Science.gov

Sample records for achieve gender equality

  1. Gender, Technology, and Mathematics Education: Working Together To Achieve "Equality."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Mary E.

    The launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union in 1957 initiated a series of reform movements in mathematics education. These reform movements provide a framework from which to chronicle the development of interest into gender differences in mathematics learning. The paper examines these issues and is presented in six sections. The first section…

  2. [The present status and attempts toward the achievement of gender equality in the JAA].

    PubMed

    Senba, Emiko

    2013-09-01

    The proportion of female members in The Japanese Association of Anatomists (JAA) is 18% with the proportion of female members higher among the young generation (20-30 Y.O.; 34.8%, 30-40 Y.O.; 26.8%). However, the number of female members in the Board of Directors has been zero or one (0 or 6%) for many years. More than two female members are necessary on the Board to promote the diversity in the management of the JAA. The numbers of female members in other committees has shown gradual increase in recent years. A substantial increase in female faculty members including professors in each university and school will support the future development of the anatomical research field and the association. We have made the first great step by setting up the committee on promotion of gender equality in JAA in March, 2011. In the next year, JAA became a member of Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE). Our committee's activity includes holding workshops and seminars at the annual meetings to promote gender equality in the research field and to encourage mutual support and friendship, not only among women members but also among all members. PMID:24066390

  3. Fostering Gender Equality and Achievement in Natural Science and Mathematics Instruction in Higher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, K.; Liddicoat, J.

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally in the United States, males have been drawn to careers in the natural sciences and mathematics for a variety of social and economic reasons, but in recent decades females have demonstrated a similar aptitude in these fields when provided with equal opportunities. Because the percentage of women attending colleges and universities in the developing and developed countries often surpasses the percentage of males, and as non-traditional students who might be older woman are returning to college and universities for training to make themselves competitive in the workforce, it is important that instruction in the natural sciences and mathematics be relevant to student needs. We will present the results of a recent campus-initiated discussion about improving the instruction of women in the natural sciences and mathematics as it applies to our institution in the fashion industries.

  4. Gender Equality in Education: Definitions and Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanian, R.

    2005-01-01

    International consensus on education priorities accords an important place to achieving gender justice in the educational sphere. Both the Dakar 'Education for All' goals and the Millennium Development goals emphasise two goals, in this regard. These two goals are distinguished as gender parity goals [achieving equal participation of girls and…

  5. Gender Equality in Teacher Organisations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Torill Scharning

    1995-01-01

    Most senior trade union posts are held by men, even in organizations where most members are women. The paper examines how the Norwegian Union of Teachers has advanced in this area, noting the status of gender equality in Norway, Norway's work toward gender equality, and the country's focus on educational change. (SM)

  6. Achieving Gender Equality in Families: The Role of Males. Innocenti Global Seminar Summary Report (Kingston, Jamaica, May 8-18, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John

    This report summarizes the proceedings of UNICEF's Global Innocenti Seminar on "Achieving Gender Equality in Families: The Role of Males." The seminar examined how, as more women become economic providers for families, the role of males in families needs to develop new dimensions so that they can contribute to improved health and education of…

  7. Midwives, gender equality and feminism.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Gender inequality and the harmful effects of patriarchy are sustaining the wide spread oppression of women across the world and this is also having an impact on maternity services with unacceptable rates of maternal mortality, the continued under investment in the midwifery profession and the limiting of women's place of birth options. However alongside these effects, the current zeitgeist is affirming an alignment of feminism and gender equality such that both have a high profile in public discourse. This presents a once in a generation opportunity for midwives to self-declare as feminists and commit to righting the wrongs of this most pernicious form of discrimination. PMID:27044191

  8. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  9. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  10. Gender equality and women empowerment.

    PubMed

    Dargan, R

    1996-01-01

    This article lists 11 suggestions for empowering women that the government of India should take, if it has a sincere commitment to gender equality and women's empowerment grounded in social change and not just rhetoric: 1) education should be made compulsory for all female children and places held on a 50/50 basis in all technical institutions; 2) a uniform civil code should be adopted for all citizens regardless of cast, creed, and religion; 3) women should have an equal right to own property and receive inheritance; 4) the National Women's Commission should be enlarged, representative of diversity, and effective in making policy decisions related to welfare, education, recruitment, and promotion; 5) a State Women's Commission should be established with affiliates at the block, district, and division levels; 6) the National and State Women's Commission should be established as a Statutory Body with binding decisions mandating government action; 7) the National and State Women's Commissions should have transparent functions, be regulatory, and offer workshops and seminars for women; 8) state governments should not interfere in the functions of National and State Women's Commissions; 9) women should fill 50% of all Center and State government service posts and concessions should be made on minimum academic qualifications and completed years of service, until all positions are filled; 10) 50% of the seats of Parliament should be reserved for women in both the State Legislature, Council of Ministry Boards, Corporations, Committees, and Commissions; and 11) the Constitution should provide for women judges in courts of law. PMID:12179426

  11. Gender Equality and Violent Behavior: How Neighborhood Gender Equality Influences the Gender Gap in Violence

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys’ and girls’ violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys’ rates of violence decrease whereas girls’ rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls’ violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs. PMID:24672996

  12. Gender equality and violent behavior: how neighborhood gender equality influences the gender gap in violence.

    PubMed

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys' and girls' violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys' rates of violence decrease whereas girls' rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls' violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs. PMID:24672996

  13. Moving beyond gender: processes that create relationship equality.

    PubMed

    Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Mahoney, Anne Rankin

    2005-04-01

    Equality is related to relationship success, yet few couples achieve it. In this qualitative study, we examine how couples with children in two time cohorts (1982 and 2001) moved toward equality. The analysis identifies three types of couples: Postgender, gender legacy, and traditional. Movement toward equality is facilitated by: (a) Stimulus for change, including awareness of gender, commitment to family and work, and situational pressures; and (b) patterns that promote change, including active negotiation, challenges to gender entitlement, development of new competencies, and mutual attention to relationship and family tasks. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:15974060

  14. The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same? Examining Gender Equality in Prior Achievement and Entry into STEM College Majors over Time

    PubMed Central

    King, Barbara; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the empirical basis for often-repeated arguments that gender differences in entrance into STEM majors are largely explained by disparities in prior achievement. Analyses use data from three national cohorts of college matriculates across three decades to consider differences across several indicators of high school math and science achievement at the mean and also at the top of the test distribution. Analyses also examine the different comparative advantages men and women enjoy in math/science vs. English/reading. Regardless of how prior achievement is measured, very little of the strong and persistent gender gap in physical science and engineering majors over time is explained. Findings highlight the limitations of theories focusing on gender differences in skills and suggest directions for future research. PMID:24371330

  15. Citizenship, Leisure and Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindström, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between gender, citizenship and leisure activities for youth. The purpose with the article is to describe, explore and discuss whether meeting places for youth such as youth clubs support their citizenship. Based on a case study of young people place, space and activities are explored and discussed from a…

  16. Gender Equality in Academia: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Hilary P. M.; Browning, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Gender equality in academia has been monitored in Australia for the past three decades so it is timely to reflect on what progress has been made, what works, and what challenges remain. When data were first published on the gender composition of staff in Australian universities in the mid-1980s women comprised 20 per cent of academic staff and…

  17. Gender Equality Policies and Higher Education Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Gender equality policies regulate the Swedish labour market, including higher education. This study analyses and discusses the career development of postgraduate students in the light of labour market influences. The principle of gender separation is used to understand these effects. Swedish register data encompassing information on 585…

  18. Reflections on Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Adult Basic Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    This article is about mainstreaming gender equality in adult basic learning and education (ABLE). Gender equality is defined as equal rights of both women and men to influence, participate in and benefit from a programme. It is argued that specific gender analyses of emerging patterns of gender relations is helpful in formulating gender equality…

  19. Equity, Equal Opportunities, Gender and Organization Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Hilary; Baume, Elaine

    The issues of equity, equal opportunities, gender, and organization performance in the health care sector worldwide was examined. Information was gathered from the available literature and from individuals in 17 countries. The analysis highlighted the facts that employment equity debates and policies refer largely to high-income countries and…

  20. Gender equality observations and actions by the European Research Council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydin, Claudia Alves de Jesus; Farina Busto, Luis; Penny, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Women have historically been underrepresented in science. Much positive progress in attracting women to research careers has been achieved in recent years; however, the most influential and high profile positions in most countries are still predominantly occupied by men. The European Research Council (ERC), Europe's premiere funding agency for frontier research, views gender equality as an important challenge. The ERC monitors closely gender figures on every call and has taken actions to tackle gender imbalances and potential unconscious biases. The ERC talk is focused on efforts made to understand and ensure equal treatment of all candidates, with particular focus on gender balance and with specific attention to geosciences. Data and statistics collected from ERC's internationally recognised funding schemes are presented.

  1. Gender equality and sustainable human development are key issues.

    PubMed

    Ando, H

    1995-01-01

    In a message to the Indochina Women's Parliamentarians Meeting, Hirofumi Ando, Deputy Executive Director of the United Nations Family Planning Association (UNFPA), encouraged participants to link gender equality and development issues. Ando noted that many of the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development imply recognition of the need to redress gender inequalities and empower women. The Program of Action adopted in Cairo requires countries to achieve universal access to primary education and reproductive health care services. Parliamentarians in attendance were urged to mobilize the financial resources and political will necessary to implement programs in these areas. PMID:12290525

  2. Conceptualising Gender Equality in Research on Education Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikman, Sheila; Halai, Anjum; Rubagiza, Jolly

    2011-01-01

    This article sets out to re-conceptualise gender equality in education quality. Four approaches to conceptualising gender equitable education quality are identified in the literature: human capital theory with a focus on parity and sameness for all; a human rights and power perspective, within which gender equality is viewed as transforming unjust…

  3. Gender (in)equality among employees in elder care: implications for health

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Gendered practices of working life create gender inequalities through horizontal and vertical gender segregation in work, which may lead to inequalities in health between women and men. Gender equality could therefore be a key element of health equity in working life. Our aim was to analyze what gender (in)equality means for the employees at a woman-dominated workplace and discuss possible implications for health experiences. Methods All caregiving staff at two workplaces in elder care within a municipality in the north of Sweden were invited to participate in the study. Forty-five employees participated, 38 women and 7 men. Seven focus group discussions were performed and led by a moderator. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the focus groups. Results We identified two themes. "Advocating gender equality in principle" showed how gender (in)equality was seen as a structural issue not connected to the individual health experiences. "Justifying inequality with individualism" showed how the caregivers focused on personalities and interests as a justification of gender inequalities in work division. The justification of gender inequality resulted in a gendered work division which may be related to health inequalities between women and men. Gender inequalities in work division were primarily understood in terms of personality and interests and not in terms of gender. Conclusion The health experience of the participants was affected by gender (in)equality in terms of a gendered work division. However, the participants did not see the gendered work division as a gender equality issue. Gender perspectives are needed to improve the health of the employees at the workplaces through shifting from individual to structural solutions. A healthy-setting approach considering gender relations is needed to achieve gender equality and fairness in health status between women and men. PMID:22217427

  4. Measuring Structural Gender Equality in Mexico: A State Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frias, Sonia M.

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to assess the level of gender equality across the 32 Mexican states. After reviewing conceptual and methodological issues related to previous measures of structural inequality I detail the logic and methodology involved in the construction of a composite and multidimensional measure of gender equality, at the…

  5. The Construction of Motherhood: Tasks, Relational Connection, and Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowdery, Randi S.; Knudson-Martin, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative analysis of 50 couples explored how gender equality is related to the construction of motherhood in their day-to-day interactions. Results identified two models of mothering: (a) mothering as a gendered talent and (b) mothering as conscious collaboration. The first model perpetuated gender inequality through a recursive…

  6. Promoting Gender Equality in Digital Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertl, Bernhard; Helling, Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with gender phenomena in the context of digital literacy. Studies show that computer use, computer skills, and computer-related self-concepts are subject to gender differences. These differences may affect classroom interactions as well as learning processes and have therefore to be considered carefully by teachers who apply…

  7. [Gender, equality, and health services access: an empirical approximation].

    PubMed

    Gómez Gómez, Elsa

    2002-01-01

    This piece describes the conceptual framework and the objectives that guided a research initiative in the Region of the Americas that was called "Gender, Equity, and Access to Health Services" and that was sponsored in 2001 by the Pan American Health Organization. The piece does not summarize the results of the six projects that were carried under the initiative, whose analyses have not all been completed. Instead, the piece discusses some of the foundations of the initiative and provides a general introduction to the country studies that were done. The six studies were done in Barbados/Jamaica, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The primary objective of the initiative was to stimulate the use of existing quantitative information in the countries, with the goal of starting a process of systematically documenting two things: 1) the unfair, unnecessary, and avoidable inequalities between men and women in their access to health care and 2) the linkages between those inequalities and other socioeconomic factors. The concept of gender equity that guided this examination of health care was not the usual one calling for the equal distribution of resources. Rather, it was the notion that resources should be allocated differentially, according to the particular needs of men and of women, and that persons should pay for health services according to their economic ability rather than their risk level. The starting point for the initiative was the premise that gender inequities in utilizing and paying for health care result from gender differences in the macroeconomic and microeconomic distribution of resources. The piece concludes that achieving equity in health care access will require a better understanding of the gender needs and gender barriers that are linked to social structures and health systems. PMID:12162830

  8. The Struggle for Gender Equality: How Men Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    Men's responses to women's demands for educational equality during three peak periods of activism for women's equality (mid-nineteenth century, turn of the century, and contemporary era) are examined for the insight they offer into the different issues and shifting arguments for and against gender equality in this and other arenas. (MSE)

  9. Towards gender equality in health in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Samar, Sima; Aqil, Anwer; Vogel, Joanna; Wentzel, Lora; Haqmal, Sharifullah; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Vuolo, Elena; Abaszadeh, Nigina

    2014-01-01

    The Afghanistan gender inequality index shows that 70% loss in development is due to the limited participation of women in the workforce, low education and poor women's health outcomes. However, since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2002, gender inequalities in health have improved. This paper will review factors that led to these improvements. The review draws upon information from various sources, including formative and applied research, surveys and existing information systems. The review showed gender differentials in morbidity, mortality and accessing and utilising health services. Health professionals have expressed inadequate medical knowledge and interpersonal skills to address sensitive issues, such as domestic, physical and sexual violence. Discussing sexuality and its impact on health remains taboo both within and outside of the medical profession. Strict cultural norms restrict a woman's autonomy to seek health care, choose a marriage partner and have control over her body, indicating a need to increase awareness about how harmful social practices adversely affect health. The policy review showed that the Ministry of Public Health has made a commitment to reducing gender inequity in health and developed a two-pronged action plan to improve health providers' skills in handling gender-sensitive issues and mass media campaigns to change social norms. PMID:25034914

  10. Patterns of gender equality at workplaces and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Elwér, Sofia; Harryson, Lisa; Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health

  11. Gender Equality in Science--Who Cares?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lewyn

    2002-04-01

    In this article, I address three questions: first, and most important, why scientists at all levels should care about gender equity in research; second, why there are so few women in science, from graduate school all the way to top-level research in academia and industry; and finally, what can be done to redress the imbalance. I argue that we should strive for gender equity because of a sense of justice, a desire to advance scientific knowledge, and a wish to improve the public image of science. I also make specific proposals that would make scientific research friendlier toward women, especially in graduate education.

  12. Leadership for Gender-Equal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Warna

    2001-01-01

    Research over 20 years indicates that teachers are more attentive to male students from preschool through high school. Gender-appropriate practices maximize learning opportunities for both sexes by ensuring ongoing, formative evaluations, respecting each individual's learning pace, providing mentors, and intervening positively when appropriate.…

  13. The Invisible Obstacle to Educational Equality: Gender Bias in Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Rae Lesser

    2008-01-01

    Gender bias in textbooks (GBIT) is a low-profile education issue, given the 72,000,000 children who still have no access to schooling, but this article argues that GBIT is: (1) an important, (2) near-universal, (3) remarkably uniform, (4) quite persistent but (5) virtually invisible obstacle on the road to gender equality in education--an obstacle…

  14. Gender Diversity in Planetary Volcanology: Encouraging Equality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, T. K.; Lopes, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    We have brought together a group of respected and well-known female planetary volcanologists to create a book designed to encourage young women to pursue scientific careers. The book, entitled "Volcanic Worlds: Exploring the Solar System's Volcanoes," published by Praxis, is written for undergraduates who may have no background in geology or planetary sciences. Each chapter covers a different Solar System body or volcanic process, and is authored by a woman who is an expert in her field. Subjects covered include: the relation of plate tectonics to volcanism on Earth; the study of Mars' volcanoes from space and using rovers; geysers on Neptune's moon Triton and on Earth; eruptions on Io; and studying submarine lava flows from a submarine. Each chapter is written in a comfortable, readily accessible tone, with authors presenting not only science, but also some of the unique challenges faced by women conducting volcanological research today-and how these are overcome. Although not intended to be a textbook, this work could easily form the basis of an undergraduate geology seminar, honors course, or as a valuable accessory to an introductory geology course. In addition, it could be used in courses that would be cross-listed between geology departments and sociology departments. We will present more information on the book, and suggestions of how it could be used in the classroom to enhance gender diversity in the Earth and Space Sciences.

  15. All Are Equal, but Some Are More Equal than Others: Managerialism and Gender Equality in Higher Education in Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teelken, Christine; Deem, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate what impact new regimes of management and governance, including new managerialism, have had on perceptions of gender equality at universities in three Western European countries. While in accordance with national laws and EU directives, contemporary current management approaches in universities…

  16. The European Gender Equality Index: Conceptual and Analytical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bericat, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a composite indicator designed to measure and compare existing structural gender equality in the countries of the European Union. The construction of an index is always a complex task which requires making a great many important conceptual, analytical and empirical decisions. This complexity explains the wide variety of…

  17. An Analysis of Citizenship and Democracy Education Text Book in the Context of Gender Equality and Determining Students' Perceptions on Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalayci, Nurdan; Hayirsever, Fahriye

    2014-01-01

    Gender equality has been explained as both the equal treatment of women and men before the law and women's and men's equal usage of resources, opportunities, and services within the family and society. Today, although the conditions that support gender inequality have relatively decreased, gender discrimination still persists. Gender…

  18. Teachers Negotiating Discourses of Gender (In) Equality: The Case of Equal Opportunities Reform in Andalusia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubero, Mercedes; Santamaría, Andrés; Rebollo, Mª Ángeles; Cubero, Rosario; García, Rafael; Vega, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    This article is focused on the analysis of the narratives produced by a group of teachers, experts in coeducation, while they were discussing their everyday activities. They are responsible for the implementation of a Plan for Gender Equality in public secondary schools in Andalusia (Spain). This study is based on contributions about doing gender…

  19. Cross-national variation in the size of sex differences in values: effects of gender equality.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Shalom H; Rubel-Lifschitz, Tammy

    2009-07-01

    How does gender equality relate to men's and women's value priorities? It is hypothesized that, for both sexes, the importance of benevolence, universalism, stimulation, hedonism, and self-direction values increases with greater gender equality, whereas the importance of power, achievement, security, and tradition values decreases. Of particular relevance to the present study, increased gender equality should also permit both sexes to pursue more freely the values they inherently care about more. Drawing on evolutionary and role theories, the authors postulate that women inherently value benevolence and universalism more than men do, whereas men inherently value power, achievement, and stimulation more than women do. Thus, as gender equality increases, sex differences in these values should increase, whereas sex differences in other values should not be affected by increases in gender equality. Studies of 25 representative national samples and of students from 68 countries confirmed the hypotheses except for tradition values. Implications for cross-cultural research on sex differences in values and traits are discussed. PMID:19586247

  20. Observations on gender equality in a UK Earth Sciences department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imber, Jonathan; Allen, Mark; Chamberlain, Katy; Foulger, Gillian; Gregory, Emma; Hoult, Jill; Macpherson, Colin; Winship, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    female staff fall at the extreme ends of this distribution. Recently appointed female staff achieved promotion within 3 years of first appointment, compared with up to 13 years for long-standing female colleagues. The reasons for this discrepancy are complex, but probably include changing attitudes towards gender equality issues, and greater awareness of conscious and unconscious biases against women. The Department's long term goal is fairness of opportunity for all, with a gender balance amongst academic staff that reflects the balance at postgraduate and postdoctoral levels. Our strategy is to attract greater numbers of high quality female applicants to academic positions, by making the application process more transparent, and by promoting positive cultural changes at all levels within the Department. As an example, we have recently introduced a mentoring scheme for postdoctoral staff, and plan to extend the scheme to academic staff. Nevertheless, we are conscious that achieving a representative gender balance amongst academic colleagues will take many years, based on historic staff turnover rates, and that lasting cultural change can be difficult to achieve.

  1. Gender Equality in Media Content and Operations: Articulating Academic Studies and Policy--A Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourenço, Mirta Edith

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Mirta Lourenço explains the prospects when higher education studies interface with UNESCO for policy change. The baseline is that education institutions' articulation with media organizations, media professionals, policy-makers, and civil society groups is essential to achieve gender equality in and through media.

  2. Recent Progress in Promoting Gender Equality for Japanese Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Setsuko; Nishitani-Gamo, Mikka

    2009-04-01

    The last three years have been an epoch-making period in promoting gender equality in the Japanese science community. Motivated by recommendations we made on the basis of a large-scale survey, the Japanese government started several projects in 2006 for supporting women scientists and attracting girls to science and technology. In spite of these efforts, we see only very slow increase in the number of women researchers in professional positions.

  3. Islamic politics and women's quest for gender equality in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hoodfar, Homa; Sadr, Shadi

    2010-01-01

    The unification of a strong and authoritarian state with religious laws and institutions after the 1979 revolution in Iran has resulted in the creation of a dualistic state structure in which non-elected and non-accountable state authorities and institutions-the majority of whom have not accepted either the primacy of democracy nor the premise of equality between men and women (or Muslims and non-Muslims)-are able to oversee the elected authorities and institutions. The central question posed by this paper is whether a religious state would be capable of democratising society and delivering gender equality. By analysing the regime's gender policies and political development, the paper suggests that, at least in the case of Iran and Shi'ism, the larger obstacle to gender (and minorities') equality has more to do with the undemocratic state-society relations that persist in Iran and less to do with the actual or potential compatibility (or lack thereof) of religious traditions or practices with democratic principles. PMID:20857567

  4. Attitude, Gender and Achievement in Computer Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baser, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the relationship among students' attitudes toward programming, gender and academic achievement in programming. The scale used for measuring students' attitudes toward programming was developed by the researcher and consisted of 35 five-point Likert type items in four subscales. The scale was administered to…

  5. Achieving equal pay for comparable worth through arbitration.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, S C

    1982-01-01

    Traditional "women's jobs" often pay relatively low wages because of the effects of institutionalized stereotypes concerning women and their role in the work place. One way of dealing with sex discrimination that results in job segregation is to narrow the existing wage differential between "men's jobs" and "women's jobs." Where the jobs are dissimilar on their face, this narrowing of pay differences involves implementing the concept of "equal pay for jobs of comparable worth." Some time in the future, far-reaching, perhaps even industrywide, reductions in male-female pay differentials may be achieved by pursuing legal remedies based on equal pay for comparable worth. However, as the author demonstrates, immediate, albeit more limited, relief for sex-based pay inequities found in specific work places can be obtained by implementing equal pay for jobs of comparable worth through the collective bargaining and arbitration processes. PMID:10257047

  6. Is achievement in Australian chemistry gender based?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, John; Fogliani, Charles; Owens, Chris; Wilson, Audrey

    1993-12-01

    This paper compares the performances of female and male secondary students in the 1991 and 1992 Australian National Chemistry Quizzes. Male students consistently achieved a higher mean score in all Year groups (7 to 12), even though the numbers of female and male entrants were approximately equal. Implications for class tests and assessment tasks are addressed.

  7. An elusive goal? Gender equity and gender equality in health policy.

    PubMed

    Payne, S

    2012-04-01

    Variations in the health of men and women are well known: men have poorer life expectancy than women in virtually every country, and there are differences between women and men in patterns of morbidity across the life course. These variations reflect both biology and gender, and health systems play a part through the services they offer. In recent years a number of national governments and international bodies have paid increasing attention to gender inequalities, and gender mainstreaming has been adopted by as a key policy objective at various levels of governance. While gender mainstreaming has resulted in some successes, analysis of the depth of change suggests a less optimistic view, reflecting the persistence of barriers to gender mainstreaming in health, which include a lack of resources, uncertainty over the goals of gender mainstreaming, and notional rather than genuine adoption of gender mainstreaming principles. Underlying these barriers however, is the use of bureaucratic and systems-based approaches to gender mainstreaming. The failure to challenge underlying gender relations of power allows gender strategies to become technocratic exercises which achieve results in terms of the boxes ticked, but not in relation to what matters: the health and health opportunities of both women and men. PMID:22508262

  8. Access or Inclusion? Conceptualisation and Operationalisation of Gender Equality in Zimbabwean State Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauraya, Efiritha

    2014-01-01

    This article explores concerns about gender inequality in Zimbabwean state universities. The researcher's interest arose from the realisation of persistent gender inequalities despite initiatives to close gender gaps. Of particular concern is the conceptualization and operationalisation of gender equality in institutions. Focusing only on the…

  9. A Scorecard on Gender Equality and Girls' Education in Asia, 1990-2000. Advocacy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine; Rajagopalan, Rajee; Challender, Chloe

    2005-01-01

    Background: Existing measures for access to and efficiency in the school system are very limited as measures of gender equality, even though there have been marked improvements in sex-disaggregated data. A methodology for developing a scorecard which measures gender equality in schooling and education partly based on Amartya Sen's capability…

  10. 3 CFR - Coordination of Policies and Programs To Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women and Girls...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Gender Equality and Empower Women and Girls Globally Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 30, 2013 Coordination of Policies and Programs To Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women and Girls Globally Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Promoting...

  11. Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship: Final Report to the MCM 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Gender equality is not just about economic empowerment. It is a moral imperative, it is about fairness and equity, and includes many political, social and cultural dimensions. Gender equality, however, is also a key factor in self-reported well-being and happiness across the world. In the aftermath of the Great Recession, there is now an urgent…

  12. Gender Equality, Pedagogy and Citizenship: Affirmative and Transformative Approaches in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnot, Madeleine

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between gender equality, pedagogy and citizenship. It locates the analysis of education within the gender dilemmas associated with liberal democratic citizenship. Of particular concern is the tension between the promotion of equality and difference. Nancy Fraser's distinctions between redistribution and…

  13. Securing Gender Equality through a Nexus of Energy Policy Performance and Relative Political Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins-Ozuagiemhe, Andrea Christen

    This dissertation presents what is believed to be the first empirical study that measures the effect of increasing access to modern household energy sources upon advancing gender equality within developing countries. As a powerful and fundamental public infrastructural socio-economic building block, improved access to modern energy in developing countries delivers the necessary economic ingredient of time as a major component of household production and consumption and captures the interdependence between market and household economies. Thus, because it has been empirically proven that men and women differ in their utilization of household energy with women spending more time engaged in non-market household labor than men, improving access to modern household energy in developing countries, especially in rural areas, theoretically would disproportionately affect women's lives. Essentially, the element of "time" not only extends the day for women to use towards more economically and educationally productive activities, but also lessens the burden of domestic chores from women with technological advancements in more time-efficient household appliances and cleaner modern energy sources. This dissertation introduces gender differentiation in a model in the form of a gender relative status composite measure comparing socio-economic achievements in secondary education, life expectancy, and labor force participation rates by varying degree of demographic transition, thereby, measuring the effect of improved access to modern household energy upon overall gender equality. Fixed effects panel regressions employing a Driscoll-Kraay non-parametric covariance matrix, and estimated and interpreted adjusted predictions and marginal effects of the two-way interaction between a country's available access to residential electric power (kWh per capita) and the level of relative political performance against predicted values of gender relative status are employed. The models confirm

  14. Self-reflection, gender and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoop, Kathleen A.

    Drawing on socio-cognitive learning theory, this study compared achievement scores of 134 male and female high school biology students randomly assigned to groups which either used self-reflection, used self-reflection and received feedback, or did not self-reflect. Following a pretest, the teacher provided self-reflection strategy instruction to students in the two intervention groups and then subsequently provided in-class self-reflection time for these groups. The posttest concluded the unit; the retention measure was five weeks later. A quasi-experimental 3 x 3 x 2 (time x intervention x gender) factorial repeated-measures control group design was used for this study; a repeated measures ANOVA and several one-way ANOVA's were used to answer the research questions. Results from the repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant results for Time and Time x Intervention, with the reflection group demonstrating significantly lower gains from pretest to posttest than the other two groups. The ANOVA examining differences between those who reflected and those who reflected and received feedback provided significant results with similar results for the difference between the control group and the reflection group. For teachers and students this study provides several areas of practical significance. Primarily, teachers may find lower student achievement if students regularly self-reflect but do not receive feedback for their reflection.

  15. Human Rights: Promoting Gender Equality in and through Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Duncan

    2004-01-01

    The Dakar Framework for Action represents the most important international political commitment towards promoting Education for All. The Framework contains two gender-based goals. In Article 7 (ii) the participants commit themselves to eliminating "gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005". The second commitment is to achieve…

  16. Evaluation of the FAIR Program: Teaching Gender Equality to Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Britney G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of the Fairness for All Individuals through Respect (FAIR) program on fifth grade students' understanding of gender as a diversity issue. In particular, this project examined the influence of this program on students' knowledge, self-identity, attitudes about gender roles, experiences of gender…

  17. The ABC of Gender Equality in Education: Aptitude, Behaviour, Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have made significant progress in narrowing or closing long-standing gender gaps in many areas of education and employment, including educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. But new gender gaps in education are opening. Young men…

  18. Developing an Equal Protection Standard for Gender Discrimination Cases--Where's the Rub?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Deborah E.

    1980-01-01

    The equal protection clause permits gender classification and discrimination and cannot support a broadening concept of sexual equality. An equal rights amendment is needed to remedy the situation. Available from Rutgers School of Law-Camden, 5th and Penn Streets, Camden, NJ 08102. (Author/IRT)

  19. Gifted Adolescent Females' Attitudes toward Gender Equality in Educational and Intergender Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Linda; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Gifted adolescent females (N=122) in a seminar on careers and intellectual opportunities for women were surveyed for attitudes toward gender equality. Although 75 percent of the sample strongly agreed that women should expect equality in professional and academic domains, belief in equality in dating, marriage, and etiquette was far more variable.…

  20. Workplace violence and gender discrimination in Rwanda's health workforce: Increasing safety and gender equality

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Workplace violence has been documented in all sectors, but female-dominated sectors such as health and social services are at particular risk. In 2007-2008, IntraHealth International assisted the Rwanda Ministries of Public Service and Labor and Health to study workplace violence in Rwanda's health sector. This article reexamines a set of study findings that directly relate to the influence of gender on workplace violence, synthesizes these findings with other research from Rwanda, and examines the subsequent impact of the study on Rwanda's policy environment. Methods Fifteen out of 30 districts were selected at random. Forty-four facilities at all levels were randomly selected in these districts. From these facilities, 297 health workers were selected at random, of whom 205 were women and 92 were men. Researchers used a utilization-focused approach and administered health worker survey, facility audits, key informant and health facility manager interviews and focus groups to collect data in 2007. After the study was disseminated in 2008, stakeholder recommendations were documented and three versions of the labor law were reviewed to assess study impact. Results Thirty-nine percent of health workers had experienced some form of workplace violence in year prior to the study. The study identified gender-related patterns of perpetration, victimization and reactions to violence. Negative stereotypes of women, discrimination based on pregnancy, maternity and family responsibilities and the 'glass ceiling' affected female health workers' experiences and career paths and contributed to a context of violence. Gender equality lowered the odds of health workers experiencing violence. Rwandan stakeholders used study results to formulate recommendations to address workplace violence gender discrimination through policy reform and programs. Conclusions Gender inequality influences workplace violence. Addressing gender discrimination and violence simultaneously should

  1. Achieving clinical equality in an influenza pandemic: patent realities.

    PubMed

    Kane, Eileen M

    2009-01-01

    pharmaceutical interventions. The national and international public health authorities are slowly integrating intellectual property considerations into pandemic planning. Further integration will anticipate the emergence of patent claims, identify any relevant patents, encourage access norms, and consider the use of legal mechanisms that could alleviate patent-mediated obstacles to the availability of critical products and methods that may be patented. Pandemic management must also co-exist with existing efforts to control seasonal influenza outbreaks. The article analyzes the intersection of patent nodes relevant to vaccine development and to antiviral distribution during a global influenza pandemic, identifying where such patents may facilitate or inhibit the availability of pharmaceutical countermeasures, and offers preliminary observations on the emerging novel H1N1 pandemic. The goal of international clinical equality is essential for the eradication of an influenza pandemic, and strategies for its achievement can also be applied to other diseases. PMID:20718133

  2. The Gender Confidence Gap in Fractions Knowledge: Gender Differences in Student Belief-Achievement Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that in many countries gender differences in mathematics achievement have virtually disappeared. Expectancy-value theory and social cognition theory both predict that if gender differences in achievement have declined there should be a similar decline in gender differences in self-beliefs. Extant literature is…

  3. Emancipation or Neo-Colonisation? Global Gender Mainstreaming Policies, Swedish Gender Equality Politics and Local Negotiations about Putting Gender into Education Reforms in the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silfver, Ann-Louise

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on gender mainstreaming policies post Beijing and their impact on development cooperation and relations between the Global North and Global South. The analysis is based on an examination of gender equality politics in Sweden, their connection with an interpretation of gender mainstreaming and the application of this approach…

  4. Gender equality is a human right. Empowerment, women and human rights, past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, R L

    1998-01-01

    This analysis opens by noting that the fact that women's equality is a human right is gaining universal acceptance and by outlining some of the major events that have marked recognition of the concept of human rights and women's rights. The analysis then considers the history of how humans have subsisted on earth in hunter-gatherer societies, horticultural (hoe-based, shifting cultivation) societies, agrarian (plow, permanent cultivation) societies, industrial societies, and information and technological societies. Next, a theory of gender stratification is applied to each situation to show how gender stratification depends upon who has control of economic resources (not who does the most work or even who legally owns the resources). Thus, women and men enjoy equality and cooperation to survive in foraging societies, men dominate in horticultural and agrarian societies, and women begin to regain ground in industrial societies. The analysis also takes into account macro- and micro-level "discount" factors that affect the amount of leverage a woman can get from money earned. The next section of the analysis deals with present conditions and notes that women can achieve equal rights via economic empowerment in combination with macro-level changes. This section also explains how "sexism kills" and considers the economic factors affecting violence against women. The article goes on to quantify progress to date, with a focus on women's gains in education, health, work and income, and political equality as well as slower gains in ratification of pertinent international treaties. The article concludes with an optimistic view of the future as the information age allows women to gain more power. PMID:12157792

  5. Gender Differences in Values and Their Impact on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglehart, Marita Rosch; Brown, Donald R.

    Gender differences in academic achievement of students in the medical school at the University of Michigan were investigated in this study. Observed achievement differences were attributed to gender differences in values which influence student motivation. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) that men place more importance on mastery-related issues,…

  6. Constructions of Malawian Boys and Girls on Gender and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwendo, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Gender differences in achievement have been widely documented and a number of feminists, particularly from the West, have used the concept of identity to explain them. This paper draws on constructions on gender and achievement generated through surveying 59 boys and 103 girls from four secondary schools, as well as interviewing 40 of the girls in…

  7. The gender gap in sport performance: equity influences equality.

    PubMed

    Capranica, Laura; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Halson, Shona; Myburgh, Kathryn H; Ogasawara, Etsuko; Millard-Stafford, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Sport is recognized as playing a relevant societal role to promote education, health, intercultural dialogue, and the individual development, regardless of an individual's gender, race, age, ability, religion, political affiliation, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic background. Yet, it was not until the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London that every country's delegation included a female competitor. The gender gap in sport, although closing, remains, due to biological differences affecting performance, but it is also influenced by reduced opportunity and sociopolitical factors that influence full female participation across a range of sports around the world. Until the cultural environment is equitable, scientific discussion related to physiological differences using methods that examine progression in male and female world-record performances is limited. This commentary is intended to provide a forum to discuss issues underlying gender differences in sport performance from a global perspective and acknowledge the influence of cultural and sociopolitical factors that continue to ultimately affect female performance. PMID:23302143

  8. Achieving Equality of Student Internet Access within Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Janet Ward; Davidson, Ann Locke

    One benefit often expected to flow from Internet use in schools is an increase in equality of educational opportunity as all kinds of schools gain access to the same extraordinary set of resources and opportunities for interaction with the outside world. Yet, prior research suggests that patterns of technology access often mirror existing…

  9. Sustaining advocacy and action on women's participation and gender equality in adult education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn; Bernhardt, Anna

    2011-08-01

    This article gives an overview of the development of gender equality and women's participation in adult learning and education in the history of the International Conferences on Adult Education (CONFINTEA). Though the equality of rights was highlighted throughout the various conferences, the first Global Report on Adult Learning and Education (GRALE) observed that a gender gap in the participation in adult learning and education still persisted in 2009. This is especially remarkable with regard to the impact of CONFINTEA V in 1997, because it focused on the issue of women's participation and gender equality. A review of the CONFINTEA VI programme elements and the national reports prepared by UNESCO Member States in 2008 reveals that gender issues have to some extent moved from the centre of attention to the periphery. This article therefore tries to explore how gender principles are acknowledged in CONFINTEA VI and its follow-up.

  10. Gender equality and women's absolute status: a test of the feminist models of rape.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kimberly; Vieraitis, Lynne M; Britto, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    Feminist theory predicts both a positive and negative relationship between gender equality and rape rates. Although liberal and radical feminist theory predicts that gender equality should ameliorate rape victimization, radical feminist theorists have argued that gender equality may increase rape in the form of male backlash. Alternatively, Marxist criminologists focus on women's absolute socioeconomic status rather than gender equality as a predictor of rape rates, whereas socialist feminists combine both radical and Marxist perspectives. This study uses factor analysis to overcome multicollinearity limitations of past studies while exploring the relationship between women's absolute and relative socioeconomic status on rape rates in major U.S. cities using 2000 census data. The findings indicate support for both the Marxist and radical feminist explanations of rape but no support for the ameliorative hypothesis. These findings support a more inclusive socialist feminist theory that takes both Marxist and radical feminist hypotheses into account. PMID:16567334

  11. Gender Equality in the Academy: The Pipeline Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Kristen Renwick; Chiu, William F.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the ongoing work by the Committee on the Status of Women in the Profession (CSWP), we offer an empirical analysis of the pipeline problem in academia. The image of a pipeline is a commonly advanced explanation for persistent discrimination that suggests that gender inequality will decline once there are sufficient numbers of qualified…

  12. Teaching to Ethnicity, Gender, and Race: The Quest for Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla, Carlos A., Ed.; Goss, Joyce, Ed.

    This book contains seven chapters, written by graduate students in teacher education, on educational strategies to promote multiculturalism and combat racial, ethnic, and gender bias in the classroom. Chapters are: (1) "Diversity and Multiculturalism: Quo Vadis? What Is Multiculturalism?" (Deborah Bradford Basey, Michelle Danner, Stacy Graham,…

  13. Equality and Illusion: Gender and Tenure in Art History Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Elizabeth; Morrison, Emory; Sadrozinski, Renate; Nerad, Maresi; Cerny, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Using a national survey of 508 art history Ph.D.s including data on graduate school performance and careers 10-15 years post-Ph.D., this study investigates gender, family, and academic tenure in art history, the humanities field with the highest proportion of women. Alternative hypotheses derived from three perspectives--termed here "clockwork,"…

  14. Cosmopolitanism, Global Social Justice and Gender Equality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    This article attempts to locate approaches to understanding gender, education and notions of the international within debates on global social justice and cosmopolitanism. It looks at the work of three feminist scholars (Martha Nussbaum, Onora O'Neill and Iris Young) on this theme, draws out some ways in which they engage critiques of…

  15. Attitudes to Gender Equality Issues in British and German Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Rosalind M. O.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a range of perceived similarities and differences between male and female academics in the context of contemporary European Union "gender mainstreaming" policy. It concentrates upon the higher education systems of Germany and the United Kingdom, and is based upon questionnaire responses. A large majority of respondents believe…

  16. Equity/Equality Issues of Gender, Race, and Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, Margaret

    1999-01-01

    Critiquing two "Handbook" chapters on gender and race, this article observes that equity concerns have given way to concerns with quality and excellence. Both chapters explore reasons behind lack of equity (for poor students of color and women in school administration) and criticize "liberal" solutions to social problems. (Contains 55 references.)…

  17. Gender Equality in Swedish Higher Education: Patterns and Shifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Leif; Riis, Ulla; Silander, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    In most European countries, more women than men attend undergraduate Higher Education (HE) and more women than men obtain degrees. In Sweden the proportion of female students has long been in the vicinity of 51-60%. The number of doctoral entrants and degrees meet a "balanced gender criterion," defined as no sex constituting more than 60% of the…

  18. Community Mobilisation, Gender Equality and Resource Mobilisation in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Komal; Patel, Ila

    2006-01-01

    Despite an overall improvement in the educational situation of girls and women in India, there are considerable gender inequalities in education. In the last decade, the Government of India introduced the campaign approach to tackle the problem of widespread illiteracy among women and other socio-economically disadvantaged groups in collaboration…

  19. Race and Gender: Equal Opportunities Policies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnot, Madeleine, Ed.

    This reader is one of four parts of the Open University (in the United Kingdom) Course E333, "Policy-making in Education." The ten articles included focus on the patterns of race and gender inequalities in British education, and the methods used by central and local government and educational institutions to address those inequalities. Articles…

  20. Gender Equality Matters: Empowering Women through Literacy Programmes. UIL Policy Brief 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The third in UIL's current series of policy briefs, titled "Gender equality matters: Empowering women through literacy programmes," offers research-informed analysis and action-oriented recommendations for local and national governments, providers of literacy programmes and educators on how to reduce the gender gap in adult literacy.…

  1. Shaping a Gender Equality Policy in Higher Education: Which Human Capabilities Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loots, Sonja; Walker, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    South African institutions still confront gendered inequalities, irrespective of transformative national policies, compounded by the absence of a national gender equality policy for higher education. We therefore explore the potential of the capabilities approach (CA) to inform policy formation and argue for the development of a policy for higher…

  2. Feminist Attitudes and Support for Gender Equality: Opinion Change in Women and Men, 1974-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolzendahl, Catherine I.; Myers, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines attitudes related to feminism and gender equality by evaluating the trends in, and determinants of, women and men's attitudes from 1974 to 1998. Past accounts suggest two clusters of explanations based on interests and exposure. Using these, we examine opinions on abortion, sexual behavior, public sphere gender roles, and…

  3. When Traditional Ethnic Culture Encounters Gender Equality: The Dilemma of Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shan-Hua

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the government of Taiwan has been actively promoting gender equality, the positive results of which are already apparent among the younger generation. This research examines the views of indigenous girls attending secondary school with respect to the gender divide in their traditional culture, whether or not they support the…

  4. Global Inequality, Capabilities, Social Justice: The Millennium Development Goal for Gender Equality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, E.

    2005-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for gender equality in education by 2005 has been criticised for its grandiose ambition, its failure to adequately conceptualise the nature of gender inequality or the diverse forms this takes, the inadequate policies developed to put the goal into practice and the limited measurements used for monitoring. The…

  5. Straight Roads and Winding Tracks: Swedish Educational Policy from a Gender Equality Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgqvist-Saltzman, Inga

    1992-01-01

    Discusses Swedish educational reforms, policies, and research. Considers whether Sweden's gender-equality goal supports research that develops more gender-sensitive methodologies and concepts to upgrade women's knowledge, experiences, and values. Sweden's goal of giving men and women the same responsibilities for work, parenthood, and civil duties…

  6. Equal but Different: Contradictions in the Development of Gender Identity in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volman, Monique; Ten Dam, Geert

    1998-01-01

    Interprets data from two studies in which girls and boys pondered their gender equality/inequality views. Argues that an understanding of the ambivalence in discourses on gender provides the key to the development of effective feminist strategies in education. Conveys the need for discussing and comprehending the present generation's definition of…

  7. Re/constructing Gendered Achievement Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Gaell

    This paper shows how gender, science, and assessment are all built on a fundamental set of dualistic concepts associated with masculine power and privilege. It also shows that a manageable change to curriculum, instruction, and assessment practices, moving from the conventional masculine paradigm of "quality" practice to a reconstructed…

  8. Gender Equality in SOCRATES. Final Report. SCRE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirrie, Anne; Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hamilton, Sheila

    SOCRATES is the European Community education action program. SOCRATES I began in 1995 and ended in 1999. SOCRATES II, begun in 2000, continues until December 31, 2006. This study sought to identify how both the principles and practices of equal opportunities between women and men were interpreted in a sample of 100 centralized and 113…

  9. Women in the Physical Sciences in Sweden: Do We Have True Gender Equality in a ``Gender-Neutral'' Country?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Stacey L.; Rachlew, Elisabeth; Wiesner, Karoline; Engblom, Pia Thorngren

    2005-10-01

    Sweden, together with the other Nordic countries, seems at first glance to offer an environment where women and men enjoy equal treatment at all levels of society. Governments proclaim policies invoking gender-neutral regulations and legal frameworks. Government-supported parental leave programs provide paid leave for both parents, the child-care system is well developed, women are represented at high levels in the government, and educational levels are high. Clearly, awareness of gender issues and openness in the classroom and workplace must be very high. Why, then, is the career pipeline for women in physics leaking so badly? Why are there so few women in high-level management positions in industry? How can salaries for women on all levels, not least within the public sector, be consistently lower than for their male counterparts? What factors are important and how can we influence the situation so that women receive their fair share of power and recognition for their achievements? We discuss some of these issues, and describe the present situation in Sweden.

  10. Sustaining Advocacy and Action on Women's Participation and Gender Equality in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn; Bernhardt, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the development of gender equality and women's participation in adult learning and education in the history of the International Conferences on Adult Education (CONFINTEA). Though the equality of rights was highlighted throughout the various conferences, the first Global Report on Adult Learning and Education…

  11. "Women Speak This Week": Promoting Gender Equality and Awareness in Class Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Richard A.; Kane, Catherine C.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a classroom exercise for increasing gender equality and awareness in class discussions by increasing female students' participation. Explains that only female students may speak during one week of the course. Argues that radical and feminist education must promote the equal empowerment of male and female students to talk and listen. (DK)

  12. Gender and Education for All: Progress and Problems in Achieving Gender Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisamya, Grace; DeJaeghere, Joan; Kendall, Nancy; Khan, Marufa Aziz

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores the effects of rapid increases in gender parity in primary schooling in Bangladesh and Malawi on gender inequities in schools and communities. Based on an analysis of comparative case studies of marginalized communities, we argue that educational initiatives focused on achieving gender parity provide limited evidence that girls'…

  13. Gender equality or patriarchal dividend: Structural change in Turkish nursing.

    PubMed

    Herdman, Elizabeth; Badir, Aysel

    2008-06-01

    Turkey is attempting to join the European Union and is facing pressure to eliminate many forms of discrimination, including discrimination based on gender. In keeping with these aims, in early 2007 the Turkish government changed the law to permit Turkish men to become nurses. Given that Turkey is a highly patriarchal society and that occupational segregation by sex is a persistent feature, it is important to examine the potential outcome of the legislative changes. The aim of this paper is to explore the paradoxical potential for Turkish female nurses to experience increased discrimination in a system that is restructured by legislation to be non-discriminatory. PMID:18466390

  14. Association of suicide rates for elderly age bands with gender equality.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit

    2008-06-01

    A lower sex ratio (male to female) of elderly suicide rates in several Asian countries have been attributed to gender inequality on several parameters. The association of two proxy measures of gender equality (value of the gender empowerment measure and the gender-related development index) and the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates in the age bands 65-74 yr. and 75+ yr. was examined using multiple linear regression. The two proxy measures of gender equality did not account for significant variance in the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates in the age bands 65-74 yr. and 75+ yr. Association of gender equality with the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates requires further clarification in both cross-sectional studies across different countries and longitudinal studies within individual countries for all age bands. Such studies should, in addition to the GEM and the GDI, include other measures of gender equality including sex differences in educational attainment, income, poverty, housing, employment, access to healthcare and social welfare services, and urbanisation. PMID:18763461

  15. IRIS, Gender, and Student Achievement at University of Genova

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonfa, Antonella; Freddano, Michela

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses the gender effects on student achievement at University of Genova and it is a part of the research performed by the University of Genova called "Benchmarks interfaculty students: Development of a gender perspective to find strategies to understand what leads students to success in their studies", financed by the Regional…

  16. "Brains before "Beauty"?" High Achieving Girls, School and Gender Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky; Read, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In recent years educational policy on gender and achievement has concentrated on boys' underachievement, frequently comparing it with the academic success of girls. This has encouraged a perception of girls as the "winners" of the educational stakes and assumes that they no longer experience the kinds of gender inequalities identified in earlier…

  17. Gender, Bourdieu, and the Anomaly of Women's Achievement Redux.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin

    2003-01-01

    Argues that focusing on gender differences in educational outcomes without considering race and social class obscures gender achievement relationships. Draws on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice for its insights into the ways that structure and human agency generate social behavior. Presents hypotheses to explain the anomaly of women's…

  18. Effects of Science Interest and Environmental Responsibility on Science Aspiration and Achievement: Gender Differences and Cultural Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Mei-Shiu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to investigate gender differences in the effects of science interest and environmental responsibility on science aspiration and achievement and (2) to explore the relations between cultural supports (macroeconomic and gender equality) and both boys' and girls' tendencies to integrate the aforementioned…

  19. Gender Differences in Kindergarteners' Robotics and Programming Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood is a critical period for introducing girls to traditionally masculine fields of science and technology before more extreme gender stereotypes surface in later years. This study looks at the TangibleK Robotics Program in order to determine whether kindergarten boys and girls were equally successful in a series of building and…

  20. Men’s attitudes on gender equality and their contraceptive use in Uttar Pradesh India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Men play crucial role in contraceptive decision-making, particularly in highly gender-stratified populations. Past research examined men’s attitudes toward fertility and contraception and the association with actual contraceptive practices. More research is needed on whether men’s attitudes on gender equality are associated with contraceptive behaviors; this is the objective of this study. Methods This study uses baseline data of the Measurement, Learning, and Evaluation (MLE) Project for the Urban Health Initiative in Uttar Pradesh, India. Data were collected from a representative sample of 6,431 currently married men in four cities of the state. Outcomes are current use of contraception and contraceptive method choice. Key independent variables are three gender measures: men’s attitudes toward gender equality, gender sensitive decision making, and restrictions on wife’s mobility. Multivariate analyses are used to identify the association between the gender measures and contraceptive use. Results Most men have high or moderate levels of gender sensitive decision-making, have low to moderate levels of restrictions on wife’s mobility, and have moderate to high levels of gender equitable attitudes in all four cities. Gender sensitive decision making and equitable attitudes show significant positive association and restrictions on wife’s mobility showed significant negative relationship with current contraceptive use. Conclusion The study demonstrates that contraceptive programs need to engage men and address gender equitable attitudes; this can be done through peer outreach (interpersonal communication) or via mass media. Engaging men to be more gender equal may have an influence beyond contraceptive use in contexts where men play a crucial role in household decision-making. PMID:24894376

  1. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being: Comparing Societies with Respect to Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…

  2. Gendered Habitus and Gender Differences in Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, Jason; Peter, Tracey; Roberts, Lance

    2014-01-01

    Bourdieu's theory of cultural and social reproduction posits that students' habitus--learned behavioural and perceptual dispositions rooted in family upbringing--is a formative influence on how they react to their educational environments, affecting academic practices and academic achievement. Although originally conceived as a…

  3. 76 FR 4193 - Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs-Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    .... Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs--Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity; Proposed... Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs--Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity AGENCY... orientation or gender identity. DATES: Comment Due Date: March 25, 2011. ADDRESSES: Interested persons...

  4. Everyday (in)equality at home: complex constructions of gender in South African families

    PubMed Central

    Helman, Rebecca; Ratele, Kopano

    2016-01-01

    Background High rates of violence and HIV have been documented within the South African context. Constructions of masculinity and femininity that position men as dominant and highly sexually active and women as subordinate and acquiescent have been found to contribute towards gender inequality. This inequality is in turn related to negative health consequences, specifically violence against women, children, and other men, as well as sexual risk. Within this context it becomes important to explore how problematic constructions of gender are being (re)produced and how these constructions are being challenged. Families have been identified as key sites in which gender is both constructed and enacted on a daily basis and it is within this space that children are first exposed to notions of gender. Objective This article draws from a study that was intended to expand on the limited understandings of the ways in which gender (in)equality is constructed and conveyed within the context of South African families on an everyday basis. Design Children and parents in 18 families from a range of different material and cultural backgrounds were interviewed about the meanings and practices of gender within their homes. Data were analysed using a Foucauldian discourse analysis. Results The data reveal how problematic constructions of masculinity and femininity are (re)produced but also challenged within a range of different families. Gender and gender (in)equality are therefore routinely accomplished in complex ways. Conclusions These findings have important implications for promoting gender equality and therefore for disrupting violence and sexual risk as gendered health issues. PMID:27293123

  5. Cultural Influences on Gifted Gender Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Joan

    2004-01-01

    In Britain, and reflected in other countries, the academic achievements of gifted girls in school are surpassing those of gifted boys in almost all areas of study and at all ages. This is not true in every country. The British evidence suggests two major reasons for this surge by the gifted girls. Emotionally, British girls are now showing greater…

  6. Achievement, Gender, and the Single-Sex/Coed Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harker, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Explores the gender differences in achievement in New Zealand secondary schools within English, mathematics, and science. Examines the achievement of girls in single-sex versus coeducational schools. Utilizes data from a longitudinal study of 37 schools and national-level data from the New Zealand Ministry of Education and the National…

  7. Classroom Environment, Achievement Goals and Maths Performance: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was assessed as…

  8. Gender Differences, Especially on Fifty College Board Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C.; Stumpf, Heinrich

    In a follow-up to findings published by H. Stumpf and J. Stanley (1996), the gender-related differences in enrollment in and scores on the College Board Achievement (SAT II) and Advanced Placement (AP) tests were studied. Differences in scores turned out to be rather stable from 1982 (for the Achievement tests) and 1984 (for the AP tests) through…

  9. Basotho Teachers' Constructions of Gender: Implications on Gender Equality in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morojele, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives prominence to rural teachers' own accounts of gender in three co-educational primary schools in Lesotho. The paper employs the social constructionist paradigm as its theoretical framework. Drawing from ethnographic data (observations and informal discussions), it discusses factors that inform teachers' constructions of gender and…

  10. Equality or Equity: Gender Awareness Issues in Secondary Schools in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halai, Anjum

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on gender awareness issues as a dimension of addressing the wider issue of the quality of education in Pakistan from the perspective of social justice. In Pakistan classrooms, boys and girls learn separately and therefore teachers and others tend to think that there are no gender issues once access is achieved and the learners…

  11. Gender and Achievement--Understanding Gender Differences and Similarities in Mathematics Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liru; Manon, Jon

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate overall patterns of gender differences and similarities of test performance in mathematics. To achieve that objective, observed test scores on the Delaware standards-based assessment were analyzed to examine: (1) gender differences and similarities across grades 3, 5, 8 and 10 over 2 years;…

  12. Gender and Sexuality: The Discursive Limits of "Equality" in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrish, Liz; Sauntson, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This special issue sets out to investigate a number of areas of concern, regarding gender and sexuality, which are identifiable in the current British higher education environment. We argue that current dominant "neoliberal" discourses, which emphasise the commodification of higher education in the U.K., function to set limits upon "equality".…

  13. Promoting Gender Equality at Work: Turning Vision into Reality for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Date-Bah, Eugenia, Ed.

    This document contains papers in which 12 experienced gender specialists examine the various developments and elements affecting women's participation as equal players in the workplace and propose actions and policies promoting sex equity in the workplace. The following papers are included: "Preface" (Mary Chinery-Hesse); "Introduction " (Eugenia…

  14. Essentialism Regarding Human Nature in the Defence of Gender Equality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holma, Katariina

    2007-01-01

    In this article I consider contemporary philosophical conceptions of human nature from the point of view of the ideal of gender equality. My main argument is that an essentialist account of human nature, unlike what I take to be its two main alternatives (the subjectivist account and the cultural account), is able coherently to justify the…

  15. Curriculum-Making in South Africa: Promoting Gender Equality and Empowering Women (?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmonds, Shan

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015) are clearly embedded in South Africa's education policy documents. However, they are not adequately infused into the curriculum. This article focuses specifically on the third Millennium Development Goal (MDG) - promoting gender equality and empowering women - and the need to place…

  16. Gender Equality or Primacy of the Mother? Ambivalent Descriptions of Good Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl-Littunen, Satu

    2007-01-01

    The ideology of gender equality is accepted as the norm in the Nordic countries. When asked to describe what they thought was required to be a good mother and a good father, Finnish informants (N = 387) showed uneasiness in describing good parents separately, however, often describing only a good mother. This article aims to explore the ambivalent…

  17. Creating a Shared Society in Northern Ireland: Why We Need to Focus on Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ann Marie; Neill, Gail

    2011-01-01

    International evidence has increasingly highlighted the necessity to understand the impact of conflict on the lives of girls and women and the importance of addressing gender equality as part of peace processes. This article argues that women, and especially young women, have been left out of much of the conflict discourse within Northern Ireland…

  18. Gender (In)equality in Internet Pornography: A Content Analysis of Popular Pornographic Internet Videos.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Marleen J E; Peter, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Although Internet pornography is widely consumed and researchers have started to investigate its effects, we still know little about its content. This has resulted in contrasting claims about whether Internet pornography depicts gender (in)equality and whether this depiction differs between amateur and professional pornography. We conducted a content analysis of three main dimensions of gender (in)equality (i.e., objectification, power, and violence) in 400 popular pornographic Internet videos from the most visited pornographic Web sites. Objectification was depicted more often for women through instrumentality, but men were more frequently objectified through dehumanization. Regarding power, men and women did not differ in social or professional status, but men were more often shown as dominant and women as submissive during sexual activities. Except for spanking and gagging, violence occurred rather infrequently. Nonconsensual sex was also relatively rare. Overall, amateur pornography contained more gender inequality at the expense of women than professional pornography did. PMID:25420868

  19. SFB 754 - Enhancing Gender Equality within a large interdisciplinary project: the example of the SFB 754

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamm, Ruth; Schelten, Christiane K.

    2016-04-01

    This poster is linked to the oral presentation by Dr. Christiane K. Schelten. One requirement of a successful application for funding under the DFGs Collaborative Research Centres (SFBs) programme is to integrate a strategy to increase the number of female principal investigators and to support younger women scientists in pursuing their academic career. The DGF provides a lump sum of 30.000 € per year for measures to promote women scientists, to raise awareness for gender imbalances and to create a family friendly working environment. The SFB 754 'Climate - Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean' based at Kiel University and the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research developed an innovative strategy to develop and implement new measures for more gender equality within the SFB 754 by building on existing expertise and structures. Together with the Cluster of Excellence 'The Future Ocean' (funded within the German Excellence Initiative), the SFB 754 finances the position of a coordinator for gender measures based at Kiel University's Central Office for Gender Equality, Diversity & Family. Due to this close cooperation of SFB 754 coordination and the university's gender office a successful framework for the SFB 754 gender equality activities has been developed. Measures taken are both integrated into the overall activities of the university, and tailored to the needs of women scientists in marine sciences in general, in the SFB 754 in particular. One outcome of this successful cooperation is, for example, the via:mento_ocean programme, the marine science focused line of the university's mentoring programme via:mento for female postdocs. But the SFB 754 also offers internal workshops and plenary presentations to raise gender awareness within the whole SFB 754 community and trainings to its female doctoral students and postdocs such as a very successful 'assertiveness and self-defence training'.

  20. Achieving Real Equality: A Work in Progress for LGBT Youth in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galan, Jose Ignacio Pichardo; Puras, Belen Molinuevo; Riley, Robin L.

    2009-01-01

    Although lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people have achieved a great level of legal equality in Spain, social equality is still to come, especially for adolescents. This article reports results from three different studies. The first, in 2005, using a multidisciplinary approach, confirmed that homophobia is present in secondary…

  1. Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born…

  2. Gender, Reasoning Ability, and Scholastic Achievement: A Multilevel Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Jorg-Tobias; Holling, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in scholastic achievement (school grades in sciences and languages) as mediated by reasoning ability in a large sample with a clustered data structure from an educational context. Whereas girls outperformed boys in languages, boys excelled in sciences and reasoning. Multilevel analyses indicated a…

  3. Gender Differences in School Achievement: A Within-Class Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Barneron, Meir; Kassim, Suhad

    2014-01-01

    Relying on the results of the achievement tests in mathematics, science, native language (Hebrew/Arabic) and English, administered to 1430 5th-grade co-educational classes in Israel, this study examines the between-class variability of the within-class mean score gender differences and its class and school correlates. The four main results of the…

  4. The "Renaissance Child": High Achievement and Gender in Late Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the concept of the "Renaissance Child" to illustrate the ways in which gender influences the opportunities and possibilities of high-achieving pupils. Using data from a study of 12-13-year high-achieving boys and girls based in schools in England, the paper considers the ways in which a group of popular boys was able to show an…

  5. Gender Balance in Teaching Debate: Tensions between Gender Theory and Equality Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Tett, Lyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on findings from a research project funded by the Scottish Executive which analysed the gender balance in teaching and explored the underlying reasons for the decline in the number and proportion of men, particularly in secondary schools. As in other developed countries, such as Australia, the USA and Canada, the proportion of men…

  6. 78 FR 7987 - Coordination of Policies and Programs To Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women and Girls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... 30, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-02569 Filed 2-1-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 4710-10 ... Programs To Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women and Girls Globally #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents... and Programs To Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women and Girls Globally Memorandum for the...

  7. Predicting Mathematics Achievement by Motivation and Self-Efficacy across Gender and Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartawi, AbdelAziz; Alsawaie, Othman N.; Dodeen, Hamzeh; Tibi, Sana; Alghazo, Iman M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which self-efficacy and motivation served as a predictor for mathematics achievement of fifth grade students in United Arab Emirates (UAE) across gender and achievement levels. Self-efficacy was measured by two scales, which differed in levels of specificity--Category Specific and Task Specific. Motivation was…

  8. Gender Equality in Education in the Context of the Millennium Development Goals: Challenges and Opportunities for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moletsane, Relebohile

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the question: In the context of poverty, gender-based violence (GBV) and HIV/AIDS currently ravaging under-resourced countries, dare we set our hopes for gender- equitable development in general, and gender equality in education in particular, on the Millenium Development Goals MDGs? The article analyses the…

  9. Activities for the Promotion of Gender Equality in Japan—Physical Society of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agui, Akane; Tanida, Kiyoshi; Torikai, Eiko

    2005-10-01

    The Gender Equality Promotion Committee of the Physical Society of Japan (JPS) was established as a result of the First International IUPAP Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, 2002). It is a gender-balanced team of 12 full members and a group of net-commentators. The former chairperson of the committee, Masako Bando, was selected to be the president of JPS between September 2006 and August 2007. Based on the survey on the present status of the gender equality and the research environment of the JPS members in 2001, JPS advanced two recommendations to the governmental authorities, academic institutes, and organizations: for flexible childcare supports and for improved research granting systems for post-doctoral fellows and part-time researchers in August 2003. Now these activities have become nationwide with the establishment in October 2002 of the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE). It has 44 member societies, including 19 observers, from various academic fields. An extended survey was carried out by EPMEWSE in November 2003; 20,000 respondents revealed diverse visions of scientists and engineers. These activities effectively help foster public understanding and awareness of the state of women in physics, especially among policy-making authorities. In 2005 the Cabinet is drawing up two Basic Plans for 2006-2010: the Science and Technology Basic Plan for the third term and the Basic Plan for the Gender-Equal Society for the second term. To attract girls into science and engineering, JPS is organizing the Girls Science Summer School to be held in August 2005 in collaboration with the National Women Education Center and EPMEWSE.

  10. Recent activities for the promotion of gender equality in the societies of physics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, H.; Sasao, M.; Nemoto, K.; Tamechika, E.; Watanabe, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Although the percentage of women members increases from 2% to 6% in the last 30 years, the ratio is still low in both the Physical Society of Japan and the Japan Society of Applied Physics. Recent activities for the promotion of gender equality in both societies, the development of the next generation of members, organizing international workshops and domestic symposiums, and so on, are introduced in this paper.

  11. Gender gaps in achievement and participation in multiple introductory biology classrooms.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Sarah L; Brownell, Sara E; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-01-01

    Although gender gaps have been a major concern in male-dominated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines such as physics and engineering, the numerical dominance of female students in biology has supported the assumption that gender disparities do not exist at the undergraduate level in life sciences. Using data from 23 large introductory biology classes for majors, we examine two measures of gender disparity in biology: academic achievement and participation in whole-class discussions. We found that females consistently underperform on exams compared with males with similar overall college grade point averages. In addition, although females on average represent 60% of the students in these courses, their voices make up less than 40% of those heard responding to instructor-posed questions to the class, one of the most common ways of engaging students in large lectures. Based on these data, we propose that, despite numerical dominance of females, gender disparities remain an issue in introductory biology classrooms. For student retention and achievement in biology to be truly merit based, we need to develop strategies to equalize the opportunities for students of different genders to practice the skills they need to excel. PMID:25185231

  12. Gender Gaps in Achievement and Participation in Multiple Introductory Biology Classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Sara E.; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-01-01

    Although gender gaps have been a major concern in male-dominated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines such as physics and engineering, the numerical dominance of female students in biology has supported the assumption that gender disparities do not exist at the undergraduate level in life sciences. Using data from 23 large introductory biology classes for majors, we examine two measures of gender disparity in biology: academic achievement and participation in whole-class discussions. We found that females consistently underperform on exams compared with males with similar overall college grade point averages. In addition, although females on average represent 60% of the students in these courses, their voices make up less than 40% of those heard responding to instructor-posed questions to the class, one of the most common ways of engaging students in large lectures. Based on these data, we propose that, despite numerical dominance of females, gender disparities remain an issue in introductory biology classrooms. For student retention and achievement in biology to be truly merit based, we need to develop strategies to equalize the opportunities for students of different genders to practice the skills they need to excel. PMID:25185231

  13. Macro-level gender equality and alcohol consumption: A multi-level analysis across U.S. States

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sarah C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Higher levels of women’s alcohol consumption have long been attributed to increases in gender equality. However, only limited research examines the relationship between gender equality and alcohol consumption. This study examined associations between five measures of state-level gender equality and five alcohol consumption measures in the United States. Survey data regarding men’s and women’s alcohol consumption from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were linked to state-level indicators of gender equality. Gender equality indicators included state-level women’s socioeconomic status, gender equality in socioeconomic status, reproductive rights, policies relating to violence against women, and women’s political participation. Alcohol consumption measures included past 30-day drinker status, drinking frequency, binge drinking, volume, and risky drinking. Other than drinker status, consumption is measured for drinkers only. Multi-level linear and logistic regression models adjusted for individual demographics as well as state-level income inequality, median income, and % Evangelical Protestant/Mormon. All gender equality indicators were positively associated with both women’s and men’s drinker status in models adjusting only for individual-level covariates; associations were not significant in models adjusting for other state-level characteristics. All other associations between gender equality and alcohol consumption were either negative or non-significant for both women and men in models adjusting for other state-level factors. Findings do not support the hypothesis that higher levels of gender equality are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption by women or by men. In fact, most significant findings suggest that higher levels of equality are associated with less alcohol consumption overall. PMID:22521679

  14. Educational and Gender Equality in Vocational Education. The Case of Commercial Education in Finland. Research Reports 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenstrom, Marja-Leena

    A study described social and gender equality in vocational education, particularly in commercial education, and in working life in Finland. It reflected on educational equality in Finland as a factor in the reforms of vocational education carried out in the 1980s and 1990s and on the link between educational equality/inequality and educational…

  15. Gender and Student Achievement in English Schools. CEE DP 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Stephen; McNally, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    In the UK, there is a marked gender gap in the educational attainment of boys and girls. At the end of compulsory education, 10 per cent fewer boys achieve 5 or more good GCSEs. This gap is by no means confined to GCSE. It is evident at all Key Stages. Furthermore, some indicators suggest that the gap has widened over time. In this paper, we…

  16. Gender Peer Effects in School: Does the Gender of School Peers Affect Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabezas, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses gender peer effects in education and their impact on student achievement in Chile. We address the topic from three different level of analysis: (a) whether the proportion of girls in a cohort influences students' educational outcomes (b) whether assignment to a classroom with a higher proportion of girls influences…

  17. Education Reform, Equal Opportunity and Educational Achievement: Do Trend Data Adequately Report Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoeppel, Robert C.; Brewer, Curtis A.

    2011-01-01

    Using Kentucky as a case study, the research described in this paper examines efforts to provide equality of educational opportunity. Standards based educational reform has produced myriad data on student achievement that are used by educators, policy analysts, legislators, and researchers to discern progress. This research makes use of multiple…

  18. Working through resistance in engaging boys and men towards gender equality and progressive masculinities.

    PubMed

    Ratele, Kopano

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, a focus on challenging and transforming dominant forms of masculinity and engaging boys and men towards gender equality and healthy masculinities has permeated South African social and health sciences and the humanities. This focus on men and boys has also been evident in intervention and activist work. However, the turn to boys, men and masculinities has not gone without resistance, contestation and contradictions. A range of localised and global realities has frustrated much of the enthusiasm for rapid, sweeping and concrete changes regarding gender justice and the making of progressive masculinities. Among the discursive and material forces that oppose work that engages boys and men are those to do with income-related issues, race and racism, cultural traditions and gender itself. Because of this, it is contended that engagement with boys and men needs to consider not only gender but also economic inequality, poverty and unemployment, divisions created by race, and struggles around tradition. This paper discusses these forces that undermine and counteract work with boys and men and how we might work through resistance in engaging with men and boys. PMID:26073936

  19. Working through resistance in engaging boys and men towards gender equality and progressive masculinities

    PubMed Central

    Ratele, Kopano

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, a focus on challenging and transforming dominant forms of masculinity and engaging boys and men towards gender equality and healthy masculinities has permeated South African social and health sciences and the humanities. This focus on men and boys has also been evident in intervention and activist work. However, the turn to boys, men and masculinities has not gone without resistance, contestation and contradictions. A range of localised and global realities has frustrated much of the enthusiasm for rapid, sweeping and concrete changes regarding gender justice and the making of progressive masculinities. Among the discursive and material forces that oppose work that engages boys and men are those to do with income-related issues, race and racism, cultural traditions and gender itself. Because of this, it is contended that engagement with boys and men needs to consider not only gender but also economic inequality, poverty and unemployment, divisions created by race, and struggles around tradition. This paper discusses these forces that undermine and counteract work with boys and men and how we might work through resistance in engaging with men and boys. PMID:26073936

  20. Between universal feminism and particular nationalism: politics, religion and gender (in)equality in Israel.

    PubMed

    Halperin-Kaddari, Ruth; Yadgar, Yaacov

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that one of the many "idiosyncrasies" of the Israeli case, namely Israel's continuing, violent conflict with its Arab neighbours, is of highly influential relevance to the issue of gender relations. Viewed by many Israeli Jews as a struggle for the very existence of the Jewish state, the Arab-Israeli conflict has overshadowed most other civil and social issues, rendering them "secondary" to the primary concern of securing the safe existence of the state. This has pushed such pressing issues as gender equality and women's rights aside, thus allowing for the perpetuation of discriminatory, sometimes rather repressive treatment of women in Israel. The most blatant expression of this is the turning of the struggle for civil marriage and divorce into a non-issue. Following a short introduction of the relevant political context, we discuss women's positivist and legal status, then conclude with an analysis of the women's movement, highlighting the emergence of religious feminism. PMID:20857568

  1. Gender Differences in Academic Achievement: Is Writing an Exception to the Gender Similarities Hypothesis?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Scheiber, Caroline; Hajovsky, Daniel B; Schwartz, Bryanna; Kaufman, Alan S

    2015-01-01

    The gender similarities hypothesis by J. S. Hyde ( 2005 ), based on large-scale reviews of studies, concludes that boys and girls are more alike than different on most psychological variables, including academic skills such as reading and math (J. S. Hyde, 2005 ). Writing is an academic skill that may be an exception. The authors investigated gender differences in academic achievement using a large, nationally stratified sample of children and adolescents ranging from ages 7-19 years (N = 2,027). Achievement data were from the conormed sample for the Kaufman intelligence and achievement tests. Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause, and multigroup mean and covariance structure models were used to test for mean differences. Girls had higher latent reading ability and higher scores on a test of math computation, but the effect sizes were consistent with the gender similarities hypothesis. Conversely, girls scored higher on spelling and written expression, with effect sizes inconsistent with the gender similarities hypothesis. The findings remained the same after controlling for cognitive ability. Girls outperform boys on tasks of writing. PMID:26135387

  2. Access to Gender-Sensitive Higher Education in Eastern and Central Europe: Reflections on the CEPES Project "Good Practice in Promoting Gender Equality in Higher Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunberg, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Summarizing the incomplete results of the United Nations Educational and Scientific Organization (UNESCO) program "Good Practice in Promoting Gender Equality in Higher Education," the author asks that any assessment of the progress made in the area of gender-sensitive education take regional specificities into account. The regional environment is…

  3. Gender equity and equality on Korean student scientists: A life history narrative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Changsoo

    Much research, including that by Koreans (e.g., Mo, 1999), agrees on two major points relating to the inequitable and unequal condition of women in the scientific community: (1) the fact that the under-representation of women in the scientific community has been taken for granted for years (e.g., Rathgeber, 1998), and (2) documenting women's lives has been largely excluded in women's studies (e.g., Sutton, 1998). The basis for the design of this study relates to the aforementioned observations. This study addresses two major research questions: how do social stereotypes exist in terms of gender equity and equality in the South Korean scientific and educational fields, and how do these stereotypes influence women and men's socializations, in terms of gender equity and equality, in the South Korean scientific and educational fields? To investigate the research questions, this qualitative study utilizes a life history narrative approach in examining various theoretical perspectives, such as critical theory, post-structuralism, and postmodernism. Through the participants' perceptions and experiences in the scientific community and in South Korean society, this study fords gendered stereotypes, practices, and socializations in school, family, and the scientific community. These findings demonstrate asymmetric gendered structures in South Korea. Moreover, with the comparison among male and female participants, this study shows how they perceive and experience differently in school, family, and the scientific community. This study attempts to understand the South Korean scientific community as represented by four student scientists through social structures. Education appears to function significantly as an hegemonic power in conveying legitimating ideologies. This process reproduces man-centered social structures, especially in the scientific community. This suggests that to emancipate women's under-representations in the scientific community, educational administrators

  4. Changing masculinities: land-use, family communication and prospects for working with older men towards gender equality in a livelihoods intervention.

    PubMed

    Jobson, Geoffrey

    2010-04-01

    Engaging men in work towards gender equality is a critical aspect of gender and development. However, there are few documented grassroots-level approaches to undertaking such work. This paper argues that context specific stresses on local constructions of masculinity, such as unemployment, poverty and high HIV prevalence, may provide useful entry points for work with men towards gender equality. While these stresses may act to undermine men's ability to 'achieve' the requirements of traditional constructions of masculinity, particularly the role of men as providers, they simultaneously create spaces for change. In this research, land-use provided a basis from which to engage with a group of older men (45-75 years) around a range of issues, including HIV and AIDS and health. Increases in levels of communication around HIV, household resources and health are used as indicative of the men's moves towards gender-equal behaviour. The paper argues that this was achieved by supporting positive aspects of traditional masculine identities, particularly the role of men as breadwinners, in a social and economic context where these roles are threatened or placed under pressure, while simultaneously working around 'sensitive' issues. PMID:19904648

  5. Gender differences in scholastic achievement: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Daniel; Voyer, Susan D

    2014-07-01

    A female advantage in school marks is a common finding in education research, and it extends to most course subjects (e.g., language, math, science), unlike what is found on achievement tests. However, questions remain concerning the quantification of these gender differences and the identification of relevant moderator variables. The present meta-analysis answered these questions by examining studies that included an evaluation of gender differences in teacher-assigned school marks in elementary, junior/middle, or high school or at the university level (both undergraduate and graduate). The final analysis was based on 502 effect sizes drawn from 369 samples. A multilevel approach to meta-analysis was used to handle the presence of nonindependent effect sizes in the overall sample. This method was complemented with an examination of results in separate subject matters with a mixed-effects meta-analytic model. A small but significant female advantage (mean d = 0.225, 95% CI [0.201, 0.249]) was demonstrated for the overall sample of effect sizes. Noteworthy findings were that the female advantage was largest for language courses (mean d = 0.374, 95% CI [0.316, 0.432]) and smallest for math courses (mean d = 0.069, 95% CI [0.014, 0.124]). Source of marks, nationality, racial composition of samples, and gender composition of samples were significant moderators of effect sizes. Finally, results showed that the magnitude of the female advantage was not affected by year of publication, thereby contradicting claims of a recent "boy crisis" in school achievement. The present meta-analysis demonstrated the presence of a stable female advantage in school marks while also identifying critical moderators. Implications for future educational and psychological research are discussed. PMID:24773502

  6. Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2013-12-01

    This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born females, and immigrant females on their scores on teacher-assigned grades in science and on the SAIP science literacy test, and across a range of dispositions, beliefs, and behaviors suggested in the literature as predictive of achievement in science. Study findings show that Canadian-born students, particularly boys, have higher performance in the science literacy test despite their lower achievement in the science classroom and the least investments of time in doing science homework. In contrast, immigrant female students demonstrate the highest academic effort and achievement in science courses which are not matched by similar results in the science literacy test. We discuss these results in relation to different socialization experiences with science and technology that limit female and immigrant students' abilities to transfer knowledge to new situations that have not been learned in the classroom.

  7. From motherhood penalties to husband premia: the new challenge for gender equality and family policy, lessons from Norway.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Trond; Penner, Andrew M; Høgsnes, Geir

    2014-03-01

    Given the key role that processes occurring in the family play in creating gender inequality, the family is a central focus of policies aimed at creating greater gender equality. We examine how family status affects the gender wage gap using longitudinal matched employer-employee data from Norway, 1979-96, a period with extensive expansion of family policies. The motherhood penalty dropped dramatically from 1979 to 1996. Among men the premia for marriage and fatherhood remained constant. In 1979, the gender wage gap was primarily due to the motherhood penalty, but by 1996 husband premia were more important than motherhood penalties. PMID:25097932

  8. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Mathematics between Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Fifth Grade Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathbone, A. Sue

    Possible gender differences in attitudes toward mathematics were studied between low-achieving and high-achieving fifth-grade students in selected elementary schools within a large, metropolitan area. The attitudes of pre-adolescent children at an intermediate grade level were assessed to determine the effects of rapidly emerging gender-related…

  9. Activities for the Promotion of Gender Equality in Japan—Japan Society of Applied Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodate, Kashiko; Tanaka, Kazuo

    2005-10-01

    Since 1946, the Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP) has strived to promote research and development in applied physics for benefits beyond national boundaries. Activities of JSAP involve multidisciplinary fields, from physics and engineering to life sciences. Of its 23,000 members, 48% are from industry, 29% from academia, and about 7% from semi-autonomous national research laboratories. Its large industrial membership is one of the distinctive features of JSAP. In preparation for the First IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, 2002), JSAP members took the first step under the strong leadership of then-JSAP President Toshio Goto, setting up the Committee for the Promotion Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Technology. Equality rather than women's advancement is highlighted to further development in science and technology. Attention is also paid to balancing the number of researchers from different age groups and affiliations. The committee has 22 members: 12 female and 10 male; 7 from corporations, 12 from universities, and 3 from semi-autonomous national research institutes. Its main activities are to organize symposia and meetings, conduct surveys among JSAP members, and provide child-care facilities at meetings and conferences. In 2002 the Japan Physics Society and the Chemical Society of Japan jointly created the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association for the Promotion of Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering. Membership has grown to 44 societies (of which 19 are observers) ranging from mathematics, information, and life sciences to civil engineering. Joint activities across sectors and empower the whole. The Gender Equality Bureau in the Cabinet Office recently launched a large-scale project called "Challenge Campaign" to encourage girls to major in natural science and engineering, which JSAP is co-sponsoring.

  10. Relationships between attitudes toward and achievement in science for rural middle school students: Patterns across gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattern, Nancy Page Garland

    Four causal models describing the relationships between attitudes and achievement have been proposed in the literature. The cross-effects, or reciprocal effects, model highlights the effects of prior attitudes on later achievement (over and above the effect of previous achievement) and of prior achievement on later attitudes (above the effect of previous attitudes). In the achievement predominant model, the effect of prior achievement on later attitudes is emphasized, controlling for the effect of previous attitudes. The effect of prior attitudes on later achievement, controlling for the effect of previous achievement, is emphasized in the attitudes predominant model. In the no cross-effects model there are no significant cross paths from prior attitudes to later achievement or from prior achievement to later attitudes. To determine the best-fitting model for rural seventh and eighth grade science girls and boys, the causal relationships over time between attitudes toward science and achievement in science were examined by gender using structural equation modeling. Data were collected in two waves, over one school year. A baseline measurement model was estimated in simultaneous two-group solutions and was a good fit to the data. Next, the four structural models were estimated and model fits compared. The three models nested within the structural cross-effects model showed significant decay of fit when compared to the fit of the cross-effects model. The cross-effects model was the best fit overall for middle school girls and boys. The cross-effects model was then tested for invariance across gender. There was significant decay of fit when model form, factor path loadings, and structural paths were constrained to be equal for girls and boys. Two structural paths, the path from prior achievement to later attitudes, and the path from prior attitudes to later attitudes, were the sources of gender non-invariance. Separate models were estimated for girls and boys, and the

  11. Gender, Student Motivation and Academic Achievement in a Midsized Wisconsin High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutzke, Steven Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated relationships among gender, academic motivation and achievement in a mid-sized Wisconsin high school. A questionnaire was developed that focused on perceived ability, achievement motives and achievement goals. Interviews with teachers focused on relationships among academic motivation and gender achievement.…

  12. Processing by equal-channel angular pressing: Potential for achieving superplasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Minoru; Nemoto, Minoru; Horita, Zenji; Langdon, T.G.

    2000-07-01

    Equal-channel angular (ECA) pressing is a processing procedure whereby a very severe plastic strain is imposed on a sample without any change in the cross-sectional dimensions of the material. This processing method leads to a substantial grain refinement, producing grains which are within the submicrometer or even the nanometer scale. This paper discusses the potential for using this method to prepare materials for superplasticity. The results demonstrate that it is possible to achieve superplastic deformation in selected materials subjected to ECA pressing and, in addition, there is the possibility of extending the superplastic region so that it occurs at very rapid strain rates.

  13. Effects of gender and role selection in cooperative learning groups on science inquiry achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affhalter, Maria Geralyn

    An action research project using science inquiry labs and cooperative learning groups examined the effects of same-gender and co-educational classrooms on science achievement and teacher-assigned or self-selected group roles on students' role preferences. Fifty-nine seventh grade students from a small rural school district participated in two inquiry labs in co-educational classrooms or in an all-female classroom, as determined by parents at the beginning of the academic year. Students were assigned to the same cooperative groups for the duration of the study. Pretests and posttests were administered for each inquiry-based science lab. Posttest assessments included questions for student reflection on role assignment and role preference. Instruction did not vary and a female science teacher taught all class sections. The same-gender classroom and co-ed classrooms produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Students' cooperative group roles, whether teacher-assigned or self-selected, produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Male and female students shared equally in favorable and unfavorable reactions to their group roles during the science inquiry labs. Reflections on the selection of the leader role revealed a need for females in co-ed groups to be "in charge". When reflecting on her favorite role of leader, one female student in a co-ed group stated, "I like to have people actually listen to me".

  14. Gender differences in learning physical science concepts: Does computer animation help equalize them?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacek, Laura Lee

    completely for men and women (there was less overlap between the genders for the other two treatments), and centered around slightly higher means, lending further support to the conclusion that animation helped equalize men's and women's learning. The most important conclusion identified in this research is that gender is an important variable experimental populations testing animation as a learning device. Averages indicated that both men and women prefer to work with animation over either static graphics or verbal instruction alone.

  15. Patterns of Change in U.S. Gender Achievement Gaps during Elementary and Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahle, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Research on gender achievement gaps shows they exist, and are largest in the tails of the distribution, starting as early as Kindergarten and persisting through eighth grade. In mathematics, studies find small average gender achievement gaps and larger systematically male-favoring gaps among the highest achieving students. This paper seeks to…

  16. What Can Alcohol Researchers Learn from Research about the Relationship Between Macro-Level Gender Equality and Violence against Women?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sarah C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This systematic review focuses on research about macro-level gender equality and violence against women (VAW) and identifies conceptually and theoretically driven hypotheses as well as lessons relevant for alcohol research. Hypotheses include: amelioration—increased equality decreases VAW; backlash—increased equality increases VAW; and convergence—increased equality reduces the gender gap; and hypotheses that distinguish between relative and absolute status, with relative status comparing men's and women's status and absolute status measuring women's status without regard to men. Methods: Systematic review of studies published through June 2009 identified through PubMed and Web of Science, as well as citing and cited articles. Results: A total of 30 studies are included. Of 85 findings examining amelioration/backlash, 25% support amelioration, 22% backlash; and 53% are null. Of 13 findings examining convergence, 31% support and 23% are inconsistent with convergence; 46% are null. Conclusion: Neither the existence nor the direction of the equality and VAW relationship can be assumed. This suggests that the relationship between macro-level gender equality and alcohol should also not be assumed, but rather investigated through research. PMID:21239417

  17. Single-Parent Families: The Role of Parent's and Child's Gender on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Kushner, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Using national survey data, the present study investigated whether adolescents living with parents of their same gender fare better on academic achievement than their peers living with opposite-gender parents. Multiple analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) procedures were employed to examine the effects of the children's gender in single-father and…

  18. Gender Segregation in Higher Education: Effects of Aspirations, Mathematics Achievement, and Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kenneth L; Boldizar, Janet P.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the relationships among mathematics achievement levels, income potential, high school aspirations, and the gender segregation of bachelor's degrees. Investigates how gender segregation changed between 1973 and 1983. Concludes that gender segregation is present at the high school and bachelor's levels. Maintains that psychological barriers…

  19. Responding to the Gender and Education Millennium Development Goals in South Africa and Kenya: Reflections on Education Rights, Gender Equality, Capabilities and Global Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine; North, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores understandings of gender equality and education and the nature of global goal and target setting, drawing on empirical data collected in central and local government departments in Kenya and South Africa reflecting on their implementation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1, concerned with poverty, MDG 2, concerned with…

  20. Can Gender Differences in Educational Performance of 15-Year-Old Migrant Pupils Be Explained by Societal Gender Equality in Origin and Destination Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronkers, Jaap; Kornder, Nils

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to explain the differences between reading and math scores of migrants' children (8430 daughters and 8526 sons) in 17 OECD destination countries, coming from 45 origin countries or regions, using PISA 2009 data. In addition to the societal gender equality levels of the origin and destination countries (the gender…

  1. Recent activities of the physical society of Japan and the Japan society of applied physics gender equality promotion committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaki, K.; Okiharu, F.; Tajima, S.; Takayama, H.; Watanabe, M. O.

    2013-03-01

    The results of a 2007 large-scale survey of gender equality in scientific and technological professions in Japan are reported. The activities of two Japanese physics societies in the three years since the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics was held in 2008 are reported.

  2. Superfluorescent fiber source achieving multisignal power equalization in distributed fiber Bragg grating sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying-Gang; Jia, Zhen-An; Qiao, Xue-Guang; Wang, Hong-Liang; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Shi-Chao

    2011-12-01

    In order to achieve multisignal power equalization in a quasidistributed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing system, an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) superfluorescent source with high flatness and broadband spectrum is presented using a three-stage double-pump configuration. The spectral protrusions in the vicinity of 1532 and 1570 nm are flattened, which is achieved by designing a gain flattening filter with a long-period grating. The result shows that the flatness of the output spectrum covering the C and L band, from 1526.52 to 1607.87 nm, is less than 0.76 dBm. The 3 dB bandwidth is 75.68 nm, and the output power of 13.11 mW is achieved in the C and L band. By using the fiber amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source in FBG sensing system for decreasing multisignals peak power variation, the standard deviation of multisignals peak power is decreased to 1.00 dBm. In a multiplexed FBG sensing system, the high flattening fiber ASE source is beneficial to long-distance transmission, amplification, recognition, and demodulation of FBG sensing signals.

  3. Making non-discrimination and equal opportunity a reality in Kenya's health provider education system: results of a gender analysis.

    PubMed

    Newman, Constance; Kimeu, Anastasiah; Shamblin, Leigh; Penders, Christopher; McQuide, Pamela A; Bwonya, Judith

    2011-01-01

    IntraHealth International's USAID-funded Capacity Kenya project conducted a performance needs assessment of the Kenya health provider education system in 2010. Various stakeholders shared their understandings of the role played by gender and identified opportunities to improve gender equality in health provider education. Findings suggest that occupational segregation, sexual harassment and discrimination based on pregnancy and family responsibilities present problems, especially for female students and faculty. To grow and sustain its workforce over the long term, Kenyan human resource leaders and managers must act to eliminate gender-based obstacles by implementing existing non-discrimination and equal opportunity policies and laws to increase the entry, retention and productivity of students and faculty. Families and communities must support girls' schooling and defer early marriage. All this will result in a fuller pool of students, faculty and matriculated health workers and, ultimately, a more robust health workforce to meet Kenya's health challenges. PMID:22543441

  4. Gender equality in orthodontic literature and leadership in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dragstrem, Kristina G; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Lee, Damian J; Sukotjo, Cortino; Galang, Maria Therese

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate gender equality in orthodontics by reviewing the authorship in three orthodontic journals in addition to the involvement of women in leadership roles within orthodontic organizations and academia in the United States. Three journals representing orthodontics were selected to analyze the author demographics for the years 1986, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2008. Inclusion criteria were at least one first or last author with a dental degree whose primary affiliation was in the United States. Female leadership was assessed in three orthodontic organizations as well as orthodontic program directorship. Overall, the percentage of female first authors increased significantly from 0% to 18% in the years studied (P = .004). The change of the percentage of female last authors was not statistically significant (P = .719). The participation of women in leadership roles within orthodontic organizations and in orthodontic program director positions has been limited. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that women are underrepresented in orthodontic authorship and leadership. PMID:22567630

  5. Health with equality: a proposal for the incorporation of the gender perspective in health care systems.

    PubMed

    Panisello, Maria Luisa; Pastor, Inma

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the incorporation of the gender perspective in health care-related policies. Based on the recommendations of international organizations, the importance of the incorporation of the gender concept in the health field is analyzed, in order to design health policies that seeking to redress existing inequalities by virtue of sex/gender. This paper presents an analysis of the published guidelines in order to facilitate the incorporation of the gender perspective in health care systems. The article concludes with a proposal of gender-sensitive health indicators that can ensure the gender perspective in health care policies. PMID:26017957

  6. Gender equality and education: Increasing the uptake of HIV testing among married women in Kenya, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kavita; Luseno, Winnie; Haney, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Gender equality and education are being promoted as strategies to combat the HIV epidemic in Africa, but few studies have looked at the role of gender equality and education in the uptake of a vital service - HIV testing. This study looks at the associations between education (a key input needed for gender equality) and key gender equality measures (financial decision making and attitudes toward violence) with ever tested for HIV and tested for HIV in the past year. The study focused on currently married women ages between15-24 and 25-34 in three countries - Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The data came from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Logistic regression was used to study the role of gender equality and education on the HIV testing outcomes after controlling for both social and biological factors. Results indicated that education had a consistent positive relationship with testing for both age groups, and the associations were always significant for young women aged 15-24 years (p<0.01). The belief that gender-based violence is unacceptable was positively associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in all the three countries, although the associations were only significant in Kenya (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.58, p<0.00; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.34, p<0.05) and Zambia (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.24, p<0.10; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.29, p<0.05). High financial decision making was associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in Zimbabwe only (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.66, p<0.01). Overall, the findings indicate that the education and the promotion of gender equality are important strategies for increasing uptake of a vital HIV service, and thus are important tools for protecting girls and young women against HIV. PMID:23438082

  7. Gender Difference in Integrated Science Achievement among Pre Service Teachers in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afuwape, Moses O.; Oludipe, Daniel I.

    2008-01-01

    The Integrated science achievement of graduating pre-service teachers over a period of 3 years was examined for gender differences. Data were drawn from students' (126 male and 127 female) final year results from a college of education in Nigeria. Findings revealed that the gender gap in integrated science achievement, among the sample data, could…

  8. Gender Differences in Achievement in a Large, Nationally Representative Sample of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiber, Caroline; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Hajovsky, Daniel B.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate developmental gender differences in academic achievement areas, with the primary focus on writing, using the child and adolescent portion (ages 6-21 years) of the "Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Second Edition, Brief Form," norming sample (N = 1,574). Path analytic models with gender,…

  9. Relationships between Gender and Alberta Achievement Test Scores during a Four-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Gregory A.; Wentzel, Carolyn; Braden, Brigitta; Anderson, Jordan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate statistical relationships between gender and Alberta Achievement Testing Program scores. Achievement test scores from grades 3, 6, and 9 in all subject areas were investigated during a four-year period. Results showed statistically significant positive correlations between gender and scores in most…

  10. Are Boys Left Behind? The Evolution of the Gender Achievement Gap in Beijing's Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Using one cohort of 7235 middle school students in Beijing, China, we examined the evolution of the gender achievement gap in middle school. Our study found a more significant female dominance than in U.S. studies: even though boys gradually caught up during middle school, especially in Math and Science, and the gender achievement gap decreased…

  11. The Dutch Gender Gap in Mathematics: Small for Achievement, Substantial for Beliefs and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meelissen, Martina; Luyten, Hans

    2008-01-01

    In general, studies on gender and mathematics show that the advantage held by boys over girls in mathematics achievement has diminished markedly over the last 40 years. Some researchers even argue that gender differences in mathematics achievement are no longer a relevant issue. However, the results of the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study…

  12. Test Format and the Variation of Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates the existence of gender achievement gaps and the variation in the magnitude of these gaps across states. This paper characterizes the extent to which the variation of gender achievement gaps on standardized tests across the United States can be explained by differing state accountability test formats. A comprehensive…

  13. The Impact of Single-Gender Classrooms on Student Achievement in Seventh Grade Math Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Antwon M.

    2009-01-01

    A mathematics achievement gap exists between males and females. The measurement of achievement was compared between single-gender and traditional classroom students in the 7th grade to assess whether or not a single-gender environment affected their scores. The Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) state assessment served as the data collection…

  14. Achievement and Behaviour in Undergraduate Mathematics: Personality Is a Better Predictor than Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, Lara; Attridge, Nina; Kenny, Steven; Inglis, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We investigated two factors that predict students' achievement and behaviour in undergraduate mathematics: gender and personality. We found that gender predicted students' achievement and behaviour when considered in isolation, but ceased to be predictive when personality profiles were taken into account. Furthermore, personality accounted for…

  15. Relationships between Gender, Socioeconomic Status, Math Attitudes, and Math Achievement: An International Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerr, Sunny R.

    2012-01-01

    The relationships between gender, math attitude, and math achievement have traditionally been studied within individual countries, despite the existence of large international data sets available for analysis. This dissertation investigated the relationships between gender, math attitude, and math achievement based on information from 50…

  16. Steps towards equal gender representation: TANDEMplusIDEA - an international mentoring and personal development scheme for female scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefli, Bettina; Breuer, Elke

    2010-05-01

    TANDEMplusIDEA was a European mentoring programme conducted by the technical universities RWTH Aachen, Imperial College London, ETH Zurich and TU Delft between 2007 and 2010 to achieve more gender equality in science. Given the continuing underrepresentation of women in science and technology and the well-known structural and systematic disadvantages in male-dominated scientific cultures, the main goal of this programme was to promote excellent female scientists through a high-level professional and personal development programme. Based on the mentoring concept of the RWTH Aachen, TANDEMplusIDEA was the first mentoring programme for female scientists realized in international cooperation. As a pilot scheme funded by the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission, the scientific evaluation was an essential part of the programme, in particular in view of the development of a best practice model for international mentoring. The participants of this programme were female scientists at an early stage of their academic career (postdoc or assistant professor) covering a wide range of science disciplines, including geosciences. This transdisciplinarity as well as the international dimension of the programme have been identified by the participants as one of the keys of success of the programme. In particular, the peer-mentoring across discipline boarders proved to have been an invaluable component of the development programme. This presentation will highlight some of the main findings of the scientific evaluation of the programme and focus on some additional personal insights from the participants.

  17. Yellow fever disease: density equalizing mapping and gender analysis of international research output

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of scientific papers on yellow fever have been published but no broad scientometric analysis on the published research of yellow fever has been reported. The aim of the article based study was to provide an in-depth evaluation of the yellow fever field using large-scale data analysis and employment of bibliometric indicators of production and quantity. Methods Data were retrieved from the Web of Science database (WoS) and analyzed as part of the NewQis platform. Then data were extracted from each file, transferred to databases and visualized as diagrams. Partially by means of density-equalizing mapping makes the findings clear and emphasizes the output of the analysis. Results In the study period from 1900 to 2012 a total of 5,053 yellow fever-associated items were published by 79 countries. The United States (USA) having the highest publication rate at 42% (n = 751) followed by far from Brazil (n = 203), France (n = 149) and the United Kingdom (n = 113). The most productive journals are the “Public Health Reports”, the “American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene” and the “Journal of Virology”. The gender analysis showed an overall steady increase of female authorship from 1950 to 2011. Brazil is the only country of the five most productive countries with a higher proportion of female scientists. Conclusions The present data shows an increase in research productivity over the entire study period, in particular an increase of female scientists. Brazil shows a majority of female authors, a fact that is confirmed by other studies. PMID:24245856

  18. Achieving Gender Equity in Middle School Science Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Suzie E.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how a 7th grade science teacher creates an equal learning environment for both female and male students. Explains how to personalize classroom structure, create a cooperative learning environment, and provide diverse role models. (YDS)

  19. Effects of Single-Gender Middle School Classes on Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Tanisha

    Many girls continue to achieve below their male counterparts and portray negative attitudes towards science classes. Some school districts are using single-gender education as a way to shrink the gender gap in school achievement and science related attitude. The purpose of this study was to compare achievement and science-related attitudes of 7th grade girls in single-gender education to 7th grade girls in mixed-gender education. The theoretical base for this study included knowledge from brain-based learning and assimilation, accommodation and age factors of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. The 12-week study included 48 7th grade girls, 21 in the single-gender classroom and 14 in each mixed-gender classroom. This quantitative randomized posttest only control group design utilized the TerraNova Science Assessment and the Test of Science Related Attitudes. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine if significant differences existed in the achievement and attitudes of girls in single and mixed-gender science classes. ANOVA analyses revealed that the girls in the single-gender classroom showed a significantly higher achievement level when compared to girls in the mixed-gender classrooms. Results showed no significant difference in attitude between the two groups. The results of this study contribute to social change by raising awareness about gender issues in science achievement and attitude, addressing a deficiency in the single-gender science education literature, and assisting educational systems in decision making to address achievement gaps while moving toward adequate yearly progress and meeting the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.

  20. Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Differences of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire across Gender and Age in a Sample of Spanish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; Castejon, Juan L.; Nunez, Jose Carlos; Valle, Antonio; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Delgado, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of scores on the Spanish version of the "Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire" (AGTQ) across gender and age groups in 2022 Spanish students (51.1% boys) in grades 7 through 10. The equality of factor structures was compared using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses.…

  1. School Context and the Gender Gap in Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legewie, Joscha; DiPrete, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Today, boys generally underperform relative to girls in schools throughout the industrialized world. Building on theories about gender identity and reports from prior ethnographic classroom observations, we argue that school environment channels conceptions of masculinity in peer culture, fostering or inhibiting boys' development of anti-school…

  2. Achieving the Best: Gender and the Literacy Hour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Helen

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 30 British elementary children investigated the relationship between reading and gender and attitudes towards the literacy hour. Findings indicate boys wanted shorter time spans of learning activities, preferred independent work, and liked computer work. Both sexes liked working in small groups and disliked sharing their work…

  3. Different, Not Better: Gender Differences in Mathematics Learning and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Eugene A.; King, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the assessment data, literature and research on gender differences in mathematics. The question of whether boys are better at mathematics has been an issue in education for the past 5 years. The assumption is that there is a biological difference between boys and girls that make boys predisposed to do better in mathematics.…

  4. Correlates of gender and achievement in introductory algebra based physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Rachel Clara

    The field of physics is heavily male dominated in America. Thus, half of the population of our country is underrepresented and underserved. The identification of factors that contribute to gender disparity in physics is necessary for educators to address the individual needs of students, and, in particular, the separate and specific needs of female students. In an effort to determine if any correlations could be established or strengthened between sex, gender identity, social network, algebra skill, scientific reasoning ability, and/or student attitude, a study was performed on a group of 82 students in an introductory algebra based physics course. The subjects each filled out a survey at the beginning of the semester of their first semester of algebra based physics. They filled out another survey at the end of that same semester. These surveys included physics content pretests and posttests, as well as questions about the students' habits, attitudes, and social networks. Correlates of posttest score were identified, in order of significance, as pretest score, emphasis on conceptual learning, preference for male friends, number of siblings (negatively correlated), motivation in physics, algebra score, and parents' combined education level. Number of siblings was also found to negatively correlate with, in order of significance, gender identity, preference for male friends, emphasis on conceptual learning, and motivation in physics. Preference for male friends was found to correlate with, in order of significance, emphasis on conceptual learning, gender identity, and algebra score. Also, gender identity was found to correlate with emphasis on conceptual learning, the strongest predictor of posttest score other than pretest score.

  5. Could gender equality in parental leave harm off-springs' mental health? a registry study of the Swedish parental/child cohort of 1988/89

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Mental ill-health among children and young adults is a growing public health problem and research into causes involves consideration of family life and gender practice. This study aimed at exploring the association between parents' degree of gender equality in childcare and children's mental ill-health. Methods The population consisted of Swedish parents and their firstborn child in 1988-1989 (N = 118 595 family units) and the statistical method was multiple logistic regression. Gender equality of childcare was indicated by the division of parental leave (1988-1990), and child mental ill-health was indicated by outpatient mental care (2001-2006) and drug prescription (2005-2008), for anxiety and depression. Results The overall finding was that boys with gender traditional parents (mother dominance in childcare) have lower risk of depression measured by outpatient mental care than boys with gender-equal parents, while girls with gender traditional and gender untraditional parents (father dominance in childcare) have lower risk of anxiety measured by drug prescription than girls with gender-equal parents. Conclusions This study suggests that unequal parenting regarding early childcare, whether traditional or untraditional, is more beneficial for offspring's mental health than equal parenting. However, further research is required to confirm our findings and to explore the pathways through which increased gender equality may influence child health. PMID:22463683

  6. The Different Worlds of Academia: A Horizontal Analysis of Gender Equality in Swedish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silander, Charlotte; Haake, Ulrika; Lindberg, Leif

    2013-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in advanced positions in higher education in Europe. This study takes a horizontal perspective and focuses on the relationship between gender and discipline in order to combine research on gender in higher education with theories of disciplinary differences in academic cultures. The study points out substantial…

  7. Women, Gender and Work: What Is Equality and How Do We Get There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loutfi, Martha Fetherolf, Ed.

    This anthology contains 22 articles published in the "International Labor Review" between 1996-2000 on many dimensions of women, gender, and work. Part I is an introduction called "Women, Gender, and Work--An Overview" (Martha F. Loutfi), sets the framework in terms of the value of work, rights, and goals. Part II on concepts and values, has these…

  8. Science and Technology in the Early Years. An Equal Opportunities Approach. Gender and Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Naima, Ed.

    During the early 1980s there was a lack of research regarding gender issues for early childhood and elementary education. This document attempts to fill this chasm by addressing gender issues in science and technology for primary education schooling and early-years education. The following chapters are included: (1) "Science and Technology in the…

  9. Together and Equal: Fostering Cooperative Play and Promoting Gender Equity in Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlank, Carol Hilgartner; Metzger, Barbara

    Noting the need to promote gender equity and foster cooperative play between boys and girls in early childhood programs, this guide presents ways that teachers and parents of young children can help all children realize their potential, regardless of gender, and help children learn to work and play together. Chapter 1, "Teaching for Change,"…

  10. Care for Sick Children as a Proxy for Gender Equality in the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Rickard; Nermo, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Swedish parents are entitled to government paid benefits to take care of sick children. In this paper we show that the gender distribution of paid care for sick children is a good proxy for the gender division of household work. Using two examples we show that registry data on care for sick children is a useful data source for studies on gender…

  11. "We Understand Better Because We Have Been Mothers": Teaching, Maternalism, and Gender Equality in Bolivian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Julie A.; Miller, Amy Chasteen

    2014-01-01

    This article explores Bolivian schoolteachers' attitudes and practices surrounding gender in the context of a national educational reform law that mandated gender equity. Teacher interviews and primary school classroom observations indicate teachers' discourses and practices reflect a sometimes paradoxical blend of advocacy for gender…

  12. Achieving equal opportunity in NASA: An assessment of needs and recommendations for action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Measures designed by NASA to improve its equal opportunity program are reported. Attempts made to increase the ratios and level of placement of women and minority men in the work force were emphasized, upward mobility for those employees already in the work force was also studied. Ways for improving the track record for NASA's equal opportunity profile are recommended.

  13. A Professor Like Me: The Influence of Instructor Gender on College Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, Florian; Oreopoulos, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Many wonder whether teacher gender plays an important role in higher education by influencing student achievement and subject interest. The data used in this paper help identify average effects from male and female college students assigned to male or female teachers. We find instructor gender plays only a minor role in determining college student…

  14. Using the LASSI to Predict First Year College Achievement: Is a Gender-Specific Approach Necessary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, David S.; Garner, Joanna K.

    2010-01-01

    LASSI responses were combined with SAT and GPA information from 342 first year college students to examine relationships between study habits, motivation, gender and achievement. Gender pervasively influenced the results. Despite lower SAT scores, females attained higher first year college GPAs. LASSI [Learning and Study Skills Inventory]…

  15. The Effect of Single Gender Instruction on Eighth Grade Students' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, David Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the research study, this investigator utilized a non-experimental, causal-comparative design (ex post facto) with archival data to determine the real impact single gender instruction had on eighth grade students' mathematics achievement. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively analyze the benefits of single gender mathematics…

  16. Achievement Goal Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Gender Invariance in a Sample of Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Jing; Bai, Yu; He, Yini; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Ling, Yu; Smith, Hannah; Huebner, E. Scott

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the gender invariance of the Chinese version of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-C) utilizing a sample of 1,115 Chinese university students. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis supported the configural, metric, and scalar invariance of the AGQ-C across genders. Analyses also revealed that the latent…

  17. Do Birth Order, Family Size and Gender Affect Arithmetic Achievement in Elementary School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desoete, Annemie

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: For decades birth order and gender differences have attracted research attention. Method: Birth order, family size and gender, and the relationship with arithmetic achievement is studied among 1152 elementary school children (540 girls, 612 boys) in Flanders. Children were matched on socioeconomic status of the parents and…

  18. Gender Disparity Analysis in Academic Achievement at Higher Education Preparatory Schools: Case of South Wollo, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshetu, Amogne Asfaw

    2015-01-01

    Gender is among the determinant factors affecting students' academic achievement. This paper tried to investigate the impact of gender on academic performance of preparatory secondary school students based on 2014 EHEECE result. Ex post facto research design was used. To that end, data were collected from 3243 students from eight purposively…

  19. The Effects of Single Gender Education on Sixth through Eighth Grade Female Student Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Deanna Sherrise

    Currently, students in the United States are educated in either single or mixed gender learning environments. An achievement gap between male and female students in the area of science indicates a need for instructional strategies and environments that will address these learning needs. Single gender classrooms are one possible solution as males and females have gender differences that may contribute to the way they learn. This quantitative, causal comparative study compared the differences in the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards science achievement scores of middle school females in single and mixed gender environments in a state in the Southeastern United States. Independent samples t tests, Chi-Square Tests, and two-way ANOVA analyses determined if group differences in science achievement existed between sixth through eighth grade female students in single and mixed gender classrooms. Results of the study revealed there was no significant difference in achievement scores between the two groups. The research findings provide the stakeholders with information that can potentially influence the implementation of single gender programs to improve the achievement of female students in middle grades science. Keywords: single gender, science, female students, education

  20. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F. -Sophie; Spinath, Frank M.; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students’ academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development. PMID:26347698

  1. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F-Sophie; Spinath, Frank M; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development. PMID:26347698

  2. Gender and Science Achievement: A Reanalysis of Studies from Two Meta-Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Betsy Jane

    1989-01-01

    Data from 30 studies involving gender differences related to science achievement were synthesized using analyses of effect sizes and vote-counting estimation procedures. Reports that males showed advantages in biology, general science, and physics. (Author/YP)

  3. "One Equal Music": An Exploration of Gender Perceptions and the Fair Assessment by Beginning Music Teachers of Musical Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Previous research in education has investigated the relationship between gender and perceptions of musicality, suggesting that teachers' assessments of boys' and girls' achievements in music are different and unequal. This empirical study attempts to explore that relationship in more detail, building on research from the late 1990s, by asking…

  4. Unequal depression for equal work? How the wage gap explains gendered disparities in mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Platt, Jonathan; Prins, Seth; Bates, Lisa; Keyes, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are more prevalent among women than men. This disparity may be partially due to the effects of structural gender discrimination in the work force, which acts to perpetuate gender differences in opportunities and resources and may manifest as the gender wage gap. We sought to quantify and operationalize the wage gap in order to explain the gender disparity in depression and anxiety disorders, using data from a 2001-2002 US nationally representative survey of 22,581 working adults ages 30-65. Using established Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition methods to account for gender differences in individual-level productivity, our models reduced the wage gap in our sample by 13.5%, from 54% of men's pay to 67.5% of men's pay. We created a propensity-score matched sample of productivity indicators to test if the direction of the wage gap moderated the effects of gender on depression or anxiety. Where female income was less than the matched male counterpart, odds of both disorders were significantly higher among women versus men (major depressive disorder OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.95-3.04; generalized anxiety disorder OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 2.80-6.02). Where female income was greater than the matched male, the higher odds ratios for women for both disorders were significantly attenuated (Major Depressive Disorder OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.96-1.52) (Generalized Anxiety Disorder OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.04-2.29). The test for effect modification by sex and wage gap direction was statistically significant for both disorders. Structural forms of discrimination may explain mental health disparities at the population level. Beyond prohibiting overt gender discrimination, policies must be created to address embedded inequalities in procedures surrounding labor markets and compensation in the workplace. PMID:26689629

  5. An alternative way to achieve Kepler's laws of equal areas and ellipses for the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiang, W. Y.; Chang, H. C.; Yao, H.; Chen, P. J.

    2011-09-01

    Kepler's laws of planetary motion are acknowledged as highly significant to the construction of universal gravitation. This paper demonstrates different ways to derive the law of equal areas for the Earth by general geometrical and trigonometric methods, which are much simpler than the original derivation depicted by Kepler. The established law of equal area for the Earth was applied to analyse the angular velocity or the reciprocal of the distance—for the Earth's orbit around the Sun—and can be defined as a periodic function by analysing the available data, which help explain the law of ellipses for the Earth.

  6. Performance-based alternative assessments as a means of eliminating gender achievement differences on science tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Norman Merrill

    1998-09-01

    Historically, researchers have reported an achievement difference between females and males on standardized science tests. These differences have been reported to be based upon science knowledge, abstract reasoning skills, mathematical abilities, and cultural and social phenomena. This research was designed to determine how mastery of specific science content from public school curricula might be evaluated with performance-based assessment models, without producing gender achievement differences. The assessment instruments used were Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement's GOALSsp°ler: A Performance-Based Measure of Achievement and the performance-based portion of the Stanford Achievement Testspcopyright, Ninth Edition. The identified independent variables were test, gender, ethnicity, and grade level. A 2 x 2 x 6 x 12 (test x gender x ethnicity x grade) factorial experimental design was used to organize the data. A stratified random sample (N = 2400) was selected from a national pool of norming data: N = 1200 from the GOALSsp°ler group and N = 1200 from the SAT9spcopyright group. The ANOVA analysis yielded mixed results. The factors of test, gender, ethnicity by grade, gender by grade, and gender by grade by ethnicity failed to produce significant results (alpha = 0.05). The factors yielding significant results were ethnicity, grade, and ethnicity by grade. Therefore, no significant differences were found between female and male achievement on these performance-based assessments.

  7. An Alternative Way to Achieve Kepler's Laws of Equal Areas and Ellipses for the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiang, W. Y.; Chang, H. C.; Yao, H.; Chen, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Kepler's laws of planetary motion are acknowledged as highly significant to the construction of universal gravitation. This paper demonstrates different ways to derive the law of equal areas for the Earth by general geometrical and trigonometric methods, which are much simpler than the original derivation depicted by Kepler. The established law of…

  8. Are All "Adolescent Econometricians" Created Equal? Racial, Class, and Gender Differences in College Enrollment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beattie, Irenee R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines whether economic conditions similarly influence the college enrollment of adolescents from different groups. Indicates effects of income returns varies systematically by race, class, gender, and cognitive skills. Argues that college enrollment of white males from lower socioeconomic origins with lower cognitive skills is most consistent…

  9. Two Careers/One Family. The Promise of Gender Equality. Sage Series on Close Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino

    This book describes the frontier of close relationships, where traditional gender roles are being reevaluated in light of what is both functional and optimal for persons in dual-career partnerships. Because social environments are crucial to understanding personal relationships and individual behavior, the three chapters in part 1 describe the…

  10. Relational Harmony: A New Model of Collectivism and Gender Equality among Chinese American Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quek, Karen Mui-Teng; Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Rue, Deborah; Alabiso, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Social harmony is a valued relational rule in collectivism. Using data from in-depth interviews with 20 Chinese American couples, the authors study how husbands and wives interpret and negotiate marital harmony within a multicultural context and how gender relates to this process. Although all participants appear to seek harmony, the result…

  11. Discussing Gender Roles and Equality by Reading "Max: The Stubborn Little Wolf"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, Gilberto P.; Leija, María G.

    2014-01-01

    In the beginning of this article, the authors share the story of Mr. Paredes, a fourth grade teacher in a bilingual classroom, who explains his approach in selecting particular pieces of children's literature that address gender roles and equity. His hope, he states, is that the students will be able to identify the stereotype and challenge…

  12. Gender Equality for a New Generation: Expect Male Involvement in ECE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piburn, Donald E.

    2006-01-01

    The world is in the midst of societal shifts in gender role expectations. In many societies, traditional norms of woman as nurturer/caregiver and man as provider/disciplinarian are yielding to new social practices where women and men are expected to fulfill a full range of adult roles and responsibilities. The clearest evidence of this change lies…

  13. Gender Equality and Girls' Education: Investigating Frameworks, Disjunctures and Meanings of Quality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikman, Sheila; Rao, Nitya

    2012-01-01

    The article draws on qualitative educational research across a diversity of low-income countries to examine the gendered inequalities in education as complex, multi-faceted and situated rather than a series of barriers to be overcome through linear input-output processes focused on isolated dimensions of quality. It argues that frameworks for…

  14. Pedagogical Discourses of Gender, Peace, and Equality: Jane Addams Children's Book Awards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a feminist critical discourse analysis research project of award-winning books of the Jane Addams Peace Association. Children's books carry societal messages that are gendered, raced, and classed, with award-winning books carrying an additional message of exceptionality as they are viewed as deserving of attention.…

  15. Do Mothers in Rural China Practice Gender Equality in Educational Aspirations for Their Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuping; Kao, Grace; Hannum, Emily

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on a poor rural area in northwestern China and investigates whether the gender attitudes of mothers can be linked to their plans for educating their own children in the future. Using recent longitudinal data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families (GSCF), a survey of rural 9-12-year-old children, families,…

  16. Gender Equality and Outsourcing of Domestic Work, Childbearing, and Relationship Stability among British Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Pia S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether gender inequality in the division of housework and child care may be an obstacle to childbearing and relationship stability among different groups of British couples. Furthermore, it explores whether outsourcing of domestic labor ameliorates any negative effects of domestic work inequality. The empirical…

  17. Gender Balance Analysis of the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, 1978 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Marjane; Beck, Michael D.

    The 1978 edition of the Metropolitan Achievement Tests was analyzed for sex stereotyping and for the use of male, female, or neuter references and a comparison was made with the 1970 edition. There was less bias in the new edition, and there was relatively little sex stereotyping with respect to occupations, activities, and roles for females.…

  18. Gender Issues in Action Research: Implications for Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiskanen, Tuula

    2006-01-01

    Gender equality is a widely recognized value. Still, on the practical level, it is not easy to achieve true gender equality. Gender has proved to be a complicated issue both for research and practice. Gender change projects trying to make changes in detected disadvantages have repeatedly run into a problem: it is difficult to put gender issues on…

  19. Successful Girls? Complicating Post-Feminist, Neoliberal Discourses of Educational Achievement and Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringrose, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how an ongoing educational panic over failing boys has contributed to a new celebratory discourse about successful girls. Rather than conceive of this shift as an anti-feminist feminist backlash, the paper examines how the successful girl discourse is postfeminist, and how liberal feminist theory has contributed to narrowly…

  20. The impact of single-gender classrooms on science achievement of middle school gifted girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulkins, David S.

    Studies indicate a gap in science achievement and positive attitudes towards science between gifted male and female students with females performing less than the males. This study investigated the impact of a single-gender classroom environment as opposed to a mixed-gender classroom, on motivation, locus of control, self-concept, and science achievement of middle school gifted girls. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), Review of Personal Effectiveness with Locus of Control (ROPELOC), Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA), and Stanford Achievement Test 10th Edition, were used to measure the dependent variables respectively. The independent-measure t test was used to compare the differences between girls in a single-gender classroom with the ones in a mixed-gender classroom. A significant difference in the external locus of control resulted for girls in the single gender classroom. However, there were no significant differences found in science achievement, motivation, and the attitudes toward science between the two groups. The implication is that a single-gender learning environment and the use of differentiated teaching strategies can help lessen the negative effects of societal stereotypes in today's classrooms. These, along with being cognizant of the differences in learning styles of girls and their male counterparts, will result in a greater level of success for gifted females in the area of science education.

  1. The Effect of Gender on the Achievement of Students in Biology Using the Jigsaw Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amedu, Odagboyi Isaiah

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined the effect of gender on the achievement of students in biology using the jigsaw method. The sample was made up of 87 students in SS1 in a secondary school. The study utilized an intact class because the study took place in a normal school term. There were 39 males and 49 females. The Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was…

  2. Gender and Ethnicity Differences Manifested in Chemistry Achievement and Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Hong, Lee Hooi; Lee, Seung Chun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether gender and ethnicity differences are manifested in chemistry achievement and self-regulated learning among a matriculation programme students in Malaysia. The result of students' midterm chemistry exam was used as the measure of chemistry achievement. The information of self-regulated learning was…

  3. Effects of Attractiveness and Gender on the Perception of Achievement-Related Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, R. C.; Allred, L. J.; Grossnickle, W. F.; Lee, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the effects of physical attractiveness and gender on perceptions of academic success, achievement-related traits, intelligence, initiative, and attributions of ability and effort in relation to academic success. Finds that being perceived as physically attractive created positive impressions of achievement-related traits for men but…

  4. Gender and High School Chemistry: Student Perceptions on Achievement in a Selective Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Andrew; Mills, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on research undertaken in a middle-class Australian school. The focus of the research was on the relationship between gender and students' engagement with high school chemistry. Achievement data from many OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] countries suggest that middle-class girls are achieving equally…

  5. Understanding Science Achievement Gaps by Race/Ethnicity and Gender in Kindergarten and First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, F. Chris; Kellogg, Ann T.

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in science achievement across race and gender have been well documented in secondary and postsecondary school; however, the science achievement gap in the early years of elementary school remains understudied. We present findings from the recently released Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011 that…

  6. The Relationship of Gender and Achievement to Future Outlook among African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honora, Detris T.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the connection between future outlook and school achievement among low-income, urban African American adolescents. Findings suggest gender and achievement differences in adolescents' goals and expectations. Highlights the importance of understanding the historical and cultural contexts that may shape adolescents' perceptions of the…

  7. Students' Achievement in Human Circulatory System Unit: The Effect of Reasoning Ability and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effect of gender and reasoning ability on the human circulatory system concepts achievement and attitude toward biology. Reports a statistically significant mean difference between concrete and formal students with regard to achievement and attitude toward biology. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/YDS)

  8. Different Gender Students' Participation in the High- and Low-achieving Middle School Questioning-orientated Biology Classrooms in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Hsiao-Ching

    2001-02-01

    This case study investigated gender-based differences in classroom participation through examining teacher-student interactions between a female biology teacher and two groups of middle school students, namely high achievers and low achievers. The female teacher used a questioning-orientated instructional strategy as her major teaching style which creates greater opportunities for student participation in biology learning. Classroom sessions were videotaped for one school year, then analysed for gender differences in question-and-answer patterns. The results showed that more teacher-initiated questions, teacher-directed interactions, and teacher feedback were given to males than females in both groups, but a large difference was found between the two groups of students. Girls in the low-achieving biology class (LABC) were more likely to participate at a rate comparable with their male classmates; girls answered more procedure questions and an equal percentage of process questions, called out approximately the same percentage of answers to undirected teacher-initiated questions, and received more instances of praise and follow-up questions. Contrary to what was observed in the high-achieving biology class (HABC), LABC girls initiated more questions than LABC boys.

  9. A double standard for "Hooking Up": How far have we come toward gender equality?

    PubMed

    Allison, Rachel; Risman, Barbara J

    2013-09-01

    While sexual attitudes have liberalized in the past half century, research is mixed as to whether attitudes have become less gendered over time. Recent studies on college students' sexual and romantic relationships suggest that a sexual double standard continues to organize sexuality on many campuses. Data from the Online College Social Life Survey shed light on students' evaluation of casual sex, or "hooking up." In addition to exploring gendered attitudinal patterns, we use gender structure theory to explore how individual characteristics and normative expectations of campus group affiliations shape attitudes. While three quarters of students do not hold different standards for men and women's hooking up, attitudes are more conservative than liberal, with almost half of students losing respect for men and women who hook up "a lot." However, men are more likely to hold a traditional double standard, while women are more likely to espouse egalitarian conservative attitudes. Individual characteristics, including age, religion, race, social class and sexual orientation are frequently related to sexual attitudes, as are number of hook ups, fraternity/sorority affiliation and varsity athletic participation. PMID:23859725

  10. Boys Meet Girls' Rights: Bolivian Adolescent Males' Claims of Commitment to Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervais, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study exploring the effects of community-based human rights and pro-equality education on Bolivian adolescent boys. By privileging the boys' own voices, the study examines how the boys' sense of solidarity toward others, derived from the citizenship duties and collegiality emphasised in non-governmental…

  11. Gender Differences and Public Sector Managers: Women's Perceptions of Equality in State Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcraft, Carol; Williams, M. Lee

    A study assessed the equality of women managers in 11 of the largest state agencies in Texas. It also investigated the perceptions of men and women managers concerning a variety of work related issues in Texas state government. A stratified random sample of 25 percent of all managers was drawn, and 1,844 responses, representing a 55.5% response…

  12. Internet use and academic achievement: gender differences in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Yen; Fu, Yang-Chih

    2009-01-01

    As a new medium of learning readily connected with the outside world, the Internet has brought unprecedented opportunities to students on the one hand, while becoming a major concern for parents on the other. For parents and educators alike, it is thus critical to stipulate whether and how Internet use is linked to academic achievement. Using panel survey data from middle-school students in northern Taiwan (N = 1,409), this study examines how patterns of Internet use in the 8th grade affect students' performance on their high school entrance exam a year later. The findings confirm that online searching for information helps boost exam scores, while using the Internet for socializing and gaming, as well as going to Internet Cafés, contributes to poorer exam performance. Male and female students differ not only in their patterns of Internet use, but in how these patterns affect their academic performance. While information searching helps both boys and girls, online socializing makes girls particularly vulnerable, and online gaming and Internet Cafés hurt only boys' academic achievement. PMID:20432601

  13. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    PubMed

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement. PMID:26651154

  14. Macroscopic locality with equal bias reproduces with high fidelity a quantum distribution achieving the Tsirelson's bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazi, Md. Rajjak; Banik, Manik; Das, Subhadipa; Rai, Ashutosh; Kunkri, Samir

    2013-11-01

    Two physical principles, macroscopic locality (ML) and information causality (IC), so far have been most successful in distinguishing quantum correlations from post-quantum correlations. However, there are also some post-quantum probability distributions which cannot be distinguished with the help of these principles. Thus, it is interesting to see whether consideration of these two principles, separately, along with some additional physically plausible constraints, can explain some interesting quantum features which are otherwise hard to reproduce. In this paper we show that in a Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt scenario, ML along with the constraint of equal bias for the concerned observables, almost reproduces the quantum joint probability distribution corresponding to a maximal quantum Bell violation, which is unique up to relabeling. From this example and earlier work of Cavalcanti, Salles, and Scarani, we conclude that IC and ML are inequivalent physical principles; satisfying one does not imply that the other is satisfied.

  15. Achieving Speaker Gender Equity at the American Society for Microbiology General Meeting

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2015, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) General Meeting essentially achieved gender equity, with 48.5% of the oral presentations being given by women. The mechanisms associated with increased female participation were (i) making the Program Committee aware of gender statistics, (ii) increasing female representation among session convener teams, and (iii) direct instruction to try to avoid all-male sessions. The experience with the ASM General Meeting shows that it is possible to increase the participation of female speakers in a relatively short time and suggests concrete steps that may be taken to achieve this at other meetings. PMID:26242628

  16. Gender differences in science achievement: Do school effects make a difference?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Deidra J.; Fraser, Barry J.

    The problem of the underrepresentation of girls in science in Australian schools is often attributed to their poor performance. Yet the role of both the home and the school in affecting female science achievement is rarely examined empirically. The comprehensiveness of the Second International Science Study database provided an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of gender differences in science achievement. Although previous studies of gender differences in science achievement have relied on methodology that has not adequately accounted for the school effects, this study used the design effect and hierarchical linear modeling (multilevel analysis) to explore whether there were significant gender differences. The relative contribution of schools to student achievement was examined, and school-level differences were found to contribute significantly toward explaining variations in student performance. Although statistically significant sex differences were found in physics achievement for 10-year-old, 14-year-old, and year-12 students, school effects were much more powerful in explaining student differences (9-19%) when compared with gender (3%).

  17. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Noncognitive Factors Related to Achievement in Organic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Ronna C.; Lindsay, Harriet A.

    2003-05-01

    For many college students in the sciences, organic chemistry poses a difficult challenge. Indeed, success in organic chemistry has proven pivotal in the careers of a vast number of students in a variety of science disciplines. A better understanding of the factors that contribute to achievement in this course should contribute to efforts to increase the number of students in the science disciplines. Further, an awareness of gender differences in factors associated with achievement should aid efforts to bolster the participation of women in chemistry and related disciplines. Using a correlation research design, the individual relationships between organic chemistry achievement and each of several cognitive variables and noncognitive variables were assessed. In addition, the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and combinations of these independent variables were explored. Finally, gender- and instructor-related differences in the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables were investigated. Cognitive variables included the second-semester general chemistry grade, the ACT English, math, reading, and science-reasoning scores, and scores from a spatial visualization test. Noncognitive variables included anxiety, confidence, effectance motivation, and usefulness. The second-semester general chemistry grade was found to be the best indicator of performance in organic chemistry, while the effectiveness of other predictors varied between instructors. In addition, gender differences were found in the explanations of organic chemistry achievement variance provided by this study. In general, males exhibited stronger correlations between predictor variables and organic chemistry achievement than females.

  18. Early Behavioral Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Gender: Longitudinal Findings from France, Germany, and Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gestsdottir, Steinunn; von Suchodoletz, Antje; Wanless, Shannon B.; Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; McClelland, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, but few studies have explored such links among young children in Europe. This study examined the contribution of early self-regulation to academic achievement gains among children in France, Germany, and Iceland. Gender differences in behavioral…

  19. Self-Concept among Primary School Students According to Gender and Academic Achievement Variables in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Srour, Nadia Hayel; Al-Ali, Safa Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the level of self-concept among primary school students according to gender and academic achievement variables in Amman. A random sample was chosen from fourth, fifth and sixth grades in private schools in Amman city. The sample of the study consisted of (365) male and female students, (177) males and (188)…

  20. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  1. Effects of Single-Sex and Coeducational Schooling on the Gender Gap in Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Sheree J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of single-sex and coeducational schooling on the gender gap in educational achievement to age 25. Data were drawn from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 individuals born in 1977 in Christchurch, New Zealand. After adjustment for a series of covariates…

  2. Gender and Capacity Effects on Achievement before and after CPC Way of Individualizing Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furukawa, James M.

    This study considered the effects of gender and cognitive processing capacity on achievement of students at an intermediate school. The capacity test developed by J. M. Furukawa (1970, 1977), which requires examinees to recall word pairs immediately after a brief exposure, was modified for use with these students. The test was adopted because it…

  3. Academic Achievement, Employment, Age and Gender and Students' Experience of Alternative School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Meister, Denise G.; Forthun, Larry; Coatsworth, J. Doug; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore associations between academic achievement, employment, gender, and age in relation to students' sense of school membership and perception of adults in school. The sample consisted of 102 secondary, alternative school students. Results indicated that students with a more positive perception…

  4. Gender Gaps in Mathematics, Science and Reading Achievements in Muslim Countries: A Quantile Regression Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2013-01-01

    Using quantile regression analyses, this study examines gender gaps in mathematics, science, and reading in Azerbaijan, Indonesia, Jordan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Qatar, Tunisia, and Turkey among 15-year-old students. The analyses show that girls in Azerbaijan achieve as well as boys in mathematics and science and overachieve in reading. In Jordan,…

  5. Teachers and the Gender Gaps in Student Achievement. NBER Working Paper No. 11660

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    In the United States, girls outperform boys in measures of reading achievement while generally underperforming in science and mathematics. One major class of explanations for these gaps involves the gender-based interactions between students and teachers (e.g., role-model and Pygmalion effects). However, the evidence on whether these interactions…

  6. Achievement, Agency, Gender, and Socioeconomic Background as Predictors of Postschool Choices: A Multicontext Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Philip D.; Schoon, Ingrid; Tsai, Yi-Miau; Nagy, Gabriel; Trautwein, Ulrich; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors develop and test a differential effects model of university entry versus major selection using a set of common predictors, including background factors (gender and socioeconomic status), academic achievement, and academic self-concept. The research used data from 2 large longitudinal databases from Germany (N = 5,048)…

  7. Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement and Retention Scores: A Case of Problem-Based Learning Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajai, John T.; Imoko, Benjamin I.

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess gender differences in mathematics achievement and retention by using Problem-Based Learning (PBL). The design of the study was pre-posttest quasi-experimental. Four hundred and twenty eight senior secondary one (SS I) students using multistage sampling from ten grant-aided and government schools were involved in…

  8. Correlation Study of Physics Achievement, Learning Strategy, Attitude and Gender in an Introductory Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezgin Selcuk, Gamze

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between multiple predictors of physics achievement including reported use of four learning strategy clusters (elaboration, organization, comprehension monitoring and rehearsal), attitudes towards physics (sense of care and sense of interest) and a demographic variable (gender) in order to determine the…

  9. Gender Gaps in Mathematics, Science and Reading Achievements in Muslim Countries: Evidence from Quantile Regression Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2011-01-01

    Using quantile regression analyses, this study examines gender gaps in mathematics, science, and reading in Azerbaijan, Indonesia, Jordan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Qatar, Tunisia, and Turkey among 15 year-old students. The analyses show that girls in Azerbaijan achieve as well as boys in mathematics and science and overachieve in reading. In Jordan,…

  10. Academic Attribution of Secondary Students: Gender, Year Level and Achievement Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Kennedy, Kerry John; Moore, Phillip John

    2011-01-01

    This study is concerned with the attribution of secondary students. Causal interpretations for academic success and failure were analysed to investigate the effect of gender, year level and achievement level on students' academic attributions in Hong Kong, a Confucian Heritage Culture. The sample for the study comprised 14,846 students currently…

  11. Emotional Intelligence and Gender as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Some University Students in Barbados

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayombo, Grace A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated emotional intelligence (attending to emotion, positive expressivity and negative expressivity) and gender as predictors of academic achievement among 163 undergraduate psychology students in The University of the West Indies (UWI), Cave Hill Campus, Barbados. Results revealed significant positive and negative correlations…

  12. Technology Enabled Active Learning (TEAL) in Introductory Physics: Impact on Genders and Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Ruey S.; Chang, Wheijen; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the impact of "Technology Enabled Active Learning" (TEAL) on students learning general physics, focusing on differences between genders and among various achievement levels. A quasi-experimental investigation was conducted on two semesters of courses offered in 2008. Data sources consisted of pre-tests, post-tests, self-report…

  13. Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K.J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

  14. Perceptions of Achievement: The Effects of Gender, School Type, and Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornholt, Laurel J.; And Others

    To investigate factors which influence achievement self-concepts, students in grades 7 to 10 at three schools were asked to estimate their performance following standardized tests in mathematics and English. Two of the schools were single-sex and one was co-ed. Analyses dealt primarily with the effects of gender, grade, school type, and school…

  15. Geographic Variation of District-Level Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Gender achievement gaps on national and state assessments have been a popular research topic over the last few decades. Many prior studies examine these gaps in different subjects (e.g., mathematics, reading, and science) and grades (typically kindergarten through eighth grade) for students living in various regions (typically states or countries)…

  16. Gender and Achievement: Are Girls the "Success Stories" of Restructured Education Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine

    2010-01-01

    There is a popular perception that girls' academic success means that they have taken up the kinds of gender performances in the classroom previously associated with boys. However, research into classrooms show that, amongst even the highest achieving pupils, girls are anxious about doing well and concerned about their relationships with other…

  17. Influence of Creative Style and Gender on Students' Achievement in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkpanang, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The research investigated the influence of creative style and gender on students' achievement in physics. The sample consisting one hundred (100) Senior Secondary II physics students, made up of 50 males and 50 females in Oruk Anam Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, were administered the Kirton Adaptor-Innovator Inventory (KAI),…

  18. Emotional Design in Multimedia: Does Gender and Academic Achievement Influence Learning Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Jeya Amantha; Muniandy, Balakrishnan; Yahaya, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed as a preliminary study (N = 33) to explore the effects of gender and academic achievement (Cumulative Grade Point Average-CGPA) on polytechnic students' learning outcomes when exposed to Multimedia Learning Environments (MLE) designed to induce emotions. Three designs namely positive (PosD), neutral (NeuD) and negative…

  19. Educational Encouragement, Parenting Styles, Gender and Ethnicity as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Aqeel; Ahmad, Roslee; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif

    2014-01-01

    Current study examines the predictors of academic achievement: role of parenting styles, educational encouragement, gender and ethnicity among special education students. Participants of this study consisted 200 special education students (N = 105 boys and N = 95 girls) age varies 14 to 19 years from one school located at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.…

  20. Students' Achievement in Relation to Reasoning Ability, Prior Knowledge and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenilmez, Ayse; Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated students' achievement regarding photosynthesis and respiration in plants in relation to reasoning ability, prior knowledge and gender. A total of 117 eighth-grade students participated in the study. Test of logical thinking and the two-tier multiple choice tests were administered to determine students' reasoning ability and…

  1. A Research of the Effect of Attitude, Achievement, and Gender on Mathematic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Hasan; Çanli, Murat; Sabo, Helena Maria

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies in math education focus on differences between behaviors and performances of male and female students. In this study, achievement and attitudes of middle school students to math were described in terms of gender and grade differences. The aim of this study is to determine whether any differences exist between female and male…

  2. Science Anxiety: Relation with Gender, Year in Chemistry Class, Achievement, and Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynstra, Sharon; Cummings, Corenna

    The relationships of science anxiety to measures of achievement, test anxiety, year of chemistry taken, and gender were investigated for high school students; the study also attemped to establish reliability data on the Czerniak Assessment of Science Anxiety (CASA) of L. Chiarelott and C. Czerniak (1987). Subjects were 101 students (45 males and…

  3. The Relationship of Time Perspective to Age, Gender, and Academic Achievement among Academically Talented Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…

  4. Analyzing the Gender Gap in Math Achievement: Evidence from a Large-Scale US Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Galluzzo, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The US portion of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 student questionnaire comprising of 4,733 observations was used in a multiple regression framework to predict math achievement from demographic variables, such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status, and two student-specific measures of perception, math anxiety and…

  5. Precollege science achievement growth: Racial-ethnic and gender differences in cognitive and psychosocial constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Patricia Ann

    The purpose of this study was to gain a more complete understanding of the differences in science, mathematics and engineering education among racial-ethnic and gender subgroups by exploring factors related to precollege science achievement growth rates. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and multi-wave, longitudinal data from the first three waves of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988--1994 (NELS:88/94), this study examined precollege science achievement growth rates during the 8th to 10th grade period and the 10th to 12th grade period for African American males, African American females, Latino males, Latina females, Asian American males, Asian American females, White males and White females. For the 8th--10th grade period, previous grades were significantly and positively related to science achievement growth for all subgroups; and socio-economic status and high school program were significantly and positively related to science achievement growth for all subgroups except one (Latino males, and Asian American males respectively). For the 10th--12th grade period, the quantity of science courses completed (science units) was the only variable that was statistically significant for more than one racial-ethnic by gender subgroup. Science units taken were significantly and positively related to 10 th--12th grade growth rates for all racial-ethnic by gender subgroups except Latino males. Locus-of-control was the only cognitive or psychosocial factor included from Eccles, Adler, Futterman, Goff, Kaczala, Meece and Midgley's (1983) theoretical framework for achievement behaviors that appeared to exhibit any pattern across race-ethnicities. Locus-of-control was positively related to 8th--10 th grade science achievement growth for females across all racial-ethnic subgroups, as well as for African American males. However, for both the 8 th--10th grade and 10th--12 th grade periods, there was no consistency across racial-ethnic or gender subgroups in

  6. Social and behavioral skills and the gender gap in early educational achievement.

    PubMed

    Diprete, Thomas A; Jennings, Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    Though many studies have suggested that social and behavioral skills play a central role in gender stratification processes, we know little about the extent to which these skills affect gender gaps in academic achievement. Analyzing data from the Early Child Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, we demonstrate that social and behavioral skills have substantively important effects on academic outcomes from kindergarten through fifth grade. Gender differences in the acquisition of these skills, moreover, explain a considerable fraction of the gender gap in academic outcomes during early elementary school. Boys get roughly the same academic return to social and behavioral skills as their female peers, but girls begin school with more advanced social and behavioral skills and their skill advantage grows over time. While part of the effect may reflect an evaluation process that rewards students who better conform to school norms, our results imply that the acquisition of social and behavioral skills enhances learning as well. Our results call for a reconsideration of the family and school-level processes that produce gender gaps in social and behavioral skills and the advantages they confer for academic and later success. PMID:23017693

  7. Mathematics achievement based on gender among eight grade school students in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabab'h, Belal Sadiq Hamed; Veloo, Arsaythamby; Perumal, Selvan

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the differences in gender base on numbers, algebra, geometry and mathematics achievement among Jordanian 8th grade school students. The respondent of this study were 337 students from eight public secondary schools in Alkoura district and selected by using stratified random sampling. The study comprised of 179 (53%) males and 158 (47%) females students. The mathematics test comprises of 30 items which has eight items for numbers, 14 items for algebra and eight items for geometry. Finding from independent sample t-test shows that female student score higher than male students in numbers, algebra, mathematics achievement and spatial visualization. There is no significant difference in geometry base for gender. This study also indicates that numbers, algebra and mathematics achievement favorable to female and bias to male students. The main recommendations from this study are for teachers and other educational professionals to focus on the numbers and algebra for male students to improve the learning of mathematics, and feeding program through benefiting from tutorial classes to avoid of weakness in different aspects of mathematics achievement. Gender differences in mathematics in secondary school students in Jordan continue to exist and these differences may influence future educational and occupational pathways.

  8. Achieving Gender Equity in Science Class: Shift from Competition to Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esiobu, G. O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to verify the impact of cooperative learning as an intervention strategy towards the achievement of peace, equality and equity in the science classroom as part of the democratic process necessary for sustainable development. Design/methodology/approach: The study sample comprised 56 SSS 2 students in one public…

  9. Suicide proneness in college students: relationships with gender, procrastination, and achievement motivation.

    PubMed

    Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was also examined for each gender. Participants included 475 (336 women, 139 men) undergraduates from a southeastern university. For both genders, procrastination and achievement motivation were significantly correlated at the univarate level with the suicide proneness indices. However, for college women, but not men, procrastination significantly accounted for unique amounts of variance in both suicide indices above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem. Implications for suicide intervention efforts directed toward college women and men are offered. PMID:24501841

  10. School Health Promotion to Increase Empowerment, Gender Equality and Pupil Participation: A Focus Group Study of a Swedish Elementary School Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadin, Katja Gillander; Weiner, Gaby; Ahlgren, Christina

    2013-01-01

    A school health promotion project was carried out in an elementary school in Sweden where active participation, gender equality, and empowerment were leading principles. The objective of the study was to understand challenges and to identify social processes of importance for such a project. Focus group interviews were conducted with 6 single-sex…

  11. "Father Is out Shopping Because Mother Is at Work..." Greek Primary School Reading Texts as an Example of Educational Policy for Gender Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deliyanni-Kouimtzi, Kiki

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates the Greek governments' gender equality educational policy; new reading books that the Greek government presented in 1983 as solving previously reading books' sexism; and views of the educational establishment, women's organizations, and teachers concerning old and new books and new books' efficacy in light of textual analyses. (RLC)

  12. On the Compatibility of Islam and Gender Equality: Effects of Modernization, State Islamization, and Democracy on Women's Labor Market Participation in 45 Muslim Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spierings, Niels; Smits, Jeroen; Verloo, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    Although the Muslim world is sometimes depicted as a homogeneous civilization lacking democracy and gender equality, Muslim countries show tremendous economic, political and cultural variation. In this paper, this variation is used to gain insight into the determinants of women's labor market participation (LMP) in the Muslim world. We use data on…

  13. Are gender differences in high achievement disappearing? A test in one intellectual domain.

    PubMed

    Howard, Robert W

    2005-05-01

    Males traditionally predominate at upper achievement levels. One general view holds that this is due only to various social factors such as the 'glass ceiling' and lack of female role models. Another view holds that it occurs partly because of innate ability differences, with more males being at upper ability levels. In the last few decades, women have become more achievement focused and competitive and have gained many more opportunities to achieve. The present study examined one intellectual domain, international chess, to quantify its gender differences in achievement and to see if these have been diminishing with the societal changes. Chess is a good test domain because it is a meritocracy, it has objective performance measures, and longitudinal data of a whole population are available. Performance ratings overall and in the top 10, 50 and 100 players of each sex show large gender differences and little convergence over the past three decades, although a few females have become high achievers. The distribution of performance ratings on the January 2004 list shows a higher male mean and evidence for more male variation, just as with traits such as height. Career patterns of players first on the list between 1985 and 1989 show that top males and females entered the list at about the same age but females tend to play fewer games and have shorter careers. In this domain at least, the male predominance is large and has remained roughly constant despite societal changes. PMID:15906890

  14. Gender Differences in Mathematical Trajectories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahey, Erin; Guo, Guang

    2001-01-01

    Large national data sets and curvilinear growth models were used to examine gender differences in mathematics achievement trajectories from elementary through high school. Despite relatively equal starting points and relatively equal slopes, boys had a faster rate of acceleration, resulting in a slight gender difference by 12th grade. (Contains 39…

  15. Gender-typed behaviors, achievement, and adjustment among racially and ethnically diverse boys during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carlos E; Galligan, Kathrine; Pahlke, Erin; Fabes, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the relations between adherence to gender-typed behaviors in boys' friendships, achievement, and self-esteem. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse adolescent boys in grade 8 (Mage  = 13.05; range = 12-14). The study was completed at a public junior high school that offered both single- and mixed-gender classes. Data were collected in 2 waves, the first wave in fall of 2010 and the second in spring of 2011. At each wave, participants completed assessments of gender concepts and self-esteem. Standardized tests scores from the end of the previous academic year and the end of the year of the study were utilized. Results revealed that the boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors in their friendships was negatively associated with math standardized test scores and self-esteem from Time I to Time II. Indirect effects analyses revealed a relation between boys' adherence to emotional stoicism behaviors in friendships and math achievement and self-esteem via boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors. Implications of these findings and the links between masculinity, boys' friendships, performance in school, and psychological adjustment are discussed. PMID:23889017

  16. Reducing the gender achievement gap in college science: a classroom study of values affirmation.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Akira; Kost-Smith, Lauren E; Finkelstein, Noah D; Pollock, Steven J; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Ito, Tiffany A

    2010-11-26

    In many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines, women are outperformed by men in test scores, jeopardizing their success in science-oriented courses and careers. The current study tested the effectiveness of a psychological intervention, called values affirmation, in reducing the gender achievement gap in a college-level introductory physics class. In this randomized double-blind study, 399 students either wrote about their most important values or not, twice at the beginning of the 15-week course. Values affirmation reduced the male-female performance and learning difference substantially and elevated women's modal grades from the C to B range. Benefits were strongest for women who tended to endorse the stereotype that men do better than women in physics. A brief psychological intervention may be a promising way to address the gender gap in science performance and learning. PMID:21109670

  17. Predictors of gender achievement in physical science at the secondary level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlenko, Brittany Hunter

    This study used the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science restricted data-set for twelfth graders. The NAEP data used in this research study is derived from a sample group of 11,100 twelfth grade students that represented a national population of over 3,000,000 twelfth grade students enrolled in science in the United States in 2009. The researcher chose the NAEP data set because it provided a national sample using uniform questions. This study investigated how the factors of socioeconomic status (SES), parental education level, mode of instruction, and affective disposition affect twelfth grade students' physical science achievement levels in school for the sample population and subgroups for gender. The factors mode of instruction and affective disposition were built through factor analysis based on available questions from the student surveys. All four factors were found to be significant predictors of physical science achievement for the sample population. NAEP exams are administered to a national sample that represents the population of American students enrolled in public and private schools. This was a non-experimental study that adds to the literature on factors that impact physical science for both genders. A gender gap is essentially nonexistent at the fourth grade level but appears at the eighth grade level in science based on information from NAEP (NCES, 1997). The results of the study can be used to make recommendation for policy change to diminish this gender gap in the future. Educators need to be using research to make instructional decisions; research-based instruction helps all students.

  18. Effects of attractiveness and gender on the perception of achievement-related variables.

    PubMed

    Chia, R C; Allred, L J; Grossnickle, W F; Lee, G W

    1998-08-01

    The present study was an examination of the effects of physical attractiveness and gender on perceptions of academic success, achievement-related traits, intelligence, initiative, and attributions of ability and effort in relation to academic success. It was hypothesized that attractive persons and men would be rated more favorably along these dimensions than would unattractive persons and women. The participants were 144 U.S. undergraduates who observed photographs of attractive and unattractive men and women and then rated the persons in the photographs on the aforementioned dimensions. Physical attractiveness had a differential effect on the dimensions within achievement. Also, being perceived as physically attractive created positive impressions of achievement-related traits for men but negative impressions for women. PMID:9664863

  19. Gender and Bilingual Education: An Exploratory Study of the Academic Achievement of Latina and Latino English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapayese, Yvette; Huchting, Karen; Grimalt, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Although biliteracy plays a vital role in academic achievement, there has been little research on the unique needs of female and male English language learners. Becoming biliterate is a complex process, compounded by other variables such as 1st-language background, class, culture, and gender. Among these variables, gender has been the least…

  20. Gender and Achievement Differences in Secondary Students' Verbal Self-Concepts: A Closer Look beyond Bivariate Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Gunter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Against the background of contradictory research findings in the field the present study aimed at unraveling the structural complexities of gender differences in secondary students' verbal self-concepts and, thus, analyzing possible gender x achievement interaction effects in the L1 German and L2 English language subject.…

  1. Associations of Student Temperament and Educational Competence with Academic Achievement: The Role of Teacher Age and Teacher and Student Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullola, Sari; Jokela, Markus; Ravaja, Niklas; Lipsanen, Jari; Hintsanen, Mirka; Alatupa, Saija; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    We examined associations of teacher-perceived student temperament and educational competence with school achievement, and how these associations were modified by students' gender and teachers' gender and age. Participants were 1063 Finnish ninth-graders (534 boys) and their 29 Mother Language teachers (all female) and 43 Mathematics teachers (17…

  2. Gender Differences in Growth in Mathematics Achievement: Three-Level Longitudinal and Multilevel Analyses of Individual, Home, and School Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ai, Xiaoxia

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on gender differences in growth in mathematics achievement in relation to various social-psychological factors such as attitude towards mathematics, self-esteem, parents' academic encouragement, mathematics teachers' expectations, and peer influence. Results indicate that gender differences in growth in mathematics varied by the student's…

  3. The role of difficulty and gender in numbers, algebra, geometry and mathematics achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabab'h, Belal Sadiq Hamed; Veloo, Arsaythamby; Perumal, Selvan

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to identify the role of difficulty and gender in numbers, algebra, geometry and mathematics achievement among secondary schools students in Jordan. The respondent of the study were 337 students from eight public secondary school in Alkoura district by using stratified random sampling. The study comprised of 179 (53%) males and 158 (47%) females students. The mathematics test comprises of 30 items which has eight items for numbers, 14 items for algebra and eight items for geometry. Based on difficulties among male and female students, the findings showed that item 4 (fractions - 0.34) was most difficult for male students and item 6 (square roots - 0.39) for females in numbers. For the algebra, item 11 (inequality - 0.23) was most difficult for male students and item 6 (algebraic expressions - 0.35) for female students. In geometry, item 3 (reflection - 0.34) was most difficult for male students and item 8 (volume - 0.33) for female students. Based on gender differences, female students showed higher achievement in numbers and algebra compare to male students. On the other hand, there was no differences between male and female students achievement in geometry test. This study suggest that teachers need to give more attention on numbers and algebra when teaching mathematics.

  4. Academic achievement, employment, age and gender and students' experience of alternative school.

    PubMed

    Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Meister, Denise G; Forthun, Larry; Coatsworth, J Doug; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore associations between academic achievement, employment, gender, and age in relation to students' sense of school membership and perception of adults in school. The sample consisted of 102 secondary, alternative school students. Results indicated that students with a more positive perception of school personnel also reported a greater sense of school membership. Male students and older students had a more negative perception of administrators relative to female and younger students. In addition, students who worked tended to report higher grades than students who did not. Study implications are discussed. PMID:19086669

  5. Gender and Middle School Science: An Examination of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Affecting Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Jennifer

    Gender differences in middle school science were examined utilizing a mixed-methods approach. The intrinsic and extrinsic experiences of male and female non-gifted high-achieving students were investigated through the administration of the CAIMI, student interviews, teacher questionnaires, observations, and document examination. Male and female students were selected from a rural Northeast Georgia school district based on their high performance and high growth during middle school science. Eighty-three percent of the student participants were white and 17% were Hispanic. Half of the male participants and one third of the female participants were eligible for free and reduced meals. Findings revealed that male participants were highly motivated, whereas female participants exhibited varying levels of motivation in science. Both male and female students identified similar instructional strategies as external factors that were beneficial to their success. Due to their selection by both genders, these instructional strategies were considered to be gender-neutral and thereby useful for inclusion within coeducational middle school science classrooms.

  6. Complementing Gender Analysis Methods.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anant

    2016-01-01

    The existing gender analysis frameworks start with a premise that men and women are equal and should be treated equally. These frameworks give emphasis on equal distribution of resources between men and women and believe that this will bring equality which is not always true. Despite equal distribution of resources, women tend to suffer and experience discrimination in many areas of their lives such as the power to control resources within social relationships, and the need for emotional security and reproductive rights within interpersonal relationships. These frameworks believe that patriarchy as an institution plays an important role in women's oppression, exploitation, and it is a barrier in their empowerment and rights. Thus, some think that by ensuring equal distribution of resources and empowering women economically, institutions like patriarchy can be challenged. These frameworks are based on proposed equality principle which puts men and women in competing roles. Thus, the real equality will never be achieved. Contrary to the existing gender analysis frameworks, the Complementing Gender Analysis framework proposed by the author provides a new approach toward gender analysis which not only recognizes the role of economic empowerment and equal distribution of resources but suggests to incorporate the concept and role of social capital, equity, and doing gender in gender analysis which is based on perceived equity principle, putting men and women in complementing roles that may lead to equality. In this article the author reviews the mainstream gender theories in development from the viewpoint of the complementary roles of gender. This alternative view is argued based on existing literature and an anecdote of observations made by the author. While criticizing the equality theory, the author offers equity theory in resolving the gender conflict by using the concept of social and psychological capital. PMID:25941756

  7. A Culture of (In)Equality?: A Cross-National Study of Gender Parity and Gender Segregation in National School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Alexander W.

    2008-01-01

    Recent international education reports have highlighted some of the progress (as well as remaining disparity) in gendered education enrollment rates. But, the problem of gender segregation is still a very real issue even in some nations where girls are enrolled at levels on par with boys. Separate classes, curricula, and in many countries separate…

  8. Measuring Gender (In)Equality: Introducing the Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base (GID). OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 247

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutting, Johannes P.; Morrisson, Christian; Dayton-Johnson, Jeff; Drechsler, Denis

    2006-01-01

    Efforts to establish, test and analyse hypotheses regarding cross-country variations in women's economic status are hampered by the lack of a readily accessible and easily used information resource on the various dimensions of gender inequality. Addressing this gap, this paper introduces the Gender, Institutions and Development data base (GID)…

  9. Promoting Gender Equality in the Context of Nigerian Cultural and Religious Expression: Beyond Increasing Female Access to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Para-Mallam, Funmi J.

    2010-01-01

    National education policies in Nigeria aim at addressing female disprivilege by improving girl-child enrolment in schools in line with Millennium Development Goal targets. In addition, the National Gender Policy and its Strategic Implementation Framework stress the importance of mainstreaming gender perspectives within the education sector by…

  10. All STEM fields are not created equal: People and things interests explain gender disparities across STEM fields

    PubMed Central

    Su, Rong; Rounds, James

    2015-01-01

    The degree of women's underrepresentation varies by STEM fields. Women are now overrepresented in social sciences, yet only constitute a fraction of the engineering workforce. In the current study, we investigated the gender differences in interests as an explanation for the differential distribution of women across sub-disciplines of STEM as well as the overall underrepresentation of women in STEM fields. Specifically, we meta-analytically reviewed norm data on basic interests from 52 samples in 33 interest inventories published between 1964 and 2007, with a total of 209,810 male and 223,268 female respondents. We found gender differences in interests to vary largely by STEM field, with the largest gender differences in interests favoring men observed in engineering disciplines (d = 0.83–1.21), and in contrast, gender differences in interests favoring women in social sciences and medical services (d = −0.33 and −0.40, respectively). Importantly, the gender composition (percentages of women) in STEM fields reflects these gender differences in interests. The patterns of gender differences in interests and the actual gender composition in STEM fields were explained by the people-orientation and things-orientation of work environments, and were not associated with the level of quantitative ability required. These findings suggest potential interventions targeting interests in STEM education to facilitate individuals' ability and career development and strategies to reform work environments to better attract and retain women in STEM occupations. PMID:25762964

  11. Stereotypes in Four Current AOUM Sexuality Education Curricula: Good Girls, Good Boys, and the New Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon; Graling, Kelly; Lustig, Kara

    2011-01-01

    It has long been noted that sexuality education curricula contain gender stereotypes and heterosexism that may be harmful to people of all genders. Many of the stereotypes and sources of heterosexism that have been discussed in the literature have to do with old-fashioned and restrictive roles for men and women and focus on heterosexual sex and…

  12. Risk Factors for Men’s Lifetime Perpetration of Physical Violence against Intimate Partners: Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Eight Countries

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Paul J.; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men’s lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men’s support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming. PMID:25734544

  13. Risk factors for men's lifetime perpetration of physical violence against intimate partners: results from the international men and gender equality survey (IMAGES) in eight countries.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Paul J; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men's lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men's support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming. PMID:25734544

  14. Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls.

    PubMed

    Stoet, Gijsbert; Bailey, Drew H; Moore, Alex M; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls' STEM participation. PMID:27100631

  15. Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls’ STEM participation. PMID:27100631

  16. What Does It Take to Achieve Equality of Opportunity in Education?: An Empirical Investigation Based on Brazilian Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltenberg, Fabio D.; Vandenberghe, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Roemer's [Roemer, J. (1998). "Equality of opportunity". Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.] seminal work on equality of opportunity has contributed to the emergence of a theory of justice that is modern, conceptually clear and easy to mobilize in policy design. Inspired by Roemer's theory, this paper is fundamentally a policy-modeling…

  17. Effect of school belonging trajectories in grades 6-8 on achievement: Gender and ethnic differences.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jan N; Im, Myung Hee; Allee, Paula J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the association between trajectories of school belonging across grades 6-8 and academic achievement in grade 8 in an ethnically diverse sample of 527 academically at-risk adolescents. Students reported annually on school belonging. Reading and math achievement were assessed at grade 5 (baseline) and grade 8. Interactive effects of gender and ethnicity were found in the conditional growth models for school belonging. Girls of all ethnicities had identical growth trajectories and reported higher initial school belonging than Euro-American or Latino boys. Latino and Euro-American males had lower initial level of school belonging than African American males, and Latino males had lower growth in school belonging than Euro-American males. In structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses, initial level of school belonging predicted grade 8 reading for girls and grade 8 math for boys and girls, above prior achievement and school and child covariates, but growth in school belonging predicted grade 8 achievement only for African American students. Implications for strategies to improve school belonging among academically at-risk youth are discussed. PMID:26563601

  18. Factors affecting academic achievement among sexual minority and gender-variant youth.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Mereish, Ethan H

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of victimization among sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; LGBT) and gender-variant youth remain pronounced in many schools. Although much work has shown the connection between homophobic bullying and mental and physical health, there has been limited attention to how victimization impedes learning, academic achievement, and other school-related outcomes for these youth. In this chapter, we propose several pathways through which victimization leads to academic disparities among sexual minority and gender-variant youth, with attention to its effects on individual learning processes (e.g., motivation, concentration, self efficacy, and other cognitive stressors) as well as broader psychological and social processes (e.g., mental health, school avoidance, harmful coping strategies, exclusionary discipline). We also consider protective factors (e.g., social support, Gay-Straight Alliances, extracurricular involvement, nondiscrimination policies, inclusive curriculum) that could promote resilience and suggest potential mechanisms by which they may operate. In doing so, we aim to stimulate ideas for an advancement of research in this area. PMID:25344999

  19. Examination of Gender Differences on Cognitive and Motivational Factors That Influence 8th Graders' Science Achievement in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Ömer; Türkmen, Lütfullah; Bilgin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of several students' cognitive and motivational factors on 8th graders' science achievement and also gender differences on factors that significantly contribute to the science achievement model. A total of 99 girls and 83 boys responded all the instruments used in this study. Results showed that girls outperformed boys on…

  20. No Boy Left Behind: The Impact of Boy-Friendly Strategies on the Gender Writing Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Janet Lee

    2012-01-01

    A study of the implementation of boy-friendly strategies for teaching writing was conducted in order to determine if the strategies would improve the writing achievement of fifth grade boys, thereby narrowing the gender achievement gap in writing. The strategies were categorized in four modalities: self-efficacy, perception/attitude, performance,…

  1. Ethnicity, Gender, Social Class and Achievement Gaps at Age 16: Intersectionality and "Getting It" for the White Working Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most prevailing inequalities in educational achievement in England are those associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender. However, little research has sought to compare the relative size of these gaps or to explore interactions between these factors. This paper analyses the educational achievement at age 11, 14…

  2. The Effect of Wait-Time on Issues of Gender Equity, Academic Achievement, and Attitude toward a Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Jim B.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of extended wait-time versus short wait-time on ninth graders' academic achievement, as well as on gender equity and student attitudes toward a course. Surveys indicated students with more wait-time had greater gain in academic achievement. Females received longer wait-time in both experimental and control…

  3. Social jetlag, academic achievement and cognitive performance: Understanding gender/sex differences.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Morales, Juan F; Escribano, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents in high school suffer from circadian misalignment, undersleeping on weekdays and oversleeping on weekends. Since high schools usually impose early schedules, adolescents suffer from permanent social jetlag (SJL) and thus are a suitable population to study the effects of SJL on both academic and cognitive performance. In this study, 796 adolescents aged 12-16 years reported information about their sleep habits, morningness-eveningness (M-E), cognitive abilities and grade point average (GPA). Time in bed on both weekdays and weekends was not related to cognitive abilities, and only time in bed on weekdays was related to academic achievement. SJL was negatively related to academic achievement, cognitive abilities (except for vocabulary and verbal fluency abilities) and general cognitive ability (g), whereas M-E was slightly positively related to academic achievement and marginally negatively related to inductive reasoning. Results separated by sex/gender indicated that SJL may be more detrimental to girls' performance, as it was negatively related to a greater number of cognitive abilities and GPA. PMID:26061587

  4. Teachers' perceptions of students' mathematics proficiency may exacerbate early gender gaps in achievement.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Cimpian, Joseph P; Lubienski, Sarah Theule; Ganley, Colleen M; Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin

    2014-04-01

    A recent wave of research suggests that teachers overrate the performance of girls relative to boys and hold more positive attitudes toward girls' mathematics abilities. However, these prior estimates of teachers' supposed female bias are potentially misleading because these estimates (and teachers themselves) confound achievement with teachers' perceptions of behavior and effort. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), Study 1 demonstrates that teachers actually rate boys' mathematics proficiency higher than that of girls when conditioning on both teachers' ratings of behavior and approaches to learning as well as past and current test scores. In other words, on average girls are only perceived to be as mathematically competent as similarly achieving boys when the girls are also seen as working harder, behaving better, and being more eager to learn. Study 2 uses mediation analysis with an instrumental-variables approach, as well as a matching strategy, to explore the extent to which this conditional underrating of girls may explain the widening gender gap in mathematics in early elementary school. We find robust evidence suggesting that underrating girls' mathematics proficiency accounts for a substantial portion of the development of the mathematics achievement gap between similarly performing and behaving boys and girls in the early grades. PMID:24294875

  5. The Influence of Cooperative Problem Solving on Gender Differences in Achievement, Self-Efficacy, and Attitudes toward Mathematics in Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garduno, Edna Leticia Hernandez

    2001-01-01

    Examination of gender differences in self-efficacy, attitudes toward mathematics, and achievement of 48 gifted 7th and 8th grade students after participating in a 2-week course on probability and statistics found no differences in achievement or self-efficacy between cooperative learning mixed gender or single gender groups. Differences in…

  6. The Effects of Single-Gender Math Classroom Activities on the Achievement and Behavior Outcomes of Fifth-Grade Girls and Boys at a Public Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaussee, Erik P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine single-gender schools and/or classes as a method of improving student achievement and gaining greater satisfaction in school. The paper will further examine the effects of single-gender classes on student achievement, the academic gender gap, and the attitudes of students and teachers. It will also look at…

  7. Global pathways to men's caregiving: mixed methods findings from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey and the Men Who Care study.

    PubMed

    Kato-Wallace, Jane; Barker, Gary; Eads, Marci; Levtov, Ruti

    2014-01-01

    Promoting men's participation in unpaid care work is part of the Programme of Action for the International Conference on Population and Development. However, men's involvement in care work does not mirror the advances women have made in paid work outside the home. This mixed method study explores which men are more involved in caregiving, and what childhood and adulthood factors influence their level of involvement. Quantitative research presents findings from 1169 men across six countries with children aged 0-4, and a qualitative study presents findings from in-depth interviews with 83 men engaged in atypical caregiving practices. Survey research finds that being taught to care for children, witnessing one's father take care of one's siblings, respondents' present attitudes about gender equality and having outside help (or none, in some cases) were all also associated with men's higher level of involvement. Qualitative research reveals that men's experiences of violence, the normalisation of domestic work as children and life circumstances rather than greater-than-average beliefs in gender equality all propelled them into care work. Findings suggest that engaging more men into care work implies changes to policies and structural realities in the workplace coupled with changing gender attitudes. These insights inform policy and practice aimed at promoting greater involvement in care work by men. PMID:24938308

  8. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH

  9. Louisiana's Achievements for Gender Equity in Vocational Education. Executive Summary 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargroder, Margaret

    Workplace and educational changes related to gender in Louisiana in 1996-97 suggest some progress but a continued need to reduce wide gender gaps in some occupational areas. Workplace data show a closing gender gap, but changes are occurring at different rates for different areas. Women's share of the total labor force continues to rise; wage…

  10. MECCA (Making Equity Count for Classroom Achievement). Utah Gender Equity Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This gender equity trainer's guide has three purposes: to raise awareness in Utah's preservice and inservice teachers of harmful, often unconscious, behaviors; to encourage gender fairness; and to help teachers develop strategies that result in gender fairness in schools. The guide contains 12 modules of instruction that cover the following…

  11. Gendered Distances: A Methodological Inquiry into Spatial Analysis as an Instrument for Assessing Gender Equality in Access to Secondary Schools in Mukono District, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wawro, Patrick R.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on how accessibility to secondary schools in the Mukono District of Uganda is related to the sex and gender of the student and the distance that separates the student's home from the school they attend. This research is a methodological inquiry exploring the use of spatial analysis, specifically how cognitive and metric…

  12. Friendship networks and achievement goals: an examination of selection and influence processes and variations by gender.

    PubMed

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M

    2014-09-01

    Interactions with friends are a salient part of students' experience at school. Thus, friends are likely to be an important source of influence on achievement goals. This study investigated processes within early adolescent friendships (selection and influence) with regard to achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals) among sixth graders (N = 587, 50% girls at wave 1, N = 576, 52% girls at wave 2) followed from fall to spring within one academic year. Students' gender was examined as a moderator in these processes. Longitudinal social network analysis found that friends were similar to each other in mastery goals and that this similarity was due to both selection and influence effects. Influence but not selection effects were found for performance-approach goals. Influence effects for performance-approach goals were stronger for boys compared to girls in the classroom. Neither selection, nor influence, effects were found in relation to performance-avoidance goals. However, the higher a student was in performance-avoidance goals, the less likely they were to be named as a friend by classmates. Implications for early adolescents' classroom adjustment are discussed. PMID:24820296

  13. Gender Equality and Equity: A Summary Review of UNESCO's Accomplishments since the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlic, Breda; Ruprecht, Lydia; Sam-Vargas, Susana

    The current process of reform of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the preparation of a new 6-year strategy for 2001-2006 provide an opportunity to integrate fully into its planning, programming, implementation, and evaluation a gender mainstreaming practice advocated by the United Nations and other…

  14. Participating on Equal Terms? The Gender Dimensions of Direct Participation in Organisational Change: Findings from the EPOC Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnabel, Annette; Webster, Juliet

    The gender dimensions of direct participation in organizational change were examined in a survey of general managers at 32,582 workplaces in the following European countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Responses were received from 5,786 managers (response rate,…

  15. Good Practice in Promoting Gender Equality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Studies on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunberg, Laura

    This volume publishes the results of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) European Centre for Higher Education (CEPES) project, Good Practice in Promoting Gender Inequality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Countries. These case studies offer hope for a future in which…

  16. 77 FR 5661 - Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...Through this final rule, HUD implements policy to ensure that its core programs are open to all eligible individuals and families regardless of sexual orientation, gender identity, or marital status. This rule follows a January 24, 2011, proposed rule, which noted evidence suggesting that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals and families are being arbitrarily excluded......

  17. Cultural Differences in Face-ism: Male Politicians Have Bigger Heads in More Gender-Equal Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrath, Sara; Au, Josephine; Ramsey, Laura R.

    2012-01-01

    Women are visually depicted with lower facial prominence than men, with consequences for perceptions of their competence. The current study examines the relationship between the size of this "face-ism" bias (i.e., individual or micro-level sexism) and a number of gender inequality indicators (i.e., institutional or macro-level sexism) at the…

  18. The effect of four instructional methods, gender, and time of testing on the achievement of sixth graders learning to interpret graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Jerry Wayne

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of four instructional methods (direct instruction, computer-aided instruction, video observation, and microcomputer-based lab activities), gender, and time of testing (pretest, immediate posttest for determining the immediate effect of instruction, and a delayed posttest two weeks later to determine the retained effect of the instruction) on the achievement of sixth graders who were learning to interpret graphs of displacement and velocity. The dependent variable of achievement was reflected in the scores earned by students on a testing instrument of established validity and reliability. The 107 students participating in the study were divided by gender and were then randomly assigned to the four treatment groups, each taught by a different teacher. Each group had approximately equal numbers of males and females. The students were pretested and then involved in two class periods of the instructional method which was unique to their group. Immediately following treatment they were posttested and two weeks later they were posttested again. The data in the form of test scores were analyzed with a two-way split-plot analysis of variance to determine if there was significant interaction among technique, gender, and time of testing. When significant interaction was indicated, the Tukey HSD test was used to determine specific mean differences. The results of the analysis indicated no gender effect. Only students in the direct instruction group and the microcomputer-based laboratory group had significantly higher posttest-1 scores than pretest scores. They also had significantly higher posttest-2 scores than pretest scores. This suggests that the learning was retained. The other groups experienced no significant differences among pretest, posttest-1, and posttest-2 scores. Recommendations are that direct instruction and microcomputer-based laboratory activities should be considered as effective stand-alone methods for

  19. Mission Completed? Changing Visibility of Women's Colleges in England and Japan and Their Roles in Promoting Gender Equality in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodate, Naonori; Kodate, Kashiko; Kodate, Takako

    2010-01-01

    The global community, from UNESCO to NGOs, is committed to promoting the status of women in science, engineering and technology, despite long-held prejudices and the lack of role models. Previously, when equality was not firmly established as a key issue on international or national agendas, women's colleges played a great role in mentoring female…

  20. Teacher Quality and Educational Equality: Do Teachers with Higher Standards-Based Evaluation Ratings Close Student Achievement Gaps?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Kimball, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Using standards-based evaluation ratings for nearly 400 teachers, and achievement results for over 7,000 students from grades 4-6, this study investigated the distribution and achievement effects of teacher quality in Washoe County, a mid-sized school district serving Reno and Sparks, Nevada. Classrooms with higher concentrations of minority,…

  1. An Investigation into the Mathematics Achievement and Attitude towards Mathematics with Respect to Learning Style According to Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orhun, N.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether there is a relationship beween gender and learning style, mathematical achievement and attitude towards mathematics. The subjects of this study were 5th-semester students (42 females, 31 males) from the Mathematics Department at Anadolu University. The results of this study suggest that there were…

  2. Two-year study relating adolescents' self-concept and gender role perceptions to achievement and attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handley, Herbert M.; Morse, Linda W.

    To assess the developmental relationship of perceptions of self-concept and gender role identification with adolescents' attitudes and achievement in science, a two-year longitudinal study was conducted. A battery of instruments assessing 16 dimensions of self-concept/gender role identifications was employed to predict students' achievement and attitudes toward science. Specific behaviors studied included self-concept in school and science and mathematics, attitudes toward appropriate gender roles in science activities and careers, and self-perceptions of masculine and feminine traits. One hundred and fifty-five adolescents, enrolled, respectively, in the seventh and eighth grades, participated in the study. Through Fisher z transformations of correlation coefficients, differences in relationships between these two sets of variables were studied for males and females during the two years. Results indicated that students' self-concepts/gender role perceptions were related to both achievement and attitudes toward science, but more related to attitudes than achievement. These relationships became more pronounced for students as they matured from seventh to eighth graders.

  3. Investigating the Relationship among Test Anxiety, Gender, Academic Achievement and Years of Study: A Case of Iranian EFL University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezazadeh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mansoor

    2009-01-01

    The construct of anxiety plays a major role in one's life. One of these anxieties is test anxiety or apprehension over academic evaluation. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between gender, academic achievement, years of study and levels of test anxiety. This investigation is a descriptive analytic study and was done…

  4. Gender Differences in Korean High School Students' Science Achievements and Attitudes towards Science in Three Different School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, EunJin; Baker, Dale R.

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of high schools' gender organization on Korean tenth-grade students' science achievements, and their attitudes towards science. The high schools involved included an all-male institution, an all-female institution, and a co-educational institution. Three schools, three principals, three science teachers, and 302…

  5. Gender Differences in Achievement in Calculating Reacting Masses from Chemical Equations among Secondary School Students in Makurdi Metropols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriba, Joel O.; Ande, Sesugh

    2006-01-01

    Over the years there exists gender inequality in science achievement among senior secondary school students the world over. It is observed that the males score higher than the females in science and science- related examinations. This has created a big psychological alienation or depression in the minds of female students towards science and…

  6. Self-Discipline Gives Girls the Edge: Gender in Self-Discipline, Grades, and Achievement Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout elementary, middle, and high school, girls earn higher grades than boys in all major subjects. Girls, however, do not out perform boys on achievement or IQ tests. To date, explanations for the underprediction of girls' GPAs by standardized tests have focused on gender differences favoring boys on such tests. The authors' investigation…

  7. The Relationship between Gender, Ethnicity, and Technology on the Impact of Mathematics Achievement in an After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xudong; Craig, Scotty D.; Xie, Jun; Graesser, Arthur C.; Okwumabua, Theresa; Cheney, Kyle R.; Hu, Xiangen

    2013-01-01

    The gap among ethnicities and gender in mathematics achievement is a well-known problem. While the gap has been shrinking over the past three decades, it has not completely diminished (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; McGraw, Lubienski, & Strutchens, 2006). The ALEKS, Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces, tutoring system is one promising…

  8. A Professor Like Me: The Influence of Instructor Gender on College Achievement. NBER Working Paper No. 13182

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Florian; Oreopoulos, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Many wonder whether teacher gender plays an important role in higher education by influencing student achievement and subject interest. The data used in this paper helps identify average effects from male and female college students assigned to male or female teachers. In contrast to previous work at the primary and secondary school level, our…

  9. The Influence of Gender, School Location and Socio-Economic Status on Students' Academic Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alordiah, Caroline Ochuko; Akpadaka, Grace; Oviogbodu, Christy Oritseweyimi

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of gender, school location, and socio-economic status (SES) on students' academic achievement in mathematics. The study was an ex-post factor design in which the variables were not manipulated nor controlled. Four research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The stratified random…

  10. The School Age Gender Gap in Reading Achievement: Examining the Influences of Item Format and Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwabe, Franziska; McElvany, Nele; Trendtel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The importance of reading competence for both individuals and society underlines the strong need to understand the gender gap in reading achievement. Beyond mean differences in reading comprehension, research has indicated that girls possess specific advantages on constructed-response items compared with boys of the same reading ability. Moreover,…

  11. A Comparison of Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-9) Performance across Grade, Gender, Ethnicity, and Educational Program Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Kathryn; Kellow, Tom; Ye, Renmin

    This study compared Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-9) academic subtest scores by students' grade, gender, and ethnicity and across different educational programs (e.g., Title I and special education). The study sample consisted of 144,701 students from public schools in a large city in the Southwest United States (grades 1-11). Raw data were taken…

  12. Teaching Strategies and Gender Based Learning Environments: How They Relate to Self-Efficacy, Participatory Behaviors, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This mixed method participatory action research study investigated the relationships of effective teaching strategies and gender based learning environments to pre-adolescent females' self-efficacy of mathematical ability, classroom participatory behaviors, and academic achievement in the area of mathematics. Research-based teaching…

  13. Science Achievement Gaps by Gender and Race/Ethnicity in Elementary and Middle School: Trends and Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, David M.; Cooc, North

    2015-01-01

    Research on science achievement disparities by gender and race/ethnicity often neglects the beginning of the pipeline in the early grades. We address this limitation using nationally representative data following students from Grades 3 to 8. We find that the Black-White science test score gap (-1.07 SD in Grade 3) remains stable over these years,…

  14. A Critical Review of Some Recent Developments in Quantitative Research on Gender and Achievement in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Over recent years the findings of a number of quantitative research studies have been published in the UK on gender and achievement. Much of this work has emanated from Stephen Gorard and his colleagues and has not only been highly critical of existing approaches to handling quantitative data but has also suggested a number of alternative and,…

  15. UK doctors and equal opportunities in the NHS: national questionnaire surveys of views on gender, ethnicity and disability

    PubMed Central

    Surman, Geraldine; Goldacre, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To seek doctors’ views about the NHS as an employer, our surveys about doctors’ career intentions and progression, undertaken between 1999 and 2013, also asked whether the NHS was, in their view, a good ‘equal opportunities’ employer for women doctors, doctors from ethnic minority groups and doctors with disabilities. Design and Setting Surveys undertaken in the UK by mail and Internet. Participants UK medical graduates in selected graduation years between 1993 and 2012. Main outcome measures Respondents were asked to rate their level of agreement with three statements starting ‘The NHS is a good equal opportunities employer for…’ and ending ‘women doctors’, ‘doctors from ethnic minorities’ and ‘doctors with disabilities’. Results Of first-year doctors surveyed in 2013, 3.6% (78/2158) disagreed that the NHS is a good equal opportunities employer for women doctors (1.7% of the men and 4.7% of the women); 2.2% (44/1968) disagreed for doctors from ethnic minorities (0.9% of white doctors and 5.8% of non-white doctors) and 12.6% (175/1387) disagreed for doctors with disabilities. Favourable perceptions of the NHS in these respects improved substantially between 1999 and 2013; among first-year doctors of 2000–2003, combined, the corresponding percentages of disagreement were 23.5% for women doctors, 23.1% for doctors from ethnic minorities and 50.6% for doctors with disabilities. Conclusions Positive views about the NHS as an equal opportunities employer have increased in recent years, but the remaining gap in perception of this between women and men, and between ethnic minority and white doctors, is a concern. PMID:25271275

  16. America's progress in achieving the legalization of same-gender adoption: analysis of public opinion, 1994 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Montero, Darrel M

    2014-10-01

    The struggle to achieve the legalization of same-gender adoption is ongoing. Notably, not until 2011 was adoption by a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individual legalized in all 50 states and the District of Columbia, and adoption by same-gender couples is still illegal in many states. Anti-adoption forces are ever-present: From 2011 to 2013, at least five states passed laws granting faith-based agencies the right to refuse service to same-gender couples or to give preference to heterosexual couples. The aim of this article is, first, to examine the challenges confronting the legalization of same-gender adoption; second, to report the current legal status of same-gender adoption for each state; third, to report on Americans' attitudes toward the legalization of same-gender adoption from 1994 to 2012, drawing from previously published surveys of a cross section of Americans; and, fourth, to explore the implications for social work practice, including social advocacy and social policy implementation. PMID:25365833

  17. Gender Gaps in Achievement and Participation in Multiple Introductory Biology Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Sarah L.; Brownell, Sara E.; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-01-01

    Although gender gaps have been a major concern in male-dominated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines such as physics and engineering, the numerical dominance of female students in biology has supported the assumption that gender disparities do not exist at the undergraduate level in life sciences. Using data from 23 large…

  18. The Gender and Science Digital Library: Affecting Student Achievement in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Sarita

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Gender and Science Digital Library (GSDL), an online collection of high-quality, interactive science resources that are gender-fair, inclusive, and engaging to students. Considers use by teachers and school library media specialists to encourage girls to enter careers in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). (LRW)

  19. Achieving Equity through "Gender Autonomy": The Challenges for Vet Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This article is based on research carried out in an European Union Fifth Framework project on gender and qualification. The research partners, from five European countries, investigated the impact of gender segregation in European labour markets on vocational education and training (VET), with particular regard to competences and qualifications.…

  20. Extending Antecedents of Achievement Goals: The Double-Edged Sword Effect of Social-Oriented Achievement Motive and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nie, Youyan; Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2013-01-01

    Underpinned by the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance motivation, the study examined the differential relations of individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motives to approach and avoidance achievement goals (mastery-approach, performance-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-avoidance). A total of 570 Chinese high school…

  1. Science self-efficacy of African American middle school students: Relationship to motivation self-beliefs, achievement, gender, and gender orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britner, Shari Lynn

    Motivation researchers have established that students' self-efficacy beliefs, the confidence they have in their academic capabilities, are related to academic outcomes. Self-efficacy has been amply researched in mathematics and language arts and nearly exclusively with White students. African American students and the area of science have each received scant attention. Typically, gender differences favor boys in mathematics and girls in language arts. Researchers have also found that these differences may be a function of gender orientation beliefs. The purpose of this study was to extend findings in science self-efficacy and to African American middle school students. I sought to determine whether self-efficacy assessed at differing levels of specificity (lab skills versus science grades) would each predict science achievement assessed at corresponding levels, to discover whether mean scores in academic motivation and achievement would differ by gender, and to determine whether these differences are a function of gender orientation (N = 268). Science grade self-efficacy was positively associated with the grades obtained by boys and by girls. For girls, grades were also associated positively with science self-concept and negatively with value of science. For reasons resulting from problematic instructional practices, lab skills self-efficacy was not associated with lab grades. Girls reported stronger science self-efficacy and received higher grades in science class. Gender orientation beliefs did not account for these differences, but masculinity and femininity were each associated with science grade self-efficacy, suggesting that androgyny is an adaptive orientation for the science self-efficacy beliefs of African American students. Findings are interpreted within the framework of A. Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory.

  2. Learning Microbiology with Computer Simulations: Students' Academic Achievement by Method and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huppert, Jehuda; Yaakobi, Judith; Lazarowitz, Reuven

    1998-01-01

    Studies the use of a computer-assisted learning simulation episode during a unit on the growth curve of microorganisms in grade ten. Finds no significant gender differences in either the experimental or control groups. Contains 25 references. (DDR)

  3. The Quality of Equity? Reframing Gender, Development and Education in the Post-2020 Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baily, Supriya; Holmarsdottir, Halla B.

    2015-01-01

    The year 2015 marks the twentieth anniversary of the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, with a goal to contribute to gender equality globally. As scholars continue in their quest to "take stock" of the ways in which gender and education work in tandem to achieve greater gender equality, we observe a revival in interest…

  4. Influence of gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling on students' enjoyment and achievement in mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendergast, Mark; O'Donoghue, John

    2014-11-01

    This research investigates the influence that gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling can have on students' mathematics education in second-level Irish classrooms. Although gender differences in mathematics education have been the subject of research for many years, recent results from PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) show that there are still marked differences between the achievement and attitude of male and female students in Irish mathematics classrooms. This paper examines the influence of gender in more detail and also investigates the impact of single-sex or co-educational schooling. This is a follow on study which further analyses data collected by the authors when they designed a pedagogical framework and used this to develop, implement and evaluate a teaching intervention in four second-level Irish schools. The aim of this pedagogical framework was to promote student interest in the topic of algebra through effective teaching of the domain. This paper further analyses the quantitative data collected and investigates whether there were differences in students' enjoyment and achievement scores based on their gender and whether they attended single-sex or co-educational schools.

  5. Raising Questions About Capitalist Globalization and Universalizing Views on Women: A Transnational Feminist Critique of the World Development Report: Gender Equality and Development.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Victoria L; Stevens, Patricia E; Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Nursing in the United States has embraced global health primarily from a clinical perspective, with emphasis on care delivery to populations in underserved, resource-poor settings. Less attention has been devoted to developing expertise about social, economic, and political contexts that produce ill health around the world. The purpose of this article is to offer a transnational feminist critique of the World Development Report: Gender Equality and Development and to illuminate implications such reports may have in the lives of the world's most marginalized women and girls. We examine the political economy idealized in the report, raising questions about the capitalist framework underpinning its agenda. Second, we examine the assumptive language used in the report, suggesting that it discursively constructs a problematic representation of women in low-income countries. We contend that the report perpetuates a hegemonic discourse of patriarchy and inequality for women in the Global South through the use of an uncontested economic framework and universalist reasoning. We conclude the article with discussion about a transformative policy making that could be more inclusive of the wisdoms, values, and everyday experiences of women living in the Global South and about the vital role nurses can play in advancing gender equity through their active collaboration in policy critique and policy formulation. PMID:27149224

  6. Demographic Inertia Revisited: An Immodest Proposal to Achieve Equitable Gender Representation among Faculty in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschke, Robyn; Laursen, Sandra; Nielsen, Joyce McCarl; Rankin, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Progress toward equitable gender representation among faculty in higher education has been "glacial" since the early 1970s (Glazer-Raymo, 1999; Lomperis, 1990; Trower & Chait, 2002). Women, who now make up a majority of undergraduate degree earners and approximately 46% of Ph.D. earners nationwide (National Center for Education Statistics [NCES],…

  7. Effects of Single-Gender Education on the Reading Achievement of Third through Fifth Grade Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael Shane

    2013-01-01

    It is said repeatedly, boys can't read. However, the statement should be boys "can" read they just don't. Understanding there is a need for action is the first step educators must take in helping boys emerge as confident and successful readers. Single-gender classrooms can be successful tools when seeking new ways in which to engage boys…

  8. Gender Difference in Achievement and Attitude of Public Secondary School Students towards Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluwatelure, Temitayo Abayomi

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on the gender difference in attitude and academic performance of students in selected public secondary schools in Akoko Land. The population for this study was made up of all the Junior Secondary Schools Three (JSS3) students in Akoko Land. Three hypotheses were raised to guide this study. 1626 student, (810 males, 816…

  9. Gender and Achievement in English Language Arts, Science and Mathematics in Secondary Schools in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etim, James S.; Etim, Alice S.; Heilman, George; Mathiyalakan, S.; Ntukidem, Eno

    2016-01-01

    The education of girls and women in the areas of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) has long been thought of as very crucial for national development. This study investigated whether gender differences might occur in scores attained by Nigerian students on standard subject matter examinations for English Language, Mathematics…

  10. Gender Differences in Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive (PASS) Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naglieri, Jack A.; Rojahn, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    Examined 1,100 boys and 1,100 girls who matched the U.S. population using the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive (PASS) cognitive-processing theory, built on the neuropsychological work of A.R. Luria (1973). Results illustrate that the PASS theory offers a useful way to examine gender differences in cognitive performance. (BF)

  11. Increasing Student Academic Achievement through the Use of Single and Mixed Gender Cooperative Grouping Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klebosits, Pia; Perrone, Beth

    This report describes a program for implementing specific cooperative grouping patterns in order to increase students' academic performance. The targeted population consisted of junior high and high school students located in the northwest and southwest suburbs of a large metropolitan area. An instructional strategy in which both like-gender and…

  12. Language Arts Achievement of Fourth Grade Students with Regard to Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Paula Coldwell

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to see if a difference exists in the language arts proficiency levels of 2,080 fourth grade students with regard to gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status from 2010 through 2012 on the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program. Specifically, this study considered the possibility that a difference existed in language…

  13. Equality, Innovation and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Offers some ideas concerning promotion of gender equality and diversity within European Union-funded programs and activities. Reviews efforts since the 1970s to foster equal access in European schools and universities, examines some principles of innovation and entrepreneurship, and considers stages in diversity policy development. (DB)

  14. Gender and Achievement among A-Level Students Working Alone or in Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kniveton, Bromley H.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the interaction between gender and the effect on student learning of working alone or in either single or mixed-sex pairs. Sixty-eight A-level students (mean age 16.8 years), all attending mixed-sex schools, took part in a task which incorporated a number of basic learning processes. They worked alone or in either single or…

  15. Gender Issues in Gifted Achievement: Are Girls Making Inroads While Boys Fall Behind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimm, Sylvia B.

    2015-01-01

    School and life achievement patterns for girls and women differ from those of boys and men. While girls have made dramatic progress in school, they need to be inspired to connect to lifelong achievement. Both research and clinical work at the Ohio-based Family Achievement Clinic find that more boys than girls underachieve in school. There is much…

  16. A Comparative Study of Parental Involvement and Its Effect on African-American Male and Overall Student Achievement at Single Gender and Coeducational Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nellums, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Parental Involvement influenced academic performance at single gender and co-educational schools. This study also compared African American male academic achievement with all students enrolled in two single gender, and one coeducational, middle school programs. Although all three schools reflected a…

  17. A Comparison of Single-Gender Classes and Traditional, Coeducational Classes on Student Academic Achievement, Discipline Referrals, and Attitudes toward Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Debra Messenger

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in single gender education. Emerging science has proven that boys and girls learn differently. This study compared fifth grade single-gender classes to fifth grade traditional, coeducational classes in the same urban middle school. The following were compared: students' academic achievement;…

  18. Interaction Effects between Exposure to Sexually Explicit Online Materials and Individual, Family, and Extrafamilial Factors on Hong Kong High School Students' Beliefs about Gender Role Equality and Body-Centered Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    To, Siu-ming; Kan, Siu-mee Iu; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the interaction effects between Hong Kong adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit online materials (SEOM) and individual, family, peer, and cultural factors on their beliefs about gender role equality and body-centered sexuality. Based on a survey design with a sample of 503 high school students in Hong Kong, the results…

  19. The effects of gender and cooperative learning with CAI on college students' computer science achievement and attitudes toward computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ching-Heng

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of gender and cooperative learning with CAI on college students' computer science achievement and attitudes toward computers, when the effects of computer ownership, prior computer instruction, previous software and programming experience were controlled. The participants were 155 undergraduates enrolled in introductory computer courses at two colleges in North Taiwan during the Fall 1996 semester. Before the treatment period, they were asked to fill out the Background Data Form, instructed with cooperative learning strategy, and trained on cooperative and individual learning with CAI. During the treatment period, they were randomly assigned to the treatment (78 students) or the control group (77 students). The treatment group students used a CAI program on computer numbering, encoding, and hardware systems with their partner throughout all six CAI sessions. The control group students used the same CAI program individually within the six CAI sessions. After the 6-week treatment period, both groups were posttested by a 40-item multiple-choice Computer Science Achievement Test (CSAT) and a 30-item Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). Data for both posttests were collected from 153 students (77 in the treatment, 76 in the control group; 62 males, 91 females) and analyzed by MANCOVA and follow-up univariate hierarchical MRC analyses for ANCOVAs. Based on the covariate-adjusted CSAT scores, the results indicated that students using CAI cooperatively had a significantly higher mean than those using CAI individually. Neither gender nor interaction effects were found. Regarding the covariate-adjusted CAS scores, the results showed that males had a significantly higher mean than females. No treatment or interaction effects were found. Due to the higher computer achievement resulted from cooperative learning with CAI, this study suggested that instructors apply cooperative learning strategy in CAI settings in computer courses

  20. Women Physicists of Color Achieving at the Intersection of Race and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, K. Renee

    2006-03-01

    As minority women physicists, we stand at the intersection of race and gender. We are physicists to be sure, but we are also women of Native, African and Hispanic descent. We are colleagues, mothers, sisters, and wives, as are our white counterparts, but our experiences cannot be distilled to only gender or race. As Prudence Carter and Scott Page remind us, women of color emerge from the interaction between race and gender. This distinction is important since most researchers who study American women's participation in science focus exclusively on the participation of white American women. Of those who acknowledge the existence of non-white women, most do so by disclaiming the exclusion of women of color because the numbers are so small or the experiences are different from white American women. There are some important differences however. While American women are 15 percent of all scientists and engineers, black American women are 60 percent of all black scientists and engineers. Yet less than 3 black women and 3 Hispanic women earn PhDs each year, out of about 1100. As Rachel Ivie and Kim Nies Ray point out, ``Minority women especially represent a great, untapped resource that could be drawn on to increase the size of the scientific workforce in the U.S." Donna Nelson's study of diversity in science and engineering faculties further finds that there are no female black or Native American full professors. In physics, there are no black women professors and no Native American women professors at all. Despite such a bleak picture, there is hope. Of the 18 departments that award at least 40 percent of bachelor's degrees to women, 7 are Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Black women are earning degrees from HBCUs at rates above equity, and many singles and firsts at predominantly white institutions continue to persevere despite the obstacles. Prudence Carter. 2005. Intersectional Matters and Meanings: Ethnicity, Gender, and Resistance to ``Acting White

  1. Guidelines for Promoting Gender Equity in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Papers on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miroiu, Mihaela

    This book provides a practically oriented reflection on gender equity in higher education and offers insights on how to achieve such equity. Equity, rather than "equality," is the focus of the discussion, which refines the discussion of gender and higher education to go beyond traditional ideas of equal provision and the mathematical equality of…

  2. Parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic achievement: ethnic, gender, and SES differences.

    PubMed

    Radziszewska, B; Richardson, J L; Dent, C W; Flay, B R

    1996-06-01

    This paper examines whether the relationship between parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic grades varies according to ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Four parenting styles are distinguished, based on patterns of parent-adolescent decision making: autocratic (parents decide), authoritative (joint process but parents decide), permissive (joint process but adolescent decides), and unengaged (adolescent decides). The sample included 3993 15-year-old White, Hispanic, African-American, and Asian adolescents. Results are generally consistent with previous findings: adolescents with authoritative parents had the best outcomes and those with unengaged parents were least well adjusted, while the permissive and the autocratic styles produced intermediate results. For the most part, this pattern held across ethnic and sociodemographic subgroups. There was one exception, suggesting that the relationship between parenting styles, especially the unengaged style, and depressive symptoms may vary according to gender and ethnicity. More research is needed to replicate and explain this pattern in terms of ecological factors, cultural norms, and socialization goals and practices. PMID:8740470

  3. Gender Differences in Science Attitude-Achievement Relationships over Time among White Middle-School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Nancy; Schau, Candace

    2002-01-01

    Describes four causal models of the longitudinal relationships between attitudes and achievement as proposed in the literature. Examines the causal relationships over time between attitudes toward science and science achievement for White rural seventh- and eighth-grade students, and finds that a cross-effects model was the best fitting model form…

  4. Computers and Gender: Differential Effects of Electronic Search on Students' Achievement and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Susan Tyler; Krendl, Kathy A.

    The effects of using a microcomputer for electronic research on the achievement and attitudes of eighth-grade boys and girls (N=247) were investigated. The study analyzed three dimensions of student themes, two sets of computer achievement measures, and three attitudinal dimensions for each of three treatment groups. Results showed no unpredicted…

  5. Family Policies and Gender Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferber, Marianne A.

    Public policies intended to help those who are disadvantaged by the traditional sexual division of family and work responsibilities often tend to perpetuate the very system responsible for many inequalities. One example of such policies is the present income tax structure. Because goods and services produced in the household are not taxed,…

  6. Minority American Women Physicists Achieving at the Intersection of Race and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, K. Renee

    2005-10-01

    As minority women physicists, we stand at the intersection of race and gender. We are physicists to be sure, but we are also women of Native, African, Hispanic, and Asian descent. We are colleagues, mothers, sisters, friends and wives, as are our white counterparts, but our experiences cannot be distilled to only gender or race. As Prudence Carter (2005 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association) and Scott Page (``The Logic of Diversity,'' private communication, 2004) remind us, women of color emerge from the interaction between race and gender. This distinction is important because most researchers who study American women's participation in science focus exclusively on the participation of white American women. Of those who acknowledge the existence of non-white women, most do so by disclaiming the exclusion of women of color because the numbers are so small or the experiences are different from white American women. There are some important differences, however. While American women are 15% of all scientists and engineers, black American women are 60% of all black scientists and engineers. Yet an average of less than 3 black women and less than 3 Hispanic women earn PhDs in the U.S. each year, out of about 1100. As Rachel Ivie and Kim Nies Ray point out in AIP Publication R-430.02, ``Minority women especially represent a great, untapped resource that could be drawn on to increase the size of the scientific workforce in the U.S.'' Donna Nelson's (University of Oklahoma) study of diversity in science and engineering faculties further finds that (with the exception of one black woman in astronomy) there are no female black or Native American full professors. In physics, there are no black women professors and no Native American women professors. Despite such a bleak picture, there is hope. Of the 18 departments that award at least 40% of bachelors degrees to women, 7 are in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). Black women are

  7. Gender Differences in Mathematical Achievement Related to the Ratio of Girls to Boys in School Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manger, Terje; Gjestad, Rolf

    1997-03-01

    The relationship between mathematical achievement and the ratio of boys to girls in school classes was investigated in a sample of third-grade Norwegian elementary school students (440 girls and 480 boys). Belonging to classes with a numerical majority of boys or girls did not affect the achievement of either of the sexes. The results from the study do not support the single-sexing of mathematics teaching.

  8. Gender, Ethnicity, and Social Cognitive Factors Predicting the Academic Achievement of Students in Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Gail; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationships of measures of occupational and academic self-efficacy; vocational interests; outcome expectations; academic ability; and perceived stress, support, and coping to academic achievement of engineering/science majors (n=197). Self-efficacy for academic milestones, in combination with other academic and support variables, was…

  9. The Single-Gender Classroom: Improving Middle School Students' Achievement in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, William V., III.

    2012-01-01

    At Joseph Case Junior High School, a school located in Swansea, Massachusetts for students in grades six through eight; there was a problematic trend in regard to student achievement in mathematics. Upon completion of an analysis of student cohort results in mathematics on the MCAS (Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System), there was an…

  10. Suicide Proneness in College Students: Relationships with Gender, Procrastination, and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was…

  11. Three Essays on Grade Configuration, Academic Achievement, and the Gender Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parekh, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of three essays exploring the performance of students on standardized tests in public schools. Since the passage of the "No Child Left Behind Act" (NCLB) in 2002, public schools have been subject to penalties for poor student achievement. In particular, NCLB requires states to measure reading and math test scores…

  12. Gender and Race Differences in Achievement, Enjoyment of Academic Subjects and Persistence in Freshmen Engineering Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaer, Barbara; And Others

    This study was developed to investigate differences between black and white freshmen (both men and women) entering engineering programs. Specifically the study determined the relationships between enjoyment of course studied, achievement in those courses, and persistence, as reported by black/white, male/female students entering the engineering…

  13. Examining Gender and the Academic Achievement of Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Elisabeth Hess; Yen, Cherng-Jyh

    2010-01-01

    Students with emotional disturbance (ED) have significant academic deficits (Trout, Nordness, Pierce, & Epstein, 2003; Lane, 2004). Even after identification and school intervention, students with ED continue to demonstrate limited academic achievement and high rates of drop out and school failure, with 80-90% scoring below grade level on tests of…

  14. The Impact of Age and Gender on Prep Children's Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Margot

    2006-01-01

    Within the current climate of heightened interest in the education of young children, it is essential that consideration be given to different factors which may impact, either positively or negatively, on the achievement of young learners when their academic progress in literacy and numeracy is considered. The research study reported in this paper…

  15. Educational Achievement of Immigrant Adolescents in Spain: Do Gender and Region of Origin Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaquera, Elizabeth; Kao, Grace

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the educational achievement of immigrant youth in Spain employing data from 3 waves of the Longitudinal Study of Families and Childhood (Panel de Families i Infancia), a representative sample of children in Catalonia first interviewed at ages 13-16 in 2006 (N = 2,710). Results suggest consistent disadvantage in achievement…

  16. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students' motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women's underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices. PMID:25741292

  17. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students’ motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women’s underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices. PMID:25741292

  18. Different but Equal? Dilemmas in the Reform of Girls' Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Victoria

    1992-01-01

    Attempts to achieve educational equality for girls are examined critically, and reform issues are discussed, including the public/private dichotomy within education and efforts to increase female access to and participation in male-dominated subject areas. These issues are then related to the Australian gender-inclusive curriculum design and to…

  19. Effects of Single Gender Classrooms and Coeducational Classrooms on Student Achievement and School Climate for Middle School Students in a Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Nickalous A.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared student achievement and student attitudes for students in single-gender classrooms and students in coeducational classrooms in the seventh grade. The study utilized the TCAP reading and math tests and the Renaissance reading and math formative assessments for the measures on student achievement. The school district's climate…

  20. The Effects of On-Time, Delayed and Early Kindergarten Enrollment on Children's Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Gender, Race, and Family Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesil Dagli, Ummuhan; Jones, Ithel

    2012-01-01

    This study was an examination of the effect of delayed, early, and on-time kindergarten enrollment on children's kindergarten mathematics achievement. Central for this study was to explore if the relationship between the kindergarten enrollment status and mathematics achievement varies by children's gender, race, and family SES status. It used a…

  1. 78 FR 53231 - Women's Equality Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-21188 Filed 8-27-13; 11:15 am] Billing code... march toward gender equality. We have fought for equal pay, prohibited gender discrimination in America... strategy to close any gender pay gap within the Federal workforce. To build on this work, I will...

  2. "I Would Study Harder if I Was a Girl": Gendered Narratives of Low-Achieving Male and High-Achieving Female EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hangyan; Luk, Jasmine

    2014-01-01

    Informed by a social and critical turn of reading practices and a poststructuralist paradigm of gender, this study delved into the commonly held belief that reading and language learning is a feminine domain, and examined the connection between the construction of gendered subjectivities and English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) reading practices…

  3. Struggling for Equality/Struggling for Hierarchy: Gender Dynamics in an English as an Additional Language Classroom for Adolescent Vietnamese Refugees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    In this article the author explores how the specific gender dynamics among newly arrived Vietnamese children influence classroom behavior in unanticipated ways. By focusing on specific ethnic experiences and data, analyzing similarities and differences, and offering other major findings on gender and power dynamics, she adds to the literature on…

  4. Realizing Gender Equality in Higher Education: The Need To Integrate Work/Family Issues. 1991 ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Nancy

    This monograph examines gender differences and related issues in higher education faculty and proposes steps to change the current climate to resolve gender inequalities, solve the impending shortage of faculty, and improve diversity among faculty. A look at the status of women in academia finds that women are an under-represented group in tenured…

  5. Markers of achievement for assessing and monitoring gender equity in translational research organisations: a rationale and study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Laurel D; Pololi, Linda H; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Henderson, Lorna R; Williamson, Catherine; Grant, Jonathan; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Lechler, Robert I; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Translational research organisations (TROs) are a core component of the UK's expanding research base. Equity of career opportunity is key to ensuring a diverse and internationally competitive workforce. The UK now requires TROs to demonstrate how they are supporting gender equity. Yet, the evidence base for documenting such efforts is sparse. This study is designed to inform the acceleration of women's advancement and leadership in two of the UK's leading TROs—the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) in Oxford and London—through the development, application and dissemination of a conceptual framework and measurement tool. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional retrospective evaluation. A conceptual framework with markers of achievement and corresponding candidate metrics has been specifically designed for this study based on an adapted balanced scorecard approach. It will be refined with an online stakeholder consultation and semistructured interviews to test the face validity and explore practices and mechanisms that influence gender equity in the given settings. Data will be collected via the relevant administrative databases. A comparison of two funding periods (2007–2012 and 2012–2017) will be carried out. Ethics and dissemination The University of Oxford Clinical Trials and Research Governance Team and the Research and Development Governance Team of Guy's and St Thomas’ National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust reviewed the study and deemed it exempt from full ethics review. The results of the study will be used to inform prospective planning and monitoring within the participating NIHR BRCs with a view to accelerating women's advancement and leadership. Both the results of the study and its methodology will be further disseminated to academics and practitioners through the networks of collaborating TROs, relevant conferences and articles in peer-reviewed journals. PMID:26743702

  6. Combined structural interventions for gender equality and livelihood security: a critical review of the evidence from southern and eastern Africa and the implications for young people

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Andrew; Willan, Samantha; Misselhorn, Alison; Mangoma, Jaqualine

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people in southern and eastern Africa remain disproportionately vulnerable to HIV with gender inequalities and livelihood insecurities being key drivers of this. Behavioural HIV prevention interventions have had weak outcomes and a new generation of structural interventions have emerged seeking to challenge the wider drivers of the HIV epidemic, including gender inequalities and livelihood insecurities. Methods We searched key academic data bases to identify interventions that simultaneously sought to strengthen people's livelihoods and transform gender relationships that had been evaluated in southern and eastern Africa. Our initial search identified 468 articles. We manually reviewed these and identified nine interventions that met our criteria for inclusion. Results We clustered the nine interventions into three groups: microfinance and gender empowerment interventions; supporting greater participation of women and girls in primary and secondary education; and gender empowerment and financial literacy interventions. We summarise the strengths and limitations of these interventions, with a particular focus on what lessons may be learnt for young people (18–24). Conclusions Our review identified three major lessons for structural interventions that sought to transform gender relationships and strengthen livelihoods: 1) interventions have a narrow conceptualisation of livelihoods, 2) there is limited involvement of men and boys in such interventions, 3) studies have typically been done in stable populations. We discuss what this means for future interventions that target young people through these methods. PMID:22713350

  7. Assessing eating disorder risk: the pivotal role of achievement anxiety, depression and female gender in non-clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Fragkos, Konstantinos C; Frangos, Christos C

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess factors predicting eating disorder risk in a sample of undergraduate students. A structured questionnaire was employed on a random sample (n = 1865) consisting of the following sections: demographics, SCOFF (Sick, Control, One stone, Fat, Food) questionnaire for screening eating disorders and the Achievement Anxiety Test and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. The students at risk for eating disorders (SCOFF score ≥2) were 39.7%. Eating disorder risk was more frequent in females, students with divorced parents, students who lived alone, students who were seeking a romantic relationship or were married, students who were at a post-secondary vocational institute/college (private-public) educational level and who were more likely to have marks under merit level. Also, the mean scores for the psychological factors of depression, stress and anxiety were higher in students with eating disorder risk. A logistic regression model was produced depicting that depression, stress, female gender, being married and searching for a romantic relationship were risk factors of having an eating disorder risk. The suggested psychological model examined with structural equation modelling signified the role of academic anxiety as an immediate precursor of general anxiety. Hence, college populations in Greece need organized infrastructures of nutrition health services and campaigns to assist in reducing the risk of eating disorders. PMID:23482057

  8. Equal Justice Under Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Earl, Jr., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This special theme issue of "Update on Law-Related Education""tells about the past, present, and future of equal legal representation for all in our society." It is dedicated to the history and heroes of legal aid for the poor and the need to further that cause if the United States hopes to achieve equal justice for all. In his foreword, Justice…

  9. The Effect of Grouping by Formal Reasoning Ability, Formal Reasoning Ability Levels, Group Size, and Gender on Achievement in Laboratory Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Judith D.; Gifford, Vernon D.

    This study investigated the grouping effect on student achievement in a chemistry laboratory when homogeneous and heterogeneous formal reasoning ability, high and low levels of formal reasoning ability, group sizes of two and four, and homogeneous and heterogeneous gender were used for grouping factors. The sample consisted of all eight intact…

  10. Evaluating the Geography of Gendered Achievement Using Large-Scale Assessment Data from the Primary School System of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lisle, Jerome; Smith, Peter; Jules, Vena

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the spatial distribution of gender differentials in Mathematics and Language Arts on national assessments of educational achievement in the primary school system of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The findings indicate statistically significant medium-sized differences favouring females on Language Arts primarily in the…

  11. Effects of Gender, Math Ability, Trait Test Anxiety, Statistics Course Anxiety, Statistics Achievement, and Perceived Test Difficulty on State Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook

    A path analytic model of state test anxiety was tested in 169 college students who were enrolled in statistics courses. Variables in the model included gender, mathematics ability, trait test anxiety (trait worry and trait emotionality as separate variables), statistics course anxiety, statistics achievement (scores on midterm examinations),…

  12. Field Dependence-Field Independence Cognitive Style, Gender, Career Choice and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyekuru, Bruno Uchenna

    2015-01-01

    This is a descriptive study that investigated the relationships among field dependence-field independence cognitive style and gender, career choice and academic achievement of secondary school students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. From the initial sample of 320 senior secondary school one (SS1) students drawn from the…

  13. Gender Differences on the College Board Achievement Tests and the Advanced Placement Examinations: Effect Sizes Versus Some Upper-Tail Ratios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C.

    Gender differences were determined for scores on the 14 College Entrance Examination Board achievement tests taken between 1982 and 1985. Effect sizes showed a tendency for males to score higher relative to females, while the percentage of male examinees increased. Based on Cohen's classification of effect sizes, differences in six of the 14 tests…

  14. The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same? Prior Achievement Fails to Explain Gender Inequality in Entry into Stem College Majors over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; King, Barbara; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the empirical basis for often-repeated arguments that gender differences in entrance into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors are largely explained by disparities in prior achievement. Analyses use data from three national cohorts of college matriculates across three decades to consider…

  15. Sticks and Stones Will Break My Bones but Failure Feedback May Not Hurt Me: Gender Differences in the Relationship between Achievement Motive, Coping Strategies and Environmental Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ser Hong; Pang, Joyce S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the processes through which achievement motivation guides the selection of coping strategies which in turn affects environmental mastery post-failure feedback. Seventy-six college students received failure feedback after completing a professional aptitude test. Findings showed that gender moderated the relationship between…

  16. Longitudinal Investigation of Elementary Students' Science Academic Achievement in 4-8th Grades: Grade Level and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursal, Murat

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the change of the science academic achievement by grade level and gender where 222 elementary students' science and technology course scores between the 4th and 8th grades and science success percentages in 6th and 8th grades Level Determination Exam were longitudinally analyzed. Based on the findings of this study,…

  17. Guidelines for Preparing Gender Responsive EFA Plans. Education for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    These guidelines have been prepared to assist individuals and "teams" to produce EFA (Education for All) plans that are gender responsive. The guidelines aim to raise awareness about issues that need to be considered to produce plans leading to the achievement of gender equality in education. Further information and guidance regarding gender…

  18. Influence of Gender, Single-Sex and Co-Educational Schooling on Students' Enjoyment and Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendergast, Mark; O'Donoghue, John

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the influence that gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling can have on students' mathematics education in second-level Irish classrooms. Although gender differences in mathematics education have been the subject of research for many years, recent results from PISA (Programme for International Student…

  19. Towards Gender Equality in Basic Education: Major Challenges in Meeting Dakar EFA Goals. Regional Seminar in Asia (Kyoto, Japan, November 28-30, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    A regional UNESCO seminar aimed to follow up on the goals set at the World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000 and to contribute to the "Ten Year UN Girls' Education Initiative" (UNGEI). The seminar established three primary aims: (1) to develop a regional cooperation mechanism or network of Education for All (EFA) gender focal points, to reinforce…

  20. Searching for Sexual Revolutions in India: Non-Governmental Organisation-Designed Sex Education Programmes as a Means towards Gender Equality and Sexual Empowerment in New Delhi, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabler, Mette

    2012-01-01

    At the foundation of most inequalities in expression of sexuality lie social constructions of gender. In this paper, sex education is considered as a possibility to challenge sexism and promote healthy and self-affirmative sex lives. In the past decade, the discourse of sex education in India has become a "battle of morality" where concerned…

  1. State Planning to Achieve Successful Desegregation. A Conference Report of State Equal Educational Opportunity Directors (Denver, Colorado, September 7-8, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    The State has primary responsibility for public education. It should be the priority for each State legislature, State Board of Education, and chief State school officer to consider what methods can be employed to meet equal opportunity/ desegregation standards, to devise and implement strategies to overcome deficiencies, and, thereby, to assure…

  2. Towards ensuring gender equity.

    PubMed

    Basu, A

    1996-01-01

    All people should participate in the development process. Many, however, remain excluded from the benefits of development. For example, women are privy to only a small share of developmental opportunities. The goals of equality, development, and peace were stated during the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in September 1995. The author considers whether women truly have equitable access to literacy, education, food, nutrition, health, employment, and the political and economic decision making process. She stresses that the goals pronounced at the Fourth World Conference on Women must be backed up with the necessary resources, including institutions established at the local, state, and national levels to ensure that the objectives are implemented and the implementation is monitored. The author further argues that in order for women to achieve equality with men, all girls must have access to primary and secondary schools; basic literacy is inadequate. Moreover, gender stereotyping must be avoided and gender sensitization ensured at all levels. PMID:12347385

  3. Sprachliche Gleichstellung von Frau und Mann in der Schweiz: Ein Uberblick und neue Perspektiven (Linguistic Equalization of the Genders in Switzerland: An Overview and a New Perspective).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmiger, Daniel, Ed.; Wyss, Eva Lia, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This issue addresses the linguistic equalization of men and women in Switzerland. It features articles in four languages (French, German, Italian, and Raeto-Roman), providing an overview over Switzerland's four linguistic regions, new perspectives, and work in progress. The articles include issues such as the "masculinization of the German…

  4. Gender Issues within Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Students' Union (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This handbook functions as a crown on the European Students' Union's work on gender equality over the past two years. Since the establishment of the Gender Equality Committee, a lot of work has been done to improve gender equality in higher education generally, and in student unions more particularly. This handbook gathers the experiences and…

  5. Equality Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malzer, Maris; Popovic, Milica; Striedinger, Angelika; Bjorklund, Karin; Olsson, Anna-Clara; Elstad, Linda; Brus, Sanja; Stark, Kat; Stojanovic, Marko; Scholz, Christine

    2009-01-01

    "Tolerance is not enough, discrimination must be fought" is what ESU staff stated in their Seminar on Equality in London, last May. Following their seminar, they decided to provide members with more practical tools to fight discrimination in higher education. This handbook aims at as part of that strategy. Focusing on several issues that are high…

  6. College Chemistry and Piaget: An Analysis of Gender Difference, Cognitive Abilities, and Achievement Measures Seventeen Years Apart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Milakofsky, Louis M.; Bender, David S.; Patterson, Henry O.

    2003-05-01

    This study revisits an analysis of gender difference in the cognitive abilities of college chemistry students using scores from "Inventory of Piaget's Developmental Tasks" (IPDT), the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), and final grades from an introductory college chemistry course. Comparison of 1998 scores with those from 1981 showed an overall decline on most of the measures and a changing pattern among males and females. Gender differences were found in the IPDT subtests measuring imagery, classification, and proportional reasoning, but not conservation, a pattern that differs from the findings reported 17 years earlier. The generational and gender differences revealed in this study suggest that instructors should be cognizant of, and should periodically assess, the diversity of students' cognitive abilities.

  7. Gender-Related Processes and Drug Use: Self-Expression with Parents, Peer Group Selection, and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razzino, Brian E.; Ribordy, Sheila C.; Grant, Kathryn; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Bowden, Blake S.; Zeisz, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences in communication with parents, peer group selection, and academic motivation as related to drug use among adolescents (290 girls, 237 boys; age range = 12-19 years). For girls, increased self-expression with parents was associated with greater academic motivation, more academically motivated friends,…

  8. Impact of Ethnicity, Class, and Gender on Achievement of Border Area Students on a High-Stakes Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Linda J.

    This study examined the following research hypotheses for fifth graders taking the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) tests in the El Paso (Texas) Independent School District in 1990-91: (1) ethnicity is positively predictive of TAAS status; (2) socioeconomic status (SES) is positively predictive of TAAS status; (3) gender is positively…

  9. The Relationship between Students' Approaches to Studying, Formal Reasoning Ability, Prior Knowledge, and Gender and Their Achievement in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma B.; Giuliano, Frank J.

    The main purposes of this study were to investigate the relationships among approaches to studying, prior knowledge, logical thinking ability, attitude, and performance in college freshman chemistry and to explore the effect of gender on the same variables. Subjects were 199 students (114 females, 85 males) enrolled in the second semester of a…

  10. Gender Differences in the Influence of Early Perceived Parental Support on Student Mathematics and Science Achievement and STEM Career Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ing, Marsha

    2014-01-01

    The lack of females entering STEM careers is well documented. Reasons for the gender gaps at all stages of the educational pipeline include both internal factors such as self-concept and external factors such as the influence of parents, media, and educators. Using latent growth curve analysis and nationally representative longitudinal survey…

  11. Trends in High School Mathematics Course Taking and Achievement by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Class, 1987-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLure, Gail T.; Boatwright, Micheal; McClanahan, Randy; McLure, John W.

    The purpose of this study was to examine patterns with regard to six advanced high school mathematics courses 12th-grade students who took the American College Testing (ACT) assessment had taken between 1987 and 1997. Differences in performance on the ACT mathematics test were studied with respect to mathematics courses taken, gender,…

  12. Interaction of Ethnicity, Mathematics Achievement Level, Socioeconomic Status, and Gender among High School Students' Mathematics Self-Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Signer, Barbara; Beasley, T. Mark; Bauer, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Examines the influence of ethnic background, socioeconomic status, and gender on mathematical ability and confidence in urban high school students. Interviews with 100 students reveal African American youth do have academic self-confidence, males sought more mathematics education than females, and that minority youth are not easily discouraged by…

  13. The Effects of Gender on Group Work Process and Achievement: An Analysis through Self- and Peer-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Sachiko; Homberg, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The importance of teamwork skills as part of employability has been widely acknowledged and accompanied by active research on successful cooperative learning. However, relatively few studies have focused on the effects of gender on students' group work, and only a limited number of empirical studies exist that examine students' group…

  14. Spatial Rotation, Aggression, and Gender in First-Person-Shooter Video Games and Their Influence on Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krone, Beth K.

    2012-01-01

    As shown by the neuropsychological educational approach to the cognitive remediation model, first-person-shooter video game play eliminates gender-related deficits in spatial rotation. Spatial rotation increases academic success and decreases social and economic disparities. Per the general aggression model, first-person-shooter video game play…

  15. Hong Kong Student Achievement in OECD-PISA Study: Gender Differences in Science Content, Literacy Skills, and Test Item Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din Yan; Chiu, Ming Ming; Ho, Esther Sui Chu

    2004-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in students' scientific literacy as measured by OECD-PISA. In particular, we focused on the 2437 students from 140 Hong Kong schools. Hong Kong boys' and girls' science scores did not differ overall. However, boys scored higher than girls at the higher percentiles (75th and above). Moreover, specific test…

  16. The Influence of 16-Year-Old Students' Gender, Mental Abilities, and Motivation on Their Reading and Drawing Submicrorepresentations Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devetak, Iztok; Glazar, Sasa Aleksij

    2010-01-01

    Submicrorepresentations (SMRs) are a powerful tool for identifying misconceptions of chemical concepts and for generating proper mental models of chemical phenomena in students' long-term memory during chemical education. The main purpose of the study was to determine which independent variables (gender, formal reasoning abilities, visualization…

  17. Relations among Body Size Discrepancy, Gender, and Indices of Motivation and Achievement in High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodewyk, Ken R.; Gammage, Kimberley L.; Sullivan, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing dropout rates in senior high school physical education, particularly among females, and unhealthy activity and obesity levels in youth have led to recommendations to assess potential contributing factors in physical education participation. Drawing from gender, body image, and social-cognitive theory, this study investigated relations…

  18. Undergraduate Women's Gender Awareness and Status Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko

    A study was conducted to determine women's realization toward the quality of life, identifying their status aspirations. The study's primary purpose was to achieve a better understanding of how undergraduate women of Guam and Japan would aspire to their academic and social goals and how they would become aware of their gender equality. The…

  19. Hands-on equals minds-on? A test of linkage between laboratory experience and measured achievement in an introductory college biology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racich, Leo Peter 3rd

    This study investigated the specific contribution of laboratory experience to student performance on achievement tests in an introductory college biology course. This required pre-medical student course (900 students) was separated by the biology department into a lecture course and a laboratory course, creating the study groups. The topics selected for treatment were in the field of molecular biology, including restriction enzyme manipulation and plasmid mapping of DNA sequences. Random samples (30 per group) of students enrolled in the lecture course and laboratory course, lecture course only, or laboratory course only were post-tested and second post-tested for objective test achievement in the topical field after laboratory participation. Student self-reported essays on topical concept gains from laboratory experience were categorized and analyzed in relation to achievement outcomes. A significant difference (F = 5.47, df = 2,87, alpha = .05) was present within the group by test achievement scores. Analysis showed no significant difference in test scores over time for the laboratory and lecture and laboratory only groups. There was a significant decline in test scores for the lecture only group over time. Analysis of 509 student self-reported essays showed approximately 18.5% reporting no abstract comprehension gain from the specific laboratory experience they chose to report. Approximately 8.3% of the essays reported increased confusion of topical concepts after participating in the laboratory exercise. The balance of the students (73.3%) reported increased topical concept understanding after laboratory exercise participation. The results suggest the importance of laboratory participation for long-term concept retention and the benefit of post-laboratory experience reflection time before objective testing. Direct instruction without laboratory experience appears to yield gains which are short term in nature. Student self-reports suggested cognitive gains from

  20. Is Primatology an equal-opportunity discipline?

    PubMed

    Addessi, Elsa; Borgi, Marta; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues. PMID:22272353

  1. From Gender Bias to Gender Awareness in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was "gender blind" by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly,…

  2. Evidence of systematic bias in sexual over- and underperception of naturally occurring events: a direct replication of Haselton (2003) in a more gender-equal culture.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Mons

    2014-01-01

    Error Management Theory (Haselton and Buss, 2000; Haselton and Nettle, 2006) maintains that natural selection has engineered adaptations for judgment under uncertainty to minimize the overall cost of making errors, leading to universal biases in judgments of sexual interest in men and women. This study, using a sample of het erosexual Norwegian students (n = 308), was carried out as a direct replication of Haselton's (2003) original study of naturally occurring events of sexual misperception. The results strongly supported the main hypotheses in the original study, showing that women reported being subject to opposite-sex sexual overperception far more often relative to underperception, and that this difference was small for men. In support of Error Management Theory, and in contrast to Social Role / Structure Theory expectations, the pattern of misperception for women and men was largely invariant across studies and across demographic groups within a culture. The findings suggest that cross-national differences in the level of gender inequality do not influence reports of sexual over- and underperception in women and men. Beyond sex, factors associated with more sexual overperception relative to underperception were being single, young, and having attitudes condoning casual sex. PMID:25402231

  3. Gender Disparities and Socio-Economic Factors on Learning Achievements in Agricultural Science in Rural and Urban Secondary Schools of Ogbomoso North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amao, S. R.; Gbadamosi, J.

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the agricultural and science achievement of urban and rural, male and female students in Ogbomoso North Local Government…

  4. Single- and Mixed-Gender Colleges for Women: Educational, Attitudinal, and Occupational Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riordan, Cornelius

    1992-01-01

    A study examined the effects of single- and mixed-gender colleges on women's education, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Results indicate women's colleges have a strong, positive influence on educational and occupational achievement, self-esteem, self-control, and views on gender equality.…

  5. College Students' Achievement Goal Orientation and Motivational Regulations in Physical Activity Classes: A Test of Gender Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Xiaoxia; McBride, Ron E.; Xiang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the measurement invariance across 361 male and female college students' 2 × 2 achievement goal orientation and motivational regulations. Participants completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and motivational regulations. Multigroup CFA analyses showed that male and female students' scores were fully…

  6. Examining the relationship of ethnicity, gender and social cognitive factors with the academic achievement of first-year engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Bruce Henry

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of social cognitive factors and their influence on the academic performance of first-year engineering students. The nine social cognitive variables identified were under the groupings of personal support, occupational self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, vocational interests, coping, encouragement, discouragement, outcome expectations, and perceived stress. The primary student participants in this study were first-year engineering students from underrepresented groups which include African American, Hispanic American students and women. With this in mind, the researcher sought to examine the interactive influence of race/ethnicity and gender based on the aforementioned social cognitive factors. Differences in academic performance (university GPA of first-year undergraduate engineering students) were analyzed by ethnicity and gender. There was a main effect for ethnicity only. Gender was found not to be significant. Hispanics were not found to be significantly different in their GPAs than Whites but Blacks were found to have lower GPAs than Whites. Also, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between and among the nine identified social cognitive variables. The data from the analysis uncovered ten significant correlations which were as follows: occupational self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy, occupational self-efficacy and vocational interest, occupational self-efficacy and perceived stress, academic self-efficacy and encouragement, academic self-efficacy and outcome expectations, academic self-efficacy and perceived stress, vocational interest and outcome expectations, discouragement and encouragement, coping and perceived stress, outcome expectations and perceived stress. Next, a Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to examine the relationship between academic performance (college GPA) of first-year undergraduate engineering students and the nine identified

  7. The Influence of 16-year-old Students' Gender, Mental Abilities, and Motivation on their Reading and Drawing Submicrorepresentations Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devetak, Iztok; Aleksij Glažar, Saša

    2010-08-01

    Submicrorepresentations (SMRs) are a powerful tool for identifying misconceptions of chemical concepts and for generating proper mental models of chemical phenomena in students' long-term memory during chemical education. The main purpose of the study was to determine which independent variables (gender, formal reasoning abilities, visualization abilities, and intrinsic motivation for learning chemistry) have the maximum influence on students' reading and drawing SMRs. A total of 386 secondary school students (aged 16.3 years) participated in the study. The instruments used in the study were: test of Chemical Knowledge, Test of Logical Thinking, two tests of visualization abilities Patterns and Rotations, and questionnaire on Intrinsic Motivation for Learning Science. The results show moderate, but statistically significant correlations between students' intrinsic motivation, formal reasoning abilities and chemical knowledge at submicroscopic level based on reading and drawing SMRs. Visualization abilities are not statistically significantly correlated with students' success on items that comprise reading or drawing SMRs. It can be also concluded that there is a statistically significant difference between male and female students in solving problems that include reading or drawing SMRs. Based on these statistical results and content analysis of the sample problems, several educational strategies can be implemented for students to develop adequate mental models of chemical concepts on all three levels of representations.

  8. Projecting global datasets to achieve equal areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E.L.; Finn, M.P.; Cox, J.D.; Beard, T.; Ruhl, S.; Bearden, M.

    2003-01-01

    Scientists routinely accomplish global modeling in the raster domain, but recent research has indicated that the transformation of large areas through map projection equations leads to errors. This research attempts to gauge the extent of map projection and resampling effects on the tabulation of categorical areas by comparing the results of three datasets for seven common projections. The datasets, Global Land Cover, Holdridge Life Zones, and Global Vegetation, were compiled at resolutions of 30 arc-second, 1/2 degree, and 1 degree, respectively. These datasets were projected globally from spherical coordinates to plane representations. Results indicate significant problems in the implementation of global projection transformations in commercial software, as well as differences in areal accuracy across projections. The level of raster resolution directly affects the accuracy of areal tabulations, with higher resolution yielding higher accuracy. If the raster resolution is high enough for individual pixels to approximate points, the areal error tends to zero. The 30-arc-second cells appear to approximate this condition.

  9. Bridges with Trigonometry Equals Engineering Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathing, Ahmed L.

    2011-01-01

    Exemplary and fun technology education classes in high schools are always welcome. The author introduces bridge building to his ninth graders and other students who comprise the Introduction to Engineering and Technology course within the first two months of the fall semester. In Georgia, Introduction to Engineering and Technology is the first of…

  10. Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Mathematics Proficiency May Exacerbate Early Gender Gaps in Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson-Cimpian, Joseph P.; Lubienski, Sarah Theule; Ganley, Colleen M.; Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    A recent wave of research suggests that teachers overrate the performance of girls relative to boys and hold more positive attitudes toward girls' mathematics abilities. However, these prior estimates of teachers' supposed female bias are potentially misleading because these estimates (and teachers themselves) confound achievement with…

  11. Accuracy of Self-Reported College GPA: Gender-Moderated Differences by Achievement Level and Academic Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskie, Grace I. L.; Sutton, MaryAnn C.; Eckhardt, Amanda G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of college academic achievement tend to rely on self-reported GPA values, yet evidence is limited regarding the accuracy of those values. With a sample of 194 undergraduate college students, the present study examined whether accuracy of self-reported GPA differed based on level of academic performance or level of academic…

  12. The Effects of Single-Gender Classrooms on the Mathematics Achievement of 9th Grade, African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    An achievement gap exists in mathematics between low-income African American male students and their European American counterparts. Although this problem has been approached using different interventions with minimal results, the impact of homogenous grouping is not well understood in spite of its use. As a result, this study was conducted to…

  13. The Effects of Age and Gender on Student Achievement in Face-To-Face and Online College Algebra Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amro, Hanan Jamal; Mundy, Marie-Anne; Kupczynski, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Demand for online learning has increased in recent years due to the convenience of course delivery. However, some students appear to have difficulties with online education resulting in lack of completion. The study utilized a quantitative approach with archival data. The factors of achievement and demographics were compared for face-to-face and…

  14. Patterns and Trends in Achievement Gaps in Malaysian Secondary Schools (1999-2011): Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saw, Guan Kung

    2016-01-01

    Educational inequality is a highly debated yet empirically understudied topic in Malaysia. This paper examines the patterns and trends of academic achievement gaps by student social groups in Malaysia, drawing upon nationally representative data for the most recent four cohorts (1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011) of eighth-grade Malaysian students from…

  15. Scientific Reasoning, School Achievement and Gender: A Multilevel Study of between and within School Effects in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuneberg, Helena; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Hotulainen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between reasoning and school achievement were studied taking into account the multilevel nature (school- and class-levels) of the data. We gathered data from 51 classes at seven schools in metropolitan and Eastern Finland (N = 769, 395 males, 15-year-old students). To study scientific reasoning, we used a modified version of…

  16. Self-Concept and Science Achievement: Investigating a Reciprocal Relation Model across the Gender Classification in a Crosscultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun; Oliver, J. Steve; Staver, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Science achievement and self-concept are articulated in this study to examine a model of reciprocal relationship during a crosscultural transition. Trend data have been gathered to assess changes of the perceived English importance before and after Hong Kong's sovereignty handover from Britain to China. The data analyses were conducted four times…

  17. Factors Associated with Mathematics Achievement and Participation in Advanced Mathematics Courses: An Examination of Gender Differences from an International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercikan, Kadriye; McCreith, Tanya; Lapointe, Vanessa

    2005-01-01

    This article reports results of an exploratory study examining factors that might be associated with achievement in mathematics and participation in advanced mathematics courses in Canada, Norway, and the United States of America (USA). These factors, which were not directly related to schooling accounted for large degrees of variability, 24% to…

  18. Relationship of Second-Year College Student Wellness Behaviors to Academic Achievement by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate second-year college student wellness behaviors and their relationship to academic achievement. The ten constructs of wellness within Hettler's model of wellness are physical fitness, nutrition, self-care and safety, environmental wellness, social awareness, emotional awareness and sexuality, emotional…

  19. Liberal Gender Role Attitudes and Academic Achievement among Mexican-Origin Adolescents in Two Houston Inner-City Catholic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenzuela, Angela

    1993-01-01

    Among 97 Mexican-origin seventh and eighth graders surveyed in 2 Houston Catholic schools, attitudes toward women's rights and roles in society were generally liberal and girls' attitudes were more liberal than boys'. Girls' attitudes were significantly related to their academic achievement, as measured by their grades in mathematics and language…

  20. Indirect Effects in the Peer Victimization-Academic Achievement Relation: The Role of Academic Self-Concept and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2015-01-01

    Peer victimization is a concern because victimized youth are more likely to have social, emotional, and academic difficulties. The current study examined the link between peer victimization and academic achievement by exploring the indirect effect of academic self-concept on two variables. The sample consisted of 140 middle school students (40%…

  1. Reframing Inclusive Education: Educational Equality as Capability Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that rethinking questions of inclusive education in the light of the value of educational equality--specifically conceived as capability equality, or genuine opportunities to achieve educational functionings--adds some important insights to the current debate on inclusive education. First, it provides a cohesive value…

  2. 75 FR 53559 - Women's Equality Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-21904 Filed 8-30-10; 11:15 am] Billing code... education and economic opportunity, face gender-based violence, and cannot participate fully and equally in... to all Americans, regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability,...

  3. Moving toward Gender Equality: Issues and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Examines society's orientation toward a dominator model of interaction and discusses it within the context of history. Articulates conscious choices counselors can make to move toward a more equitable and humanistic style of interpersonal interaction. Concludes that vital struggle between dominance and partnership is struggle for both men and…

  4. Education from a Gender Equality Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Education is universally acknowledged to benefit individuals and promote national development. Educating females and males produces similar increases in their subsequent earnings and expands future opportunities and choices for both boys and girls. However, educating girls produces many additional socio-economic gains that benefit entire…

  5. Gender Equity for Males. WEEA Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, Craig, Ed.; Bates, Percy, Ed.; Potter, Julia, Ed.

    Traditionally, the term "gender equity" is associated with equalizing the playing field for girls. However, gender equity by definition applies to both genders. This digest states that, in the best possible scenario, gender equitable education provides equal opportunities and enables each student to reach his or her potential, reducing the gender…

  6. Longitudinal relations among inattention, working memory, and academic achievement: testing mediation and the moderating role of gender

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Maria; Martinussen, Rhonda; Tannock, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Behavioral inattention, working memory (WM), and academic achievement share significant variance, but the direction of relationships across development is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether WM mediates the pathway between inattentive behaviour and subsequent academic outcomes. Methods. 204 students from grades 1–4 (49.5% female) were recruited from elementary schools. Participants received assessments of WM and achievement at baseline and one year later. WM measures included a visual-spatial storage task and auditory-verbal storage and manipulation tasks. Teachers completed the SWAN behaviour rating scale both years. Mediation analysis with PROCESS (Hayes, 2013) was used to determine mediation pathways. Results. Teacher-rated inattention indirectly influenced math addition fluency, subtraction fluency and calculation scores through its effect on visual-spatial WM, only for boys. There was a direct relationship between inattention and math outcomes one year later for girls and boys. Children who displayed better attention had higher WM scores, and children with higher WM scores had stronger scores on math outcomes. Bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals for the indirect effects were entirely below zero for boys, for the three math outcomes. WM did not mediate the direct relationship between inattention and reading scores. Discussion. Findings identify inattention and WM as longitudinal predictors for math addition and subtraction fluency and math calculation outcomes one year later, with visual-spatial WM as a significant mediator for boys. Results highlight the close relationship between inattention and WM and their importance in the development of math skills. PMID:26038714

  7. Longitudinal relations among inattention, working memory, and academic achievement: testing mediation and the moderating role of gender.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah A; Rogers, Maria; Martinussen, Rhonda; Tannock, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Behavioral inattention, working memory (WM), and academic achievement share significant variance, but the direction of relationships across development is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether WM mediates the pathway between inattentive behaviour and subsequent academic outcomes. Methods. 204 students from grades 1-4 (49.5% female) were recruited from elementary schools. Participants received assessments of WM and achievement at baseline and one year later. WM measures included a visual-spatial storage task and auditory-verbal storage and manipulation tasks. Teachers completed the SWAN behaviour rating scale both years. Mediation analysis with PROCESS (Hayes, 2013) was used to determine mediation pathways. Results. Teacher-rated inattention indirectly influenced math addition fluency, subtraction fluency and calculation scores through its effect on visual-spatial WM, only for boys. There was a direct relationship between inattention and math outcomes one year later for girls and boys. Children who displayed better attention had higher WM scores, and children with higher WM scores had stronger scores on math outcomes. Bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals for the indirect effects were entirely below zero for boys, for the three math outcomes. WM did not mediate the direct relationship between inattention and reading scores. Discussion. Findings identify inattention and WM as longitudinal predictors for math addition and subtraction fluency and math calculation outcomes one year later, with visual-spatial WM as a significant mediator for boys. Results highlight the close relationship between inattention and WM and their importance in the development of math skills. PMID:26038714

  8. Is Primatology an Equal-Opportunity Discipline?

    PubMed Central

    Borgi, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of “equal-opportunity” discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an “equal-opportunity” discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of “glass ceiling” as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues. PMID:22272353

  9. Gender Equity in Education: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucidi, Alison Danielle

    This document reviews literature on gender equity in U.S. schools. The paper reports that there is an unconscious ignorance on the growing achievement gap between male and female students. Young women in the United States today still are not participating equally in the education system. A 1992 report found that girls do not receive equitable…

  10. An examination of single-gender and coeducational classes: Their impact on the academic achievement of middle school students enrolled in mathematics and science at selected schools in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elam, Jeanette H.

    The purpose of this study was to compare the academic performance of students enrolled in coeducational instruction and single-gender instruction. Within this framework, the researcher examined class type, gender, and racial/ethnicity using the sixth grade CRCT scores of selected students in the areas of mathematics and science. The fifth-grade mathematics and science scores for the same population were used to control for prior knowledge. This study examined the academic achievement of students based on class type, gender, and racial/ethnicity in relation to academic achievement. The study included the CRCT scores for mathematics and science of 6th-grade students at the middle school level who were tested during the 2007--2008 school year. Many studies conducted in the past have stressed females performed better in mathematics and science, while others have stated males performed better in the same areas. Yet, other studies have found conflicting results. A large Australian study (1996), compared the academic performance of students at single-gender and coeducational schools. The conclusion of this study indicated that both males and females who were educated in single-gender classrooms scored significantly higher than did males and females in coeducational classes. A study conducted by Graham Able (2003) documented superior academic performance of students in single-gender schools, after controlling for socioeconomic class and other variables. Able's most significant finding was that the advantage of single-gender schooling was greater for males in terms of academic results than for females. This directly contradicted the educational myth that males performed better in classrooms if females were present. The sample in this study consisted of CRCT scores for 304 sixth-grade students from four different middle schools. Due to the racial composition of the sample, the study only focused on black and white students. School 1 and School 2 involved single-gender

  11. Central gender theoretical concepts in health research: the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Hammarström, Anne; Johansson, Klara; Annandale, Ellen; Ahlgren, Christina; Aléx, Lena; Christianson, Monica; Elwér, Sofia; Eriksson, Carola; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine; Gilenstam, Kajsa; Gustafsson, Per E; Harryson, Lisa; Lehti, Arja; Stenberg, Gunilla; Verdonk, Petra

    2014-02-01

    Despite increasing awareness of the importance of gender perspectives in health science, there is conceptual confusion regarding the meaning and the use of central gender theoretical concepts. We argue that it is essential to clarify how central concepts are used within gender theory and how to apply them to health research. We identify six gender theoretical concepts as central and interlinked-but problematic and ambiguous in health science: sex, gender, intersectionality, embodiment, gender equity and gender equality. Our recommendations are that: the concepts sex and gender can benefit from a gender relational theoretical approach (i.e., a focus on social processes and structures) but with additional attention to the interrelations between sex and gender; intersectionality should go beyond additive analyses to study complex intersections between the major factors which potentially influence health and ensure that gendered power relations and social context are included; we need to be aware of the various meanings given to embodiment, which achieve an integration of gender and health and attend to different levels of analyses to varying degrees; and appreciate that gender equality concerns absence of discrimination between women and men while gender equity focuses on women's and men's health needs, whether similar or different. We conclude that there is a constant need to justify and clarify our use of these concepts in order to advance gender theoretical development. Our analysis is an invitation for dialogue but also a call to make more effective use of the knowledge base which has already developed among gender theorists in health sciences in the manner proposed in this paper. PMID:24265394

  12. Troubling Discourses on Gender and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahelma, Elina

    2014-01-01

    Background: In educational policies, two discourses on gender have existed since the 1980s. I call them the "gender equality discourse" and the "boy discourse". The gender equality discourse in education is based on international and national declarations and plans, and is focused predominantly on the position of girls and…

  13. Equalization among Florida School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kern; Shiver, Lee

    1983-01-01

    This statistical analysis of funding equalization from 1970 to 1981 evaluates the distributional equity achieved by Florida's school finance plan and examines the relationship between selected per pupil revenue measures and variables thought to influence school district spending, concluding that greater equity has not been attained. (MJL)

  14. Gender dysphoria

    MedlinePlus

    Gender dysphoria is a condition in which there is a conflict between a person's physical gender and the ... Gender dysphoria used to be known as gender identity disorder. People with gender dysphoria may act as members ...

  15. 3 CFR 9003 - Proclamation 9003 of August 23, 2013. Women's Equality Day, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... committed to advancing the historic march toward gender equality. We have fought for equal pay, prohibited gender discrimination in America's healthcare system, and established the White House Council on Women... Government-wide strategy to close any gender pay gap within the Federal workforce. To build on this work,...

  16. Closing the Gender Gap: Act Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Gender gaps are pervasive in all walks of economic life and imply large losses in terms of foregone productivity and living standards to the individuals concerned and the economy. This new OECD report focuses on how best to close these gender gaps under four broad headings: (1) Gender equality, social norms and public policies; and gender equality…

  17. Inequality of Opportunity for Educational Achievement in Latin America: Evidence from PISA 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamboa, Luis Fernando; Waltenberg, Fabio D.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate how far away six Latin American countries stand from a normative goal of equality of opportunity for educational achievement in PISA 2006-2009. We work with alternative characterizations of types: gender, school type (public or private), parental education, and their combinations. Following Checchi-Peragine's (2010) non-parametric…

  18. Science EQUALS Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Kitty B., Ed.; Conwell, Catherine R., Ed.

    The purpose of the EQUALS programs is to increase the interest and awareness that females and minorities have concerning mathematics and science related careers. This book, produced by an EQUALS program in North Carolina, contains 35 hands-on, discovery science activities that center around four EQUALS processes--problem solving, cooperative…

  19. Beijing fifteen years on: the persistence of barriers to gender mainstreaming in health policy.

    PubMed

    Payne, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, fifteen years after the Beijing declaration on women's rights, the UN Commission on the Status of Women met to review progress in gender mainstreaming. Reports on gender equality by member states revealed differences in the degree of change achieved in this period, while highlighting common barriers to gender mainstreaming. The same barriers have long been identified by academics and activists, but prove remarkably resistant to strategies to address gender inequalities. This paper reviews approaches to gender mainstreaming in the context of health policy, and suggests that a model of the obstacles to gender mainstreaming, which identifies barriers as essentially pragmatic, conceptual, or political in origin, might enable a more explicit discussion of the factors underlying this resistance and the ways in which they might be challenged. PMID:22292172

  20. "Lernen" and Learning Styles: A Comparative Analysis of the Learning Styles of German Adolescents by Age, Gender, and Academic Achievement Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlawaty, Heide

    2009-01-01

    Students in every nation of the world learn new and difficult material in ways that are often similar and, at the same time, different from the way other students of the same age, gender, race, religion, culture, and nationality prefer to learn. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the preferred learning-style characteristics of…

  1. Effect of ethnicity, gender and drug use history on achieving high rates of affirmative informed consent for genetics research: impact of sharing with a national repository

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Brenda; Jackson, Colin; Ducat, Elizabeth; Ho, Ann; Hamon, Sara; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Aim Genetic research representative of the population is crucial to understanding the underlying causes of many diseases. In a prospective evaluation of informed consent we assessed the willingness of individuals of different ethnicities, gender and drug dependence history to participate in genetic studies in which their genetic sample could be shared with a repository at the National Institutes of Health. Methods Potential subjects were recruited from the general population through the use of flyers and referrals from previous participants and clinicians with knowledge of our study. They could consent to 11 separate choices so that they could specify how and with whom their genetic sample could be shared. Rates of affirmative consent were then analysed by gender, ethnicity and drug dependence history. Results Of 1416 volunteers enrolled, 99.7% gave affirmative informed consent for studies of addiction conducted in our laboratory. No significant difference was found for participation in genetic studies conducted in our laboratory by gender, ethnicity or drug dependence history. Over all 11 questions, individuals with a history of drug use were more likely to agree to consent to participate in our study than were healthy volunteers. Conclusion A high percentage of each category of gender, ethnicity and drug history, gave affirmative consent at all levels. The level of detail in and the amount of time spent reviewing the informed consent, and a relationship of trust with the clinical investigator may contribute to this outcome. PMID:21266386

  2. Gender Differences in Mathematics and Science: The Role of the Actiotope in Determining Individuals' Achievements and Confidence in Their Own Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun; Harder, Bettina; Park, Kyungbin; Portešová, Šárka; Porath, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Despite changes, gender differences in math and science continue to exist in some countries. We examined whether the actiotopes of boys and girls at the high school level in math and science differed and the extent to which (a) their actiotope components, (b) the progressive development of their actiotopes (dynamic perspective), and (c) the…

  3. Does Gender Have an Impact on the Potential Benefits Learners May Achieve in Two Contexts Compared: Formal Instruction and Formal Instruction + Content and Language Integrated Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roquet, Helena; Llopis, Jaume; Pérez-Vidal, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the degree of influence of one individual factor, namely gender, on the level of English competence attained in two different groups of intermediate-level Catalan Spanish adolescent learners of English as a foreign language: the first group (Group A) is 1 year younger and follows formal instruction (FI) and in parallel…

  4. Remedial Help in Inclusive Classrooms: Gender Differences in the Enhancement of Mathematics Achievement of Students through PAL (Peer-Assisted Learning)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obidoa, Mabel A.; Eskay, Michael; Onwubolu, Catherine O.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the effect of PAL (peer-assisted learning) on students' mathematics performance in Enugu State of Nigeria. It used pre-test and post-test non-randomized control group design. Four research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. The population was SS II (senior secondary school class II)…

  5. Trends in Achievement Gaps in First-Year College Courses for Racial/Ethnic, Income, and Gender Subgroups: A 12-Year Study. ACT Research Report Series 2013 (8)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorah, Julie; Ndum, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated gaps in the academic success of college student subgroups defined by race/ethnicity, income, and gender. We studied trends over time in the success of students in these subgroups in particular first-year college courses: English Composition I, College Algebra, social science courses, and Biology. The study is based…

  6. Gender Differences in Gifted Adolescents' Math/Verbal Self-Concepts and Math/Verbal Achievement: Implications for the STEM Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinn, Anne N.; McQueen, Kand S.; Clark, Gina L.; Rumsey, Jessica L.

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigated the gender differences of gifted adolescents' math/verbal self-concept and math/verbal ability by examining the Internal/External Frame of Reference Model (I/E model; Marsh, 1986). The sample consisted of 181 gifted adolescents, ranging in age from 12 to 16 years old. Gifted adolescents' math/verbal ability was…

  7. Gender in Schools and Culture: Taking Stock of Education in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemmi, Irene

    2015-01-01

    When politicians discuss Italy's position in terms of achieving equality between men and women, the school environment is rarely called into question or mentioned. This is despite the fact that gender inequality remains a prominent feature of the Italian education system. The reason for this failure to perceive the problem, and the consequent lack…

  8. It Began with Hypatia and Ada: Helping Girls Bridge the Technology Gender Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Daniel D.

    1996-01-01

    Examines causes of female negativity towards technology and presents ways to improve female attitudes and increase involvement in technology education. Discusses the bridging of the gender gap to allow females and males to achieve equality in technology fields. Describes online resources, television programs, and groups that promote female…

  9. [Gender, paid work, domestic chores and health in Spain].

    PubMed

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Cortès, Imma

    2004-01-01

    The present study reviews gender-related differences and inequalities in paid work and domestic chores in Spain. The impact of both types of work on health are analyzed and the main policies of the European Union (EU) and Spain to achieve gender equality at work are described. In Spain, fewer women are in paid work than in other EU countries. The labor market displays horizontal segregation (men and women work in different sectors), as well as vertical segregation (men hold more senior positions), leading to gender-related differences in employment conditions and exposure to occupational hazards. The precariousness of work is significantly higher in women (19% unemployment in women versus 9% in men) and women are more likely than men to have temporary contracts. Men are more frequently exposed to physical risks and suffer a greater number of occupational accidents; women, especially manual workers, are more frequently exposed to psychosocial risks. Most domestic chores continue to be performed by women, even by working women, which negatively affects their health. The EU has made an increase in female employment a priority, which means that from 2000-2010 Spain should create 3 million jobs for women and implement work/family policies. Achieving gender equality at work requires employment policies that would guarantee equal opportunities for both sexes, as well as shared responsibility for domestic chores between men and women. In Spain, moreover, there is an urgent need to significantly increase public childcare facilities and resources for the care of other dependent individuals. PMID:15171842

  10. A multi-level differential item functioning analysis of trends in international mathematics and science study: Potential sources of gender and minority difference among U.S. eighth graders' science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xiaoyu

    Science is an area where a large achievement gap has been observed between White and minority, and between male and female students. The science minority gap has continued as indicated by the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Studies (TIMSS). TIMSS also shows a gender gap favoring males emerging at the eighth grade. Both gaps continue to be wider in the number of doctoral degrees and full professorships awarded (NSF, 2008). The current study investigated both minority and gender achievement gaps in science utilizing a multi-level differential item functioning (DIF) methodology (Kamata, 2001) within fully Bayesian framework. All dichotomously coded items from TIMSS 2007 science assessment at eighth grade were analyzed. Both gender DIF and minority DIF were studied. Multi-level models were employed to identify DIF items and sources of DIF at both student and teacher levels. The study found that several student variables were potential sources of achievement gaps. It was also found that gender DIF favoring male students was more noticeable in the content areas of physics and earth science than biology and chemistry. In terms of item type, the majority of these gender DIF items were multiple choice than constructed response items. Female students also performed less well on items requiring visual-spatial ability. Minority students performed significantly worse on physics and earth science items as well. A higher percentage of minority DIF items in earth science and biology were constructed response than multiple choice items, indicating that literacy may be the cause of minority DIF. Three-level model results suggested that some teacher variables may be the cause of DIF variations from teacher to teacher. It is essential for both middle school science teachers and science educators to find instructional methods that work more effectively to improve science achievement of both female and minority students

  11. A study of the effects of gender and different instructional media (computer-assisted instruction tutorials vs. textbook) on student attitudes and achievement in a team-taught integrated science class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eardley, Julie Anne

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different instructional media (computer assisted instruction (CAI) tutorial vs. traditional textbook) on student attitudes toward science and computers and achievement scores in a team-taught integrated science course, ENS 1001, "The Whole Earth Course," which was offered at Florida Institute of Technology during the Fall 2000 term. The effect of gender on student attitudes toward science and computers and achievement scores was also investigated. This study employed a randomized pretest-posttest control group experimental research design with a sample of 30 students (12 males and 18 females). Students had registered for weekly lab sessions that accompanied the course and had been randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. The treatment group used a CAI tutorial for completing homework assignments and the control group used the required textbook for completing homework assignments. The Attitude toward Science and Computers Questionnaire and Achievement Test were the two instruments administered during this study to measure students' attitudes and achievement score changes. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), using hierarchical multiple regression/correlation (MRC), was employed to determine: (1) treatment versus control group attitude and achievement differences; and (2) male versus female attitude and achievement differences. The differences between the treatment group's and control group's homework averages were determined by t test analyses. The overall MANCOVA model was found to be significant at p < .05. Examining research factor set independent variables separately resulted in gender being the only variable that significantly contributed in explaining the variability in a dependent variable, attitudes toward science and computers. T test analyses of the homework averages showed no significant differences. Contradictory to the findings of this study, anecdotal information from

  12. Early Understanding of Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairéad; McMahon, Áine

    2013-01-01

    Quite a bit of the arithmetic in elementary school contains elements of algebraic reasoning. After researching and testing a number of instructional strategies with Irish third graders, these authors found effective methods for cultivating a relational concept of equality in third-grade students. Understanding equality is fundamental to algebraic…

  13. Equality and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The two big events in higher education during 2010 were the implementation of the Equality Act, and the introduction of a new dispensation on fees and funding. The former is intended to promote equality, the latter is premised on the need for economy. In this article, the author focuses on the effect of the latter on the former. He considers this…

  14. Integer Equal Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, C A; Schulz, A S

    2009-01-07

    The integer equal flow problem is an NP-hard network flow problem, in which all arcs in given sets R{sub 1}, ..., R{sub {ell}} must carry equal flow. We show this problem is effectively inapproximable, even if the cardinality of each set R{sub k} is two. When {ell} is fixed, it is solvable in polynomial time.

  15. Effects of Computer-Assisted STAD, LTM and ICI Cooperative Learning Strategies on Nigerian Secondary School Students' Achievement, Gender and Motivation in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrari, Isiaka Amosa; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Thomas, David Akpa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction on Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) and Learning Together Model (LTM) cooperative learning strategies on Nigerian secondary students' achievement and motivation in physics. The efficacy of Authors developed computer assisted instructional package (CAI) for teaching…

  16. Effects of Computer-Assisted STAD, LTM and ICI Cooperative Learning Strategies on Nigerian Secondary School Students' Achievement, Gender and Motivation in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Thomas, David Akpa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction on Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) and Learning Together (LT) cooperative learning strategies on Nigerian secondary students' achievement and motivation in physics. The effectiveness of computer assisted instructional package (CAI) for teaching physics concepts in…

  17. Density Equalizing Map Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Close, E. R.; Merrill, D. W.; Holmes, H. H.

    1995-07-01

    A geographic map is mathematically transformed so that the subareas of the map are proportional to a given quantity such as population. In other words, population density is equalized over the entire map. The transformed map can be used as a display tool, or it can be statistically analyzed. For example, cases of disease plotted on the transformed map should be uniformly distributed at random, if disease rates are everywhere equal. Geographic clusters of disease can be readily identified, and their statistical significance determined, on a density equalized map.

  18. Equalization in redundant channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulpule, Bhalchandra R. (Inventor); Collins, Robert E. (Inventor); Cominelli, Donald F. (Inventor); O'Neill, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A miscomparison between a channel's configuration data base and a voted system configuration data base in a redundant channel system having identically operating, frame synchronous channels triggers autoequalization of the channel's historical signal data bases in a hierarchical, chronological manner with that of a correctly operating channel. After equalization, symmetrization of the channel's configuration data base with that of the system permits upgrading of the previously degraded channel to full redundancy. An externally provided equalization command, e.g., manually actuated, can also trigger equalization.

  19. Density Equalizing Map Projections

    1995-07-01

    A geographic map is mathematically transformed so that the subareas of the map are proportional to a given quantity such as population. In other words, population density is equalized over the entire map. The transformed map can be used as a display tool, or it can be statistically analyzed. For example, cases of disease plotted on the transformed map should be uniformly distributed at random, if disease rates are everywhere equal. Geographic clusters of diseasemore » can be readily identified, and their statistical significance determined, on a density equalized map.« less

  20. Does Gender Matter? an Exploratory Study of Perspectives Across Genders, Age and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carinci, Sherrie; Wong, Pia Lindquist

    2009-11-01

    Using a convenience sample and survey research methods, the authors seek to better understand how perspectives on gender are shaped by individuals' age, level of education and gender. Study participants responded in writing to scenarios and survey questions, revealing their personal views on gender as an identity category and as a marker in the social hierarchy. Analysis indicated that there were differences between male and female views on these dimensions of gender, and that age and educational levels were also influential. While younger respondents from both genders demonstrated flexibility in their definitions of gender and expressed strong support for gender equality, they were noticeably lacking in their knowledge of the historical context of gender relations and did not show the skills required to realise their ideals of gender equality, especially when compared to older respondents of both genders with higher levels of educational attainment.

  1. Data on gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Gillian

    2012-05-01

    In her Forum article "Mending the broken pipe" (April pp16-17), Lesley Cohen showed very encouraging data on the increasing numbers of female physicists at Imperial College London, which is one of the leaders in driving gender equality among academics in the UK.

  2. GENDERED CHALLENGE, GENDERED RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, ERIN L.; AMMONS, SAMANTHA K.; CHERMACK, KELLY; MOEN, PHYLLIS

    2010-01-01

    This article integrates research on gendered organizations and the work-family interface to investigate an innovative workplace initiative, the Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE), implemented in the corporate headquarters of Best Buy, Inc. While flexible work policies common in other organizations “accommodate” individuals, this initiative attempts a broader and deeper critique of the organizational culture. We address two research questions: How does this initiative attempt to change the masculinized ideal worker norm? And what do women's and men's responses reveal about the persistent ways that gender structures work and family life? Data demonstrate the ideal worker norm is pervasive and powerful, even as employees begin critically examining expectations regarding work time that have historically privileged men. Employees' responses to ROWE are also gendered. Women (especially mothers) are more enthusiastic, while men are more cautious. Ambivalence about and resistance to change is expressed in different ways depending on gender and occupational status. PMID:20625518

  3. Equal is as equal does: challenging Vatican views on women.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The authors of this piece are women from the Roman Catholic tradition who are critical of the Vatican position on women's rights. The Report of the Holy See in Preparation for the Fourth World Conference on Women reveals a religious fundamentalism that misuses tradition and anthropology to limit women's roles and rights. The Vatican is itself a self-proclaimed state that offers women neither opportunities nor protections within its own organization, and there is no evidence of women's participation in the preparation of its report. The Vatican document constructs a vision of women and men in which men are normative persons, whose dignity is conferred by their humanity, and women are the variant other, defined by and granted dignity by their reproductive and mothering functions. The Vatican document is anti-feminist. It criticizes the "radical feminists" of the 1960s for trying to deny sexual differences, and accuses today's Western feminists of ignoring the needs of women in developing countries while pursuing selfish and hedonistic goals. It makes no recognition of the work of feminists to improve the lives of women worldwide. The Vatican document claims to support women's equality, but it qualifies each statement of equality with a presumption of difference. The document defines women as vulnerable without naming men as responsible for the oppression and violence to which women are vulnerable. It ridicules as feminist cant the well-documented fact that the home is the setting of most violence against women. The Vatican decries the suffering families undergo as a result of cumpulsory birth control and abortion policies, while it would deny families sex education, contraceptives, and safe abortion, thereby making pregnancy cumpulsory. A new vision of social justice is needed, one that: 1) rests on a radical equality, in which both women and men are expected to contribute to work, education, culture, morality, and reproduction; 2) accepts a "discipleship of equals

  4. Shirts and Skins: A Talk on Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The article is a reprint of an address delivered by the author to students at Milton Academy in Milton, Massachusetts, in Fall 2012. It addresses the author's belief in the important role of schools in promoting gender equality, the gender gap in educational attainment, and the social construction of gender. The author stresses the importance…

  5. Gender Tales: Tensions in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfeld, Judith S., Ed.; Yerian, Suzanne, Ed.

    This casebook is intended to supplement textbooks and readings that present theory and research findings on gender equity. Many of these cases originated in real classroom settings and are intended for use with preservice teachers. Part 1, "The Meaning of Gender Equality in the Schools," contains: "'Girlspeak' and "Boyspeak': Gender Differences in…

  6. Gender Segregation in the Employment of Higher Education Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuorinen-Lampila, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the employment and placement in the working life of Finnish higher education graduates (i.e. graduates from universities and polytechnics), focusing on gender equality. It reports a study on gender segregation in higher education and working life, considered in relation to Nordic gender equality policies. The data were…

  7. Focus on gender and academic achievement. When girls learn more than boys: the influence of time in school and pedagogy in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Fuller, B; Hua, H; Snyder Cw

    1994-08-01

    Girls often outperform boys in language and reading achievement. The recent study of reading skills by the International Association for the Evaluation of Education Achievement found female students at the junior-secondary level to have comparatively higher proficiencies in 28 of 31 countries. The authors explore in the context of Botswana's junior-secondary schools how school and family factors influence young females' widespread advantage in acquiring literacy and reading skills. Research on female school attainment is reviewed; the Botswana Teacher, Classroom, and Achievement Study described; and empirical findings presented on how time in school, teacher characteristics, and their pedagogical practices influence female and male achievement. The study assessed how much English and Math was learned over one academic year among 4948 form 1 and form 2 students from 31 junior-secondary schools. 214 teachers were observed during at least two class periods for one week. It is noted in closing that time in school can be a very influential factor, Botswana's junior-secondary schools seem to be reducing differences in educational attainment across different local communities, and specific school and classroom features which are raising achievement remain a mystery. Study findings have implications for how learning gains for girls may be raised. PMID:12318867

  8. Transhumanism and moral equality.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James

    2007-10-01

    Conservative thinkers such as Francis Fukuyama have produced a battery of objections to the transhumanist project of fundamentally enhancing human capacities. This article examines one of these objections, namely that by allowing some to greatly extend their capacities, we will undermine the fundamental moral equality of human beings. I argue that this objection is groundless: once we understand the basis for human equality, it is clear that anyone who now has sufficient capacities to count as a person from the moral point of view will continue to count as one even if others are fundamentally enhanced; and it is mistaken to think that a creature which had even far greater capacities than an unenhanced human being should count as more than an equal from the moral point of view. PMID:17845448

  9. 43 CFR 2201.6 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Value equalization; cash equalization... PROCEDURES Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.6 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a) To equalize the agreed upon values of the Federal and non-Federal lands involved in an exchange, either...

  10. Gender Differences in Learning Constructs, Shifts in Learning Constructs, and Their Relationship to Course Achievement in a Structured Inquiry, Yearlong College Physics Course for Life Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann M. L.; Rozman, Michelle; Potter, Wendell H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated differences and shifts in learning and motivation constructs among male and female students in a nonmajors, yearlong structured inquiry college physics course and examined how these variables were related to physics understanding and course achievement. Tests and questionnaires measured students' learning approaches,…

  11. The Role of Parental Support, Parental Monitoring, and Time Spent with Parents in Adolescent Academic Achievement in Iceland: A Structural Model of Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between parental support, parental monitoring, and time spent with parents and academic achievement among adolescent girls and boys in Iceland, a high-income per-capita Nordic country. The indirect role of school effort is also examined. Data of 7430 9th and 10th graders is analyzed in the study. Structural…

  12. Single-Gender Education versus Coeducation for Girls: A Study of Mathematics Achievement and Attitudes toward Mathematics of Middle-School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, Judith E.

    The mathematics achievement and mathematics attitudes of eighth-grade female students attending independent coeducational middle schools were compared with those of students in independent all-girls middle schools. Participants were 467 8th-grade girls from 10 all girls middle schools, 208 girls from 10 independent coeducational middle schools,…

  13. Gender, Mathematics, Reading Comprehension and Science Reasoning as Predictors of Science Achievement among African-American Students at a Historical Black College or University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Consuella Artiemese

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated predictors that influence the science achievement of African-American non-science majors in a Physical Science class. The population consisted of male and female college students enrolled in Physical Science courses at a historical black college or university (HBCU) located in the southeastern portion of the United States.…

  14. The Relationship of Leadership Styles, Gender and Years of Experience of Middle School Principals in North Carolina on Achievement and Growth Trends on the End of Grade Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Morris, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Leadership is an ever changing process and principals play a key role in the instructional focus of a school which often times created success in instruction (Riordan, 2003). Principals face different challenges today while improving schools and student academic achievement. The perceptions of an effective school leader has changed over the years…

  15. Frames in contestation: gendering domestic violence policies in five central and eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Krizsan, Andrea; Popa, Raluca Maria

    2014-07-01

    The article looks at the translation of international norms on domestic violence to the national level in five Central and Eastern European countries. It argues that translation brings a concept of domestic violence, which stretches gender equality ideas underpinning international norms so as to be easier to endorse by mainstream policy actors, and results in policies framed in degendered individual rights terms. The potential for keeping gender equality in focus is then guaranteed by gendering policy processes through empowerment of gender equality actors at all stages. Absence of ownership of the policy by gender equality actors risks co-optation by frames contesting gender equality. PMID:25053673

  16. Time to address gender discrimination and inequality in the health workforce

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gender is a key factor operating in the health workforce. Recent research evidence points to systemic gender discrimination and inequalities in health pre-service and in-service education and employment systems. Human resources for health (HRH) leaders’ and researchers’ lack of concerted attention to these inequalities is striking, given the recognition of other forms of discrimination in international labour rights and employment law discourse. If not acted upon, gender discrimination and inequalities result in systems inefficiencies that impede the development of the robust workforces needed to respond to today’s critical health care needs. This commentary makes the case that there is a clear need for sex- and age-disaggregated and qualitative data to more precisely illuminate gender-related trends and dynamics in the health workforce. Because of their importance for measurement, the paper also presents definitions and examples of sex or gender discrimination and offers specific case examples. At a broader level, the commentary argues that gender equality should be an HRH research, leadership, and governance priority, where the aim is to strengthen health pre-service and continuing professional education and employment systems to achieve better health systems outcomes, including better health coverage. Good HRH leadership, governance, and management involve recognizing the diversity of health workforces, acknowledging gender constraints and opportunities, eliminating gender discrimination and equalizing opportunity, making health systems responsive to life course events, and protecting health workers’ labour rights at all levels. A number of global, national and institution-level actions are proposed to move the gender equality and HRH agendas forward. PMID:24885565

  17. Time to address gender discrimination and inequality in the health workforce.

    PubMed

    Newman, Constance

    2014-01-01

    Gender is a key factor operating in the health workforce. Recent research evidence points to systemic gender discrimination and inequalities in health pre-service and in-service education and employment systems. Human resources for health (HRH) leaders' and researchers' lack of concerted attention to these inequalities is striking, given the recognition of other forms of discrimination in international labour rights and employment law discourse. If not acted upon, gender discrimination and inequalities result in systems inefficiencies that impede the development of the robust workforces needed to respond to today's critical health care needs.This commentary makes the case that there is a clear need for sex- and age-disaggregated and qualitative data to more precisely illuminate gender-related trends and dynamics in the health workforce. Because of their importance for measurement, the paper also presents definitions and examples of sex or gender discrimination and offers specific case examples.At a broader level, the commentary argues that gender equality should be an HRH research, leadership, and governance priority, where the aim is to strengthen health pre-service and continuing professional education and employment systems to achieve better health systems outcomes, including better health coverage. Good HRH leadership, governance, and management involve recognizing the diversity of health workforces, acknowledging gender constraints and opportunities, eliminating gender discrimination and equalizing opportunity, making health systems responsive to life course events, and protecting health workers' labour rights at all levels. A number of global, national and institution-level actions are proposed to move the gender equality and HRH agendas forward. PMID:24885565

  18. Report examines links among women's equality, smaller families, healthier children.

    PubMed

    1997-06-01

    This article reports on a new study by Nancy Riley about the relationship between gender equality and fertility and mortality declines in developing countries. Findings indicate that mortality and fertility has declined in countries without gender equality. Fertility and child mortality decline is related to women's educational status and employment. Riley argues that women's power to make decisions about health care, contraception, and the timing and number of children, if affected by education and paid employment, is more likely to lower mortality and fertility. Women's power may decline in countries where women's education and employment are advanced, but their role in society remains that of mothers. All developing countries showed a relationship between the amount of education and family size and child health. Fertility tends to be lowest among highly educated women. However, women's education has a stronger effect on child health and mortality. Maternal education also affects child nutritional status. Women's education offers women the option of job opportunities and new values or ideas. Women's employment may result in increased resources and status or in poverty and heavy physical labor. Societal views of women's work may reflect an increased self-worth for working women or lower status or the failure of a husband to adequately provide for family welfare. The key to the impact of women's employment is whether work becomes a way to achieve greater power for women in decision making about child welfare and family planning. Employment outside the home educates. In most countries, women who worked for cash had fewer children, but differences in fertility between working and nonworking women range from small to large. Higher income for Nigerian women means more children. Women's work also has inconsistent effects on child health. PMID:12320942

  19. Equal Opportunity in Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This overview of developments in housing opportunities for minorities and women includes an historical review of housing discrimination, its nature, and its effects. Federal legislation and Federal actions which were taken to assure equal housing opportunities for women and minorities are described. Other topic areas addressed include minority…

  20. Equality and Academic Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardarson, Atli

    2013-01-01

    A recent national curriculum guide for upper secondary schools in my home country, Iceland, requires secondary schools to work towards equality and five other overarching aims. This requirement raises questions about to what extent secondary schools have to change their curricula in order to approach these aims or work towards them in an adequate…