Science.gov

Sample records for achieve good control

  1. How To Achieve Good Library Acoustics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how to create a good acoustical environment for college libraries, focusing on requirements related to the HVAC system and lighting, and noting the importance of good maintenance. A sidebar looks at how to design and achieve the most appropriate HVAC and lighting systems for optimum library acoustics. (SM)

  2. A new surgical strategy for breast conservation in locally advanced breast cancer that achieves a good locoregional control rate: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Moneer, M; Ismael, S; Khaled, H; El-Gantery, M; Zaghloul, M S; El-Didi, M

    2001-06-01

    The scope of breast conserving surgery has recently expanded to include locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients who are downstaged following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). However, the efficacy of this approach in achieving adequate locoregional control of disease is in doubt. Some reports have attributed the failure to the association of NACT-induced tumour downstaging which can leave multifocal in situ and invasive lesions around the main tumour mass. In the present study, in order to eradicate all possible tumour satellites, a very wide local excision that included the whole original tumour-bearing area was performed regardless of the expected wide defect. This defect was then immediately reconstructed by an ipsilateral pedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous (LDM) flap. The study included 26 patients with LABC without evidence of primary tumour-multicentricity. Tumours were downstaged following NACT. The early cosmetic outcome was good in the majority of cases. Early complications were minimal. Twenty-two patients had a mean follow up period of 30.2 (range 7-50) months. In those evaluable cases, locoregional control of the disease was excellent (100%) but distant metastases occurred in seven cases (31.8%). PMID:14965588

  3. The Impossibility of Achieving Consistently Good Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    1987-01-01

    People disturb themselves with irrational beliefs, some of which are obvious and blatant while others are subtle and tricky. The latter type make people more disturbed than do the former kind. Even when helped by the most efficient forms of psychotherapy, humans have difficulty achieving and maintaining good mental health. (Author/VM)

  4. BIOMONITORING TO ACHIEVE CONTROL OF TOXIC EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This 48 - page Technology Transfer Report provides a case study of how water quality-based toxicity control procedures can be combined with chemical analyses and biological stream surveys to achieve more effective water pollution control. t describes how regulatory agencies used ...

  5. Condominium Design: Good and Bad Noise Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargens, C. W.; Schutz, Victor K.

    This paper discusses pitfalls in condominium design and the incorpoation of related noise control problems into classroom situations. Two case studies are provided, and a list of architectural noise problems found in many condominiums is included. (CP)

  6. Achievements of schistosomiasis control in China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hongchang; Jiang, Qingwu; Zhao, Genming; He, Na

    2002-01-01

    The control of schistosomiasis has been spectacularly successful in terms of controlling endemicity and severity of the disease during the last 50 years. It can be categorized into two stages. From 1955 through 1980, the transmission-control strategy had been widely and successfully carried out. By the end of 1980, the epidemic of schistosomiasis was successfully circumscribed in certain core regions including areas at the middle and low reaches of the Yangtze River and some mountainous areas in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, where control of schistosomiasis had been demonstrated to be very difficult to be sustained. Therefore, since 1980, schistosomiasis control in China has been modified to employ a stepwise strategy, based on which morbidity control has been given priorities and if possible transmission control has been pursued. However, since snail-ridden areas remain unchanged so far, reinfections occur frequently. This necessitates a maintenance phase to consolidate the achievements in the control of schistosomiasis. In the mean time, we are challenged with some environmental, social and economical changes in terms of controlling schistosomiasis. Successfully controlling schistosomiasis in China is still a long-term task but will be achieved without doubt along with the economic development and the promotion of living and cultural standard of people. PMID:12426618

  7. Malaria control: achievements, problems and strategies.

    PubMed

    Nájera, J A

    2001-06-01

    Even if history has not always been the Magistra vitae, Cicero expected it to be, it should provide, as Baas said, a mirror in which to observe and compare the past and present in order to draw therefrom well-grounded conclusions for the future. Based on this belief, this paper aims to provide an overview of the foundations and development of malaria control policies during the XX century. It presents an analysis of the conflicting tendencies which shaped the development of these policies and which appear to have oscillated between calls for frontal attack in an all-out campaign and calls for sustainable gains, even if slow. It discusses the various approaches to the control of malaria, their achievements and their limitations, not only to serve as a background to understand better the foundations of current policies, but also to prevent that simplistic generalisations may again lead to exaggerated expectations and disillusion. The first part of the paper is devoted to the development of malaria control during the first half of the century, characterised by the ups and downs in the reliance on mosquito control as the control measure applicable everywhere. The proliferation of "man-made-malaria", which accompanied the push for economic development in most of the endemic countries, spurred the need for control interventions and, while great successes were obtained in many specific projects, the general campaigns proposed by the enthusiasts of vector control faced increasing difficulties in their practical implementation in the field. Important events, which may be considered representative of this period are, on the campaign approach, the success of Gorgas in the Panama Canal, but also the failure of the Mian Mir project in India; while on the developmental approach, the Italian and Dutch schools of malariology, the Tennessee Valley and the development of malaria sanitation, included the so called species sanitation. The projection of these developments to a global

  8. Psychoticism and disruptive behavior can be also good predictors of school achievement.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Widaman, Keith; Mansur-Alves, Marcela; Bacelar, Tatiane Dias; Saldanha, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The relations of Gf (Standard Progressive Matrices Raven), Gc (verbal scale of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Version), personality dimensions (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Junior Version), and disruptive behavior (TDAH scale) with school achievement (measured by TDE test and PISA test) were investigated. Two samples of students (total N = 534) representing a broad range of socioeconomic status (SES) participated in this study. Path models were conducted. The results demonstrated that (1) in both samples no sex differences related to school achievement were found; (2) in the first sample, after controlling for age and SES differences, Gf and psychoticism predicted (.38 and -.13, respectively) school achievement (measured by TDE test); (3) in the second sample, after controlling for SES differences to which additional measures were administered, Gf and Gc positively predicted (.22 and .40, respectively) school achievement (measured by PISA test). In addition, psychoticism and disruptive behavior also predicted school performance (-.14 and -.28, respectively). Some theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:23866206

  9. Enriching the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…

  10. [Good agricultural practice (GAP) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) for ten years: achievements, problems and proposals].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Wang, Gui-Hua; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Mei-Lan; He, Ya-Li; Han, Bang-Xing; Chen, Nai-Fu; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to summarize the achievements during the implementation process of good agricultural practice (GAP) in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), and on basis of analyzing the existing problems of GAP, to propose further implementation of GAP in TCM growing. Since the launch of GAP in CMM growing ten years ago, it has acquired great achievements, including: (1) The promulgation of a series of measures for the administration of the GAP approval in the CMM growing; (2) The expanded planting area of CMM; (3) The increased awareness of standardized CMM growing among farmers and enterprises; (4) The establishment of GAP implementation bases for CMM growing; (5) The improvement of theory and methodology for CMM growing; (6) The development of a large group of experts and scholars in GAP approval for CMM production. The problems existing in the production include: (1) A deep understanding of GAP and its certification is still needed; (2) The distribution of the certification base is not reasonable; (3) The geo-economics effect and the backward farming practices are thought to be the bottlenecks in the standardization of CMM growing and the scale production of CMM; (4) Low comparative effectiveness limits the development of the GAP; (5) The base of breeding improved variety is blank; (6) The immature of the cultivation technique lead to the risk of production process; (7) The degradation of soil microbial and the continuous cropping obstacle restrict the sustainable development of the GAP base. To further promote the health and orderly GAP in the CMM growing, the authors propose: (1) To change the mode of production; (2) To establish a sound standard system so as to ensure quality products for fair prices; (3) To fully consider the geo-economic culture and vigorously promote the definite cultivating of traditional Chinese medicinal materials; (4) To strengthen the transformation and generalization of basic researches and achievements, in order to provide technical

  11. Achieving Good Perioperative Outcomes After Pancreaticoduodenectomy in a Low-Volume Setting: A 25-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Chedid, Aljamir D.; Chedid, Marcio F.; Winkelmann, Leonardo V.; Filho, Tomaz J. M. Grezzana; Kruel, Cleber D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative mortality following pancreaticoduodenectomy has improved over time and is lower than 5% in selected high-volume centers. Based on several large literature series on pancreaticoduodenectomy from high-volume centers, some defend that high annual volumes are necessary for good outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy. We report here the outcomes of a low annual volume pancreaticoduodenectomy series after incorporating technical expertise from a high-volume center. We included all patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy performed by a single surgeon (ADC.) as treatment for periampullary malignancies from 1981 to 2005. Outcomes of this series were compared to those of 3 high-volume literature series. Additionally, outcomes for first 10 cases in the present series were compared to those of all 37 remaining cases in this series. A total of 47 pancreaticoduodenectomies were performed over a 25-year period. Overall in-hospital mortality was 2 cases (4.3%), and morbidity occurred in 23 patients (48.9%). Both mortality and morbidity were similar to those of each of the three high-volume center comparison series. Comparison of the outcomes for the first 10 to the remaining 37 cases in this series revealed that the latter 37 cases had inferior mortality (20% versus 0%; P = 0.042), less tumor-positive margins (50 versus 13.5%; P = 0.024), less use of intraoperative blood transfusions (90% versus 32.4%; P = 0.003), and tendency to a shorter length of in-hospital stay (20 versus 15.8 days; P = 0.053). Accumulation of surgical experience and incorporation of expertise from high-volume centers may enable achieving satisfactory outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy in low-volume settings whenever referral to a high-volume center is limited. PMID:25875555

  12. The Longitudinal Effects of Achievement Goals and Perceived Control on University Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Lia M.; Perry, Raymond P.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Stewart, Tara L.; Newall, Nancy E. G.; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2014-01-01

    In the area of achievement motivation, students' beliefs pertaining to achievement goals and perceived control have separately guided a large amount theoretical and empirical research. However, limited research has considered the simultaneous effects of goals and control on achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine primary and…

  13. Raising the Achievement of White Working Class Pupils: Good Practice in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kirstin; Demie, Feyisa

    2015-01-01

    This research identifies strategies that schools have used to raise achievement among white working class pupils in multiracial schools. The methodological approach comprises case studies of schools and focus group interviews to ascertain the views of teachers, parents and children about strategies that worked to raise achievement. The study…

  14. Estimates of Savings Achievable from Irrigation Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham

    2014-03-28

    This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.

  15. Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Lisa; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children's and adolescents' well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012). The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years) and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years). The students completed the VIA-Youth (Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth), a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students' positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1), teachers rated the students' overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2), we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples, school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of some of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths. PMID:26029144

  16. Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Lisa; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children’s and adolescents’ well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012). The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years) and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years). The students completed the VIA-Youth (Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth), a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students’ positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1), teachers rated the students’ overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2), we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples, school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of some of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths. PMID:26029144

  17. Raising the Achievement of Portuguese Pupils in British Schools: A Case Study of Good Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demie, Feyisa; Lewis, Kirstin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research was to study the experiences of Portuguese heritage pupils in British schools. The main findings from empirical data suggest Portuguese children are underachieving at the end of primary education but the case study confirms that in good schools Portuguese pupils do well and have made huge improvements over the periods. The…

  18. Integrating Economic and Social Policy: Good Practices from High-Achieving Countries. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Santosh

    This paper examines the successes of 10 "high achievers," countries with social indicators far higher than might be expected, given their national wealth, pulling together the lessons learned for social policy in the developing world. The 10 countries identified are Costa Rica, Cuba, Barbados, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Kerala, Sri Lanka,…

  19. How Good Are the Asians? Refuting Four Myths about Asian-American Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yong; Qiu, Wei

    2009-01-01

    The "model minority" myth is multi-layered and need to be demystified on several levels. Authors Yong Zhao and Wei Qiu challenge four myths about Asian-American students: (1) Not all Asian American students achieve the level of academic excellence and thus efforts must be made to treat each student as an independent individual; (2) Asian American…

  20. Removing the Barriers: Raising Achievement Levels for Minority Ethnic Pupils. Exploring Good Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    This resource kit, which can be used with an accompanying videotape and written materials, shows how three English secondary schools have succeeded in raising the achievement of their ethnic minority students by increasing expectations of what each student is capable of, valuing diversity, working in partnership with parents, and encouraging…

  1. Good News for New Orleans: Early Evidence Shows Reforms Lifting Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2015-01-01

    What happened to the New Orleans public schools following the tragic levee breeches after Hurricane Katrina is truly unprecedented. Within the span of one year, all public-school employees were fired, the teacher contract expired and was not replaced, and most attendance zones were eliminated. The state took control of almost all public schools…

  2. Residential Mobility, Inhibitory Control, and Academic Achievement in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool…

  3. Residential Mobility, Inhibitory Control, and Academic Achievement in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool children (49% female)…

  4. Longitudinal Effects of Perceived Control on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Sukkyung; Hong, Sehee; Ho, Hsiu-Zu

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that perceived control plays an important role in student academic achievement, but little is known about its longitudinal stability, ethnic variation, and developmental effects on subsequent achievement during adolescence. Findings from this study indicated (a) perceived control remains stable during adolescence for each of…

  5. Public goods and private interests: The role of voluntary green power demand in achieving environmental improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiser, Ryan Hayes

    This dissertation explores the role of consumer purchasing behavior in providing public, environmental goods. It does so by empirically evaluating one market---voluntary demand for renewable energy. The dissertation addresses the following five research questions: (1) What does early experience with green power marketing tell us about the prospects for this market to deliver environmental benefits? (2) What product design and marketing approaches might be used to increase voluntary demand? (3) What motivates non-residential customers to voluntarily purchase green power? (4) What role might public policy play in the creation of the green power market? (5) What preferences do individuals hold on the most appropriate forms of support for renewable energy? By helping to answer these questions, this dissertation seeks to better understand the gap between widespread positive attitudes for the environment and an often-anemic response to green product offerings. It contributes to not only the public goods and environmental marketing literatures, but also to contingent valuation methodology and to an emerging literature on the motivations of firms to contribute to environmental causes. The analysis performed is diverse, and includes: a literature review, a mail survey of green power marketers, a mail survey of non-residential green power customers, and contingent valuation and opinion surveys of U.S. residents. Detailed statistical analysis is performed on the data collected from the residential and non-residential surveys. The analysis reveals that customer participation in green power programs to date has been weak. The possibility that the traditional economic concept of "free riding" may explain this low response is raised, and the dissertation identifies a number of marketing approaches that might be used to partially combat this problem. Analysis of survey data shows that non-residential green power purchases have been motivated principally by altruistic concerns

  6. Communicable disease control: a 'Global Public Good' perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard; Woodward, David; Acharya, Arnab; Beaglehole, Robert; Drager, Nick

    2004-09-01

    Despite the increasing 'globalization' of health, the responsibility for it remains primarily national, generating a potential mismatch between global health problems and current institutions and mechanisms to deal with them. The 'Global Public Good' (GPG) concept has been suggested as a framework to address this mismatch in different areas of public policy. This paper considers the application of the GPG concept as an organizing principle for communicable disease control (CDC), considering in particular its potential to improve the health and welfare of the developing world. The paper concludes that there are significant limitations to the GPG concept's effectiveness as an organizing principle for global health priorities, with respect to CDC. More specifically, there are few areas of CDC which qualify as GPG, and even among those that can be considered GPGs, it is not necessarily appropriate to provide everything which can be considered a GPG. It is therefore suggested that it may be more useful to focus instead on the failure of 'collective action', where the GPG concept may then: (1) provide a rationale to raise funds additional to aid from developed countries' domestic budgets; (2) promote investment by developed countries in the health systems of developing countries; (3) promote strategic partnerships between developed and developing countries to tackle major global communicable diseases; and (4) guide the political process of establishing, and mechanisms for providing and financing, global CDC programmes with GPG characteristics, and GPGs which have benefits for CDC. In short, the GPG concept is not without limitations and weaknesses as an organizing principle, but does provide, at least in some areas, guidance in improving collective action at the international level for the improvement of global CDC. PMID:15310662

  7. Interrelationships of Study Habits and Attitudes, Locus of Control, Motivation Achievement Tendencies and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others

    The study investigated (a) relationships between measures on study habits and attitudes, locus of control, achieving tendency, and semester grade-point averages (SGPA), (b) differences between the sexes on the above mentioned variables, and (c) best predictor of SGPA. The subjects were 39 males and 81 females. There were a number of significant…

  8. The Impact of Locus of Control on Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

    2012-01-01

    This study hypothesized that students' loci of control affected their language achievement. 198 (N = 198) EFL students took the Rotter's (1966) locus of control test and were classified as locus-internal (ni = 78), and locus-external (ne = 120). They then took their ordinary courses and at the end of the semester, they were given their exams.…

  9. 31 CFR 560.306 - Iranian-origin goods or services; goods or services owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; goods or services owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. 560.306 Section 560.306 Money and... goods or services; goods or services owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. (a) The terms goods..., extracted, or processed in Iran; and (2) Goods which have entered into Iranian commerce. (b) The...

  10. 31 CFR 560.306 - Iranian-origin goods or services; goods or services owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; goods or services owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. 560.306 Section 560.306 Money and... goods or services; goods or services owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. (a) The terms goods..., extracted, or processed in Iran; and (2) Goods which have entered into Iranian commerce. (b) The...

  11. Purpose plus: supporting youth purpose, control, and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Kanny, Mary Allison

    2011-01-01

    Research in the past decade suggests that a persistent achievement gap between students from low-income minority backgrounds and higher-income white backgrounds may be rooted in theories of student motivation and youth purpose. Yet limited research exists regarding the role of purpose on positive youth development as it pertains to academic achievement. Using a sample of 209 high school students, this study examines the effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote purpose development and internal control over academic success in high school students from a low-socioeconomic-status community. Findings reveal that a short-term intervention was effective in significantly increasing internal control over academic success and purpose in life for students participating in the intervention group. In addition, analysis of academic achievement for students who experienced positive gains in internal control and purpose demonstrates significant gains in academic achievement as measured by grade point average. Implications are made for further study of internal control and life purpose as a means of academic intervention in the effort to address the achievement gap. PMID:22275280

  12. Our Cost Control Program Is Real, and Good PR Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, James; And Others

    The cost control program of the Beaverton School District (Oregon) is presented in three sections. Reviewing the role of the school board in cost control development, Jean Holt (a board member) outlines the fiscal management system, long-range financial strategies, energy conservation, and utilization of facilities. The programs have resulted in a…

  13. Children's Effortful Control and Academic Achievement: Mediation through Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Haugen, Rg; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Liew, Jeffrey; Kupfer, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to test the premise that children's effortful control (EC) is prospectively related to their academic achievement and to specify mechanisms through which EC is related to academic success. We used data from 214 children (M age at Time 1 [T1] = 73 months) to test whether social functioning (e.g.,…

  14. 31 CFR 560.306 - Iranian-origin goods or services; goods or services owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; goods or services owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. 560.306 Section 560.306 Money and... Iranian-origin goods or services; goods or services owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. (a) The..., extracted, or processed in Iran; and (2) Goods which have entered into Iranian commerce. (b) The...

  15. 31 CFR 560.306 - Iranian-origin goods or services; goods or services owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; goods or services owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. 560.306 Section 560.306 Money and... Iranian-origin goods or services; goods or services owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. (a) The..., extracted, or processed in Iran; and (2) Goods which have entered into Iranian commerce. (b) The...

  16. The purposes, achievements, and priorities of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.S.

    1987-09-01

    Arms control purposes include strengthening the framework of deterrence and reducing the threat of the use of nuclear weapons, reducing the dangers of attack and accidental nuclear war, and allowing more resources for the civilian economy. The paper briefly describes achievements in arms control since World War II. These include the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABMT)-SALT I, SALT II, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), and Nuclear-Free Zones treaties. The author also discusses his views on what the priorities of arms control activities should be. (ACR)

  17. Health physics manual of good practices for reducing radiation exposure to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    SciTech Connect

    Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Kathren,., R.L.; Merwin, S.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1988-06-01

    A primary objective of the US Department of Energy (DOE) health physics and radiation protection program has been to limit radiation exposures to those levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). As a result, the ALARA concept developed into a program and a set of operational principles to ensure that the objective was consistently met. Implementation of these principles required that a guide be produced. The original ALARA guide was issued by DOE in 1980 to promote improved understanding of ALARA concepts within the DOE community and to assist those responsible for operational ALARA activities in attaining their goals. Since 1980, additional guidance has been published by national and international organizations to provide further definition and clarification to ALARA concepts. As basic ALARA experience increased, the value and role of the original guide prompted the DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) to support a current revision. The revised manual of good practices includes six sections: 1.0 Introduction, 2.0 Administration, 3.0 Optimization, 4.0 Setting and Evaluating ALARA Goals, 5.0 Radiological Design, and 6.0 Conduct of Operations. The manual is directed primarily to contractor and DOE staff who are responsible for conduct and overview of radiation protection and ALARA programs at DOE facilities. The intent is to provide sufficient guidance such that the manual, if followed, will ensure that radiation exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable and will establish the basis for a formally structured and auditable program. 118 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Is the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) a Good Predictor of Academic Achievement? Examining the Mediating Role of Achievement-Related Classroom Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Jeanette Lyn Fung; O'Grady, Glen; Rotgans, Jerome I.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ)--which provides a measure of student approaches to learning--is a relatively weak predictor of academic achievement. The present study sought to explore whether students' achievement-related classroom behaviours, as observed by teachers, can be used as a mediator between student…

  19. Is Early Ability Grouping Good for High-Achieving Students' Psychosocial Development? Effects of the Transition into Academically Selective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Michael; Neumann, Marko; Tetzner, Julia; Böse, Susanne; Knoppick, Henrike; Maaz, Kai; Baumert, Jürgen; Lehmann, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates school context effects on psychosocial characteristics (academic self-concept, peer relations, school satisfaction, and school anxiety) of high-achieving and gifted students. Students who did or did not make an early transition from elementary to secondary schools for high-achieving and gifted students in 5th grade…

  20. Parental Behavioural Control and Academic Achievement: Striking the Balance between Control and Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Karen Z.

    2012-01-01

    Using a longitudinal US dataset (N = 6,134) we examine the relationship between parental behavioural control and academic achievement and explore the moderating role of parental involvement and parental warmth. Analyses using multiple hierarchical regression with clustering controls shows that parental behavioural control is negatively associated…

  1. An Active Suspension Controller Achieving the Best Ride Comfort at Any Specified Location on A Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Masahiro; Harada, Hiroshi; Araki, Yoshiaki

    In this paper, a new active suspension control scheme is developed so that ride comfort becomes best at any specified location on vehicle body. To achieve this end, two ideal vehicles are designed in which ride comfort becomes best at each different location. Then, linearly combining the two ideal vehicles, a combined ideal vehicle is constructed. It should be noted that we can easily force ride comfort at a specified location become best in the proposed combined ideal vehicle by setting only one design parameter. To achieve the good property stated above in actual vehicles, a robust tracking controller is proposed. It is shown by carrying out numerical simulations that ride comfort at a specified location can be easily improved in the closed loop system using the proposed combined ideal vehicle.

  2. Getting Along with Teachers and Parents: The Yields of Good Relationships for Students' Achievement Motivation and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herbert W.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Green, Jasmine; Dowson, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to better understand the combined and unique effects of teacher-student and parent-child relationships in students' achievement motivation and self-esteem. Participants were 3450 high school students administered items assessing their interpersonal relationships, academic motivation and engagement, academic…

  3. Are Affective Factors a Good Predictor of Science Achievement? Examining the Role of Affective Factors Based on PISA 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozel, Murat; Caglak, Serdar; Erdogan, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how affective factors like attitude and motivation contribute to science achievement in PISA 2006 using linear structural modeling. The data set of PISA 2006 collected from 4942 fifteen-year-old Turkish students (2290 females, 2652 males) was used for the statistical analyses. A total of 42 selected items on a four point…

  4. What Makes a Good Student? How Emotions, Self-Regulated Learning, and Motivation Contribute to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mega, Carolina; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    The authors propose a theoretical model linking emotions, self-regulated learning, and motivation to academic achievement. This model was tested with 5,805 undergraduate students. They completed the Self-Regulated Learning, Emotions, and Motivation Computerized Battery (LEM-B) composed of 3 self-report questionnaires: the Self-Regulated Learning…

  5. It Feels Good to Learn Where I Belong: School Belonging, Academic Emotions, and Academic Achievement in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Un Fong; Chen, Wei-Wen; Zhang, Jingqi; Liang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between school belonging, academic emotions, and academic achievement in Macau adolescents. A survey of 406 junior high school students in Macau was used to collect information on the extent to which these students felt accepted and respected in their schools (school belonging), the emotions they experienced…

  6. Method of achieving the controlled release of thermonuclear energy

    DOEpatents

    Brueckner, Keith A.

    1986-01-01

    A method of achieving the controlled release of thermonuclear energy by illuminating a minute, solid density, hollow shell of a mixture of material such as deuterium and tritium with a high intensity, uniformly converging laser wave to effect an extremely rapid build-up of energy in inwardly traveling shock waves to implode the shell creating thermonuclear conditions causing a reaction of deuterons and tritons and a resultant high energy thermonuclear burn. Utilizing the resulting energy as a thermal source and to breed tritium or plutonium. The invention also contemplates a laser source wherein the flux level is increased with time to reduce the initial shock heating of fuel and provide maximum compression after implosion; and, in addition, computations and an equation are provided to enable the selection of a design having a high degree of stability and a dependable fusion performance by establishing a proper relationship between the laser energy input and the size and character of the selected material for the fusion capsule.

  7. Life Satisfaction among Highly Achieving Students in Hong Kong: Do Gratitude and the "Good-Enough Mindset" Add to the Contribution of Perfectionism in Prediction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether gratitude and the "good-enough mindset" added to the contribution of perfectionism in predicting life satisfaction in 245 Chinese highly achieving students in Hong Kong. Participants completed self-report questionnaires that included scales on life satisfaction, positive and negative perfectionism (perfectionistic…

  8. Malaria in Turkey: successful control and strategies for achieving elimination.

    PubMed

    Özbilgina, Ahmet; Topluoglu, Seher; Es, Saffet; Islek, Elif; Mollahaliloglu, Salih; Erkoc, Yasin

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is located in the middle of Asia, Africa and Europe, close to Caucasia, Balkans and Middle East in subtropical climate zone. Malaria has been known since the early ages of human history and it was one of the leading diseases in Anatolian history, as well. Today, chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium vivax is the only agent of autochthonous malaria cases in Turkey. The other Plasmodium species identified are isolated from imported cases of malaria. The most common vector of malaria in Turkey is Anopheles sacharovi followed by An. superpictus, An. maculipennis and An. subalpinus. In 2009, pre-elimination stage of Malaria Program was started due to dramatic decline in the number of malaria cases in Turkey (Total, 84; 38 autochthonous cases only in 26 foci in south-eastern Anatolia, and 46 imported cases; incidence: 0.1/100,000). As there were no detected cases of new autochthonous malaria in the first 8 months of 2010, elimination stage was started. The role of the persistent policies and successful applications of the Ministry of Health, such as the strict control of the patients using anti-malarial drugs especially chloroquine, avoidance of resistant insecticides, facilitation of access to patients via Health Transformation Program (HTP), establishment of close contact with the patients' families, and improvement of reporting and surveillance system, was essential. In addition, improvement maintained in the motivations and professional rights of malaria workers, as well in the coordination of field studies and maintenance of a decline or termination in vector-to-person transmission were all achieved with the insistent policies of the Ministry of Health. Other factors that probably contributed to elimination studies include lessening of military operations in south-eastern Anatolia and the lowering of malaria cases in neighbouring countries in recent years. Free access to health services concerning malaria is still successfully conducted throughout the country

  9. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control, and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterbin, Allan; Rakow, Ernest

    The direct effects of locus of control and self-esteem on standardized test scores were studied. The relationships among the standardized test scores and measures of locus of control and self-esteem for 12,260 students from the National Education Longitudinal Study 1994 database were examined, using the same definition of locus of control and…

  10. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  11. Purpose Plus: Supporting Youth Purpose, Control, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Kanny, Mary Allison

    2011-01-01

    Research in the past decade suggests that a persistent achievement gap between students from low-income minority backgrounds and higher-income white backgrounds may be rooted in theories of student motivation and youth purpose. Yet limited research exists regarding the role of purpose on positive youth development as it pertains to academic…

  12. Controlling open quantum systems: tools, achievements, and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Christiane P.

    2016-06-01

    The advent of quantum devices, which exploit the two essential elements of quantum physics, coherence and entanglement, has sparked renewed interest in the control of open quantum systems. Successful implementations face the challenge of preserving relevant nonclassical features at the level of device operation. A major obstacle is decoherence, which is caused by interaction with the environment. Optimal control theory is a tool that can be used to identify control strategies in the presence of decoherence. Here we review recent advances in optimal control methodology that allow typical tasks in device operation for open quantum systems to be tackled and discuss examples of relaxation-optimized dynamics. Optimal control theory is also a useful tool to exploit the environment for control. We discuss examples and point out possible future extensions.

  13. Controlling open quantum systems: tools, achievements, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Koch, Christiane P

    2016-06-01

    The advent of quantum devices, which exploit the two essential elements of quantum physics, coherence and entanglement, has sparked renewed interest in the control of open quantum systems. Successful implementations face the challenge of preserving relevant nonclassical features at the level of device operation. A major obstacle is decoherence, which is caused by interaction with the environment. Optimal control theory is a tool that can be used to identify control strategies in the presence of decoherence. Here we review recent advances in optimal control methodology that allow typical tasks in device operation for open quantum systems to be tackled and discuss examples of relaxation-optimized dynamics. Optimal control theory is also a useful tool to exploit the environment for control. We discuss examples and point out possible future extensions. PMID:27143501

  14. Of jugglers, mechanics, communities, and the thyroid gland: how do we achieve good quality data to improve public health?

    PubMed Central

    Karmaus, W

    2001-01-01

    Our knowledge about the distribution of exposures to toxic chemicals in various communities is limited. Only about 6% of approximately 1,400 toxic chemicals have been identified in surveys. Even for those chemicals that are measured, information is often insufficient to identify smaller populations at high risk. The question is whether information about the distribution of diseases in communities can help identify environmental risks, indicate areas of concern, and thus substitute exposure information. Thyroid disorders represent a large group of diseases that cannot be recorded into registries because of the lack of clear caseness; community-based monitoring of subtle health effects is needed. Thus, to identify potential health risks in communities, epidemiologic studies including effect and human exposure monitoring are necessary. However, to overcome the limitation of nonsystematic case studies, the development of a network of exposed communities concerned about exposures is proposed. A network would provide assessments of exposures and health outcomes, with different communities mutually serving as exposed and control groups. Such a network would foster communication and prevention measures within communities often left out of the dissemination of information about risks identified in studies conducted with residents of these communities. PMID:11744504

  15. Stress Can Be a Friend: Approaches to Producing Good Stresses That Reduce and Control Bad Stresses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demery, Marie

    Individuals can produce good stresses that will inhibit or eliminate the bad stresses of anxiety, depression, resentment, and hopelessness. This can be accomplished as individuals learn to include in their lifestyles these nine approaches: self-talk, commitment, self-control, challenge, interpersonal relations, time management, relaxation,…

  16. Achieving process control through improved grinding techniques for ferrite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, J.

    1995-09-01

    In manufacturing soft ferrite materials the particle size of the raw material has a significant impact on the reactivity of calcination. The control of particle size distribution and final formulation at wet milling after calcining impacts the reactivity during sintering and the magnetic properties of the final product. This paper will deal with steps taken to improve process control during the grinding operations of raw material and calcine in soft ferrite production. Equipment modifications as well as changes to the grinding and material handling techniques will be included. All examples of process control and improvements will be supported by data.

  17. Debris control design achievements of the booster separation motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The stringent debris control requirements imposed on the design of the Space Shuttle booster separation motor are described along with the verification program implemented to ensure compliance with debris control objectives. The principal areas emphasized in the design and development of the Booster Separation Motor (BSM) relative to debris control were the propellant formulation and nozzle closures which protect the motors from aerodynamic heating and moisture. A description of the motor design requirements, the propellant formulation and verification program, and the nozzle closures design and verification are presented.

  18. An active control strategy for achieving weak radiator structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naghshineh, K. . Acoustics and Radar Technology Lab.); Koopmann, G.H. . Center for Acoustics and Vibration)

    1994-01-01

    A general control strategy is presented for active suppression of total radiated sound power from harmonically excited structures based on the measurement of their response. Using the measured response of the structure together with knowledge of its structural mobility, and equivalent primary excitation force is found at discrete points along the structure. Using this equivalent primary force and performing a quadratic optimization of the power radiated form the structure, a set of control forces is found at selected points on the structure that results in minimum radiated sound power. A numerical example of this strategy is presented for a simply supported beam in a rigid baffle excited by a harmonic plane wave incident at an oblique angle. A comparison of the response of the beam with and without control forces shows a large reduction in the controlled response displacement magnitude. In addition, as the result of the action of the control forces, the magnitude of the wave number spectrum of the beam's response in the supersonic region is decreased substantially. The effect of the number and location of the actuators on reductions in sound power level is also studied. The actuators located at the anti-nodes of structural modes within the supersonic region together with those located near boundaries are found to be the most effective in controlling the radiation of sound from a structure.

  19. How good are the internal controls in your group practice? Ten questions to contemplate.

    PubMed

    Grant, Barbara J; Foley, Lori A

    2002-01-01

    Internal controls are the methods and procedures used by any business to prevent or detect errors, safeguard assets (especially cash) from being misappropriated, and encourage staff adherence to prescribed managerial policies. Internal controls in a medical practice differ depending on the size and complexity of the practice. The key, however, is that they prevent or detect errors and efforts to circumvent the established policies and procedures of the organization. How good are the internal controls in your group practice? This article identifies ten questions you should use to evaluate your risk of asset misappropriation. PMID:12122813

  20. Achievement Goals and Emotions: The Mediational Roles of Perceived Progress, Control, and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Nathan C.; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Muis, Krista R.; Ranellucci, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: The link between achievement goals and achievement emotions is well established; however, research exploring potential mediators of this relationship is lacking. The control-value theory of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2006, "Educational Psychology Review," 18, 315) posits that perceptions of control and value mediate the…

  1. Achieving Acceptable Air Quality: Some Reflections on Controlling Vehicle Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, J. G.; Heywood, J. B.; Sawyer, R. F.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    1993-07-01

    Motor vehicle emissions have been and are being controlled in an effort to abate urban air pollution. This article addresses the question: Will the vehicle exhaust emission control and fuel requirements in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and the California Air Resources Board regulations on vehicles and fuels have a significant impact? The effective control of in-use vehicle emissions is the key to a solution to the motor vehicle part of the urban air pollution problem for the next decade or so. It is not necessary, except perhaps in Southern California, to implement extremely low new car emission standards before the end of the 20th century. Some of the proposed gasoline volatility and composition changes in reformulated gasoline will produce significant reductions in vehicle emissions (for example, reduced vapor pressure, sulfur, and light olefin and improved high end volatility), whereas others (such as substantial oxygenate addition and aromatics reduction) will not.

  2. Cognitive Control Predicts Academic Achievement in Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldren, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Children's ability to shift behavior in response to changing environmental demands is critical for successful intellectual functioning. While the processes underlying the development of cognitive control have been thoroughly investigated, its functioning in an ecologically relevant setting such as school is less well understood. Given the alarming…

  3. ACHIEVING IRRIGATION RETURN FLOW QUALITY CONTROL THROUGH IMPROVED LEGAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The key to irrigated agricultural return flow quality control is proper utilization and management of the resource itself, and an accepted tool in out society is the law. This project is designed to develop legal alternatives that will facilitate the implementation of improved wa...

  4. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2015-11-01

    After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world. PMID:26485188

  5. Towards a ‘Good Life’ for Farm Animals: Development of a Resource Tier Framework to Achieve Positive Welfare for Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Joanne L.; Mullan, Siobhan M.; Pritchard, Joy C.; McFarlane, Una J. C.; Main, David C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Farm animals can be said to have a ‘good life’ if their quality of life is substantially higher than the current legal minimum and includes positive experiences such as pleasure. In commercial farms, animals can be provided with different resources such as bedding, exercise areas and enrichment objects. We used scientific evidence and expert opinion to determine which resources laying hens need to contribute to a ‘good life’. These resources were organised into three tiers, of increasing welfare, leading towards a ‘good life’. We describe how we developed the resource tiers and suggest how the overall framework might be used to promote a ‘good life’ for farm animals. Abstract The concept of a ‘good life’ recognises the distinction that an animal’s quality of life is beyond that of a ‘life worth living’, representing a standard of welfare substantially higher than the legal minimum (FAWC, 2009). We propose that the opportunities required for a ‘good life’ could be used to structure resource tiers that lead to positive welfare and are compatible with higher welfare farm assurance schemes. Published evidence and expert opinion was used to define three tiers of resource provision (Welfare +, Welfare ++ and Welfare +++) above those stipulated in UK legislation and codes of practice, which should lead to positive welfare outcomes. In this paper we describe the principles underpinning the framework and the process of developing the resource tiers for laying hens. In doing so, we summarise expert opinion on resources required to achieve a ‘good life’ in laying hens and discuss the philosophical and practical challenges of developing the framework. We present the results of a pilot study to establish the validity, reliability and feasibility of the draft laying hen tiers on laying hen production systems. Finally, we propose a generic welfare assessment framework for farm animals and suggest directions for implementation

  6. Can Chemical Mouthwash Agents Achieve Plaque/Gingivitis Control?

    PubMed

    Van der Weijden, Fridus A; Van der Sluijs, Eveline; Ciancio, Sebastian G; Slot, Dagmar E

    2015-10-01

    Also note that structured abstracts are not allowed per journal style: What is the effect of a mouthwash containing various active chemical ingredients on plaque control and managing gingivitis in adults based on evidence gathered from existing systematic reviews? The summarized evidence suggests that mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine(CHX) and essential oils (EO) had a large effect supported by a strong body of evidence. Also there was strong evidence for a moderate effect of cetylpyridinium chloride(CPC). Evidence suggests that a CHX mouthwash is the first choice, the most reliable alternative is EO. No difference between CHX and EO with respect to gingivitis was observed. PMID:26427569

  7. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Han

    2015-01-01

    After the Korean War (1950–1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea’s population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world. PMID:26485188

  8. Muscle function in avian flight: achieving power and control

    PubMed Central

    Biewener, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Flapping flight places strenuous requirements on the physiological performance of an animal. Bird flight muscles, particularly at smaller body sizes, generally contract at high frequencies and do substantial work in order to produce the aerodynamic power needed to support the animal's weight in the air and to overcome drag. This is in contrast to terrestrial locomotion, which offers mechanisms for minimizing energy losses associated with body movement combined with elastic energy savings to reduce the skeletal muscles' work requirements. Muscles also produce substantial power during swimming, but this is mainly to overcome body drag rather than to support the animal's weight. Here, I review the function and architecture of key flight muscles related to how these muscles contribute to producing the power required for flapping flight, how the muscles are recruited to control wing motion and how they are used in manoeuvring. An emergent property of the primary flight muscles, consistent with their need to produce considerable work by moving the wings through large excursions during each wing stroke, is that the pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscles shorten over a large fraction of their resting fibre length (33–42%). Both muscles are activated while being lengthened or undergoing nearly isometric force development, enhancing the work they perform during subsequent shortening. Two smaller muscles, the triceps and biceps, operate over a smaller range of contractile strains (12–23%), reflecting their role in controlling wing shape through elbow flexion and extension. Remarkably, pigeons adjust their wing stroke plane mainly via changes in whole-body pitch during take-off and landing, relative to level flight, allowing their wing muscles to operate with little change in activation timing, strain magnitude and pattern. PMID:21502121

  9. The European Water Framework Directive and the DPSIR, a methodological approach to assess the risk of failing to achieve good ecological status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borja, Ángel; Galparsoro, Ibon; Solaun, Oihana; Muxika, Iñigo; Tello, Eva María; Uriarte, Ainhize; Valencia, Victoriano

    2006-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a framework for the protection of groundwater, inland surface waters, estuarine waters, and coastal waters. The WFD constitutes a new view of water resources management in Europe, based mainly upon ecological elements; its final objective is achieving at least 'good ecological quality status' for all water bodies by 2015. The approach to identify these water bodies includes, amongst others, the sub-division of a water body into smaller water bodies, according to pressures and resulting impacts. The analyses of pressures and impacts must consider how pressures would be likely to develop, prior to 2015, in ways that would place water bodies at risk of failing to achieve ecological good status, if appropriate programmes of measures were not designed and implemented. This contribution focuses on the use of the DPSIR (Driver, Pressure, State, Impact, Response) approach, in assessing the pressures and risk of failing the abovementioned objective, using the Basque (northern Spain) estuarine and coastal waters as a case study, using the following steps: (i) determination of the water bodies to be analysed; (ii) identification and description of the driving forces producing pressures over the region; (iii) identification of all existing pressures within the water bodies; (iv) identification, from them, of the most relevant pressures; (v) determination, from the relevant pressures, of those which are significant; (vi) assessing the impacts on water bodies (in terms of ecological and chemical impacts); and (vii) assessing the risk of failing the WFD objectives.

  10. Children's effortful control and academic achievement: do relational peer victimization and classroom participation operate as mediators?

    PubMed

    Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Berger, Rebecca H

    2014-08-01

    Given that early academic achievement is related to numerous developmental outcomes, understanding processes that promote early success in school is important. This study was designed to clarify how students' (N=291; M age in fall of kindergarten=5.66 years, SD=0.39 year) effortful control, relational peer victimization, and classroom participation relate to achievement, as students progress from kindergarten to first grade. Effortful control and achievement were assessed in kindergarten, classroom participation and relational peer victimization were assessed in the fall of first grade, and achievement was reassessed in the spring of first grade. Classroom participation, but not relational peer victimization, mediated relations between effortful control and first grade standardized and teacher-rated achievement, controlling for kindergarten achievement. Findings suggest that aspects of classroom participation, such as the ability to work independently, may be useful targets of intervention for enhancing academic achievement in young children. PMID:25107413

  11. How can good randomized controlled trials in leading journals be so misinterpreted?

    PubMed

    Veith, Frank J

    2013-02-01

    The results of good randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in leading peer-reviewed journals have been deemed the best possible basis for good medical practice. However, several limitations may decrease their value. These include flaws and weaknesses in the design and the timeliness of RCTs. Progress in a treatment method or control arm may invalidate a trial. So too can defects in patient selection, physician competence, randomization, applicability, end points, and the population being studied. Idiosyncratic flaws can also invalidate an RCT. Examples of these flaws and weaknesses are presented. Another problem with articles describing RCTs is the potential for the conclusions of the trial report to be misleading because of error or bias. This plus subsequent misinterpretation of the trial results or conclusions by others can make the effect of the trial misleading with an unintended detrimental result on medical practice. Guidelines based on such errors or bias-based conclusions and misinterpretations can further compound the problem. This article provides examples of misleading conclusions and/or misinterpretations (spinning) of trial results in articles describing RCTs in leading journals. All physicians should recognize these value-limiting processes so that RCTs can be evaluated adequately and fairly. In that way, they can be used along with good physician judgment to optimize the care delivered to individual patients and to society at large. PMID:23336854

  12. Smiling contributions: Social control in a public goods game with network decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, Károly; Janky, Béla

    2007-05-01

    Previous models of collective action assume that the network structure of individual relations that transmit social control mechanisms promoting or inhibiting collective action is given. An extended game-theoretical model that incorporates social control mechanisms as side payments and allows for endogenous network change is presented here. The model represents collective action as a public goods game and predicts that network clustering undermines mass public good production and the possibility of deleting ties leads towards equilibrium structures in which contributors and defectors are segregated. It is argued and elaborated how laboratory experiments with virtual social networks can be used to test these model predictions. An innovative experimental method is proposed, in which subjects are seated behind computers that are connected according to simple network structures. Subjects are informed about the decisions of their contacts and could send happy or sad smiley symbols to them, which are two possible operationalizations of social control mechanisms. In addition, subjects could delete existing links in reaction to collective action outcomes or to avoid unpleasant forms of social control. Results of a larger series of experimental tests are to follow.

  13. Why achievement motivation predicts success in business but failure in politics: the importance of personal control.

    PubMed

    Winter, David G

    2010-12-01

    Several decades of research have established that implicit achievement motivation (n Achievement) is associated with success in business, particularly in entrepreneurial or sales roles. However, several political psychology studies have shown that achievement motivation is not associated with success in politics; rather, implicit power motivation often predicts political success. Having versus lacking control may be a key difference between business and politics. Case studies suggest that achievement-motivated U.S. presidents and other world leaders often become frustrated and thereby fail because of lack of control, whereas power-motivated presidents develop ways to work with this inherent feature of politics. A reevaluation of previous research suggests that, in fact, relationships between achievement motivation and business success only occur when control is high. The theme of control is also prominent in the development of achievement motivation. Cross-national data are also consistent with this analysis: In democratic industrialized countries, national levels of achievement motivation are associated with strong executive control. In countries with low opportunity for education (thus fewer opportunities to develop a sense of personal control), achievement motivation is associated with internal violence. Many of these manifestations of frustrated achievement motivation in politics resemble authoritarianism. This conclusion is tested by data from a longitudinal study of 113 male college students, showing that high initial achievement motivation combined with frustrated desires for control is related to increases in authoritarianism (F-scale scores) during the college years. Implications for the psychology of leadership and practical politics are discussed. PMID:21039527

  14. The Insect Ecdysone Receptor is a Good Potential Target for RNAi-based Pest Control

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rong; Xu, Xinping; Liang, Yongkang; Tian, Honggang; Pan, Zhanqing; Jin, Shouheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential for use in insect pest control. However, some significant challenges must be overcome before RNAi-based pest control can become a reality. One challenge is the proper selection of a good target gene for RNAi. Here, we report that the insect ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice plants. We demonstrated that the use of a 360 bp fragment (NlEcR-c) that is common between NlEcR-A and NlEcR-B for feeding RNAi experiments significantly decreased the relative mRNA expression levels of NlEcR compared with those in the dsGFP control. Feeding RNAi also resulted in a significant reduction in the number of offspring per pair of N. lugens. Consequently, a transgenic rice line expressing NlEcR dsRNA was constructed by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the total copy number of the target gene in all transgenic rice lines was 2. Northern blot analysis showed that the small RNA of the hairpin dsNlEcR-c was successfully expressed in the transgenic rice lines. After newly hatched nymphs of N. lugens fed on the transgenic rice lines, effective RNAi was observed. The NlEcR expression levels in all lines examined were decreased significantly compared with the control. In all lines, the survival rate of the nymphs was nearly 90%, and the average number of offspring per pair in the treated groups was significantly less than that observed in the control, with a decrease of 44.18-66.27%. These findings support an RNAi-based pest control strategy and are also important for the management of rice insect pests. PMID:25516715

  15. The insect ecdysone receptor is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rong; Xu, Xinping; Liang, Yongkang; Tian, Honggang; Pan, Zhanqing; Jin, Shouheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential for use in insect pest control. However, some significant challenges must be overcome before RNAi-based pest control can become a reality. One challenge is the proper selection of a good target gene for RNAi. Here, we report that the insect ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice plants. We demonstrated that the use of a 360 bp fragment (NlEcR-c) that is common between NlEcR-A and NlEcR-B for feeding RNAi experiments significantly decreased the relative mRNA expression levels of NlEcR compared with those in the dsGFP control. Feeding RNAi also resulted in a significant reduction in the number of offspring per pair of N. lugens. Consequently, a transgenic rice line expressing NlEcR dsRNA was constructed by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the total copy number of the target gene in all transgenic rice lines was 2. Northern blot analysis showed that the small RNA of the hairpin dsNlEcR-c was successfully expressed in the transgenic rice lines. After newly hatched nymphs of N. lugens fed on the transgenic rice lines, effective RNAi was observed. The NlEcR expression levels in all lines examined were decreased significantly compared with the control. In all lines, the survival rate of the nymphs was nearly 90%, and the average number of offspring per pair in the treated groups was significantly less than that observed in the control, with a decrease of 44.18-66.27%. These findings support an RNAi-based pest control strategy and are also important for the management of rice insect pests. PMID:25516715

  16. Relations among Peer Acceptance, Inhibitory Control, and Math Achievement in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined relations among peer acceptance, inhibitory control, and math achievement in ninety-nine 4th and 5th grade early adolescents. Teachers rated students on peer acceptance and students completed a computerized executive function task assessing inhibitory control. Math achievement was assessed via end of year math grades. Results…

  17. Criterion-Related Validity of the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale with Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, Gary D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the relationships between student locus of control and academic achievement in grades five through eight. The Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale (NSLOCS) was used to measure motivation, and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) to assess academic achievement. Results indicated moderate inverse relationships between level of…

  18. Moving the Achievement Goal Approach One Step Forward: Toward a Systematic Examination of the Autonomous and Controlled Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Elliot, Andrew J.; Soenens, Bart; Mouratidis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    An important recent development in the achievement goal literature is to define achievement goals strictly as aims. In this overview, we argue that this restrictive definition of achievement goals paves the way for a systematic consideration of the autonomous and controlled reasons underlying individuals' achievement goals, a distinction…

  19. Analysis of achievable disturbance attenuation in a precision magnetically-suspended motion control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzin, Alexander V.; Holmes, Michael L.; Behrouzjou, Roxana; Trumper, David L.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the analysis of the achievable disturbance attenuation to get an Angstrom motion control resolution and macroscopic travel in a precision magnetically-suspended motion control system are presented in this paper. Noise sources in the transducers, electronics, and mechanical vibrations are used to develop the control design.

  20. Social Axioms and Achievement across Cultures: The Influence of Reward for Application and Fate Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Fan; Leung, Kwok; Bond, Michael Harris

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the relationships between two social axiom dimensions, reward for application and fate control, with various achievement-related indexes across a wide range of cultures. Results showed that there was no relationship between reward for application and academic achievement or economic competitiveness, but reward for…

  1. A Model of Parental Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control in Academically Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated achievement-oriented parent socialization as it pertains to school avoidance in a sample of gifted students. A serial mediation model examining relationships among parental achievement-oriented psychological control (APC), fear of academic failure, academic amotivation, and school avoidance was tested. The sample included…

  2. Parental Warmth, Control, and Involvement in Schooling: Predicting Academic Achievement among Korean American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyoungho; Rohner, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement of Korean American adolescents, investigating the influence of perceived parental warmth and control and improvement in schooling. Survey data indicated that authoritative paternal parenting related to optimal academic achievement. Differences in maternal parenting styles…

  3. Interactions between Student Achievement, Locus of Control, and Two Methods of College Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Jon R.; Gall, Meredith Damien

    1981-01-01

    Fifty-nine undergraduate students, divided into two groups to compare the instructional motivational effects of auto-tutorial and conventional instruction, were tested for achievement via performance (Ac), achievement via independence (Ai), and internal-external locus of control. Significant interaction was found between Ac and the two methods of…

  4. Children's Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Maternal Restrictive Control.

    PubMed

    Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Muñoz, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g., such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation) and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children's behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children's behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children's self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children's behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children's school achievement. PMID:27303318

  5. Children's Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Maternal Restrictive Control

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Muñoz, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g., such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation) and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children's behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children's behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children's self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children's behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children's school achievement. PMID:27303318

  6. Good techniques optimize control of oil-based mud and solids

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, J.; Hoopingarner, J.

    1989-02-13

    Effective techniques have been developed from work on dozens of North Sea Wells to minimize the amount of oil-based mud discharged to the sea while maintaining acceptable levels of solids. Pressure to reduce pollution during the course of drilling prompted the development of these techniques. They involve personnel and optimization of mud system and procedures. Case histories demonstrate that regulations may be met with economical techniques using existing technology. The benefits of low solids content are widely known, and are a key part of any successful mud program. Good solids control should result in lower mud costs and better drilling performance. Operators have specified high-performance shakers to accomplish this and have revised their mud programs with lower and lower allowable drilled solids percentages. This will pay off in certain areas. But with the U.K. Department of Energy regulations requiring cuttings oil discharge content (CODC) to be less than 150 g of oil/kg of dry solids discharge that went into effect Jan. 1, 1989, oil-loss control has a higher profile in the U.K. sector of the North Sea.

  7. Goal Orientations, Locus of Control and Academic Achievement in Prospective Teachers: An Individual Differences Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulus, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the prospective teachers' locus of control in goal orientations and of both orientations in academic achievement. The participants were 270 undergraduate students studying in different majors at the Faculty of Education in Pamukkale University. Goal Orientations and Locus of Control Scales were…

  8. On the Relation of Locus of Control and L2 Reading and Writing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Shirvan, Majid Elahi

    2011-01-01

    Locus of control, a psychological construct, has been the focus of attention in recent decades. Psychologists have discussed the effect of locus of control on achieving life goals in social/psychological interactions. While learning a foreign language involves both social interactions and psychological processes, the role and relation of locus of…

  9. Phase-controlled solvothermal synthesis and characterization of nickel sulfides with good single crystalline nature

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Shuguang; Zeng Kai; Li Haibin; Li Fujin

    2011-08-15

    Dispersed rhombohedral NiS rods with high aspect ratios and rhombic dodecahedron-like cubic NiS{sub 2} crystals were prepared by solvothermal routes using NiCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}.5H{sub 2}O as reagents and ethylenediamine as a solvent, and 3D blossoming flower-like rhombohedral NiS microstructures were synthesized using different sulfur sources of thiourea. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectrometry and selected area electronic diffraction. All the products were pure and had good single crystalline nature. The synthesis parameters were of great importance on the purity and morphology of the products. The possible growth mechanisms have been discussed based on the analyses of the effects of sulfur sources and solvent on the crystal structures and detailed configurations of the products. The present work is likely to help the phase-controlled synthesis of other metal chalcogenides. - Graphical abstract: Rhombohedral NiS dispersed rods and 3D flower-like microstructures are evolved from dispersed nucleus and aggregate of nucleus, respectively, and the cross-sections of such rods are in equilateral triangle-like shape. Highlights: > 3D blossoming flower-like r-NiS microstructures are obtained. > Equilateral triangle-like cross-sections of r-NiS rods are observed. > Approach based on XRD analysis to phase-controlled synthesis is presented.

  10. Network topology control strategy based on spatial evolutionary public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Deng, Chuang; Suh, Il Hong

    2015-08-01

    It is often the case that rational individuals will adjust their connectivity in commercial or social activities for maximizing their payoffs. In this process, we can observe that individuals always gather around a leader or a competitive individual who can bring them more benefits. Inspired by this, we propose a strategy that impels nodes of network to connect with a specific node that we have specified with the perspective of spatial evolutionary public goods game. Thus a node is specified and given a larger enhancement factor which reflects his advantage over others. Then we employ a payoff-oriented preferential rewire strategy that individual will sever a neighbor who provides him with the lowest benefit and then link others randomly. The results illustrate that this strategy not only ensures the promotion of cooperation but also increases the degree of the specified node. Furthermore, we analyze the effect of two relevant parameters: enhancement factor and rewire frequency. We find that if the control strategy expects to work effectively, these two parameters have to ensure an evolution environment where cooperators can prevail defectors. We also conclude that a relatively low rewire frequency contributes to increasing the degree of the specified node. Meanwhile we attempt to present our interpretations for these phenomena.

  11. Alternate method for achieving temperature control in the -160 to +90 Celcius range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kenneth R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A single-pass method for accurate and precise temperature control in the -160 to +90 C range is discussed. The method exhibited minimal set-point overshoot during temperature transitions. Control to +/-2 C with transitions between set-points of 7 C per minute were achieved. The method uses commercially available temperature controllers and a gaseous nitrogen/liquid nitrogen mixer to dampen the amplitude of cold temperature spikes caused by liquid nitrogen pulsing.

  12. How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children's mathematics achievement?

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Fuentes, Luis J; Pina, Violeta; López-López, Jose A; González-Salinas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC) -attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control- to children's mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9-12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent's report); math achievement was measured via teacher's report and through the standard Woodcock-Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children's mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children's self-regulation abilities in the context of school. PMID:26441758

  13. The Good Behavior Game Plus Merit: Controlling Disruptive Behavior and Improving Student Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darveaux, Dion X.

    1984-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game was modified to include a token reinforcement system (Good Behavior Game Plus Merit). It proved successful in reducing disruptive behavior and improving assignment completion in two students designated as high-risk for placement in a behaviorally impaired classroom. General Acceptability and uses of the intervention are…

  14. Locus of control, test anxiety, academic procrastination, and achievement among college students.

    PubMed

    Carden, Randy; Bryant, Courtney; Moss, Rebekah

    2004-10-01

    114 undergraduates completed the Internal-External Locus of Control scale, the Procrastination Scale, and the Achievement Anxiety Test. They also provided a self-report of their cumulative GPA. Students were divided into two groups by a median-split of 10.5, yielding an internally oriented group of 57 and an externally oriented group of 57. The former students showed significantly lower academic procrastination, debilitating test anxiety, and reported higher academic achievement than the latter. PMID:15587223

  15. 31 CFR 545.412 - Release of goods originating in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban from a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. 545.412... from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. Section 545.205 does not prohibit the release from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone of goods originating in the territory of Afghanistan controlled...

  16. Control of large space structures: Status report on achievements and current problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, M. G.; Aubrun, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives, state-of-the-art, and problems of large space structures control are outlined. The general objectives range from basic deployment and maneuvering, where some vibration modes may be suppressed, to disturbance rejection for very high performance imaging applications. The controls selected generally must produce some combination of eigenvalue/eigenvector and loads modification in order to achieve the mission objectives. An experiment illustrating the dynamic control of a suspended circular plate is described. Analysis methods used in system modelling, signal processing, and process control and monitoring are discussed. Sensor and actuator performance are assessed.

  17. 31 CFR 560.306 - Iranian-origin goods or services; goods or services owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iranian-origin goods or services..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN TRANSACTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 560.306 Iranian-origin... of Iranian origin and Iranian-origin goods include: (1) Goods grown, produced,...

  18. Good Agreements Make Good Friends

    PubMed Central

    Han, The Anh; Pereira, Luís Moniz; Santos, Francisco C.; Lenaerts, Tom

    2013-01-01

    When starting a new collaborative endeavor, it pays to establish upfront how strongly your partner commits to the common goal and what compensation can be expected in case the collaboration is violated. Diverse examples in biological and social contexts have demonstrated the pervasiveness of making prior agreements on posterior compensations, suggesting that this behavior could have been shaped by natural selection. Here, we analyze the evolutionary relevance of such a commitment strategy and relate it to the costly punishment strategy, where no prior agreements are made. We show that when the cost of arranging a commitment deal lies within certain limits, substantial levels of cooperation can be achieved. Moreover, these levels are higher than that achieved by simple costly punishment, especially when one insists on sharing the arrangement cost. Not only do we show that good agreements make good friends, agreements based on shared costs result in even better outcomes. PMID:24045873

  19. Effortful Control and Impulsivity as Concurrent and Longitudinal Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Haugen, Rg; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Kupfer, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test if both effortful control (EC) and impulsivity, a reactive index of temperament, uniquely predict adolescents' academic achievement, concurrently and longitudinally (Time 1: "N" = 168, X-bar[subscript age] = 12 years). At Time 1, parents and teachers reported on students' EC and impulsivity.…

  20. Examining Perceived Control Level and Instability as Predictors of First-Year College Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.; Hall, Nathan C.; Guay, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the intraindividual level and instability of perceived academic control (PC) among first-year college students, and their predictive effects on academic achievement. Two studies were conducted measuring situational (state) PC on different schedules: Study 1 (N = 242) five times over a 6-month period and…

  1. Locus of Control in Achievement and Affiliation (MMCS) as Related to Pathologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, John; Lao, Rosina C.

    The Multidimensional-Multiattributional Causality Scale (MMCS) is a goal-specific scale developed to assess locus of control in the areas of achievement and affiliation. The relationship between the MMCS and feelings of depression, hopelessness, and perceived stress was examined to validate the MMCS and determine if specific expectancies take…

  2. On-Line Tutoring for Math Achievement Testing: A Controlled Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Carole R.; Walles, Rena; Arroyo, Ivon; Woolf, Beverly P.

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of a controlled evaluation of an interactive on-line tutoring system for high school math achievement test problem solving. High school students (N = 202) completed a math pre-test and were then assigned by teachers to receive interactive on-line multimedia tutoring or their regular classroom instruction. The on-line tutored…

  3. Autonomy Support versus Psychological Control, Perfectionism, and Taiwanese Adolescents' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2013-01-01

    The author attempted to explore potential antecedents of achievement goals and relations of teacher and parental autonomy support versus psychological control to Taiwanese adolescents' perfectionistic tendencies. A total of 512 eighth-grade students completed self-reported questionnaires assessing variables of interest. Results indicated that…

  4. Training Theory of Mind and Executive Control: A Tool for Improving School Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef

    2008-01-01

    In the preschool years, there are marked improvements in theory of mind (ToM) and executive functions. And, children's competence in these two core cognitive domains is associated with their academic achievement. Therefore, training ToM and executive control could be a valuable tool for improving children's success in school. This article reviews…

  5. The Effect of Inhibitory Control on General Mathematics Achievement and Fraction Comparison in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez, David Maximiliano; Jiménez, Abelino; Bobadilla, Roberto; Reyes, Cristián; Dartnell, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in inhibitory control have been shown to relate to general mathematics achievement, but whether this relation varies for specific areas within mathematics is a question that remains open. Here, we evaluate if inhibitory processes play a specific role in the particular case of fraction comparison, where learners must ignore…

  6. Diagnosis, Remediation, and Locus of Control: Effects on Immediate and Retained Achievement and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders-Harris, Ramona; Yeany, Russell H.

    1981-01-01

    Subjects were assessed for locus of control and experienced either: no diagnosis; diagnosis; or, diagnosis and remediation. Immediate achievement was measured twice during the experiment; retention was measured 30 days later. Findings suggest that diagnostic or diagnostic/remedial instruction is effective in increasing middle school science…

  7. Role of Parenting Style in Achieving Metabolic Control in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shorer, Maayan; David, Ravit; Schoenberg-Taz, Michal; Levavi-Lavi, Ifat; Phillip, Moshe; Meyerovitch, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the role of parenting style in achieving metabolic control and treatment adherence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Parents of 100 adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed assessments of their parenting style and sense of helplessness. Parents and patients rated patient adherence to the treatment regimen. Glycemic control was evaluated by HbA1c values. RESULTS An authoritative paternal parenting style predicted better glycemic control and adherence in the child; a permissive maternal parenting style predicted poor adherence. A higher sense of helplessness in both parents predicted worse glycemic control and lesser adherence to treatment. Parental sense of helplessness was a significant predictor of diabetes control after correcting for other confounders (patient age, sex, and treatment method). CONCLUSIONS An authoritative nonhelpless parenting style is associated with better diabetes control in adolescents. Paternal involvement is important in adolescent diabetes management. These results have implications for psychological interventions. PMID:21788643

  8. Dot Display Affects Approximate Number System Acuity and Relationships with Mathematical Achievement and Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jade Eloise; Castronovo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated the relationship between the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement, with continued debate surrounding the existence of such a link. The use of different stimulus displays may account for discrepancies in the findings. Indeed, closer scrutiny of the literature suggests that studies supporting a link between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement in adults have mostly measured the ANS using spatially intermixed displays (e.g. of blue and yellow dots), whereas those failing to replicate a link have primarily used spatially separated dot displays. The current study directly compared ANS acuity when using intermixed or separate dots, investigating how such methodological variation mediated the relationship between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement. ANS acuity was poorer and less reliable when measured with intermixed displays, with performance during both conditions related to inhibitory control. Crucially, mathematical achievement was significantly related to ANS accuracy difference (accuracy on congruent trials minus accuracy on incongruent trials) when measured with intermixed displays, but not with separate displays. The findings indicate that methodological variation affects ANS acuity outcomes, as well as the apparent relationship between the ANS and mathematical achievement. Moreover, the current study highlights the problem of low reliabilities of ANS measures. Further research is required to construct ANS measures with improved reliability, and to understand which processes may be responsible for the increased likelihood of finding a correlation between the ANS and mathematical achievement when using intermixed displays. PMID:27195749

  9. High-Achieving High School Students and Not so High-Achieving College Students: A Look at Lack of Self-Control, Academic Ability, and Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honken, Nora B.; Ralston, Patricia A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among lack of self-control, academic ability, and academic performance for a cohort of freshman engineering students who were, with a few exceptions, extremely high achievers in high school. Structural equation modeling analysis led to the conclusion that lack of self-control in high school, as measured by…

  10. High school students' perceptions of EFL teacher control orientations and their English academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND. Theories distinguish between student-initiated and teacher-initiated regulation of students' learning activities, or between strong, shared, or loose teacher control during the completion of learning tasks. Empirical validations for such distinctions are scarce, however. AIM. The present study aimed at (a) investigating students' perceptions of control behaviours exhibited by their English teachers; and (b) exploring the contribution of different types of teacher control behaviours to students' cognitive outcomes (English Achievement). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 732 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students studying in three major fields of high school (Mathematics, Natural Science, and Humanities). The participants (16-17 years of age) were selected from third-grade classes of 27 EFL teachers working in 25 high schools of 6 main different geographical regions in the Isfahan province, Iran. METHOD. To obtain a comprehensive picture of different control types exhibited by Iranian EFL teachers, the control subscales of the two existing questionnaires, i.e., the Questionnaire on Instructional Behaviours (QIB), adapted by Den Brok et al. (2004) and the Questionnaire on Lesson Activities (QLA) used by Den Brok (2001) were merged to form the Questionnaire of Teacher Control (QTC). The development of this Persian instrument involved several steps: translation and back translation by the researchers, one expert translator, and two EFL teachers; piloting; and a final administration of the questionnaire to the student sample. With respect to the second aim of the study, data regarding students' performances on the Standardized National English Achievement Tests were gathered from local educational offices and schools. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION. Statistical analyses supported acceptable reliability and validity of the instrument. A main factor structure with three types of teacher control (strong/high, shared/mid, and loose/low) was found to underlie students

  11. 78 FR 64425 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Meeting on Proposed Rule AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notification of public meeting... proposed rule to establish requirements for current good manufacturing practice and hazard analysis and risk-based preventive controls for animal food. This proposed rule is one of several proposed...

  12. How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children’s mathematics achievement?

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Fuentes, Luis J.; Pina, Violeta; López-López, Jose A.; González-Salinas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC) -attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control- to children’s mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9–12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent’s report); math achievement was measured via teacher’s report and through the standard Woodcock–Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children’s mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children’s self-regulation abilities in the context of school. PMID:26441758

  13. Professional training in the workplace: the role of achievement motivation and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Campillo-Álvarez, Angela; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Muñiz, José

    2013-01-01

    The core objective of the present work is to explore the reasons why workers from different employment sectors join training courses to improve their job. To this end we assessed achievement motivation, locus of control and professional qualifications according to the participants' employment sector. The final sample consisted of 1460 active Spanish workers from four different employment sectors: services, catering, metal construction, and others. Of the sample, 40.1% were male and 59.9% female, with a mean age of 33.3 years (SD = 9.7). The results show that the new scale developed to assess achievement motivation, locus of control and workers' qualifications presents adequate psychometric characteristics. Statistically significant differences were found in relation to employment sector. The areas studied showed satisfactory levels of workers' effort and achievement motivation to perform their jobs, though their attitudes toward the training courses as a basis for improving their employability are varied. Workers in the catering sector had higher levels of external attribution and the lowest interest in training. Those in the service sector had higher levels of achievement motivation and effort at work. Future research should develop a joint program covering the public and private sectors for the modification of these beliefs, attitudes and attributions. PMID:23866230

  14. Perceived Control Mediates the Relations between Depressive Symptoms and Academic Achievement in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Moè, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    The present research examined the protective role played by perceived control in the relation between depressive symptoms and academic achievement in adolescence. A sample of 218 adolescents aged 11 to 16 filled in questionnaires to assess self-reported depressive symptoms and three factors tied with Perceived Control (PC): self-regulated learning strategies use, effort attribution, and perceived competence. Grade Point Average (GPA) was considered as a measure of academic achievement. A path model showed that the relation between GPA and depressive symptoms is mediated by PC (p<.05), and became non-significant when PC is considered. The discussion stresses the need to take into account the strategic and motivational factors favouring learning in planning programmes to prevent and treat depressive symptoms in adolescence. PMID:26377348

  15. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Christofides, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level <1.0 ng/mL and age- and sex-normalized levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]) through timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment provides an opportunity to improve patient outcomes. Diagnosis of acromegaly is challenging because it is rooted in observing subtle clinical manifestations, and it is typical for acromegaly to evolve for up to 10 years before it is recognized. This results in chronic exposure to elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. PMID:27471378

  16. Use a linear model to achieve stable composition control in a naphtha splitter

    SciTech Connect

    Karpe, P.

    1997-01-01

    The following two points using dual composition control in a naphtha splitter are emphasized: while literature provides general guidelines for design of control systems for distillation columns, each column is unique in terms of dynamic and steady state behavior. Multivariable control analytical tools, such as RGA and SVD, coupled with rigorous steady state simulations, can be effectively employed to achieve stable control in columns beset with severe loop interactions, and often in the absence of on-line analyzers, linear models representing the first order approximations of distillation columns can yield significant benefits. Such models are simple to understand, readily acceptable to operators, do not require special expertise to maintain, and therefore, offer high degree of reliability.

  17. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  18. Study of a Simulation Tool to Determine Achievable Control Dynamics and Control Power Requirements with Perfect Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a study of two methods for use in a generic nonlinear simulation tool that could be used to determine achievable control dynamics and control power requirements while performing perfect tracking maneuvers over the entire flight envelope. The two methods are NDI (nonlinear dynamic inversion) and the SOFFT(Stochastic Optimal Feedforward and Feedback Technology) feedforward control structure. Equivalent discrete and continuous SOFFT feedforward controllers have been developed. These equivalent forms clearly show that the closed-loop plant model loop is a plant inversion and is the same as the NDI formulation. The main difference is that the NDI formulation has a closed-loop controller structure whereas SOFFT uses an open-loop command model. Continuous, discrete, and hybrid controller structures have been developed and integrated into the formulation. Linear simulation results show that seven different configurations all give essentially the same response, with the NDI hybrid being slightly different. The SOFFT controller gave better tracking performance compared to the NDI controller when a nonlinear saturation element was added. Future plans include evaluation using a nonlinear simulation.

  19. The Collective Good: Unionization, Perceived Control, and Overall Job Satisfaction among Community College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linville, Joann E.; Antony, James Soto; Hayden, Ruby A.

    2011-01-01

    The research reported in this paper follow up a recent study by the authors on perceived control by examining what role working in a union or nonunion college has in influencing faculty job satisfaction. Using data from the 1993, 1999, and 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty, this study explored the relative importance of variables,…

  20. Tribally Controlled Colleges: Making Good Medicine. American Indian Studies, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Wayne J.

    This book traces the development of tribally controlled colleges (TCC), placing them in a historical context within Native American higher education and within the junior and community college movement. It examines the first 10 years of the movement, focusing in particular on six TCC's and the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC),…

  1. Current good manufacturing practices, quality control procedures, quality factors, notification requirements, and records and reports, for infant formula. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule that adopts, with some modifications, the interim final rule (IFR) entitled "Current Good Manufacturing Practices, Quality Control Procedures, Quality Factors, Notification Requirements, and Records and Reports, for Infant Formula'' (February 10, 2014). This final rule affirms the IFR's changes to FDA's regulations and provides additional modifications and clarifications. The final rule also responds to certain comments submitted in response to the request for comments in the IFR. PMID:24922980

  2. Achieving glycemic control in special populations in hospital: perspectives in practice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Alice Y Y

    2014-04-01

    Achieving and maintaining glycemic control in patients with diabetes admitted to hospital is challenging because of the many competing factors of nutrition, pharmacotherapy and other patient-related and systemic factors. For patients receiving enteral or parenteral feeding, eating irregularly or receiving glucocorticoid therapy, the challenges are even greater. The basic principles to follow when managing glycemia in these populations are as follows: 1) Recognition of those at risk for hyperglycemia; 2) frequent bedside glucose monitoring; 3) a proactive approach with routine insulin administration based on the predicted glucose patterns; 4) constant reassessment of the glycemic status and titration of the routine insulin accordingly. PMID:24690508

  3. Testing Goodness-of-Fit for the Proportional Hazards Model based on Nested Case-Control Data

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wenbin; Liu, Mengling; Chen, Yi-Hau

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nested case-control sampling is a popular design for large epidemiological cohort studies due to its cost effectiveness. A number of methods have been developed for the estimation of the proportional hazards model with nested case-control data; however, the evaluation of modeling assumption is less attended. In this paper, we propose a class of goodness-of-fit test statistics for testing the proportional hazards assumption based on nested case-control data. The test statistics are constructed based on asymptotically mean-zero processes derived from Samuelsen’s maximum pseudo-likelihood estimation method. In addition, we develop an innovative resampling scheme to approximate the asymptotic distribution of the test statistics while accounting for the dependent sampling scheme of nested case-control design. Numerical studies are conducted to evaluate the performance of our proposed approach, and an application to the Wilms’ Tumor Study is given to illustrate the methodology. PMID:25298193

  4. Testing goodness-of-fit for the proportional hazards model based on nested case-control data.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenbin; Liu, Mengling; Chen, Yi-Hau

    2014-12-01

    Nested case-control sampling is a popular design for large epidemiological cohort studies due to its cost effectiveness. A number of methods have been developed for the estimation of the proportional hazards model with nested case-control data; however, the evaluation of modeling assumption is less attended. In this article, we propose a class of goodness-of-fit test statistics for testing the proportional hazards assumption based on nested case-control data. The test statistics are constructed based on asymptotically mean-zero processes derived from Samuelsen's maximum pseudo-likelihood estimation method. In addition, we develop an innovative resampling scheme to approximate the asymptotic distribution of the test statistics while accounting for the dependent sampling scheme of nested case-control design. Numerical studies are conducted to evaluate the performance of our proposed approach, and an application to the Wilms' Tumor Study is given to illustrate the methodology. PMID:25298193

  5. Esmolol in a case of severe tetanus. Adequate haemodynamic control achieved despite markedly elevated catecholamine levels.

    PubMed

    Beards, S C; Lipman, J; Bothma, P A; Joynt, G M

    1994-03-01

    A patient with severe tetanus, who had a sympathetic crisis while sedated with 30 mg/h diazepam and 30 mg/h morphine, is described. Satisfactory control of the haemodynamic crisis was achieved with bolus doses of esmolol to a total of 180 mg. A disturbing finding was that although there was adequate control of the tachycardia and hypertension, arterial catecholamine levels remained markedly elevated. Adrenaline levels of 531 pg/ml (normal 10-110 pg/ml) and noradrenaline levels of 1,036 pg/ml (normal 100-500 pg/ml) were recorded when the patient had a systolic arterial pressure of 110 mmHg and a heart rate of 97/min. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:11218441

  6. Chirp control of a single-mode, good beam quality, zigzag dye laser

    SciTech Connect

    Mandl, A.; Zavriyev, A.; Klimek, D.E.

    1997-03-01

    The authors report a substantial reduction of frequency chirp of a single-mode laser-pumped zigzag dye laser. A linear optical cavity using counterpropagating orthogonally polarized waves was injection-seeded at 568 nm and operated with a laser output of about 1 J. The chirp was controlled by an intracavity Pockels cell that was configured to add optical density at a rate which counterbalanced the decrease in optical density due to dye-solvent heating during the {approximately}1-{micro}s laser pulse. Heterodyne measurements were used to determine that the bandwidth was near the transform limit and chirp rate of {approximately}1 MHz/{micro}s. The beam quality of the laser was measured at 10 Hz as 1.7 XDL.

  7. Promotive effect of comprehensive management on achieving blood glucose control in senile type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Yan, S-T; Li, C-X; Li, C-L; Li, J; Shao, Y-H; Liu, Y; Zhong, W-W; Fang, F-S; Sun, B-R; Tian, H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the control of blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and its influencing factors, in elderly type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) patients undergoing comprehensive management. After years of comprehensive prevention of and control measures for diabetes, elderly T2DM patients who were receiving long-term health care were comprehensively evaluated through an annual physical examination. In addition to routine health examination, the patients were required to undergo HbA1c measurement. Among 688 patients, 652 were men and 36 were women, with a mean age of 78.2 ± 9.1 years. The average HbA1c was 6.6 ± 0.9%. A total of 50.6% of the patients had HbA1c <6.5%, whereas 76.3% had HbA1c <7.0%. Among all patients, 77.1, 46.4, 66.1, 67.8, 36.3, and 57.4% achieved the target total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI) levels, respectively. The duration of disease and type of treatment, as well as the LDL, HDL, TG, BMI, and blood pressure levels, were significantly associated with HbA1c control. No patient was admitted because of ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar nonketotic diabetic coma in 10 years. Approximately half of the T2DM patients achieved the target HbA1c level. The more effective blood glucose control observed in our study compared with previous studies can be attributed to the effective monitoring of medical conditions and comprehensive management of patients. PMID:25966070

  8. The Control-Value Theory of Achievement Emotions: Assumptions, Corollaries, and Implications for Educational Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the control-value theory of achievement emotions and its implications for educational research and practice. The theory provides an integrative framework for analyzing the antecedents and effects of emotions experienced in achievement and academic settings. It is based on the premise that appraisals of control and values are…

  9. The effect of acute treadmill walking on cognitive control and academic achievement in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Hillman, C H; Pontifex, M B; Raine, L B; Castelli, D M; Hall, E E; Kramer, A F

    2009-03-31

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indexes of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included 20 preadolescent participants (age=9.5+/-0.5 years; eight female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 min of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e. walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further support the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan. PMID:19356688

  10. THE EFFECT OF ACUTE TREADMILL WALKING ON COGNITIVE CONTROL AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Charles H.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hall, Eric E.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included twenty preadolescent participants (Age = 9.5 ± 0.5 years; 8 female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 minutes of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e., walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further supports the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan. PMID:19356688

  11. Favorable locations for piezo actuators in plates with good control effectiveness and minimal change in system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuri, K. D.; Seshu, P.

    2007-12-01

    Placement and sizing of piezo actuators is normally based on control effectiveness. However, retrofitting of piezoelectric actuators alters the inherent stiffness/mass properties of the parent structure. In rotating structures, the additional mass due to piezo patches contributes to the centrifugal stiffening force. The parent structure is originally designed to have a certain natural frequency spectrum in relation to the disturbance excitation. In the event of failure of the active system, the dynamics of the structure with piezos (now rendered passive) will therefore become significant. Thus it will be helpful to determine locations for mounting piezo patches based on minimal natural frequency change yet with good control authority. In this study, a finite element based procedure for plate structures is presented. Favorable locations for mounting piezos based on minimal natural frequency changes are iteratively evolved from an initial configuration wherein the whole plate is covered with piezos. A modal controllability approach has been used for finding piezo mounting locations from a good controllability perspective. The procedure is demonstrated for simply supported square, swept-back, circular and rotating rectangular plates considering the first four modes.

  12. Establishing Causality Using Longitudinal Hierarchical Linear Modeling: An Illustration Predicting Achievement From Self-Control

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Tsukayama, Eli; May, Henry

    2010-01-01

    The predictive validity of personality for important life outcomes is well established, but conventional longitudinal analyses cannot rule out the possibility that unmeasured third-variable confounds fully account for the observed relationships. Longitudinal hierarchical linear models (HLM) with time-varying covariates allow each subject to serve as his or her own control, thus eliminating between-individual confounds. HLM also allows the directionality of the causal relationship to be tested by reversing time-lagged predictor and outcome variables. We illustrate these techniques through a series of models that demonstrate that within-individual changes in self-control over time predict subsequent changes in GPA but not vice-versa. The evidence supporting a causal role for self-control was not moderated by IQ, gender, ethnicity, or income. Further analyses rule out one time-varying confound: self-esteem. The analytic approach taken in this study provides the strongest evidence to date for the causal role of self-control in determining achievement. PMID:20976121

  13. Green leafy porridges: how good are they in controlling glycaemic response?

    PubMed

    Anuruddhika Subhashinie Senadheera, Senadheera Pathirannehelage; Ekanayake, Sagarika

    2013-03-01

    Green leafy porridges made with leaf water extracts, rice and coconut milk are common Sri Lankan dietary remedies for diabetes. Though water and ethanolic extracts of most leaves elicit hypoglycaemic effects, data are not available on the efficacy when leaf extracts are incorporated into porridges. Thus, an effort was made to evaluate the proximate compositions and glycaemic index (GI) of some commonly consumed green leafy porridges. The GI of rice porridge and coconut milk porridge were measured to evaluate the effect of other ingredients other than the leaf extracts. Rice was the main contributor to carbohydrate (56-68% on dry weight) and water was the main component in porridges (89-93%). Fat and total dietary fibre contents ranged between 2.5-27% and 5-10%, respectively. The GI of all porridges was low (GI ≤ 55), except Cassia auriculata which had a high GI of 77 ± 12. The GIs of coconut milk, Aerva lanata, Hemidesmus indicus, Scoparia dulcis, Asparagus racemosus, Cephalandra indica, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Murraya koenigii and Aegle marmelos were 31 ± 5, 32 ± 5, 40 ± 8, 39 ± 8, 37 ± 4, 49 ± 8, 46 ± 8, 44 ± 8 and 50 ± 8, respectively. All porridges had a low or medium glycaemic loads ( ≤ 19). However, peak blood glucose reductions of ≥ 25% were observed in all leafy and coconut milk porridges, except in C. auriculata and Atlantia zeylanica, when compared with the glucose control. Therefore, green leafy porridges, except Cassia, can be recommended as breakfast meals for diabetics due to their low GI, peak blood glucose reduction and presence of other nutrients in green leaves. PMID:22849311

  14. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P. Craig; Buyon, Lucas E.; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the “big three” diseases—namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria—has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda

  15. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P Craig; Buyon, Lucas E; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the "big three" diseases--namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria--has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda. PMID

  16. Longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's negative emotions, effortful control, and math achievement in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = .39 year) across kindergarten through second grade. Parents reported their reactions and children's EC. Math achievement was assessed with a standardized achievement test. First-grade EC mediated the relation between parents' reactions at kindergarten and second-grade math achievement, beyond stability in constructs across study years. Panel mediation model results suggested that socialization of EC may be one method of promoting math achievement in early school; however, when all omitted time-invariant covariates of EC and math achievement were controlled, first-grade EC no longer predicted second-grade math achievement. PMID:24916765

  17. Insect control in mainland China. Good progress has been made through combining the knowledge and methods of scientists and farmers.

    PubMed

    CHENG, T H

    1963-04-19

    On the whole, one must say in all fairness that good progress has been made. So far, the regime's achievements reflect credit more on contributions from other countries, especially the United States, than on the creative work of its own entomologists. In a decade or so, Communist China may approach Western standards in applied entomology, but her contributions to basic research will be spotty at best. According to a statement made in 1956 by an Indian delegation which visited China (30), "There is no technical measure in the field of agriculture practiced in China which is really new. But it is the manner in which these technical measures are being implemented which is remarkable." PMID:14020548

  18. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  19. Pollution control system design for achieving stringent emissions standards on waste incineration facilities -- a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, E.H.; Bourgoin, S.

    1998-12-31

    In Germany, environmental standards for non-municipal waste incineration are set to not only achieve very low emissions to the atmosphere, but to also ensure that the solid residues generated are of acceptable quality for final disposal and that no liquid effluent is discharged from the system. In order to control pollution from these facilities, an integrated system is required to address the air, liquid and solid regulatory issues. This paper examines one recent facility installed in Germany which incorporates all of the design features required to comply with those standards. The facility examined is an industrial waste incineration facility located at an oil refinery in northeastern Germany. Equipped with a spray dryer absorber, fabric filter, and wet scrubber, the system is designed to achieve HCl emissions of less than 10 mg/Nm{sup 3} and SO{sub 2} emissions of less than 50 mg/Nm{sup 3}. Particulate emissions must be below 10 mg/Nm{sup 3}. The limit for mercury emissions is 50 ug/Nm{sup 3}, while dioxin emissions must be below 0.10 ng/Nm{sup 3}. Purge water from the wet scrubbing system containing salts is dried in the spray dryer absorber and collected as a dry waste in the fabric filter following the spray dryer absorber. The detailed design of the pollution control system is discussed, along with considerations to ensure continuous compliance with allowable emission levels. Operation of the facility is discussed, along with special operating issues that have been encountered since startup. Finally, performance tests and emissions data are presented to illustrate the actual performance level of the facility.

  20. Protective Effect of Hand-Washing and Good Hygienic Habits Against Seasonal Influenza: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingbin; Ou, Jianming; Zhang, Lijie; Shen, Xiaona; Hong, Rongtao; Ma, Huilai; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Fontaine, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Previous observational studies have reported protective effects of hand-washing in reducing upper respiratory infections, little is known about the associations between hand-washing and good hygienic habits and seasonal influenza infection. We conducted a case-control study to test whether the risk of influenza transmission associated with self-reported hand-washing and unhealthy hygienic habits among residents in Fujian Province, southeastern China.Laboratory confirmed seasonal influenza cases were consecutively included in the study as case-patients (n = 100). For each case, we selected 1 control person matched for age and city of residence. Telephone interview was used to collect information on hand-washing and hygienic habits. The associations were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Compared with the poorest hand-washing score of 0 to 3, odds ratios of influenza infection decreased progressively from 0.26 to 0.029 as hand-washing score increased from 4 to the maximum of 9 (P < 0.001). Compared with the poorest hygienic habit score of 0 to 2, odds ratios of influenza infection decreased from 0.10 to 0.015 with improving score of hygienic habits (P < 0.001). Independent protective factors against influenza infection included good hygienic habits, higher hand-washing score, providing soap or hand cleaner beside the hand-washing basin, and receiving influenza vaccine. Regular hand-washing and good hygienic habits were associated with a reduced risk of influenza infection. These findings support the general recommendation for nonpharmaceutical interventions against influenza. PMID:26986125

  1. The Target Achievement Control Test: Evaluating real-time myoelectric pattern recognition control of a multifunctional upper-limb prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Ann M.; Hargrove, Levi J.; Lock, Blair A.; Kuiken, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite high classification accuracies (~95%) of myoelectric control systems based on pattern recognition, it is unclear how well offline measures translate to real-time closed-loop control. Recently, a real-time virtual test analyzed how well subjects completed motions using a multiple–degree of freedom (DOF) classifier. Although this test provided real-time performance metrics, the required task was oversimplified: motion speeds were normalized and unintended movements were ignored. We included these considerations in a new, more challenging virtual test, the Target Achievement Control (TAC) Test. Users attempted to move a virtual arm into a target posture using myoelectric pattern recognition. Five transradial amputees performed the test with various classifier (one vs. three DOF) and task complexities (one vs. three required motions per posture). No significant difference was found in classification accuracy between the one- and three- DOF classifiers (97.2%±2.0% and 94.1%±3.1%, respectively) (p=0.14). Subjects completed 31% fewer trials in significantly more time using the three-DOF classifier. Subjects took 3.6±0.8 times longer to reach a three-motion posture compared to a one-motion posture. The results highlight the need for closed-loop performance measures and demonstrate that the TAC Test provides a useful and more challenging tool to test real-time pattern recognition performance. PMID:21938650

  2. [What glycemic control can be achieved in diabetic children and adolescents to avoid complications? Personal experience].

    PubMed

    Dorchy, H

    2006-01-01

    The principal aims of therapeutic management of the child, adolescent and adult with type 1 diabetes are to allow good quality of life and to avoid long-term complications by maintaining blood glucose concentrations close to the normal range and an HbA1c level under 7%. The number of daily insulin injections, 2 or > or =4 or pumps, by itself does not necessarily give better results, but the 4-injection regimen allows greater freedom, taking into account that the proper insulin adjustment is difficult before adolescence. Successful glycaemic control in young patients depends mainly on the quality and intensity of diabetes education. Any dogmatism must be avoided. Dietary recommendations issued over the last few years are the same for diabetic and nondiabetic individuals in order to avoid degenerative diseases. In the twice-daily injection regimen, the allocation of carbohydrates throughout the day is essential. Due to their pharmakokinetic characteristics, fast-acting and long-acting insulin analogues have specific indications in both the twice-daily injection regimen and the basal-bolus insulin therapy. They improve quality of life, without necessarily reducing HbA1c. In the two daily insulin injection regimen, fast-acting analogues are very useful to rapidly correct hyperglycaemia, to allow sleeping in and eating something sweet. In the basal-bolus regimen, long-acting analogues reduce nocturnal hypoglycaemias and improve fasting blood glucose. Clinical studies, conducted since the 1970s by our team, have demonstrated that screening for subclinical retinopathy (fluorescein angiography), neuropathy (conduction velocities), nephropathy (microalbuminuria), should be started at puberty and at least 3 years after the diagnosis of diabetes. The goal is to detect early abnormalities responsible for subclinical disorders that can be reversed by improved metabolic control, thus preventing the occurrence of irreversible potentially incapacitating lesions. This motivates

  3. The Relationship of Locus of Control and Self-Efficacy to Academic Achievement of First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Kathleen Geiger

    2003-01-01

    This correlation study assessed whether the psychological variables of college students' locus of control, self-efficacy, and achievement expectations strengthen the prediction of academic achievement beyond that of traditional cognitive measures of high school grade point average and scores on the ACT or SAT examination. The study used earned…

  4. [Drug flow. Good manufacturing practices, good clinical practices].

    PubMed

    Dupin-Spriet, T; Spriet, A

    1991-01-01

    On a worldwide basis, the drug development circuit in clinical trials undergoes a general movement towards improvement which is sensitive to the degree of quality. The methods used to achieve this are found at the interface of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Good Clinical Practices (GCP). They consist primarily of two types, for which examples are given here: strengthening of controls (verification of the resemblance of test drugs in double-blind comparison by a "jury" and computerized systems of drug accountability), improvement in "compliance with therapy at the site of investigation" (use of more "intelligent" drug packages and labels). PMID:2020929

  5. Boredom in Achievement Settings: Exploring Control-Value Antecedents and Performance Outcomes of a Neglected Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Daniels, Lia M.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.

    2010-01-01

    The linkages of achievement-related boredom with students' appraisals and performance outcomes were examined in a series of 5 exploratory, cross-sectional, and predictive investigations. Studies 1 and 2 assessed students' boredom in a single achievement episode (i.e., state achievement boredom); Studies 3, 4, and 5 focused on their habitual…

  6. Achieving a new controllable male contraception by the photothermal effect of gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-qing; Sun, Chun-yang; Wang, Feng; Wang, Yu-cai; Zhai, Yi-wen; Liang, Meng; Liu, Wen-jing; Liu, Zhi-min; Wang, Jun; Sun, Fei

    2013-06-12

    During the process of human civilization, owning household pets has become increasingly popular. However, dogs and cats may be reservoirs or vectors of transmissible diseases to humans. Confronted with the overpopulation of pets, traditional contraception methods, surgical methods of sterilization, for animals are used, namely, ovariohysterectomy and orchidectomy. Therefore, a simple, nonsurgical, controllable, more effective and less expensive contraception method is highly desirable. In this study, we show that in situ testicular injection of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-modified gold nanorods with near-infrared irradiation in male mice can achieve short-lived or permanent male infertility. In a lower hyperthermia treatment, the morphology of testes and seminiferous tubules is only partly injured, and fertility indices are decreased to 10% at day 7, then recovered to 50% at day 60. In a higher hyperthermia treatment, the morphology of testes and seminiferous tubules are totally destroyed, and fertility indices are decreased to 0 at day 7. Overall, our results indicate a potential application of plasmonic nanomaterials for male contraception. PMID:23688274

  7. Achieving glycemic control in young children with type 1 diabetes: approaches, pitfalls and new technologies.

    PubMed

    Gruppuso, Philip A

    2003-04-01

    Advances in technologies for insulin administrations, glucose monitoring, development of an artificial pancreas and cell-based therapy will ultimately have a profound effect on the lives of people wit diabetes. There is both current success and substantial promise, indicating that these approches may offer, for the first time, real potential for achieving euglycemia without hypoglycemia. Given the physiological and psychosocial impact of type 1 diabetes in young children, this group of patients and their parents stand to gain especially great benefit from these developments. However, the potential for improvements in the mangement of diabetes in young children based on available technologies should not be overlooked and should be effectively utilized as the standard for patient care. Only twenty years ago blood glucose reagent strips were first coming into routine use. Current meters have greatly reduced the amount of blood required ( now less than 1 microliter for many meters) and greatly imporved precision. The advent modified, recombinant insulins, which became available only in the last several years, allows for an insulin regimen to better match the absorption of dietary carbohydrate. All technologies have improved our ability to attain glycemic control, thereby reducing the risk of long-term complication in even our youngest patients. PMID:12751364

  8. Prediction of Kindergartners' Academic Achievement from Their Effortful Control and Emotionality: Evidence for Direct and Moderated Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Swanson, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    The relations between effortful control, emotionality (anger, sadness, and shyness), and academic achievement were examined in a short-term longitudinal study of 291 kindergartners. Teachers and parents reported on students' effortful control and emotionality. Students completed the Continuous Performance Task and the Letter-Word, Passage…

  9. Effects of an Emotion Control Treatment on Academic Emotions, Motivation and Achievement in an Online Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ChanMin; Hodges, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    We designed and developed an emotion control treatment and investigated its effects on college students' academic emotions, motivation, and achievement in an online remedial mathematics course. The treatment group showed more positive emotions of enjoyment and pride than the control group. The treatment group also showed a higher level of…

  10. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-Student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-Risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to…

  11. Imaging techniques applied to quality control of civil manufactured goods obtained starting from ready-to-use mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Federica

    2003-05-01

    Concrete materials obtained from the utilization of pre-mixed and ready to use products (central mix-concrete) are more and more used. They represent a big portion of the civil construction market. Such products are used at different scale, ranging from small scale works, as those commonly realized inside and house, an apartment, etc. or at big civil or industrial scale works. In both cases the problem to control the mixtures and the final work is usually realized through the analysis of properly collected samples. Through appropriate sampling it can be derived objective parameters, as size class distribution and composition of the constituting particulate matter, or mechanical characteristics of the sample itself. An important parameter not considered by the previous mentioned approach is "segregation", that is the possibility that some particulate materials migrate preferentially in some zones of the mixtures and/or of the final product. Such a behavior dramatically influences the quality of the product and of the final manufactured good. Actually this behavior is only studied adopting a human based visual approach. Not repeatable analytical procedures or quantitative data processing exist. In this paper a procedure fully based on image processing techniques is described and applied. Results are presented and analyzed with reference to industrial products. A comparison is also made between the new proposed digital imaging based techniques and the analyses usually carried out at industrial laboratory scale for standard quality control.

  12. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  13. The Effects of Formal Reasoning Ability, Locus of Control and Student Engagement on Science Process Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Kenneth G.; Capie, William

    This study investigated student variables likely to influence process skill learning. Specifically, relationships were explored concerning the following variables: (1) student engagement and science process achievement, (2) formal reasoning ability and student engagement, (3) formal reasoning ability and science process achievement, (4) student…

  14. The Impact of Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of African American and European American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.

    2003-01-01

    Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…

  15. Locus of Control or Self-Esteem; Which One is the Best Predictor of Academic Achievement in Iranian College Students

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyyed Nasrollah; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi; Karami Matin, Behzad; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Ashtarian, Hossein; Jalilian, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-esteem and behavioral consequences, which are due to external or internal locus of control, are effective on academic achievement of students. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prediction of locus of control and self-esteem in academic achievement among the students. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 college students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Data collection tools were in three sections: demographic, Rotter internal-external locus of control scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 21. Results Results showed that 29.8% and 76.2% of the participants had internal locus of control, and high self-esteem, respectively. There was a significant correlation between self-esteem, locus of control and academic achievement of the students. Self-esteem accounted for 39.5% of the variation in academic achievement. Conclusions It seems that interventions to increase self-esteem among student can help improve academic achievement among them. PMID:27284277

  16. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2009-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to be academically at-risk at entry to first grade. Analyses accounted for clustering effects, covariates, baselines of effortful control measures, and prior levels of achievement. Even with such conservative statistical controls, interactive effects were found for task accuracy and positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement. Results suggest that task accuracy served as a protective factor so that children with high task accuracy performed well academically despite not having positive teacher-student relationships. Further, positive teacher-student relationships served as a compensatory factor so that children with low task accuracy performed just as well as those with high task accuracy if they were paired with a positive and supportive teacher. Importantly, results indicate that the influence of positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement was most pronounced for students with low effortful control on tasks that require fine motor skills, accuracy, and attention-related skills. Study results have implications for narrowing achievement disparities for academically at-risk children. PMID:20161421

  17. Effects of TCMC on Transformation of Good Health Status to Suboptimal Health Status: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tian; Chen, Jieyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Xiang, Lei; Zhou, Lin; Li, Fei; Lin, Changsong; Jiang, Pingping; Wu, Shengwei; Xiao, Ya; Cheng, Jingru; Luo, Ren; Liu, Yanyan; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects of traditional Chinese medicine constitution (TCMC) on transformation of good health status to suboptimal health status (SHS), we conducted a nested case-control study among college students in China. During the 18-month mean follow-up time, 543 cases of SHS (42.7%) occurred in 1273 healthy students. There was a significant (P = 0.000) and marked reduction in SHMS V1.0 total score in the case group at the 18-month follow-up (69.32 ± 5.45) compared with baseline (78.60 ± 4.70), but there was no significant change in the control group. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that respondents reporting Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency were, respectively, 2.247 and 2.198 times more likely to develop SHS, while tendency to Yin-deficiency and tendency to Damp-heat were, respectively, 1.642 and 1.506 times more likely to develop SHS. However, the Balanced Constitution was a significant protective factor (OR 0.649; P < 0.05). Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Yin-deficiency, Qi-deficiency, tendency to Yin-deficiency, and tendency to Damp-heat appeared to induce a change in health status to SHS, while the Balanced Constitution seemed to restrain this change. We conclude that regulating the unbalanced TCMC (such as Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency) may prevent a healthy status developing into SHS or lead to the regression of SHS. PMID:26346320

  18. Bandwidth efficient coding: Theoretical limits and real achievements. Error control techniques for satellite and space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, Daniel J., Jr.; Courturier, Servanne; Levy, Yannick; Mills, Diane G.; Perez, Lance C.; Wang, Fu-Quan

    1993-01-01

    In his seminal 1948 paper 'The Mathematical Theory of Communication,' Claude E. Shannon derived the 'channel coding theorem' which has an explicit upper bound, called the channel capacity, on the rate at which 'information' could be transmitted reliably on a given communication channel. Shannon's result was an existence theorem and did not give specific codes to achieve the bound. Some skeptics have claimed that the dramatic performance improvements predicted by Shannon are not achievable in practice. The advances made in the area of coded modulation in the past decade have made communications engineers optimistic about the possibility of achieving or at least coming close to channel capacity. Here we consider the possibility in the light of current research results.

  19. Tobacco control efforts in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hassounah, S; Rawaf, D; Khoja, T; Rawaf, S; Hussein, M S; Qidwai, W; Majeed, A

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports a review into the current state of tobacco use, governance and national commitment for control, and current intervention frameworks in place to reduce the use of tobacco among the populations of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) member states and Yemen. It further reviews structured policy-oriented interventions (in line with the MPOWER package of 6 evidence-based tobacco control measures) that represent government actions to strengthen, implement and manage tobacco control programmes and to address the growing epidemic of tobacco use. Our findings show that tobacco control in the GCC countries has witnessed real progress over the past decades. These are still early days but they indicate steps in the right direction. Future investment in implementation and enforcement of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, production of robust tobacco control legislation and the establishment of universally available tobacco cessation services are essential to sustain and strengthen tobacco control in the GCC region. PMID:25150358

  20. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building occupants and

  1. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  2. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  3. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  4. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  5. Effects of Autonomy Supportive vs. Controlling Teachers' Behavior on Students' Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferber, Natalia; Eckes, Alexander; Wilde, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Grolnick and Ryan (1987) assume that an autonomy supportive environment leads to higher learner engagement and thus to greater achievements and deeper understanding of content. In school, knowledge acquisition (rote learning as well as conceptual learning) are regarded as most important. In this study, we examined the effects of teachers' autonomy…

  6. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.43... achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy..., and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for...

  7. Effects of Achievement, Evaluative Feedback, and Locus of Control on Children's Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midlarsky, Elizabeth; McKnight, Lynda Bidlake

    1980-01-01

    Results indicated that expectations concerning success were determined by past achievement and by evaluative feedback. Immediate past performance had a stronger relative influence on expectations and performance than evaluative feedback. Feedback had a relatively greater effect on self-evaluation. (Author/DB)

  8. Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Understand Executive Control in Preschool Children: Sources of Variation in Emergent Mathematic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Rebecca; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Sheffield, Tiffany D.; Nelson, Jennifer Mize

    2011-01-01

    Latent variable modeling methods have demonstrated utility for understanding the structure of executive control (EC) across development. These methods are utilized to better characterize the relation between EC and mathematics achievement in the preschool period, and to understand contributing sources of individual variation. Using the sample and…

  9. High-School Students' Need for Cognition, Self-Control Capacity, and School Achievement: Testing a Mediation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrams, Alex; Dickhauser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    In the present article, we examine the hypothesis that high-school students' motivation to engage in cognitive endeavors (i.e., their need for cognition; NFC) is positively related to their dispositional self-control capacity. Furthermore, we test the prediction that the relation between NFC and school achievement is mediated by self-control…

  10. Using Valid and Invalid Experimental Designs to Teach the Control of Variables Strategy in Higher and Lower Achieving Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Robert F., Jr.; Lorch, Elizabeth P.; Freer, Benjamin Dunham; Dunlap, Emily E.; Hodell, Emily C.; Calderhead, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Students (n = 1,069) from 60 4th-grade classrooms were taught the control of variables strategy (CVS) for designing experiments. Half of the classrooms were in schools that performed well on a state-mandated test of science achievement, and half were in schools that performed relatively poorly. Three teaching interventions were compared: an…

  11. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  12. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  13. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  14. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  15. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from…

  16. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections... quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected... and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...

  17. A Randomized Controlled Design Investigating the Effects of Classroom-Based Physical Activity on Children's Fluid Intelligence and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedewa, Alicia L.; Ahn, Soyeon; Erwin, Heather; Davis, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Existing literature shows promising effects of physical activity on children's cognitive outcomes. This study assessed via a randomized, controlled design whether additional curricular physical activity during the school day resulted in gains for children's fluid intelligence and standardized achievement outcomes. Participants were children…

  18. The Effects of Diagnosis, Remediation and Locus of Control on Achievement, Retention, and Attitudes of Middle School Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Ramona L.; Yeany, Russell H.

    Reported is a study designed to determine the effects of diagnostic testing followed by prescribed remediation on the immediate and retained science achievement of middle school students, and to determine if effects of treatment were consistent across students' race and locus of control (LOC) levels. Three intact seventh-grade science classes were…

  19. High Self-Control Predicts More Positive Emotions, Better Engagement, and Higher Achievement in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ronnel B.; Gaerlan, Marianne Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    The control-value theory of academic emotions has emerged as a useful framework for studying the antecedents and consequences of different emotions in school. This framework focuses on the role of control-related and value-related appraisals as proximal antecedents of emotions. In this study, we take an individual differences approach to examine…

  20. Achievement of a low-outgassing white paint system for spacecraft thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidenberg, B.; Park, J. J.; Clatterbuck, C.

    1972-01-01

    Test results and data for achieving a low-outgassing polymer resin suitable for potting or a paint pigment are presented. The resin, prepared in 0.5-kg (1-lb) batches, is acceptable for spacecraft use; its weight loss is less than 0.5 percent, and the volatile condensable materials are less than 0.05 percent. The paint adheres to a primed fiber glass or aluminum substrate. Results of UV irradiation, electron and proton radiation, and thermal cycling are presented.

  1. Good Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenheimer, Henry P.

    This book contains seventeen thumb-nail sketches of schools in Europe, the United States, Asia, Britain, and Australia, as they appeared in the eye of the author as a professional educator and a journalist while travelling around the world. The author considers the schools described to be good schools, and not necessarily the 17 best schools in…

  2. Extramammary Paget disease of the perianal region: the potential role of imiquimod in achieving disease control

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Stephen R.; Proby, Charlotte; Ziyaie, Dorin; Carey, Frank; Koch, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare perineal neoplasia associated with a high rate of local recurrence. Surgical excision is the standard treatment; however, this has high rates of post-operative morbidity in combination with potentially mutilating results. Previous literature has demonstrated good response with imiquimod 5% cream in patients with vulval EMPD, yet its effectiveness in primary perianal disease is unknown. We describe the case of a 40-year-old woman presenting with EMPD of the perianal region, providing detailed histological and pictoral evidence of its response to topical imiquimod 5% cream over a 16-week period, which initially resulted in remission prior to metastatic lymph node recurrence. This case demonstrates the potential for topical imiquimod cream to avoid major surgery and its associated complications in patients presenting with EMPD of the perianal region. We discuss the current evidence for treating this rare condition with medical therapy, how this case adds to current literature and possible future directions. PMID:27511910

  3. Robust, integrated computational control of NMR experiments to achieve optimal assignment by ADAPT-NMR.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Arash; Tonelli, Marco; Sahu, Sarata C; Singarapu, Kiran K; Eghbalnia, Hamid R; Markley, John L

    2012-01-01

    ADAPT-NMR (Assignment-directed Data collection Algorithm utilizing a Probabilistic Toolkit in NMR) represents a groundbreaking prototype for automated protein structure determination by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. With a [(13)C,(15)N]-labeled protein sample loaded into the NMR spectrometer, ADAPT-NMR delivers complete backbone resonance assignments and secondary structure in an optimal fashion without human intervention. ADAPT-NMR achieves this by implementing a strategy in which the goal of optimal assignment in each step determines the subsequent step by analyzing the current sum of available data. ADAPT-NMR is the first iterative and fully automated approach designed specifically for the optimal assignment of proteins with fast data collection as a byproduct of this goal. ADAPT-NMR evaluates the current spectral information, and uses a goal-directed objective function to select the optimal next data collection step(s) and then directs the NMR spectrometer to collect the selected data set. ADAPT-NMR extracts peak positions from the newly collected data and uses this information in updating the analysis resonance assignments and secondary structure. The goal-directed objective function then defines the next data collection step. The procedure continues until the collected data support comprehensive peak identification, resonance assignments at the desired level of completeness, and protein secondary structure. We present test cases in which ADAPT-NMR achieved results in two days or less that would have taken two months or more by manual approaches. PMID:22427982

  4. The Good Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2003-01-01

    Examines the working lives of geneticists and journalists to place into perspective what lies behind personal ethics and success. Defines "good work" as productive activity that is valued socially and loved by people engaged in it. Asserts that certain cultural values, social controls, and personal standards are necessary to maintain good work and…

  5. High School Students' Perceptions of EFL Teacher Control Orientations and Their English Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Theories distinguish between student-initiated and teacher-initiated regulation of students' learning activities, or between "strong, shared, or loose teacher control" during the completion of learning tasks. Empirical validations for such distinctions are scarce, however. Aim: The present study aimed at (a) investigating students'…

  6. Beyond Control of Variables: What Needs to Develop to Achieve Skilled Scientific Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Deanna; Iordanou, Kalypso; Pease, Maria; Wirkala, Clarice

    2008-01-01

    We identify three aspects of scientific thinking beyond the control-of-variables strategy that we claim are essential for students to master as a foundation for skilled scientific thinking. The first is strategic and involves the ability to coordinate effects of multiple causal influences on an outcome. The second is a mature understanding of the…

  7. Achieving control and interoperability through unified model-based systems and software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Robert; Ingham, Michel; Dvorak, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Control and interoperation of complex systems is one of the most difficult challenges facing NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. An integrated but diverse array of vehicles, habitats, and supporting facilities, evolving over the long course of the enterprise, must perform ever more complex tasks while moving steadily away from the sphere of ground support and intervention.

  8. A Study to Investigate the Relationship between Locus of Control and Academic Achievement of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Aijaz, Rukhma

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is regarded as the alpha and omega of learning. It is the heart of teaching learning process. Motivation is defined as an internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains the behavior over time. Thus motivation is the pivotal component of learning and locus of control which is one of the important factors it stems from. Locus of…

  9. Achieving asthma control with ICS/LABA: A review of strategies for asthma management and prevention.

    PubMed

    Aalbers, René; Vogelmeier, Claus; Kuna, Piotr

    2016-02-01

    Maintenance treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) is recommended for patients whose asthma is not controlled with a low-to-moderate dose of ICS alone; a separate reliever medication is used on an as-needed basis. The Gaining Optimal Asthma ControL (GOAL) study demonstrated that salmeterol/fluticasone maintenance treatment can improve asthma control and reduce future risk compared with fluticasone alone, although the dose escalation design of this study meant that most patients treated with salmeterol/fluticasone were receiving the highest dose of ICS at the end of the study. Similarly, budesonide/formoterol maintenance therapy improved asthma control and reduced future risk compared with budesonide alone in the Formoterol and Corticosteroids Establishing Therapy (FACET) study. An alternative approach to asthma management is to use an ICS/LABA for both maintenance and reliever therapy. A large body of clinical evidence has shown that the use of budesonide/formoterol in this way improves both current control and reduces future risk compared with ICS/LABA plus as-needed short-acting β2-agonist (SABA), even when patients receive lower maintenance doses of ICS as part of the maintenance and reliever therapy regimen. In addition, one study has shown that beclometasone/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy reduces exacerbations more effectively than beclometasone/formoterol plus as-needed SABA. The use of ICS/LABA as both maintenance and reliever therapy ensures that an increase in reliever use in response to worsening symptoms is automatically matched by an increase in ICS. PMID:26614594

  10. Good Self-Control Moderates the Effect of Mass Media on Adolescent Tobacco and Alcohol Use: Tests With Studies of Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Sargent, James D.; Gerrard, Meg; Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Dal Cin, Sonya

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether self-control moderates the effect of media influences on tobacco and alcohol use among youth and if so how this effect occurs. Design In Study 1, a regional sample of 10-year olds (N = 290) was interviewed in households; attention to tobacco/alcohol advertising was assessed. In Study 2, a national sample of youth ages 10–14 years (N = 6,522) was surveyed by telephone; exposure to tobacco/alcohol use in movies was assessed. Good self-control was measured in both studies. Main Outcome Measures Willingness to use substances and affiliation with peer substance users (Study 1); involvement in smoking or drinking (Study 2). Results In Study 1, the effect of tobacco/alcohol advertising on predisposition for substance use was lower among persons scoring higher on good self-control. In Study 2, the effect of movie smoking/alcohol exposure on adolescent tobacco/alcohol use was lower, concurrently and prospectively, among persons scoring higher on good self-control. Moderation occurred primarily through reducing the effect of movie exposure on positive smoking/alcohol expectancies and the effect of expectancies on adolescent use; some evidence for moderation of social processes was also noted. Covariates in the analyses included demographics, sensation seeking, and IQ. Conclusion Good self-control reduces the effect of adverse media influences on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Findings on the processes underlying this effect may be useful for media literacy and primary prevention programs. PMID:20836609

  11. Measurement of Child Behavior via Classroom Observations in the Good Behavior Game Professional Development Models Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurki, Anja; Wang, Wei; Li, Yibing; Poduska, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a classroom-based behavior management strategy aimed at reducing aggressive/disruptive behavior and socializing children into the role of student. GBG, delivered in first and second grades, has been shown to reduce rates of substance abuse and other deleterious outcomes into young adulthood (Brown, C.H. et al 2007,…

  12. 78 FR 17142 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... correcting the January 16, 2013 (78 FR 3646), proposed rule entitled ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice... Appendix in which all references are numbered incorrectly. This document corrects those errors. In FR Doc... proposed rule to establish CGMP requirements for dietary ingredients and dietary supplements (68 FR...

  13. Negative Emotions and Alcohol Use Initiation in High-Risk Boys: The Moderating Effect of Good Inhibitory Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Dustin; Lochman, John; Wells, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the relation between negative affect and later alcohol use have provided mixed results. Because definitions of negative affect often include diverse emotions, researchers have begun to dismantle this higher-order construct in an attempt to explain these inconsistent findings. More recent evidence also indicates that good inhibitory…

  14. Extramammary Paget disease of the perianal region: the potential role of imiquimod in achieving disease control.

    PubMed

    Knight, Stephen R; Proby, Charlotte; Ziyaie, Dorin; Carey, Frank; Koch, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare perineal neoplasia associated with a high rate of local recurrence. Surgical excision is the standard treatment; however, this has high rates of post-operative morbidity in combination with potentially mutilating results. Previous literature has demonstrated good response with imiquimod 5% cream in patients with vulval EMPD, yet its effectiveness in primary perianal disease is unknown.We describe the case of a 40-year-old woman presenting with EMPD of the perianal region, providing detailed histological and pictoral evidence of its response to topical imiquimod 5% cream over a 16-week period, which initially resulted in remission prior to metastatic lymph node recurrence. This case demonstrates the potential for topical imiquimod cream to avoid major surgery and its associated complications in patients presenting with EMPD of the perianal region. We discuss the current evidence for treating this rare condition with medical therapy, how this case adds to current literature and possible future directions. PMID:27511910

  15. Nanomechanical control of properties of biological membranes achieved by rodlike magnetic nanoparticles in a superlow-frequency magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovin, Yu. I.; Klyachko, N. L.; Gribanovskii, S. L.; Golovin, D. Yu.; Samodurov, A. A.; Majouga, A. G.; Sokolsky-Papkov, M.; Kabanov, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    It is proposed to use single-domain rodlike magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as mediators for nanomechanical control of properties of biological membranes and cells on the molecular or cellular level by exposing them to a homogeneous nonheating low-frequency magnetic field (AC MF). The trigger effect is achieved due to rotatory-oscillatory motion of MNPs in the AC MF, which causes the needed deformations in macromolecules of the membrane interacting with these MNPs.

  16. Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Cognition, Academic Achievement, and Psychosocial Function in Children: A Systematic Review of Randomized Control Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although the effects of aerobic physical activity (APA) on children’s physical health is well characterized, the effect of aerobic physical activity on cognition, academic achievement, and psychosocial function has not yet been established. This systematic review provides an overview of research elucidating the relationship between aerobic physical activity and children’s cognition, academic achievement, and psychosocial function. Methods A systematic review of English articles was performed in April 2013 using MEDLINE, Cochrane, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and EMBASE. Additional studies were identified through back-searching bibliographies. Only randomized control trials with an intervention of aerobic physical activity in children younger than 19 years that measured psychological, behavioral, cognitive, or academic outcomes were included. Results We found 8 relevant randomized control trials that met our inclusion criteria and extracted relevant data and evaluated the methodologic quality of the studies. Of the 8 studies identified, 2 studies were crossover randomized control trials studying the effects of acute aerobic physical activity on cognitive performance. Six studies were parallel-group randomized control studies, of which only 2 had a follow-up period of longer than 6 months. All studies showed that APA had a generally positive impact on children’s cognition and psychosocial function. However, this relationship was found to be minimal in many studies and in some measures, no significant improvement was seen at all. There was no documentation of APA having any negative impact on children’s cognition and psychosocial health, even in cases where school curriculum time was reassigned from classroom teaching to aerobic physical activity. Conclusion APA is positively associated with cognition, academic achievement, behavior, and psychosocial functioning outcomes. More rigorous trials with adequate sample sizes assessing the impact of APA on

  17. "Good mothering" or "good citizenship"?

    PubMed

    Porter, Maree; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C

    2012-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood banking is one of many biomedical innovations that confront pregnant women with new choices about what they should do to secure their own and their child's best interests. Many mothers can now choose to donate their baby's umbilical cord blood (UCB) to a public cord blood bank or pay to store it in a private cord blood bank. Donation to a public bank is widely regarded as an altruistic act of civic responsibility. Paying to store UCB may be regarded as a "unique opportunity" to provide "insurance" for the child's future. This paper reports findings from a survey of Australian women that investigated the decision to either donate or store UCB. We conclude that mothers are faced with competing discourses that force them to choose between being a "good mother" and fulfilling their role as a "good citizen." We discuss this finding with reference to the concept of value pluralism. PMID:23180199

  18. Ebola: A holistic approach is required to achieve effective management and control

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Anna; Afolabi, Muhammed O.; Saidu, Yauba; Kampmann, Beate

    2015-01-01

    The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa has already caused substantial mortality and dire human and economic consequences. It continues to represent an alarming public health threat in the region and beyond and jeopardizes the provision of health care and other services in the affected countries. The scale of the epidemic has accelerated research efforts for diagnostics, treatment, and prevention galvanized through increased availability of funding. Our knowledge relating to the virus, disease pathogenesis, risk factors, dynamics of transmission, and epidemic control is increasing, and sociocultural factors have emerged as critical determinants for the success and failure of control efforts. However, there is a long way to go. In this review we summarize the current knowledge, examine the sociocultural context in West Africa, and outline priority areas for future research. PMID:25843598

  19. Achieving reliable operation of a steam turbine's automatic control and protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, S. A.; Naumov, A. S.; Shvetsov, D. P.; Krymskii, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The algorithms, procedures, and modules for making expert estimates of the technical state of automatic control and protection systems for different types of turbines by means of the SPIDER mobile computerized automation system are presented. It is shown that owing to high trustworthiness with which the kind and location of hidden defects of units are determined without disassembling them, repair works can be scheduled in the optimal way and the costs for carrying them out can be reduced.

  20. Identification of Energy Efficiency Opportunities through Building Data Analysis and Achieving Energy Savings through Improved Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Koran, Bill

    2014-09-04

    This chapter will highlight analysis techniques to identify energy efficiency opportunities to improve operations and controls. A free tool, Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM), will be used to assist in the analysis of whole-building, sub-metered, and/or data from the building automation system (BAS). Appendix A describes the features of ECAM in more depth, and also provide instructions for downloading ECAM and all resources pertaining to using ECAM.

  1. A procedure to achieve fine control in MW processing of foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccurullo, G.; Cinquanta, L.; Sorrentino, G.

    2007-01-01

    A two-dimensional analytical model for predicting the unsteady temperature field in a cylindrical shaped body affected by spatially varying heat generation is presented. The dimensionless problem is solved analytically by using both partial solutions and the variation of parameters techniques. Having in mind industrial microwave heating for food pasteurization, the easy-to-handle solution is used to confirm the intrinsic lack of spatial uniformity of such a treatment in comparison to the traditional one. From an experimental point of view, a batch pasteurization treatment was realized to compare the effect of two different control techniques both based on IR thermography readout: the former assured a classical PID control, while the latter was based on a "shadowing" technique, consisting in covering portions of the sample which are hot enough with a mobile metallic screen. A measure of the effectiveness of the two control techniques was obtained by evaluating the thermal death curves of a strain Lactobacillus plantarum submitted to pasteurization temperatures. Preliminary results showed meaningful increases in the microwave thermal inactivation of the L. plantarum and similar significant decreases in thermal inactivation time with respect to the traditional pasteurization thermal treatment.

  2. Analysis of alternatives for insulinizing patients to achieve glycemic control and avoid accompanying risks of hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    GAO, JIALIN; XIONG, QIANYIN; MIAO, JUN; ZHANG, YAO; XIA, LIBING; LU, MEIQIN; ZHANG, BINHUA; CHEN, YUEPING; ZHANG, ANSU; YU, CUI; WANG, LI-ZHUO

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to explore the efficacy of glycemic control and the risks of hypoglycemia with different methods of insulin therapy, and to provide reference data for the clinical treatment of diabetes. In this retrospective study, hospitalized patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between March and December 2014, in the Department of Endocrinology in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College, were divided into three groups, including an intensive insulin analogue therapy group, a premixed insulin analogue treatment group and a premixed human insulin therapy group. The efficacy of glycemic control and the incidence of hypoglycemia were determined in each of the insulin treatment groups. Compared with the other treatment groups, the intensive insulin analogue therapy group was associated with superior blood glucose control, shorter time to reach standard insulin regimen, shorter hospitalization time, fewer fluctuations in blood glucose levels and lower insulin dosage on discharge from hospital. However, this treatment was also associated with a high risk of hypoglycemia. In conclusion, when combined with the effective prevention of hypoglycemia and appropriate nursing care (especially in hospital care), intensive insulin analogue therapy may provide the greatest benefit to patients. PMID:26137223

  3. Achieving high dependability and safety in sluice automation by using a fuzzy-logic-based control system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes how sluice automation was realized, achieving the customer requirements of dependability and safety. The analysis of both the managerial and technical problems has lead ENEL-PIN to develop an innovative sluice barrage control system, whose control algorithm is fuzzy-logic-based, that can be easily configured for each plant belonging to the identified sluice barrage class. APOS 1 achieves the automation requirements of dependability and safety by using a strong and continuous H/W and S/W self-testing and plant diagnosis, implementing particular techniques in order to realize a valid protection against electromagnetic interferences and climatic influences, and implementing suited command strategies to apply safety measures in case of hazardous situations. Its main tasks are to operate up to seven sluice-gates, suited for regulation, for controlling the river level near the sluices, and to perform a broadly diagnostic activity over the whole plant and on itself, to be used both on-line and for plant maintenance. APOS application software was designed in a general way for a class of plants, so that it may be configured by the plant expert personnel by means of a simple setting of some numeric parameters, during the plant installation. The core of the control system is a fuzzy-logic-based algorithm, that proved to be fast, reliable, and easily configurable to operate on different plants, because of the natural way in which the operation personnel's knowledge can be expressed. 1 APOS - Programmable Sluice Control System.

  4. Achievement of controlled resistive response of nanogapped palladium film to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, M.; Wong, M. H.; Ong, C. W.

    2015-07-20

    Palladium (Pd) film containing nanogaps of well controlled dimension was fabricated on a Si wafer having a high-aspect-ratio micropillar. The Pd film was arranged to experience hydrogen (H{sub 2})-induced volume expansion. (i) If the nanogap is kept open, its width is narrowed down. A discharge current was generated to give a strong, fast, and repeatable on-off type resistive switching response. (ii) If the nanogap is closed, the cross section of the conduction path varies to give continuous H{sub 2}-concentration dependent resistive response. The influence of stresses and related physical mechanisms are discussed.

  5. Randomized Controlled Evaluation of the "Too Good for Drugs" Prevention Program: Impact on Adolescents at Different Risk Levels for Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Bruce W.; Bacon, Tina P.; Ferron, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Sixth graders participating in the "Too Good for Drugs" (TGFD) prevention program in comparison to 6th graders not participating show different results by student risk level. Sixth graders from 20 middle schools were randomly assigned to receive the intervention and those from 20 paired middle schools assigned to serve as controls (N =…

  6. Terrestrial rabies control in the European Union: historical achievements and challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Freuling, Conrad Martin; Wysocki, Patrick; Roumiantzeff, Micha; Freney, Jean; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Vos, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    Due to the implementation of oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programmes, the European Union (EU) is becoming progressively free of red fox (Vulpes vulpes)-mediated rabies. Over the past three decades, the incidence of rabies had decreased substantially and vast areas of Western and Central Europe have been freed from rabies using this method of controlling an infectious disease in wildlife. Since rabies control is a top priority in the EU, the disease is expected to be eliminated from the animal source in the near future. While responsible authorities may consider the mission of eliminating fox rabies from the EU almost accomplished, there are still issues to be dealt with and challenges to be met that have not yet been in the focus of attention, but could jeopardise the ultimate goal. Among them are increasing illegal movements of animals, maintaining funding support for vaccination campaigns, devising alternative vaccine strategies in neighbouring Eastern European countries and the expanding distribution range of several potential rabies reservoir species in Europe. PMID:25466578

  7. A quantitative integrated assessment of pollution prevention achieved by integrated pollution prevention control licensing.

    PubMed

    Styles, David; O'Brien, Kieran; Jones, Michael B

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative, quantitative assessment of pollution avoidance attributable to environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing, using Ireland's pharmaceutical-manufacturing sector as a case study. Emissions data reported by pharmaceutical installations were aggregated into a pollution trend using an Environmental Emissions Index (EEI) based on Lifecycle Assessment methodologies. Complete sectoral emissions data from 2001 to 2007 were extrapolated back to 1995, based on available data. Production volume data were used to derive a sectoral production index, and determine 'no-improvement' emission trends, whilst questionnaire responses from 20 industry representatives were used to quantify the contribution of integrated licensing to emission avoidance relative to these trends. Between 2001 and 2007, there was a 40% absolute reduction in direct pollution from 27 core installations, and 45% pollution avoidance relative to hypothetical 'no-improvement' pollution. It was estimated that environmental regulation avoided 20% of 'no-improvement' pollution, in addition to 25% avoidance under business-as-usual. For specific emissions, avoidance ranged from 14% and 30 kt a(-1) for CO(2) to 88% and 598 t a(-1) for SO(x). Between 1995 and 2007, there was a 59% absolute reduction in direct pollution, and 76% pollution avoidance. Pollution avoidance was dominated by reductions in emissions of VOCs, SO(x) and NO(x) to air, and emissions of heavy metals to water. Pollution avoidance of 35% was attributed to integrated licensing, ranging from between 8% and 2.9 t a(-1) for phosphorus emissions to water to 49% and 3143 t a(-1) for SO(x) emissions to air. Environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing has been the major driver of substantial pollution avoidance achieved by Ireland's pharmaceutical sector - through emission limit values associated with Best Available Techniques, emissions monitoring and reporting requirements, and

  8. The Prefrontal Cortex Achieves Inhibitory Control by Facilitating Subcortical Motor Pathway Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Laura E.; Anderson, Michael C.; Rowe, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Communication between the prefrontal cortex and subcortical nuclei underpins the control and inhibition of behavior. However, the interactions in such pathways remain controversial. Using a stop-signal response inhibition task and functional imaging with analysis of effective connectivity, we show that the lateral prefrontal cortex influences the strength of communication between regions in the frontostriatal motor system. We compared 20 generative models that represented alternative interactions between the inferior frontal gyrus, presupplementary motor area (preSMA), subthalamic nucleus (STN), and primary motor cortex during response inhibition. Bayesian model selection revealed that during successful response inhibition, the inferior frontal gyrus modulates an excitatory influence of the preSMA on the STN, thereby amplifying the downstream polysynaptic inhibition from the STN to the motor cortex. Critically, the strength of the interaction between preSMA and STN, and the degree of modulation by the inferior frontal gyrus, predicted individual differences in participants' stopping performance (stop-signal reaction time). We then used diffusion-weighted imaging with tractography to assess white matter structure in the pathways connecting these three regions. The mean diffusivity in tracts between preSMA and the STN, and between the inferior frontal gyrus and STN, also predicted individual differences in stopping efficiency. Finally, we found that white matter structure in the tract between preSMA and STN correlated with effective connectivity of the same pathway, providing important cross-modal validation of the effective connectivity measures. Together, the results demonstrate the network dynamics and modulatory role of the prefrontal cortex that underpin individual differences in inhibitory control. PMID:25589771

  9. Photocurrent enhancement of n-type Cu2O electrodes achieved by controlling dendritic branching growth.

    PubMed

    McShane, Colleen M; Choi, Kyoung-Shin

    2009-02-25

    Cu(2)O electrodes composed of dendritic crystals were produced electrochemically using a slightly acidic medium (pH 4.9) containing acetate buffer. The buffer played a key role for stabilizing dendritic branching growth as a pH drop during the synthesis prevents formation of morphologically unstable branches and promotes faceted growth. Dendritic branching growth enabled facile coverage of the substrate with Cu(2)O while avoiding growth of a thicker Cu(2)O layer and increasing surface areas. The resulting electrodes showed n-type behavior by generating anodic photocurrent without applying an external bias (zero-bias photocurrent under short-circuit condition) in an Ar-purged 0.02 M K(2)SO(4) solution. The zero-bias photocurrent of crystalline dendritic electrodes was significantly higher than that of the electrodes containing micrometer-size faceted crystals deposited without buffer. In order to enhance photocurrent further a strategy of improving charge-transport properties by increasing dendritic crystal domain size was investigated. Systematic changes in nucleation density and size of the dendritic Cu(2)O crystals were achieved by altering the deposition potential, Cu(2+) concentration, and acetate concentration. Increasing dendritic crystal size consistently resulted in the improvement of photocurrent regardless of the method used to regulate crystal size. The electrode composed of dendritic crystals with the lateral dimension of ca. 12000 microm(2) showed more than 20 times higher zero-bias photocurrent than that composed of dendritic crystals with the lateral dimension of ca. 100 microm(2). The n-type nature of the Cu(2)O electrodes prepared by this study were confirmed by linear sweep voltammetry with chopped light and capacitance measurements (i.e., Mott-Schottky plots). The flatband potential in a 0.2 M K(2)SO(4) solution (pH 6) was estimated to be -0.78 vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The IPCE measured without applying an external bias was approximately 1

  10. Tools and Strategies for Malaria Control and Elimination: What Do We Need to Achieve a Grand Convergence in Malaria?

    PubMed Central

    Hemingway, Janet; Shretta, Rima; Wells, Timothy N. C.; Bell, David; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; Achee, Nicole; Qi, Gao

    2016-01-01

    Progress made in malaria control during the past decade has prompted increasing global dialogue on malaria elimination and eradication. The product development pipeline for malaria has never been stronger, with promising new tools to detect, treat, and prevent malaria, including innovative diagnostics, medicines, vaccines, vector control products, and improved mechanisms for surveillance and response. There are at least 25 projects in the global malaria vaccine pipeline, as well as 47 medicines and 13 vector control products. In addition, there are several next-generation diagnostic tools and reference methods currently in development, with many expected to be introduced in the next decade. The development and adoption of these tools, bolstered by strategies that ensure rapid uptake in target populations, intensified mechanisms for information management, surveillance, and response, and continued financial and political commitment are all essential to achieving global eradication. PMID:26934361

  11. Tools and Strategies for Malaria Control and Elimination: What Do We Need to Achieve a Grand Convergence in Malaria?

    PubMed

    Hemingway, Janet; Shretta, Rima; Wells, Timothy N C; Bell, David; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Achee, Nicole; Qi, Gao

    2016-03-01

    Progress made in malaria control during the past decade has prompted increasing global dialogue on malaria elimination and eradication. The product development pipeline for malaria has never been stronger, with promising new tools to detect, treat, and prevent malaria, including innovative diagnostics, medicines, vaccines, vector control products, and improved mechanisms for surveillance and response. There are at least 25 projects in the global malaria vaccine pipeline, as well as 47 medicines and 13 vector control products. In addition, there are several next-generation diagnostic tools and reference methods currently in development, with many expected to be introduced in the next decade. The development and adoption of these tools, bolstered by strategies that ensure rapid uptake in target populations, intensified mechanisms for information management, surveillance, and response, and continued financial and political commitment are all essential to achieving global eradication. PMID:26934361

  12. Strategies To Achieve Control over the Surface Ratio of Two Different Components on Modified Electrodes Using Aryldiazonium Salts.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cheng; Alam, Muhammad Tanzirul; Parker, Stephen G; Darwish, Nadim; Gooding, J Justin

    2016-03-15

    Controlling the composition of an interface is very important in tuning the chemical and physical properties of a surface in many applications including biosensors, biomaterials, and chemical catalysis. Frequently, this requires one molecular component to a minor component in a mixed layer. Such subtle control of composition has been difficult to achieve using aryldiazonium salts. Herein, aryldiazonium salts of carboxyphenyl (CP) and phenylphosphorylcholine (PPC), generated in situ from their corresponding anilines, are electrografted to form molecular platform that are available for further functionalization. These two components are chosen because CP provides a convenient functionality for further coupling of biorecognition species while PPC offers resistance to nonspecific adsorption of proteins to the surface. Mixed layers of CP and PPC were prepared by grafting them either simultaneously or consecutively. The latter strategy allows an interface to be developed in a controlled way where one component is at levels of less than 1% of the total layer. PMID:26901641

  13. Herbicides as Weed Control Agents: State of the Art: II. Recent Achievements[C

    PubMed Central

    Kraehmer, Hansjoerg; van Almsick, Andreas; Beffa, Roland; Dietrich, Hansjoerg; Eckes, Peter; Hacker, Erwin; Hain, Ruediger; Strek, Harry John; Stuebler, Hermann; Willms, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    In response to changing market dynamics, the discovery of new herbicides has declined significantly over the past few decades and has only seen a modest upsurge in recent years. Nevertheless, the few introductions have proven to be interesting and have brought useful innovation to the market. In addition, herbicide-tolerant or herbicide-resistant crop technologies have allowed the use of existing nonselective herbicides to be extended into crops. An increasing and now major challenge is being posed by the inexorable increase in biotypes of weeds that are resistant to herbicides. This problem is now at a level that threatens future agricultural productivity and needs to be better understood. If herbicides are to remain sustainable, then it is a must that we adopt diversity in crop rotation and herbicide use as well as increase the use of nonchemical measures to control weeds. Nevertheless, despite the difficulties posed by resistant weeds and increased regulatory hurdles, new screening tools promise to provide an upsurge of potential herbicide leads. Our industry urgently needs to supply agriculture with new, effective resistance-breaking herbicides along with strategies to sustain their utility. PMID:25104721

  14. Herbicides as weed control agents: state of the art: II. Recent achievements.

    PubMed

    Kraehmer, Hansjoerg; van Almsick, Andreas; Beffa, Roland; Dietrich, Hansjoerg; Eckes, Peter; Hacker, Erwin; Hain, Ruediger; Strek, Harry John; Stuebler, Hermann; Willms, Lothar

    2014-11-01

    In response to changing market dynamics, the discovery of new herbicides has declined significantly over the past few decades and has only seen a modest upsurge in recent years. Nevertheless, the few introductions have proven to be interesting and have brought useful innovation to the market. In addition, herbicide-tolerant or herbicide-resistant crop technologies have allowed the use of existing nonselective herbicides to be extended into crops. An increasing and now major challenge is being posed by the inexorable increase in biotypes of weeds that are resistant to herbicides. This problem is now at a level that threatens future agricultural productivity and needs to be better understood. If herbicides are to remain sustainable, then it is a must that we adopt diversity in crop rotation and herbicide use as well as increase the use of nonchemical measures to control weeds. Nevertheless, despite the difficulties posed by resistant weeds and increased regulatory hurdles, new screening tools promise to provide an upsurge of potential herbicide leads. Our industry urgently needs to supply agriculture with new, effective resistance-breaking herbicides along with strategies to sustain their utility. PMID:25104721

  15. Population control of an overabundant species achieved through consecutive anthropogenic perturbations.

    PubMed

    Payo-Payo, Ana; Oro, Daniel; Igual, José Manuel; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carolina; Tavecchia, Giacomo

    2015-12-01

    The control of overabundant vertebrates is often problematic. Much work has focused on population-level responses and overabundance due to anthropogenic subsidies. However, far less work has been directed at investigating responses following the removal of subsidies. We investigate the consequences of two consecutive perturbations, the closure of a landfill and an inadvertent poisoning event, on the trophic ecology (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S), survival, and population size of an overabundant generalist seabird species, the Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis). We expected that the landfill closure would cause a strong dietary shift and the inadvertent poisoning a decrease in gull population size. As a long-lived species, we also anticipated adult survival to be buffered against the decrease in food availability but not against the inadvertent poisoning event. Stable isotope analysis confirmed the dietary shift towards marine resources after the disappearance of the landfill. Although the survival model was inconclusive, it did suggest that the perturbations had a negative effect on survival, which was followed by a recovery back to average values. Food limitation likely triggered dispersal to other populations, while poisoning may have increased mortality; these two processes were likely responsible for the large fall in population size that occurred after the two consecutive perturbations. Life-history theory suggests that perturbations may encourage species to halt existing breeding investment in order to ensure future survival. However, under strong perturbation pulses the resilience threshold might be surpassed and changes in population density can arise. Consecutive perturbations may effectively manage overabundant species. PMID:26910951

  16. Gaining control: changing relations between executive control and processing speed and their relevance for mathematics achievement over course of the preschool period

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Caron A. C.; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Garza, John; Sheffield, Tiffany D.; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Early executive control (EC) predicts a range of academic outcomes and shows particularly strong associations with children's mathematics achievement. Nonetheless, a major challenge for EC research lies in distinguishing EC from related cognitive constructs that also are linked to achievement outcomes. Developmental cascade models suggest that children's information processing speed is a driving mechanism in cognitive development that supports gains in working memory, inhibitory control and associated cognitive abilities. Accordingly, individual differences in early executive task performance and their relation to mathematics may reflect, at least in part, underlying variation in children's processing speed. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the degree of overlap between EC and processing speed at different preschool age points; and (2) determine whether EC uniquely predicts children's mathematics achievement after accounting for individual differences in processing speed. As part of a longitudinal, cohort-sequential study, 388 children (50% boys; 44% from low income households) completed the same battery of EC tasks at ages 3, 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 years. Several of the tasks incorporated baseline speeded naming conditions with minimal EC demands. Multidimensional latent models were used to isolate the variance in executive task performance that did not overlap with baseline processing speed, covarying for child language proficiency. Models for separate age points showed that, while EC did not form a coherent latent factor independent of processing speed at age 3 years, it did emerge as a distinct factor by age 5.25. Although EC at age 3 showed no distinct relation with mathematics achievement independent of processing speed, EC at ages 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 showed independent, prospective links with mathematics achievement. Findings suggest that EC and processing speed are tightly intertwined in early childhood. As EC becomes progressively decoupled from

  17. A Pilot Study on the Congruency of Locus of Control and Field Dependence as Related to Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, C. William; Cole, Ernest G.

    A pilot study was conducted at two middle schools to investigate the relationship among student locus of control, field dependency, self-esteem, and achievement. A relationship between self-esteem and achievement has already been identified by research; another variable considered as a possible effect on a person's predisposition to achieve was…

  18. Exercise Improves Executive Function and Achievement and Alters Brain Activation in Overweight Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; McDowell, Jennifer E.; Austin, Benjamin P.; Miller, Patricia H.; Yanasak, Nathan E.; Allison, Jerry D.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This experiment tested the hypothesis that exercise would improve executive function. Design Sedentary, overweight 7- to 11-year-old children (N = 171, 56% female, 61% Black, M ± SD age 9.3 ± 1.0 yrs, body mass index (BMI) 26 ± 4.6 kg/m2, BMI z-score 2.1 ± 0.4) were randomized to 13 ± 1.6 weeks of an exercise program (20 or 40 minutes/day), or a control condition. Main outcome measures Blinded, standardized psychological evaluations (Cognitive Assessment System and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III) assessed cognition and academic achievement. Functional magnetic resonance imaging measured brain activity during executive function tasks. Results Intent to treat analysis revealed dose response benefits of exercise on executive function and mathematics achievement. Preliminary evidence of increased bilateral prefrontal cortex activity and reduced bilateral posterior parietal cortex activity due to exercise was also observed. Conclusion Consistent with results obtained in older adults, a specific improvement on executive function and brain activation changes due to exercise were observed. The cognitive and achievement results add evidence of dose response, and extend experimental evidence into childhood. This study provides information on an educational outcome. Besides its importance for maintaining weight and reducing health risks during a childhood obesity epidemic, physical activity may prove to be a simple, important method of enhancing aspects of children’s mental functioning that are central to cognitive development. This information may persuade educators to implement vigorous physical activity. PMID:21299297

  19. A Simple Way to Achieve Legible and Local Controllable Patterning for Polymers Based on a Near-Infrared Pulsed Laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jihai; Zhou, Tao; Wen, Liang; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Aiming

    2016-01-27

    This study developed a simple way to achieve legible and local controllable patterning for polymers based on a near-infrared (NIR) pulsed laser. The polycarbonate-coated nano antimony-doped tin oxide (nano ATO) was designed as a core-shell structure that was tailored to be responsive to a 1064 nm NIR laser. The globular morphology of polycarbonate-coated nano ATO with a diameter of around 2-3 μm was observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This core-shell structure combined the excellent photothermal conversion efficiency of nano ATO and the high char (carbon) residue of polycarbonate. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results of a polymer-patterning plate after laser irradiation demonstrated that, through local controlled photochromism, the well-defined legible patterns can be fabricated on the polymer surfaces contribute to the synergistic effect consisting of polycarbonate carbonization and nano ATO photothermal conversion. Furthermore, polymers doped with a minimal content of polycarbonate-coated nano ATO can achieve a remarkable patterning effect. This novel laser-patterning approach will have wide promising applications in the field of polymer NIR pulsed-laser patterning. PMID:26717082

  20. Good knowledge about hypertension is linked to better control of hypertension; A multicentre cross sectional study in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background According to the National Health survey only 3% of the population has controlled hypertension. This study was designed to elucidate the knowledge about hypertension in hypertensive patients at three tertiary care centers in Karachi. Secondly we sought to compare the knowledge of those with uncontrolled hypertension and controlled hypertension. Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted at The Aga Khan University hospital (AKUH), Ziauddin Hospital (ZH) and Civil hospital, Karachi (CHK. All diagnosed Hypertensive patients (both inpatients and outpatients) coming to a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan aged > 18 years were included. Patients were categorized into 2 groups: controlled and uncontrolled hypertension based on their initial BP readings on presentation Uncontrolled Hypertension was defined as average BP ≥ 140/90 mm Hg in patients on treatment. Controlled Hypertension (HTN) was defined as average BP <140/90 mm Hg in patients on treatment. Standardized methods were used to record BP in the sitting position. Knowledge was recorded as a15 item question. Primary outcome was knowledge about hypertension. Results A total of 650 participants were approached and consented 447 were found eligible. 284(63.5%) were from Aga Khan University, 101(22.6) from Dow University of health sciences and 62(13.9) were from Ziauddin University. Mean (SD) age of participants was 57.7(12) years, 50.1(224) were men. Controlled hypertension was present in 323(72.3) and uncontrolled hypertension was present in 124(27.4). The total mean (SD) Knowledge score was 20.97(4.93) out of a maximum score of 38. On comparison of questions related to knowledge between uncontrolled and controlled hypertension, there was statistically significant different in; meaning of hypertension (p <0.001), target SBP(p0.001), target DBP(p 0.001), importance of SBP versus DBP, improvement of health with lowering of blood pressure (p 0.002), high blood pressure being asymptomatic (p <0

  1. A Further Examination of the Distinction between Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Parental Psychological Control: Psychometric Properties of the DAPCS with French-Speaking Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantzouranis, Gregory; Zimmermann, Gregoire; Mahaim, Elodie Biermann; Favez, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Psychological control refers to parental behaviors that intrude on the psychological and emotional development of the child. In 2010, Soenens et al. proposed a distinction between two domain-specific expressions of psychological control, that is, Dependency-oriented Psychological Control (DPC) and Achievement-oriented Psychological Control (APC).…

  2. Humidity assay for studying plant-pathogen interactions in miniature controlled discrete humidity environments with good throughput.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Jiang, Huawei; Sahu, Binod Bihari; Kambakam, Sekhar; Singh, Prashant; Wang, Xinran; Wang, Qiugu; Bhattacharyya, Madan K; Dong, Liang

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports a highly economical and accessible approach to generate different discrete relative humidity conditions in spatially separated wells of a modified multi-well plate for humidity assay of plant-pathogen interactions with good throughput. We demonstrated that a discrete humidity gradient could be formed within a few minutes and maintained over a period of a few days inside the device. The device consisted of a freeway channel in the top layer, multiple compartmented wells in the bottom layer, a water source, and a drying agent source. The combinational effects of evaporation, diffusion, and convection were synergized to establish the stable discrete humidity gradient. The device was employed to study visible and molecular disease phenotypes of soybean in responses to infection by Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen, under a set of humidity conditions, with two near-isogenic soybean lines, Williams and Williams 82, that differ for a Phytophthora resistance gene (Rps1-k). Our result showed that at 63% relative humidity, the transcript level of the defense gene GmPR1 was at minimum in the susceptible soybean line Williams and at maximal level in the resistant line Williams 82 following P. sojae CC5C infection. In addition, we investigated the effects of environmental temperature, dimensional and geometrical parameters, and other configurational factors on the ability of the device to generate miniature humidity environments. This work represents an exploratory effort to economically and efficiently manipulate humidity environments in a space-limited device and shows a great potential to facilitate humidity assay of plant seed germination and development, pathogen growth, and plant-pathogen interactions. Since the proposed device can be easily made, modified, and operated, it is believed that this present humidity manipulation technology will benefit many laboratories in the area of seed science, plant pathology, and plant-microbe biology, where

  3. Method of m-line spectroscopy, a good tool to determine and control the optical parameters of waveguide structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auguściuk, ElŻbieta

    2013-01-01

    Method of spectroscopy m-line is an accurate method for determination of the optical parameters of the planar and stripe waveguides. In this method, the laser beam is coupled to the waveguide (e.g. by the prism) in the form of discrete angles. If the layer of the solid or liquid material is deposited on the waveguide, the change in the coupling angle is observed. Modified method of the m-line spectroscopy allows for determination of the optical parameters of deposited layers with high accuracy. Moreover, modification of the waveguide structure obtained via deposition of consecutive layers and changes the ability to propagate not only in the same waveguide. Modified method of m-line spectroscopy has found many potential applications in various areas such as: technological control of the applied layers quality; modification of the light propagation in the waveguide structures; utilization in the preventive medicine for diabetic diseases; food-control of the level of nutrients in vegetables (e.g. sugar level in white beets).

  4. To Achieve an Earlier IFN-γ Response Is Not Sufficient to Control Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marzo, Elena; Barril, Carles; Vegué, Marina; Diaz, Jorge; Valls, Joaquim; López, Daniel; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2014-01-01

    The temporo-spatial relationship between the three organs (lung, spleen and lymph node) involved during the initial stages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been poorly studied. As such, we performed an experimental study to evaluate the bacillary load in each organ after aerosol or intravenous infection and developed a mathematical approach using the data obtained in order to extract conclusions. The results showed that higher bacillary doses result in an earlier IFN-γ response, that a certain bacillary load (BL) needs to be reached to trigger the IFN-γ response, and that control of the BL is not immediate after onset of the IFN-γ response, which might be a consequence of the spatial dimension. This study may have an important impact when it comes to designing new vaccine candidates as it suggests that triggering an earlier IFN-γ response might not guarantee good infection control, and therefore that additional properties should be considered for these candidates. PMID:24959669

  5. In Estimated Good Prognosis Patients Could Unexpected "Hyporesponse" to Controlled Ovarian Stimulation be Related to Genetic Polymorphisms of FSH Receptor?

    PubMed

    Alviggi, Carlo; Conforti, Alessandro; Caprio, Francesca; Gizzo, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Strina, Ida; Pagano, Tiziana; De Rosa, Pasquale; Carbone, Floriana; Colacurci, Nicola; De Placido, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    It has been reported that 10% to 15% of young normogonadotrophic women show suboptimal response to standard gonadotropin-releasing hormone-a long protocol. These patients require higher doses of exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). This phenomenon could be associated with genetic characteristics. In this study, FSH receptor polymorphism was retrospectively evaluated in 42 normoresponder young women undergoing an in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle; patients were stratified according to recombinant human FSH (r-hFSH) consumption. We selected 17 normoresponder young patients who required a cumulative dose of recombinant FSH (rFSH) >2500 UI (group A). A control group was randomly selected among patients who required a cumulative dose of rFSH <2500 UI (group B). Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSH-R) 307Ala and 680Ser variants were analyzed in all our patients. Our results show that the mean number of rFSH vials (36.3 ± 7.5 vs 28.6 ± 4.5, P = .0001) and days of stimulation (12.7 ± 2.4 vs 10.8 ± 2.8, P = .03) were significantly lower in group B, whereas the number of oocytes retrieved (7.1 ± 1.5 vs 9.6 ± 2.4; P = .0005) and the average number of embryos transferred (2.1 ± 0.7 vs 2.7 ± 0.4; P = .001) were significantly lower in group A. Estradiol serum levels on the human chorionic gonadotrophin day were significantly lower in group A (997.8 ± 384.9 pg/mL vs 1749.1 ± 644.4; P = .0001). The incidence of the Ser/Ser genotype was higher in patients with higher r-hFSH consumption (group A; P = .02). Based on our results, we hypothesize an association between the FSH-R polymorphisms and a "hyporesponse" to exogenous FSH. PMID:26902430

  6. Adaptive and Effortful Control and Academic Self-efficacy Beliefs on Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of 1st through 3rd Graders

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; McTigue, Erin; Barrois, Lisa; Hughes, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across three years in 733 children beginning at 1st grade (M = 6.57 years, SD = .39 at 1st grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from one year prior) and for influences of child’s age, gender, IQ, ethnicity and economic adversity on achievement, results indicate that adaptive/effortful control at 1st grade contributed to both academic self-efficacy beliefs at 2nd grade, and reading (but not math) achievement at 3rd grade. Although academic self-efficacy did not partially mediate the linkage between adaptive/effortful control and achievement, academic self-efficacy beliefs were positively correlated with reading and math. Results support the notion that early efforts to promote children’s self-regulatory skills would enhance future academic self-beliefs and achievement, particularly in literacy. PMID:19169387

  7. Cognition, academic achievement, and epilepsy in school-age children: a case-control study in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Melbourne Chambers, R; Morrison-Levy, N; Chang, S; Tapper, J; Walker, S; Tulloch-Reid, M

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 33 Jamaican children 7 to 12years old with uncomplicated epilepsy and 33 of their classroom peers matched for age and gender to determine whether epilepsy resulted in differences in cognitive ability and school achievement and if socioeconomic status or the environment had a moderating effect on any differences. Intelligence, language, memory, attention, executive function, and mathematics ability were assessed using selected tests from NEPSY, WISCR, TeaCh, WRAT3 - expanded, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The child's environment at home was measured using the Middle Childhood HOME inventory. Socioeconomic status was determined from a combination of household, crowding, possessions, and sanitation. We compared the characteristics of the cases and controls and used random effects regression models (using the matched pair as the cluster) to examine the relationship between cognition and epilepsy. We found that there was no significant difference in IQ, but children with epilepsy had lower scores on tests of memory (p<0.05), language (p<0.05), and attention (p<0.01) compared with their controls. In random effects models, epilepsy status had a significant effect on memory (coefficient=-0.14, CI: -0.23, -0.05), language (coefficient=-0.13, CI: -0.23, -0.04), and mathematics ability (coefficient=-0.01, CI: -0.02, -0.00). Adjustment for the home environment and socioeconomic status and inclusion of interaction terms for these variables did not alter these effects. In conclusion, we found that epilepsy status in Jamaican children has a significant effect on performance on tests of memory, language, and mathematics and that this effect is not modified or explained by socioeconomic status or the child's home environment. PMID:24632351

  8. Lessons learnt from the application of a multi-variable controller for nitrogen removal in the Mekolalde wastewater treatment plant: good simulation practices in control.

    PubMed

    Irizar, I; Beltrán, S; Urchegui, G; Izko, G; Fernández, O; Maiza, M

    2014-01-01

    Although often perceived as tools for use by scientists, mathematical modelling and simulation become indispensable when control engineers have to design controllers for real-life wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Nonetheless, the design of effective controllers in the wastewater domain using simulations requires effects, such as the nonlinearity of actuators, the time response of sensors, plant model uncertainties, etc. to have been reproduced beforehand. Otherwise, control solutions verified by simulation can completely underperform under real conditions. This study demonstrates that, when all the above effects are included at the outset, a systematic use of simulations guarantees high quality controllers in a relatively short period of time. The above is exemplified through the Mekolalde WWTP, where a comprehensive simulation study was conducted in order to develop a control product for nitrogen removal. Since its activation in May 2011, the designed controller has been permanently working in the plant which, from this time onwards, has experienced significant improvements in the quality of water discharges combined with a lower utilization of electricity for wastewater treatment. PMID:24647196

  9. Comparison of GnRH Agonist, GnRH Antagonist, and GnRH Antagonist Mild Protocol of Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation in Good Prognosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vrtacnik-Bokal, Eda; Pozlep, Barbara; Virant-Klun, Irma

    2015-01-01

    The reports on how to stimulate the ovaries for oocyte retrieval in good prognosis patients are contradictory and often favor one type of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). For this reason, we retrospectively analyzed data from IVF/ICSI cycles carried out at our IVF Unit in good prognosis patients (aged <38 years, first and second attempts of IVF/ICSI, more than 3 oocytes retrieved) to elucidate which type of COH is optimal at our condition. The included patients were undergoing COH using GnRH agonist, GnRH antagonist or GnRH antagonist mild protocol in combination with gonadotrophins. We found significant differences in the average number of retrieved oocytes, immature oocytes, fertilized oocytes, embryos, transferred embryos, embryos frozen per cycle, and cycles with embryo freezing between studied COH protocols. Although there were no differences in live birth rate (LBR), miscarriages, and ectopic pregnancies between compared protocols, pregnancy rate was significantly higher in GnRH antagonist mild protocol in comparison with both GnRH antagonist and GnRH agonist protocols and cumulative LBR per cycle was significantly higher in GnRH antagonist mild protocol in comparison to GnRH agonist protocol. Our data show that GnRH antagonist mild protocol of COH could be the best method of choice in good prognosis patients. PMID:25866508

  10. Blood pressure telemonitoring is useful to achieve blood pressure control in inadequately treated patients with arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Neumann, C L; Menne, J; Rieken, E M; Fischer, N; Weber, M H; Haller, H; Schulz, E G

    2011-12-01

    Failing to reach blood pressure (BP) goals is one of the main problems in hypertension management. Especially in high-risk patients, intensive monitoring including frequently office visits or new techniques to monitor home BP is required. A total of 60 patients with uncontrolled hypertension were included and randomized into a group with telemetric BP monitoring (TBPM) (n=30) and a control group receiving standard care (n=30). During the 3-month study period, patients received in addition to their antihypertensive pre-treatment up to 2 × 300 mg irbesartan to achieve the required target BP. All patients were instructed to measure their BP once daily in the morning. In the TBPM group automatic alerts were generated by the central database server using pre-defined algorithms and patients were subsequently contacted by the physician. At baseline mean 24-h ambulant BP monitoring (ABPM) was 143.3±11.1/82.6±9.9 mm Hg in the TBPM group and 141.4±12.6/82.1±6.5 mm Hg in the standard care group. During treatment mean systolic BP showed a more intensive decrease in the TBPM vs control group (-17.0±11.1 mm Hg vs -9.8±13.7 mm Hg; P=0.032). Patients in the TBPM group had a more pronounced night dipping and a higher reduction of mean pulse pressure than controls (-8.1±5.9 mm Hg vs -2.8±7.4 mm Hg, P=0.004). After 3 months, TBPM-treated patients were given a higher mean daily dose of irbesartan (375±187 mg vs 222±147 mg in controls; P=<0.001). We demonstrated that with TBPM a more effective and faster titration of the antihypertensive agent is possible. The alarm criteria chosen were useful to improve BP control. PMID:21228822

  11. Good Practices in Transfer Education: Report from a Survey Conducted by the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges and the National Center for Academic Achievement and Transfer. Transfer Working Papers, Volume 1, Number 3, October 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Transfer Working Papers, 1990

    1990-01-01

    In April 1990, the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges and the National Center for Academic Achievement and Transfer conducted a national survey of 1,366 regionally accredited, degree-granting, two-year public and private colleges to identify practices used to foster and encourage student transfer to senior institutions.…

  12. Interactive Instructional Video-Tapes, Scholastic Aptitude, Cognitive Development and Locus of Control as Variables Influencing Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeany, Russell H.; And Others

    Results are reported of a study that: (1) examined the relationships between university students' entry characteristics and achievement in biological science; and (2) assessed the effectiveness of interactive instructional video-tapes in improving science achievement. Among the variables examined as likely to predict achievement were scholastic…

  13. Artificial Pancreas Using a Personalized Rule-Based Controller Achieves Overnight Normoglycemia in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rigla, Mercedes; García-Sáez, Gema; Rodríguez-Herrero, Agustín; Pons, Belén; Subías, David; García-García, Fernando; Gallach, Maria; Aguilar, Montserrat; Pérez-Gandía, Carmen; Gómez, Enrique J.; Caixàs, Assumpta; Hernando, M. Elena

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study assessed the efficacy of a closed-loop (CL) system consisting of a predictive rule-based algorithm (pRBA) on achieving nocturnal and postprandial normoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The algorithm is personalized for each patient's data using two different strategies to control nocturnal and postprandial periods. Research Design and Methods: We performed a randomized crossover clinical study in which 10 T1DM patients treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) spent two nonconsecutive nights in the research facility: one with their usual CSII pattern (open-loop [OL]) and one controlled by the pRBA (CL). The CL period lasted from 10 p.m. to 10 a.m., including overnight control, and control of breakfast. Venous samples for blood glucose (BG) measurement were collected every 20 min. Results: Time spent in normoglycemia (BG, 3.9–8.0 mmol/L) during the nocturnal period (12 a.m.–8 a.m.), expressed as median (interquartile range), increased from 66.6% (8.3–75%) with OL to 95.8% (73–100%) using the CL algorithm (P<0.05). Median time in hypoglycemia (BG, <3.9 mmol/L) was reduced from 4.2% (0–21%) in the OL night to 0.0% (0.0–0.0%) in the CL night (P<0.05). Nine hypoglycemic events (<3.9 mmol/L) were recorded with OL compared with one using CL. The postprandial glycemic excursion was not lower when the CL system was used in comparison with conventional preprandial bolus: time in target (3.9–10.0 mmol/L) 58.3% (29.1–87.5%) versus 50.0% (50–100%). Conclusions: A highly precise personalized pRBA obtains nocturnal normoglycemia, without significant hypoglycemia, in T1DM patients. There appears to be no clear benefit of CL over prandial bolus on the postprandial glycemia. PMID:24152323

  14. Controlling the Integration of Polyvinylpyrrolidone onto Substrate by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation To Achieve Excellent Protein Resistance and Detoxification.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Wang, Lin; Zeng, Xiangze; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Sa; Shi, Xuetao; Wang, Yingjun; Huang, Xuhui; Ren, Li

    2016-07-27

    Blood purification systems, in which the adsorbent removes exogenous and endogenous toxins from the blood, are widely used in clinical practice. To improve the protein resistance of and detoxification by the adsorbent, researchers can modify the adsorbent with functional molecules, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). However, achieving precise control of the functional molecular density, which is crucial to the activity of the adsorbent, remains a significant challenge. In the present study, we prepared a model system for blood purification adsorbents in which we controlled the integration density of PVP molecules of different molecular weights on an Au substrate by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). We characterized the samples with atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and QCM-D and found that the molecular density and the chain length of the PVP molecules played important roles in determining the properties of the sample. At the optimal condition, the modified sample demonstrated strong resistance to plasma proteins, decreasing the adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) and fibrinogen (Fg) by 92.5% and 79.2%, respectively. In addition, the modified sample exhibited excellent detoxification, and the adsorption of bilirubin increased 2.6-fold. Interestingly, subsequent atomistic molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the favorable interactions between PVP and bilirubin were dominated by hydrophobic interactions. An in vitro platelet adhesion assay showed that the adhesion of platelets on the sample decreased and that the platelets were maintained in an inactivated state. The CCK-8 assay indicated that the modified sample exhibited negligible cytotoxicity to L929 cells. These results demonstrated that our method holds great potential for the modification of adsorbents in blood purification systems. PMID:27363467

  15. Rapid Automated Treatment Planning Process to Select Breast Cancer Patients for Active Breathing Control to Achieve Cardiac Dose Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Wei; Purdie, Thomas G.; Rahman, Mohammad; Marshall, Andrea; Liu Feifei; Fyles, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a rapid automated treatment planning process for the selection of patients with left-sided breast cancer for a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) technique using active breathing control (ABC); and to determine the dose reduction to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the heart using mDIBH. Method and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using an automated method for patients undergoing left-sided breast radiotherapy (n = 53) with two-field tangential intensity-modulated radiotherapy. All patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, defined as having >10 cm{sup 3} of the heart receiving 50% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 50}) on the free-breathing automated treatment plan, underwent repeat scanning on a protocol using a mDIBH technique and ABC. The doses to the LAD and heart were compared between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans. Results: The automated planning process required approximately 9 min to generate a breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan. Using the dose-volume criteria, 20 of the 53 patients were selected for ABC. Significant differences were found between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans for the heart V{sub 50} (29.9 vs. 3.7 cm{sup 3}), mean heart dose (317 vs. 132 cGy), mean LAD dose (2,047 vs. 594 cGy), and maximal dose to 0.2 cm{sup 3} of the LAD (4,155 vs. 1,507 cGy, all p <.001). Of the 17 patients who had a breath-hold threshold of {>=}0.8 L, 14 achieved a {>=}90% reduction in the heart V{sub 50} using the mDIBH technique. The 3 patients who had had a breath-hold threshold <0.8 L achieved a lower, but still significant, reduction in the heart V{sub 50}. Conclusions: A rapid automated treatment planning process can be used to select patients who will benefit most from mDIBH. For selected patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, the mDIBH technique using ABC can significantly reduce the dose to the LAD and heart, potentially reducing the cardiac risks.

  16. What "No Child Left Behind" Leaves behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In…

  17. The Influences of Parental Acceptance and Parental Control on School Adjustment and Academic Achievement for South Korean Children: The Mediation Role of Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jungyoon; Yu, Heekeun; Choi, Sumi

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parental acceptance, psychological control, and behavioral control on children's school adjustment and academic achievement, as well as the possible mediation effect of children's self-regulation in those processes. To do so, we examined 388 upper-level elementary school students (mean age = 11.38 years) in South…

  18. Language Skills, Mathematical Thinking, and Achievement Motivation in Children with ADHD, Disruptive Behavior Disorders, and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gut, Janine; Heckmann, Carmen; Meyer, Christine Sandra; Schmid, Marc; Grob, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Recent models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that the association between achievement motivation and school performance may be stronger in children with ADHD than in typically developing children. Therefore, the present study investigated associations between achievement motivation and performance on language skills and…

  19. The Impact of Retrieval Processes, Age, General Achievement Level, and Test Scoring Scheme for Children's Metacognitive Monitoring and Controlling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Saskia Susanne; Roebers, Claudia Maria

    2012-01-01

    This multi-phase study examined the influence of retrieval processes on children's metacognitive processes in relation to and in interaction with achievement level and age. First, N = 150 9/10- and 11/12-year old high and low achievers watched an educational film and predicted their test performance. Children then solved a cloze test regarding the…

  20. The Use of "Ability" Measures as Controls for Concurrent or Subsequent Achievement (Comment on Alexander et al., ASR, October 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James S.

    1982-01-01

    Comments upon a 1981 article by Alexander, Pallas, and Cook. Discusses whether particular standardized tests measure achievement or ability and the implications of this issue for school effects research. (GC)

  1. The Good Schools Toolkit to prevent violence against children in Ugandan primary schools: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the Good School Toolkit, developed by Raising Voices, in preventing violence against children attending school and in improving child mental health and educational outcomes. Methods/design We are conducting a two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial with parallel assignment in Luwero District, Uganda. We will also conduct a qualitative study, a process evaluation and an economic evaluation. A total of 42 schools, representative of Luwero District, Uganda, were allocated to receive the Toolkit plus implementation support, or were allocated to a wait-list control condition. Our main analysis will involve a cross-sectional comparison of the prevalence of past-week violence from school staff as reported by children in intervention and control primary schools at follow-up. At least 60 children per school and all school staff members will be interviewed at follow-up. Data collection involves a combination of mobile phone-based, interviewer-completed questionnaires and paper-and-pen educational tests. Survey instruments include the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools to assess experiences of violence; the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to measure symptoms of common childhood mental disorders; and word recognition, reading comprehension, spelling, arithmetic and sustained attention tests adapted from an intervention trial in Kenya. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first study to rigorously investigate the effects of any intervention to prevent violence from school staff to children in primary school in a low-income setting. We hope the results will be informative across the African region and in other settings. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01678846 PMID:23883138

  2. Achievements and challenges of the World Bank Loan/Department for International Development grant-assisted Tuberculosis Control Project in China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Peng; Jiang, Xu; Zhang, Ben; Jiang, Shi-wen; Liu, Bo

    2011-07-01

    In March 2002, the government of China launched the World Bank Loan/ Department for International Development-supported Tuberculosis (TB) Control Project to reduce the prevalence and mortality of TB. The project generated promising results in policy development, strengthening of TB control systems, patient treatment success, funds management, and the introduction of legislation. In light of the global TB epidemic and control environment, it is useful to review the TB control priorities of the project, summarize the achievements and experiences around its implementation. PMID:21933629

  3. Predicting Academic Achievement from Cumulative Home Risk: The Mediating Roles of Effortful Control, Academic Relationships, and School Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Components of the home environment are associated with children's academic functioning. The accumulation of risks in the home are expected to prove more detrimental to achievement than any one risk alone, but the processes accounting for this relation are unclear. Using an index of cumulative home risk (CHR) inclusive of protective factors, as…

  4. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed. PMID:24072936

  5. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Quinn, Patrick D; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-05-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed. PMID:24072936

  6. Determinants for Achieving the LDL-C Target of Lipid Control for Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Li-Ting; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Tseng, Wei-Kung; Wu, Yen-Wen; Hsieh, I-Chang; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Li, Yi-Heng; Huang, Lien-Chi; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Ueng, Kwo-Chang; Fang, Ching-Chang; Pan, Wen-Harn; Yeh, Hung-I; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chen, Jaw-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiological and clinical studies have clearly established the link between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular consequences. Although it has been a common practice for physicians to prescribe lipid-lowering therapy for patients with dyslipidemia, the achievement rate is still not satisfied in Taiwan. Therefore, the determinants for achieving the LDL-C target needed to be clarified for better healthcare of the patients with dyslipidemia. Method This registry-type prospective observational study enrolled the patients with cardiovascular diseases (coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD)) from 18 medical centers across Taiwan, and clinically followed them for five years. At every clinical visit, vital signs, clinical endpoints, adverse events, concurrent medications and laboratory specimens were obtained as thoroughly as possible. The lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride), liver enzymes, and creatinine phosphokinase were evaluated at baseline, and every year thereafter. The cross sectional observational data was analyzed for this report. Result Among the 3,486 registered patients, 54% had their LDL-C < 100 mg/dL. By univariate analysis, the patients achieving the LDL-C target were associated with older age, more male sex, taller height, lower blood pressure, more under lipid-lowering therapy, more smoking cessation, more history of CAD, DM, physical activity, but less history of CVD. The multivariate analysis showed statin therapy was the most significant independent determinant for achieving the treatment target, followed by age, history of CAD, diabetes, blood pressure, and sex. However, most patients were on regimens of very-low to low equipotent doses of statins. Conclusion Although the lipid treatment guideline adherence is improving in recent years, only 54% of the patients with cardiovascular diseases have achieved

  7. The Effects of Teaching Numerical Control Concepts Via Simulator Versus Non-Simulator Activities on the Achievement, Programming Proficiency and Attitude of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Douglas Taylor

    This study utilized 120 metalworking students and six teachers from Columbus, Ohio area high schools to ascertain the effects of teaching numerical control to industrial arts students by means of simulator-aided activities versus nonsimulator aided activities. Scores obtained from an achievement test, attitude inventory, and word address…

  8. An Examination of the Influence of Self Efficacy, Locus of Control, and Perceptions of Parent Involvement on Academic Achievement of Urban High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myree, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Current research indicates that there is an on-going concern for the graduation rate of African American students in urban settings. This particular study sought to investigate the impact of students' self-efficacy, locus of control, and parental involvement on academic achievement via a targeted sample of urban African American high school…

  9. Food Science for the Public Good

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Cassandra

    If you are interested in food science, looking for a meaningful career path, and are motivated by the desire to make a difference, you may find that a career working for the public good can be very rewarding. Often, such opportunities address issues of social responsibility, sustainability, public health, and/or economic development. Food scientists who choose this path typically have an interest in social and public health issues, and are usually driven by the achievement of some sort of social, health, or societal gain. As food science in itself is a very broad discipline, applying this knowledge for the public good can also take a variety of paths. Whether you're interested in manufacturing, food safety, nutrition, food policy, product development, quality control, marketing and sales, or any other discipline that makes up the diverse field of food science, various opportunities exist to make a difference to society.

  10. Good Discipline, Good Kids. [Videotape with Guide].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squier, William; Simmons, Susan; Yannes, Michelle; Simmons, Susan; Levine, Beth

    Noting that good parental discipline provides positive, constructive ways to encourage cooperation and good behavior and gives children the skills to regulate themselves, this 42-minute videotape with facilitator's guide comprise a program intended to help parents get past daily power struggles by using effective disciplinary techniques and…

  11. Influences of Children's and Adolescents' Action-Control Processes on School Achievement, Peer Relationships, and Coping with Challenging Life Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldhof, G. John; Little, Todd D.

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation represents a core aspect of human functioning that influences positive development across the life span. This chapter focuses on the action-control model, a key facet of self-regulation during childhood and early adolescence. The authors discuss the development of action-control beliefs, paying particular attention to their…

  12. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  13. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cr-doped Si achieved by controlling atomic structure, Cr concentration, and carrier densities: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xin-Yuan; Yang, Zhong-Qin; Zhu, Yan; Li, Yun

    2015-04-28

    By using first-principles calculations, we investigated how to achieve a strong ferromagnetism in Cr-doped Si by controlling the atomic structure and Cr concentration as well as carrier densities. We found that the configuration in which the Cr atom occupies the tetrahedral interstitial site can exist stably and the Cr atom has a large magnetic moment. Using this doping configuration, room-temperature ferromagnetism can be achieved in both n-type and p-type Si by tuning Cr concentration and carrier densities. The results indicate that the carrier density plays a crucial role in realizing strong ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  14. The Benefits of Good Teaching Extend beyond Course Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loes, Chad N.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper synthesizes research from the Wabash National Study on Liberal Arts Education, the National Study on Student Learning, and the Research on Iowa Student Experiences study that estimates the influence of certain effective instructional practices on a range of student outcomes. Student perceptions of two specific teacher…

  15. How to help hospitals achieve their mission through good design.

    PubMed

    Rabner, Barry S

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, Princeton HealthCare System (PHCS) completed a strategic plan that called for replacing its 220-bed acute care hospital--a decision driven by the need to serve a growing and aging population and the demand for new programs, services, technologies, and clinical strategies. As hospitals nationwide undertake similar projects to replace aging facilities, they face many of the same challenges. Various factors must be considered when designing a new hospital. Two significant obstacles to great design exist: First, hospital executives understand the economic and clinical drivers that affect hospital care and financial performance but often lack an appreciation for how design decisions can impact these critical factors. Second, CEOs often delegate oversight to others in the organization. The CEO's direct participation is necessary to ensure that the project reflects the organization's values and strategic and operational objectives. Solutions to address this dilemma include increased use of evidence-based design and strategies such as tying payment for design services to long-term facility performance indicators. Effective partnerships among healthcare planners, facility designers, and hospital executives will result in a new facility whose design promotes improved clinical outcomes, greater patient satisfaction, and financial viability. PMID:23002564

  16. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  17. Analysis of the immune system of multiple myeloma patients achieving long-term disease control by multidimensional flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Pessoa de Magalhães, Roberto J; Vidriales, María-Belén; Paiva, Bruno; Fernandez-Gimenez, Carlos; García-Sanz, Ramón; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Gutierrez, Norma C; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Blanco, Juan F; Hernández, Jose; de las Heras, Natalia; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Roig, Monica; Costa, Elaine Sobral; Ocio, Enrique M; Perez-Andres, Martin; Maiolino, Angelo; Nucci, Marcio; De La Rubia, Javier; Lahuerta, Juan-Jose; San-Miguel, Jesús F; Orfao, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma remains largely incurable. However, a few patients experience more than 10 years of relapse-free survival and can be considered as operationally cured. Interestingly, long-term disease control in multiple myeloma is not restricted to patients with a complete response, since some patients revert to having a profile of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We compared the distribution of multiple compartments of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control (n=28), patients with newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (n=23), patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (n=23), and age-matched healthy adults (n=10). Similarly to the patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and symptomatic multiple myeloma, patients with long-term disease control showed an expansion of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells and natural killer cells. However, the numbers of bone marrow T-regulatory cells were lower in patients with long-term disease control than in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma. It is noteworthy that B cells were depleted in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, but recovered in both the bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with long-term disease control, due to an increase in normal bone marrow B-cell precursors and plasma cells, as well as pre-germinal center peripheral blood B cells. The number of bone marrow dendritic cells and tissue macrophages differed significantly between patients with long-term disease control and those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, with a trend to cell count recovering in the former group of patients towards levels similar to those found in healthy adults. In summary, our results indicate that multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control have a constellation of unique immune changes

  18. Analysis of the immune system of multiple myeloma patients achieving long-term disease control by multidimensional flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Pessoa de Magalhães, Roberto J.; Vidriales, María-Belén; Paiva, Bruno; Fernandez-Gimenez, Carlos; García-Sanz, Ramón; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Gutierrez, Norma C.; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Blanco, Juan F; Hernández, Jose; de las Heras, Natalia; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Roig, Monica; Costa, Elaine Sobral; Ocio, Enrique M.; Perez-Andres, Martin; Maiolino, Angelo; Nucci, Marcio; De La Rubia, Javier; Lahuerta, Juan-Jose; San-Miguel, Jesús F.; Orfao, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma remains largely incurable. However, a few patients experience more than 10 years of relapse-free survival and can be considered as operationally cured. Interestingly, long-term disease control in multiple myeloma is not restricted to patients with a complete response, since some patients revert to having a profile of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We compared the distribution of multiple compartments of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control (n=28), patients with newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (n=23), patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (n=23), and age-matched healthy adults (n=10). Similarly to the patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and symptomatic multiple myeloma, patients with long-term disease control showed an expansion of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and natural killer cells. However, the numbers of bone marrow T-regulatory cells were lower in patients with long-term disease control than in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma. It is noteworthy that B cells were depleted in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, but recovered in both the bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with long-term disease control, due to an increase in normal bone marrow B-cell precursors and plasma cells, as well as pre-germinal center peripheral blood B cells. The number of bone marrow dendritic cells and tissue macrophages differed significantly between patients with long-term disease control and those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, with a trend to cell count recovering in the former group of patients towards levels similar to those found in healthy adults. In summary, our results indicate that multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control have a constellation of unique immune changes

  19. How the impact of median neuropathy on sensorimotor control capability of hands for diabetes: an achievable assessment from functional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Haw-Yen; Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Su, Fong-Chin; Yu, Hui-I; Hua, Shih-Che; Lu, Chieh-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    To comprehend the sensorimotor control ability in diabetic hands, this study investigated the sensation, motor function and precision pinch performances derived from a pinch-holding-up activity (PHUA) test of the hands of diabetic patients and healthy subjects. The precision, sensitivity and specificity of the PHUA test in the measurements of diabetic patients were also analyzed. We hypothesized that the diabetic hands would have impacts on the sensorimotor functions of the hand performances under functionally quantitative measurements. One hundred and fifty-nine patients with clinically defined diabetes mellitus (DM) and 95 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWM), static and moving two-point discrimination (S2PD and M2PD), maximal pinch strength and precision pinch performance tests were conducted to evaluate the sensation, motor and sensorimotor status of the recruited hands. The results showed that there were significant differences (all p<0.05) in SWM, S2PD, M2PD and maximum pinch strength between the DM and control groups. A higher force ratio in the DM patients than in the controls (p<0.001) revealed a poor ability of pinch force adjustment in the DM patients. The percentage of maximal pinch strength was also significantly different (p<0.001) between the DM and control groups. The sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.85, 0.51, and 0.724, respectively, for the PHUA test. Statistically significant degradations in sensory and motor functions and sensorimotor control ability were observed in the hands of the diabetic patients. The PHUA test could be feasibly used as a clinical tool to determine the sensorimotor function of the hands of diabetic patients from a functional perspective. PMID:24722361

  20. Current Control Method to Achieve Wide-Range Power Driving for Linear Synchronous Motor with Half-Wave-Rectified Self-Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Tadashi; Higuchi, Tsuyoshi

    In a previous paper, we proposed a novel linear synchronous motor with half-wave-rectified self-excitation. The long-stator-type linear synchronous motor was built, and its performance was verified by performing experiments. This paper presents a new current control method for the linear synchronous motor for achieving a wide range of speeds and high-power operations. First, we propose the current control method for high-thrust operation in the constant-thrust region. This operation is realized by using a reluctance thrust resulting from the saliency of the linear synchronous motor. Furthermore, we propose a control method that maximizes the ratio of the thrust to the voltage; this method can be used to expand the operating range. Wide-range-speed operation can be achieved by applying this new control method along with field-weakening control. The thrust and operation characteristics of the proposed control methods are estimated by performing experiments and an electric and magnetic coupled analysis.

  1. Conformation-Controlled Diplatinum(II)-Ferrocene Dyads to Achieve Long-Lived Charge-Separated States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ge-Xia; Feng, Ke; Crossley, Maxwell J; Xing, Ling-Bao; Xiao, Hong-Yan; Li, Wen; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2016-08-16

    Square-planar polypyridyl platinum(II) complexes possess a rich range of structural and spectroscopic properties that are ideal for designing artificial photosynthetic centers. Taking advantage of the directionality in the charge-transfer excitation from the metal to the polypyridyl ligand, we describe here diplatinum(II)-ferrocene dyads, open-butterfly-like dyad 1 and closed-butterfly-like dyad 2, which were designed to understand the conformation and orientation effects to prolong the lifetime of charge-separated state. In contrast to the open-butterfly-like dyad 1, the closed-butterfly-like dyad 2 shows three-times long lifetime of charge separated state upon photoexcitation, demonstrating that the orientation in the rigid structure of dyad 2 is a very important issue to achieve long-lived charge separated state. PMID:27339465

  2. Students' Emotions for Achievement and Technology Use in Synchronous Hybrid Graduate Programmes: A Control-Value Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Nikolaus T.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous hybrid delivery (simultaneously teaching on-campus and online students using web conferencing) is becoming more common; however, little is known about how students experience emotions in this learning environment. Based on Pekrun's (2006) control-value theory of emotions, the dual purpose of this study was first to compare synchronous…

  3. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on children's attendance, academic achievement and short-term hunger: results from a stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gorton, Delvina; Turley, Maria; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Free school breakfast programmes (SBPs) exist in a number of high-income countries, but their effects on educational outcomes have rarely been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. Methods A 1-year stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 14 New Zealand schools in low socioeconomic resource areas. Participants were 424 children, mean age 9±2 years, 53% female. The intervention was a free daily SBP. The primary outcome was children's school attendance. Secondary outcomes were academic achievement, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, behaviour, short-term hunger, breakfast habits and food security. Results There was no statistically significant effect of the breakfast programme on children's school attendance. The odds of children achieving an attendance rate <95% was 0.76 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.02) during the intervention phase and 0.93 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.31) during the control phase, giving an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.11), p=0.19. There was a significant decrease in children's self-reported short-term hunger during the intervention phase compared with the control phase, demonstrated by an increase of 8.6 units on the Freddy satiety scale (95% CI 3.4 to 13.7, p=0.001). There were no effects of the intervention on any other outcome. Conclusions A free SBP did not have a significant effect on children's school attendance or academic achievement but had significant positive effects on children's short-term satiety ratings. More frequent programme attendance may be required to influence school attendance and academic achievement. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR)—ACTRN12609000854235. PMID:23043203

  4. Longitudinal Relations among Parents' Reactions to Children's Negative Emotions, Effortful Control, and Math Achievement in Early Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H.; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = 0.39 year) across kindergarten through…

  5. Achieving fertility control through woman’s autonomy and access to maternal healthcare: Are we on track? In-depth analysis of PDHS-2012-13

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Sehar-un-Nisa; Siddiqui, Salma; Mahmood, Ayeshah

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Fertility control preferences and maternal healthcare have recently become a major concern for developing nations with evidence suggesting that low fertility control rates and poor maternal healthcare are among major obstructions in ensuring health and social status for women. Our objective was toanalyze the factors that influence women’s autonomy, access to maternal healthcare, and fertility control preferences in Pakistan. Methods: Data consisted of 11,761 ever-married women of ages 15-49 years from PDHS, 2012-13. Variables included socio-demographics, women’s autonomy, fertility control preferences and access to maternal healthcare. Results: Findings from multivariate analysis showed that women’s younger age, having less than three number of children and independent or joint decision-making (indicators of high autonomy) remained the most significant predictors for access to better quality maternal healthcare and better fertility control preferences when other variables were controlled. Conclusion: Women’s access to good quality maternal health care and fertility control preferences are directly and indirectly influenced by their demographic characteristics and decision-making patterns in domestic affairs. PMID:26870096

  6. "What's the Plan?": "Good Management Begins with Good People"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicars, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    In order for a successful center/school to achieve all it can for its children, staff, and operator, a plan is critical. Good planning begins by looking into the future that one wants for his or her center/school. Be as descriptive as possible in writing down the details of what that future looks like. Next, walk backwards from that future to the…

  7. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a “dream” display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays. PMID:23492854

  8. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a "dream" display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays. PMID:23492854

  9. General Strategy to Introduce pH-Induced Allostery in DNA-Based Receptors to Achieve Controlled Release of Ligands.

    PubMed

    Porchetta, Alessandro; Idili, Andrea; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis; Ricci, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    Inspired by naturally occurring pH-regulated receptors, here we propose a rational approach to introduce pH-induced allostery into a wide range of DNA-based receptors. To demonstrate this we re-engineered two model DNA-based probes, a molecular beacon and a cocaine-binding aptamer, by introducing in their sequence a pH-dependent domain. We demonstrate here that we can finely tune the affinity of these model receptors and control the load/release of their specific target molecule by a simple pH change. PMID:26053894

  10. Cape of Good Hope

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Aerosol retrieval over Cape of Good Hope   View larger JPEG image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of the Cape of Good Hope were acquired on August 23, 2000. This first of two image sets, ...

  11. Good Concrete Activity Is Good Mental Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Early years mathematics classrooms can be colourful, exciting, and challenging places of learning. Andrea McDonough and fellow teachers have noticed that some students make good decisions about using materials to assist their problem solving, but this is not always the case. These experiences lead her to ask the following questions: (1) Are…

  12. Good Teaching and Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahorik, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Without a definition of good teaching, the supervisor's efforts to help teachers improve will probably be fragmented, and teacher improvement may not occur. This article examines three definitions of good teaching, presents and defends a certain definition, and suggests supervisory applications. Good teachers are proficient in the kinds of…

  13. Control of malaria and other vector-borne protozoan diseases in the tropics: enduring challenges despite considerable progress and achievements

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vector-borne protozoan diseases represent a serious public health challenge, especially in the tropics where poverty together with vector-favorable climates are the aggravating factors. Each of the various strategies currently employed to face these scourges is seriously inadequate. Despite enormous efforts, vaccines—which represent the ideal weapon against these parasitic diseases—are yet to be sufficiently developed and implemented. Chemotherapy and vector control are therefore the sole effective attempts to minimize the disease burden. Nowadays, both strategies are also highly challenged by the phenomenon of drug and insecticide resistance, which affects virtually all interventions currently used. The recently growing support from international organizations and governments of some endemic countries is warmly welcome, and should be optimally exploited in the various approaches to drug and insecticide research and development to overcome the burden of these prevalent diseases, especially malaria, leishmaniasis, Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), and Chagas disease. PMID:24401663

  14. Achieving pH control in microalgal cultures through fed-batch addition of stoichiometrically-balanced growth media

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of accounting for proton uptake and secretion has confounded interpretation of the stoichiometry of photosynthetic growth of algae. This is also problematic for achieving growth of microalgae to high cell concentrations which is necessary to improve productivity and the economic feasibility of commercial-scale chemical production systems. Since microalgae are capable of consuming both nitrate and ammonium, this represents an opportunity to balance culture pH based on a nitrogen feeding strategy that does not utilize gas-phase CO2 buffering. Stoichiometry suggests that approximately 36 weight%N-NH4+ (balance nitrogen as NO3-) would minimize the proton imbalance and permit high-density photoautotrophic growth as it does in higher plant tissue culture. However, algal media almost exclusively utilize nitrate, and ammonium is often viewed as ‘toxic’ to algae. Results The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exclusively utilize ammonium when both ammonium and nitrate are provided during growth on excess CO2. The resulting proton imbalance from preferential ammonium utilization causes the pH to drop too low to sustain further growth when ammonium was only 9% of the total nitrogen (0.027 gN-NH4+/L). However, providing smaller amounts of ammonium sequentially in the presence of nitrate maintained the pH of a Chlorella vulgaris culture for improved growth on 0.3 gN/L to 5 gDW/L under 5% CO2 gas-phase supplementation. Bioreactor pH dynamics are shown to be predictable based on simple nitrogen assimilation as long as there is sufficient CO2 availability. Conclusions This work provides both a media formulation and a feeding strategy with a focus on nitrogen metabolism and regulation to support high-density algal culture without buffering. The instability in culture pH that is observed in microalgal cultures in the absence of buffers can be overcome through alternating utilization of ammonium and nitrate. Despite the highly regulated

  15. Depreciation of public goods in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Dong-Mei; Zhuang, Yong; Li, Yu-Jian; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2011-10-01

    In real situations, the value of public goods will be reduced or even lost because of external factors or for intrinsic reasons. In this work, we investigate the evolution of cooperation by considering the effect of depreciation of public goods in spatial public goods games on a square lattice. It is assumed that each individual gains full advantage if the number of the cooperators nc within a group centered on that individual equals or exceeds the critical mass (CM). Otherwise, there is depreciation of the public goods, which is realized by rescaling the multiplication factor r to (nc/CM)r. It is shown that the emergence of cooperation is remarkably promoted for CM > 1 even at small values of r, and a global cooperative level is achieved at an intermediate value of CM = 4 at a small r. We further study the effect of depreciation of public goods on different topologies of a regular lattice, and find that the system always reaches global cooperation at a moderate value of CM = G - 1 regardless of whether or not there exist overlapping triangle structures on the regular lattice, where G is the group size of the associated regular lattice.

  16. Sensitivity improvement of an electrical sensor achieved by control of biomolecules based on the negative dielectrophoretic force.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Jinsik; Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Park, Jung Ho; Hwang, Kyo Seon

    2016-11-15

    Effective control of nano-scale biomolecules can enhance the sensitivity and limit of detection of an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) sensor. Manipulation of the biomolecules by dielectrophoresis (DEP), especially the negative DEP (nDEP) force, so that they are trapped between electrodes (sensing regions) was predicted to increase the binding efficiency of the antibody and target molecules, leading to a more effective reaction. To prove this concept, amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein were respectively trapped between the sensing region owing to the nDEP force under 5V and 0.05V, which was verified with COMSOL simulation. Using the simulation value, the resistance change (ΔR/Rb) of the IME sensor from the specific antibody-antigen reaction of the two biomolecules and the change in fluorescence intensity were compared in the reference (pDEP) and nDEP conditions. The ΔR/Rb value improved by about 2-fold and 1.66-fold with nDEP compared to the reference condition with various protein concentrations, and these increases were confirmed with fluorescence imaging. Overall, nDEP enhanced the detection sensitivity for Aβ42 and PSA by 128% and 258%, respectively, and the limit of detection improved by up to 2-orders of magnitude. These results prove that DEP can improve the biosensor's performance. PMID:27449966

  17. When "Good Enough" Is Not Good Enough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacTaggart, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Achieving high performance in tough times is the most serious challenge facing presidents and trustees during this recession, when the temptation may be to substitute "getting by" for truly outstanding governance. Defining victory as making it through the fiscal year, with little thought to where the institution should be positioned in three to…

  18. Magnetic Wood Achieving a Harmony between Magnetic and Woody Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Hideo

    Magnetic wood, which was first introduced and developed by the Oka group in 1991, achieves a good balance of both woody and magnetic functions through the active addition of magnetic characteristics to the wood itself. In addition to showing magnetic characteristics, this magnetic wood also offers a woody texture, low specific gravity, humidity control, acoustic absorption and is very easy to process.

  19. Ethiopia and its steps to mobilize resources to achieve 2020 elimination and control goals for neglected tropical diseases webs joined can tie a lion.

    PubMed

    Mengitsu, Belete; Shafi, Oumer; Kebede, Biruck; Kebede, Fikreab; Worku, Dagemlidet T; Herero, Merce; French, Michael; Kebede, Biruk; Mackenzie, Charles; Martindale, Sarah; Kebede, Zeyede; Hirpa, Tigist; Frawley, Hannah; Crowley, Kathryn; O'Neil, Maggie; McPherson, Scott

    2016-03-01

    In June 2013, at the launch of its National Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Master Plan, the Ethiopian government pledged to achieve WHO NTD elimination and control targets by 2020. With an estimated 80 million people living in areas where one or more NTDs are endemic, this goal presented an enormous challenge for the Federal Ministry of Health. However, as of September 2015, the Federal Ministry of Health has managed to mobilize support to implement mass drug administration in 84% of the trachoma endemic districts and 100% of the endemic districts for onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthes and schistosomiasis. The national program still is facing large gaps in its podoconiosis and leishmaniasis programs, and it faces significant other challenges to stay on track for 2020 targets. However, this unprecedented scale-up in support was achieved through significant government investment in NTD interventions and creative coordination between donors and implementing partners, which may provide valuable lessons for other national NTD programs trying to achieve nationwide coverage. PMID:26940308

  20. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  1. Cape of Good Hope

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    article title:  Aerosol retrieval over Cape of Good Hope (Enlargement) ... SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image is an enlargement of the  aerosol retrieval over Cape of Good Hope, August 23, 2000 , showing a more ... the incoming energy, so MISR's contribution is not only the aerosol retrieval necessary to do the correction, but the multi-angular ...

  2. Advice on Good Grooming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingey, Carol

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented from parents on how to help children with disabilities (with particular focus on Downs Syndrome) learn good grooming habits in such areas as good health, exercise, cleanliness, teeth and hair care, skin care, glasses and other devices, and social behavior. (CB)

  3. "Good Citizen" Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Placer Hills Union Elementary School District, Meadow Vista, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: The "Good Citizen" Program was developed for many reasons: to keep the campus clean, to reward students for improvement, to reward students for good deeds, to improve the total school climate, to reward students for excellence, and to offer staff members a method of reward for positive…

  4. Productivity and Capital Goods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zicht, Barbara, Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Providing teacher background on the concepts of productivity and capital goods, this document presents 3 teaching units about these ideas for different grade levels. The grade K-2 unit, "How Do They Do It?," is designed to provide students with an understanding of how physical capital goods add to productivity. Activities include a field trip to…

  5. How Good Writers Punctuate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, John

    The punctuation system presented in this paper has explanatory power insofar as it explains how good writers punctuate. The paper notes that good writers have learned, through reading, the differences among a hierarchy of marks and acquired a sense of independent clauses that allows them to use the hierarchy, along with a reader-sensitive notion…

  6. Is a Mass Prevention and Control Program for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Good Value for Money? Evidence from the Chinese Experience

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Biyan; Xie, Jinliang; Fang, Pengqian

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to provide guidance on the efficient allocation of health resources when handling public health emergencies in the future, the study evaluated the H1N1 influenza prevention and control program in Hubei Province of China using cost-benefit analysis. Methods: The costs measured the resources consumed and other expenses incurred in the prevention and control of H1N1. The assumed benefits include resource consumption and economic losses which could be avoided by the measures for the prevention and control of H1N1. The benefit was evaluated by counterfactual thinking, which estimates the resource consumption and economic losses could be happened without any measures for the prevention and control, which have been avoided after measures were taken to prevent and control H1N1 in Hubei Province, these constitutes the benefit of this project. Results: The total costs of this program were 38.81 million U.S. dollars, while the total benefit was assessed as 203.71 million U.S. dollars. The net benefit was 164.9 million U.S. dollars with a cost-effectiveness ratio of 1:5.25. Conclusions: The joint prevention and control strategy introduced by Hubei for H1N1 influenza is cost-effective. PMID:23304674

  7. Do good actions inspire good actions in others?

    PubMed Central

    Capraro, Valerio; Marcelletti, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Actions such as sharing food and cooperating to reach a common goal have played a fundamental role in the evolution of human societies. Despite the importance of such good actions, little is known about if and how they can spread from person to person to person. For instance, does being recipient of an altruistic act increase your probability of being cooperative with a third party? We have conducted an experiment on Amazon Mechanical Turk to test this mechanism using economic games. We have measured willingness to be cooperative through a standard Prisoner's dilemma and willingness to act altruistically using a binary Dictator game. In the baseline treatments, the endowments needed to play were given by the experimenters, as usual; in the control treatments, they came from a good action made by someone else. Across four different comparisons and a total of 572 subjects, we have never found a significant increase of cooperation or altruism when the endowment came from a good action. We conclude that good actions do not necessarily inspire good actions in others. While this is consistent with the theoretical prediction, it challenges the majority of other experimental studies. PMID:25502617

  8. Achieving nitritation at low temperatures using free ammonia inhibition on Nitrobacter and real-time control in an SBR treating landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongwei; Peng, Yongzhen; Wang, Shuying; Ma, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Free ammonia (FA) inhibition on nitrite-oxidized bacteria (NOB) and real-time control are used to achieve nitrogen removal from landfill leachate via nitrite pathway at low temperatures in sequencing batch reactor. The inhibition of FA on NOB activity during the aerobic period was prolonged using real-time control. The degree of nitrite accumulation was monitored along with variations of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and NOB population using fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques. It is demonstrated that the end-point of ammonia oxidization is detected from the on-line measured dissolved oxygen, oxidization-reduction potential, and pH signals, which could avoid the loss the FA inhibition on NOB caused by excess aeration. At low temperature (13.0-17.6°C), the level of nitrite pathway rapidly increased from 19.8% to 90%, suggesting that nitritation was successfully started up at low temperature by applying syntrophic association of the FA inhibition and real-time control, and then this high level of nitrite pathway was stably maintained for as long as 233 days. Mechanism analysis shows that the establishment of nitritation was primarily the result of predominant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria developed in the nitrifying bacteria population compared to NOB. This was mainly due to a gradual reduction of nitrite amount that is available to provide energy for the growth of NOB, eventually leading to the elimination of NOB from the bacterial clusters in sequencing batch reactor sludge system. PMID:25872722

  9. Impact of the Positive Action program on school-level indicators of academic achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes: A matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Frank; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled design. The Positive Action Hawai‘i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (mean enrollment = 544) and was conducted from the 2002-03 through the 2005-06 academic years. Using school-level archival data, analyses comparing change from baseline (2002) to one-year post trial (2007) revealed that intervention schools scored 9.8% better on the TerraNova (2nd ed.) test for reading and 8.8% on math; 20.7% better in Hawai‘i Content and Performance Standards scores for reading and 51.4% better in math; and that intervention schools reported 15.2% lower absenteeism and fewer suspensions (72.6%) and retentions (72.7%). Overall, effect sizes were moderate to large (range 0.5-1.1) for all of the examined outcomes. Sensitivity analyses using permutation models and random-intercept growth curve models substantiated results. The results provide evidence that a comprehensive school-based program, specifically developed to target student behavior and character, can positively influence school-level achievement, attendance, and disciplinary outcomes concurrently. PMID:20414477

  10. Power-gated 32 bit microprocessor with a power controller circuit activated by deep-sleep-mode instruction achieving ultra-low power operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Hiroki; Ohsawa, Takashi; Miura, Sadahiko; Honjo, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Shoji; Hanyu, Takahiro; Ohno, Hideo; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2015-04-01

    A spintronic-based power-gated micro-processing unit (MPU) is proposed. It includes a power control circuit activated by the newly supported power-off instruction for the deep-sleep mode. These means enable the power-off procedure for the MPU to be executed appropriately. A test chip was designed and fabricated using 90 nm CMOS and an additional 100 nm MTJ process; it was successfully operated. The guideline of the energy reduction effects for this MPU was presented, using the estimation based on the measurement results of the test chip. The result shows that a large operation energy reduction of 1/28 can be achieved when the operation duty is 10%, under the condition of a sufficient number of idle clock cycles.

  11. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Sørensen, Karen S.; Skov, Julia; Sun, Yi; Duong Bang, Dang; Pedersen, Michael E.; Hansen, Mikkel F.; Wolff, Anders

    2013-07-01

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature-dependent fluorescence signal from Rhodamine B. The method was validated with the PCR amplification of mecA gene (162 bp) from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterium (MRSA), where the time for 30 cycles was reduced from 50 min (without over- and undershooting) to 20 min.

  12. Too Much of a Good Thing: Random Practice Scheduling and Self-Control of Feedback Lead to Unique but Not Additive Learning Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Asif; Fawver, Bradley; Kim, Jingu; Fairbrother, Jeffrey; Janelle, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the impact of self-controlled knowledge of results on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of anticipation timing skill as a function of random and blocked practice schedules. Forty-eight undergraduate students were divided into experimental groups that practiced under varying combinations of random or blocked as well as self-controlled or yoked practice conditions. Anticipation timing performance (5, 13, and 21 mph) was recorded during acquisition and during a short term no-feedback retention test. A transfer test, administered 24 h after the retention test, consisted of two novel anticipation timing speeds (9, 17 mph). Absolute error (AE) and variable error (VE) of timing served as the dependent measures. All participants improved their accuracy and consistency across acquisition blocks; however, those who practiced under blocked rather than random conditions had greater accuracy (lower AE) regardless of feedback delivery. During retention and transfer, those who practiced under random conditions showed greater consistency (lower VE) compared to their blocked counterparts. Finally, participants who controlled their feedback schedule were more accurate (lower AE) and less variable (lower VE) during transfer compared to yoked participants, regardless of practice scheduling. Our findings indicate that practicing under a random schedule improves retention and transfer consistency, while self-control of feedback is advantageous to both the accuracy and consistency with which anticipation timing skill transfers to novel task demands. The combination of these learning manipulations, however, does not improve skill retention or transfer above and beyond their orthogonal effects. PMID:23233843

  13. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  14. A thermolysis approach to simultaneously achieve crystal phase- and shape-control of ternary M-Fe-O metal oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Chia; Chang, Chich-Neng; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    Significant studies have achieved beautiful control in particle size, while the shape- and phase-control synthesis of nanoparticles remains an open challenge. In this study, we have developed a generalized methodology to selectively prepare either NaCl-type (reduced form) or spinel-type ferrite (oxidized form) M-Fe-O (M = Mn, Co) crystallites with high reproducibility. A two-step heating process was able to control formation of two types of crystal phase, either a thermodynamic spinel-type under air or a kinetic-control of NaCl-type (rock salt structure) under Ar in a cubic morphology. On the other hand, the three-step heating procedure in air obtained the spinel-type with a thermodynamic equilibrium octahedral shape exclusively. Either using metal acetates (M(ac)2) or metal acetylacetonates (M(acac)2) as the starting precursors (M = Mn, Co) can be introduced to prepare NaCl-type (reduced form) or spinel-type ferrite (oxidized form) crystallites with identical experimental parameters, including precursor concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, and heating rate. The oleic acid molecule, reaction temperature, and heating rate employed in the synthesis were carefully examined and found acting as determined roles behind the reaction processes. Apart from the previous literature reports as shape-directed and/or stabilizing agents, the oleic acid molecule played an additional phase-tuning role.Significant studies have achieved beautiful control in particle size, while the shape- and phase-control synthesis of nanoparticles remains an open challenge. In this study, we have developed a generalized methodology to selectively prepare either NaCl-type (reduced form) or spinel-type ferrite (oxidized form) M-Fe-O (M = Mn, Co) crystallites with high reproducibility. A two-step heating process was able to control formation of two types of crystal phase, either a thermodynamic spinel-type under air or a kinetic-control of NaCl-type (rock salt structure) under Ar in a

  15. Effectiveness of Music Education for the Improvement of Reading Skills and Academic Achievement in Young Poor Readers: A Pragmatic Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; de Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão; Ploubidis, George B.; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age) with reading difficulties. Method 235 children with reading difficulties in 10 schools participated in a five-month, randomized clinical trial in cluster (RCT) in an impoverished zone within the city of São Paulo to test the effects of music education intervention while assessing reading skills and academic achievement during the school year. Five schools were chosen randomly to incorporate music classes (n = 114), and five served as controls (n = 121). Two different methods of analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention: The standard method was intention-to-treat (ITT), and the other was the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) estimation method, which took compliance status into account. Results The ITT analyses were not very promising; only one marginal effect existed for the rate of correct real words read per minute. Indeed, considering ITT, improvements were observed in the secondary outcomes (slope of Portuguese = 0.21 [p<0.001] and slope of math = 0.25 [p<0.001]). As for CACE estimation (i.e., complier children versus non-complier children), more promising effects were observed in terms of the rate of correct words read per minute [β = 13.98, p<0.001] and phonological awareness [β = 19.72, p<0.001] as well as secondary outcomes (academic achievement in Portuguese [β = 0.77, p<0.0001] and math [β = 0.49, p<0.001] throughout the school year). Conclusion The results may be seen as promising, but they are not, in themselves

  16. Capabilities of remote sensing in control of good agricultural and environmental conditions. (Polish Title: Możliwości teledetekcyjnej kontroli utrzymania gruntów rolnych w dobrej kulturze rolnej (GAEC))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osińska-Skotak, K.; Pluto-Kossakowska, J.; Fijałkowska, A.

    2013-12-01

    Within the framework of the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union applicants farmers receive subsidies for agricultural production. From 1 January 2009 all farmers receiving payments are required to fulfill the standards adopted by Poland in the framework of cross-compliance. Each member state sets minimum standards for good agricultural and environmental condition (GAEC) on the basis of Council Regulation (EC) No 73/2009. Compliance with these standards is monitored during the annual control campaigns conducted by ARMA in the selected areas. Control campaign mainly includes verification of applications in terms of agricultural area declared by the farmer as eligible for subsidies, as well as control of GAEC requirements. One method of control is a remote sensing method, which is based on interpretation of agricultural parcels on satellite or aerial images and it is mainly used to measure the areas to be subsidies. During this process one may also verify compliance with GAEC. The paper presents an analysis of which of the standards to maintain land in good agricultural condition can be controlled with remote sensing and provides examples of processing supporting the interpretation of satellite images for selected GAEC standards.

  17. Public goods and procreation.

    PubMed

    Anomaly, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Procreation is the ultimate public goods problem. Each new child affects the welfare of many other people, and some (but not all) children produce uncompensated value that future people will enjoy. This essay addresses challenges that arise if we think of procreation and parenting as public goods. These include whether individual choices are likely to lead to a socially desirable outcome, and whether changes in laws, social norms, or access to genetic engineering and embryo selection might improve the aggregate outcome of our reproductive choices. PMID:25743046

  18. Use of the SAMe-TT2R2 Score to Predict Good Anticoagulation Control with Warfarin in Chinese Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Relationship to Ischemic Stroke Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Pak Hei; Hai, Jo Jo; Chan, Esther W.; Li, Wen Hua; Tse, Hung Fat; Wong, Ian C. K.; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Siu, Chung Wah

    2016-01-01

    Background The efficacy and safety of warfarin therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) depends on the time in therapeutic range (TTR). We aimed to assess the predictive ability of SAMe-TT2R2 score in Chinese AF patients on warfarin, whose TTR is notoriously poor. Methods and Results This is a single-centre retrospective study. Patients with non-valvular AF on warfarin diagnosed between 1997 and 2011 were stratified according to SAMe-TT2R2 score, and TTR was calculated using Rosendaal method. The predictive power of SAMe-TT2R2 scores for good TTR i.e. >70% was assessed. We included 1,428 Chinese patients (mean age 76.2±8.7 years, 47.5% male) with non-valvular AF on warfarin. The mean and median TTR were 38.2±24.4% and 38.8% (interquartile range: 17.9% and 56.2%) respectively. TTR decreased progressively with increasing SAMe-TT2R2 score (p = 0.016). When the cut-off value of SAMe-TT2R2 score was set to 2, the sensitivity and specificity to predict TTR<70% were 85.7% and 17.8%, respectively. The corresponding positive and negative predictive values were 10.1% and 92.0%. After a mean follow-up of 4.7±3.6 years, 338 patients developed an ischemic stroke (4.96%/year). Patients with TTR≥70% had a lower annual risk of ischemic stroke of 3.67%/year compared with than those with TTR<70% (5.13%/year)(p = 0.08). Patients with SAMe-TT2R2 score ≤2 had the lowest risk of annual risk of ischemic stroke (3.49%/year) compared with those with SAMe-TT2R2 score = 3 (4.56%/year), and those with SAMe-TT2R2 score ≥4 (6.41%/year)(p<0.001). There was also a non-significant trend towards more intracranial hemorrhage with increasing SAMe-TT2R2 score. Conclusions The SAMe-TT2R2 score correlates well with TTR in Chinese AF patients, with a score >2 having high sensitivity and negative predictive values for poor TTR. Ischemic stroke risk increased progressively with increasing SAMe-TT2R2 score, consistent with poorer TTRs at high SAMe-TT2R2 scores. PMID:27010633

  19. What makes good image composition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banner, Ron

    2011-03-01

    Some people are born with an intuitive sense of good composition. They do not need to be taught composition, and their work is immediately perceived as being well by other people. In an attempt to help others learn composition, art critics, scientists and psychologists analyzed well-compose works in the hope of recognizing patterns and trends that anyone could employ to achieve similar results. Unfortunately, the identified patterns are by no means universal. Moreover, since a compositional rule is useful only as long as it enhances the idea that the artist is trying to express, there is no objective standard to judge whether a given composition is "good" or "bad". As a result, the study of composition seems to be full of contradictions. Nevertheless, there are several basic "low level" rules supported by physiological studies in visual perception that artists and photographers intuitively obey. Regardless of image content, a prerequisite for all good images is that their respective composition would be balanced. In a balanced composition, factors such as shape, direction, location and color are determined in a way that is pleasant to the eye. An unbalanced composition looks accidental, transitory and its elements show a tendency to change place or shape in order to reach a state that better reflects the total structure. Under these conditions, the artistic statement becomes incomprehensive and confusing.

  20. The GoodNight study—online CBT for insomnia for the indicated prevention of depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) delivered through the Internet is effective as a treatment in reducing insomnia in individuals seeking help for insomnia. CBT-I also lowers levels of depression in this group. However, it is not known if targeting insomnia using CBT-I will lower depressive symptoms, and thus reduce the risk of major depressive episode onset, in those specifically at risk for depression. Therefore, this study aims to examine whether Internet delivery of fully automated self-help CBT-I designed to reduce insomnia will prevent depression. Method/design A sample of 1,600 community-dwelling adults (aged 18–64), who screen positive for both subclinical levels of depressive symptoms and insomnia, will be recruited via various media and randomised to either a 9-week online insomnia treatment programme, Sleep Healthy Using The internet (SHUTi), or an online attention-matched control group (HealthWatch). The primary outcome variable will be depression symptom levels at the 6-month post-intervention on the Patient Heath Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). A secondary outcome will be onset of major depressive episodes assessed at the 6-month post-intervention using ‘current’ and ‘time from intervention’ criteria from the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Discussion This trial is the first randomised controlled trial of an Internet-based insomnia intervention as an indicated preventative programme for depression. If effective, online provision of a depression prevention programme will facilitate dissemination. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), Registration number: ACTRN12611000121965. PMID:24524214

  1. Designing Good Educational Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingman, James C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes eight characteristics of good educational software. They are: (1) educational soundness; (2) ease of use; (3) "bullet" proofing (preventing a program from coming to a premature halt); (4) clear instructions; (5) appropriate language; (6) appropriate frame size; (7) motivation; and (8) evaluation. (JN)

  2. Good-Neighbor Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drozdowski, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author draws on his experience as the director of the Fitchburg State College Foundation in Fitchburg, Massachusetts, to make a distinction between being a good neighbor to local non-profit organizations by sharing strategies and information, and creating conflicts of interest when both the college and its neighbor…

  3. Choosing Good Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Many art teachers use the Web as an information source. Overall, they look for good content that is clearly written concise, accurate, and pertinent. A well-designed site gives users what they want quickly, efficiently, and logically, and does not ask them to assemble a puzzle to resolve their search. How can websites with these qualities be…

  4. Reconsidering the "Good Divorce"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.; James, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    This study attempted to assess the notion that a "good divorce" protects children from the potential negative consequences of marital dissolution. A cluster analysis of data on postdivorce parenting from 944 families resulted in three groups: cooperative coparenting, parallel parenting, and single parenting. Children in the cooperative coparenting…

  5. Restructuring for Good Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Stephen; Carey, Russell C.

    2006-01-01

    American higher education has never been more in need of good governance than it is right now. Yet much of the structure many boards have inherited or created tends to stall or impede timely, well-informed, and broadly supported decision making. At many institutions (ours included), layers of governance have been added with each passing year,…

  6. Adolescence: Does good nutrition = good behaviour?

    PubMed Central

    Gesch, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is often associated with exploring boundaries, rapid growth, hormones and pimples. A stable feature of this turbulent age is that these young people are highly over-represented in the criminal justice system. Adolescents account for disproportionate proportion of police-recorded crimes, and this seems to be a cross-cultural phenomenon. Furthermore, disaffected young people often have limited routine access to healthy foods and make poor food choices. These people form a large proportion of the prison population and there are concerns that insufficient attention is paid to their health. Hence their diet tends to be poor compared with international standards of dietary adequacy, which typically are set to protect the heart but not for optimal brain function. Thus, it has been posited that a poor diet may be a modifiable causal factor in antisocial behaviours. We tested what happened to the behaviour of violent young adult prisoners (18–21years) when nutrients missing from their diets were reinstated. We used food supplements as an analogue of a better diet because it provided the possibility of a placebo control. On a random basis, where neither the volunteers, prison staff nor researchers in the prison knew who was getting which type, 231 volunteers were given either placebo or real capsules containing broadly the daily requirements of vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids. The number of proven offences committed by each prisoner was monitored before and while taking supplements. The result was that those who received the extra nutrients committed significantly (26.3%) fewer offences compared with placebos. Those consuming real supplements for at least 2 weeks committed 37% fewer (highly statistically significant) of the most serious offences, such as violence. These findings have been replicated by the Dutch Ministry of Justice; their double-blind study reported a 48% difference between groups. If these studies are widely replicated – and

  7. Adolescence: Does good nutrition = good behaviour?

    PubMed

    Gesch, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    Adolescence is often associated with exploring boundaries, rapid growth, hormones and pimples. A stable feature of this turbulent age is that these young people are highly over-represented in the criminal justice system. Adolescents account for disproportionate proportion of police-recorded crimes, and this seems to be a cross-cultural phenomenon. Furthermore, disaffected young people often have limited routine access to healthy foods and make poor food choices. These people form a large proportion of the prison population and there are concerns that insufficient attention is paid to their health. Hence their diet tends to be poor compared with international standards of dietary adequacy, which typically are set to protect the heart but not for optimal brain function. Thus, it has been posited that a poor diet may be a modifiable causal factor in antisocial behaviours. We tested what happened to the behaviour of violent young adult prisoners (18-21years) when nutrients missing from their diets were reinstated. We used food supplements as an analogue of a better diet because it provided the possibility of a placebo control. On a random basis, where neither the volunteers, prison staff nor researchers in the prison knew who was getting which type, 231 volunteers were given either placebo or real capsules containing broadly the daily requirements of vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids. The number of proven offences committed by each prisoner was monitored before and while taking supplements. The result was that those who received the extra nutrients committed significantly (26.3%) fewer offences compared with placebos. Those consuming real supplements for at least 2 weeks committed 37% fewer (highly statistically significant) of the most serious offences, such as violence. These findings have been replicated by the Dutch Ministry of Justice; their double-blind study reported a 48% difference between groups. If these studies are widely replicated - and they

  8. Good News, Bad News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratz-Snowden, Joan

    1987-01-01

    The performance of black students on standardized tests is still significantly below that of their white counterparts. Data on black performance on standardized tests and trends on the factors that affect that performance are examined. The OERI study on Poverty, Achievement and the Distribution of Compensatory Education Services is discussed. (MLW)

  9. 'Good palliative care' orders.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, I

    1993-01-01

    A Select Committee of the Parliament of South Australia, considering revisions to legislation governing care of the dying, did not support allowing doctors to assist suicide. They recommended that no liability attach to the provision of reasonable palliative care which happens to shorten life. The Committee affirmed the suggestion that positive open orders to provide 'good palliative care' should replace 'do not resuscitate' orders. PMID:7506978

  10. Doing good & doing well.

    PubMed

    Barnett, K; Pittman, M

    2001-01-01

    Leaders cannot make the "business case" for community benefit in the traditional sense of near-term financial returns on investment. The concept of returns must be expanded to encompass more long-term--yet concrete and measurable--benefits that may be accrued both by nonprofit hospitals and local communities. Hospitals can "do well" economically through a more strategic approach to "doing good." PMID:11372275

  11. Innovative Hypofractionated Stereotactic Regimen Achieves Excellent Local Control with No Radiation Necrosis: Promising Results in the Management of Patients with Small Recurrent Inoperable GBM

    PubMed Central

    Pannullo, Susan C.; Minkowitz, Shlomo; Taube, Shoshana; Chang, Jenghwa; Parashar, Bhupesh; Christos, Paul; Wernicke, A.Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Management of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a challenge. Several institutions reported that a single fraction of ≥ 20 Gy for small tumor burden results in excellent local control; however, this is at the expense of a high incidence of radiation necrosis (RN). Therefore, we developed a hypofractionation pattern of 33 Gy/3 fractions, which is a radiobiological equivalent of 20 Gy, with the aim to lower the incidence of RN. We reviewed records of 21 patients with recurrent GBM treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HFSRT) to their 22 respective lesions. Sixty Gy fractioned external beam radiotherapy was performed as first-line treatment. Median time from primary irradiation to HFSRT was 9.6 months (range: 3.1 – 68.1 months). In HFSRT, a median dose of 33 Gy in 11 Gy fractions was delivered to the 80% isodose line that encompassed the target volume. The median tumor volume was 1.07 cm3 (range: 0.11 – 16.64 cm3). The median follow-up time after HFSRT was 9.3 months (range: 1.7 – 33.6 months). Twenty-one of 23 lesions treated (91.3%) achieved local control while 2/23 (8.7%) progressed. Median time to progression outside of the treated site was 5.2 months (range: 2.2 – 9.6 months). Progression was treated with salvage chemotherapy. Five of 21 patients (23.8%) were alive at the end of this follow-up; two patients remain disease-free. The remaining 16/21 patients (76.2%) died of disease. Treatment was well tolerated by all patients with no acute CTC/RTOG > Grade 2. There was 0% incidence of RN. A prospective trial will be underway to validate these promising results. PMID:27096136

  12. Innovative Hypofractionated Stereotactic Regimen Achieves Excellent Local Control with No Radiation Necrosis: Promising Results in the Management of Patients with Small Recurrent Inoperable GBM.

    PubMed

    Jia, Angela; Pannullo, Susan C; Minkowitz, Shlomo; Taube, Shoshana; Chang, Jenghwa; Parashar, Bhupesh; Christos, Paul; Wernicke, A Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Management of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a challenge. Several institutions reported that a single fraction of ≥ 20 Gy for small tumor burden results in excellent local control; however, this is at the expense of a high incidence of radiation necrosis (RN). Therefore, we developed a hypofractionation pattern of 33 Gy/3 fractions, which is a radiobiological equivalent of 20 Gy, with the aim to lower the incidence of RN. We reviewed records of 21 patients with recurrent GBM treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HFSRT) to their 22 respective lesions. Sixty Gy fractioned external beam radiotherapy was performed as first-line treatment. Median time from primary irradiation to HFSRT was 9.6 months (range: 3.1 - 68.1 months). In HFSRT, a median dose of 33 Gy in 11 Gy fractions was delivered to the 80% isodose line that encompassed the target volume. The median tumor volume was 1.07 cm3 (range: 0.11 - 16.64 cm3). The median follow-up time after HFSRT was 9.3 months (range: 1.7 - 33.6 months). Twenty-one of 23 lesions treated (91.3%) achieved local control while 2/23 (8.7%) progressed. Median time to progression outside of the treated site was 5.2 months (range: 2.2 - 9.6 months). Progression was treated with salvage chemotherapy. Five of 21 patients (23.8%) were alive at the end of this follow-up; two patients remain disease-free. The remaining 16/21 patients (76.2%) died of disease. Treatment was well tolerated by all patients with no acute CTC/RTOG > Grade 2. There was 0% incidence of RN. A prospective trial will be underway to validate these promising results. PMID:27096136

  13. Working Together to Promote Diabetes Control: A Practical Guide for Diabetes Health Care Providers in Establishing a Working Alliance to Achieve Self-Management Support

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Allan; Vallis, Michael; Cooke, Debbie; Pouwer, François

    2016-01-01

    The quality of the “patient-carer” relationship is the foundation of self-management support and has been shown to influence treatment outcome in relation to psychological and somatic illness, including diabetes. It has long been accepted within applied psychology that the quality of the client-therapist relationship—termed the working alliance—is of central importance to treatment outcome and may account for a significant degree of the overall treatment effect. Diabetes healthcare providers have recently expressed a need for further training in communication techniques and in the psychological aspects of diabetes. Could we take a page from the psychological treatment manual on working alliance in therapy to guide the diabetes healthcare provider in their role of supporting the person with diabetes achieve and maintain better metabolic control? This paper examines the role of the working alliance in diabetes care and offers a practical guide to the diabetes healthcare provider in establishing a working alliance with the person with diabetes in managing diabetes. PMID:26682229

  14. Working Together to Promote Diabetes Control: A Practical Guide for Diabetes Health Care Providers in Establishing a Working Alliance to Achieve Self-Management Support.

    PubMed

    Jones, Allan; Vallis, Michael; Cooke, Debbie; Pouwer, François

    2016-01-01

    The quality of the "patient-carer" relationship is the foundation of self-management support and has been shown to influence treatment outcome in relation to psychological and somatic illness, including diabetes. It has long been accepted within applied psychology that the quality of the client-therapist relationship--termed the working alliance--is of central importance to treatment outcome and may account for a significant degree of the overall treatment effect. Diabetes healthcare providers have recently expressed a need for further training in communication techniques and in the psychological aspects of diabetes. Could we take a page from the psychological treatment manual on working alliance in therapy to guide the diabetes healthcare provider in their role of supporting the person with diabetes achieve and maintain better metabolic control? This paper examines the role of the working alliance in diabetes care and offers a practical guide to the diabetes healthcare provider in establishing a working alliance with the person with diabetes in managing diabetes. PMID:26682229

  15. Lags in Minority Achievement Defy Traditional Explanations. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This second in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist notes that standard explanations for why minority students trail behind non-Hispanic whites are not good enough, suggesting that no single explanation for the gap exists, but instead a multitude of factors are influential. Poverty, though not the single most important cause,…

  16. Methotrexate, Doxorubicin, and Cisplatin (MAP) Plus Maintenance Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2b Versus MAP Alone in Patients With Resectable High-Grade Osteosarcoma and Good Histologic Response to Preoperative MAP: First Results of the EURAMOS-1 Good Response Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bielack, Stefan S.; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Whelan, Jeremy S.; Marina, Neyssa; Jovic, Gordana; Hook, Jane M.; Krailo, Mark D.; Gebhardt, Mark; Pápai, Zsuzsanna; Meyer, James; Nadel, Helen; Randall, R. Lor; Deffenbaugh, Claudia; Nagarajan, Rajaram; Brennan, Bernadette; Letson, G. Douglas; Teot, Lisa A.; Goorin, Allen; Baumhoer, Daniel; Kager, Leo; Werner, Mathias; Lau, Ching C.; Sundby Hall, Kirsten; Gelderblom, Hans; Meyers, Paul; Gorlick, Richard; Windhager, Reinhard; Helmke, Knut; Eriksson, Mikael; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Schomberg, Paula; Tunn, Per-Ulf; Kühne, Thomas; Jürgens, Heribert; van den Berg, Henk; Böhling, Tom; Picton, Susan; Renard, Marleen; Reichardt, Peter; Gerss, Joachim; Butterfass-Bahloul, Trude; Morris, Carol; Hogendoorn, Pancras C.W.; Seddon, Beatrice; Calaminus, Gabriele; Michelagnoli, Maria; Dhooge, Catharina; Sydes, Matthew R.; Bernstein, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose EURAMOS-1, an international randomized controlled trial, investigated maintenance therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2b (IFN-α-2b) in patients whose osteosarcoma showed good histologic response (good response) to induction chemotherapy. Patients and Methods At diagnosis, patients age ≤ 40 years with resectable high-grade osteosarcoma were registered. Eligibility after surgery for good response random assignment included ≥ two cycles of preoperative MAP (methotrexate, doxorubicin, and cisplatin), macroscopically complete surgery of primary tumor, < 10% viable tumor, and no disease progression. These patients were randomly assigned to four additional cycles MAP with or without IFN-α-2b (0.5 to 1.0 μg/kg per week subcutaneously, after chemotherapy until 2 years postregistration). Outcome measures were event-free survival (EFS; primary) and overall survival and toxicity (secondary). Results Good response was reported in 1,041 of 2,260 registered patients; 716 consented to random assignment (MAP, n = 359; MAP plus IFN-α-2b, n = 357), with baseline characteristics balanced by arm. A total of 271 of 357 started IFN-α-2b; 105 stopped early, and 38 continued to receive treatment at data freeze. Refusal and toxicity were the main reasons for never starting IFN-α-2b and for stopping prematurely, respectively. Median IFN-α-2b duration, if started, was 67 weeks. A total of 133 of 268 patients who started IFN-α-2b and provided toxicity information reported grade ≥ 3 toxicity during IFN-α-2b treatment. With median follow-up of 44 months, 3-year EFS for all 716 randomly assigned patients was 76% (95% CI, 72% to 79%); 174 EFS events were reported (MAP, n = 93; MAP plus IFN-α-2b, n = 81). Hazard ratio was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.61 to 1.12; P = .214) from an adjusted Cox model. Conclusion At the preplanned analysis time, MAP plus IFN-α-2b was not statistically different from MAP alone. A considerable proportion of patients never started IFN-α-2b or stopped

  17. Automatic exposure control in multichannel CT with tube current modulation to achieve a constant level of image noise: Experimental assessment on pediatric phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Brisse, Herve J.; Madec, Ludovic; Gaboriaud, Genevieve; Lemoine, Thomas; Savignoni, Alexia; Neuenschwander, Sylvia; Aubert, Bernard; Rosenwald, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-15

    Automatic exposure control (AEC) systems have been developed by computed tomography (CT) manufacturers to improve the consistency of image quality among patients and to control the absorbed dose. Since a multichannel helical CT scan may easily increase individual radiation doses, this technical improvement is of special interest in children who are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation, but little information is currently available regarding the precise performance of these systems on small patients. Our objective was to assess an AEC system on pediatric dose phantoms by studying the impact of phantom transmission and acquisition parameters on tube current modulation, on the resulting absorbed dose and on image quality. We used a four-channel CT scan working with a patient-size and z-axis-based AEC system designed to achieve a constant noise within the reconstructed images by automatically adjusting the tube current during acquisition. The study was performed with six cylindrical poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) phantoms of variable diameters (10-32 cm) and one 5 years of age equivalent pediatric anthropomorphic phantom. After a single scan projection radiograph (SPR), helical acquisitions were performed and images were reconstructed with a standard convolution kernel. Tube current modulation was studied with variable SPR settings (tube angle, mA, kVp) and helical parameters (6-20 HU noise indices, 80-140 kVp tube potential, 0.8-4 s. tube rotation time, 5-20 mm x-ray beam thickness, 0.75-1.5 pitch, 1.25-10 mm image thickness, variable acquisition, and reconstruction fields of view). CT dose indices (CTDIvol) were measured, and the image quality criterion used was the standard deviation of the CT number measured in reconstructed images of PMMA material. Observed tube current levels were compared to the expected values from Brooks and Di Chiro's [R.A. Brooks and G.D. Chiro, Med. Phys. 3, 237-240 (1976)] model and calculated values (product of a reference value

  18. Medical records. Enhancing privacy, preserving the common good.

    PubMed

    Etzioni, A

    1999-01-01

    Personal medical information is now bought and sold on the open market. Companies use it to make hiring and firing decisions and to identify customers for new products. The justification for providing such access to medical information is that doing so benefits the public by securing public safety, controlling costs, and supporting medical research. And individuals have supposedly consented to it. But we can achieve the common goods while better protecting privacy by making institutional changes in the way information is maintained and protected. PMID:10321335

  19. One of the Good Guys

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2010-10-01

    I was talking with some younger colleagues at a meeting last month when the subject of career goals came up. These colleagues were successful in that they had recently received tenure at top research universities and had some grants and good students. Thus, the early career pressure to simply survive was gone. So now what motivated them? Solving challenging and significant scientific problems was at the top of their lists. Interestingly, they were also motivated by a desire to become one of the “good guys” in science. The fact that being an important contributor to the scientific community can be fulfilling should not come as a surprise to anyone. However, what I do consider surprising is how rarely this seems to be discussed with students and postdocs. What we do discuss are either those issues that are fundamental aspects of the job (get a grant, get tenure, do research in an important field) or those that are important to our institutions. Knowing how to do our jobs well is indeed essential for any kind of professional success. However, achieving the right balance in our ambitions is also important for our happiness.

  20. Academic Buoyancy, Student's Achievement, and the Linking Role of Control: A Cross-Lagged Analysis of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collie, Rebecca J.; Martin, Andrew J.; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Hall, James; Ginns, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous research has indicated that although academic buoyancy and student's achievement are associated, the relationship is relatively modest. Aims: We sought to determine whether another construct might link academic buoyancy and student's achievement. Based on prior theoretical and empirical work, we examined a sense of…

  1. Adaptive and Effortful Control and Academic Self-Efficacy Beliefs on Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of 1st through 3rd Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; McTigue, Erin M.; Barrois, Lisa; Hughes, Jan N.

    2008-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across 3 years in 733 children beginning at 1st grade (M = 6.57 years, S.D. = 0.39 at 1st grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from 1 year prior) and for influences of child's age, gender, IQ, ethnicity and…

  2. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  3. Image-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy: preliminary outcomes and toxicity of a joint interventional radiology and radiation oncology technique for achieving local control in challenging cases

    PubMed Central

    Kishan, Amar U.; Lee, Edward W.; McWilliams, Justin; Lu, David; Genshaft, Scott; Motamedi, Kambiz; Demanes, D. Jeffrey; Park, Sang June; Hagio, Mary Ann; Wang, Pin-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the ability of image-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy (IG-HDR) to provide local control (LC) of lesions in non-traditional locations for patients with heavily pre-treated malignancies. Material and methods This retrospective series included 18 patients treated between 2012 and 2014 with IG-HDR, either in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT; n = 9) or as monotherapy (n = 9). Lesions were located in the pelvis (n = 5), extremity (n = 2), abdomen/retroperitoneum (n = 9), and head/neck (n = 2). All cases were performed in conjunction between interventional radiology and radiation oncology. Toxicity was graded based on CTCAE v4.0 and local failure was determined by RECIST criteria. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed for LC and overall survival. Results The median follow-up was 11.9 months. Two patients had localized disease at presentation; the remainder had recurrent and/or metastatic disease. Seven patients had prior EBRT, with a median equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) of 47.0 Gy. The median total EQD2s were 34 Gy and 60.9 Gy for patients treated with monotherapy or combination therapy, respectively. Image-guided high-dose rate brachytherapy was delivered in one to six fractions. Six patients had local failures at a median interval of 5.27 months with a one-year LC rate of 59.3% and a one-year overall survival of 40.7%. Six patients died from their disease at a median interval of 6.85 months from the end of treatment. There were no grade ≥ 3 acute toxicities but two patients had serious long term toxicities. Conclusions We demonstrate a good one year LC rate of nearly 60%, and a favorable toxicity profile when utilizing IG-HDR to deliver high doses of radiation with high precision into targets not readily accessible by other forms of local therapy. These preliminary results suggest that further studies utilizing this approach may be considered for patients with difficult to access lesions that require LC. PMID:26622237

  4. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  5. Good Clinical Practice Training

    PubMed Central

    Arango, Jaime; Chuck, Tina; Ellenberg, Susan S.; Foltz, Bridget; Gorman, Colleen; Hinrichs, Heidi; McHale, Susan; Merchant, Kunal; Shapley, Stephanie; Wild, Gretchen

    2016-01-01

    Good Clinical Practice (GCP) is an international standard for the design, conduct, performance, monitoring, auditing, recording, analyses, and reporting of clinical trials. The goal of GCP is to ensure the protection of the rights, integrity, and confidentiality of clinical trial participants and to ensure the credibility and accuracy of data and reported results. In the United States, trial sponsors generally require investigators to complete GCP training prior to participating in each clinical trial to foster GCP and as a method to meet regulatory expectations (ie, sponsor’s responsibility to select qualified investigators per 21 CFR 312.50 and 312.53(a) for drugs and biologics and 21 CFR 812.40 and 812.43(a) for medical devices). This training requirement is often extended to investigative site staff, as deemed relevant by the sponsor, institution, or investigator. Those who participate in multiple clinical trials are often required by sponsors to complete repeated GCP training, which is unnecessarily burdensome. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative convened a multidisciplinary project team involving partners from academia, industry, other researchers and research staff, and government to develop recommendations for streamlining current GCP training practices. Recommendations drafted by the project team, including the minimum key training elements, frequency, format, and evidence of training completion, were presented to a broad group of experts to foster discussion of the current issues and to seek consensus on proposed solutions. PMID:27390628

  6. Eggs: good or bad?

    PubMed

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes. PMID:27126575

  7. [LDL cholesterol control in patients with very high cardiovascular risk. A simplified algorithm for achieving LDL cholesterol goals "in two steps"].

    PubMed

    Guijarro-Herraiz, Carlos; Masana-Marin, Luis; Galve, Enrique; Cordero-Fort, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Reducing low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) is the main lipid goal of treatment for patients with very high cardiovascular risk. In these patients the therapeutic goal is to achieve a LDL-c lower than 70 mg/dL, as recommended by the guidelines for cardiovascular prevention commonly used in Spain and Europe. However, the degree of achieving these objectives in this group of patients is very low. This article describes the prevalence of the problem and the causes that motivate it. Recommendations and tools that can facilitate the design of an optimal treatment strategy for achieving the goals are also given. In addition, a new tool with a simple algorithm that can allow these very high risk patients to achieve the goals "in two-steps", i.e., with only two doctor check-ups, is presented. PMID:25048471

  8. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  9. Making good connections.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Suggestions are made on how best to integrate sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening and education within family planning (FP) programs in the UK. FP programs are in a good position to advise about HIV infections and STDs because most clients are in a vulnerable age group (women aged 15-50 years) and because health personnel are experienced in discussing sexual issues. When FP clinics do not provide STD services, the options are to collaborate on joint referral and training efforts with STD clinics and to train staff to recognize and talk about STDs. Information about STDs can be clearly displayed in the clinics. Health personnel can talk about STD transmission to clients, explain the role of condoms in infection prevention, and demonstrate how to use condoms properly. Examples are given of integrated HIV and STD and FP programs in the US, Gambia, Zambia, and Mexico. In the US, Planned Parenthood of New York City trains staff in prevention and counseling skills and supervises staff until a level of comfort is reached. HIV and AIDS education and risk assessment are part of the initial and annual follow-up visits. The Gambia FP Association helps staff learn to counsel clients about the problems with sexual satisfaction between men and women and with communication between partners, impotence, painful intercourse from female circumcision, STDs and AIDS, infertility, and contraceptive side effects. In Zambia, a women's organization helps women prepare educational skits on condom use for males and helps women learn to talk with spouses about condom use without suffering rejection or charges of infidelity. The Ghana Planned Parenthood Association has a Daddy's Club where men learn about HIV and safe sex with condoms and meet for private counseling. Mexfam in Mexico educates for female farm laborers on sex education, FP, reproductive health and pregnancy, child health, water and sanitation, and energy-saving methods. PMID:12287338

  10. Nutrition, Diet, and Weight Control for Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Kathy

    1980-01-01

    Athletes can achieve their full potential and develop good eating habits for the future through proper diet and weight control. The basics of nutrition are as important as the basic skills of the sports in which athletes participate. (CJ)

  11. WWC Review of the Report "Learning the Control of Variables Strategy in Higher and Lower Achieving Classrooms: Contributions of Explicit Instruction and Experimentation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study reviewed in this paper examined three separate methods for teaching the "control of variables strategy" ("CVS"), a procedure for conducting a science experiment so that only one variable is tested and all others are held constant, or "controlled." The study analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial of 848 fourth-grade students in…

  12. METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR ASSESSING AIR POLLUTION CONTROL BENEFITS. VOLUME II. EXPERIMENTS IN VALUING NON-MARKET GOODS: A CASE STUDY OF ALTERNATIVE BENEFIT MEASURES OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume includes the empirical results obtained from two experiments to measure the health and aesthetic benefits of air pollution control. Each experiment involved the same six neighborhood pairs, where the pairings were made on the basis of similarities in housing character...

  13. Competition in Healthcare: Good, Bad or Ugly?

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The role of competition in healthcare is much debated. Despite a wealth of international experience in relation to competition, evidence is mixed and contested and the debate about the potential role for competition is often polarised. This paper considers briefly some of the reasons for this, focusing on what is meant by "competition in healthcare" and why it is more valuable to think about the circumstances in which competition is more and less likely to be a good tool to achieve benefits, rather than whether or not it is "good" or "bad," per se.M PMID:26340484

  14. Challenges facing the elimination of sleeping sickness in west and central Africa: sustainable control of animal trypanosomiasis as an indispensable approach to achieve the goal.

    PubMed

    Simo, Gustave; Rayaisse, Jean Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    African trypanosomiases are infectious diseases caused by trypanosomes. African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) remains an important threat for livestock production in some affected areas whereas human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is targeted for elimination in 2020. In West and Central Africa, it has been shown that the parasites causing these diseases can coexist in the same tsetse fly or the same animal. In such complex settings, the control of these diseases must be put in the general context of trypanosomiasis control or "one health" concept where the coordination of control operations will be beneficial for both diseases. In this context, implementing control activities on AAT will help to sustain HAT control. It will also have a positive impact on animal health and economic development of the regions. The training of inhabitants on how to implement and sustain vector control tools will enable a long-term sustainability of control operations that will lead to the elimination of HAT and AAT. PMID:26671582

  15. Using Learner Controlled Progress-Based Rewards to Promote Motivation and Achievement of At-Risk Students in Managed Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Carlton A.

    2011-01-01

    Technology enhancements of the past two decades have not successfully overcome the problem of low motivation in Kindergarten through Grade 12 (K-12). Motivation and math achievement have been identified as major factors contributing to the high school dropout problem (30-50% in traditional/online programs). The impact of extrinsic rewards on…

  16. The Relationship of Intelligence, Self-Concept and Locus of Control to School Achievement for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Marilyn M.; Parker, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    To examine variables related to the school achievement of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students, 35 indigenous students and 58 non-Aboriginals in grade 8 completed a Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Intellectual Responsibility Questionnaire. (Author/SBH)

  17. The Influence of Science Process Skills, Logical Thinking Abilities, Attitudes towards Science, and Locus of Control on Science Achievement among Form 4 Students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fah, Lay Yoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of science process skills, logical thinking abilities, attitudes towards science, and locus of control on science achievement among Form 4 students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia. Research findings showed that there were low to moderate, positive but significant…

  18. Impact of a Social-Emotional and Character Development Program on School-Level Indicators of Academic Achievement, Absenteeism, and Disciplinary Outcomes: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Frank; Flay, Brian; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster-randomized, controlled design. The "Positive Action" Hawai'i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (M…

  19. WWC Review of the Report "Closing the Achievement Gap through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the 2014 report, "Closing the Achievement Gap Through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten," researchers examined the impacts of "Tools of the Mind" on cognitive and academic…

  20. Straight Talk For Good Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Straight Talk For Good Health Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents ... one of the most important aspects of getting good care. Make a List To Find Out More ...

  1. Good Health For the Holidays!

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Good Health For the Holidays! Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... medical and health question. Healthy families know that good medical information should be a part of everyone's ...

  2. Working Memory as a Predictor of Reading Achievement in Orally Educated Hearing-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneman, Meredyth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study found that three measures of working memory capacity (processing and storage capacity, reading and listening span, and visual shape span) were good predictors of reading achievement in 30 orally educated children (ages 5 to 14) with hearing impairments as well as in an age-matched hearing control group. Degree of hearing loss did not…

  3. Tailoring mass drug administration to context: implementation research is critical in achieving equitable progress in the control and elimination of helminth neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Dean, Laura; Page, Samantha; Hawkins, Kate; Stothard, Russell; Thomson, Rachael; Wanji, Samuel; Gyapong, Margaret; Anagbogu, Ifeoma; Molyneux, David; Theobald, Sally

    2016-07-01

    The concept of a technological quick fix or 'magic-bullet' for control and elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) is flawed. NTDs are embedded within complex biological and social systems that are shaped by ecological and political contexts. This commentary emphasises the need for implementation research to address implementation gaps in the control of NTDs. With a specific focus on sub-Saharan Africa and helminth diseases amenable to preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration, we explore the important role of context, programme partnerships and community in achieving equitable and effective NTD control. PMID:27481833

  4. There's No Romance without Finance: "Good Management Begins with Good People"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicars, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Centers and schools go out of business not for lack of program or good intentions. They failed because they lacked the ability to plan, budget, and utilize resources appropriately. A center or school can achieve almost any goal it desires, as long as a well-conceived plan is created and followed to the end. Yes, sometimes variables occur which…

  5. Vertical Sextants give Good Sights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Mark

    Many texts stress the need for marine sextants to be held precisely vertical at the instant that the altitude of a heavenly body is measured. Several authors lay particular emphasis on the technique of the instrument in a small arc about the horizontal axis to obtain a good sight. Nobody, to the author's knowledge, however, has attempted to quantify the errors involved, so as to compare them with other errors inherent in determining celestial position lines. This paper sets out to address these issues and to pose the question: what level of accuracy of vertical alignment can reasonably be expected during marine sextant work at sea ?When a heavenly body is brought to tangency with the visible horizon it is particularly important to ensure that the sextant is held in a truly vertical position. To this end the instrument is rocked gently about the horizontal so that the image of the body describes a small arc in the observer's field of vision. As Bruce Bauer points out, tangency with the horizon must be achieved during the process of rocking and not a second or so after rocking has been discontinued. The altitude is recorded for the instant that the body kisses the visible horizon at the lowest point of the rocking arc, as in Fig. 2. The only other visual clue as to whether the sextant is vertical is provided by the right angle made by the vertical edge of the horizon glass mirror with the horizon. There may also be some input from the observer's sense of balance and his hand orientation.

  6. Achievement of the World Bank loan project on schistosomiasis control (1992-2000) in Hubei province and the challenge in the future.

    PubMed

    Changsong, Sun; Binggui, Yu; Hongyi, Liao; Yuhai, Dai; Xu, Xingjian; Huiguo, Zhu; Yong, Jiang

    2002-05-01

    Since the World Bank provided a loan for control of schistosomiasis in China, started from 1992, with the objective of a reduction of prevalence and intensity of the infection both in humans and animals by 40%, through mass chemotherapy in areas of high prevalence, and selective chemotherapy in areas with medium and low endemicity together with focal mollusciciding, the objective of morbidity control of the project has been reached in Hubei Province. PMID:12020889

  7. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  8. Research and Development Work Carried out by the Chair of Engineering Geodesy and Measurement and Control Systems, Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography WUT - Thematic Scope and Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Edward; Malarski, Ryszard; Prószyński, Witold; Sadowska, Alicja; Woźniak, Marek; Zaczek-Peplinska, Janina

    2016-06-01

    Geodetic engineering surveys are an important part of the works carried out by the Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw University of Technology. These works concern measurement techniques as well as advanced result analysis methods applied in precise industrial surveys and in processes controlling object's behaviour over time. The thematic scope of research realised by Chair of Engineering Geodesy and Control-Measuring Systems shows that article related to geodetic engineering measurements and geodetic monitoring is carried out with high intensity, resulting in technological advancement and implementation of new or improved measurement solutions and methods of measurement result development.

  9. Getting Good Board Members and Holding Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Nick

    Although serving on a school board is frequently a thankless and difficult task, good board members must be recruited, since the elected school board is a cornerstone of our representative form of government and is a central element of local control. A recent increase in board member turnover is assignable to the large amount of time it takes to…

  10. Quasi-experimental nonequivalent (pretest and posttest) control-group study of the effects of microcomputer-based laboratory systems on academic achievement in high school chemistry students at two South Carolina high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venables, Jeffrey M.

    The literature on microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) lacks quantitative studies that measure the effect of MBL on student achievement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of MBL systems on the achievement of high school chemistry students. The first research question examined the effect of MBL systems on student achievement in high school chemistry laboratories. The second question analyzed the effect of MBL systems on the academic achievement of students of different genders, ethnicities, and socioeconomic backgrounds. This quasi-experimental quantitative research study evaluated the effects of MBL on student achievement in high school chemistry. The sample consisted of 124 college preparatory chemistry students at two high schools in a South Carolina school district. There were 42 participants in the experimental group and 82 participants in the control group. Both experimental and groups completed a pre- and post-test with MBL being the independent variable. The mean difference score for the experimental group was compared to that of the control group using an independent-measures t test and an analysis of variance. For the second research question, results were analyzed using a two-factor analysis of variance. Participant scores were broken down by gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status in order to identify potential differences. The results revealed no significant differences between the experimental and control groups, and no significant differences in effects of MBL on different segments of the population. Future studies should examine students using MBL for longer durations than one unit of study. As society continues to make technological advances, the effective assessment and implementation of technology resources for the classroom are becoming increasingly important.

  11. Rapid Copper Metallization of Textile Materials: a Controlled Two-Step Route to Achieve User-Defined Patterns under Ambient Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang-Yuan; Guan, Guijian; Jiang, Shan; Guo, Hongchen; Xia, Jing; Regulacio, Michelle D; Wu, Mingda; Shah, Kwok Wei; Dong, Zhili; Zhang, Jie; Han, Ming-Yong

    2015-09-30

    Throughout history earth-abundant copper has been incorporated into textiles and it still caters to various needs in modern society. In this paper, we present a two-step copper metallization strategy to realize sequentially nondiffusive copper(II) patterning and rapid copper deposition on various textile materials, including cotton, polyester, nylon, and their mixtures. A new, cost-effective formulation is designed to minimize the copper pattern migration on textiles and to achieve user-defined copper patterns. The metallized copper is found to be very adhesive and stable against washing and oxidation. Furthermore, the copper-metallized textile exhibits excellent electrical conductivity that is ~3 times better than that of stainless steel and also inhibits the growth of bacteria effectively. This new copper metallization approach holds great promise as a commercially viable method to metallize an insulating textile, opening up research avenues for wearable electronics and functional garments. PMID:26361094

  12. Achievement of Low Emissions by Engine Modification to Utilize Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Advanced Emission Controls on a Class 8 Truck

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, T. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Barton, G.; Rumminger, M.; Duggal, V.; Nelson, C.; Ray, M.; Cherrillo, R. A.

    2005-11-01

    A 2002 Cummins ISM engine was modified to be optimized for operation on gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and advanced emission control devices. The engine modifications included increased exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), decreased compression ratio, and reshaped piston and bowl configuration.

  13. Effects of Learning Approaches, Locus of Control, Socio-Economic Status and Self-Efficacy on Academic Achievement: A Turkish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suphi, Nilgun; Yaratan, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effects of learning approaches, locus of control (LOC), socio-economic status and self-efficacy on undergraduate students in North Cyprus was investigated. Four questionnaires were administered on 99 students in order to collect data regarding the learning approaches, LOC, self-efficacy and demographic factors. High cumulative…

  14. Technical Problem Solving among 10-Year-Old Students as Related to Science Achievement, Out-of-School Experience, Domain-Specific Control Beliefs, and Attribution Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumert, Jurgen; Evans, Robert H.; Geiser, Helmut

    1998-01-01

    Ten-year-old students (n=531) from the U.S. and Germany were studied to determine the relationships between everyday experience, domain-specific control beliefs, acquisition of science knowledge, and solving of everyday technical problems. A causal model, developed and tested through structural equation modeling, showed that domain-specific…

  15. Scotopic sensitivity/Irlen syndrome and the use of coloured filters: a long-term placebo controlled and masked study of reading achievement and perception of ability.

    PubMed

    Robinson, G L; Foreman, P J

    1999-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of using coloured filters on reading speed, accuracy, and comprehension as well as on perception of academic ability. A double-masked, placebo-controlled crossover design was used, with subjects being assessed over a period of 20 mo. There were three treatment groups (Placebo filters, Blue filters, and Optimal filters) involving 113 subjects with "reading difficulties", ranging in age from 9.2 yr. to 13.1 yr. and with an average discrepancy between chronological age and reading age of 1.8 yr. The 35 controls (who did not use coloured filters) ranged in age from 9.4 yr. to 12.9 yr., with an average discrepancy between chronological age and reading age of 2.1 yr. The treatment groups increased at a significantly greater rate than the control group in reading accuracy and reading comprehension but not for speed of reading. For self-reported perception of academic ability, two of the three treatment groups showed significantly greater increases than the control group. The larger improvements for treatment groups in reading comprehension may be related to a reduction in print and background distortions allowing attention to be directed to the processing of continuous text rather than to the identification of individual words. A reduction in print distortion, however, may not be sufficient to generate improved word-identification skills without additional remedial support, and this may be indicated by the nonsignificant increase in rate of reading. PMID:10544403

  16. Examining the Motivational Impact of Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Goal Framing and Autonomy-Supportive Versus Internally Controlling Communication Style on Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Simons, Joke; Lens, Willy; Soenens, Bart; Matos, Lennia

    2005-01-01

    The present experimental research examined whether framing early adolescents' (11- to 12-year-olds) learning activity in terms of the attainment of an extrinsic (i.e., physical attractiveness) versus intrinsic (i.e., health) goal and communicating these different goal contents in an internally controlling versus autonomy-supportive way affect…

  17. Educating for Good Work: From Research to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucinskas, Daniel; Gardner, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Launched in 1995, the GoodWork Project is a long-term, multi-site effort to understand the nature of good work across the professional landscape and to promote its achievement by relevant groups of students and professionals. In this essay, the authors review the goals and methods of the initial research project and its most salient findings. They…

  18. Achievements and Challenges upon the Implementation of a Program for National Control of Congenital Chagas in Bolivia: Results 2004–2009

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Vega, Cristina; Billot, Claire; Torrico, Faustino

    2013-01-01

    Bolivia is one of the most endemic countries for Chagas disease. Data of 2005 shows that incidence is around 1.09‰ inhabitants and seroprevalence in children under 15 ranged from 10% in urban areas to 40% in rural areas. In this article, we report results obtained during the implementation of the congenital Chagas program, one of the biggest casuistry in congenital Chagas disease, led by National Program of Chagas and Belgian cooperation from 2004 to 2009. The program strategy was based on serological results during pregnancy and on the follow up of children born from positive mothers until one year old; if positive, treatment was done with Benznidazole, 10 mg/Kg/day/30 days with one post treatment control 6 months later. Throughout the length of the program, a total of 318,479 pregnant women were screened and 23.31% were detected positive. 42,538 children born from positive mothers were analyzed at birth by micromethod, of which 1.43% read positive. 10,120 children returned for their second micromethod control of which 2.29% read positive, 7,650 children returned for the serological control, of which 3.32% turned out positive. From the 1,093 positive children, 70% completed the 30 day-treatment and 122 returned for post treatment control with 96% showing a negative result. It has been seen that maternal-fetal transmission rates vary between 2% and 4%, with an average of 2.6% (about half of previously reported studies that reached 5%). In this work, we show that it is possible to implement, with limited resources, a National Congenital Chagas Program and to integrate it into the Bolivian health system. Keys of success are population awareness, health personnel motivation, and political commitment at all levels. PMID:23875039

  19. 8 CFR 274a.4 - Good faith defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Good faith defense. 274a.4 Section 274a.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.4 Good faith defense. An employer or a recruiter or referrer for a fee for employment who shows good...

  20. What Are Good Child Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Evans, V. Jeffery; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Roth, Jodie

    This paper considers the question "What are good child outcomes?" from the perspectives of developmental psychology, economics, and sociology. Section 1 of the paper examines good child outcomes as characteristics of stage-salient tasks of development. Section 2 emphasizes the acquisition of "human capital," the development of productive traits…

  1. Straight Talk for Good Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthcare Communication Straight Talk For Good Health Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents Straight talk with your healthcare provider is important. You and your medical team can then make better decisions for your good ...

  2. Enjoyment and the Good Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Cheryl; Henderson, Karla

    2003-01-01

    Presents information to update parks and recreation professionals about what recent research says in regard to enjoyment and the good life, noting what applications this research has for practitioners. The article focuses on: the good life and leisure services; happiness, subjective well-being, and intrinsic motivation; leisure, happiness, and…

  3. Memoir of "a good daughter".

    PubMed

    Brown, Carolyn T

    2013-01-01

    This short memoir reflects on the experience of a "good daughter" caring for both parents through their late aging and deaths. The memoir contemplates their personalities as expressed in their aging and the "good daughter's" experience in the death room. Those on a similar journey, whether as travelers, guides, or witnesses, may draw comfort, perhaps reassurance, from this account. PMID:23159687

  4. Two-dimensional cartography of equine beta-casein variants achieved by isolation of phosphorylation isoforms and control of the deamidation phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Matéos, A; Girardet, J-M; Mollé, D; Dary, A; Miclo, L; Gaillard, J-L

    2009-06-01

    Because of variable degrees of phosphorylation, alternative splicing, and probable instability resulting from nonenzymatic deamidation, equine beta-casein presents a complex pattern by 2-dimensional electrophoresis that needs clarification. beta-Casein prepared from Haflinger mare's milk by hydrophobic interaction chromatography was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography according to the degree of phosphorylation. Isoforms were identified by mass spectrometry; they corresponded to the full-length protein having 3 to 7 phosphate groups and to the splicing variant involving exon 5 and containing 4 to 7 phosphate groups. Investigations of nonenzymatic deamidation showed that beta-casein did not deamidate spontaneously in stored milk and during the different steps of chromatography, but deamidation could occur when 2-dimensional electrophoresis was performed, increasing the beta-casein pattern complexity. This phenomenon was strongly minimized when the first dimension step was carried out at 10 degrees C instead of at room temperature. Finally, spot attribution on 2-dimensional pattern of beta-casein was achieved by mixing each phosphorylation isoform in its native state with the whole beta-casein fraction. PMID:19447971

  5. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  6. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  7. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  8. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  9. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  10. Diffusion barriers for achieving controlled concentrations of luminescent dopants via diffusion for mask-less RGB color patterning of organic light emitting devices.

    PubMed

    Kajiyama, Yoshitaka; Kajiyama, Koichi; Aziz, Hany

    2015-11-30

    Using molecular diffusion as an approach to introduce organic luminescent dopants for making organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) of different colors on one substrate has the potential to overcome the yield and resolution limitations of the current OLED display technology. In this work, diffusion barriers made of MoO3 and a hole transport material mixture are introduced. The barriers effectively confine the diffusion of the dopants to only the desired depths. With the use of these barriers, OLEDs with highly controlled doping concentrations and performance are fabricated. The barriers thus allow utilizing simple diffusion methods for RGB patterning in OLEDs. PMID:26698710

  11. Learning-related skills and academic achievement in academically at-risk first graders

    PubMed Central

    Cerda, Carissa A.; Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N.

    2015-01-01

    Using an academically at-risk, ethnically diverse sample of 744 first-grade children, this study tested a multi-method (i.e., child performance measures, teacher ratings, and peer ratings) measurement model of learning-related skills (i.e., effortful control [EC], behavioral self-regulation [BSR], and social competence [SC]), and their shared and unique contributions to children's reading and math achievement, above the effect of demographic variables. The hypothesized correlated factor measurement model demonstrated relatively good fit, with BSR and SC correlated highly with one another and moderately with EC. When entered in separate regression equations, EC and BSR each predicted children's reading and math achievement; SC only predicted reading achievement. When considered simultaneously, neither EC, BSR, nor SC contributed independently to reading achievement; however, EC had a direct effect on math achievement and an indirect effect on reading achievement via both BSR and SC. Implications for research and early intervention efforts are discussed. PMID:25908886

  12. Catalytic Scanning Probe Nanolithography (cSPL): Control of the AFM Parameters in Order to Achieve Sub-100-nm Spatially Resolved Epoxidation of Alkenes Grafted onto a Surface.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Vincent; Botton, Julien; Valyaev, Dmitry A; François, Cyril; Patrone, Lionel; Balaban, Teodor Silviu; Abel, Mathieu; Parrain, Jean-Luc; Chuzel, Olivier; Clair, Sylvain

    2016-04-26

    Scanning probe lithography (SPL) appears to be a reliable alternative to the use of masks in traditional lithography techniques as it offers the possibility of directly producing specific chemical functionalities with nanoscale spatial control. We have recently extend the range of applications of catalytic SPL (cSPL) by introducing a homogeneous catalyst immobilized on the apex of a scanning probe. Here we investigate the importance of atomic force microscopy (AFM) physical parameters (applied force, writing speed, and interline distance) on the resultant chemical activity in this cSPL methodology through the direct topographic observation of nanostructured surfaces. Indeed, an alkene-terminated self-assembled monolayer (alkene-SAM) on a silicon wafer was locally epoxidized using a scanning probe tip with a covalently grafted manganese complex bearing the 1,4,7-triazacyclononane macrocycle as the ligand. In a post-transformation process, N-octylpiperazine was covalently grafted to the surface via a selective nucleophilic ring-opening reaction. With this procedure, we could write various patterns on the surface with high spatial control. The catalytic AFM probe thus appears to be very robust because a total area close to 500 μm(2) was patterned without any noticeable loss of catalytic activity. Finally, this methodology allowed us to reach a lower lateral line resolution down to 40 nm, thus being competitive and complementary to the other nanolithographical techniques for the nanostructuration of surfaces. PMID:27027411

  13. School Readiness and Later Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Claessens, Amy; Magnuson, Katherine; Huston, Aletha C.; Klebanov, Pamela; Pagani, Linda S.; Feinstein, Leon; Engel, Mimi; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Sexton, Holly; Duckworth, Kathryn; Japel, Crista

    2007-01-01

    Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness--school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills--and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for…

  14. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  15. Good Law, Good Practice, Good Sense: Using Legal Guidelines for Drafting Educational Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogotch, Ira E.

    1988-01-01

    Suggests how to use legal guidelines for drafting educational policies. Analyzes the political context in which present policymaking and governance initiatives exist. Two assumptions frame this article. First, good law makes for good administrative practice. Second, administrator policymaking is more important than the content of the policy…

  16. Two syringe spinal anesthesia technique for cesarean section: A controlled randomized study of a simple way to achieve more satisfactory block and less hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Keera, Amr Aly Ismail; Elnabtity, Ali Mohamed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple trials have been tried to prevent hypotension during spinal anesthesia. However, the drug choice and mode of administration is still a matter of debate. Objectives: To compare the outcome of spinal injection of hyperbaric bupivacaine and fentanyl separately to standard injection of mixed fentanyl with hyperbaric bupivacaine. Settings and Design: A randomized, controlled clinical trial. Patients and Methods: One hundred twenty-four parturient scheduled for elective cesarean section were randomly allocated into two groups, each 62 parturient: Group M received spinal anesthesia using 10 mg bupivacaine 0.5% premixed with 25 μg fentanyl in the same syringe and Group S received 25 μg fentanyl in one syringe and 10 mg bupivacaine 0.5% without barbotage in a second syringe. Results: Patients with intraoperative pain that was controllable without the need for a shift to general anesthesia was significantly lower in Group S (3.2%) than in Group M (16.1%). The frequency of hypotension was significantly lower in Group S compared to Group M (P < 0.05). Time till the onset of sensory block was nonsignificantly shorter with nonsignificantly higher mean level of maximal sensory block in Group S compared to Group M (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the time till occurrence of hypotension, duration of hypotension, mean dose of ephedrine used for the treatment of hypotension and frequency of patients developed itching between the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Separate intrathecal injection of fentanyl and hyperbaric bupivacaine provided a significant improvement in the quality of sensory block and significant reduction of the frequency of hypotension compared to injection of mixed medications. PMID:27212767

  17. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  18. Organic-inorganic composite nanocoatings with superhydrophobicity, good transparency, and thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian Feng; Wang, Jian Nong; Sanderson, Kevin D

    2010-04-27

    Superhydrophobic, highly transparent, and stable organic-inorganic composite nanocoating is successfully prepared by a simple sol-gel dip-coating method. This method involves control of the aggregation of inorganic colloid particles by polymerization and ultrasonic vibration to create the desired micro/nanostructure in the coating. Superhydrophobicity and transparency of the coating can be controlled by adjusting the initial concentration of monomer and the size of aggregates in the sol-gel. Thus, superhydrophobicity and high transparency can be concurrently achieved in a single coating. The prepared coating also possesses good thermal stability. Its superhydrophobicity can be maintained from 20 to 90 degrees C. PMID:20302323

  19. What makes a life good?

    PubMed

    King, L A; Napa, C K

    1998-07-01

    Two studies examined folk concepts of the good life. Samples of college students (N = 104) and community adults (N = 264) were shown a career survey ostensibly completed by a person rating his or her occupation. After reading the survey, participants judged the desirability and moral goodness of the respondent's life, as a function of the amount of happiness, meaning in life, and wealth experienced. Results revealed significant effects of happiness and meaning on ratings of desirability and moral goodness. In the college sample, individuals high on all 3 independent variables were judged as likely to go to heaven. In the adult sample, wealth was also related to higher desirability. Results suggest a general perception that meaning in life and happiness are essential to the folk concept of the good life, whereas money is relatively unimportant. PMID:9686456

  20. Good Practices for Hood Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikell, William G.; Drinkard, William C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes safety practices for laboratory fume hoods based on certain assumptions of hood design and performance. Also discusses the procedures in preparing to work at a hood. A checklist of good hood practices is included. (JM)

  1. Good News About Childhood Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Good News About Childhood Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... 85 percent for the most common form of childhood cancer (acute lymphoblastic leukemia or ALL). During the ...

  2. Technical Excellence: A Requirement for Good Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, William W.

    2008-01-01

    Technical excellence is a requirement for good engineering. Technical excellence has many different ways of expressing itself within engineering. NASA has initiatives that address the enhancement of the Agency's technical excellence and thrust to maintain the associated high level of performance by the Agency on current programs/projects and as it moves into the Constellation Program and the return to the Moon with plans to visit Mars. This paper addresses some of the key initiatives associated with NASA's technical excellence thrust. Examples are provided to illustrate some results being achieved and plans to enhance these initiatives.

  3. Good Show by Today's Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, W. Kenneth

    1977-01-01

    Investigates whether today's students would score as well as students of the 1930-1950 era on achievement tests. Uses the Progressive Achievement Test, a test widely used in the 1930-1950 era as a barometer of student ability. (RK)

  4. The coarse pointing assembly for SILEX program or how to achieve outstanding pointing accuracy with simple hardware associated with consistent control laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buvat, Daniel; Muller, Gerard; Peyrot, Patrick

    1991-06-01

    Attention is given to the coarse pointing assembly (CPA) for the SILEX program, designed on the basis of 10 years of MATRA experience in very accurate drive mechanisms successfully conducted by the SPOT 1 and 2 flights as well as EURECA IOC. The basic key design feature of the mechanism is a 1200-step stepper motor driven in microstepping with harmonic defects compensation. This allows very low torque noise associated with a high accuracy (0.01 deg). The direct drive principle avoids backlash and permits a linear control of the output shaft of each drive. The only parts susceptible to possible wear are the ball bearings, which have a design margin of greater than 1000 for 10 yr of service life. In order to meet the dynamic performances required by SILEX, a closed loop active damping system is added to each drive unit. Two accelerometers used in a differential way sense the hinge microvibrations and an active damping loop reduces their Q factor down to a few dB. All CPA electrical parts (including motor, optical encoder, and accelerometer) are redundant to avoid single point of failure.

  5. Transforming the Patient Role to Achieve Better Outcomes Through a Patient Empowerment Program: A Randomized Wait-List Control Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Plaksin, Joseph; Zabar, Sondra; Wallach, Andrew; Sawicki, Chester; Kundrod, Sarita; Kalet, Adina

    2016-01-01

    Background In the patient-centered medical home model of health care, both health care providers (HCPs) and patients must understand their respective roles and responsibilities, view the other as a partner, and use communication skills that promote shared decision making. This is particularly necessary in chronic conditions where outcomes depend on behavior change and in underserved populations where the burden of chronic disease is high. Objective The objectives of this study are to determine if a Patient Empowerment Program (PEP) (1) is acceptable to patients and feasible across multiple clinical sites; (2) will increase patient preference for control in medical decision making, improve patient perceptions of patient-HCP communication, and increase patient activation; (3) is associated with an increase in diabetes self-management behaviors; and (4) has an effect on hemoglobin A 1c(HbA 1c) level. Methods This study recruited English-speaking adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from three urban clinical sites in New York City and randomized them to an immediate intervention group that completed the PEP intervention or a deferred intervention group that served as a wait-list control and completed the PEP intervention after 3-4 months. The PEP intervention consists of two facilitated small group sessions. Session 1 focuses on defining HCP and patient roles in the medical encounter by introducing ideal communication behaviors in each role and by providing both positive and negative examples of patient-HCP encounters. Session 2 focuses on practicing communication skills by role-playing with actors who serve as standardized health care providers. After the role play, participants set goals for their own health care and for future interactions with their HCPs. Outcome measures include the Patient Activation Measure; Ask, Understand, Remember Assessment; Krantz Health Opinion Survey; SF-12v2 Health Survey; Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire; and HbA 1c. These

  6. Fatty acid as structure directing agent for controlled secondary growth of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles to achieve mesoscale assemblies: A facile approach for developing hierarchical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, K.; Kaushik, S. D.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Deb, P.

    2016-08-01

    Mesoscale hierarchical assemblies have emerged out as a new class of structures between fine dimension nanoparticles and bulk structures, having distinctly different physical properties from either side. Controlling the self-assembly process of primary nanoparticles and subsequent secondary growth mechanism is the key aspect for achieving such ordered structures. In this work, we introduce a new insight on achieving hierarchical assemblies of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles based on the temporal stability of the primary nanoparticles, where, the growth and stability of the primary particles are controlled by using oleic acid. It is found that the developed particles, at a critical concentration of oleic acid, prefer a secondary growth process, rather than promoting their individual growth. Domination of the attractive hydrophobic interaction over steric repulsion among the primary particles at this critical concentration of oleic acid is found to be the key factor for the initial aggregation of the primary particles, which eventually leads to the formation of spherical hierarchical assemblies via oriented attachment. It is also realized that the extremely well or poor stability conditions of the primary particles do not allow this secondary growth process. Estimated values of Co2+ distribution factor show that the cation distribution factor of CoFe2O4 system is not affected by the nature of dominant growth processes, when these are controlled. Interestingly, magnetic measurements reflect the stronger interparticle interaction in the hierarchical system and high magnetic moment values at low magnetic field.

  7. A Pretty Good Paper about Pretty Good Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Roy

    With today's growth in the use of electronic information systems for e-mail, data development and research, and the relative ease of access to such resources, protecting one's data and correspondence has become a great concern. "Pretty Good Privacy" (PGP), an encryption program developed by Phil Zimmermann, may be the software tool that will…

  8. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  9. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  10. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  11. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  12. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  13. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  7. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  8. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  9. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  12. Spanking: More Harm Than Good?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the more they are spanked. They have lower cognitive ability, scoring lower on achievement tests." Another child ... the April issue of the Journal of Family Psychology . SOURCES: Elizabeth Gershoff, Ph.D., developmental psychologist and ...

  13. Energy efficiency in hospitals by good housekeeping.

    PubMed

    1994-10-01

    In 1987 Somerset HA embarked upon a programme aimes at reducing its annual energy bill of 2.1 million pounds by 25% over a five year period whilst maintaining or improving on the standards of service and comfort required by the Department of Health. The target savings were to be achieved by the combination of good housekeeping measures and a parallel programme of capital investment in energy cost reduction projects. This Case Study briefly describes the good housekeeping elements of the programme. A later Case Study will cover energy savings arising from estate rationalisation. Initially, a policy statement set out the saving objectives and the methods to be used to achieve them. An Energy Management Group was set up for each of the three Units, consisting of members of the Unit Management team and chaired by the Unit General Manager. Energy "Monitors", appointed from existing staff in each department, were given the task of maintaining a watch on the day-to-day use of energy using equipment and identifying opportunities for savings. PMID:10137346

  14. An apparent contradiction: increasing variability to achieve greater precision?

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Noah J; Hurt, Christopher P; Latash, Mark L; Grabiner, Mark D

    2014-02-01

    To understand the relationship between variability of foot placement in the frontal plane and stability of gait patterns, we explored how constraining mediolateral foot placement during walking affects the structure of kinematic variance in the lower-limb configuration space during the swing phase of gait. Ten young subjects walked under three conditions: (1) unconstrained (normal walking), (2) constrained (walking overground with visual guides for foot placement to achieve the measured unconstrained step width) and, (3) beam (walking on elevated beams spaced to achieve the measured unconstrained step width). The uncontrolled manifold analysis of the joint configuration variance was used to quantify two variance components, one that did not affect the mediolateral trajectory of the foot in the frontal plane ("good variance") and one that affected this trajectory ("bad variance"). Based on recent studies, we hypothesized that across conditions (1) the index of the synergy stabilizing the mediolateral trajectory of the foot (the normalized difference between the "good variance" and "bad variance") would systematically increase and (2) the changes in the synergy index would be associated with a disproportionate increase in the "good variance." Both hypotheses were confirmed. We conclude that an increase in the "good variance" component of the joint configuration variance may be an effective method of ensuring high stability of gait patterns during conditions requiring increased control of foot placement, particularly if a postural threat is present. Ultimately, designing interventions that encourage a larger amount of "good variance" may be a promising method of improving stability of gait patterns in populations such as older adults and neurological patients. PMID:24162866

  15. Can healthcare go from good to great?

    PubMed

    Driver, Todd H; Wachter, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare's improvement efforts have focused on the point of care, targeting specific processes such as preventing central line infections, while paying relatively less attention to the larger issues of organizational structure and leadership. Interestingly, the business community has long recognized that poor management and structure can thwart improvement efforts. Perhaps the corporate world's best-known study of these issues is found in the book Good to Great, which identifies top-performing corporations, compares them to carefully selected organizations that failed to achieve similar levels of performance, and gleans lessons from these analyses. In this article, we analyze the feasibility of carefully applying Good to Great's methods for analyzing organizational structure and leadership to healthcare. While a few studies in healthcare have come close to emulating Good to Great's methodology, none have matched its rigor. These shortcomings highlight key information and measurement gaps that must be addressed to facilitate unbiased, rigorous studies of the organizational and leadership predictors of institutional excellence in healthcare. PMID:21997854

  16. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  17. Gender Play and Good Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Like good government, thoughtful care of children requires those in power, whether teachers or parents, to recognize when it is appropriate for them to step back from day-to-day decision-making while still working behind the scenes to ensure an organizational structure that supports the independence and equitable development of those they serve.…

  18. Is New Work Good Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Andy

    Some new work is good work. Quality is ultimately defined by the individual. However, these perceptions are inevitably colored by the circumstances in which people find themselves, by the time, place, and wide range of motivations for having to do a particular job in the first place. One person's quality may be another's purgatory and vice versa.…

  19. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen Van Quan; And Others

    This illustrated primer, designed for second grade students in Vietnam, consists of stories depicting rural family life in Vietnam. The book is divided into the following six chapters: (1) Practicing Good Habits (health, play, helpfulness); (2) Duties at Home (grandparents, father and mother, servants, the extended family; (3) Duties in School…

  20. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh Cong Tu; And Others

    This primer, intended for use during the child's first year in elementary school in Vietnam, relates the story of the daily lives of Hong, age 10, and her brother Lac, age 7, at home and at school. The 64 lessons are divided into four chapters: (1) Good Habits (personal hygiene, grooming, dressing, obedience, truthfulness); (2) At Home: Father and…

  1. Measuring Goodness of Story Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Karen; Coelho, Carl; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to evaluate a new measure of story narrative performance: story completeness. It was hypothesized that by combining organizational (story grammar) and completeness measures, story "goodness" could be quantified. Method: Discourse samples from 46 typically developing adults were compared with those from 24…

  2. "Good Morning Boys and Girls"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2005-01-01

    It happens every day across the nation: Teachers welcome their students to class by saying, "Good morning, boys and girls." It is one of countless ways teachers highlight gender with their speech and behavior. Unfortunately, teachers' use of gender to label students and organize the classroom can have negative consequences. New research in the…

  3. Everyone Loves a Good Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croxall, Kathy C.; Gubler, Rea R.

    2006-01-01

    Everyone loves a good story. Reading brings back pleasant memories of being read to by parents or others. Literacy is encouraged when students are continually exposed to stories and books. Teachers can encourage students to discover their parents' favorite stories and share them with the class. In this article, the authors recommend the use of…

  4. Metrics for Soft Goods Merchandising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in soft goods merchandising, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  5. Metrics for Hard Goods Merchandising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in hard goods merchandising, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  6. 9 + 1 = Fun! "Good Management Begins with Good People"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicars, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    All organizations are different in nature, culture, programs, and services. However, every truly successful enterprise ("successful" meaning their mission statement and strategic goals are followed and achieved) that the author has encountered: (1) Employs strategic leadership; (2) Is organized in a way to promote maximum individual staff…

  7. Closing the Achievement Gap through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Effective early education is essential for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, particularly for children in poverty. Advances in neuroscience suggest that a focus on self-regulation in education can enhance children’s engagement in learning and establish beneficial academic trajectories in the early elementary grades. Here, we experimentally evaluate an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten that embeds support for self-regulation, particularly executive functions, into literacy, mathematics, and science learning activities. Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children indicated positive effects on executive functions, reasoning ability, the control of attention, and levels of salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. Results also demonstrated improvements in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten that increased into the first grade. A number of effects were specific to high-poverty schools, suggesting that a focus on executive functions and associated aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education holds promise for closing the achievement gap. PMID:25389751

  8. Cooperation and the common good.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Rufus A; Rodrigues, António M M

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we draw the attention of biologists to a result from the economic literature, which suggests that when individuals are engaged in a communal activity of benefit to all, selection may favour cooperative sharing of resources even among non-relatives. Provided that group members all invest some resources in the public good, they should refrain from conflict over the division of these resources. The reason is that, given diminishing returns on investment in public and private goods, claiming (or ceding) a greater share of total resources only leads to the actor (or its competitors) investing more in the public good, such that the marginal costs and benefits of investment remain in balance. This cancels out any individual benefits of resource competition. We illustrate how this idea may be applied in the context of biparental care, using a sequential game in which parents first compete with one another over resources, and then choose how to allocate the resources they each obtain to care of their joint young (public good) versus their own survival and future reproductive success (private good). We show that when the two parents both invest in care to some extent, they should refrain from any conflict over the division of resources. The same effect can also support asymmetric outcomes in which one parent competes for resources and invests in care, whereas the other does not invest but refrains from competition. The fact that the caring parent gains higher fitness pay-offs at these equilibria suggests that abandoning a partner is not always to the latter's detriment, when the potential for resource competition is taken into account, but may instead be of benefit to the 'abandoned' mate. PMID:26729926

  9. Achieving indoor air quality through contaminant control

    SciTech Connect

    Katzel, J.

    1995-07-10

    Federal laws outlining industry`s responsibilities in creating a healthy, hazard-free workspace are well known. OSHA`s laws on interior air pollution establish threshold limit values (TLVs) and permissible exposure limits (PELs) for more than 500 potentially hazardous substances found in manufacturing operations. Until now, OSHA has promulgated regulations only for the manufacturing environment. However, its recently-proposed indoor air quality (IAQ) ruling, if implemented, will apply to all workspaces. It regulates IAQ, including environmental tobacco smoke, and requires employers to write and implement IAQ compliance plans.

  10. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  11. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  12. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  13. Going GLP: Conducting Toxicology Studies in Compliance with Good Laboratory Practices.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Erica Eggers

    2016-01-01

    Good laboratory practice standards are US federal regulations enacted as part of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (40 CFR Part 160), the Toxic Substance Control Act (40 CFR Part 792), and the Good Laboratory Practice for Nonclinical Laboratory Studies (21 CFR Part 58) to support protection of public health in the areas of pesticides, chemicals, and drug investigations in response to allegations of inaccurate data acquisition. Essentially, good laboratory practices (GLPs) are a system of management controls for nonclinical research studies involving animals to ensure the uniformity, consistency, reliability, reproducibility, quality, and integrity of data collected as part of chemical (including pharmaceuticals) tests, from in vitro through acute to chronic toxicity tests. The GLPs were established in the United States in 1978 as a result of the Industrial Bio-Test Laboratory scandal which led to congressional hearings and actions to prevent fraudulent data reporting and collection. Although the establishment of infrastructure for GLPs compliance is labor-intensive and time-consuming, achievement and maintenance of GLP compliance ensures the accuracy of the data collected from each study, which is critical for defending results, advancing science, and protecting human and animal health. This article describes how and why those in the US Army Medical Department responsible for protecting the public health of US Army and other military personnel made the policy decision to have its toxicology laboratory achieve complete compliance with GLP standards, the first such among US Army laboratories. The challenges faced and how they were overcome are detailed. PMID:27613211

  14. Editorial: A Note on Good Research Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2013-07-01

    Good scientific practice and research misconduct have been concerns of mine for more than a decade (Dooley and Kerch, 2000) and in my role as an editor of the International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, I feel it is time to speak up and at the very least share my concerns and suggestions as they relate to the integrity of the research published in this journal. Rather than wait to write an editorial on good research practices in response to a major incident, I thought it might be best to be proactive and address some of the trends we see in submissions to this peer reviewed journal and to offer some suggestions for improvement improving the level of scholarship in some – but by no means all – of the papers submitted.

  15. Health promotion: awarding good practice.

    PubMed

    Davison, Heather; Griffiths, John

    2010-05-01

    Dr Heather Davison, Director of Development at the Royal Society for Public Health (RSPH), and John Griffiths, Programme Manager for the Health-Promoting Workforce, provide an overview of the RSPH's Health-Promoting Organization Awards--highlighting the achievements of the 2009 winners while learning for the future. PMID:20642127

  16. Are Standards Preventing Good Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berube, Clair T.

    2004-01-01

    The National Standards movement seeks to raise the quality of the American educational system. According to one of its chief architects, Diane Ravitch (2000), national standards give clear expectations for students, teachers, parents, colleges, and employers that will result in improved student achievement. Forty-nine of the fifty states (save…

  17. Switch for Good Community Program

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Tabitha; Amran, Martha

    2013-11-19

    Switch4Good is an energy-savings program that helps residents reduce consumption from behavior changes; it was co-developed by Balfour Beatty Military Housing Management (BB) and WattzOn in Phase I of this grant. The program was offered at 11 Navy bases. Three customer engagement strategies were evaluated, and it was found that Digital Nudges (a combination of monthly consumption statements with frequent messaging via text or email) was most cost-effective.

  18. Health physics manual of good practices for plutonium facilities. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Heid, K.R.; Herrington, W.N.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Munson, L.F.; Munson, L.H.; Selby, J.M.; Soldat, K.L.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Traub, R.J.

    1988-05-01

    This manual consists of six sections: Properties of Plutonium, Siting of Plutonium Facilities, Facility Design, Radiation Protection, Emergency Preparedness, and Decontamination and Decommissioning. While not the final authority, the manual is an assemblage of information, rules of thumb, regulations, and good practices to assist those who are intimately involved in plutonium operations. An in-depth understanding of the nuclear, physical, chemical, and biological properties of plutonium is important in establishing a viable radiation protection and control program at a plutonium facility. These properties of plutonium provide the basis and perspective necessary for appreciating the quality of control needed in handling and processing the material. Guidance in selecting the location of a new plutonium facility may not be directly useful to most readers. However, it provides a perspective for the development and implementation of the environmental surveillance program and the in-plant controls required to ensure that the facility is and remains a good neighbor. The criteria, guidance, and good practices for the design of a plutonium facility are also applicable to the operation and modification of existing facilities. The design activity provides many opportunities for implementation of features to promote more effective protection and control. The application of ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) principles and optimization analyses are generally most cost-effective during the design phase. 335 refs., 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  19. Does School Size Have Any Relationship to Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett D.; Martellaro, Helena C.

    1990-01-01

    Examines relationship between school size and achievement. Correlates size and achievement factors, controlling for correlated variables. Finds no relationship between enrollment and achievement levels. Links academic achievement to percentages of Title I and ethnic students. Suggests academic achievement related to socioeconomic factors and…

  20. 8 CFR 274a.4 - Good faith defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Good faith defense. 274a.4 Section 274a.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.4 Good faith defense. An employer or a recruiter or referrer for...

  1. 8 CFR 274a.4 - Good faith defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Good faith defense. 274a.4 Section 274a.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.4 Good faith defense. An employer or a recruiter or referrer for...

  2. 8 CFR 274a.4 - Good faith defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Good faith defense. 274a.4 Section 274a.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.4 Good faith defense. An employer or a recruiter or referrer for...

  3. 8 CFR 274a.4 - Good faith defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good faith defense. 274a.4 Section 274a.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.4 Good faith defense. An employer or a recruiter or referrer for...

  4. The good body: when big is better.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, C M

    1991-09-01

    An important cultural question is, "What is a 'good'--desirable, beautiful, impressive--body?" The answers are legion; here I examine why bigger bodies represent survival skill, and how this power symbolism is embodied by behaviors that guide larger persons toward the top of the social hierarchy. bigness is a complex concept comprising tallness, boniness, muscularity and fattiness. Data show that most people worldwide want to be big--both tall and fat. Those who achieve the ideal are disproportionately among the society's most socially powerful. In the food-secure West, fascination with power and the body has not waned, but has been redefined such that thinness is desired. This apparent anomaly is resolved by realizing that thinness in the midst of abundance--as long as one is also tall and muscular--still projects the traditional message of power, and brings such social boons as upward mobility. PMID:1961102

  5. Finding Good Elements for Focused Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Carolyn J.; Crouch, Donald B.; Bapat, Salil; Mehta, Sarika; Paranjape, Darshan

    This paper describes the integration of our methodology for the dynamic retrieval of XML elements [2] with traditional article retrieval to facilitate the Focused and the Relevant-in-Context Tasks of the INEX 2008 Ad Hoc Track. The particular problems that arise for dynamic element retrieval in working with text containing both tagged and untagged elements have been solved [3]. The current challenge involves utilizing its ability to produce a rank-ordered list of elements in the context of focused retrieval. Our system is based on the Vector Space Model [8]; basic functions are performed using the Smart experimental retrieval system [7]. Experimental results are reported for the Focused, Relevant-in-Context, and Best-in-Context Tasks of both the 2007 and 2008 INEX Ad Hoc Tracks. These results indicate that the goal of our 2008 investigations—namely, finding good focused elements in the context of the Wikipedia collection-has been achieved.

  6. SETI: A good introductory physics topic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    1997-04-01

    If America is to achieve the science literacy that is essential to industrialized democracy, all students must study such topics as scientific methodology, pseudoscience, ozone depletion, and global warming. My large-enrollment liberal-arts physics course covers the great principles of physics along with several such philosophical and societal topics. It is easy to include the interdisciplinary context of physics in courses for non-scientists, because these courses are flexible, conceptual, and taught to students whose interests span a broad range. Students find these topics relevant and fascinating, leading to large enrollments by non-scientists even in courses labeled ''physics.'' I will discuss my approach to teaching the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI), a topic with lots of good physics and with connections to scientific methodology and pseudoscience. A textbook for this kind of course has been published, Physics: Concepts and Connections (Prentice-Hall, 1995).

  7. Beneficence: doing good for others.

    PubMed

    Gillon, R

    1985-07-01

    Gillon's essay on beneficence is one in a series of British Medical Journal articles on philosophical medical ethics. The duty of beneficence, or doing good for others, figures more prominently in medicine than in most other professions. As important as beneficence is in the physician patient relationship, however, it must be tempered by respect for the patient's autonomy; by the duty of nonmaleficence, or of doing no harm; and by a concern for justice, especially in the allocation of scarce medical resources. PMID:3926060

  8. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  9. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  10. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  11. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  12. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  13. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  14. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  15. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  16. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  17. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  18. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  19. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  20. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  1. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  2. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  3. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  4. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  5. Motivation and Achievement: A Quantitative Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret E.; Walberg, Herbert J.

    Using analysis of variance and regression techniques, the authors analyzed the results of 40 studies that were conducted between 1953 and 1976 and contained 232 correlations between various measures of motivation and achievement. The motivation variables were restricted to students' achievement motivation, locus-of-control perceptions, and general…

  6. Affirmative Action: Essential to Achieving Justice and Good Health Care for All in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinkford, Jeanne C.; Valachovic, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the position of the American Dental Education Association regarding affirmative action, namely, that affirmative action represents the United States' longstanding principled and constitutional commitment to equal opportunity for all citizens. (EV)

  7. Affirmative action: essential to achieving justice and good health care for all in America.

    PubMed

    Sinkford, Jeanne C; Valachovic, Richard W

    2003-04-01

    Affirmative action is an established principle that brings fairness and justice to admissions policies and practices by setting goals that encourage and pressure institutions and individuals to create educational and professional opportunities for minorities and women, if it were not for affirmative action, we would waste the talents of countless individuals who would be discounted because they are minorities or women. The result would be a nation that is weaker because it would be segregated once again in a system in which white people and men would have the preponderance of opportunity and authority and in which access would be very limited for minorities and women. It may be time to reframe the argument for affirmative action in language that denotes its benefits to all Americans by increasing access for emerging majority citizens now and in the future. ADEA, academic dentistry, and the dental profession should continue to do everything it can to preserve the policies and practices of affirmative action, especially through the support of the University of Michigan admissions policies as challenged in the cases before the U.S. Supreme Court and in our own practices. PMID:12749576

  8. Using the Internet To Deliver Higher Education: A Cautionary Tale about Achieving Good Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Steven J.; Rodd, Jillian

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the development and delivery of a higher education course module that was designed to provide remote learners in England with computer-supported solutions to access higher education as part of a technology-assisted distance education program. Highlights include use of a Web site; e-mail; videoconferencing; and student attrition rate.…

  9. Achieving a Good Life Time in a Vertical-Organic-Diode Gas Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ming-Zhi; Chen, Yen-Ho; Chuang, Ming-Yen; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Meng, Hsin-Fei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the keys to obtain a sensitive ammonia sensor with high air stability by using a low-cost polythiophene diode with a vertical channel and a porous top electrode. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and air-stable poly(5,5′-bis(3-dodecyl-2-thienyl)-2,2′-bithiophene) (PQT-12) are both evaluated as the active sensing layer. Two-dimensional current simulation reveals that the proposed device exhibits numerous connected vertical nanometer junctions (VNJ). Due to the de-doping reaction between ammonia molecules and the bulk current flowing through the vertical channel, both PQT-12 and P3HT VNJ-diodes exhibit detection limits of 50-ppb ammonia. The P3HT VNJ-diode, however, becomes unstable after being stored in air for two days. On the contrary, the PQT-12 VNJ-diode keeps an almost unchanged response to 50-ppb ammonia after being stored in air for 25 days. The improved storage lifetime of an organic-semiconductor-based gas sensor in air is successfully demonstrated. PMID:25184492

  10. Adding concentrated solar power plants to wind farms to achieve a good utility electrical load match

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texas has the greatest installed wind turbine capacity of any state in the United States, the percentage of wind capacity approaches 10% of the utilities capacity (in 2010 the total wind generated capacity in Texas was 8%). It is becomimg increasingly difficult for the utility to balance the elec...

  11. From Good to Great: Designing a PDS Partnership that Increases Student Achievement by Preparing Better Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Gloria; Lee, Valarie; Leftwich, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    The College of Education at Rowan University has held a long and continuing commitment to the tenets of the Professional Development School (PDS) movement. Two schools in the Rowan's network--Holly Glen Elementary and Edward R. Johnstone Elementary Schools--have a long history of exceptional commitment to continuous growth by all P-12 faculty…

  12. Going public: good scientific conduct.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gitte; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-06-01

    The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem underexposed as ethical challenges. Consequently, individual scientists here tend to be left alone with problems and dilemmas, with no guidance for good conduct. Ideas are presented about how to make up for this omission. Using a practical, ethical approach, the paper attempts to identify ways scientists might deal with ethical public relations issues, guided by a norm or maxim of openness. Drawing on and rethinking the CUDOS codification of the scientific ethos, as it was worked out by Robert K. Merton in 1942, we propose that this, which is echoed in current codifications of norms for good scientific conduct, contains a tacit maxim of openness which may naturally be extended to cover the public relations of science. Discussing openness as access, accountability, transparency and receptiveness, the argumentation concentrates on the possible prevention of misconduct with respect to, on the one hand, sins of omission-withholding important information from the public-and, on the other hand, abuses of the authority of science in order to gain publicity. Statements from interviews with scientists are used to illustrate how scientists might view the relevance of the issues raised. PMID:21088921

  13. Goode Gym Energy Renovation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Andrena

    2014-12-11

    The Ida H. Goode Gymnasium was constructed in 1964 to serve as a focal point for academics, student recreation, and health and wellness activities. This 38,000 SF building contains a gymnasium with a stage, swimming pool, eight classrooms, a weight room, six offices and auxiliary spaces for the athletic programs. The gym is located on a 4-acre greenfield, which is slated for improvement and enhancement to future athletics program at Bennett College. The available funding for this project was used to weatherize the envelope of the gymnasium, installation of a new energy-efficient mechanical system, and a retrofit of the existing lighting systems in the building’s interior. The envelope weatherization was completed without disturbing the building’s historic preservation eligibility. The existing heating system was replaced with a new high efficiency condensing system. The new heating system also includes a new Building Automation System which provides additional monitoring. Proper usage of this system will provide additional energy savings. Most of the existing interior lighting fixtures and bulbs were replaced with new LED and high efficiency T-8 bulbs and fixtures. Occupancy sensors were installed in applicable areas. The Ida Goode Gymnasium should experience high electricity and natural gas savings as well as operational/maintenance efficiency increases. The aesthetics of the building was maintained and the overall safety was improved.

  14. Structural Pain Compensating Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Chris J.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. Designers must design the aircraft structure and the control architecture to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to build the structure with high margins, restrict control surface commands to known good combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage.

  15. WASTE MANAGEMENT CONTROL HANDBOOK FOR DAIRY FOOD PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waste control is resource management control in dairy food plant operations. Appreciable reductions can be achieved in product, water, energy, labor, packaging losses and sewer surcharges. A good program in waste control can increase the profit margin by more than 10%, as well as...

  16. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  17. What are narratives good for?

    PubMed

    Beatty, John

    2016-08-01

    Narratives may be easy to come by, but not everything is worth narrating. What merits a narrative? Here, I follow the lead of narratologists and literary theorists, and focus on one particular proposal concerning the elements of a story that make it narrative-worthy. These elements correspond to features of the natural world addressed by the historical sciences, where narratives figure so prominently. What matters is contingency. Narratives are especially good for representing contingency and accounting for contingent outcomes. This will be squared with a common view that narratives leave no room for chance. On the contrary, I will argue, tracing one path through a maze of alternative possibilities, and alluding to those possibilities along the way, is what a narrative does particularly well. PMID:26806602

  18. Good pitch memory is widespread.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E

    2003-05-01

    Here we show that good pitch memory is widespread among adults with no musical training. We tested unselected college students on their memory for the pitch level of instrumental soundtracks from familiar television programs. Participants heard 5-s excerpts either at the original pitch level or shifted upward or downward by 1 or 2 semitones. They successfully identified the original pitch levels. Other participants who heard comparable excerpts from unfamiliar recordings could not do so. These findings reveal that ordinary listeners retain fine-grained information about pitch level over extended periods. Adults' reportedly poor memory for pitch is likely to be a by-product of their inability to name isolated pitches. PMID:12741751

  19. Use the Good Mind! An Interview with Freida Jacques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Freida Jacques, Onondaga clan mother, discusses the discipline of the "good mind," which involves becoming aware of your thoughts, examining the intent of your actions, and deciding whether your intent is based on love or fear and anger. Peace and healing must be achieved through forgiveness and respect. Sidebars discuss Native American healing…

  20. Making a Good Start As an Engineering Manager.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Bruce F.

    1983-01-01

    Provides pointers for the new engineering manager on building self-confidence and establishing positive employer/employee relationships. Includes distinctive traits managers should have, ways to ease frustrations (such as giving a challenging first assignment and recognizing good work), a plan to achieve managerial goals, and relationships with…

  1. Health physics manual of good practices for tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Blauvelt, R.K.; Deaton, M.R.; Gill, J.T.

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide written guidance defining the generally accepted good practices in use at Department of Energy (DOE) tritium facilities. A {open_quotes}good practice{close_quotes} is an action, policy, or procedure that enhances the radiation protection program at a DOE site. The information selected for inclusion in this document should help readers achieve an understanding of the key radiation protection issues at tritium facilities and provide guidance as to what characterizes excellence from a radiation protection point of view. The ALARA (As Low as Reasonable Achievable) program at DOE sites should be based, in part, on following the good practices that apply to their operations.

  2. Achieving Cannabis Cessation - Evaluating N-acetylcysteine Treatment (ACCENT): Design and implementation of a multi-site, randomized controlled study in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Sonne, Susan C.; Winhusen, Theresa; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Ghitza, Udi E.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Matthews, Abigail G.; Sharma, Gaurav; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Vandrey, Ryan G.; Levin, Frances R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Lindblad, Robert; Allen, Colleen; Mooney, Larissa J.; Haynes, Louise; Brigham, Gregory S.; Sparenborg, Steve; Hasson, Albert L.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in behavioral interventions for cannabis use disorders, effect sizes remain modest, and few individuals achieve long-term abstinence. One strategy to enhance outcomes is the addition of pharmacotherapy to complement behavioral treatment, but to date no efficacious medications targeting cannabis use disorders in adults through large, randomized controlled trials have been identified. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) is currently conducting a study to test the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) versus placebo (PBO), added to contingency management, for cannabis cessation in adults (ages 18–50). This study was designed to replicate positive findings from a study in cannabis-dependent adolescents that found greater odds of abstinence with NAC compared to PBO. This paper describes the design and implementation of an ongoing 12-week, intent-to-treat, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with one follow-up visit four weeks post-treatment. Approximately 300 treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults will be randomized to NAC or PBO across six study sites in the United States. The primary objective of this 12-week study is to evaluate the efficacy of twice-daily orally-administered NAC (1200 mg) versus matched PBO, added to contingency management, on cannabis abstinence. NAC is among the first medications to demonstrate increased odds of abstinence in a randomized controlled study among cannabis users in any age group. The current study will assess the cannabis cessation efficacy of NAC combined with a behavioral intervention in adults, providing a novel and timely contribution to the evidence base for the treatment of cannabis use disorders. PMID:25179587

  3. The effect of post-discharge educational intervention on patients in achieving objectives in modifiable risk factors six months after discharge following an episode of acute coronary syndrome, (CAM-2 Project): a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We investigated whether an intervention mainly consisting of a signed agreement between patient and physician on the objectives to be reached, improves reaching these secondary prevention objectives in modifiable cardiovascular risk factors six-months after discharge following an acute coronary syndrome. Background There is room to improve mid-term adherence to clinical guidelines' recommendations in coronary heart disease secondary prevention, specially non-pharmacological ones, often neglected. Methods In CAM-2, patients discharged after an acute coronary syndrome were randomly assigned to the intervention or the usual care group. The primary outcome was reaching therapeutic objectives in various secondary prevention variables: smoking, obesity, blood lipids, blood pressure control, exercise and taking of medication. Results 1757 patients were recruited in 64 hospitals and 1510 (762 in the intervention and 748 in the control group) attended the six-months follow-up visit. After adjustment for potentially important variables, there were, between the intervention and control group, differences in the mean reduction of body mass index (0.5 vs. 0.2; p < 0.001) and waist circumference (1.6 cm vs. 0.6 cm; p = 0.05), proportion of patients who exercise regularly and those with total cholesterol below 175 mg/dl (64.7% vs. 56.5%; p = 0.001). The reported intake of medications was high in both groups for all the drugs considered with no differences except for statins (98.1% vs. 95.9%; p = 0.029). Conclusions At least in the short term, lifestyle changes among coronary heart disease patients are achievable by intensifying the responsibility of the patient himself by means of a simple and feasible intervention. PMID:21092191

  4. Achieving cannabis cessation -- evaluating N-acetylcysteine treatment (ACCENT): design and implementation of a multi-site, randomized controlled study in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin A; Sonne, Susan C; Winhusen, Theresa; Carroll, Kathleen M; Ghitza, Udi E; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Matthews, Abigail G; Sharma, Gaurav; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Vandrey, Ryan G; Levin, Frances R; Weiss, Roger D; Lindblad, Robert; Allen, Colleen; Mooney, Larissa J; Haynes, Louise; Brigham, Gregory S; Sparenborg, Steve; Hasson, Albert L; Gray, Kevin M

    2014-11-01

    Despite recent advances in behavioral interventions for cannabis use disorders, effect sizes remain modest, and few individuals achieve long-term abstinence. One strategy to enhance outcomes is the addition of pharmacotherapy to complement behavioral treatment, but to date no efficacious medications targeting cannabis use disorders in adults through large, randomized controlled trials have been identified. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) is currently conducting a study to test the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) versus placebo (PBO), added to contingency management, for cannabis cessation in adults (ages 18-50). This study was designed to replicate positive findings from a study in cannabis-dependent adolescents that found greater odds of abstinence with NAC compared to PBO. This paper describes the design and implementation of an ongoing 12-week, intent-to-treat, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with one follow-up visit four weeks post-treatment. Approximately 300 treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults will be randomized to NAC or PBO across six study sites in the United States. The primary objective of this 12-week study is to evaluate the efficacy of twice-daily orally-administered NAC (1200 mg) versus matched PBO, added to contingency management, on cannabis abstinence. NAC is among the first medications to demonstrate increased odds of abstinence in a randomized controlled study among cannabis users in any age group. The current study will assess the cannabis cessation efficacy of NAC combined with a behavioral intervention in adults, providing a novel and timely contribution to the evidence base for the treatment of cannabis use disorders. PMID:25179587

  5. Peer Support for Achieving Independence in Diabetes (Peer-AID): Design, methods and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial of community health worker assisted diabetes self-management support

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Karin; Drain, Nathan; Robinson, June; Kapp, Janet; Hebert, Paul; Taylor, Leslie; Silverman, Julie; Kiefer, Meghan; Lessler, Dan; Krieger, James

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives Community health workers (CHWs) may be an important mechanism to provide diabetes self-management to disadvantaged populations. We describe the design and baseline results of a trial evaluating a home-based CHW intervention. Methods & Research Design Peer Support for Achieving Independence in Diabetes (Peer-AID) is a randomized, controlled trial evaluating a home-based CHW-delivered diabetes self-management intervention versus usual care. The study recruited participants from 3 health systems. Change in A1c measured at 12 months is the primary outcome. Change in blood pressure, lipids, health care utilization, health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and diabetes self-management behaviors at 12 months are secondary outcomes. Results A total of 1,438 patients were identified by medical record review as potentially eligible, 445 patients were screened by telephone for eligibility and 287 were randomized. Groups were comparable at baseline on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. All participants were low-income and were from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. The mean A1c was 8.9%, mean BMI was above the obese range, and non-adherence to diabetes medications was high. The cohort had high rates of co-morbid disease and low self-reported health status. Although one-third reported no health insurance, the mean number of visits to a physician in the past year was 5.7. Trial results are pending. Conclusions Peer-AID recruited and enrolled a diverse group of low income participants with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and delivered a home-based diabetes self-management program. If effective, replication of the Peer-AID intervention in community based settings could contribute to improved control of diabetes in vulnerable populations. PMID:24956324

  6. Sensory evaluation techniques - make "good for you" taste "good".

    PubMed

    Civille, Gail Vance; Oftedal, Katherine Nolen

    2012-11-01

    Sensory evaluation techniques are frequently used, however applied sensory is most often used within private industry. Basic sensory techniques can be an invaluable aid to research on nutritional or functional benefits of natural products such as whole fruits, nuts and vegetables (through varietal selection, breeding, etc.) in addition to clinical trials of botanicals. Products' sensory properties, including fruits and vegetables, must be tailored to ultimately appeal to the "consumer": no matter how healthy and nutritious a food is, if it does not appeal to its intended end user, it is unlikely to succeed in today's marketplace. This paper outlines the "5 S's" or basic principles of applied sensory testing; Subjects, Site, Samples, Statistics, and Sensory Methods. Two case studies are detailed where applied sensory is used to benefic academic research; one as a clinical trial of broccoli sprout extract, and the second as plant breeding research on strawberries. Finally, more in-depth techniques are discussed so that one can ensure that product sensory properties are aligned with consumer expectations, in other words, that sensory congruence is achieved. PMID:22554616

  7. Achieving Magnet status.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beckie; Gates, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Magnet has become the gold standard for nursing excellence. It is the symbol of effective and safe patient care. It evaluates components that inspire safe care, including employee satisfaction and retention, professional education, and effective interdisciplinary collaboration. In an organization whose mission focuses on excellent patient care, Banner Thunderbird Medical Center found that pursuing Magnet status was clearly the next step. In this article, we will discuss committee selection, education, team building, planning, and the discovery process that define the Magnet journey. The road to obtaining Magnet status has permitted many opportunities to celebrate our achievements. PMID:16056158

  8. Idiopathic epilepsy and school achievement.

    PubMed

    Sturniolo, M G; Galletti, F

    1994-05-01

    Forty one children (20 boys, 21 girls) aged 6-10.8 years (mean age 8.6 years) who were affected with idiopathic epilepsy underwent neuropsychological (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Bender test) and behavioural assessment (Personality Inventory for Children; this was also used in a matched control group). Further information was obtained by teachers' reports. School underachievement occurred in 25 children (61%). Statistical analysis showed no influence of sex, social background, age of onset, seizure type, duration of illness, features seen on electroencephalography, and treatment. School failure was due to poor performance in almost all academic fields, and was associated with higher visuomotor impairment; children showing good school performance had a higher mean IQ and less visuomotor impairment. The behaviour of children with epilepsy who had a good academic performance did not differ from that of their healthy peers. Emotional maladjustment (social skill impairment, depression, poor motivation, and low self esteem) was associated with poor school performance. Such problems, that may complicate the course of idiopathic epilepsy and require an appropriate educational programme, should be carefully considered by the clinician. PMID:8017966

  9. 42 CFR 93.210 - Good faith.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Good faith. 93.210 Section 93.210 Public Health... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.210 Good faith. Good faith as applied to a complainant or witness, means having a... allegation or cooperation with a research misconduct proceeding is not in good faith if made with knowing...

  10. 42 CFR 93.210 - Good faith.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Good faith. 93.210 Section 93.210 Public Health... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.210 Good faith. Good faith as applied to a complainant or witness, means having a... allegation or cooperation with a research misconduct proceeding is not in good faith if made with knowing...

  11. 42 CFR 93.210 - Good faith.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Good faith. 93.210 Section 93.210 Public Health... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.210 Good faith. Good faith as applied to a complainant or witness, means having a... allegation or cooperation with a research misconduct proceeding is not in good faith if made with knowing...

  12. 42 CFR 93.210 - Good faith.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Good faith. 93.210 Section 93.210 Public Health... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.210 Good faith. Good faith as applied to a complainant or witness, means having a... allegation or cooperation with a research misconduct proceeding is not in good faith if made with knowing...

  13. 42 CFR 93.210 - Good faith.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Good faith. 93.210 Section 93.210 Public Health... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.210 Good faith. Good faith as applied to a complainant or witness, means having a... allegation or cooperation with a research misconduct proceeding is not in good faith if made with knowing...

  14. Education Is Not a Public Good.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisciotta, John

    The purpose of this essay is to show that education is not a public good, and that in contrast to a public good such as national defense, education can be provided through competitive suppliers in the private sector as well as through government enterprise. A public good differs from a private good in the nature of consumption. A public good…

  15. 29 CFR 779.107 - Goods defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goods defined. 779.107 Section 779.107 Labor Regulations... Engaged in Commerce Or in the Production of Goods for Commerce § 779.107 Goods defined. The term goods is defined in section 3(i) of the Act and has a well established meaning under the Act since it has...

  16. 29 CFR 779.107 - Goods defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Goods defined. 779.107 Section 779.107 Labor Regulations... Engaged in Commerce Or in the Production of Goods for Commerce § 779.107 Goods defined. The term goods is defined in section 3(i) of the Act and has a well established meaning under the Act since it has...

  17. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  18. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  19. Independent Control of the Magnetization in Ferromagnetic La2/3Sr1/3MnO3/SrTiO3/LaCoO3 Heterostructures Achieved by Epitaxial Lattice Mismatch.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Murias, Beatriz; Lucas, Irene; Jiménez-Cavero, Pilar; Magén, César; Morellón, Luis; Rivadulla, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    We report the effect of interface symmetry-mismatch on the magnetic properties of LaCoO3 (LCO) thin films. Growing epitaxial LCO under tensile strain on top of cubic SrTiO3 (STO) produces a contraction along the c axis and a characteristic ferromagnetic response. However, we report here that ferromagnetism in LCO is completely suppressed when grown on top of a buffer layer of rhombohedral La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO), in spite of identical in-plane and out-of-plane lattice deformation. This confirms that it is the lattice symmetry mismatch and not just the total strain, which determines the magnetism of LCO. On the basis of this control over the magnetic properties of LCO, we designed a multilayered structure to achieve independent rotation of the magnetization in ferromagnetic insulating LCO and half-metallic ferromagnet LSMO. This is an important step forward for the design of spin-filtering tunnel barriers based on LCO. PMID:26822394

  20. Good operating practices cut water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    West, D.E.

    1982-07-12

    This paper explains how the pipeline industry can avoid violating the Clean Water Act (PL 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act), which states that pollution of US waters from any cause other than an act of God, war or Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Reporting pollution to the National Response Center will limit the maximum penalty to $5,000 Rectifiers must be kept in top operating condition, and visual inspections of the right-of-way by aerial or ground patrols must detect construction of new pipelines or other facilities. Accidental damage by third parties is the major cause of failures in pipeline systems, which can be prevented by periodic contact with landowners. Conclusion is that if a pipeline operator follows good operating and maintenance practices, his exposure to effects of the Clean Water Act will be minimal.