaining prominence and seem particularly salient when applied to ASD. Individuals with ASD should enjoy equal rights with regard to treatment for gender dysphoria. Clinicians may be able to assist individuals in understanding this aspect of their identity by broadening the social frame and facilitating an exploration of gender roles.

  17. An Application of the Equal Pay Act to Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Debra H.

    1981-01-01

    The applicability of legal principles governing equal pay and sex discrimination in university settings is discussed. The most objective mechanism that a university can utilize to achieve compliance with the Equal Pay Act would be implementation of a salary system that relies on experience, formal education, and time in grade. (MLW)

  18. Women at Work: The Myth of Equal Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercy, Day; Krieter, Nancy

    The advances women have made in the past decade have created the myth that women have achieved equal opportunity in the job market. In reality, the opposite is true. The current economic status of women demonstrates the need for strict enforcement of equal opportunity laws. Department of Labor data indicate that the wage gap between men and women…

  19. District Power Equalizing: Cure-All or Prescription?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, James L.; Addonizio, Michael F.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the conflicting goals of school finance reform--educational equity, equality, and excellence--and their effects on the district power equalizing (DPE) method of achieving school equity. Describes the experiences with DPE in California, Ohio, Illinois, and Michigan. (RW)

  20. Prevalence of Gender Nonconformity in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Van Caenegem, Eva; Wierckx, Katrien; Elaut, Els; Buysse, Ann; Dewaele, Alexis; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2015-07-01

    Gender nonconformity refers to the extent to which a person's gender identity, gender role and/or gender expression differs from the cultural norms prescribed for people of a particular sex, within a certain society and era. Most data on gender nonconformity focus on the prevalence of gender dysphoria (which also includes a distress factor) or on the number of legal sex changes. However, not every gender nonconforming individual experiences distress or applies for treatment. Population-based research on the broad spectrum of gender nonconformity is scarce and more information on the variance outside the gender binary is needed. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of gender incongruence (identifying stronger with the other sex than with the sex assigned at birth) and gender ambivalence (identifying equally with the other sex as with the sex assigned at birth) based on two population-based surveys, one of 1,832 Flemish persons and one of 2,472 sexual minority individuals in Flanders. In the general population, gender ambivalence was present in 2.2 % of male and 1.9 % of female participants, whereas gender incongruence was found in 0.7 % of men and 0.6 % of women. In sexual minority individuals, the prevalence of gender ambivalence and gender incongruence was 1.8 and 0.9 % in men and 4.1 and 2.1 % in women, respectively. With a current Flemish population of about 6 million, our results indicate a total of between 17,150 and 17,665 gender incongruent men and between 14,473 and 15,221 gender incongruent women in Flanders.