Science.gov

Sample records for achieve high activity

  1. Actively Closing the Gap? Social Class, Organized Activities, and Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…

  2. Self-Directed Activity-Based Learning and Achievement in High School Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, Meighan M.; Martinez, James; Martin, Ellice P.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of student-directed activity-based learning (SDABL) were examined in two high school chemistry classes. Students in the SDABL class were given pretest results, a list of standards to be mastered, and a chart of learning activities categorized by difficulty level. They selected activities to meet their needs and preferences.…

  3. Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activities in Electrochemistry: High School Students' Achievements and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesen, Burcin Acar; Tarhan, Leman

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inquiry-based laboratory activities on high school students' understanding of electrochemistry and attitudes towards chemistry and laboratory work. The participants were 62 high school students (average age 17 years) in an urban public high school in Turkey. Students were assigned to experimental (N =…

  4. Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activities in Electrochemistry: High School Students' Achievements and Attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar Sesen, Burcin; Tarhan, Leman

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inquiry-based laboratory activities on high school students' understanding of electrochemistry and attitudes towards chemistry and laboratory work. The participants were 62 high school students (average age 17 years) in an urban public high school in Turkey. Students were assigned to experimental ( N = 30) and control groups ( N = 32). The experimental group was taught using inquiry-based laboratory activities developed by the researchers and the control group was instructed using traditional laboratory activities. The results of the study indicated that instruction based on inquiry-based laboratory activities caused a significantly better acquisition of scientific concepts related to electrochemistry, and produced significantly higher positive attitudes towards chemistry and laboratory. In the light of the findings, it is suggested that inquiry-based laboratory activities should be developed and applied to promote students' understanding in chemistry subjects and to improve their positive attitudes.

  5. An Assessment of the Perceived Benefits of Extracurricular Activity on Academic Achievement at Paramount High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwart, Mike

    2006-01-01

    The problem is the perceived academic shortcomings of America's public schools because of high stakes testing that is expected to increase along with limited funds and resources. The purpose of this study was to find the benefits of the extracurricular activity that students are already participating in at Paramount High School. This is a…

  6. Noninstructional Influences on High School Student Achievement: The Contributions of Parents, Peers, Extracurricular Activities, and Part-Time Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence; And Others

    This document presents a review of the research on experiences outside of the classroom that may affect student achievement during the high school years, focusing specifically on the areas of family influences, peer influences, part-time employment of students, and student participation in extracurricular activities. It reports on studies of…

  7. A Study of the Association between High School Student Participation in Co-Curricular Activities and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streb, Arthur G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to take a look at the academic achievement of students who are involved in co-curricular when statistically compared to the performance of their peers who are not involved in co-curricular activities. The scope of the investigation only includes high school students and the relationship between their involvement in…

  8. Promoting Lifelong Physical Activity and High Level Performance: Realising an Achievable Aim for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNamara, Aine; Collins, Dave; Bailey, Richard; Toms, Martin; Ford, Paul; Pearce, Gemma

    2011-01-01

    Background: Even though all school-aged children in most countries experience some form of curricular physical education many do not maintain a lifelong involvement in sport or physical activity. From a theoretical perspective, the development models that dominate sport are limited by their staged and linear approaches to development (e.g. Cote's…

  9. Winter Active Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) Achieve High Foraging Rates in Urban Britain

    PubMed Central

    Stelzer, Ralph J.; Chittka, Lars; Carlton, Marc; Ings, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Foraging bumblebees are normally associated with spring and summer in northern Europe. However, there have been sightings of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris during the warmer winters in recent years in southern England. But what floral resources are they relying upon during winter and how much winter forage can they collect? Methodology/Principal Findings To test if urban areas in the UK provide a rich foraging niche for bees we set up colonies of B. terrestris in the field during two late winter periods (2005/6 & 2006/7) in London, UK, and measured their foraging performance. Fully automatic radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology was used in 2006/7 to enable us to record the complete foraging activity of individually tagged bees. The number of bumblebees present during winter (October 2007 to March 2008) and the main plants they visited were also recorded during transect walks. Queens and workers were observed throughout the winter, suggesting a second generation of bee colonies active during the winter months. Mass flowering shrubs such as Mahonia spp. were identified as important food resources. The foraging experiments showed that bees active during the winter can attain nectar and pollen foraging rates that match, and even surpass, those recorded during summer. Conclusions/Significance B. terrestris in the UK are now able to utilise a rich winter foraging resource in urban parks and gardens that might at present still be under-exploited, opening up the possibility of further changes in pollinator phenology. PMID:20221445

  10. Motives Emanating from Personality Associated with Achievement in a Finnish Senior High School: Physical Activity, Curiosity, and Family Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froiland, John Mark; Mayor, Päivi; Herlevi, Marjaana

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that intrinsic motivation predicts academic achievement. However, relatively few have examined various subtypes of intrinsic motivation that predict overall achievement, such as motivation for exercise and physical activity. Based upon the 16 basic desires theory of personality, the current study examined the motives of…

  11. Achieving high power efficiency and low roll-off OLEDs based on energy transfer from thermally activated delayed excitons to fluorescent dopants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shipan; Zhang, Yuewei; Chen, Weiping; Wei, Jinbei; Liu, Yu; Wang, Yue

    2015-08-01

    Achieving high power efficiencies at high-brightness levels is still an important issue for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on the thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism. Herein, enhanced electroluminescence efficiencies were achieved in fluorescent OLEDs using a TADF molecule, (4s,6s)-2,4,5,6-tetra(9H-carbazol-9-yl)isophthalonitrile (4CzIPN), as a host and quinacridone derivatives (QA) as fluorescent dopants. PMID:26120606

  12. An Examination of the Influence of Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activities and Success on Standards Based Achievement Tests in a Suburban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilardi, Virginia A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is a difference in high school students' achievement and retention on standardized tests between students who participate in inquiry-based laboratory activities and those that participate in traditional style laboratory activities. Additionally, student and teacher opinions of…

  13. The Effects of Teaching Numerical Control Concepts Via Simulator Versus Non-Simulator Activities on the Achievement, Programming Proficiency and Attitude of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Douglas Taylor

    This study utilized 120 metalworking students and six teachers from Columbus, Ohio area high schools to ascertain the effects of teaching numerical control to industrial arts students by means of simulator-aided activities versus nonsimulator aided activities. Scores obtained from an achievement test, attitude inventory, and word address…

  14. Family Background, School-Age Trajectories of Activity Participation, and Academic Achievement at the Start of High School

    PubMed Central

    Crosnoe, Robert; Smith, Chelsea; Leventhal, Tama

    2014-01-01

    Applying latent class and regression techniques to data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 997), this study explored the potential academic advantages of time spent in out-of-school activities. Of particular interest was how these potential advantages played out in relation to the timing and duration of activity participation and the family contexts in which it occurred. Participation closer to the start of high school—including consistent participants and latecomers—was associated with higher grades at the transition into high school, especially for youth from low-income families. Sensitivity analyses indicated that this link between school-age activity participation and adolescent academic progress was unlikely to be solely a function of selection. It also tended to be more pronounced among youth from lower-income families, although without varying by other aspects of family status or process. PMID:26279615

  15. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  16. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  17. What Factors Contribute to the Achievement Gap: A Case Study of Multicultural/Disadvantaged Student Participation in Co Curricular Activities at a Large Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Carlton D.

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative research study used logistical regression and ordinary least squares to examine factors that contribute to the narrowing of the achievement gap at an urban high school in the Midwest. The study analyzed the relationship between five independent variables related to participation in co curricular activities, demographic…

  18. a Method to Achieve Large Volume, High Accuracy Photogrammetric Measurements Through the Use of AN Actively Deformable Sensor Mounting Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargeant, B.; Robson, S.; Szigeti, E.; Richardson, P.; El-Nounu, A.; Rafla, M.

    2016-06-01

    When using any optical measurement system one important factor to consider is the placement of the sensors in relation to the workpiece being measured. When making decisions on sensor placement compromises are necessary in selecting the best placement based on the shape and size of the object of interest and the desired resolution and accuracy. One such compromise is in the distance the sensors are placed from the measurement surface, where a smaller distance gives a higher spatial resolution and local accuracy and a greater distance reduces the number of measurements necessary to cover a large area reducing the build-up of errors between measurements and increasing global accuracy. This paper proposes a photogrammetric approach whereby a number of sensors on a continuously flexible mobile platform are used to obtain local measurements while the position of the sensors is determined by a 6DoF tracking solution and the results combined to give a single set of measurement data within a continuous global coordinate system. The ability of this approach to achieve both high accuracy measurement and give results over a large volume is then tested and areas of weakness to be improved upon are identified.

  19. Forty years continous monitoring for bluetongue virus at an Australian site of high arbovirus activity. What have we achieved?

    PubMed

    Melville, Lorna; Weir, Richard; Hunt, Neville; Davis, Steven; Walsh, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Beatrice Hill Farm (BHF) near Darwin, Australia was identified in the early 1970's as a site of high arbovirus activity. The first isolation of Bluetongue virus (BTV) in Australia was made on BHF in 1975. Since then, there has been continuous monitoring for BTV at BHF, the virus has been isolated on a yearly basis, with the only exception of 1990. All 10 serotypes known in Australia have been isolated at this site and an assessment of their biological behaviour made. Over the years, the methods and intensity of monitoring have been changed. In recent years molecular techniques have permitted more detailed examination of the origins of the viruses and their natural behaviour in field situations. Data collected at BHF have allowed modelling to detect likely origins of the BTVs that regularly enter Australia through wind borne infected Culicoides from South East Asia. Concurrent vector monitoring led to assess the Culicoides species more likely to be involved with transmission of these viruses. PMID:26741242

  20. Self Regulated Learning of High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathod, Ami

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted on high achievers of Senior Secondary school. Main objectives were to identify the self regulated learners among the high achievers, to find out dominant components and characteristics operative in self regulated learners and to compare self regulated learning of learners with respect to their subject (science and non…

  1. The Constraints of Poverty on High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Virginia H.; Beilke, Jayne R.

    2008-01-01

    Research studies on school success often focus on the impact of discrete elements such as race, culture, ethnicity, gender, language, or school location on high achievement. The condition of poverty, however, may be the most important of all student differences in relation to high achievement; although not all schools have racial diversity, nearly…

  2. Catholic High Schools and Rural Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    1997-01-01

    A study of national longitudinal data examined effects of rural Catholic high schools on mathematics achievement, high school graduation rates, and the likelihood that high school graduates attend college. Findings indicate that rural Catholic high schools had a positive effect on mathematics test scores and no effect on graduation rates or rates…

  3. Activities on Realization of High-Power and Steady-State ECRH System and Achievement of High Performance Plasmas in LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Ikeda, R.; Tamura, N.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Takita, Y.; Mutoh, T.; Minami, R.; Kariya, T.; Imai, T.; Idei, H.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J.; Felici, F.; Goodman, T.

    2009-11-26

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) has contributed to the achievement of high performance plasma production, high electron temperature plasmas and sustainment of steady-state plasmas in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Our immediate targets of upgrading the ECRH system are 5 MW several seconds and 1 MW longer than one hour power injection into LHD. The improvement will greatly extend the plasma parameter regime. For that purpose, we have been promoting the development and installation of 77 GHz/1-1.5 MW/several seconds and 0.3 MW/CW gyrotrons in collaboration with University of Tsukuba. The transmission lines are re-examined and improved for high and CW power transmission. In the recent experimental campaign, two 77 GHz gyrotrons were operated. One more gyrotron, which was designed for 1.5 MW/2 s output, was constructed and is tested. We have been promoting to improve total ECRH efficiency for efficient gyrotron-power use and efficient plasma heating, e.g. a new waveguide alignment method and mode-content analysis and the feedback control of the injection polarization. In the last experimental campaign, the 77 GHz gyrotrons were used in combination with the existing 84 GHz range and 168 GHz gyrotrons. Multi-frequency ECRH system is more flexible in plasma heating experiments and diagnostics. A lot of experiments have been performed in relation to high electron temperature plasmas by realization of the core electron-root confinement (CERC), electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), Electron Bernstein Wave heating, and steady-state plasma sustainment. Some of the experimental results are briefly described.

  4. Active Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…

  5. High Stakes Testing and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The effects of high stakes testing may be critical in the lives of public school students and may have many consequences for schools and teachers. There are no easy answers in measuring student achievement and in holding teachers accountable for learner progress. High stakes testing also involves responsibilities on the part of the principal who…

  6. Student Perceptions of High-Achieving Classmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Händel, Marion; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The reported study investigated students' perceptions of their high-performing classmates in terms of intelligence, social skills, and conscientiousness in different school subjects. The school subjects for study were examined with regard to cognitive, physical, and gender-specific issues. The results show that high academic achievements in…

  7. High Achievers: 23rd Annual Survey. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This report presents data from an annual survey of high school student leaders and high achievers. It is noted that of the nearly 700,000 high achievers featured in this edition, 5,000 students were sent the survey and 2,092 questionnaires were completed. Subjects were high school juniors and seniors selected for recognition by their principals or…

  8. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  9. Reliability achievement in high technology space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The production of failure-free hardware is discussed. The elements required to achieve such hardware are: technical expertise to design, analyze, and fully understand the design; use of high reliability parts and materials control in the manufacturing process; and testing to understand the system and weed out defects. The durability of the Hughes family of satellites is highlighted.

  10. Academic achievement in high functioning autistic individuals.

    PubMed

    Minshew, N J; Goldstein, G; Taylor, H G; Siegel, D J

    1994-04-01

    Academic achievement levels in 54 high functioning (IQ > 70) autistic subjects were compared with those of 41 normal controls, who did not differ significantly in age, IQ, gender, race, or SES from the autistic subjects. The measures of academic achievement used included portions of the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-2, the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test, and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement. Based on prior neuropsychological findings, it was hypothesized that autistic subjects would not differ from controls on subtests assessing mechanical and procedural skills, but would differ on subtests measuring comprehension and interpretive skills. As predicted, the autistic subjects performed significantly less well than controls on comprehension tasks, but not on mechanical reading, spelling, and computational tasks. This pattern is at variance with the typical academic profile of individuals with disabilities in reading or spelling, but shares some features with the nonverbal learning disabilities. PMID:8021313

  11. Achieving high performance on the Intel Paragon

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, D.S.; Maccabe, B.; Riesen, R.; Wheat, S.; Womble, D.

    1993-11-01

    When presented with a new supercomputer most users will first ask {open_quotes}How much faster will my applications run?{close_quotes} and then add a fearful {open_quotes}How much effort will it take me to convert to the new machine?{close_quotes} This paper describes some lessons learned at Sandia while asking these questions about the new 1800+ node Intel Paragon. The authors conclude that the operating system is crucial to both achieving high performance and allowing easy conversion from previous parallel implementations to a new machine. Using the Sandia/UNM Operating System (SUNMOS) they were able to port a LU factorization of dense matrices from the nCUBE2 to the Paragon and achieve 92% scaled speed-up on 1024 nodes. Thus on a 44,000 by 44,000 matrix which had required over 10 hours on the previous machine, they completed in less than 1/2 hour at a rate of over 40 GFLOPS. Two keys to achieving such high performance were the small size of SUNMOS (less than 256 kbytes) and the ability to send large messages with very low overhead.

  12. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 18th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Communications, Inc., Lake Forest, IL.

    This document contains factsheets and news releases which cite findings from a national survey of 1,985 high achieving high school students. Factsheets describe the Who's Who Among American High School Students recognition and service program for high school students and explain the Who's Who survey. A summary report of this eighteenth annual…

  13. 22nd Annual Survey of High Achievers: Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This study surveyed high school students (N=1,879) who were student leaders or high achievers in the spring of 1991 for the purpose of determining their attitudes. Students were members of the junior or senior high school class during the 1990-91 academic year and were selected for recognition by their principals or guidance counselors, other…

  14. 21st Annual Survey of High Achievers: Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey was conducted by Who's Who Among American High School Students during the spring of 1990, to determine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. A survey of high achievers sent to 5,000 students was completed and returned by approximately 2,000 students. All students were members of the junior or senior class during the…

  15. Academic Attitudes of High Achieving and Low Achieving Academically Able Black Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, John Rhodes

    1981-01-01

    In order to identify the relationships between the attitudes and perceptions of peer pressure and the academic achievement of academically able male adolescents, this study compares the school attitudes of high achieving and low achieving Black male youth. (EF)

  16. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 26th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    A national survey of 3,351 high achieving high school students (junior and senior level) was conducted. All students had A or B averages. Topics covered include lifestyles, political beliefs, violence and entertainment, education, cheating, school violence, sexual violence and date rape, peer pressure, popularity, suicide, drugs and alcohol,…

  17. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 24th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey represents information compiled by the largest national survey of adolescent leaders and high achievers. Of the 5,000 students selected demographically from "Who's Who Among American High School Students," 1,957 responded. All students surveyed had "A" or "B" averages, and 98% planned on attending college. Questions were asked about…

  18. High Involvement Mothers of High Achieving Children: Potential Theoretical Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    In American society, parents who have high aspirations for the achievements of their children are often viewed by others in a negative light. Various pejoratives such as "pushy parent," "helicopter parent," "stage mother," and "soccer mom" are used in the common vernacular to describe these parents. Multiple…

  19. Factors Implicated in High Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgasz, Helen J.; Hill, Janelle C.

    2013-01-01

    The most recent Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (2009) mathematical literacy results provide evidence that in Western English-speaking countries, including Australia, the gender gap in achievement appears to be widening in favour of males. In the study reported in this article, the aim was to explore the effects of gender,…

  20. High Ability Readers and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.; Parke, Cynthia J.; Bramble, Joan G.

    2004-01-01

    To close the achievement gap, the "No Child Left Behind" law calls for all students to make appropriate yearly progress. This presumably means that progress is being made by capable readers at the same time progress is being made by struggling readers. However, there appear to be unintended effects of "No Child Left Behind" that may impede the…

  1. The Influence of Achievement Goals on the Constructive Activity of Low Achievers during Collaborative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriele, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous research on small-group learning has found that level of constructive activity (solving or explaining how to solve problems using ideas stated or implied in the explanation provided by a partner) was a better predictor of post-test achievement than either a student's prior achievement or the quality of help received (Webb,…

  2. Achieving strategic surety for high consequence software

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    A strategic surety roadmap for high consequence software systems under the High Integrity Software (HIS) Program at Sandia National Laboratories guides research in identifying methodologies to improve software surety. Selected research tracks within this roadmap are identified and described detailing current technology and outlining advancements to be pursued over the coming decade to reach HIS goals. The tracks discussed herein focus on Correctness by Design, and System Immunology{trademark}. Specific projects are discussed with greater detail given on projects involving Correct Specification via Visualization, Synthesis, & Analysis; Visualization of Abstract Objects; and Correct Implementation of Components.

  3. Norview High School: Leadership Fosters Achievment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Often little unsaid things demonstrate what is truly important in a school. When teachers have common planning time and all of the department chairs share a single space as they do at Norview High School in Norfolk, VA, the unmistakable message is that instructional collaboration and leadership are expected and valued. Norview, an urban,…

  4. Achieving High-Temperature Ferromagnetic Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katmis, Ferhat

    Topological insulators (TIs) are insulating materials that display conducting surface states protected by time-reversal symmetry, wherein electron spins are locked to their momentum. This unique property opens new opportunities for creating next-generation electronic and spintronic devices, including TI-based quantum computation. Introducing ferromagnetic order into a TI system without compromising its distinctive quantum coherent features could lead to a realization of several predicted novel physical phenomena. In particular, achieving robust long-range magnetic order at the TI surface at specific locations without introducing spin scattering centers could open up new possibilities for devices. Here, we demonstrate topologically enhanced interface magnetism by coupling a ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) to a TI (Bi2Se3); this interfacial ferromagnetism persists up to room temperature, even though the FMI (EuS) is known to order ferromagnetically only at low temperatures (<17 K). The induced magnetism at the interface resulting from the large spin-orbit interaction and spin-momentum locking feature of the TI surface is found to greatly enhance the magnetic ordering (Curie) temperature of the TI/FMI bilayer system. Due to the short range nature of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction, the time-reversal symmetry is broken only near the surface of a TI, while leaving its bulk states unaffected. The topological magneto-electric response originating in such an engineered TI could allow for an efficient manipulation of the magnetization dynamics by an electric field, providing an energy efficient topological control mechanism for future spin-based technologies. Work supported by MIT MRSEC through the MRSEC Program of NSF under award number DMR-0819762, NSF Grant DMR-1207469, the ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0301, and the STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF grant DMR-1231319.

  5. Self-Concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study "Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students" was investigated to find the relationship between Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students. Data for the study were collected using Self-concept Questionnaire developed by Raj Kumar Saraswath (1984) and Achievement Motive Test (ACMT)…

  6. Scholarship Awards, College Choice, and Student Engagement in College Activities: A Study of High-Achieving Low-Income Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Shouping

    2010-01-01

    Using two-wave survey data on the 2001 cohort of the Gates Millennium Scholarship (GMS) recipients and comparison nonrecipients, this study examines the relationship between scholarship awards and student engagement in college activities. The results indicate that scholarship awards such as GMS directly affect student college choice decisions.…

  7. Scientific Temper among Academically High and Low Achieving Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kour, Sunmeet

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the scientific temper of high and low achieving adolescent girl students. Random sampling technique was used to draw the sample from various high schools of District Srinagar. The sample for the present study consisted of 120 school going adolescent girls (60 high and 60 low achievers). Data was…

  8. Physical Activity and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of physical activity among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which low levels of physical activity and fitness adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to increase physical activity and physical fitness among youth. Methods:…

  9. Setting Educational Priorities: High Achievers Speak Out. White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickeson, Robert C.

    Noting that high achieving Indiana high school students can provide important insights into the educational system in the state, this study examined the opinions of recipients of Ameritchieve recognition, National Merit finalists, African-American students who were National Achievement finalists, and national Hispanic Scholar finalists, all from…

  10. Circadian Activity Rhythms, Time Urgency, and Achievement Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Barbara L.

    Many physiological and psychological processes fluctuate throughout the day in fairly stable, rhythmic patterns. The relationship between individual differences in circadian activity rhythms and a sense of time urgency were explored as well as a number of achievement-related variables. Undergraduates (N=308), whose circadian activity rhythms were…

  11. Test-Taking Strategies of High and Low Mathematics Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Sas, Maggie; Sas, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored test-preparation and test-taking strategies that high school students used in algebra tests. From a pool of high school students (N = 156), 61 students participated in interviews, and of those interviewed, 26 represented those who were high achieving as well as highly interested in mathematics (n = 15) vs. those who were low…

  12. Biculturalism and Academic Achievement of African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Jonathan P.; Jackson, Margo A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Blumberg, Fran C.

    2011-01-01

    Biculturalism was examined as a factor that may positively affect the academic achievement of African American high school students, beyond cultural identity and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses determined that cultural identity and academic self-esteem were important factors for academic achievement, but not biculturalism.…

  13. Tracking and Detracking: High Achievers in Massachusetts Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom

    2009-01-01

    This study examines tracking--the practice of grouping students into separate classes or courses based on their prior academic achievement--at the middle-school level, and the percentage of high-achieving students in tracked and untracked schools. It focuses on Massachusetts, a leader in "reforming" tracking, and the changes that have…

  14. Mobility and Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Janet Denise

    2013-01-01

    Student mobility is an issue for high poverty schools in the shadow of increased rigor and accountability for student performance. Whereas mobility is not a sole cause for poor achievement, it is a contributing factor for students in poverty who are already considered to be at risk of low achievement. Student mobility creates a hardship for…

  15. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 29th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report presents the 1998 statistical findings of the annual survey to determine the attitudes of national high school student leaders. Questionnaires were completed by 3,123 high school juniors and seniors, all of whom were selected for recognition in "Who's Who among American High School Students." In addition to demographic information, the…

  16. Associations of Future Expectations, Negative Friends, and Academic Achievement in High-Achieving African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michael; Corprew, Charles S., III; Becker, Jonathan E.

    2009-01-01

    The relations of future expectations (general and academic) to academic outcomes were examined in a sample of 129 African American high-achieving adolescents (majority female participants, n = 92). This study was interested in the multidimensional nature of future expectations. Results from the study confirm the hypothesis that academic future…

  17. The "Renaissance Child": High Achievement and Gender in Late Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the concept of the "Renaissance Child" to illustrate the ways in which gender influences the opportunities and possibilities of high-achieving pupils. Using data from a study of 12-13-year high-achieving boys and girls based in schools in England, the paper considers the ways in which a group of popular boys was able to show an…

  18. The Effects of Block Scheduling on High School Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Chance W.; Dugan, James J.; Winokur, Marc A.; Cobb, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of block scheduling on high school student achievement in mathematics and reading was investigated in this study through the use of an ex post-facto, longitudinal research design. Specifically, student scores from 9th and 11th-grade standardized tests were matched and sorted by junior high and high school attended. Outcome measures…

  19. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 28th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report details the 28th annual study to examine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. Participating in the survey were 3,210 adolescents, primarily 16- and 17-year-olds, who had been featured in the 1997 edition of "Who's Who Among American High School Students." The report presents demographic information on the survey…

  20. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 27th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report details the 27th annual study to examine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. Participating in the survey were 3,370 adolescents, primarily 16- and 17-year-olds, who had been featured in the 1996 edition of "Who's Who Among American High School Students." The report presents demographic information on the survey…

  1. Effects of Teacher Professional Learning Activities on Student Achievement Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko; Liang, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of six types of teacher professional learning activities on student achievement growth over 4 years using statewide longitudinal survey data collected from 467 middle school mathematics teachers in 91 schools merged with 11,192 middle school students' mathematics scores in a standardized assessment in Missouri. The…

  2. A Study on the Relationship between Logical Thinking Level and the Achievement in Enrichment Physics of School Science High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Min; Lee, Sung-Yi

    2001-01-01

    Investigates science high achievers' achievement in enrichment physics and logical thinking levels, and analyzes the relationship between logical thinking level and achievement in enrichment physics of high achievers in science. Involves (n=35) 7th and 8th grade junior high school students in the study. Uses the Group Assessment of Logical…

  3. Student Achievement for Whom? High-Performing and Still "Playing the Game," the Meaning of School Achievement among High Achieving African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggan, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The preponderance of the research on African American students has generally focused on issues of school failure and underperformance. While the literature on high achieving Black students is sparse, very little is known about these students' school experiences and the meanings that they assign to achievement. Using student-based inquiry…

  4. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 25th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey was conducted during the spring of 1994 for the purpose of determining the attitudes of student leaders in the nation's high schools. Eight thousand surveys were sent out to students, of which 3177 were returned. All students surveyed were members of the junior or senior class during the 1993-94 academic year. They were selected for…

  5. Student Achievement Levels Raised at Chandler High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Profiles, Programs & Products, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Chandler (Arizona) High School has reported a dramatic increase in student achievement levels since implementing a number of management, curriculum, and discipline policy changes. Among the program changes that contributed to these gains are: (1) creation of a positive school environment, with high expectations for teachers, emphasis on high…

  6. Brain Hemisphericity and Mathematics Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Sanny F.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the brain hemisphericity and mathematics achievement of high school students. The respondents of the study were the 168 first year high school students of Colegio de San Jose, during school year 2010-2011 who were chosen through stratified random sampling. The descriptive and interview methods of research were used in…

  7. Exploring High-Achieving Students' Images of Mathematicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Mario Sánchez; Rosas, Alejandro; Zavaleta, Juan Gabriel Molina; Romo-Vázquez, Avenilde

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the images that a group of high-achieving Mexican students hold of mathematicians. For this investigation, we used a research method based on the Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) with a sample of 63 Mexican high school students. The group of students' pictorial and written descriptions of mathematicians assisted us…

  8. High School Employment and Academic Achievement: A Note for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keister, Mary; Hall, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Educators are often in a position to affect student decisions to work during the school term. This study reviews and summarizes the literature on the effect that employment during high school has on academic achievement. The available evidence suggests that part-time jobs for high school students are beneficial as long as the number of hours…

  9. What Does Quality Programming Mean for High Achieving Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samudzi, Cleo

    2008-01-01

    The Missouri Academy of Science, Mathematics and Computing (Missouri Academy) is a two-year accelerated, early-entrance-to-college, residential school that matches the level, complexity and pace of the curriculum with the readiness and motivation of high achieving high school students. The school is a part of Northwest Missouri State University…

  10. An Analysis of High School Mathematics Achievement and English Language Arts Achievement as Predictors of Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Anthony C.

    2012-01-01

    Science assessments require students to read and comprehend questions and to solve mathematical problems. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the following variables can be used to predict science achievement: English language arts achievement, mathematics achievement, socioeconomic status (SES), limited English proficiency (LEP)…

  11. Supplementary Education: The Hidden Curriculum of High Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edmund W., Ed.; Bridglall, Beatrice L., Ed.; Meroe, Aundra Saa, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    In this book, the editors argue that while access to schools that enable and expect academic achievement is a necessary ingredient for the education of students, schools alone may not be sufficient to ensure universally high levels of academic development. Supplemental educational experiences may also be needed. The idea of supplementary education…

  12. Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; Rajeswari, K.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the influence of self-esteem on academic achievement among high school students in Miandoab City of Iran. The methodology of the research is descriptive and correlation that descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Statistical Society includes male and female high…

  13. Student Achievement Levels Climb at Ribault Senior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Profiles, Programs & Products, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Ribault (Florida) Senior High School has reported a dramatic increase in student achievement levels since implementing a comprehensive college preparation curriculum. Among the program changes that contributed to those gains are: (1) the establishment and consistent enforcement of a strong discipline program, including rules for student conduct, a…

  14. Middle School Practices Improve Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Steven B.; Flowers, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Examined how interdisciplinary team practices and classroom instructional practices affected student achievement in high poverty middle schools in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Found that when the combined effects of family poverty level, teaming and common planning time, and duration of teaming were considered, there was a relationship…

  15. Student Achievement through the Development of Complete High School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamphere, Michael Frederick, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation undertook an investigation of school culture and achievement in the high school setting. The national data set ELS:2002 was used as the pool of variables because it allows for a complete picture of school culture comprising students, parents, administrators, and teachers. The data were selected based on current literature and…

  16. Mercer Middle School Case Study: High Science and Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    To spotlight effective practices, the Washington State Board of Education (SBE) is highlighting schools that are closing achievement gaps and performing at high levels. In 2009, the SBE partnered with the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) to create the Washington Accountability Index. The Index is a new way to measure schools'…

  17. Analysis of Three High-Achieving Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Chae, Jeong-Lim; Schinck-Mikel, Amelie G.; Watson, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an in-depth cross-case analysis of three high-achieving young adolescent girls who had contrasting mathematics learning experiences during the first year of middle school. In particular, this study examines the foundation for their motivation, as well as the dominant mode of learning and academic engagement in relation to three…

  18. The High Trust Classroom: Raising Achievement from the Inside Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lonnie

    2009-01-01

    This book provides a roadmap to developing a high-trust classroom, a classroom: (1) With increased student achievement; (2) With few discipline problems; (3) Where students are intrinsically motivated; and (4) Where the teacher can confidently use creative lesson planning. The author presents a simple step by step approach to earning the trust of…

  19. Best Practices for Achieving High, Rapid Reading Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbo, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The percentage of students who read at the proficient level on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has not improved, and is appallingly low. In order for students to achieve high reading gains and become life-long readers, reading comprehension and reading enjoyment must be the top two goals. This article presents several…

  20. Relationship between High School Leadership Team Practices and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Timothy M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated if a relationship existed between student achievement in 10th grade Missouri Assessment Program mathematics and 11th grade communication arts scores in 2007 and high school leadership team perceptions of the extent to which they demonstrated leadership practices. The secondary purpose was to compare perceptional…

  1. Achievement of U.S. High-School Physics Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandavarkar, Marilda S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reports results of the Second International Science Study concerning achievement in physics of U.S. high school students. Makes comparisons between students of 13 other countries and U.S. students, between first- and second-year U.S. physics students, and between U.S. students tested in the mid-1980s and those tested in 1970. (MDH)

  2. Progress Lags in High School, Especially for Advanced Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines trends in the achievement of high school students on the state reading/English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests used for accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). This study confirms that there is reason for concern about…

  3. Parent Involvement Practices of High-Achieving Elementary Science Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Samara Susan

    This study addressed a prevalence of low achievement in science courses in an urban school district in Georgia. National leaders and educators have identified the improvement of science proficiency as critical to the future of American industry. The purpose of this study was to examine parent involvement in this school district and its contribution to the academic achievement of successful science students. Social capital theory guided this study by suggesting that students achieve best when investments are made into their academic and social development. A collective case study qualitative research design was used to interview 9 parent participants at 2 elementary schools whose children scored in the exceeds category on the Science CRCT. The research questions focused on what these parents did at home to support their children's academic achievement. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview protocol and analyzed through the categorical aggregation of transcribed interviews. Key findings revealed that the parents invested time and resources in 3 practices: communicating high expectations, supporting and developing key skills, and communicating with teachers. These findings contribute to social change at both the local and community level by creating a starting point for teachers, principals, and district leaders to reexamine the value of parent input in the educational process, and by providing data to support the revision of current parent involvement policies. Possibilities for further study building upon the findings of this study may focus on student perceptions of their parents' parenting as it relates to their science achievement.

  4. The Will to Achieve: A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of African American High Achieving Students and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Natalie Faye

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to understand the experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents. The experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents have been missing from literature on the academic achievement of African American students. Much of the literature that has been published…

  5. Are language-based activities in science effective for all students, including low achievers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivard, Léonard P.

    2004-05-01

    The study investigated achievement status as a factor determining the use of language-based activities for learning science. A total of 154 eighth-grade students were randomly assigned to four groups, all stratified for gender and achievement level. The treatments involved various combinations of talk and writing, and descriptive and explanatory tasks. The dependent measures included scores on multiple choice tests obtained at three times during the study. Records of student talk and writing were also analyzed to identify patterns of differences between groups of achievers. The findings suggested that low achievers complete more problems, and develop better understanding and comprehension of ecology concepts when they have engaged in peer discussions of explanatory tasks. In comparison, high achievers benefit more from writing than talking, and writing explanations enhances comprehension more than restricted writing activities.

  6. Experiences of High-Achieving High School Students Who Have Taken Multiple Concurrent Advanced Placement Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Problem: An increasing number of high-achieving American high school students are enrolling in multiple Advanced Placement (AP) courses. As a result, high schools face a growing need to understand the impact of taking multiple AP courses concurrently on the social-emotional lives of high-achieving students. Procedures: This phenomenological…

  7. Junior Achievement Lesson Plans and Activity Ideas, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junior Achievemnt, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO.

    This packet contains economics lesson plans and activities for the high school student. Detailed lesson plans and worksheets address the following concepts: (1) stock market; (2) economics of water; (3) diaper economics; (4) quality; (5) scarcity; (6) steps to success; (7) effective marketing; (8) careers and success; (9) interviewing tips and…

  8. Interface Strategy To Achieve Tunable High Frequency Attenuation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hualiang; Zhang, Haiqian; Ji, Guangbin; Xu, Zhichuan J

    2016-03-16

    Among all polarizations, the interface polarization effect is the most effective, especially at high frequency. The design of various ferrite/iron interfaces can significantly enhance the materials' dielectric loss ability at high frequency. This paper presents a simple method to generate ferrite/iron interfaces to enhance the microwave attenuation at high frequency. The ferrites were coated onto carbonyl iron and could be varied to ZnFe2O4, CoFe2O4, Fe3O4, and NiFe2O4. Due to the ferrite/iron interface inducing a stronger dielectric loss effect, all of these materials achieved broad effective frequency width at a coating layer as thin as 1.5 mm. In particular, an effective frequency width of 6.2 GHz could be gained from the Fe@NiFe2O4 composite. PMID:26918285

  9. Unlocking Emergent Talent: Supporting High Achievement of Low-Income, High Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Clarenbach, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This report takes a comprehensive look at achievement for low-income promising learners--past, present, and future. At its core, it challenges the nation to move beyond its near-singular focus of achieving minimum performance for all students, to identifying and developing the talent of all students who are capable of high achievement, including…

  10. How Curriculum and Classroom Achievement Predict Teacher Time on Lecture- and Inquiry-Based Mathematics Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Julia H.; Rita Karam; Pane, John F.; Junker, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    This study drew on data from a large, randomized trial of Cognitive Tutor Algebra (CTA) in high-poverty settings to investigate how mathematics curricula and classroom achievement related to teacher reports of time spent on inquiry-based and lecture-based mathematics activities. We found that teachers using the CTA curriculum reported more time on…

  11. "It's a Way of Life for Us": High Mobility and High Achievement in Department of Defense Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smrekar, Claire E.; Owens, Debra E.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the academic performance of students in U.S. Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) schools, which have high student mobility. Some observers contend that these students' high achievement is a function of their middle class family and community characteristics. Asserts that DoDEA schools simultaneously "do the right things" and…

  12. Concept Learning for Achieving Personalized Ontologies: An Active Learning Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şensoy, Murat; Yolum, Pinar

    In many multiagent approaches, it is usual to assume the existence of a common ontology among agents. However, in dynamic systems, the existence of such an ontology is unrealistic and its maintenance is cumbersome. Burden of maintaining a common ontology can be alleviated by enabling agents to evolve their ontologies personally. However, with different ontologies, agents are likely to run into communication problems since their vocabularies are different from each other. Therefore, to achieve personalized ontologies, agents must have a means to understand the concepts used by others. Consequently, this paper proposes an approach that enables agents to teach each other concepts from their ontologies using examples. Unlike other concept learning approaches, our approach enables the learner to elicit most informative examples interactively from the teacher. Hence, the learner participates to the learning process actively. We empirically compare the proposed approach with the previous concept learning approaches. Our experiments show that using the proposed approach, agents can learn new concepts successfully and with fewer examples.

  13. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed. PMID:25973781

  14. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-05-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed.

  15. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  16. Progress on achieving the ICF conditions needed for high gain

    SciTech Connect

    Lindl, J.D.

    1988-12-23

    Progress during the past two years has moved us much closer to demonstrating the scientific and technological requirements for high gain ICF in the laboratory. This progress has been made possible by operating at the third harmonic of 1..mu..m light which dramatically reduces concern about hot electrons and by advances in diagnostics such as 100 ps x-ray framing cameras which greatly increase the data available from each experiment. Making use of many of these new capabilities, major improvements in confinement conditions have been achieved for ICF implosions. In particular, in an optimized hohlraum on Nova, radiation driven implosions with convergence ratio in excess of 30 (volume compression /approximately/3 /times/ 10/sup 4/) have performed essentially as predicted by spherical implosion calculations. This paper presents these results as well as examples of advances in several other areas and discusses the implications for the future of ICF with lasers and heavy ion beam drivers. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs—Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  18. Achieving ultra-high temperatures with a resistive emitter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Tom; Franks, Greg; Holmes, Nicholas; LaVeigne, Joe; Matis, Greg; McHugh, Steve; Norton, Dennis; Vengel, Tony; Lannon, John; Goodwin, Scott

    2016-05-01

    The rapid development of very-large format infrared detector arrays has challenged the IR scene projector community to also develop larger-format infrared emitter arrays to support the testing of systems incorporating these detectors. In addition to larger formats, many scene projector users require much higher simulated temperatures than can be generated with current technology in order to fully evaluate the performance of their systems and associated processing algorithms. Under the Ultra High Temperature (UHT) development program, Santa Barbara Infrared Inc. (SBIR) is developing a new infrared scene projector architecture capable of producing both very large format (>1024 x 1024) resistive emitter arrays and improved emitter pixel technology capable of simulating very high apparent temperatures. During earlier phases of the program, SBIR demonstrated materials with MWIR apparent temperatures in excess of 1400 K. New emitter materials have subsequently been selected to produce pixels that achieve even higher apparent temperatures. Test results from pixels fabricated using the new material set will be presented and discussed. A 'scalable' Read In Integrated Circuit (RIIC) is also being developed under the same UHT program to drive the high temperature pixels. This RIIC will utilize through-silicon via (TSV) and Quilt Packaging (QP) technologies to allow seamless tiling of multiple chips to fabricate very large arrays, and thus overcome the yield limitations inherent in large-scale integrated circuits. Results of design verification testing of the completed RIIC will be presented and discussed.

  19. The Importance of Physical Activity in Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Laura J.; VanHeest, Jaci L.

    2007-01-01

    The most significant concern within the US educational community is the academic achievement gap. Investigation of the achievement gap reveals that minority students across all levels of education are not meeting the same academic measures as their non-Hispanic White peers. In addition, a disproportionate number of minority children are identified…

  20. Dynamically Achieved Active Site Precision in Enzyme Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus The grand challenge in enzymology is to define and understand all of the parameters that contribute to enzymes’ enormous rate accelerations. The property of hydrogen tunneling in enzyme reactions has moved the focus of research away from an exclusive focus on transition state stabilization toward the importance of the motions of the heavy atoms of the protein, a role for reduced barrier width in catalysis, and the sampling of a protein conformational landscape to achieve a family of protein substates that optimize enzyme–substrate interactions and beyond. This Account focuses on a thermophilic alcohol dehydrogenase for which the chemical step of hydride transfer is rate determining across a wide range of experimental conditions. The properties of the chemical coordinate have been probed using kinetic isotope effects, indicating a transition in behavior below 30 °C that distinguishes nonoptimal from optimal C–H activation. Further, the introduction of single site mutants has the impact of either enhancing or eliminating the temperature dependent transition in catalysis. Biophysical probes, which include time dependent hydrogen/deuterium exchange and fluorescent lifetimes and Stokes shifts, have also been pursued. These studies allow the correlation of spatially resolved transitions in protein motions with catalysis. It is now possible to define a long-range network of protein motions in ht-ADH that extends from a dimer interface to the substrate binding domain across to the cofactor binding domain, over a distance of ca. 30 Å. The ongoing challenge to obtaining spatial and temporal resolution of catalysis-linked protein motions is discussed. PMID:25539048

  1. Spatial Experiences of High Academic Achievers: Insights from a Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weckbacher, Lisa Marie; Okamoto, Yukari

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the relationship between types of spatial experiences and spatial abilities among 13- to 14-year-old high academic achievers. Each participant completed two spatial tasks and a survey assessing favored spatial activities across five categories (computers, toys, sports, music, and art) and three developmental periods (early…

  2. How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been used in a large number of fields, such as chemical, agricultural and biopharmaceutical industries. The enzyme production rate and yield are the main factors to consider when choosing the appropriate expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant enzymes have been expressed in bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria), filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and yeasts (e.g., Pichia pastoris). The favorable and very advantageous characteristics of these species have resulted in an increasing number of biotechnological applications. Bacterial hosts (e.g., E. coli) can be used to quickly and easily overexpress recombinant enzymes; however, bacterial systems cannot express very large proteins and proteins that require post-translational modifications. The main bacterial expression hosts, with the exception of lactic acid bacteria and filamentous fungi, can produce several toxins which are not compatible with the expression of recombinant enzymes in food and drugs. However, due to the multiplicity of the physiological impacts arising from high-level expression of genes encoding the enzymes and expression hosts, the goal of overproduction can hardly be achieved, and therefore, the yield of recombinant enzymes is limited. In this review, the recent strategies used for the high-level expression of microbial enzymes in the hosts mentioned above are summarized and the prospects are also discussed. We hope this review will contribute to the development of the enzyme-related research field. PMID:23686280

  3. Effects of Partner's Ability on the Achievement and Conceptual Organization of High-Achieving Fifth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Glenda; Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Investigates high-achieving fifth-grade students' achievement gains and conceptual reorganization on convection. Features an instructional sequence of three dyadic inquiry investigations related to convection currents as well as pre- and post-assessment consisting of a multiple-choice test, a card sorting task, construction of a concept map, and…

  4. Comparison of the Level of Using Metacognitive Strategies during Study between High Achieving and Low Achieving Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doganay, Ahmet; Demir, Ozden

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to compare the level of using metacognitive strategies during study between high achieving and low achieving prospective classroom teachers. This study was designed as a mixed method study. Metacognitive Learning Strategies Scale developed by Namlu (2004) was used to measure the use of metacognitive strategies…

  5. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Mathematics between Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Fifth Grade Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathbone, A. Sue

    Possible gender differences in attitudes toward mathematics were studied between low-achieving and high-achieving fifth-grade students in selected elementary schools within a large, metropolitan area. The attitudes of pre-adolescent children at an intermediate grade level were assessed to determine the effects of rapidly emerging gender-related…

  6. Achieving High Throughput for Data Transfer over ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.; Townsend, Jeffrey N.

    1996-01-01

    File-transfer rates for ftp are often reported to be relatively slow, compared to the raw bandwidth available in emerging gigabit networks. While a major bottleneck is disk I/O, protocol issues impact performance as well. Ftp was developed and optimized for use over the TCP/IP protocol stack of the Internet. However, TCP has been shown to run inefficiently over ATM. In an effort to maximize network throughput, data-transfer protocols can be developed to run over UDP or directly over IP, rather than over TCP. If error-free transmission is required, techniques for achieving reliable transmission can be included as part of the transfer protocol. However, selected image-processing applications can tolerate a low level of errors in images that are transmitted over a network. In this paper we report on experimental work to develop a high-throughput protocol for unreliable data transfer over ATM networks. We attempt to maximize throughput by keeping the communications pipe full, but still keep packet loss under five percent. We use the Bay Area Gigabit Network Testbed as our experimental platform.

  7. High-Achieving High School Students and Not so High-Achieving College Students: A Look at Lack of Self-Control, Academic Ability, and Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honken, Nora B.; Ralston, Patricia A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among lack of self-control, academic ability, and academic performance for a cohort of freshman engineering students who were, with a few exceptions, extremely high achievers in high school. Structural equation modeling analysis led to the conclusion that lack of self-control in high school, as measured by…

  8. Learning Styles and High School Students' Chemistry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of students' learning styles on their chemistry achievement, and whether matching between teaching and learning styles also affects students' chemistry achievement. Two hundred and sixty-five tenth-grade students enrolled in a chemistry course and seven chemistry teachers participated in…

  9. Does Recreational Computer Use Affect High School Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Berland, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the relationship between student academic achievement and use of computers for fun and video gaming has been described from a multitude of perspectives, from positive, to negative, to neutral. However, recent research has indicated that computer use and video gaming may be positively associated with achievement, yet these studies…

  10. Student Perception of Academic Achievement Factors at High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahar, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the quality of the "product" is elemental in education, and most studies depend on observational data about student achievement factors, focusing overwhelmingly on quantitative data namely achievement scores, school data like attendance, facilities, expenditure class size, etc. But there is little evidence of learner…

  11. Effects of a Collaborative Science Intervention on High Achieving Students' Learning Anxiety and Attitudes toward Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zuway-R.

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of a collaborative science intervention on high achieving students' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. Thirty-seven eighth-grade high achieving students (16 boys and 21 girls) were selected as an experimental group who joined a 20-week collaborative science intervention, which integrated and utilized an innovative teaching strategy. Fifty-eight eighth-grade high achieving students were selected as the comparison group. The Secondary School Student Questionnaire was conducted to measure all participants' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. In addition, 12 target students from the experimental group (i.e., six active and six passive students) were recruited for weekly classroom observations and follow-up interviews during the intervention. Both quantitative and qualitative findings revealed that experimental group students experienced significant impact as seen through increased attitudes and decreased anxiety of learning science. Implications for practice and research are provided.

  12. Achievement of Hispanic Students in American High Schools: Background Characteristics and Achievement. Contractor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Francois; Fernandez, Roberto M.

    Presenting data and analyses from the first wave of the study "High School and Beyond" (HS&B), a longitudinal study of United States high school sophomores and seniors, the report focuses on the composition of the Hispanic tenth and twelfth grade student population with respect to various characteristics; i.e., language use and proficiency, length…

  13. Threatened and Placed at Risk: High Achieving African American Males in Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Ebony O.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the risk and protective factors of 11 high-achieving African American males attending 4 urban charter high schools in a Midwestern city to determine what factors account for their resilience and success in mathematics courses, and in high school more generally. This research was guided by a Phenomenological Variant of…

  14. Preferences of High Achieving High School Students in Their Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2010-01-01

    The intent of this study was to identify the needs and preference of high-achieving high school students. In terms of career related programs in high school, students listed AP courses and mentoring as their preferred career-related programs. Also, students stated that career guidance by counselors, workshops or sessions, and tech prep were the…

  15. The Effect of Music Participation on Mathematical Achievement and Overall Academic Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, H. A.; Stephens, L. J.

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted on high school students, comparing those with some music credits to those with none. No statistically significant difference was found in their mean math grade point averages (GPA) or their mean cumulative GPAs. Students were then separated into two groups based on the number of music credits. Students who had earned at least…

  16. Academic attainment and the high school science experiences among high-achieving African American males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trice, Rodney Nathaniel

    This study examines the educational experiences of high achieving African American males. More specifically, it analyzes the influences on their successful navigation through high school science. Through a series of interviews, observations, questionnaires, science portfolios, and review of existing data the researcher attempted to obtain a deeper understanding of high achieving African American males and their limitations to academic attainment and high school science experiences. The investigation is limited to ten high achieving African American male science students at Woodcrest High School. Woodcrest is situated at the cross section of a suburban and rural community located in the southeastern section of the United States. Although this investigation involves African American males, all of whom are successful in school, its findings should not be generalized to this nor any other group of students. The research question that guided this study is: What are the limitations to academic attainment and the high school science experiences of high achieving African American males? The student participants expose how suspension and expulsion, special education placement, academic tracking, science instruction, and teacher expectation influence academic achievement. The role parents play, student self-concept, peer relationships, and student learning styles are also analyzed. The anthology of data rendered three overarching themes: (1) unequal access to education, (2) maintenance of unfair educational structures, and (3) authentic characterizations of African American males. Often the policies and practices set in place by school officials aid in creating hurdles to academic achievement. These policies and practices are often formed without meaningful consideration of the unintended consequences that may affect different student populations, particularly the most vulnerable. The findings from this study expose that high achieving African American males face major

  17. Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

  18. Success Despite Socioeconomics: A Case Study of a High-Achieving, High-Poverty School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Thomas Brent; Smith, Samuel J.; Claxton, Russell L.

    2012-01-01

    This case study of a high-achieving, high-poverty school describes the school's leadership, culture, and programs that contributed to its success. Data were collected from two surveys (the School Culture Survey and the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education), observations at the school site, and interviews with school personnel. The…

  19. "Brains before "Beauty"?" High Achieving Girls, School and Gender Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky; Read, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In recent years educational policy on gender and achievement has concentrated on boys' underachievement, frequently comparing it with the academic success of girls. This has encouraged a perception of girls as the "winners" of the educational stakes and assumes that they no longer experience the kinds of gender inequalities identified in earlier…

  20. Cooperative Learning: A Standard for High Achievement. The Nutshell Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, R. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This book reveals some of the structural complexities involved in implementing authentic cooperative learning in the classroom. It also suggests that when full cooperative learning structures are implemented, the benefits in student achievement often can be astounding. Descriptions, decisions, designs, and developments, a simple four-part scheme,…

  1. Dominant Achievement Goals across Tracks in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheltinga, Peter A. M.; Kuyper, Hans; Timmermans, Anneke C.; van der Werf, Greetje P. C.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant achievement goals (DAGs) of 7,008 students in the third grade of Dutch secondary education (US grade 9) were investigated, based on Elliot & McGregors' 2 × 2 framework (2001), in relation to track-level and motivational variables. We found the mastery-approach goal and the performance-approach goal, generally considered adaptive,…

  2. The Relationship of Participation in Extracurricular Activities to Student Achievement, Student Attendance, and Student Behavior in a Nebraska School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Andrew D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine possible relationships between participation in extracurricular activities and student achievement, participation in extracurricular activities and attendance, and participation in extracurricular activities and behavior. The setting for this study was a high school in western Nebraska. Data for 275 of the…

  3. Middle Level Activities Programs: Helping Achieve Academic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovland, Don

    1990-01-01

    The middle school athletic program should be based on the same philosophy governing academics and nonathletic activities. Essential criteria include total participation, no emphasis on winning, administrative and staff encouragement, short athletic sessions providing several choices, no tournaments or community "all-star" teams, appropriately…

  4. Asymmetric hydrogenation of ketones: Tactics to achieve high reactivity, enantioselectivity, and wide scope

    PubMed Central

    Ohkuma, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Ru complexes with chiral diphosphines and amine-based ligands achieve high catalytic activity and enantioselectivity for the hydrogenation of ketones under neutral to slightly basic conditions. The chiral environment is controllable by changing the combination of these two ligands. A concerted six-membered transition state is proposed to be the origin of the high reactivity. The η6-arene/TsDPEN–Ru and MsDPEN–Cp*Ir catalysts effect the asymmetric reaction under slightly acidic conditions. A variety of chiral secondary alcohols are obtained in high enantiomeric excess. PMID:20228621

  5. Effects of School-Based Physical Activity Interventions on Cognition and Academic Achievement: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mura, Gioia; Vellante, Marcello; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Schools are an ideal setting to implement physical activity programs targeted at youths' learning and intellectual abilities, as exercise has been associated with improvement in cognitive skills and academic proficiency. A systematic review of the literature was performed to examine the effects of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and cognitive outcomes. A search for relevant papers was carried out on PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar. Only quasi-experimental and experimental studies were included, if focused on school-based physical activity interventions targeting 3 to 18 year-old healthy pupils, and designed to establish a relationship between exercise performed in a school setting and cognitive/academic performance. Thirty-one papers were retrieved by the search, reporting the findings of twenty-eight school-based physical activity interventions. Most of the included studies were published in the past five years. A large majority of the studies showed positive results in terms of academic achievement and, above all, cognitive skills. In the recent years, the number of studies on school-based physical interventions aimed to establish a relationship between physical activity performed in school setting and cognitive/academic outcomes significantly increased, as well as high quality assessments and designs. This review highlights the effectiveness of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and, above all, on youths' cognitive performance. Some interesting findings come from studies assessing brain functional changes, from interventions targeting culturally diverse or low-income samples, and from interventions where physical activity is in the form of active videogames. PMID:26556088

  6. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement in a Group of High, Medium, and Low Secondary Public High School Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas-Brantley, Betty J.

    This study investigated the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement in a group of 150 high, medium, and low achievers at a large midwestern public high school. Correlating data from the Coopersmith Inventory of self-esteem with grades, cumulative grade point averages, and class rank, the study disclosed a positive correlation…

  7. Does Participation in Extracurricular Activities Impact Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abruzzo, Kristen J.; Lenis, Cristina; Romero, Yansi V.; Maser, Kevin J.; Morote, Elsa-Sofia

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in two high schools located in suburban, Long Island, New York, with a predominantly white population. The respondents in this study consisted of 234, 11th grade students. The data was analyzed using the structural equation model. Findings show that there is a positive correlation between percent of participation in…

  8. Examining Organizational Practices That Predict Persistence among High-Achieving Black Males in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth Alonzo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: This article summarizes an increasing trend of antideficit Black male research in mathematics and highlights opportunities to add to the research. A review of the literature shows that antideficit researchers often examine relationships between individual traits and persistence of high-achieving Black males in mathematics.…

  9. Relationships among Stress, Coping, and Mental Health in High-Achieving High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Hardesty, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among stress, coping, and mental health in 139 students participating in an International Baccalaureate (IB) high school diploma program. Mental health was assessed using both positive indicators (life satisfaction, academic achievement, academic self-efficacy) and negative indicators (psychopathology) of…

  10. The Strengths of High-Achieving Black High School Students in a Racially Diverse Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Kris; Chaney, Cassandra; Jones, Derrick

    2012-01-01

    Robert Hill (1972) identified strengths of Black families: strong kinship bonds, strong work orientation, adaptability of family roles, high achievement orientation, and religious orientation. Some suggest these strengths sustain the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual needs of Blacks. This study used narratives and survey data from a…

  11. Relationship between High School Mathematical Achievement and Quantitative GPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Halpin, Glennelle; Halpin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The demand for STEM graduates has increased, but the number of incoming freshmen who declare a STEM major has remained stagnant. High school courses, such as calculus, can open or close the gate for students interested in careers in STEM. The purpose of this study was to determine if high school mathematics preparation was a significant…

  12. Practically Perfect in Every Way: Can Reframing Perfectionism for High-Achieving Undergraduates Impact Academic Resilience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Mary J.; Dickinson, David A. G.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on a pan-disciplinary scheme that targeted high-achieving undergraduate students. Earlier research from the scheme argued that high achievers have discernibly different learning and personal development support needs. One of the most frequent self-reported challenges within this high-achieving group is perfectionism. This…

  13. The Relationship to Achievement on the California High School Exit Exam for Language Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Paul A.; Gopal, Malati

    2003-01-01

    Examines first year results of the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) required for students to earn a high school diploma. Results suggest this high stakes test failed to meet legislative objectives to increase achievement and close the achievement gap. Instead, language-minority students with passing scores achieved significantly below…

  14. An active control strategy for achieving weak radiator structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naghshineh, K. . Acoustics and Radar Technology Lab.); Koopmann, G.H. . Center for Acoustics and Vibration)

    1994-01-01

    A general control strategy is presented for active suppression of total radiated sound power from harmonically excited structures based on the measurement of their response. Using the measured response of the structure together with knowledge of its structural mobility, and equivalent primary excitation force is found at discrete points along the structure. Using this equivalent primary force and performing a quadratic optimization of the power radiated form the structure, a set of control forces is found at selected points on the structure that results in minimum radiated sound power. A numerical example of this strategy is presented for a simply supported beam in a rigid baffle excited by a harmonic plane wave incident at an oblique angle. A comparison of the response of the beam with and without control forces shows a large reduction in the controlled response displacement magnitude. In addition, as the result of the action of the control forces, the magnitude of the wave number spectrum of the beam's response in the supersonic region is decreased substantially. The effect of the number and location of the actuators on reductions in sound power level is also studied. The actuators located at the anti-nodes of structural modes within the supersonic region together with those located near boundaries are found to be the most effective in controlling the radiation of sound from a structure.

  15. Dry Blending to Achieve Isotopic Dilution of Highly Enriched Uranium Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Roger Neil; Chipman, Nathan Alan; Rajamani, R. K.

    2001-04-01

    The end of the cold war produced large amounts of excess fissile materials in the United States and Russia. The Department of Energy has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies for disposition of these excess materials. To date, many of these planning strategies have included isotopic dilution of highly enriched uranium as a means of reducing the proliferation and safety risks. Isotopic dilution by dry blending highly enriched uranium with natural and/or depleted uranium has been identified as one non-aqueous method to achieve these risk (proliferation and criticality safety) reductions. This paper reviews the technology of dry blending as applied to free flowing oxide materials.

  16. An investigation into high-achiever and low-achiever knowledge organisation and knowledge processing in concept mapping: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siew Lian, Mary Wong

    1998-09-01

    This study used concept map content analysis and interviews to gain insights into the knowledge organisation and knowledge processing of pre-service teachers. Forty-eight preservice teachers of elementary science from a teachers’ training college in Sarawak, Malaysia, participated in this study. Correlations between achievement and five concept map characteristics showed that there were significant positive correlations ( p<.01) between achievement and: the number of appropriate links; the average number of appropriate concepts per cluster; and, the hierarchy score of subjects’ concept maps, and significant negative correlations ( p<.01) between achievement and: the number of inappropriate links; and, the average number of inappropriate concepts per cluster. Interviews with high-achievers and lowachievers revealed that there were differences in the way they processed knowledge during concept mapping. The high-achievers were more thorough than were the low-achievers in cognitive processing of knowledge, taking time to make sense of concepts, sort and group concepts, form relevant links between concepts, and organise concepts hierarchically. Active cognitive processing of knowledge seems to be related to more complex, well-integrated cognitive structures for the material learned.

  17. Gender, Student Motivation and Academic Achievement in a Midsized Wisconsin High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutzke, Steven Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated relationships among gender, academic motivation and achievement in a mid-sized Wisconsin high school. A questionnaire was developed that focused on perceived ability, achievement motives and achievement goals. Interviews with teachers focused on relationships among academic motivation and gender achievement.…

  18. Achieving high CRI from warm to super white

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Edward; Tormey, Ellen S.

    2007-09-01

    Light sources which produce a high color rendering index (CRI) have many applications in the lighting industry today. High color rendering accents the rich color which abounds in nature, interior design, theatrical costumes and props, clothing and fabric, jewelry, and machine vision applications. Multi-wavelength LED sources can pump phosphors at multiple stokes shift emission regimes and when combined with selected direct emission sources can allow for greater flexibility in the production of warm-white and cool white light of specialty interest. Unique solutions to R8 and R14 CRI >95 at 2850K, 4750K, 5250K, and 6750K presented.

  19. Impact of learning orientation on African American children's attitudes toward high-achieving peers.

    PubMed

    Marryshow, Derrick; Hurley, Eric A; Allen, Brenda A; Tyler, Kenneth M; Boykin, A Wade

    2005-01-01

    This study examined Ogbu's widely accepted thesis that African American students reject high academic achievement because they perceive its limited utility in a world where their upward mobility is constrained by racial discrimination. Boykin's psychosocial integrity model contends that Black students value high achievement but that discrepancies between their formative cultural experiences and those imposed in school lead them to reject the modes of achievement available in classrooms. Ninety Black children completed a measure of attitudes toward students who achieve via mainstream or African American cultural values. Participants rejected the mainstream achievers and embraced the African American cultural achievers. Moreover, they expected their teachers to embrace the mainstream achievers and reject those who achieved through high-verve behavior. Results suggest that Boykin's thesis is a needed refinement to Ogbu's ideas. They indicate that Black children may reject not high achievement but some of the mainstream cultural values and behaviors on which success in mainstream classrooms is made contingent. PMID:16402748

  20. The Effects of Extracurricular Activities on the Academic Achievement of Seventh and Eighth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Sudhir K.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the effects of extracurricular activities on academic achievement of seventh and eighth graders. This study compared the academic achievements of participants and non-participants in Mathematics and Language Arts. The three different measurements used for the academic achievement were TCAP, ThinkLink, and GPA…

  1. Technology's Achilles Heel: Achieving High-Quality Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gene E.

    2010-01-01

    An inherent characteristic of technology education is the continual development of new technologies and creating innovative applications of already existing technologies. As exciting as these innovations can be, technology educators and school staffs are frequently challenged to accomplish high levels of implementation. The metaphor of the…

  2. Vocational Interests of Intellectually Gifted and Highly Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vock, Miriam; Koller, Olaf; Nagy, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vocational interests play a central role in the vocational decision-making process and are decisive for the later job satisfaction and vocational success. Based on Ackerman's (1996) notion of "trait complexes," specific interest profiles of gifted high-school graduates can be expected. Aims: Vocational interests of gifted and highly…

  3. Academic Dishonesty among Gifted and High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    Gifted high school students are essentially absent in the research concerning academic integrity; however, over the past few years, educators of gifted students have noticed an increase in the occurrences of academic dishonesty among students in gifted classrooms (Abilock, 2009). This research may be analyzed to provide some insight into the…

  4. Student Achievement Data Systems in High and Low Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowiak, Jeannie E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in how high and low performing elementary school districts use and analyze data to differentiate instruction, make changes to district/grade level curriculum, determine professional development needs, determine teacher effectiveness, and determine the use of school district…

  5. Community Schools Seek to Improve High School Achievement, College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The Coalition for Community Schools, an alliance of more than 150 national, state, and local organizations, is bringing public schools in partnership with community resources to improve student success. While that might seem like an abstract idea, it has very concrete goals, such as boosting high school graduation rates and college readiness.…

  6. Scientific Reasoning and Achievement in a High School English Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kral, E. A.

    1997-01-01

    A Piagetian-based, systematic instructional theory developed by A. E. Lawson was used as a reasoning model in a 12th-grade English course at Grand Island Senior High in Grand Island, Nebraska, from 1982 to 1991. The thinking patterns that comprised the hypothetical-deductive stage of human intellectual development used in the course were…

  7. Common Core and America's High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    While the merit and politics of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have been much debated and discussed, one topic has been virtually ignored: What do the standards portend for America's high-ability students? This brief addresses that question and provides guidance for CCSS-implementing districts and schools as they seek to help these…

  8. Achieving High Performance with FPGA-Based Computing

    PubMed Central

    Herbordt, Martin C.; VanCourt, Tom; Gu, Yongfeng; Sukhwani, Bharat; Conti, Al; Model, Josh; DiSabello, Doug

    2011-01-01

    Numerous application areas, including bioinformatics and computational biology, demand increasing amounts of processing capability. In many cases, the computation cores and data types are suited to field-programmable gate arrays. The challenge is identifying the design techniques that can extract high performance potential from the FPGA fabric. PMID:21603088

  9. Organizational Citizenship of Faculty and Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaola, Michael F.; Hoy, Wayne K.

    2005-01-01

    All successful organizations, including successful high schools, have employees who go beyond their formal job responsibilities and freely give of their time and energy to succeed. Organ was the first to use the phrase "organizational citizenship behavior" (OCB) to denote organizationally beneficial behavior of workers that was not prescribed but…

  10. High-Achieving Schools Put Equity Front and Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Sonia Caus; Gerzon, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    How does professional learning look and feel in high-poverty schools where every student makes at least one year's worth of progress every year? How do schools and leaders put all the varied components of professional learning together so that they support all students learning every day? What professional learning grounds and sustains…

  11. Principals’ Perception of Influence on Factors Affecting Student Achievement in Low- and High-Achieving Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Collette M.; Owens, Emiel W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare and contrast influences principals have on staffing, curriculum issues, and discipline policies in high- and low-performing urban high schools. The data for the present study were drawn from the first year follow up of the Educational Longitudinal Survey of 2002-2004 (ELS: 02), administered by the National…

  12. Achieving High Reliability Operations Through Multi-Program Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Holly M. Ashley; Ronald K. Farris; Robert E. Richards

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 20 years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has adopted a number of operations and safety-related programs which has each periodically taken its turn in the limelight. As new programs have come along there has been natural competition for resources, focus and commitment. In the last few years, the INL has made real progress in integrating all these programs and are starting to realize important synergies. Contributing to this integration are both collaborative individuals and an emerging shared vision and goal of the INL fully maturing in its high reliability operations. This goal is so powerful because the concept of high reliability operations (and the resulting organizations) is a masterful amalgam and orchestrator of the best of all the participating programs (i.e. conduct of operations, behavior based safety, human performance, voluntary protection, quality assurance, and integrated safety management). This paper is a brief recounting of the lessons learned, thus far, at the INL in bringing previously competing programs into harmony under the goal (umbrella) of seeking to perform regularly as a high reliability organization. In addition to a brief diagram-illustrated historical review, the authors will share the INL’s primary successes (things already effectively stopped or started) and the gaps yet to be bridged.

  13. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  14. Efforts toward achieving an unmanned, high-altitude LTA platform

    SciTech Connect

    Onda, Masahiko; Ford, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    The modern demands for an unmanned aerospace platform, capable of long-duration stationkeeping at high-altitudes, are well-known. Satellites, balloons, and aircraft have traditionally served in the role of platform, facilitating tasks ranging from telecommunications to deep-space astronomy. However, limitations on the performance and flexibility of these systems, as well as the intrinsically high-cost of satellite construction, operation, and repair, warrants development of a supplemental technology for the platform. Much has been written in the literature on the possible advantages of a lighter-than-air (LTA) platform, if such an LTA could be constructed. Potential applications include remote sensing, environmental monitoring, mobile communications, space and polar observations, cargo delivery, military reconnaissance, and others. At present, conventional LTA`s are not capable of serving in the manner specified. Within this context, a research program known as HALROP (High Altitude Long Range Observational Platform) is currently underway. The goal is to create a stratospheric platform, possibly in the form of a next generation LTA vehicle. The authors present a qualitative review of their efforts, focusing on milestones in the HALROP Program. 12 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Achieving high data reduction with integral cubic B-splines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin J.

    1993-01-01

    During geometry processing, tangent directions at the data points are frequently readily available from the computation process that generates the points. It is desirable to utilize this information to improve the accuracy of curve fitting and to improve data reduction. This paper presents a curve fitting method which utilizes both position and tangent direction data. This method produces G(exp 1) non-rational B-spline curves. From the examples, the method demonstrates very good data reduction rates while maintaining high accuracy in both position and tangent direction.

  16. High Achievement in Mathematics Education in India: A Report from Mumbai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Manya

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a study aimed at characterizing the conditions that lead to high achievement in mathematics in India. The study involved eight schools in the greater Mumbai region. The main result of the study is that the notion of high achievement itself is problematic, as reflected in the reports about mathematics achievement within and…

  17. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Student Achievement in a Rural Florida High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Willie A.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement is viewed as critical to the development of effective schools and student achievement. The relationship between parental involvement and achievement test scores at a rural high school in Florida was not known. This high school has not met the state standards as determined by the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT)…

  18. Effects of Project Activities Based on Multiple Intelligences to Elementary School Children's Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Chaeseong; Wang, Kyungsoon

    2001-01-01

    Examines the influence of project activities based on multiple intelligences on the science achievement of elementary school children. Explains the proportions of variance of science achievement by General Intelligence (GI), analyzes Multiple Intelligences (MI), and investigates the influence of project activities that used various aspects of MI.…

  19. Physical Activity, Self-Regulation, and Early Academic Achievement in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Derek R.; McClelland, Megan M.; Loprinzi, Paul; Trost, Stewart G.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated whether active play during recess was associated with self-regulation and academic achievement in a prekindergarten sample. A total of 51 children in classes containing approximately half Head Start children were assessed on self-regulation, active play, and early academic achievement. Path…

  20. Rectangular Dielectric-loaded Structures for Achieving High Acceleration Gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Changbiao; Yakovlev, V. P.; Marshall, T. C.; LaPointe, M. A.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2006-11-27

    Rectangular dielectric-loaded structures are described that may sustain higher acceleration gradients than conventional all-metal structures with similar apertures. One structure is a test cavity designed to ascertain the breakdown limits of dielectrics, while a second structure could be the basis for a two-beam accelerator. CVD diamond is an attractive dielectric for a high-gradient structure, since the published DC breakdown limit for CVD diamond is {approx} 2 GV/m, although the limit has never been determined for RF fields. Here we present a design of a diamond-lined test cavity to measure the breakdown limit. The designed cavity operates at 34 GHz, where with 10-MW input power it is expected to produce an {approx}800 MV/m field on the diamond surface - provided breakdown is avoided. The two channel rectangular dielectric-loaded waveguide could be a two-beam accelerator structure, in which a drive beam is in one channel and an accelerated beam is in the other. The RF power produced by drive bunches in the drive channel is continuously coupled to the acceleration channel. The ratio of fields in the channels (transformer ratio) for the operating mode can be designed by adjusting the dimensions of the structure. An example of the two-channel structure is described, in which a train of five 3-nC drive bunches excites wake fields in the accelerator channel of up to 1.3 GV/m with a transformer ratio of 10 for the design mode.

  1. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L.; Smith, Gregory M.; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today’s OLEDs in performance. PMID:27063414

  2. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L; Smith, Gregory M; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m(2) with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today's OLEDs in performance. PMID:27063414

  3. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L.; Smith, Gregory M.; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-04-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today’s OLEDs in performance.

  4. Beyond Academic Reputation: Factors that Influence the College of First Choice for High Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Holly J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies that have investigated college choice factors for high-achieving students repeatedly cite academic reputation as one of the top indicators of choice but have not indicated why some high-achieving students choose to attend universities with a less prestigious reputation than the more highly prestigious options available to them. The purpose…

  5. The Chinese High School Student's Stress in the School and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 466 Chinese high school students, we examined the relationships between Chinese high school students' stress in the school and their academic achievements. Regression mixture modelling identified two different classes of the effects of Chinese high school students' stress on their academic achievements. One class contained 87% of…

  6. Does High School Facility Quality Affect Student Achievement? A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Urick, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall…

  7. The Effects of Web-Based/Non-Web-Based Problem-Solving Instruction and High/Low Achievement on Students' Problem-Solving Ability and Biology Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wen-Feng; She, Hsiao-Ching; Lee, Yu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two factors: the mode of problem-solving instruction (i.e. Web-based versus non-Web-based) and the level of academic achievement (i.e. high achievers versus low achievers) on students' problem-solving ability and biology achievement. A quasi-experimental design was used, in which the experimental group…

  8. Effects of Activity Based Blended Learning Strategy on Prospective of Teachers' Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelraheem, Ahmed Yousif; Ahmed, Abdelrahman Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the effect of Activity based Blended Learning strategy and Conventional Blended Learning strategy on students' achievement and motivation. Two groups namely, experimental and control group from Sultan Qaboos University were selected randomly for the study. To assess students' achievement in the different groups, pre- and…

  9. Rethinking the Effects of Classroom Activity Structure on the Engagement of Low-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sean; Turner, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: A common perspective found in the literature on classroom activity structures hypothesizes that a whole-class mode of instruction is linked with increased problems of achievement motivation for low-achieving students. If whole-class methods of instruction (e.g., recitation-style question-and-answer sessions) are rich in…

  10. The Impact of Physical Activity and Obesity on Academic Achievement among Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the effect of physical activity and obesity on academic achievement and was based on the premise that the health of a child has an effect on his or her ability to learn and to achieve academically. Specifically, health-related topics of inactivity and obesity were considered. The participants included 12,607 third grade…

  11. An Analysis of Java Programming Behaviors, Affect, Perceptions, and Syntax Errors among Low-Achieving, Average, and High-Achieving Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Andallaza, Thor Collin S.; Castro, Francisco Enrique Vicente G.; Armenta, Marc Lester V.; Dy, Thomas T.; Jadud, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we quantitatively and qualitatively analyze a sample of novice programmer compilation log data, exploring whether (or how) low-achieving, average, and high-achieving students vary in their grasp of these introductory concepts. High-achieving students self-reported having the easiest time learning the introductory programming…

  12. Parent-Child Relations and Psychological Adjustment among High-Achieving Chinese and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Rak, Eniko; Rana, Meenal; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Chinese American students are often perceived as problem-free high achievers. Recent research, however, suggests that high-achieving Chinese American students can experience elevated levels of stress, especially comparing to their peers from other ethnic groups. In this paper, we examine how family dynamics may influence psychological adjustment…

  13. High-Achieving and Average Students' Reading Growth: Contrasting School and Summer Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Much is unknown about how initially high-achieving students grow academically, especially given the measurement issues inherent in assessing growth for the highest performing students. This study compared initially high-achieving and average students' growth in reading (in a cohort of third-grade students from 2,000 schools) over 3 years.…

  14. International Note: Between-Domain Relations of Chinese High School Students' Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yangyang, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the between-domain relations of Chinese high school students' academic achievements. In a sample of 1870 Chinese 10th grade students, the results indicated that Chinese high school students' academic achievements were correlated across nine subjects. In line with the previous Western findings, the findings suggested that…

  15. The Effect of the Time Management Art on Academic Achievement among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zoubi, Maysoon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the effect of the Time Management Art on academic achievement among high school students in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The researcher employed the descriptive-analytic research to achieve the purpose of the study where he chose a sample of (2000) high school female and male students as respondents to the…

  16. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  17. Effects of a Collaborative Science Intervention on High Achieving Students' Learning Anxiety and Attitudes toward Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Zuway-R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a collaborative science intervention on high achieving students' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. Thirty-seven eighth-grade high achieving students (16 boys and 21 girls) were selected as an experimental group who joined a 20-week collaborative science intervention, which integrated and utilized…

  18. Manifest Needs of High Ability Achieving and Underachieving Elementary School Children in a Culturally Disadvantaged Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masih, Lalit K.

    1974-01-01

    Study samples suggest that the high ability underachiever is characterized by low need for order and higher need to belong to supportive groups; the high ability achiever seems more independent and less attached to his peer group. (Author)

  19. The Meaning High-Achieving African-American Males in an Urban High School Ascribe to Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, LaTasha; Davis, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers, educators, administrators, policymakers and members of the general public doubt the prevalence of high-achieving African-American males in urban high schools capable of excelling in mathematics. As part of a larger study, the current study explored the educational experiences of four high-achieving African-American males…

  20. Society of Behavioral Medicine position statement: elementary school-based physical activity supports academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Joanna; Kong, Angela; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Bustamante, Eduardo E; Davis, Catherine L; Pate, Russell R; Wilson, Dawn K

    2014-12-01

    The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) urges elementary schools to provide children with ample opportunities to engage in physical activity during school hours. In addition to promoting overall child health, physical activity also supports academic achievement. In addition to improving their aerobic fitness, regular physical activity improves cognitive function, influences the brain, and improves mood in children. Better aerobic fitness and physical activity are associated with increased grade point averages and standardized test scores. Despite the documented relationship between physical activity, fitness, and academic achievement, few schools have implemented physical activity as a tool to improve academic performance. SBM recommends that elementary schools provide children with the recommended 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during school hours. Further, SBM urges schools to work with the local school districts and state education departments to mandate minimum physical activity time for elementary school physical education. PMID:25584093

  1. Relationship Between Attainment of Recommended Physical Activity Guidelines and Academic Achievement: Undergraduate Students in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Walid El; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We assessed and compared by gender, students’ achievement of recommended guidelines of four PA forms, and the association between guideline achievement of each of the four PA forms and students’ academic performance. Methods: Data (2009-2010) comprised 3,271 students (11 faculties) at Assiut University, Egypt. A self-administered questionnaire measured: moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), muscle-strengthening PA; five socio-demographic variables (gender, age, year of study, father’s education, living arrangements during semester); self-rated health; and, academic performance. We compared the levels of four PA forms, socio-demographic variables, and academic performance by gender. Binary logistic regression examined the factors associated with achieving the guidelines of the four PA forms. Linear regression examined the association between frequency of four PA forms and level of academic performance. Results: Nearly equal proportions of males and females (37%, 36%) achieved the MPA guidelines. Significantly more males achieved the VPA, MVPA, and muscle strengthening PA guidelines. Father’s education was positively associated with achieving all four PA guidelines (with each increasing educational achievement of the father, student’s odds of achieving PA guidelines increased by 7-9%). Students living with their parents or room mates off campus were more likely to achieve the VPA and MVPA guidelines. Students who achieved VPA and MVPA guidelines were more likely to report better academic performance. For all PA forms (except MPA), increasing academic achievement was positively associated with increasing frequency of PA, but standardised Beta (0.05-0.07) suggested a modest correlation between academic achievement and PA frequency. Conclusion: The linear association between frequency of PA and academic achievement, and the finding that the proportions of students who achieved the recommended levels of several

  2. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-29

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. PMID:23277558

  3. Race and Academic Achievement in Racially Diverse High Schools: Opportunity and Stratification.

    PubMed

    Muller, Chandra; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Schiller, Kathryn S; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Frank, Kenneth A

    2010-04-01

    BACKGROUND/CONTEXT: Brown v Board of Education fundamentally changed our nation's schools, yet we know surprisingly little about how and whether they provide equality of educational opportunity. Although substantial evidence suggests that African American and Latino students who attend these schools face fewer learning opportunities than their White counterparts, until now, it has been impossible to examine this using a representative sample because of lack of data. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE/RESEARCH QUESTION/FOCUS OF STUDY: This study uses newly available data to investigate whether racially diverse high schools offer equality of educational opportunity to students from different racial and ethnic groups. This is examined by measuring the relative representation of minority students in advanced math classes at the beginning of high school and estimating whether and how this opportunity structure limits the level of achievement attained by African American and Latino students by the end of high school. SETTING: This study uses data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA) and its partner study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a stratified, nationally representative study of students in U.S. high schools first surveyed in 1994-1995. POPULATION/PARTICIPANTS/SUBJECTS: Two samples of racially diverse high schools were used in the analysis: one with African Americans, Whites, and Asians (26 schools with 3,149 students), and the other with Latinos, Whites, and Asians (22 schools with 2,775 students). RESEARCH DESIGN: Quantitative analyses first assess how high schools vary in the extent to which minority students are underrepresented in advanced sophomore math classes. Hierarchical multilevel modeling is then used to estimate whether racial-ethnic differences in representation in advanced math have an impact on African American and Latino students' achievement by the end of high school, relative to the Whites and Asians

  4. The Effect of Consistent Structured Reading Instruction on High and Low Literacy Achievement in Young Children Who Are Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Sitar, Debbie; Erin, Jane N.; Wormsley, Diane P.; Herlich, Stephanie Leigh

    2009-01-01

    The Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study found no difference between high and low achievers in the development of literacy skills on such measures as age, etiology of visual impairment, family attitudes and behaviors regarding literacy activities, class size, and time spent with a teacher of students with visual impairments. Some…

  5. The impact of collective teacher efficacy on student achievement in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burcham, Mark W.

    This dissertation was designed to examine the impact of collective teacher efficacy on high school science achievement by looking at relationships among collective teacher efficacy, its two constructs, group competence and group task analysis, and high school science achievement scores at four rural high schools in Northwestern North Carolina. The researcher gathered historical test data from the testing coordinator from the school system and then administered the Collective Teacher Efficacy Instrument, developed by Goddard, Hoy, and Woolfolk Hoy (2000), to 24 science teachers from the four high schools. Using this information, the researcher conducted statistical analyses to determine the relationships among collective teacher efficacy, group competence, and group task analysis as compared with the tested science curriculum (physical science, biology, chemistry, and physics). The researcher also examined which construct was the most contributing factor and examined differences in efficacy levels and student achievement levels at each high school. Analysis of the data from this study indicated collective teacher efficacy, as well as its two constructs, group competence and group task analysis, does have a positive impact on student achievement in high school science. Analysis of the data revealed group competence is the major contributing factor for student achievement in biology and group task analysis is the major contributing factor for student achievement in physical science, chemistry, and physics. Further analysis of the data in this study, also revealed that the two high schools with the highest levels of collective teacher efficacy had the highest levels of student achievement.

  6. High Speed Data Bus Active Coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, James J.

    The author discusses the HSDB (high speed data bus) active coupler which provides a typical 13-dB power margin for HSDB systems installed in military aircraft. This high-power margin ensures reliable HSDB operation through fiber-optic component degradation. The active coupler performs optical amplification and signal reshaping functions such that an incoming signal is modified only in amplitude. Signal distortion and jitter are removed by a retiming ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit). The active coupler is modular in design, and plug-in growth for a 38 x 38 user interface is available. The active coupler achieves better than -27 dBm sensitivity at 5 x 10 exp -11 bit error rate and outputs -8 to -12 dBm optical power. The active coupler unit weighs only 6.25 lbs and has a predicted mean time between failure of over 21,000 h.

  7. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui–Yuan; Yu, Zhao–Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun–Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi–Chuan

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30-60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1-5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200-500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application.

  8. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui–Yuan; Yu, Zhao–Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun–Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi–Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30–60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1–5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200–500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application. PMID:26603776

  9. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Yuan; Yu, Zhao-Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun-Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30-60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1-5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200-500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application. PMID:26603776

  10. High school students' perceptions of EFL teacher control orientations and their English academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND. Theories distinguish between student-initiated and teacher-initiated regulation of students' learning activities, or between strong, shared, or loose teacher control during the completion of learning tasks. Empirical validations for such distinctions are scarce, however. AIM. The present study aimed at (a) investigating students' perceptions of control behaviours exhibited by their English teachers; and (b) exploring the contribution of different types of teacher control behaviours to students' cognitive outcomes (English Achievement). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 732 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students studying in three major fields of high school (Mathematics, Natural Science, and Humanities). The participants (16-17 years of age) were selected from third-grade classes of 27 EFL teachers working in 25 high schools of 6 main different geographical regions in the Isfahan province, Iran. METHOD. To obtain a comprehensive picture of different control types exhibited by Iranian EFL teachers, the control subscales of the two existing questionnaires, i.e., the Questionnaire on Instructional Behaviours (QIB), adapted by Den Brok et al. (2004) and the Questionnaire on Lesson Activities (QLA) used by Den Brok (2001) were merged to form the Questionnaire of Teacher Control (QTC). The development of this Persian instrument involved several steps: translation and back translation by the researchers, one expert translator, and two EFL teachers; piloting; and a final administration of the questionnaire to the student sample. With respect to the second aim of the study, data regarding students' performances on the Standardized National English Achievement Tests were gathered from local educational offices and schools. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION. Statistical analyses supported acceptable reliability and validity of the instrument. A main factor structure with three types of teacher control (strong/high, shared/mid, and loose/low) was found to underlie students

  11. An Investigation of Student Characteristics as Related to Achievement in an Individualized High School Biology Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, David L.

    Reported is a study of possible differences in student characteristics between high, expected, and low achievers in an individualized learning biology program. Nine variables, ranging from biographical data through attitudinal data were studied. Effects on achievement and explanation of some of the differences were determined by examination of…

  12. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Student Achievement and Motivation in a High School Geometry Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Joe D.; Hall, Neff

    In this study, the effects of a form of cooperative group instruction (Student Teams Achievement Divisions) on student motivation and achievement in a high school geometry class were examined. Ninety (mostly 10th-grade) students were randomly assigned to either a control group receiving traditional instruction or one of two treatment groups…

  13. The Effects of Explicit Teaching of Metastrategic Knowledge on Low- And High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohar, Anat; Peled, Bracha

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of explicit teaching of metastrategic knowledge (MSK) on gains of low-achieving (LA) and high-achieving (HA) 5th grade students (N=41). Gains in reasoning scores of students from the Experimental group (compared to students from the control group) were obtained on the strategic and on the metastrategic level. Gains…

  14. A Quantitative Comparison of Pennsylvania High School Student Achievement by Middle States Association's Accreditation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    As public school accountability for student achievement has continued to increase, prior to and as a result of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, schools have sought ways of bringing new instructional services to their students to raise their levels of achievement. Some Pennsylvania public high schools have attempted to improve student…

  15. Unforgiving Confucian Culture: A Breeding Ground for High Academic Achievement, Test Anxiety and Self-Doubt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews findings from several studies that contribute to our understanding of cross-cultural differences in academic achievement, anxiety and self-doubt. The focus is on comparisons between Confucian Asian and European regions. Recent studies indicate that high academic achievement of students from Confucian Asian countries is…

  16. An Analysis of Mathematics Course Sequences for Low Achieving Students at a Comprehensive Technical High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, D. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This non-experimental study attempted to determine how the different prescribed mathematic tracks offered at a comprehensive technical high school influenced the mathematics performance of low-achieving students on standardized assessments of mathematics achievement. The goal was to provide an analysis of any statistically significant differences…

  17. Instructional, Transformational, and Managerial Leadership and Student Achievement: High School Principals Make a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jerry W.; Prater, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This statewide study examined the relationships between principal managerial, instructional, and transformational leadership and student achievement in public high schools. Differences in student achievement were found when schools were grouped according to principal leadership factors. Principal leadership behaviors promoting instructional and…

  18. Scholastic Achievement in High School Explained? Validation of a Longitudinal Structural Equations Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellle, Laura; Tuijula, Tiina; Laakkonen, Eero

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to shed light on the mechanisms behind scholastic achievement in high school by testing a structural equations model based on the work by Vermunt (1998). It was presumed that self-regulation of learning would predict scholastic achievement and that learning orientations would predict self-regulation of learning. A…

  19. Predicting Early Academic Failure in High School from Prior Academic Achievement, Psychosocial Characteristics, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casillas, Alex; Robbins, Steve; Allen, Jeff; Kuo, Yi-Lung; Hanson, Mary Ann; Schmeiser, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the differential effects of prior academic achievement, psychosocial, behavioral, demographic, and school context factors on early high school grade point average (GPA) using a prospective study of 4,660 middle-school students from 24 schools. The findings suggest that (a) prior grades and standardized achievement are the…

  20. Accelerated Mathematics and High-Ability Students' Math Achievement in Grades Three and Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the use of a computer-managed integrated learning system entitled Accelerated Math (AM) as a supplement to traditional mathematics instruction on achievement as measured by TerraNova achievement tests of third and fourth grade high-ability students. Gender, socioeconomic status, and…

  1. Early Reading Skills and Academic Achievement Trajectories of Students Facing Poverty, Homelessness, and High Residential Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbers, Janette E.; Cutuli, J. J.; Supkoff, Laura M.; Heistad, David; Chan, Chi-Keung; Hinz, Elizabeth; Masten, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation tested the importance of early academic achievement for later achievement trajectories among 18,011 students grouped by level of socioeconomic risk. Students considered to be at highest risk were those who experienced homelessness or high residential mobility (HHM). HHM students were compared with students eligible for free…

  2. Gender and High School Chemistry: Student Perceptions on Achievement in a Selective Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Andrew; Mills, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on research undertaken in a middle-class Australian school. The focus of the research was on the relationship between gender and students' engagement with high school chemistry. Achievement data from many OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] countries suggest that middle-class girls are achieving equally…

  3. Cohort versus Non-Cohort High School Students' Math Performance: Achievement Test Scores and Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Carol S.; Keener, Dana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare multiple measures of mathematics achievement for 1,378 cohort students who attended the same high school in a district from 9th to 12th grade with non-cohort students in each grade level. Results show that mobility had an impact on math achievement. After accounting for gender, ethnicity, and SES, adjusted…

  4. The Impact of Charter Schools on Promoting High Levels of Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.; Makel, Matthew C.; Rapp, Kelly E.

    2007-01-01

    This study compares achievement levels for high ability students attending charter schools and students in traditional public schools in Georgia. Researchers examined student achievement (as assessed by the state's Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests) using three comparison groups: students in the closest traditional schools with similar grade…

  5. The Impact of Placement on Reading and Mathematics Achievement of Students with High Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Jennifer Stell

    2011-01-01

    The question of where best to educate students with disabilities to maximize their academic achievement has been discussed and researched for over four decades, with inconsistent and contradictory results. This study focused on the mathematics and reading achievement of middle and high school students with mild disabilities in an urban district in…

  6. Parental Involvement, Homework, and TV Time: Direct and Indirect Effects on High School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A set of High School and Beyond data was used to study the effect of three variables on academic achievement. Homework had a positive effect, TV a negative, and parental involvement no direct effect on seniors' achievement scores, but influenced the amount of time students spent on homework. (Author/JAZ)

  7. Low and High Mathematics Achievement in Japanese, Chinese, and American Elementary-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttal, David H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    First and fifth grade students who scored high or low on a mathematics test were tested for intellectual ability and reading achievement. Students and their mothers were interviewed. Results indicated that factors associated with levels of achievement in mathematics operate in a similar fashion across three cultures that differ greatly in their…

  8. The influence of momentary classroom goal structures on student engagement and achievement in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleski, Diana Janet

    Teachers' instructional practices fundamentally shape students' classroom experiences. However, it is still unclear what patterns of instructional practice are related to specific classroom goal structures, and how momentary changes in classroom goal structures affect students' momentary cognitive engagement in high school science. This study examined the relationship between classroom goal structures in high school science and two different learning outcomes: (1) students' cognitive engagement in science and (2) students' science course grades. To achieve this aim, classroom goal structures were examined as both a variable feature of the classroom that shifts from activity to activity (i.e., momentary classroom goal structure), and as a single global characteristic describing the dominant goal structure of a classroom over time (i.e., global classroom goal structure). Students' momentary cognitive engagement significantly increased when instructional moments were mastery or performance goal structured compared to moments that had no identifiable goal structure. However, no relationships were found between global classroom goal structure and cognitive engagement or science course grades.

  9. Effect of bead and illustrations models on high school students' achievement in molecular genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotbain, Yosi; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Stavy, Ruth

    2006-05-01

    Our main goal in this study was to explore whether the use of models in molecular genetics instruction in high school can contribute to students' understanding of concepts and processes in genetics. Three comparable groups of 11th and 12th graders participated: The control group (116 students) was taught in the traditional lecture format, while the others received instructions which integrated a bead model (71 students), or an illustration model (71 students). Similar instructions and the same guiding questions accompanied the two models. We used three instruments: a multiple-choice and an open-ended written questionnaire, as well as personal interviews. Five of the multiple-choice questions were also given to students before receiving their genetics instruction (pretest). We found that students who used one of the two types of models improved their knowledge in molecular genetics compared to the control group. However, the open-ended questions revealed that bead model activity was significantly more effective than illustration activity. On the basis of these findings we conclude that, though it is advisable to use a three-dimensional model, such as the bead model, engaging students in activities with illustrations can still improve their achievement in comparison to traditional instruction.

  10. Manifest Needs of High Ability Achieving and Underachieving Elementary School Children in a Culturally Disadvantaged Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masih, Lalit K.

    1974-01-01

    This study, conducted in conjunction with a larger project entitled "Project Able" (part of the Madison Area Project), compared manifest needs of high ability achieving and underachieving elementary school children in a culturally disadvantaged setting. (EAK)

  11. Understanding the Elements of Operational Reliability: A Key for Achieving High Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews operational reliability and its role in achieving high reliability through design and process reliability. The topics include: 1) Reliability Engineering Major Areas and interfaces; 2) Design Reliability; 3) Process Reliability; and 4) Reliability Applications.

  12. Bullying and Victimization Rates among Gifted and High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Megan Parker; Bain, Sherry K.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying and victimization rates among 90 gifted and nongifted, high-achieving (HA) high school students were assessed by using the Reynolds Bully Victimization Scale (BVS; W. M. Reynolds, 2003). The mean scores indicate that gifted and HA high school students bully others and are victimized by others generally at unelevated rates based on BVS…

  13. A Study of Professional Learning Communities and Science Achievement in Large High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincannon, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the science achievement and high school completion rates of students in a large high school implementing professional learning community concepts and practices with two large high schools not participating in professional learning community concepts and practices. The primary methodology employed was a…

  14. Do Peers Influence Achievement in High School Economics? Evidence from Georgia's Economics End of Course Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christopher; Scafidi, Benjamin; Swinton, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The authors provide the first estimates of the impact of peers on achievement in high school economics. The estimates are obtained by analyzing three years of data on all high school students who take Georgia's required economics course and its accompanying high-stakes End of Course Test (Georgia Department of Education). They use an instrumental…

  15. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Helping All Students Achieve 60 Minutes of Physical Activity Each Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Eloise; Erwin, Heather; Hall, Tina; Heidorn, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance recommends that all schools implement a comprehensive school physical activity program. Physical activity is important to the overall health and well-being of everyone, including all school age children. The benefits of physical activity are well documented and include the…

  16. Scaling up of HIV-TB collaborative activities: Achievements and challenges in India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Rajesh; Shah, Amar; Sachdeva, K S; Sreenivas, A N; Gupta, R S; Khaparde, S D

    2016-01-01

    India has been implementing HIV/TB collaborative activities since 2001 with rapid scale-up of infrastructure across the country during past decade in National AIDS Control Programme and Revised National TB Control Programme. India has shown over 50% reduction in new infections and around 35% reduction in AIDS-related deaths, thereby being one of the success stories globally. Substantial progress in the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities has occurred in India and it is marching towards target set out in the Global Plan to Stop TB and endorsed by the UN General Assembly to halve HIV associated TB deaths by 2015. While the successful approaches have led to impressive gains in HIV/TB control in India, there are emerging challenges including newer pockets with rising HIV trends in North India, increasing drug resistance, high mortality among co-infected patients, low HIV testing rates among TB patients in northern and eastern states in India, treatment delays and drop-outs, stigma and discrimination, etc. In spite of these difficulties, established HIV/TB coordination mechanisms at different levels, rapid scale-up of facilities with decentralisation of treatment services, regular joint supervision and monitoring, newer initiatives like use of rapid diagnostics for early diagnosis of TB among people living with HIV, TB notification, etc. have led to success in combating the threat of HIV/TB in India. This article highlights the steps taken by India, one of the largest HIV/TB programmes in world, in scaling up of the joint HIV-TB collaborative activities, the achievements so far and discusses the emerging challenges which could provide important lessons for other countries in scaling up their programmes. PMID:27235937

  17. Technology Enabled Active Learning (TEAL) in Introductory Physics: Impact on Genders and Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Ruey S.; Chang, Wheijen; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the impact of "Technology Enabled Active Learning" (TEAL) on students learning general physics, focusing on differences between genders and among various achievement levels. A quasi-experimental investigation was conducted on two semesters of courses offered in 2008. Data sources consisted of pre-tests, post-tests, self-report…

  18. The Relationship between Students' Small Group Activities, Time Spent on Self-Study, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp, Rachelle J. A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; van Berkel, Henk J. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the contributions students make to the problem-based tutorial group process as observed by their peers, self-study time and achievement. To that end, the Maastricht Peer Activity Rating Scale was administered to students participating in Problem-Based Learning tutorial groups.…

  19. Socioemotional Behavior and School Achievement in Relation to Extracurricular Activity Participation in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsapelto, Riitta-Leena; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2012-01-01

    This 3-year longitudinal study investigated the associations of student (aged 9 to 10 years at the beginning of the study; n = 281; 51% girls) participation in extracurricular activities with teacher-rated socioemotional behavior and school achievement. MANOVA results showed that, after controlling for the grade level and the initial level of the…

  20. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Adolescents: A Self-Organizing Maps Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicer-Chenoll, Maite; Garcia-Massó, Xavier; Morales, Jose; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Solana-Tramunt, Mònica; González, Luis-Millán; Toca-Herrera, José-Luis

    2015-01-01

    The relationship among physical activity, physical fitness and academic achievement in adolescents has been widely studied; however, controversy concerning this topic persists. The methods used thus far to analyse the relationship between these variables have included mostly traditional lineal analysis according to the available literature. The…

  1. Adolescent Expectancy-Value Motivation, Achievement in Physical Education, and Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relation between adolescent expectancy-value motivation, achievements, and after-school physical activity participation. Adolescents (N = 854) from 12 middle schools completed an expectancy-value motivation questionnaire, pre and posttests in psychomotor skill and health-related fitness knowledge tests, and a three-day…

  2. The Effect of Using Activities Improving Scientific Literacy on Students' Achievement in Science and Technology Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gucluer, Efe; Kesercioglu, Teoman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is examining the effect of the using scientific literacy development activities on students' achievement. The study was carried out in a primary school in Buca Izmir for 2010-2011 academic years. System of our body was chosen as a study topic in our search which took 6 weeks. Pre-post test semi experimental control model was…

  3. Temperamental Attention and Activity, Classroom Emotional Support, and Academic Achievement in Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; White, Jamie M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the interplay of children's temperamental attention and activity (assessed when children were 4-and-a-half years old) and classroom emotional support as they relate to children's academic achievement in third grade. Particular focus is placed on the moderating role of classroom emotional support on the…

  4. Situational Interest and Academic Achievement in the Active-Learning Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotgans, Jerome I.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how situational interest develops over time and how it is related to academic achievement in an active-learning classroom. Five measures of situational interest were administered at critical points in time to 69 polytechnic students during a one-day, problem-based learning session. Results revealed…

  5. Evaluation Study of the Effects of Promethean ActivClassroom on Student Achievement. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Haystead, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    During the 2009-2010 school year, Marzano Research Laboratory (MRL) was commissioned by Promethean Ltd. to conduct a second year evaluation study of the effects of Promethean ActivClassroom on student academic achievement. This report describes the findings from the second year study along with aggregate findings from the first and second year…

  6. Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

  7. Evaluation of English Achievement Test: A Comparison between High and Low Achievers amongst Selected Elementary School Students of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Zubair; Latif, Farah; Akhtar, Samina; Mushtaq, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Validity, reliability and item analysis are critical to the process of evaluating the quality of an educational measurement. The present study evaluates the quality of an assessment constructed to measure elementary school student's achievement in English. In this study, the survey model of descriptive research was used as a research method.…

  8. The Relationship between Cognitive and Emotional Intelligence and High School Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Matešić, Krunoslav

    2015-06-01

    The study investigated the relationship between intelligence, emotional intelligence and academic achievement in high school. The study was conducted within the standardization of two instruments for Croatian samples. A total of 369 high school students from the Republic of Croatia participated in the study. They completed the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT)--a test of cognitive intelligence and the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (EQ-i:YV). Academic achievement criteria were general school achievement, Croatian language and mathematics. Several regression analyses were conducted on the results. The results show that cognitive intelligence and the adaptability scale to be consistent predictors of academic achievement. Emotional intelligence was not shown to be a significant predictor of school success. PMID:26753453

  9. Progress and Achievements on the R&D Activities for ITER Vacuum Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Nakahira, M.; Koizumi, K.; Takahashi, H.; Onozuka, M.; Ioki, K.; Kuzumin, E.; Krylov, V.; Maslakowski, J.; Nelson, Brad E; Jones, L.; Danner, W.; Maisonnier, D.

    2001-01-01

    The ITER vacuum vessel (VV) is designed to be large double-walled structure with a D-shaped crosssection. The achievable fabrication tolerance of this structure was unknown due to the size and complexity of shape. The Full-scale Sector Model of ITER Vacuum Vessel, which was 15m in height, was fabricated and tested to obtain the fabrication and assembly tolerances. The model was fabricated within the target tolerance of 5mm and welding deformation during assembly operation was obtained. The port structure was also connected using remotized welding tools to demonstrate the basic maintenance activity. In parallel, the tests of advanced welding, cutting and inspection system were performed to improve the efficiency of fabrication and maintenance of the Vacuum Vessel. These activities show the feasibility of ITER Vacuum Vessel as feasible in a realistic way. This paper describes the major progress, achievement and latest status of the R&D activities on the ITER vacuum vessel.

  10. Impact of Principal Leadership on Catholic High School Students' Academic Achievement in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhangbe, Osayamen Samson

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, students of Catholic High/Senior secondary schools in Edo state, Nigeria have maintained a significantly higher level of academic achievement than their counterparts in public schools in the state. This development has not only been a cause of serious concern for parents of students who attend public High/Senior secondary schools…

  11. The Effects of Guided Inquiry Instruction on Student Achievement in High School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Laszlo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to measure the effect of a student-centered instructional method called guided inquiry on the achievement of students in a unit of study in high school biology. The study used a non-random sample of 109 students, the control group of 55 students enrolled in high school one, received…

  12. The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Achievement in At-Risk High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Jarrett Graham

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this quantitative survey study was the examination of the relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement in 164 at-risk high school students. The study used Bandura's self-efficacy as the theoretical framework. The research questions involved understanding the levels of self-efficacy in at-risk high school students and…

  13. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Expanding College Opportunities for High-Achieving, Low Income Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of providing low-income, high-achieving high school seniors with college application guidance and information about the costs of college. The "application guidance" included information about deadlines and requirements for college applications at nearby institutions, at the state's flagship institution, and at in-…

  14. The Relationship between Thinking Style Differences and Career Choices for High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this study was to present information about high-achieving students' career decision making associated with thinking styles. We gathered data from two International Baccalaureate (IB) programs and a Governor's School Program with a sample of 209 high-school students. The findings of this study demonstrated that the effect of program…

  15. Closing the Mathematics Achievement Gap in High-Poverty Middle Schools: Enablers and Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfanz, Robert; Byrnes, Vaughan

    2006-01-01

    The mathematics achievement levels of U.S. students fall far behind those of other developed nations; within the United States itself, the students who are falling behind come predominantly from high-poverty and high-minority areas. This article reports on a series of analyses that followed 4 cohorts of students from 3 such schools through the 5th…

  16. Mathematics Achievement with Digital Game-Based Learning in High School Algebra 1 Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Terri Lynn Kurley

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact of digital game-based learning (DGBL) on mathematics achievement in a rural high school setting in North Carolina. A causal comparative research design was used in this study to collect data to determine the effectiveness of DGBL in high school Algebra 1 classes. Data were collected from the North Carolina…

  17. Urban Students Achieve When High Schools Implement Proven Practices. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene; Han, Lingling; Presson, Alice

    2006-01-01

    Students benefit from a year or more gain in student achievement when urban district and high school leaders commit to the implementation of the "High Schools That Work" ("HSTW") design. It is not enough to be a "HSTW" site--it is about taking effective actions to implement the design. Schools that do take action witness significant progress in…

  18. The Effects of Modeling Instruction on High School Physics Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an "ex post facto," quasi-experimental research methodology. The…

  19. School Context, Precollege Educational Opportunities, and College Degree Attainment among High-Achieving Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Valija C.

    2013-01-01

    Access to high-quality educational opportunities is central to growing postsecondary degree attainment. This study employs secondary data analysis of the public-use National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88/00) to examine how school context and precollege educational opportunities influence college degree attainment among high-achieving Black…

  20. Study-Orientation of High and Low Academic Achievers at Secondary Level in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Bashir, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Naemullah; Khan, Muhammad Saeed

    2009-01-01

    The study orientation of low and high academic achievers was compared, measured through a self-developed study orientation scale (SOS) primarily based on 47 items comparing study habits and attitude. Students' marks obtained in the 10th grade Examination determined the measure of academic performance. The analysis revealed that the high achievers…

  1. The Relationship between Principals' Instructional Focus and Academic Achievement of High Poverty Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aste, Mahri

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between teacher perceptions of the frequency and effectiveness of principal instructional leadership behaviors and student achievement in high-poverty elementary schools. In order to accomplish the purpose, survey methodology was employed. Teachers from six high-poverty elementary schools…

  2. Small Classes in the Early Grades, Academic Achievement, and Graduating From High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Jeremy D.; Gerber, Susan B.; Boyd-Zaharias, Jayne

    2005-01-01

    This investigation addressed 3 questions about the long-term effects of early school experiences: (a) Is participation in small classes in the early grades (K-3) related to high school graduation? (b) Is academic achievement in K-3 related to high school graduation? (c) If class size is related to graduation, is the relationship explained by the…

  3. Causes of Nonattendance and Its Effect on Student Achievement at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracht, Kelly D.

    2010-01-01

    Many high schools in America have issues with student nonattendance. The researcher designed this mixed methods study to determine the affect of nonattendance on student achievement and to ascertain whether home-related factors or school-related factors were more significant causes of nonattendance. Both the high school in this study and other…

  4. Improving High School Students' Mathematics Achievement through the Use of Motivational Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portal, Jamie; Sampson, Lisa

    This report describes a program for motivating students in mathematics in order to improve achievement at the high school level. The targeted population consisted of high school students in a middle class community located in a suburb of a large metropolitan area. The problems of underachievement were documented through data collected from surveys…

  5. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Leadership of Kuwaiti High and Low Achieving 11th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnabhan, Mousa

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and the Leadership components (L) of high school students in the state of Kuwait. The possibility of predicting each leadership component via emotional intelligence components was investigated for high and low achievers. A sample of 11th grade students from Kuwaiti…

  6. The Contribution of Limbic Learning Aptitude to Achievement in High School. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ax, Albert F.; And Others

    Achievement in earning grades in high school was resolved into its intellectual and motivational components. This study employed tests of I.Q., personality inventories and classical and operant conditioning of autonomic nervous system controlled variables. Eleven procedures were given to 99 Black inner city high school seniors. Six physiological…

  7. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills in High Achieving Elementary Schools in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egnor, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines if practices that advocate for 21st century skills are in conflict with the mandates of NCLB. Interviews with influential school leaders of high achieving elementary schools focused on collecting data about 21st century skills. This study was designed to (a) Determine if 21st century skills are addressed in high achieving…

  8. Academic achievement and career choice in science: Perceptions of African American urban high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sheila Kay

    2007-12-01

    Low test scores in science and fewer career choices in science among African American high school students than their White counterparts has resulted in lower interest during high school and an underrepresentation of African Americans in science and engineering fields. Reasons for this underachievement are not known. This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to examine what influence parental involvement, ethnic identity, and early mentoring had on the academic achievement in science and career choice in science of African American urban high school 10th grade students. Using semi-structured open-ended questions in individual interviews and focus groups, twenty participants responded to questions about African American urban high school student achievement in science and their career choice in science. The median age of participants was 15 years; 85% had passed either high school biology or physical science. The findings of the study revealed influences and interactions of selected factors on African American urban high school achievement in science. Sensing potential emerged as the overarching theme with six subthemes; A Taste of Knowledge, Sounds I Hear, Aromatic Barriers, What Others See, The Touch of Others, and The Sixth Sense. These themes correlate to the natural senses of the human body. A disconnect between what science is, their own individual learning and success, and what their participation in science could mean for them and the future of the larger society. Insight into appropriate intervention strategies to improve African American urban high school achievement in science was gained.

  9. Factors That Influence School Board Actions to Support Student Achievement: A Multi-Case Study of High-Achieving Rural School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence the actions taken by school boards that advance student achievement in high-achieving rural public school districts. Much of what is discussed in the literature on school improvement efforts is centered on the work carried out by school personnel at the school level. What is…

  10. The Impact of Including Children with Intellectual Disability in General Education Classrooms on the Academic Achievement of Their Low-, Average-, and High-Achieving Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; Bless, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aimed at assessing the impact of including children with intellectual disability (ID) in general education classrooms with support on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers without disability. Method: A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an experimental group of 202 pupils from…

  11. Does Homogeneous Ability Grouping for High School Honors English Instruction Benefit the High Achiever?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetter, Douglas Paul

    2013-01-01

    Public schools are examining their policies and instructional practices to address the achievement gap exposed by the reporting requirements of NCLB (Wenglinski, 2004). As accountability measures and stakes rise, there is a call for an improved use of scientific evidence to inform educational policymaking (Wiseman, 2010). In terms of the…

  12. School factors affecting postsecondary career pursuits of high-achieving girls in mathematics and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hyunsil

    This study examined the influences of secondary school experiences of high-achieving girls in math and science on their postsecondary career pursuits in science fields. Specifically, using the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), the study investigated how science class experiences in high school affect science career persistence of high-achieving girls over and above personal and family factors. Selecting the top 10% on the 8 th grade math and science achievement tests from two panel samples of 1988--1994 and 1988--2000, this study examined which science instructional experiences (i.e., lecture-oriented, experiment-oriented, and student-oriented) best predicted college major choices and postsecondary degree attainments in the fields of science after controlling for personal and family factors. A two-stage test was employed for the analysis of each panel sample. The first test examined the dichotomous career pursuits between science careers and non-science careers and the second test examined the dichotomous pursuits within science careers: "hard" science and "soft" science. Logistic regression procedures were used with consideration of panel weights and design effects. This study identified that experiment-oriented and student-oriented instructional practices seem to positively affect science career pursuits of high-achieving females, while lecture-oriented instruction negatively affected their science career pursuits, and that the longitudinal effects of the two positive instructional contributors to science career pursuits appear to be differential between major choice and degree attainment. This study also found that the influences of instructional practices seem to be slight for general females, while those for high-achieving females were highly considerable, regardless of whether negative or positive. Another result of the study found that only student-oriented instruction seemed to have positive effects for high-achieving males. In

  13. Predicting Classroom Achievement from Active Responding on a Computer-Based Groupware System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jongho; Deno, Stanley L.; Robinson, Steven L.; Marston, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    The predictive validity of active responding on a computer-based groupware system was examined with 48 second graders. Results showed that active responding correlated highly with initial and final performance measures and that active responding contributed significantly to predicting final performance when initial performance was controlled.…

  14. The effects of a science intervention program on the attitudes and achievement of high school girls in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steakley, Carrie Capers

    This study investigated the effects of a high school science intervention program that included hands-on activities, science-related career information and exposure, and real-world experiences on girls' attitudes and achievement in science. Eighty-four girls, 44 ninth-graders and 40 tenth-graders, and 105 parents participated in the study. Survey data was collected to assess the girls' attitudes toward science in seven distinct areas: social implications of science, normality of scientists, attitude toward scientific inquiry, adoption of scientific attitudes, enjoyment of science lessons, leisure interest in science, and career interest in science. Additional questionnaires were used to determine the extent of the girls' participation in sports and the attitudes of their parents toward science. The girls' cumulative science semester grade point averages since the seventh grade were used to assess academic science achievement. This study found no evidence that participation in the program improved the girls' attitudes or achievement in science. Parent attitudes and years of participation in sports were not accurate predictors of science achievement. Additionally, no significant relationship was detected between the girls' and their parents' perceptions of science. However, the study did suggest that extended participation in sports may positively affect science achievement for girls. This study holds implications for educational stakeholders who seek to implement intervention methods and programs that may improve student attitudes and achievement in science and attract more youth to future science-related careers.

  15. Achievements of the Armenian Astronomy and the Present Activities of the Armenian Astronomical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    A report is given on the achievements of the Armenian astronomy during the last years and on the present activities of the Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS). ArAS membership, ArAS electronic newsletters (ArASNews), ArAS webpage, international collaboration, Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO), membership in international organizations, grants, prizes, meetings, summer schools, astronomical Olympiads, other matters related to astronomical education, archaeoastronomy, astronomy outreach and ArAS further projects are discussed.

  16. Qualitative research study of high-achieving females' life experiences impacting success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, Ann Patrice

    2003-07-01

    This qualitative study investigated the life experiences of five academically gifted female students in math and science in reflection of their elementary learning prior to enrollment at a prestigious science and mathematics high school. The elite high school limits admission to the state of Illinois' top students. The purpose of this study is to unfold the story of five academically gifted females in attendance at the elite high school reflecting on their life experiences in elementary school that contributed to their current academic success. Twelve female students, who at the time of this study were currently in their senior year (12th grade) of high school, were solicited from the top academic groups who are regarded by their teachers as highly successful in class. Students were selected as part of the study based on academic status, survey completion and interest in study, Caucasian and Asian ethnicity, locale of elementary school with preference given to the variety of school demographics---urban, suburban, and rural---further defined the group to the core group of five. All female participants were personally interviewed and communicated via Internet with the researcher. Parents and teachers completing surveys as well met the methodological requirements of triangulation. An emergent theme of paternal influence came from the research. Implications supported in the research drawn from this study to increase achievement of academically gifted females include: (a) proper early identification of learner strengths plays a role; (b) learning with appropriate intellectual peers is more important than learning with their age group; (c) teachers are the greatest force for excellent instruction; (d) effective teaching strategies include cooperative learning, multi-sensory learning, problem-based learning, and hands-on science; (e) rigor in math is important; (f) gender and stereotypes need not be barriers; (g) outside interests and activities are important for self

  17. Microalgal growth with intracellular phosphorus for achieving high biomass growth rate and high lipid/triacylglycerol content simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yin-Hu; Yu, Yin; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2015-09-01

    Nutrient deprivation is a commonly-used trigger for microalgal lipid accumulation, but its adverse impact on microalgal growth seems to be inevitable. In this study, Scenedesmus sp. LX1 was found to show similar physiological and biochemical variation under oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions during growth with intracellular phosphorus. Under both conditions microalgal chlorophyll content and photosynthesis activity was stable during this growth process, leading to significant increase of single cell weight and size. Therefore, while algal density growth rate dropped significantly to below 1.0 × 10(5)cells mL(-1) d(-1) under oligotrophic condition, the biomass dry weight growth rate still maintained about 40 mg L(-1) d(-1). Meanwhile, the lipid content in biomass and triacylglycerols (TAGs) content in lipids increased significantly to about 35% and 65%, respectively. Thus, high biomass growth rate and high lipid/TAG content were achieved simultaneously at the late growth phase with intracellular phosphorus. Besides, microalgal biomass produced was rich in carbohydrate with low protein content. PMID:26056779

  18. Following Different Pathways: Social Integration, Achievement, and the Transition to High School.

    PubMed

    Langenkamp, Amy G

    2009-11-01

    This study expands research on an academic and social turning point for adolescents, the transition to high school, by analyzing how students' level of social integration into school can affect high school academic performance. Using nationally representative data, three different pathways emerged as students transition to high school, characterized by varying amounts of disruption and opportunity for new social relationships upon entering high school. Findings suggest that elements of middle school social integration, including teacher bonding, popularity, and extracurricular participation, affect academic achievement when students enter high school. However, the association between integration into school and academic performance appears to be contingent upon the pathway students follow. PMID:20664813

  19. Following Different Pathways: Social Integration, Achievement, and the Transition to High School

    PubMed Central

    LANGENKAMP, AMY G.

    2010-01-01

    This study expands research on an academic and social turning point for adolescents, the transition to high school, by analyzing how students’ level of social integration into school can affect high school academic performance. Using nationally representative data, three different pathways emerged as students transition to high school, characterized by varying amounts of disruption and opportunity for new social relationships upon entering high school. Findings suggest that elements of middle school social integration, including teacher bonding, popularity, and extracurricular participation, affect academic achievement when students enter high school. However, the association between integration into school and academic performance appears to be contingent upon the pathway students follow. PMID:20664813

  20. Do exergames allow children to achieve physical activity intensity commensurate with national guidelines?

    PubMed Central

    PERRON, RACHEL M.; GRAHAM, COURTNEY A.; FELDMAN, JAMIE R.; MOFFETT, REBECCA A.; HALL, ERIC E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if two popular exergames, Wii Fit™ and EA Sports Active™, both games for the Nintendo Wii™ console, help children achieve intensity consistent with recommended physical activity guidelines. Thirty children (19 males and 11 females, Mean age = 9.4 ± 1.8 years) participated in this study by playing each game during one research session. During the session participants wore a heart rate monitor and accelerometer to measure exercise intensity. Perceived exertion (RPE) was measured with the children’s run/walk OMNI scale. All three measures of exercise intensity (heart rate, accelerometer counts, and RPE) found that the EA Sports Active™ game session elicited higher exercise intensity. However, heart rate data found both games to achieve moderate intensity (65–68% age-predicted HRmax). When using heart rate as an indicator of exercise intensity it appears that both exergames were of sufficient intensity to achieve physical activity guidelines. Future studies should continue to investigate the utility of exergaming in helping children to become more physically active. PMID:27182367

  1. Mo' Money, Mo' Problems? High-Achieving Black High School Students' Experiences with Resources, Racial Climate, and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Walter; Griffin, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    A multi-site case study analyzed the college preparatory processes of nine African American high achievers attending a well-resourced, suburban high school and eight academically successful African Americans attending a low-resourced urban school. Students at both schools experienced barriers, that is, racial climate and a lack of resources, that…

  2. High IQ Is Sufficient to Explain the High Achievements in Math and Science of the East Asian Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    It is argued that it is unnecessary to propose that Confucian values explain the high achievements in math and science of the North East Asian peoples, and that these can be satisfactorily and more parsimoniously be explained by their high IQs.

  3. Communication Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and the Relationship to Student Achievement in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Gayle A.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a correlational design that allowed the researcher to examine the relationship among communication satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and student achievement. High school teachers were surveyed from a convenience sample of 12 school districts in Arizona. Established instruments were used to survey…

  4. The Relationship between Student Attendance and Academic Achievement in a Selected South Dakota High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    There is limited research available on the relationship between student attendance and academic achievement in secondary school. This quantitative, non-experimental study, conducted within a South Dakota high school of students in grades 9-12 during the years 2006-2012, examined the relationship between student attendance and academic achievement…

  5. The Transition Experiences of High-Achieving, Low-Income Undergraduates in an Elite College Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Paul J., II

    2012-01-01

    This hermeneutic phenomenological study describes the lived experiences of high-achieving, low-income undergraduates and their transition into a college environment historically reserved for wealthy students. The results of this study indicate that these students are flourishing in full need-based financial aid programs as a result of their own…

  6. Central American Refugees and U.S. High Schools. A Psychosocial Study of Motivation and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo M.

    This ethnographic study documents and interprets key school, work, and family life issues in the lives and experiences of a sampling of recent immigrants from the war-torn Central American nations; and suggests a psychocultural theory of achievement motivation. Information was gathered from observation in two urban high schools, interviews with 50…

  7. Growing into Equity: Professional Learning and Personalization in High-Achieving Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Sonia Caus; Gerzon, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    What makes a Title I school high-achieving, and what can we all learn from that experience? Professional learning and leadership that supports personalized instruction makes the difference, as captured in the ground-breaking research of authors Sonia Caus Gleason and Nancy Gerzon. This illuminating book shows how four outstanding schools are…

  8. Excellence in English in Middle and High School: How Teachers' Professional Lives Support Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Judith A.

    The Center on English Learning and Achievement (CELA) has been studying the characteristics of successful English programs in middle and high schools. This report discusses the findings of the first two years of their 5-year Excellence in English study and focuses on the educational practices that support student literacy as well as the…

  9. Performance-Approach Goal Effects on Achievement under Low versus High Challenge Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Durik, Amanda M.; Patel, Lily; Lovejoy, Chelsea M.; Valentiner, David

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the effects of university students' achievement goals on performance under low versus high challenge conditions. The first was a laboratory experiment in which participants were assigned goals to pursue on a novel mathematics task alleged to be simple or complex to use. The second was a survey study in which students set goals…

  10. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Updated Analyses with NAEP Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The present research is a follow-up study of earlier published analyses that looked at the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement in 25 states. Using the previously derived Accountability Pressure Index (APR) as a measure of state-level policy pressure for performance on standardized tests, a series of…

  11. The Influence of Social Capital Factors on African-American and Hispanic High School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jacqueline L.

    2009-01-01

    The underachievement of African American and Hispanic students has been an ongoing problem for schools in the United States. The purpose of this investigation was to add to the existing body of knowledge concerning social capital of African American and Hispanic high school students' academic achievement. Using a nationally representative sample…

  12. Integrating Economic and Social Policy: Good Practices from High-Achieving Countries. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Santosh

    This paper examines the successes of 10 "high achievers," countries with social indicators far higher than might be expected, given their national wealth, pulling together the lessons learned for social policy in the developing world. The 10 countries identified are Costa Rica, Cuba, Barbados, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Kerala, Sri Lanka,…

  13. Turning around Reading Achievement: Predictors of High School Students' Academic Resilience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappella, Elise; Weinstein, Rhona S.

    2001-01-01

    In a national, longitudinal database, factors were examined that enabled public school students on a path toward failure to significantly improve reading achievement by high school graduation. Being Caucasian and female, having an internal locus of control, and taking an academic curriculum independently predicted academic resilience.…

  14. How Does Bennett Woods Elementary School Produce Such High Reading and Writing Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael; Mohan, Lindsey; Raphael, Lisa M.; Fingeret, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed a grounded theory about how a school serving relatively advantaged children produces high reading and writing achievement compared with schools serving similar populations of students. The school's faculty is reading and writing focused, and students experience many books as they receive explicit, demanding instruction (i.e.,…

  15. What Attracts High-Achieving Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students to the Physical Sciences and Engineering?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Sarah; Canetto, Silvia Sara; MacPhee, David; Farro, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) students are less likely to major in physical sciences or engineering. To guide recruitment and retention of a diversity of talent, this study examined what attracts high-achieving SED students to these fields. Participants were 50 undergraduates majoring in physical sciences or engineering enrolled in the…

  16. Experiencing More Mathematics Anxiety than Expected? Contrasting Trait and State Anxiety in High Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, A.-L.; Bieg, M.; Goetz, T.; Frenzel, A. C.; Taxer, J.; Zeidner, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to…

  17. An Analysis of the Academic Achievement of Indian High School Students in Federal and Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Willard P.

    A longitudinal study was designed to determine whether there were significant differences in academic achievement between senior high American Indian students in Federal on-reservation, Federal off-reservation, public on-reservation, and public off-reservation schools. The purpose of the study was to gather a variety of data on psychological and…

  18. Brain Structure and Resting-State Functional Connectivity in University Professors with High Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weiwei; Yang, Wenjing; Li, Wenfu; Li, Yadan; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Huimin; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2015-01-01

    Creative persons play an important role in technical innovation and social progress. There is little research on the neural correlates with researchers with high academic achievement. We used a combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity analysis, rsFC) approach to examine the…

  19. Effectiveness of Refutational Teaching for High- and Low-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Patricia; Taylor, Annette Kujawski

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of refutational readings and lecture on decreasing psychological misconceptions for students of high versus low levels of achievement. During the course of a semester we addressed introductory psychology students' misconceptions with refutational readings, refutational lecture, or not at all. From pre- and post-test…

  20. Faculty Perceptions of High-Achieving Male Collegians: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    Critical race theory was employed as an interpretive framework to explore faculty perceptions of the academic accomplishments of high-achieving Black and White male collegians. Using photo elicitation methodology, faculty participants responded to a randomly assigned photograph of and vignette about either a Black or White male student. While most…

  1. Differential Predictors of Achievement among Kibbutz and Urban High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Amos

    1982-01-01

    A study examines environmental and personality factors as predictors of academic achievement among kibbutz and urban high school students. Results of a comparison of personality factors indicate that kibbutz students are more restrained, reserved, adaptable, and conforming. The higher scores of city students on intelligence tests may stem from a…

  2. High Achievement on Advanced Placement Exams: The Relationship of School-Level Contextual Factors to Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Virginia H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify school- and district-level variables that relate to advanced academic achievement, as defined by the ratio of number of scores of 3, 4, or 5 on Advanced Placement exams to school enrollment. The study initially included 46 variables for 339 public high schools in one Midwestern state. Hierarchical linear…

  3. Diversity and Leadership: A Study of High-Achieving Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.; Rowley, Larry L.; Hu, Shouping

    2009-01-01

    Leadership development has long been considered an important outcome of higher education, but the patterns of leadership development among students of color have not been widely studied. This article develops a theory of leadership as an outcome of engaged learning. Findings from this study of high-achieving, low-income students of color include:…

  4. Ugandan Immigrant Students' Perceptions of Barriers to Academic Achievement in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ssekannyo, Denis

    2010-01-01

    In a world that is now a global village, enterprising individuals, especially from Third World countries, who make it to greener pastures do not leave their children behind. But with a long list of barriers to academic achievement associated with immigrant and minority students in American high schools, an understanding of the experiences and…

  5. Academic Optimism of High School Teachers: Its Relationship to Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Charles A.; DiPaola, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to build on an emergent research base for academic optimism by testing the construct and its relationship to student achievement and organizational citizenship behaviors in schools in a sample of public high schools. All participants in this study were full-time teachers, guidance counselors, and other full-time…

  6. Disabled and Successful: Education in the Life Stories of Disabled High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Sonali; Travers, Cheryl; Arnold, John

    2004-01-01

    There has been much debate concerning the pros and cons of special and mainstream education for young people with a disability. This paper adds data to this debate by reporting the educational experiences of 20 high-achievers with congenital disabilities who live in the United Kingdom and were born between 1950 and 1970. It presents personal…

  7. Balancing Dreams and Realities: The College Choice Process for High-Achieving Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, Ebelia

    2015-01-01

    This study's narratives of 17 high-achieving Latinas revealed how their college choice was a constant balancing of individual and family expectations, being "close, but far enough away," and "getting your money's worth." With the use of critical race theory, further analysis revealed the influence of "familismo" on…

  8. High School Success: An Effective Intervention for Achievement and Dropout Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowder, Christopher Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-design study was to use quantitative and qualitative research to explore the effects of High School Success (a course for at-risk ninth graders) and its effectiveness on student achievement, attendance, and dropout prevention. The research questions address whether there is a significant difference between at-risk ninth…

  9. School Factors Related to Reading Achievement in Rural Schools with and without High Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Seth W.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study identified how rural schools differ on five school-level factors related to student achievement according to their performance on Grade 3 reading. Through use of a MANOVA test, it was shown that principals of high-poverty rural schools that made AYP in Grade 3 reading reported significantly higher levels of guaranteed and…

  10. The College-Choice Process of High Achieving Freshmen: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the college-choice process of high achieving students. Employing current literature and previous research, it combined current models of college choice and the influential factors identified throughout the literature while utilizing the concept of bounded rationality to create a conceptual framework to…

  11. The Relationship between Illinois School District Superintendent Longevity and High School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libka, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Frequent changes in school district superintendents may be having a detrimental impact on student achievement. Rapid changes in leadership today parallel the present (NCLB) era of high stakes state assessments. The goal of the study was to provide correlation research that would have a positive effect on school district management, superintendent…

  12. Universal Factors of Student Achievement in High-Performing Eastern and Western Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether a common set of student attitudes and behavioral tendencies can account for academic achievement across different, especially high-performing, countries via analysis of the PISA 2009 international data set. The 13 countries examined are 5 of the top-performing Eastern countries/systems, namely Shanghai China, South…

  13. Student Satisfaction and Achievement Related to Organizational Structure: A Study on Semestering in Junior High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Rex G.

    1989-01-01

    Examines effects of academic year division on junior high school student satisfaction. Reports no relationship between semester organization and student satisfaction or achievement, although students report dissatisfaction with the length of certain classes. Advanced English students were more satisfied with semester courses than general English…

  14. One-to-One Computing and Student Achievement in Ohio High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Nancy L.; Larwin, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the impact of one-to-one computing on student achievement in Ohio high schools as measured by performance on the Ohio Graduation Test (OGT). The sample included 24 treatment schools that were individually paired with a similar control school. An interrupted time series methodology was deployed to examine OGT data over a period…

  15. Measuring the Outliers: An Introduction to Out-of-Level Testing with High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; Warne, Russell T.

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-level testing is an underused strategy for addressing the needs of students who score in the extremes, and when used wisely, it could provide educators with a much more accurate picture of what students know. Out-of-level testing has been shown to be an effective assessment strategy with high-achieving students; however, out-of-level…

  16. Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement of High School Students in Kanyakumari District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Deepa, T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to find the significant relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement of high school students with reference to the background variables. Survey method was employed. Two tools are used in this study namely self-made Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue SF) and the…

  17. Effect of Textbook Readability on Student Achievement in High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, D. Neil

    2001-01-01

    Notes the readability level of many high school chemistry textbooks is far above students' reading levels. Conducts two separate studies, making every effort to keep the two classes as similar as possible in all aspects except text. Finds strong evidence that changing the chemistry textbook resulted in an increase in student achievement. Suggests…

  18. The Federal Transformation Intervention Model in Persistently Lowest Achieving High Schools: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Patner, Michelle B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act federal mandate of the Transformation Intervention Model (TIM) outlined by the School Improvement Grant, which was designed to turn around persistently lowest achieving schools. The study was conducted in four high schools in a large Southern California urban district that selected the…

  19. Consequences of the Confucian Culture: High Achievement but Negative Psychological Attributes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Irene T.; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2010-01-01

    In "Unforgiving Confucian culture: A breeding ground for high academic achievement, test anxiety and self-doubt?" Stankov (in press) provides three reasons for caution against over-glorifying the academic excellence of Confucian Asian learners, namely that it may lead to a reluctance to change their rote learning approach which is not conducive to…

  20. The Relationship between Student Achievement and Charter High Schools in Washington, DC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if differences in student achievement existed between traditional public and charter high schools in the District of Columbia. The study examined student outcomes on the standardized state test in reading and math from 2006 to 2010 utilizing descriptive statistics, crosstab analysis, chi-square tests…

  1. Social Media Use, Loneliness, and Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study with Urban High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neto, Roque; Golz, Nancy; Polega, Meaghan

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the association between social media use, loneliness, and academic achievement in high school students and identified the demographic characteristics associated with these three elements. This study also aimed to identify the percentage of variance in loneliness accounted for by social media use and GPA. Participants were 345…

  2. Evaluative and Behavioral Correlates to Intrarehearsal Achievement in High School Bands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships of teaching effectiveness, ensemble performance quality, and selected rehearsal procedures to various measures of intrarehearsal achievement (i.e., musical improvement exhibited by an ensemble during the course of a single rehearsal). Twenty-nine high school bands were observed in two…

  3. A Study of the Impact of Block Scheduling on Student Academic Achievement in Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Mary Kay

    2010-01-01

    The number of public high schools implementing a semester 4 x 4 block scheduling design within the state of South Carolina has tripled since 2005. However, minimal local research has been conducted regarding the impact of block scheduling on student academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to determine if significant differences exist…

  4. New Counter-School Cultures: Female Students' Drug Use at a High-Achieving Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Adam; Bonell, Chris; Rhodes, Tim

    2009-01-01

    We draw on case-study research at a high-achieving secondary school in London to illustrate how school experiences may influence drug use and reproduce inequalities in reconstructed ways in late modernity. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with students and teachers, and observations. We focus in particular on the…

  5. The Impact of Reading Success Academy on High School Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlison, Kelly; Chave, Josh

    2014-01-01

    The study explores the effectiveness of the Reading Success Academy on the reading achievement of the selected group of ninth-grade students in a comprehensive high school. We examine in what ways the Reading Success Academy may improve the reading proficiency rates and amount of reading growth of ninth-grade students. The results indicate that…

  6. Students' High School Organizational Leadership Opportunities and Their Influences on Academic Achievement and Civic Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elemen, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze high school leadership praxis for its inclusion of students in organizational leadership dialogue and decision-making and the influences of these factors on student achievement and civic participation. Survey questionnaire data were provided by 215 full-time enrolled undergraduate students from…

  7. Antecedent and Concurrent Psychosocial Skills That Support High Levels of Achievement within Talent Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation and emotional regulation are important for the sustained focused study and practice required for high levels of achievement and creative productivity in adulthood. Using the talent development model proposed by the authors as a framework, the authors discuss several important psychosocial skills based on the psychological research…

  8. Perfectionism in High-Ability Students: Relational Precursors and Influences on Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.; Finch, Holmes

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to create and test a model that (a) illustrated variables influencing the development of perfectionism, and (b) demonstrated how different types of perfectionism may influence the achievement goals of high-ability students. Using a multiple groups path analysis, the researchers found that parenting style was…

  9. The Effects of Alcohol Use on Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Giuliano, Laura M.; French, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's grade point average (GPA) abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that…

  10. Negative Relationship between Achievement in High School and Self-Concept in College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Raymond N.; Grosch, James W.

    Social learning theory implies that there should be a significant positive relationship between academic performance and self-concept and outcomes of recent meta-analyses support this prediction. While path-analytic studies of high school samples in the 1960s and 1970s demonstrated that ability and achievement each made a small positive…

  11. Cognitive Abilities and Motivational Processes in High School Students' Situational Engagement and Achievement in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Shun; Roeser, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Building on R. Snow's two pathways to achievement outcomes (1989), examined how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways respectively contributed to prediction of outcomes in science for 491 high school students. Results are consistent with Snow's conjecture that factors related to both pathways…

  12. Obesity, High-Calorie Food Intake, and Academic Achievement Trends among U.S. School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jian; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated children's self-reported high-calorie food intake in Grade 5 and its relationship to trends in obesity status and academic achievement over the first 6 years of school. They used 3-level hierarchical linear models in the large-scale database (the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort). Findings indicated…

  13. On the Decline of the Achievement Orientation of High School Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Frank W.; Coutts, Larry M.

    Based on the evidence and theory that sex-role differentiation increases in salience during those later high school years as students prepare for their imminent transition into young adulthood, it was anticipated that there would be a lower orientation toward achievement among grade 12 girls than grade 10 girls, and, possibly, the opposite for…

  14. Organizational Practices of High-Achieving Rural School Districts in California's San Joaquin Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerksen, Amanda López; Wise, Donald

    2016-01-01

    For over 25 years, researchers have identified "best practices" used by high-achieving school districts. However, little research exists regarding rural school systems, making it difficult to determine whether the best practices identified are relevant within this context. This study filled a void in research by focusing on the…

  15. Academic Identity Status, Goal Orientation, and Academic Achievement among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hejazi, Elaheh; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali; Amani, Habib; Was, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between academic identity status, goal orientations and academic achievement. 301 first year high school students completed the Academic Identity Measure and Goal Orientation Questionnaire. The average of 10 exam scores in the final semester was used as an index of academic…

  16. The Impact of Inclusion on the Academic Achievement of High School Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Harold Smith

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examined the impact of inclusion on the academic achievement outcome of high school special education students as measured by English 1, biology, and algebra 1 as a function of gender, ethnicity, and years of inclusion. The study also examined the generalizations with confidence that could be made about the use of inclusion…

  17. Conflicts and Communication between High-Achieving Chinese American Adolescents and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Chang, Tzu-Fen; Han, Eun-Jin; Chee, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interview data collected on 18 high-achieving Chinese American students, the authors examine domains of acculturation-based conflicts, parent and child internal conflicts, and conflict resolution in their families. Their analyses show that well-established negative communication patterns in educational expectations, divergent…

  18. The Impact of a Physical Activity Intervention Program on Academic Achievement in a Swedish Elementary School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Käll, Lina B.; Nilsson, Michael; Lindén, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the emerging body of research on the potential of physical activity to improve learning and academic achievement, conclusive evidence regarding the effects of physical activity on academic achievement is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of a physical activity intervention program on academic…

  19. Linear/Nonlinear Relations of Activity and Fitness with Children’s Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, David M.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Lee, Jaehoon; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    A growing research base suggests the benefits of physical activity (PA) and aerobic fitness for children extend beyond overall health/well-being to include academic achievement (AA). The majority of research studies on relations of PA and fitness with AA have utilized linear-only analytic approaches, thereby precluding the possibility that PA and fitness could have a differing impact on AA for those more/less active or fit. Objective Evaluate both linear and non-linear associations of PA and aerobic fitness with children’s AA among a sample of 687 2nd and 3rd grade students from 17 Midwest schools. Study Design Using baseline data (fall 2011) from a larger 3-year intervention trial, multi-level regression analyses examined the linear and non-linear associations of AA with PA and with PACER laps (i.e., aerobic fitness), controlling for relevant covariates. Results Fitness, but not PA, had a significant quadratic association with both spelling and math achievement. Results indicate that 22–28 laps on the PACER was the point at which the associated increase in achievement per lap plateaued for spelling and math. Conclusions Increasing fitness could potentially have the greatest impact on children’s AA for those below the 50th fitness percentile on the PACER. PMID:24781896

  20. No More 1s: High Expectations Can Lead to High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervone, Laureen; DiMartino, Lisa; Kerr, Kris

    2010-01-01

    The school district in Middletown, New York, in the state's Orange County, today serves close to 7,000 students in four elementary schools, two middle schools, and one high school. The district is classified by the state in the highest of three Need-to-Resource-Capacity groups, an urban or suburban school district with high student needs in…

  1. Examining the Success Factors of High-Achieving Puerto Rican Male High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Tomas; Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene; Velez, William

    2010-01-01

    This article works to dispel the myth that Latino urban high-school students are not capable of performing at high academic levels. Whereas much educational research emphasizes the academic underachievement of urban Latino students, this article counteracts this research by describing the four success factors that three working-class Puerto Rican…

  2. Cultivating a Growth Mindset in Students at a High-Achieving High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fegley, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this EPP is to develop a plan for changing the mindset of a large number of Haddonfield Memorial High School (HMHS) students from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset. HMHS is by most conventional measures a high performing school. Typically 100% of the students graduate with 96% of the students attending two or four year colleges…

  3. An Active Suspension Controller Achieving the Best Ride Comfort at Any Specified Location on A Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Masahiro; Harada, Hiroshi; Araki, Yoshiaki

    In this paper, a new active suspension control scheme is developed so that ride comfort becomes best at any specified location on vehicle body. To achieve this end, two ideal vehicles are designed in which ride comfort becomes best at each different location. Then, linearly combining the two ideal vehicles, a combined ideal vehicle is constructed. It should be noted that we can easily force ride comfort at a specified location become best in the proposed combined ideal vehicle by setting only one design parameter. To achieve the good property stated above in actual vehicles, a robust tracking controller is proposed. It is shown by carrying out numerical simulations that ride comfort at a specified location can be easily improved in the closed loop system using the proposed combined ideal vehicle.

  4. Achieving highly dispersed nanofibres at high loading in carbon nanofibre-metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jianli; Nash, Philip; Li, Jiajun; Shi, Chunsheng; Zhao, Naiqin

    2009-06-01

    In order to tap into the advantages of the properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or carbon nanofibres (CNFs) in composites, the high dispersion of CNTs (or CNFs) and strong interfacial bonding are the key issues which are still challenging. In the current work, a novel approach, consisting of in situ synthesis of CNFs within the Cu powders and mixing Cu ions with the in situ CNF(Ni/Y)-Cu composite powders in a solvent, was developed to highly disperse CNFs in a Cu matrix. The composite, produced by vacuum hot pressing, shows extremely high strength, 3.6 times more than that of the matrix material alone. It is worth mentioning that this method can disperse CNFs at high loading in a metal matrix, inferring good potential for applications, such as electronic packaging materials.

  5. Achievement Motivation of the High School Students: A Case Study among Different Communities of Goalpara District of Assam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarangi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Achievement motivation is a consistent striving force of an individual to achieve success to a certain standard of excellence in competing situation. In this study an attempt was made to study the effect of achievement motivation on the academic achievement of the high school students of tribal and non tribal communities in relation to their sex…

  6. Are gender differences in high achievement disappearing? A test in one intellectual domain.

    PubMed

    Howard, Robert W

    2005-05-01

    Males traditionally predominate at upper achievement levels. One general view holds that this is due only to various social factors such as the 'glass ceiling' and lack of female role models. Another view holds that it occurs partly because of innate ability differences, with more males being at upper ability levels. In the last few decades, women have become more achievement focused and competitive and have gained many more opportunities to achieve. The present study examined one intellectual domain, international chess, to quantify its gender differences in achievement and to see if these have been diminishing with the societal changes. Chess is a good test domain because it is a meritocracy, it has objective performance measures, and longitudinal data of a whole population are available. Performance ratings overall and in the top 10, 50 and 100 players of each sex show large gender differences and little convergence over the past three decades, although a few females have become high achievers. The distribution of performance ratings on the January 2004 list shows a higher male mean and evidence for more male variation, just as with traits such as height. Career patterns of players first on the list between 1985 and 1989 show that top males and females entered the list at about the same age but females tend to play fewer games and have shorter careers. In this domain at least, the male predominance is large and has remained roughly constant despite societal changes. PMID:15906890

  7. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    PubMed

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement. PMID:26651154

  8. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  9. The numerical stroop effect in primary school children: a comparison of low, normal, and high achievers.

    PubMed

    Heine, Angela; Tamm, Sascha; De Smedt, Bert; Schneider, Michael; Thaler, Verena; Torbeyns, Joke; Stern, Elsbeth; Verschaffel, Lieven; Jacobs, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Sixty-six primary school children were selected, of which 21 scored low on a standardized math achievement test, 23 were normal, and 22 high achievers. In a numerical Stroop experiment, children were asked to make numerical and physical size comparisons on digit pairs. The effects of congruity and numerical distance were determined. All children exhibited congruity and distance effects in the numerical comparison. In the physical comparison, children of all performance groups showed Stroop effects when the numerical distance between the digits was large but failed to show them when the distance was small. Numerical distance effects depended on the congruity condition, with a typical effect of distance in the congruent, and a reversed distance effect in the incongruent condition. Our results are hard to reconcile with theories that suggest that deficits in the automaticity of numerical processing can be related to differential math achievement levels. Immaturity in the precision of mappings between numbers and their numerical magnitudes might be better suited to explain the Stroop effects in children. However, as the results for the high achievers demonstrate, in addition to numerical processing capacity per se, domain-general functions might play a crucial role in Stroop performance, too. PMID:20437281

  10. How Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Project-Based Learning (PBL) Affects High, Middle, and Low Achievers Differently: The Impact of Student Factors on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Sunyoung; Capraro, Robert; Capraro, Mary Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether participating in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) project-based learning (PBL) activities effected students who had varied performance levels and to what extent students' individual factors influenced their mathematics achievement. STEM PBL has been a critical challenge…

  11. Facilitating High Achievement: High School Principals' Reflections on Their Successful Leadership Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crum, Karen S.; Sherman, Whitney H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The burden for school improvement in a time of accountability falls squarely on the shoulders of principals as new requirements demand that they act as instructional leaders. The purpose of this study is to discover the common themes of school leadership and instructional practices of high school principals at successful schools in…

  12. High-Achieving African American Male High School Students: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilt, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    This case study highlighted the fundamental reasons why a small group of African American male high school seniors in the selected school district succeeded academically while their same race peers did not. Through classroom observation, interviews, and focus groups, the researcher uncovered factors related to instructional practices and classroom…

  13. Challenges to achievement of metal sustainability in our high-tech society

    SciTech Connect

    Izatt, Reed M.; Izatt, Steven R.; Bruening, Ronald L.; Izatt, Neil; Moyer, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Achievement of sustainability in metal life cycles from mining of virgin ore to consumer and industrial devices to end-of-life products requires greatly increased recycling and improved processing of metals. Electronic and other high-tech products containing precious, toxic, and specialty metals usually have short lifetimes and low recycling rates. Products containing these metals generally are incinerated, discarded as waste in landfills, or dismantled in informal recycling using crude and environmentally irresponsible procedures. Low metal recycling rates coupled with increasing demand for products containing them necessitate increased mining with attendant environmental, health, energy, water, and carbon-footprint consequences. In this tutorial review, challenges to achieving metal sustainability in present high-tech society are presented; health, environmental, and economic incentives for various stakeholders to improve metal sustainability are discussed; a case for technical improvements in separations technology, especially employing molecular recognition, is given; and global consequences of continuing on the present path are examined.

  14. Relationship between achievement goal constructs and physical self-perceptions in a physical activity setting.

    PubMed

    Newton, Maria; Detling, Nicole; Kilgore, Jennifer; Bernhardt, Paul

    2004-12-01

    The relations of achievement goal theory constructs and physical self-perceptions were explored with 225 students (91 men, 109 women, and 25 nonindicators; M age=23.5 yr., SD=9.2), enrolled in basic physical activity classes (aerobics, weight training, modern dance, badminton, yoga, tai chi, basketball, racquetball, gymnastics, bowling, aquatone, and step aerobics) in a university setting. Goal orientations (Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire), perceptions of the motivational climate (Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2), and physical self-perceptions (Physical Self-perception Profile) were assessed. Data were analyzed separately by sex. Ego orientation was the only predictor of Physical Self-perceptions in men, accounting for between 12 and 15% of the variance in Physical Self-worth, Sport Competence, Physical Conditioning, and Body Attractiveness. Constructs of achievement goal theory were not predictive of Physical Self-perceptions in the women. The results are discussed in light of achievement goal theory and the nature of the sample. PMID:15648467

  15. The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence.

    PubMed

    Krapohl, Eva; Rimfeld, Kaili; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Asbury, Kathryn; Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2014-10-21

    Because educational achievement at the end of compulsory schooling represents a major tipping point in life, understanding its causes and correlates is important for individual children, their families, and society. Here we identify the general ingredients of educational achievement using a multivariate design that goes beyond intelligence to consider a wide range of predictors, such as self-efficacy, personality, and behavior problems, to assess their independent and joint contributions to educational achievement. We use a genetically sensitive design to address the question of why educational achievement is so highly heritable. We focus on the results of a United Kingdom-wide examination, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which is administered at the end of compulsory education at age 16. GCSE scores were obtained for 13,306 twins at age 16, whom we also assessed contemporaneously on 83 scales that were condensed to nine broad psychological domains, including intelligence, self-efficacy, personality, well-being, and behavior problems. The mean of GCSE core subjects (English, mathematics, science) is more heritable (62%) than the nine predictor domains (35-58%). Each of the domains correlates significantly with GCSE results, and these correlations are largely mediated genetically. The main finding is that, although intelligence accounts for more of the heritability of GCSE than any other single domain, the other domains collectively account for about as much GCSE heritability as intelligence. Together with intelligence, these domains account for 75% of the heritability of GCSE. We conclude that the high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence. PMID:25288728

  16. The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Krapohl, Eva; Rimfeld, Kaili; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Asbury, Kathryn; Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Because educational achievement at the end of compulsory schooling represents a major tipping point in life, understanding its causes and correlates is important for individual children, their families, and society. Here we identify the general ingredients of educational achievement using a multivariate design that goes beyond intelligence to consider a wide range of predictors, such as self-efficacy, personality, and behavior problems, to assess their independent and joint contributions to educational achievement. We use a genetically sensitive design to address the question of why educational achievement is so highly heritable. We focus on the results of a United Kingdom-wide examination, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which is administered at the end of compulsory education at age 16. GCSE scores were obtained for 13,306 twins at age 16, whom we also assessed contemporaneously on 83 scales that were condensed to nine broad psychological domains, including intelligence, self-efficacy, personality, well-being, and behavior problems. The mean of GCSE core subjects (English, mathematics, science) is more heritable (62%) than the nine predictor domains (35–58%). Each of the domains correlates significantly with GCSE results, and these correlations are largely mediated genetically. The main finding is that, although intelligence accounts for more of the heritability of GCSE than any other single domain, the other domains collectively account for about as much GCSE heritability as intelligence. Together with intelligence, these domains account for 75% of the heritability of GCSE. We conclude that the high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence. PMID:25288728

  17. High-fidelity simulation: Assessment of student nurses' team achievements of clinical judgment.

    PubMed

    Hallin, Karin; Bäckström, Britt; Häggström, Marie; Kristiansen, Lisbeth

    2016-07-01

    Nursing educators have the challenge of preparing nursing students to handle complex patient care situations in real life, but much remains unknown about the ability to make clinical judgments. In this study, high-fidelity simulation (HFS) was used at a Swedish university to find answers about pre-licensure nursing students' success in clinical judgment in terms of team ability and relationships with theoretical achievements, and personal and scenario circumstances. The matrix Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric (LCJR) was used to analyze and score the students' ability in teams to notice, interpret and respond to complex care situations. Overall, the results showed the student teams in their first meeting with HFS in a complex care situation achieved low clinical judgment points; most teams were in the stages of Beginning and Developing. For attaining high team achievements the majority of the students in the team should theoretically be "high performance". Being observers and having HFS experience before nursing education was significant too. However, age, health care experience, and assistant nurse degrees were of secondary importance. Further research at universities regionally, nationally, and internationally is needed. PMID:27428686

  18. High School Girls' Perceptions of Selected Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Bretzing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    High school students, and particularly girls, are not very active (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006). To help girls develop the abilities to enjoy lifetime, healthy physical activity, physical educators need to provide curricula that will achieve this goal. In the process, they need to make sure they are aligned with the current…

  19. Achieving high performance polymer optoelectronic devices for high efficiency, long lifetime and low fabrication cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinsong

    This thesis described three types of organic optoelectronic devices: polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), polymer photovoltaic solar cell, and organic photo detector. The research in this work focuses improving their performance including device efficiency, operation lifetime simplifying fabrication process. With further understanding in PLED device physics, we come up new device operation model and improved device architecture design. This new method is closely related to understanding of the science and physics at organic/metal oxide and metal oxide/metal interface. In our new device design, both material and interface are considered in order to confine and balance all injected carriers, which has been demonstrated very be successful in increasing device efficiency. We created two world records in device efficiency: 18 lm/W for white emission fluorescence PLED, 22 lm/W for red emission phosphorescence PLED. Slow solvent drying process has been demonstrated to significantly increase device efficiency in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixture polymer solar cell. From the mobility study by time of flight, the increase of efficiency can be well correlated to the improved carrier transport property due to P3HT crystallization during slow solvent drying. And it is found that, similar to PLED, balanced carrier mobility is essential in high efficient polymer solar cell. There is also a revolution in our device fabrication method. A unique device fabrication method is presented by an electronic glue based lamination process combined with interface modification as a one-step polymer solar cell fabrication process. It can completely skip the thermal evaporation process, and benefit device lifetime by several merits: no air reactive. The device obtained is metal free, semi-transparent, flexible, self-encapsulated, and comparable efficiency with that by regular method. We found the photomultiplication (PM) phenomenon in C

  20. Preoperative treatment planning with intraoperative optimization can achieve consistent high-quality implants in prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Pugh, Thomas J.; Swanson, David A.; Bruno, Teresa L.; Bolukbasi, Yasemin; Frank, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in brachytherapy treatment planning systems have allowed the opportunity for brachytherapy to be planned intraoperatively as well as preoperatively. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each approach have been the subject of extensive debate, and some contend that the intraoperative approach is vital to the delivery of optimal therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether high-quality permanent prostate implants can be achieved consistently using a preoperative planning approach that allows for, but does not necessitate, intraoperative optimization. To achieve this purpose, we reviewed the records of 100 men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who had been prospectively treated with brachytherapy monotherapy between 2006 and 2009 at our institution. All patients were treated with iodine-125 stranded seeds; the planned target dose was 145 Gy. Only 8 patients required adjustments to the plan on the basis of intraoperative findings. Consistency and quality were assessed by calculating the correlation coefficient between the planned and implanted amounts of radioactivity and by examining the mean values of the dosimetric parameters obtained on preoperative and 30 days postoperative treatment planning. The amount of radioactivity implanted was essentially identical to that planned (mean planned radioactivity, 41.27 U vs. mean delivered radioactivity, 41.36 U; R{sup 2} = 0.99). The mean planned and day 30 prostate V100 values were 99.9% and 98.6%, respectively. The mean planned and day 30 prostate D90 values were 186.3 and 185.1 Gy, respectively. Consistent, high-quality prostate brachytherapy treatment plans can be achieved using a preoperative planning approach, mostly without the need for intraoperative optimization. Good quality assurance measures during simulation, treatment planning, implantation, and postimplant evaluation are paramount for achieving a high level of quality and consistency.

  1. A Study of Gifted High, Moderate, and Low Achievers in Their Personal Characteristics and Attitudes toward School and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the problem of underachievement among gifted high school students. Low achievers were compared to high and moderate achievers on their motivation, self-regulation, and attitudes toward their school and teachers. Participants were all highly able students from grades 10 and 11 in an academically selective gifted high school in…

  2. Temperatures Achieved in Human and Canine Neocortex During Intraoperative Passive or Active Focal Cooling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rowland H.; Yarbrough, Chester K.; Patterson, Edward E.; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Miller, John W.; Rothman, Steven M.; D'Ambrosio, Raimondo

    2015-01-01

    Focal cortical cooling inhibits seizures and prevents acquired epileptogenesis in rodents. To investigate the potential clinical utility of this treatment modality, we examined the thermal characteristics of canine and human brain undergoing active and passive surface cooling in intraoperative settings. Four patients with intractable epilepsy were treated in a standard manner. Before the resection of a neocortical epileptogenic focus, multiple intraoperative studies of active (custom-made cooled irrigation-perfused grid) and passive (stainless steel probe) cooling were performed. We also actively cooled the neocortices of two dogs with perfused grids implanted for 2 hours. Focal surface cooling of the human brain causes predictable depth-dependent cooling of the underlying brain tissue. Cooling of 0.6–2°C was achieved both actively and passively to a depth of 10–15 mm from the cortical surface. The perfused grid permitted comparable and persistent cooling of canine neocortex when the craniotomy was closed. Thus, the human cortex can easily be cooled with the use of simple devices such as a cooling grid or a small passive probe. These techniques provide pilot data for the design of a permanently implantable device to control intractable epilepsy. PMID:25902001

  3. Temperatures achieved in human and canine neocortex during intraoperative passive or active focal cooling.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Matthew D; Han, Rowland H; Yarbrough, Chester K; Patterson, Edward E; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Miller, John W; Rothman, Steven M; D'Ambrosio, Raimondo

    2015-06-01

    Focal cortical cooling inhibits seizures and prevents acquired epileptogenesis in rodents. To investigate the potential clinical utility of this treatment modality, we examined the thermal characteristics of canine and human brain undergoing active and passive surface cooling in intraoperative settings. Four patients with intractable epilepsy were treated in a standard manner. Before the resection of a neocortical epileptogenic focus, multiple intraoperative studies of active (custom-made cooled irrigation-perfused grid) and passive (stainless steel probe) cooling were performed. We also actively cooled the neocortices of two dogs with perfused grids implanted for 2 hours. Focal surface cooling of the human brain causes predictable depth-dependent cooling of the underlying brain tissue. Cooling of 0.6-2°C was achieved both actively and passively to a depth of 10-15 mm from the cortical surface. The perfused grid permitted comparable and persistent cooling of canine neocortex when the craniotomy was closed. Thus, the human cortex can easily be cooled with the use of simple devices such as a cooling grid or a small passive probe. These techniques provide pilot data for the design of a permanently implantable device to control intractable epilepsy. PMID:25902001

  4. Progress toward achieving high power and high efficiency semipolar LEDs and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hong

    Performance of current commercially available wurtzite nitride based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), grown along the polar (0001) c-plane orientation, is limited by the presence of polarization-related electric fields inside multi-quantum wells (MQWs). The discontinuities in both spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization at the heterointerfaces result in internal electric fields in the quantum wells. These electric fields cause carrier separation [quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE)] and reduce the radiative recombination rate within the quantum wells. One approach to reduce and possibly eliminate the polarization-related effects is to grow III-nitride devices on crystal planes that are inclined with respect to the c-axis, i.e., on semipolar planes. In this dissertation, metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been employed for the homoepitaxial growth of GaN based LEDs on semipolar orientations. As a consequence of growing on high-quality bulk GaN substrates, the LEDs have significantly reduced threading dislocation and stacking fault densities, resulting in remarkable improvements in EQE and output power. High efficiency semipolar (1011) violet-blue and blue LEDs have been demonstrated without any intentional effort to enhance the light extraction from those devices. Optimizations of epitaxial structures have led to increased output power and external quantum efficiency. A silicone encapsulated single quantum well blue LED with peak wavelength of 444 nm with output power of 24.3 mW, external quantum efficiency of 43% and luminous efficacy of 75 lm/W (with phosphorescent coating) at 20 mA has been demonstrated. Polarization fields in strained (1011) and (112¯2) InGaN quantum wells have been experimentally determined through bias-dependent optical studies. Our results show that the polarization field flips its direction in semipolar InGaN quantum wells with large inclination angles (i.e. around 60°). This suggests that there exists a polarization

  5. Strategies to achieve high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover.

    PubMed

    Geng, Wenhui; Jin, Yongcan; Jameel, Hasan; Park, Sunkyu

    2015-01-01

    Three strategies were presented to achieve high solids loading while maximizing carbohydrate conversion, which are fed-batch, splitting/thickening, and clarifier processes. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed at water insoluble solids (WIS) of 15% using washed dilute-acid pretreated corn stover. The carbohydrate concentration increased from 31.8 to 99.3g/L when the insoluble solids content increased from 5% to 15% WIS, while the final carbohydrate conversion was decreased from 78.4% to 73.2%. For the fed-batch process, a carbohydrate conversion efficiency of 76.8% was achieved when solid was split into 60:20:20 ratio, with all enzymes added first. For the splitting/thickening process, a carbohydrate conversion of 76.5% was realized when the filtrate was recycled to simulate a steady-state process. Lastly, the clarifier process was evaluated and the highest carbohydrate conversion of 81.4% was achieved. All of these results suggests the possibility of enzymatic hydrolysis at high solids to make the overall conversion cost-competitive. PMID:25836373

  6. Achieving all-dielectric metamaterial band-pass frequency selective surface via high-permittivity ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liyang; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Wang, Jun; Feng, Mingde; Du, Hongliang; Yan, Mingbao; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo; Xu, Zhuo

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose the design of all-dielectric metamaterial band-pass frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) using high-permittivity ceramics based on effective medium theory and dielectric resonator theory. The band-pass response can be determined by the permittivity of the dielectric material, the periodicity, and geometrical shape of the dielectric unit cell. As an example, a band-pass FSS composed of H shaped ceramic resonators is demonstrated. Both the simulation and experiment results show that the FSS can achieve a pass band in X-band. Since such FSSs are made of low-loss high-permittivity ceramics, they are of important application values, especially in high-temperature, high-power environments. The design method can be readily extended to the design of FSSs in other frequencies.

  7. The role of shaping in achieving high performance in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, E.A.; Hyatt, A.W.; Osborne, T.H.

    1994-10-01

    Experiments to study the effect of plasma shape on performance show that the high performance levels characteristic of VH-mode plasmas are only obtained for high triangularity ({delta}). A characteristic difference in central heating efficiency is observed when high and low {delta} plasmas are compared. The authors find this difference to correlate well with the attainment of Mercier stability. The core plasma for the high {delta} cases achieves Mercier stability when q{sub 0} rises above a critical value which depends on {delta}, providing direct access to the second-stable regime. Other attributes of the VH-mode commence after a delay. The rise in q{sub 0} is attributable to the radial gradients in the neutral beam and bootstrap current sources. Simulation indicates that such plasmas would persist for many seconds if the rise in density could be controlled, maintaining a centrally peaked neutral beam deposition profile.

  8. The effects of modeling instruction on high school physics academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an ex post facto , quasi-experimental research methodology. The independent variables in this study were the instructional methods of teaching. The treatment variable was Modeling Instruction and the control variable was traditional lecture instruction. The Treatment Group consisted of participants in Physical World Concepts who received Modeling Instruction. The Control Group consisted of participants in Physical Science who received traditional lecture instruction. The dependent variable was gains scores on the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI). The participants for this study were 133 students each in both the Treatment and Control Groups (n = 266), who attended a public, high school in rural middle Tennessee. The participants were administered the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) prior to being taught the mechanics of physics. The FCI data were entered into the computer-based Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Two independent samples t-tests were conducted to answer the research questions. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups concerning the instructional method. Modeling Instructional methods were found to be effective in increasing the academic achievement of students in high school physics. There was no statistically significant difference between FCI gains scores for gender. Gender was found to have no effect on the academic achievement of students in high school physics classes. However, even though there was not a statistically significant difference, female students' gains scores were higher than male students' gains scores when Modeling Instructional methods of teaching were used. Based on these findings, it is recommended

  9. Moving to higher ground: Closing the high school science achievement gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebane, Joyce Graham

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of West High School constituents (students, parents, teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors) about the readiness and interest of African American students at West High School to take Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) science courses as a strategy for closing the achievement gap. This case study utilized individual interviews and questionnaires for data collection. The participants were selected biology students and their parents, teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors at West High School. The results of the study indicated that just over half the students and teachers, most parents, and all guidance counselors thought African American students were prepared to take AP science courses. Only one of the three administrators thought the students were prepared to take AP science courses. Between one-half and two-thirds of the students, parents, teachers, and administrators thought students were interested in taking an AP science course. Only two of the guidance counselors thought there was interest among the African American students in taking AP science courses. The general consensus among the constituents about the readiness and interest of African American students at West High School to take IB science courses was that it is too early in the process to really make definitive statements. West is a prospective IB school and the program is new and not yet in place. Educators at the West High School community must find reasons to expect each student to succeed. Lower expectations often translate into lower academic demands and less rigor in courses. Lower academic demands and less rigor in courses translate into less than adequate performance by students. When teachers and administrators maintain high expectations, they encourage students to aim high rather than slide by with mediocre effort (Lumsden, 1997). As a result of the study, the following suggestions should

  10. [Sample of high school students with a demonstration of intervening factors in school achievement and failure].

    PubMed

    Piquilloud, C

    1984-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship and link between intellectual cathexis, school achievement and personality functioning in a representative sample of secondary school students aged 12 to 15 years. The level of structure of the personality plays a most significant role. Good school achievement does not necessarily depend on an optimal psychological equilibrium. In fact, the most determining factor seems to be the part played by the defense mechanisms--particularly those which aim at controlling libidinal drives--developed and elaborated during the period of latency. A certain intellectual potential, however, is a necessary but not sufficient condition for school achievement - indeed, an end of school certificate i.e. the Swiss "certificat de maturité" could be obtained by students of average intelligence. The capacity of maintaining an active intellectual investment seems to be an equally determining factor. This quality of functioning contains an oedipal component - particularly the ability of taking one's stand and of competing - as well as a pre-oedipal one - the narcissistic integrity, allowing one to preserve one's self-esteem facing difficulties. Contrary to our hypothesis, the quality of subject-environment interaction with family, peers, teachers, plays a relatively minor role. A more important aspect concerns the effects and results of relations established during childhood such as the interiorization of parental expectations, the quality of the superego, the degree of internal autonomy allowing compromise with external demands, etc. Underlying conflicts can intervene at several levels. One of these levels could result in the subject's incapacity to utilize his own resources and these imply consequences ranging from difficulties in basic school achievement to non-acquisition of cognitive mecanisms and under-development of symbolization. Psychological testing is a means of identifying the underlying difficulties and determining their nature

  11. On the achievable performance using variable geometry active secondary suspension systems in commercial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, Willem-Jan; Besselink, Igo; Teerhuis, Arjan; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2011-10-01

    There is a need to further improve driver comfort in commercial vehicles. The variable geometry active suspension offers an interesting option to achieve this in an energy efficient way. However, the optimal control strategy and the overal performance potential remains unclear. The aim of this paper is to quantify the level of performance improvement that can theoretically be obtained by replacing a conventional air sprung cabin suspension design with a variable geometry active suspension. Furthermore, the difference between the use of a linear quadratic (LQ) optimal controller and a classic skyhook controller is investigated. Hereto, an elementary variable geometry actuator model and experimentally validated four degrees of freedom quarter truck model are adopted. The results show that the classic skyhook controller gives a relatively poor performance while a comfort increase of 17-28% can be obtained with the LQ optimal controller, depending on the chosen energy weighting. Furthermore, an additional 75% comfort increase and 77% energy cost reduction can be obtained, with respect to the fixed gain energy optimal controller, using condition-dependent control gains. So, it is concluded that the performance potential using condition-dependent controllers is huge, and that the use of the classic skyhook control strategy should, in general, be avoided when designing active secondary suspensions for commercial vehicles.

  12. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1996-06-11

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidation state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  13. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  14. A strategy for achieving high reliability for reusable launch vehicles (RLVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholtis, Joseph A.

    2002-01-01

    Expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) have been used since the early 1960s to put numerous payloads, including humans, into space. Yet, in spite of their widespread use since that time, ELV reliability has not improved much. Why has this been the case? And, more importantly, what might be done to substantially improve the reliability of future reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) to levels needed for commercial viability, i.e., approaching that of the U.S. commercial airline industry? This paper attempts to answer these questions-by reviewing the history of launch vehicles, identifying factors important to their reliability and safety, and in doing so, offering a potential strategy for achieving high RLV reliability. The conclusion reached is that there is every reason to believe that high reliability (~0.99999 per mission) is achievable for future RLVs, if key features to enhance their inherent robustness, forgiveness, and recoverability are considered and integrated into RLV design and operation at the outset. It is hoped that this paper will serve as a catalyst for further discussions intended to ensure that high reliability is realized for RLVs. .

  15. Achieving high bit rate logical stochastic resonance in a bistable system by adjusting parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Gu, Feng-Shou; Feng, Guo-Jin; Yang, Yong-Min; Ball, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    The phenomenon of logical stochastic resonance (LSR) in a nonlinear bistable system is demonstrated by numerical simulations and experiments. However, the bit rates of the logical signals are relatively low and not suitable for practical applications. First, we examine the responses of the bistable system with fixed parameters to different bit rate logic input signals, showing that an arbitrary high bit rate LSR in a bistable system cannot be achieved. Then, a normalized transform of the LSR bistable system is introduced through a kind of variable substitution. Based on the transform, it is found that LSR for arbitrary high bit rate logic signals in a bistable system can be achieved by adjusting the parameters of the system, setting bias value and amplifying the amplitudes of logic input signals and noise properly. Finally, the desired OR and AND logic outputs to high bit rate logic inputs in a bistable system are obtained by numerical simulations. The study might provide higher feasibility of LSR in practical engineering applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51379526).

  16. Number Sense-Based Strategies Used by High-Achieving Sixth Grade Students Who Experienced Reform Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsawaie, Othman N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore strategies used by high-achieving 6th grade students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to solve basic arithmetic problems involving number sense. The sample for the study consisted of 15 high-achieving boys and 15 high-achieving girls in grade 6 from 2 schools in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE. Data for the…

  17. Cognitive abilities and motivational processes in high school students' science achievement and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Shun

    The dissertation presents two analytic approaches, a variable-centered and person-centered approach, to investigating holistic patterns of the cognitive, motivational, and affective correlates of science achievement and engagement in a sample of 491 10th and 11th grade high-school students. Building on Snow's (1989) idea of two pathways to achievement outcomes, Study 1 adopted a variable-centered approach to examining how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways, respectively, contributed to the prediction of achievement outcomes in science. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that (a) students' cognitive abilities were the strongest predictors of their performance in science as measured by standardized test scores; (b) motivational processes enhanced the predictive validity for science test scores and grades beyond the variance accounted for by ability and demography; (c) motivational processes were the strongest predictors of students' commitment to science in the form of situational engagement and anticipated choices of science-related college majors and careers; and (d) competence beliefs served as a point of contact between the performance and commitment pathways. These results are consistent with Snow's (1989) conjecture that both performance and commitment pathway-related factors are necessary for understanding the full range of person-level inputs to achievement outcomes. Study 2 adopted a person-centered approach to examining holistic organizations of psychological factors within individuals and their relations to science achievement and engagement. Four types of students characterized by unique configurations of cognitive, motivational, and affective attributes were identified in both the male and female subsamples using inverse factor analysis. Type membership was found to distinguish students in various indicators of science achievement and engagement. Two of the four types were also found

  18. The effects of alcohol use on academic achievement in high school.

    PubMed

    Balsa, Ana I; Giuliano, Laura M; French, Michael T

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's GPA abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that increases in alcohol consumption result in small yet statistically significant reductions in GPA for male students and in statistically non-significant changes for females. For females, however, higher levels of drinking result in self-reported academic difficulty. The fixed-effects results are substantially smaller than OLS estimates, underscoring the importance of addressing unobserved individual heterogeneity. PMID:21278841

  19. The Relation of High-Achieving Adolescents' Social Perceptions and Motivation to Teachers' Nominations for Advanced Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Carolyn; Torney-Purta, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The discrepancies between test-based and teacher-based criteria of high achievement are well-documented for students of all ages. This study seeks to determine whether certain high school students who score high on tests of academic achievement are more likely than others to be nominated for advanced academic programs by their teachers. Using…

  20. The Differential Impact of Motivation on the Self-Regulated Strategy Use of High- and Low-Achieving College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Low-achieving college students (N=94) evidenced less use of self-regulating strategies and a stronger relationship of self-regulated strategy use to positive motivational orientation than high-achieving students (N=49). Samples were predominantly white and female. Encouraging the use of these strategies may improve low achievers' academic…

  1. The Combined Effect of Teacher Effectiveness Characteristics on Value-Added Student Achievement in Junior High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadleigh, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Student academic achievement in junior high mathematics is an ongoing mission for educational leaders. To achieve that undertaking, teacher effectiveness plays an important role. The purpose of this study was to examine the combined effects of teacher effectiveness on student achievement. The study was conducted in a suburban school district in…

  2. The effects of frequency of technology use on high school students' mathematics and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Michael John

    1998-11-01

    This study examined whether the frequency of technology (calculator, computer) use among a nationally representative, random, sample of U.S. public and private high school seniors significantly (p<.001) impacts mathematics and science achievement. Student survey data from NELS:88 were analyzed to determine how the frequency of technology use among approximately 11,000 high school seniors impacts mathematics and science test scores. Four data sets (calculator/mathematics, calculator/science, computer/mathematics, computer/science) were analyzed using ANCOVA, after statistically controlling for: (a) sophomore exam scores, and socio-economic status. The findings indicated that the frequency of calculator use has a significant (p<.001) impact on mathematics and science exam scores. Likewise, the frequency of computer use, has a significant (p<.001) impact on mathematics and science test scores. Mathematics students using calculators either every day or almost daily scored significantly higher than students who never or rarely used calculators. Mathematics students who employed calculators daily attained significantly greater scores than students using calculators 1-2 times per month. Mathematics students using calculators daily achieved significantly higher scores than students using calculators 1-2 times each week. Science students using calculators at any one of the following three frequencies: (a) daily, (b) almost each day, or (c) 1-2 times per week, scored significantly higher than students who never or rarely used calculators. Science students using calculators at any one of the following three rates: (a) daily, (b) almost each day, or (c) once or twice each week, attained significantly greater science exam scores when compared to students who used calculators once or twice a month. Mathematics students who never or rarely used computers achieved significantly greater test scores when compared with students who employed computers almost each day. Mathematics

  3. Achieving High Contrast for Exoplanet Imaging with a Kalman Filter and Stroke Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Groff, T. D.; Kasdin, N. J.; Carlotti, A.; Vanderbei, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    High contrast imaging requires focal plane wavefront control and estimation to correct aberrations in an optical system; non-common path errors prevent the use of conventional estimation with a separate wavefront sensor. The High Contrast Imaging Laboratory (HCIL) at Princeton has led the development of several techniques for focal plane wavefront control and estimation. In recent years, we developed a Kalman filter for optimal wavefront estimation. Our Kalman filter algorithm is an improvement upon DM Diversity, which requires at least two images pairs each iteration and does not utilize any prior knowledge of the system. The Kalman filter is a recursive estimator, meaning that it uses the data from prior estimates along with as few as one new image pairs per iteration to update the electric field estimate. Stroke minimization has proven to be a feasible controller for achieving high contrast. While similar to a variation of Electric Field Conjugation (EFC), stroke minimization achieves the same contrast with less stroke on the DMs. We recently utilized these algorithms to achieve high contrast for the first time in our experiment at the High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Our HCIT experiment was also the first demonstration of symmetric dark hole correction in the image plane using two DMs--this is a major milestone for future space missions. Our ongoing work includes upgrading our optimal estimator to include an estimate of the incoherent light in the system, which allows for simultaneous estimation of the light from a planet along with starlight. The two-DM experiment at the HCIT utilized a shaped pupil coronagraph. Those tests utilized ripple style, free-standing masks etched out of silicon, but our current work is in designing 2-D optimized reflective shaped pupils. In particular, we have created several designs for the AFTA telescope, whose pupil presents major hurdles because of its atypical pupil obstructions. Our

  4. High Intensive Processes and Extreme States of Matter: Achievements and Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Simonenko, V. A.

    2006-08-03

    The paper briefly presents some main highlights of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) achievements starting from its origin in the 1940s to the current time. A decisive role of high explosives (HE) is emphasized in studying high intensive processes and high energy density states of matter. Mechanisms of detonation and kinetics of energy release still remain acute in the HE studying. Research and scientific applications of nuclear explosions opened a new stage in HEDP development. They provided a million-fold increase of energy density if compared to that of high explosives. High intensive heat waves and strong shock waves were studied and used to measure dense plasma opacities and matter properties under extreme conditions. This data remains important for the development of theoretical models of matter. Powerful pulsed facilities (lasers, electric explosion installations, and charged particle accelerators) were constructed to extend opportunities for the HEDP research. One of their main goals is to study inertial confinement fusion. HEDP technologies and results are very useful in space and astrophysical research, and on the contrary, astrophysical studies enrich HEDP with new models, problems and solutions.

  5. The association between objectively measured physical activity and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents: findings from the GOALS study.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, Martin L; De Groot, Renate H; Savelberg, Hans H; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A

    2014-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and academic achievement in adolescents. Students in Grades 7 and 9 (N = 255) were included. Overall, we found no significant dose-response association between physical activity and academic achievement. However, in Grade 7 total physical activity volume (Total PA) was negatively associated with academic achievement, while moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was negatively associated with both academic achievement and mathematics performance. In contrast, in Grade 9 both Total PA and MVPA were positively associated with mathematics performance. In addition, the overall association between MVPA and academic achievement followed an inverted U-shaped curve. Finally, Total PA was positively associated with executive functioning, while executive functioning in turn mediated the associations between Total PA and both academic achievement and mathematics performance. These results indicate that the association between physical activity and academic achievement in adolescents is complex and might be affected by academic year, physical activity volume and intensity, and school grade. PMID:25356610

  6. Physical activity, physical fitness and academic achievement in adolescents: a self-organizing maps approach.

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Chenoll, Maite; Garcia-Massó, Xavier; Morales, Jose; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Solana-Tramunt, Mònica; González, Luis-Millán; Toca-Herrera, José-Luis

    2015-06-01

    The relationship among physical activity, physical fitness and academic achievement in adolescents has been widely studied; however, controversy concerning this topic persists. The methods used thus far to analyse the relationship between these variables have included mostly traditional lineal analysis according to the available literature. The aim of this study was to perform a visual analysis of this relationship with self-organizing maps and to monitor the subject's evolution during the 4 years of secondary school. Four hundred and forty-four students participated in the study. The physical activity and physical fitness of the participants were measured, and the participants' grade point averages were obtained from the five participant institutions. Four main clusters representing two primary student profiles with few differences between boys and girls were observed. The clustering demonstrated that students with higher energy expenditure and better physical fitness exhibited lower body mass index (BMI) and higher academic performance, whereas those adolescents with lower energy expenditure exhibited worse physical fitness, higher BMI and lower academic performance. With respect to the evolution of the students during the 4 years, ∼25% of the students originally clustered in a negative profile moved to a positive profile, and there was no movement in the opposite direction. PMID:25953972

  7. The Pentagon-S process: A systematic approach for achieving high confidence in high-consequence products

    SciTech Connect

    D`Antonio, P.E.; Covan, J.M.; Ekman, M.E.

    1997-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a systematic approach for achieving high confidence in major products requiring high reliability for use in high-consequence applications. A high-consequence application is one in which product failure could result in significant loss of life, damage to major systems or to the environment, financial loss, or political repercussions. The application of this process has proven to be of significant benefit in the early identification, verification, and correction of potential product design and manufacturing process failure modes. Early identification and correction of these failures modes and the corresponding controls placed on safety-critical features, ensures product adherence to safety-critical design requirements, and enhances product quality, reliability, and the cost effectiveness of delivered products. Safety-critical features include design features such as materials and dimensions, as well as manufacturing features such as assembly processes, inspections, and testing.

  8. THE EDUCATIONAL MOTIVATION PATTERNS OF SUPERIOR STUDENTS WHO DO AND DO NOT ACHIEVE IN HIGH SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PIERCE, JAMES V.

    THIS STUDY SOUGHT TO DISCOVER AND ANALYZE SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN MOTIVATIONAL PATTERNS AND THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF TALENTED STUDENTS. THE OBJECTIVES WERE TO DETERMINE--(1) THE DIFFERENCES IN MOTIVATION TOWARD ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT BETWEEN THOSE WHO ACHIEVE AND THOSE WHO DO NOT, (2) THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ACHIEVERS AND NONACHIEVERS IN…

  9. The Effects of Physical Activity and Physical Fitness on Children's Achievement and Cognitive Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedewa, Alicia L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2011-01-01

    It is common knowledge that physical activity leads to numerous health and psychological benefits. However, the relationship between children's physical activity and academic achievement has been debated in the literature. Some studies have found strong, positive relationships between physical activity and cognitive outcomes, while other studies…

  10. Human papillomavirus vaccine delivery strategies that achieved high coverage in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Barge, Sandhya; Le, Nga Thi; Mugisha, Emmanuel; Penny, Mary E; Gandhi, Sanjay; Janmohamed, Amynah; Kumakech, Edward; Mosqueira, N Rocio; Nguyen, Nghi Quy; Paul, Proma; Tang, Yuxiao; Minh, Tran Hung; Uttekar, Bella Patel; Jumaan, Aisha O

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage after demonstration projects conducted in India, Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam by PATH and national governments and to explore the reasons for vaccine acceptance or refusal. Methods Vaccines were delivered through schools or health centres or in combination with other health interventions, and either monthly or through campaigns at fixed time points. Using a two-stage cluster sample design, the authors selected households in demonstration project areas and interviewed over 7000 parents or guardians of adolescent girls to assess coverage and acceptability. They defined full vaccination as the receipt of all three vaccine doses and used an open-ended question to explore acceptability. Findings Vaccination coverage in school-based programmes was 82.6% (95% confidence interval, CI: 79.3–85.6) in Peru, 88.9% (95% CI: 84.7–92.4) in 2009 in Uganda and 96.1% (95% CI: 93.0–97.8) in 2009 in Viet Nam. In India, a campaign approach achieved 77.2% (95% CI: 72.4–81.6) to 87.8% (95% CI: 84.3–91.3) coverage, whereas monthly delivery achieved 68.4% (95% CI: 63.4–73.4) to 83.3% (95% CI: 79.3–87.3) coverage. More than two thirds of respondents gave as reasons for accepting the HPV vaccine that: (i) it protects against cervical cancer; (ii) it prevents disease, or (iii) vaccines are good. Refusal was more often driven by programmatic considerations (e.g. school absenteeism) than by opposition to the vaccine. Conclusion High coverage with HPV vaccine among young adolescent girls was achieved through various delivery strategies in the developing countries studied. Reinforcing positive motivators for vaccine acceptance is likely to facilitate uptake. PMID:22084528

  11. Is Early Ability Grouping Good for High-Achieving Students' Psychosocial Development? Effects of the Transition into Academically Selective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Michael; Neumann, Marko; Tetzner, Julia; Böse, Susanne; Knoppick, Henrike; Maaz, Kai; Baumert, Jürgen; Lehmann, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates school context effects on psychosocial characteristics (academic self-concept, peer relations, school satisfaction, and school anxiety) of high-achieving and gifted students. Students who did or did not make an early transition from elementary to secondary schools for high-achieving and gifted students in 5th grade…

  12. What Can Teacher Education Programs Do to Prepare Teachers to Teach High-Achieving Culturally Diverse Male Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, H. Richard; Tenore, F. Blake; Laughter, Judson

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss what teacher education programs can do to prepare teachers to teach high-achieving culturally diverse male students. They suggest that special attention needs to be directed at the educational experiences of high-achieving Black male students. They also believe that diverse male learners, and especially high…

  13. Robust and Fragile Mathematical Identities: A Framework for Exploring Racialized Experiences and High Achievement among Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Ebony O.

    2015-01-01

    I introduce the construct of fragile and robust identities for the purpose of exploring the experiences that influenced the mathematical and racial identities of high-achieving Black college students in mathematics and engineering. These students maintained high levels of academic achievement in these fields while enduring marginalization,…

  14. Self-Concept and Academic Achievement: Investigating Their Importance as Discriminators of Academic Track Membership in High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Barbara M.

    1990-01-01

    Using linear discriminant analysis, two samples of Canadian high school students (n=929 and n=968) were tested using measures of self-concept, academic self-concept, and academic achievement. Academic self-concept was more effective than was academic achievement in differentiating between low-track and high-track students. (SLD)

  15. A Comparison of Strategic Development for Multiplication Problem Solving in Low-, Average-, and High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dake; Ding, Yi; Barrett, Dave E.; Xin, Yan Ping; Liu, Ru-de

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the differences of strategy use between low-, average-, and high-achieving students when solving different multiplication problems. Nineteen high-, 48 average-, and 17 low-achieving students participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete three different multiplication tests and to explain how…

  16. Trajectories of Chinese Students' Sense of School Belonging and Academic Achievement over the High School Transition Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    The present study identified the different patterns of Chinese students' academic achievement trajectories over the high school transition period and examined the relationships between students' sense of school belonging trajectories and the different patterns of academic achievement trajectories. In a sample of 567 Chinese high school students, a…

  17. The Difference in the Academic Achievement of Hispanic High School Students Based on the Theme of the Small Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Beate M. Winter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the difference in the academic achievement of urban Hispanic high school students based on the small learning community theme. The study used a quantitative method of ex post facto research to examine how the academic achievement of Hispanic high school students differs across the themes of small…

  18. Tuning charge balance in PHOLEDs with ambipolar host materials to achieve high efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Koech, Phillip K.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Chopra, Neetu; So, Franky; Sapochak, Linda S.; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2009-08-27

    The efficiency and stability of blue organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) continue to be a primary roadblock to developing organic solid state white lighting. For OLEDs to meet the high power conversion efficiency goal, they will require both close to 100% internal quantum efficiency and low operating voltage in a white light emitting device.1 It is generally accepted that such high quantum efficiency, can only be achieved with the use of organometallic phosphor doped OLEDs. Blue OLEDs are particularly important for solid state lighting. The simplest (and therefore likely the lowest cost) method of generating white light is to down convert part of the emission from a blue light source with a system of external phosphors.2 A second method of generating white light requires the superposition of the light from red, green and blue OLEDs in the correct ratio. Either of these two methods (and indeed any method of generating white light with a high color rendering index) critically depends on a high efficiency blue light component.3 A simple OLED generally consists of a hole-injecting anode, a preferentially hole transporting organic layer (HTL), an emissive layer that contains the recombination zone and ideally transports both holes and electrons, a preferentially electron-transporting layer (ETL) and an electron-injecting cathode. Color in state-of-the-art OLEDs is generated by an organometallic phosphor incorporated by co-sublimation into the emissive layer (EML).4 New materials functioning as hosts, emitters, charge transporting, and charge blocking layers have been developed along with device architectures leading to electrophosphorescent based OLEDs with high quantum efficiencies near the theoretical limit. However, the layers added to the device architecture to enable high quantum efficiencies lead to higher operating voltages and correspondingly lower power efficiencies. Achievement of target luminance power efficiencies will require new strategies for lowering

  19. Efforts to achieve high-performance long-pulse operations in the EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Baonian; EAST Team; Collaborators

    2016-01-01

    To achieve long-pulse tokamak operation, sufficient current drive and self-generated current are required, with the challenges of the exhaust of the heat from the divertor plates. Experiments have proven that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) can broaden the divertor power footprint and cause the splitting of the strike point current and hence reduce the peak heat flux on the divertors. Edge localized mode (ELM) mitigation can be realized by supersonic molecule beam injection (SMBI), modulated LHCD, lithium granule and aerosol injection, as well as resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). Enhanced transport by an electrostatic edge coherent mode at the pedestal region is observed in the ELM mitigated plasmas by LHCD. Long-pulse H-mode plasmas in the small ELMy regime have been demonstrated by a combination of ELM mitigation techniques and the optimization of the plasma confinement performance. These newly achieved H-mode scenarios by using features of LHCD in the control of steady-state peak heat flux and transient heat flux due to ELMs may offer a promising regime for further EAST long-pulse high-performance operation and be applicable to ITER.

  20. Science literacy in high school students: A comparison of achievement in two curriculum approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlister, Diane C.

    2009-12-01

    Academic achievement as measured by the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) in science for 367 students in two science curriculum options, integrated science and the traditional subject-specific courses, in one central Florida high school were compared. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) of science curriculum choice was analyzed for three variables, total FCAT score, earth science subscore, and scientific thinking subscore. Covariate of academic ability as defined by grade point average (GPA) and academic focus as defined by post secondary plans were considered for use. Analysis of statistically significant results was completed through analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). While statistically significant results were found in favor of the traditional curriculum group, additional statistical analysis of the curriculum groups for differences in socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and instructional level led to a logistic regression to explore the ability of these variables, GPA, and total FCAT score to predict curriculum group membership. GPA, level of instruction and FCAT score were found to be statistically significant predictors. Final conclusions to the study indicated a significant difference in scientific literacy for the two groups in favor of the traditional curriculum. However, logistic regression results indicated that due to significant differences in SES, gender, GPA, and level of instruction for the groups, the differences in academic achievement were probably due to factors other than curriculum design. Limitations of the study and suggestions for further research were presented.

  1. Achievement of high atomic hydrogen densities in cylindrical rf plasmas with magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantz, Ursel; Briefi, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Cylindrical rf plasmas in hydrogen with and without an axial magnetic field of up to 120 G are investigated in the pressure range of 0.3 to 10 Pa. The atomic hydrogen density is determined with optical emission spectroscopy, analyzing the Balmer lines and the molecular radiation (Fulcher band). The results obtained by using different coil geometries (4 to 6 turn windings and Nagoya type antenna) as well as different diameters (10 cm and 25 cm) of a quartz, aluminum oxide or aluminum nitride cylinder are compared. RF powers of up to 600 W at a frequency of 13.56 MHz are available for the 10 cm configuration, whereas up to 70 kW power at 1 MHz are used for the 25 cm cylinder. Density ratios of atoms to molecules of up to 0.3 are achieved in both configurations, whereby the achievement in the high power setup is limited by neutral depletion. The influence of the wall material on the atomic densities, and thus the recombination coefficient, will be pointed out.

  2. Alternative scheduling models and their effect on science achievement at the high school level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostal, Jay Roland

    This study will evaluate alternative scheduling methods implemented in secondary level schools. Students were selected based on parent selection of programs. Traditional scheduling involves numerous academic subjects with small increments of time in each class and block scheduling focuses on fewer academic subjects and more instructional time. This study will compare office referral numbers, absence frequency, and Essential Learner Outcome (ELO) science strand scores in the 8th-grade (pretest) to the same students office referrals, absence frequency, and ELO science strand scores in the 11th-grade (posttest) between Seven Period Traditional Scheduling (SPTS) and Four Period Block Scheduling (FPBS) in the hopes that no matter what schedule students are a part of, the achievement results will be similar. (Study participants had completed both grade level ELO assessments and were continuously enrolled in one high school through their junior year.

  3. Conflicts and communication between high-achieving Chinese American adolescents and their parents.

    PubMed

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Chang, Tzu-Fen; Han, Eun-Jin; Chee, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interview data collected on 18 high-achieving Chinese American students, the authors examine domains of acculturation-based conflicts, parent and child internal conflicts, and conflict resolution in their families. Their analyses show that well-established negative communication patterns in educational expectations, divergent attitudes toward other races and country of origin, and cultural and language barriers contributed to parent-child conflicts. Their findings also illustrate important internal conflicts both adolescents and parents had along the cultural tightrope of autonomy and relatedness. Finally, the vertical in-group conflict resolution style that was evidenced in youths' accounts raises questions about cultural differences in constructive versus destructive conflict resolution styles. PMID:22407881

  4. Achieving a long-lived high-beta plasma state by energetic beam injection.

    PubMed

    Guo, H Y; Binderbauer, M W; Tajima, T; Milroy, R D; Steinhauer, L C; Yang, X; Garate, E G; Gota, H; Korepanov, S; Necas, A; Roche, T; Smirnov, A; Trask, E

    2015-01-01

    Developing a stable plasma state with high-beta (ratio of plasma to magnetic pressures) is of critical importance for an economic magnetic fusion reactor. At the forefront of this endeavour is the field-reversed configuration. Here we demonstrate the kinetic stabilizing effect of fast ions on a disruptive magneto-hydrodynamic instability, known as a tilt mode, which poses a central obstacle to further field-reversed configuration development, by energetic beam injection. This technique, combined with the synergistic effect of active plasma boundary control, enables a fully stable ultra-high-beta (approaching 100%) plasma with a long lifetime. PMID:25902924

  5. Strategies for achieving high-level expression of genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Makrides, S C

    1996-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of several biological processes promises to broaden the usefulness of Escherichia coli as a tool for gene expression. There is an expanding choice of tightly regulated prokaryotic promoters suitable for achieving high-level gene expression. New host strains facilitate the formation of disulfide bonds in the reducing environment of the cytoplasm and offer higher protein yields by minimizing proteolytic degradation. Insights into the process of protein translocation across the bacterial membranes may eventually make it possible to achieve robust secretion of specific proteins into the culture medium. Studies involving molecular chaperones have shown that in specific cases, chaperones can be very effective for improved protein folding, solubility, and membrane transport. Negative results derived from such studies are also instructive in formulating different strategies. The remarkable increase in the availability of fusion partners offers a wide range of tools for improved protein folding, solubility, protection from proteases, yield, and secretion into the culture medium, as well as for detection and purification of recombinant proteins. Codon usage is known to present a potential impediment to high-level gene expression in E. coli. Although we still do not understand all the rules governing this phenomenon, it is apparent that "rare" codons, depending on their frequency and context, can have an adverse effect on protein levels. Usually, this problem can be alleviated by modification of the relevant codons or by coexpression of the cognate tRNA genes. Finally, the elucidation of specific determinants of protein degradation, a plethora of protease-deficient host strains, and methods to stabilize proteins afford new strategies to minimize proteolytic susceptibility of recombinant proteins in E. coli. PMID:8840785

  6. Superintendent Leadership and Student Achievement in Suburban High Schools: A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellner, Steven Reese

    2012-01-01

    This research study explored the critical nature of the connection between student achievement and superintendent leadership. A great deal of scholarship has addressed either student achievement or leadership and previous evidence has suggested the impact of both parental education and racioethnicity on student achievement, but few studies have…

  7. Examining the Long-Term Impact of Achievement Loss during the Transition to High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joshua S.

    2006-01-01

    Research shows that prior academic achievement is a strong predictor of future academic performance. For some students, the transition from one educational environment to another is associated with academic challenges and achievement loss. This study examined the extent to which achievement loss during the transition from middle school to high…

  8. Held Back: The Impact of Curricular and Pedagogical Factors on Tested Achievement in High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agvanian, Zara

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of curricular factors and teaching practices on students' tested achievement in mathematics, explored the best predictors of the tested achievement, and examined differences in the tested achievement among student subgroups. The study utilized qualitative and quantitative methods and triangulated findings from…

  9. The Effects of School Bonding on High School Seniors' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Julia; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Gaenzle, Stacey; Kim, Jungnam; Lin, Chia-Huei; Na, Goeun

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of school bonding on academic achievement (measured by math achievement scores) in a sample of 12th graders from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (Ingels, Pratt, Rogers, Siegel, & Stutts, 2005). Components of school bonding have proximal and distal effects on academic achievement. Attachment to school and…

  10. Final LDRD report : science-based solutions to achieve high-performance deep-UV laser diodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Alessi, Leonard J.; Smith, Michael L.; Henry, Tanya A.; Westlake, Karl R.; Cross, Karen Charlene; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Lee, Stephen Roger

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project that has focused on overcoming major materials roadblocks to achieving AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes. We describe our growth approach to achieving AlGaN templates with greater than ten times reduction of threading dislocations which resulted in greater than seven times enhancement of AlGaN quantum well photoluminescence and 15 times increase in electroluminescence from LED test structures. We describe the application of deep-level optical spectroscopy to AlGaN epilayers to quantify deep level energies and densities and further correlate defect properties with AlGaN luminescence efficiency. We further review our development of p-type short period superlattice structures as an approach to mitigate the high acceptor activation energies in AlGaN alloys. Finally, we describe our laser diode fabrication process, highlighting the development of highly vertical and smooth etched laser facets, as well as characterization of resulting laser heterostructures.

  11. Rod Visual Pigment Optimizes Active State to Achieve Efficient G Protein Activation as Compared with Cone Visual Pigments*

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Keiichi; Imamoto, Yasushi; Maeda, Ryo; Yamashita, Takahiro; Shichida, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Most vertebrate retinas contain two types of photoreceptor cells, rods and cones, which show different photoresponses to mediate scotopic and photopic vision, respectively. These cells contain different types of visual pigments, rhodopsin and cone visual pigments, respectively, but little is known about the molecular properties of cone visual pigments under physiological conditions, making it difficult to link the molecular properties of rhodopsin and cone visual pigments with the differences in photoresponse between rods and cones. Here we prepared bovine and mouse rhodopsin (bvRh and mRh) and chicken and mouse green-sensitive cone visual pigments (cG and mG) embedded in nanodiscs and applied time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy to compare their Gt activation efficiencies. Rhodopsin exhibited greater Gt activation efficiencies than cone visual pigments. Especially, the Gt activation efficiency of mRh was about 2.5-fold greater than that of mG at 37 °C, which is consistent with our previous electrophysiological data of knock-in mice. Although the active state (Meta-II) was in equilibrium with inactive states (Meta-I and Meta-III), quantitative determination of Meta-II in the equilibrium showed that the Gt activation efficiency per Meta-II of bvRh was also greater than those of cG and mG. These results indicated that efficient Gt activation by rhodopsin, resulting from an optimized active state of rhodopsin, is one of the causes of the high amplification efficiency of rods. PMID:24375403

  12. Achievement Goal Orientations and Self-Reported Study Strategies as Predictors of Online Studying Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesope, Olusola O.; Zhou, Mingming; Nesbit, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether achievement motivations influence the adoption of learning strategies and learning strategies influence studying behavior in an online learning environment. The Goal Orientation Questionnaire was used to measure achievement motives, and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was…

  13. Achievement Goal Pursuit: Are Different Goals Activated and More Beneficial in Different Types of Academic Situations?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Kenneth E.; Finney, Sara J.; Davis, Susan L.; Owens, Kara M.

    This study was intended to evaluate whether a recently proposed 2 x 2 achievement goal model could be replicated, and it aimed to evaluate whether students were more advantaged by pursuing one type of goal or a combination of goals. The achievement goals and graded performance of 1,213 undergraduates were studied at 3 time points during a semester…

  14. Effectiveness of Hands-on and Minds-on Activities on Students' Achievement and Attitudes towards Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ates, Ozlem; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of hands-on and minds-on activities on ninth grade students' achievement in and attitudes towards simple electric circuits. The study was conducted with 130 students, 70 of which were assigned as experimental group and instructed by hands-on/minds-on activities, while the 60 were assigned as…

  15. Steps to Self-Determination: A Curriculum To Help Adolescents Learn To Achieve Their Goals. Student Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Sharon; Hoffman, Alan

    This student activity book includes worksheets that secondary students with and without disabilities can use to complete each activity in the "Steps to Self-Determination" curriculum. The program is meant to assist students in learning more about themselves and developing the skills they need to achieve their goals, getting support from family and…

  16. Patterns of Organized Activity Participation in Urban, Early Adolescents: Associations with Academic Achievement, Problem Behaviors, and Perceived Adult Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Crean, Hugh F.; Forbes-Jones, Emma L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines patterns of organized activity and their concurrent association with academic achievement, problem behavior, and perceived adult support in a sample of urban, early adolescent, middle school students (mean age = 13.01; N = 2,495). Cluster analyses yielded six activity profiles: an uninvolved group (n = 775, 31.1%), a multiply…

  17. A Randomized Controlled Design Investigating the Effects of Classroom-Based Physical Activity on Children's Fluid Intelligence and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedewa, Alicia L.; Ahn, Soyeon; Erwin, Heather; Davis, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Existing literature shows promising effects of physical activity on children's cognitive outcomes. This study assessed via a randomized, controlled design whether additional curricular physical activity during the school day resulted in gains for children's fluid intelligence and standardized achievement outcomes. Participants were children…

  18. Achievement of high nuclear spin polarization using lanthanides as low-temperature NMR relaxation agents.

    PubMed

    Peat, David T; Horsewill, Anthony J; Köckenberger, Walter; Perez Linde, Angel J; Gadian, David G; Owers-Bradley, John R

    2013-05-28

    Many approaches are now available for achieving high levels of nuclear spin polarization. One of these methods is based on the notion that as the temperature is reduced, the equilibrium nuclear polarization will increase, according to the Boltzmann distribution. The main problem with this approach is the length of time it may take to approach thermal equilibrium at low temperatures, since nuclear relaxation times (characterized by the spin-lattice relaxation time T1) can become very long. Here, we show, by means of relaxation time measurements of frozen solutions, that selected lanthanide ions, in the form of their chelates with DTPA, can act as effective relaxation agents at low temperatures. Differential effects are seen with the different lanthanides that were tested, holmium and dysprosium showing highest relaxivity, while gadolinium is ineffective at temperatures of 20 K and below. These observations are consistent with the known electron-spin relaxation time characteristics of these lanthanides. The maximum relaxivity occurs at around 10 K for Ho-DTPA and 20 K for Dy-DTPA. Moreover, these two agents show only modest relaxivity at room temperature, and can thus be regarded as relaxation switches. We conclude that these agents can speed up solid state NMR experiments by reducing the T1 values of the relevant nuclei, and hence increasing the rate at which data can be acquired. They could also be of value in the context of a simple low-cost method of achieving several-hundred-fold improvements in polarization for experiments in which samples are pre-polarized at low temperatures, then rewarmed and dissolved immediately prior to analysis. PMID:23588269

  19. New insulating materials and their use to achieve high operating stresses in electrostatic machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Chathan M.

    1986-02-01

    Compressed gas insulation has provided the main insulation for sustaining terminal voltages of electrostatic accelerators. Essentially coaxial geometry is used with mechanical support of the terminal achieved by long columns which also support the acceleration tubes. Because of the vacuum insulation in the acceleration tubes, the electric gradient along the columns is typically 10-20 kV/cm, whereas the radial gas gap can operate at stresses about ten times larger. Until now, the terminal support has always been located in the low stress axial direction along the column and not in the radial high stress region. This paper is concerned with support insulation to be used in the radial direction. Advantages of radial supports include: simpler, more compact column structures, higher total voltages, and support of discrete stress redistribution electrodes such as vivitron. Important factors to the design of radial support insulators include the insulation constraints imposed by the gas gap, mechanical contact to the solid insulator, and basic limits of gas-solid dielectric interfaces. The gas gap insulation strength is shown to be limited by surface microirregularities and this accounts for electrode area and pressure effects. Based on the gas gap requirements, a design strategy for the insulators is developed. Epoxy is employed as the dielectric to allow the use of cast-in metal inserts at the ends. The inserts provide mechanical contact, shielding of the triple junction, and redistribution of the interface electric stresses. By careful design, the electric stress on the interface is made lower than that in the plain coaxial electrode gap. Practical experience shows that voltage increases linearly with insulator length and that designs achieve more than 10 MV/m into the multimegavolt region.

  20. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  1. Highly efficient industrial large-area black silicon solar cells achieved by surface nanostructured modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping; Wei, Yi; Zhao, Zengchao; Tan, Xin; Bian, Jiming; Wang, Yuxuan; Lu, Chunxi; Liu, Aimin

    2015-12-01

    Traditional black silicon solar cells show relatively low efficiencies due to the high surface recombination occurring at the front surfaces. In this paper, we present a surface modification process to suppress surface recombination and fabricate highly efficient industrial black silicon solar cells. The Ag-nanoparticle-assisted etching is applied to realize front surface nanostructures on silicon wafers in order to reduce the surface reflectance. Through a further tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) treatment, the carrier recombination at and near the surface is greatly suppressed, due to a lower surface dopant concentration after the surface modification. This modified surface presents a low reflectivity in a range of 350-1100 nm. Large-area solar cells with an average conversion efficiency of 19.03% are achieved by using the TMAH treatment of 30 s. This efficiency is 0.18% higher than that of standard silicon solar cells with pyramidal surfaces, and also a remarkable improvement compared with black silicon solar cells without TMAH modifications.

  2. High-throughput pesticide residue quantitative analysis achieved by tandem mass spectrometry with automated flow injection.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Pentz, Anne M; Bramble, Frederick Q

    2009-04-15

    The use of automated flow injection with MS/MS detection for fast quantitation of agrochemicals in food and water samples was demonstrated in this study. Active ingredients from the sulfonylurea herbicide and carbamate insecticide classes were selected as model systems. Samples were prepared using typical procedures from residue methods, placed in an autosampler, and injected directly into a triple quadrupole instrument without chromatographic separation. The technique allows data acquisition in 15 s per injection, with samples being injected every 65 s, representing a significant improvement from the 15-30 min needed in typical HPLC/MS/MS methods. The availability of HPLC systems is an advantage since they can be used in flow-injection mode (bypassing the column compartment). Adequate accuracy, linearity, and precision (R(2) > 0.99 and RSD < 20%) were obtained using external standards prepared in each control matrix. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) achieved for all analytes was 0.01 mg/kg in food samples and 0.1 ng/mL in water; while limits of detection (LOD) were estimated to be about 0.003 mg/kg and 0.03 ng/mL in food and water, respectively. The advantages and limitations of flow injection MS/MS for ultratrace-level quantitative analysis in complex matrixes are discussed. PMID:19296591

  3. A Study Comparing the Academic Achievement of African American Male Students Enrolled in Two Types of Nontraditional High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Anthony B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of the achievement of African American male students enrolled in an early college high school to those enrolled in a performing arts high school. The Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) scores of the 11th-grade African American male students from an early college high school were compared to the GHSGT…

  4. Exploratory studies of new avenues to achieve high electromechanical response and high dielectric constant in polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cheng

    High performance soft electronic materials are key elements in advanced electronic devices for broad range applications including capacitors, actuators, artificial muscles and organs, smart materials and structures, microelectromechanical (MEMS) and microfluidic devices, acoustic devices and sensors. This thesis exploits new approaches to improve the electromechanical response and dielectric response of these materials. By making use of novel material phenomena such as large anisotropy in dipolar response in liquid crystals (LCs) and all-organic composites in which high dielectric constant organic solids and conductive polymers are either physically blended into or chemically grafted to a polymer matrix, we demonstrate that high dielectric constant and high electromechanical conversion efficiency comparable to that in ceramic materials can be achieved. Nano-composite approach can also be utilized to improve the performance of the electronic electroactive polymers (EAPs) and composites, for example, exchange coupling between the fillers and matrix with very large dielectric contrast can lead to significantly enhance the dielectric response as well as electromechanical response when the heterogeneity size of the composite is comparable to the exchange length. In addition to the dielectric composites, in which high dielectric constant fillers raise the dielectric constant of composites, conductive percolation can also lead to high dielectric constant in polymeric materials. An all-polymer percolative composite is introduced which exhibits very high dielectric constant (>7,000). The flexible all-polymer composites with a high dielectric constant make it possible to induce a high electromechanical response under a much reduced electric field in the field effect electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators (a strain of 2.65% with an elastic energy density of 0.18 J/cm3 can be achieved under a field of 16 V/mum). Agglomeration of the particles can also be effectively prevented

  5. Optimal microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device for achieving high pyroelectric response of AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Bemnnet; Coutu, Ronald A.; Starman, LaVern

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses research being conducted on aluminum nitride (AlN) as a pyroelectric material for use in detecting applications. AlN is being investigated because of its high pyroelectric coefficient, thermal stability, and high Curie temperature. In order to determine suitability of the pyroelectric properties of AlN for use as a detector, testing of several devices was conducted. These devices were fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication processes; the devices were also designed to allow for voltage and current measurements. The deposited AlN films used were 150 nm - 300 nm in thickness. Thin-films were used to rapidly increase the temperature response after the thermal stimulus was applied to the pyroelectric material. This is important because the pyroelectric effect is directly proportional to the rate of temperature change. The design used was a face-electrode bridge that provides thermal isolation which minimizes heat loss to the substrate, thereby increasing operation frequency of the pyroelectric device. A thermal stimulus was applied to the pyroelectric material and the response was measured across the electrodes. A thermal imaging camera was used to monitor the changes in temperature. Throughout the testing process, the annealing temperatures, type of layers, and thicknesses were also varied. These changes resulted in improved MEMS designs, which were fabricated to obtain an optimal design configuration for achieving a high pyroelectric response. A pyroelectric voltage response of 38.9 mVp-p was measured without filtering, 12.45 mVp-p was measured in the infrared (IR) region using a Si filter, and 6.38 mVp-p was measured in the short wavelength IR region using a long pass filter. The results showed that AlN's pyroelectric properties can be used in detecting applications.

  6. Longitudinal Outcomes of Start Time Delay on Sleep, Behavior, and Achievement in High School

    PubMed Central

    Thacher, Pamela V.; Onyper, Serge V.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To establish whether sleep, health, mood, behavior, and academics improved after a 45-minute delay in high school start time, and whether changes persisted longitudinally. Methods: We collected data from school records and student self-report across a number of domains at baseline (May 2012) and at two follow-up time points (November 2012 and May 2013), at a public high school in upstate New York. Students enrolled during academic years (AY) 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; the DASS-21; the “Owl-Lark” Scale; the Daytime Sleepiness Index; and a brief self-report of health. Reports from school records regarding attendance, tardiness, disciplinary violations, and academic performance were collected for AY 2010–2011 through 2013–2014. Results: Students delayed but did not extend their sleep period; we found lasting improvements in tardiness and disciplinary violations after the start-time delay, but no changes to other variables. At the first follow-up, students reported 20 minutes longer sleep, driven by later rise times and stable bed times. At the second follow-up, students maintained later rise times but delayed bedtimes, returning total sleep to baseline levels. A delay in rise time, paralleling the delay in the start time that occurred, resulted in less tardiness and decreased disciplinary incidents, but larger improvements to sleep patterns may be necessary to affect health, attendance, sleepiness, and academic performance. Conclusions: Later start times improved tardiness and disciplinary issues at this school district. A delay in start time may be a necessary but not sufficient means to increase sleep time and may depend on preexisting individual differences. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 267. Citation: Thacher PV, Onyper SV. Longitudinal outcomes of start time delay on sleep, behavior, and achievement in high school. SLEEP 2016;39(2):271–281. PMID

  7. Extrinsic Motivation for Large-Scale Assessments: A Case Study of a Student Achievement Program at One Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmett, Joshua; McGee, Dean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to discover the critical attributes of a student achievement program, known as "Think Gold," implemented at one urban comprehensive high school as part of the improvement process. Student achievement on state assessments improved during the period under study. The study draws upon perspectives on motivation as a…

  8. American High School Students from Different Ethnic Backgrounds: The Role of Parents and the Classroom in Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jung-In

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between ethnically diverse US high school students' (N = 331) perceptions of their parents' or classroom's motivating factors and their achievement motivation in their math class, connecting achievement goal orientation and self-determination theories. Two hypothesized path models were…

  9. Bright and Beautiful: High Achieving Girls, Ambivalent Femininities, and the Feminization of Success in the Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renold, Emma; Allan, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    This paper refocuses attention on and problematizes girls' experiences of school achievement and the construction of schoolgirl femininities. In particular, it centres on the relatively neglected experiences and identity work of high achieving primary school girls. Drawing upon ethnographic data (observations, interviews, and pupil diaries) from a…

  10. The Impact of Principal Perception on Student Academic Climate and Achievement in High School: How Does It Measure Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urick, Angela; Bowers, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the independent direct effects of student and principal perceptions of academic climate on student achievement in high school. To date, few studies have considered the influence of principal perceptions of academic climate on student achievement. In the present study, we test a set of two-level hierarchical…

  11. Validation of a Test to Measure Need-Achievement Motivation Among American Indian High School Students. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, Bryan P.

    A cross-cultural test measuring need-achievement motivation was developed and administered to 634 American Indian, Spanish American and Anglo high school seniors attending 24 schools, including Federal, public and private boarding and day types. Need-achievement was related to the following types of measures: academic, aptitude, intelligence, and…

  12. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  13. (Re)Defining the Narrative: High-Achieving Nontraditional Black Male Undergraduates at a Historically Black College and University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goings, Ramon B.

    2016-01-01

    Using Harper's anti-deficit achievement framework as a theoretical guide, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the academic and social experiences of four nontraditional, high-achieving, Black male undergraduates attending one historically Black university. Findings show that the participants were intrinsically motivated…

  14. Academic Achievement Trajectories of Homeless and Highly Mobile Students: Resilience in the Context of Chronic and Acute Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutuli, J. J.; Desjardins, Christopher David; Herbers, Janette E.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Heistad, David; Chan, Chi-Keung; Hinz, Elizabeth; Masten, Ann S.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses examined academic achievement data across third through eighth grades ("N" = 26,474), comparing students identified as homeless or highly mobile (HHM) with other students in the federal free meal program (FM), reduced price meals (RM), or neither (General). Achievement was lower as a function of rising risk status (General greater than RM…

  15. Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement in High School: A Cross-Subject Analysis with Student Fixed Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2010-01-01

    We use data on statewide end-of-course tests in North Carolina to examine the relationship between teacher credentials and student achievement at the high school level. We find compelling evidence that teacher credentials, particularly licensure and certification, affects student achievement in systematic ways and that the magnitudes are large…

  16. An Examination of the Impact of Successive and Non-Successive Geometry Classes on High School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugg, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of successive versus non-successive scheduling of mathematics courses on the achievement of ninth-grade students in a suburban Oregon high school. The Oregon Assessment of Knowledge and Skills and student performance on the geometry course final exam were employed to compare the achievement of intact groups of…

  17. The Relationship between Professional Learning Communities, Personal Teacher Efficacy, and Student Achievement at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sherri L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to determine if there was a relationship between professional learning community (PLC), personal teacher efficacy (PTE), and student achievement. The study examined teacher perception of PLC implementation and PET as it related to student achievement at the high school level on the Virginia End-of Course…

  18. The Relationship between Professional Learning Community Implementation and Academic Achievement and Graduation Rates in Georgia High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardinger, Regina Gail

    2013-01-01

    Many educational administrators in Georgia continue to struggle with low student academic achievement and low high school graduation rates. DuFour's professional learning community (PLC) theory suggests a positive relationship between levels of PLC implementation and academic achievement and between levels of PLC implementation and graduation…

  19. Selective activation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor achieved by allosteric potentiation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Seager, Matthew A; Seager, Matthew; Wittmann, Marion; Jacobson, Marlene; Bickel, Denise; Burno, Maryann; Jones, Keith; Graufelds, Valerie Kuzmick; Xu, Guangping; Pearson, Michelle; McCampbell, Alexander; Gaspar, Renee; Shughrue, Paul; Danziger, Andrew; Regan, Christopher; Flick, Rose; Pascarella, Danette; Garson, Susan; Doran, Scott; Kreatsoulas, Constantine; Veng, Lone; Lindsley, Craig W; Shipe, William; Kuduk, Scott; Sur, Cyrille; Kinney, Gene; Seabrook, Guy R; Ray, William J

    2009-09-15

    The forebrain cholinergic system promotes higher brain function in part by signaling through the M(1) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR). During Alzheimer's disease (AD), these cholinergic neurons degenerate, therefore selectively activating M(1) receptors could improve cognitive function in these patients while avoiding unwanted peripheral responses associated with non-selective muscarinic agonists. We describe here benzyl quinolone carboxylic acid (BQCA), a highly selective allosteric potentiator of the M(1) mAChR. BQCA reduces the concentration of ACh required to activate M(1) up to 129-fold with an inflection point value of 845 nM. No potentiation, agonism, or antagonism activity on other mAChRs is observed up to 100 microM. Furthermore studies in M(1)(-/-) mice demonstrates that BQCA requires M(1) to promote inositol phosphate turnover in primary neurons and to increase c-fos and arc RNA expression and ERK phosphorylation in the brain. Radioligand-binding assays, molecular modeling, and site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicate that BQCA acts at an allosteric site involving residues Y179 and W400. BQCA reverses scopolamine-induced memory deficits in contextual fear conditioning, increases blood flow to the cerebral cortex, and increases wakefulness while reducing delta sleep. In contrast to M(1) allosteric agonists, which do not improve memory in scopolamine-challenged mice in contextual fear conditioning, BQCA induces beta-arrestin recruitment to M(1), suggesting a role for this signal transduction mechanism in the cholinergic modulation of memory. In summary, BQCA exploits an allosteric potentiation mechanism to provide selectivity for the M(1) receptor and represents a promising therapeutic strategy for cognitive disorders. PMID:19717450

  20. Selective activation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor achieved by allosteric potentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lei; Seager, Matthew A.; Wittmann, Marion; Jacobson, Marlene; Bickel, Denise; Burno, Maryann; Jones, Keith; Graufelds, Valerie Kuzmick; Xu, Guangping; Pearson, Michelle; McCampbell, Alexander; Gaspar, Renee; Shughrue, Paul; Danziger, Andrew; Regan, Christopher; Flick, Rose; Pascarella, Danette; Garson, Susan; Doran, Scott; Kreatsoulas, Constantine; Veng, Lone; Lindsley, Craig W.; Shipe, William; Kuduk, Scott; Sur, Cyrille; Kinney, Gene; Seabrook, Guy R.; Ray, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The forebrain cholinergic system promotes higher brain function in part by signaling through the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR). During Alzheimer's disease (AD), these cholinergic neurons degenerate, therefore selectively activating M1 receptors could improve cognitive function in these patients while avoiding unwanted peripheral responses associated with non-selective muscarinic agonists. We describe here benzyl quinolone carboxylic acid (BQCA), a highly selective allosteric potentiator of the M1 mAChR. BQCA reduces the concentration of ACh required to activate M1 up to 129-fold with an inflection point value of 845 nM. No potentiation, agonism, or antagonism activity on other mAChRs is observed up to 100 μM. Furthermore studies in M1−/− mice demonstrates that BQCA requires M1 to promote inositol phosphate turnover in primary neurons and to increase c-fos and arc RNA expression and ERK phosphorylation in the brain. Radioligand-binding assays, molecular modeling, and site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicate that BQCA acts at an allosteric site involving residues Y179 and W400. BQCA reverses scopolamine-induced memory deficits in contextual fear conditioning, increases blood flow to the cerebral cortex, and increases wakefulness while reducing delta sleep. In contrast to M1 allosteric agonists, which do not improve memory in scopolamine-challenged mice in contextual fear conditioning, BQCA induces β-arrestin recruitment to M1, suggesting a role for this signal transduction mechanism in the cholinergic modulation of memory. In summary, BQCA exploits an allosteric potentiation mechanism to provide selectivity for the M1 receptor and represents a promising therapeutic strategy for cognitive disorders. PMID:19717450

  1. Balance the Carrier Mobility To Achieve High Performance Exciplex OLED Using a Triazine-Based Acceptor.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Chiang, Pin-Yi; Lin, Shih-Wei; Tang, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hung; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hung, Yi-Tzu; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2016-02-01

    A star-shaped 1,3,5-triazine/cyano hybrid molecule CN-T2T was designed and synthesized as a new electron acceptor for efficient exciplex-based OLED emitter by mixing with a suitable electron donor (Tris-PCz). The CN-T2T/Tris-PCz exciplex emission shows a high ΦPL of 0.53 and a small ΔET-S = -0.59 kcal/mol, affording intrinsically efficient fluorescence and highly efficient exciton up-conversion. The large energy level offsets between Tris-PCz and CN-T2T and the balanced hole and electron mobility of Tris-PCz and CN-T2T, respectively, ensuring sufficient carrier density accumulated in the interface for efficient generation of exciplex excitons. Employing a facile device structure composed as ITO/4% ReO3:Tris-PCz (60 nm)/Tris-PCz (15 nm)/Tris-PCz:CN-T2T(1:1) (25 nm)/CN-T2T (50 nm)/Liq (0.5 nm)/Al (100 nm), in which the electron-hole capture is efficient without additional carrier injection barrier from donor (or acceptor) molecule and carriers mobilities are balanced in the emitting layer, leads to a highly efficient green exciplex OLED with external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11.9%. The obtained EQE is 18% higher than that of a comparison device using an exciplex exhibiting a comparable ΦPL (0.50), in which TCTA shows similar energy levels but higher hole mobility as compared with Tris-PCz. Our results clearly indicate the significance of mobility balance in governing the efficiency of exciplex-based OLED. Exploiting the Tris-PCz:CN-T2T exciplex as the host, we further demonstrated highly efficient yellow and red fluorescent OLEDs by doping 1 wt % Rubrene and DCJTB as emitter, achieving high EQE of 6.9 and 9.7%, respectively. PMID:26820247

  2. Toward Infection-Resistant Surfaces: Achieving High Antimicrobial Peptide Potency by Modulating the Functionality of Polymer Brush and Peptide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kai; Lo, Joey C Y; Mei, Yan; Haney, Evan F; Siren, Erika; Kalathottukaren, Manu Thomas; Hancock, Robert E W; Lange, Dirk; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2015-12-30

    Bacterial infection associated with indwelling medical devices and implants is a major clinical issue, and the prevention or treatment of such infections is challenging. Antimicrobial coatings offer a significant step toward addressing this important clinical problem. Antimicrobial coatings based on tethered antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on hydrophilic polymer brushes have been shown to be one of the most promising strategies to avoid bacterial colonization and have demonstrated broad spectrum activity. Optimal combinations of the functionality of the polymer-brush-tethered AMPs are essential to maintaining long-term AMP activity on the surface. However, there is limited knowledge currently available on this topic. Here we report the development of potent antimicrobial coatings on implant surfaces by elucidating the roles of polymer brush chemistry and peptide structure on the overall antimicrobial activity of the coatings. We screened several combinations of polymer brush coatings and AMPs constructed on nanoparticles, titanium surfaces, and quartz slides on their antimicrobial activity and bacterial adhesion against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Highly efficient killing of planktonic bacteria by the antimicrobial coatings on nanoparticle surfaces, as well as potent killing of adhered bacteria in the case of coatings on titanium surfaces, was observed. Remarkably, the antimicrobial activity of AMP-conjugated brush coatings demonstrated a clear dependence on the polymer brush chemistry and peptide structure, and optimization of these parameters is critical to achieving infection-resistant surfaces. By analyzing the interaction of polymer-brush-tethered AMPs with model lipid membranes using circular dichroism spectroscopy, we determined that the polymer brush chemistry has an influence on the extent of secondary structure change of tethered peptides before and after interaction with biomembranes. The peptide structure also has an influence on the density

  3. Environmental Activities, Junior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, William C.; Larson, Robert J.

    This guide, for use at the junior high level, is aimed at helping our youth become more knowledgeable concerning the environment and associated problems, thus making them aware of how to solve these problems and motivating them to work toward their solution. Among the subjects discussed are art in nature, erosion, body pollution, water pollution,…

  4. A comparison of rural high school students in Germany with rural Tennessee high school students' mathematics and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, R. Fredrick

    This descriptive study compared the science and mathematics aptitudes and achievement test scores for the final school year students in rural White County and Van Buren County, Tennessee with rural county students in Germany. In accordance with the previous research literature (Stevenson, 2002), German students outperformed U.S. students on The International Trends in Math and Science test (TIMSS). As reform in the U.S. education system has been underway, this study intended to compare German county student final school year performance with White County and Van Buren County (Grade 12) performance in science and mathematics. The entire populations of 176 White and Van Buren Counties senior high final school year students were compared with 120 school final year students from two rural German county high schools. The student responses to identical test and questionnaire items were compared using the t-test statistical analysis. In conclusion after t-test analyses, there was no significant difference (p>.05 level) in student attitudes on the 27 problem achievement and the 35 TIMSS questionnaire items between the sampled population of 120 German students compared with the population of 176 White and Van Buren students. Also, there was no statistically significant difference (p>.05 level) between the German, White, and Van Buren County rural science and math achievement in the TIMSS problem section of the final year test. Based on the research, recommendations to improve U.S. student scores to number one in the world include making changes in teaching methodology in mathematics and science; incorporating pamphlet lessons rather than heavily reliance on textbooks; focusing on problem solving; establishing an online clearinghouse for effective lessons; creating national standards in mathematics and science; matching students' course choices to job aspirations; tracking misbehaving students rather than mainstreaming them into the regular classroom; and designing

  5. Achieving high survival of tournament-caught black bass: past efforts and future needs and opportunities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, Harold, Jr.; Gilliland, Gene

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of black bass (Micropterus spp.) tournaments in the 1960s and 1970s caused concern among fisheries managers and anglers about the impacts of tournament-caused mortality on bass populations. Tournament organizers voluntarily implemented live-release events in the early 1980s. As catch-and-release practices became more common, procedures to improve the survival of tournament-caught fish were developed and have evolved. The objectives of this paper are to review education and outreach efforts to improve survival of tournament-caught black bass, suggest research needs and opportunities to achieve greater survival, and show the relevance of high survival to contemporary black bass management. Since 1985, a succession of informational products describing those techniques have been developed and distributed to anglers. Although research has confirmed the effectiveness of the recommended procedures and documented that angler and tournament organizer behavior has changed and the survival of tournament-caught black bass has increased, the impacts of the outreach efforts on tournament practices have not been quantified. Continued efforts towards increasing angler awareness of proper handling techniques may benefit from better communication, endorsement by professional anglers, and the use of incentives by state agencies to encourage better fish care.

  6. Fair and Just Culture, Team Behavior, and Leadership Engagement: The Tools to Achieve High Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Allan S; Leonard, Michael W; Denham, Charles R

    2006-01-01

    Background Disparate health care provider attitudes about autonomy, teamwork, and administrative operations have added to the complexity of health care delivery and are a central factor in medicine's unacceptably high rate of errors. Other industries have improved their reliability by applying innovative concepts to interpersonal relationships and administrative hierarchical structures (Chandler 1962). In the last 10 years the science of patient safety has become more sophisticated, with practical concepts identified and tested to improve the safety and reliability of care. Objective Three initiatives stand out as worthy regarding interpersonal relationships and the application of provider concerns to shape operational change: The development and implementation of Fair and Just Culture principles, the broad use of Teamwork Training and Communication, and tools like WalkRounds that promote the alignment of leadership and frontline provider perspectives through effective use of adverse event data and provider comments. Methods Fair and Just Culture, Teamwork Training, and WalkRounds are described, and implementation examples provided. The argument is made that they must be systematically and consistently implemented in an integrated fashion. Conclusions There are excellent examples of institutions applying Just Culture principles, Teamwork Training, and Leadership WalkRounds—but to date, they have not been comprehensively instituted in health care organizations in a cohesive and interdependent manner. To achieve reliability, organizations need to begin thinking about the relationship between these efforts and linking them conceptually. PMID:16898986

  7. New Powder Metallurgical Approach to Achieve High Fatigue Strength in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei; Ravi Chandran, K. S.; Kumar, Pankaj; Sun, Pei; Zak Fang, Z.; Koopman, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Recently, manufacturing of titanium by sintering and dehydrogenation of hydride powders has generated a great deal of interest. An overarching concern regarding powder metallurgy (PM) titanium is that critical mechanical properties, especially the high-cycle fatigue strength, are lower than those of wrought titanium alloys. It is demonstrated here that PM Ti-6Al-4V alloy with mechanical properties comparable (in fatigue strength) and exceeding (in tensile properties) those of wrought Ti-6Al-4V can be produced from titanium hydride powder, through the hydrogen sintering and phase transformation process. Tensile and fatigue behavior, as well as fatigue fracture mechanisms, have been investigated under three processing conditions. It is shown that a reduction in the size of extreme-sized pores by changing the hydride particle size distribution can lead to improved fatigue strength. Further densification by pneumatic isostatic forging leads to a fatigue strength of ~550 MPa, comparable to the best of PM Ti-6Al-4V alloys prepared by other methods and approaching the fatigue strengths of wrought Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The microstructural factors that limit fatigue strength in PM titanium have been investigated, and pathways to achieve greater fatigue strengths in PM Ti-6Al-4V alloys have been identified.

  8. The Stories Clinicians Tell: Achieving High Reliability and Improving Patient Safety

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Daniel L; Stewart, Kevin O

    2016-01-01

    The patient safety movement has been deeply affected by the stories patients have shared that have identified numerous opportunities for improvements in safety. These stories have identified system and/or human inefficiencies or dysfunctions, possibly even failures, often resulting in patient harm. Although patients’ stories tell us much, less commonly heard are the stories of clinicians and how their personal observations regarding the environments they work in and the circumstances and pressures under which they work may degrade patient safety and lead to harm. If the health care industry is to function like a high-reliability industry, to improve its processes and achieve the outcomes that patients rightly deserve, then leaders and managers must seek and value input from those on the front lines—both clinicians and patients. Stories from clinicians provided in this article address themes that include incident identification, disclosure and transparency, just culture, the impact of clinical workload pressures, human factors liabilities, clinicians as secondary victims, the impact of disruptive and punitive behaviors, factors affecting professional morale, and personal failings. PMID:26580146

  9. Achieving accurate simulations of urban impacts on ozone at high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Georgescu, M.; Hyde, P.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.

    2014-11-01

    The effects of urbanization on ozone levels have been widely investigated over cities primarily located in temperate and/or humid regions. In this study, nested WRF-Chem simulations with a finest grid resolution of 1 km are conducted to investigate ozone concentrations [O3] due to urbanization within cities in arid/semi-arid environments. First, a method based on a shape preserving Monotonic Cubic Interpolation (MCI) is developed and used to downscale anthropogenic emissions from the 4 km resolution 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI05) to the finest model resolution of 1 km. Using the rapidly expanding Phoenix metropolitan region as the area of focus, we demonstrate the proposed MCI method achieves ozone simulation results with appreciably improved correspondence to observations relative to the default interpolation method of the WRF-Chem system. Next, two additional sets of experiments are conducted, with the recommended MCI approach, to examine impacts of urbanization on ozone production: (1) the urban land cover is included (i.e., urbanization experiments) and, (2) the urban land cover is replaced with the region’s native shrubland. Impacts due to the presence of the built environment on [O3] are highly heterogeneous across the metropolitan area. Increased near surface [O3] due to urbanization of 10-20 ppb is predominantly a nighttime phenomenon while simulated impacts during daytime are negligible. Urbanization narrows the daily [O3] range (by virtue of increasing nighttime minima), an impact largely due to the region’s urban heat island. Our results demonstrate the importance of the MCI method for accurate representation of the diurnal profile of ozone, and highlight its utility for high-resolution air quality simulations for urban areas.

  10. Culture, Motivation, and Reading Achievement: High School Students in 41 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ming Ming; Chow, Bonnie Wing Yin

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how cultural values and family cultural capital were linked to adolescents' motivation and reading achievement using multilevel analyses on reading tests and questionnaire responses of 193,841 fifteen-year-olds in 41 countries. In countries that valued more rigid gender roles, girls had lower reading achievement than girls in…

  11. Cooperative Learning and Group Educational Modules: Effects on Cognitive Achievement of High School Biology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Scott B.

    1991-01-01

    Reports a study examining the effects of cooperative learning and self-instructional packets--"Group Educational Modules" (GEM)--on the achievement of biology students. Significant differences in achievement (as compared to control groups) were found for students using GEM materials and students in cooperative learning situations. (PR)

  12. A Portrait of Benchmark School: How a School Produces High Achievement in Students who Previously Failed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael; Gaskins, Irene W.; Solic, Katie; Collins, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    This is a case study of Benchmark School, which educates 6-to 15-year-olds with a history of school failure. Grounded theory methodology was employed to generate a theory about how the school promotes achievement. Many elements potentially promoting academic achievement were identified, including ones informed by psychological theory and research…

  13. Social Adaptation and Its Relationship to Achievement Motivation among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlZboon, Saleem Odeh

    2013-01-01

    The study amid at exploring and detecting the level of social adaptation and its relationship with the achievement motivation of the secondary school students in Jordan, the study sample consisted of 495 secondary school students in the province of Jerash, and to achieve the objective of this study comes the development of two tools: the first one…

  14. Longitudinal Analysis of Chinese High School Student's Stress in School and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    In previous research, few studies have examined the effects of adolescents' stress in school on the change rates of their academic achievement. In the present study, we seek to examine the longitudinal relationships between adolescents' stress in school and the change rates of their academic achievement. The results indicated that for those whose…

  15. Achievement Goal Validation among African American High School Students: CFA and Rasch Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Caroline O.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Jones, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goal theory helps describe how and why students engage in various academic behaviors. Historically, achievement goals have been examined almost exclusively with undergraduate, nonminority samples, and predominately with factor analytic techniques. The present study adds to a growing literature by providing initial validation of a…

  16. School Readiness Factors for Predicting High and Low Achieving Students in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davion, Edward, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    When analyzed according to race and ethnicity, poverty level, parental education level, as well as other related factors in schools in America, academic achievement disparities negatively impact educational outcomes for poor children and children of color on a consistent basis. At all educational levels, academic achievement and attainments of…

  17. Motivational Factors Contributing to Turkish High School Students' Achievement in Gases and Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadioglu, Cansel; Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the contribution of motivational factors to 10th grade students' achievement in gases and chemical reactions in chemistry. Three hundred fifty nine 10th grade students participated in the study. The Gases and Chemical Reactions Achievement Test and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire were…

  18. Growth and Achievement Trends of Advanced Placement (AP) Exams in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene; Hobson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined and compared overall trends in growth and student achievement of the Advanced Placement (AP) program. Using data from the past two decades, analyses indicated there has been steady and extensive growth of AP participation, particularly among underclassmen and some minority groups. However, overall achievement, as…

  19. From Division to Vision: Achievement Climbs at a Reservation School High in the Rocky Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lee

    2002-01-01

    In response to Salish and Kootenai tribal demands for educational equity, a Montana school district chose a reform model based on cooperative learning strategies, which fits American Indian learning styles, and switched from tolerating to celebrating American Indian culture. Academic achievement has risen in all subjects, and the achievement gap…

  20. What’s Past is Prologue: Relations Between Early Mathematics Knowledge and High School Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, nor have they investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at 54 months to adolescent mathematics achievement using multi-site longitudinal data. We find that preschool mathematics ability predicts mathematics achievement through age 15, even after accounting for early reading, cognitive skills, and family and child characteristics. Moreover, we find that growth in mathematical ability between age 54 months and first grade is an even stronger predictor of adolescent mathematics achievement. These results demonstrate the importance of pre-kindergarten mathematics knowledge and early math learning for later achievement. PMID:26806961

  1. High performance composites with active stiffness control.

    PubMed

    Tridech, Charnwit; Maples, Henry A; Robinson, Paul; Bismarck, Alexander

    2013-09-25

    High performance carbon fiber reinforced composites with controllable stiffness could revolutionize the use of composite materials in structural applications. Here we describe a structural material, which has a stiffness that can be actively controlled on demand. Such a material could have applications in morphing wings or deployable structures. A carbon fiber reinforced-epoxy composite is described that can undergo an 88% reduction in flexural stiffness at elevated temperatures and fully recover when cooled, with no discernible damage or loss in properties. Once the stiffness has been reduced, the required deformations can be achieved at much lower actuation forces. For this proof-of-concept study a thin polyacrylamide (PAAm) layer was electrocoated onto carbon fibers that were then embedded into an epoxy matrix via resin infusion. Heating the PAAm coating above its glass transition temperature caused it to soften and allowed the fibers to slide within the matrix. To produce the stiffness change the carbon fibers were used as resistance heating elements by passing a current through them. When the PAAm coating had softened, the ability of the interphase to transfer load to the fibers was significantly reduced, greatly lowering the flexural stiffness of the composite. By changing the moisture content in PAAm fiber coating, the temperature at which the PAAm softens and the composites undergo a reduction in stiffness can be tuned. PMID:23978266

  2. Louisiana High School Weathers the Storm to Become a Leader in Student Achievement and High Graduation Rates. "High Schools That Work" Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Warren Easton Charter High School in New Orleans, Louisiana, has weathered changes of many types, including Hurricane Katrina in 2005. After having to close for the 2005-2006 school year, the school reopened as a charter school with a board and stepped up its efforts to raise student achievement. Now the school is receiving attention for the…

  3. Closing the Academic Achievement Gap on the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) through Professional Learning Communities (PLC) Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buenrostro, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of importance that DuFour's nine characteristics of highly effective schools have on closing the academic achievement gap on the California High School Exit Exam, as perceived by high school principals. The study also examined the strategies believed to be most important in…

  4. High speed hybrid active system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Ignacio F.; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Qing, Peter X.; Kumar, Amrita; Zhang, David

    2005-05-01

    A novel piezoelectric/fiber-optic system is developed for long-term health monitoring of aerospace vehicles and structures. The hybrid diagnostic system uses the piezoelectric actuators to input a controlled excitation to the structure and the fiber optic sensors to capture the corresponding structural response. The aim of the system is to detect changes in structures such as those found in aerospace applications (damage, cracks, aging, etc.). This system involves the use of fiber Bragg gratings, which may be either bonded to the surface of the material or embedded within it in order to detect the linear strain component produced by the excitation waves generate by an arbitrary waveform generator. Interrogation of the Bragg gratings is carried out using a high speed fiber grating demodulation unit and a high speed data acquisition card to provide actuation input. With data collection and information processing; is able to determine the condition of the structure. The demands on a system suitable for detecting ultrasonic acoustic waves are different than for the more common strain and temperature systems. On the one hand, the frequency is much higher, with typical values for ultrasonic frequencies used in non-destructive testing ranging from 100 kHz up to several MHz. On the other hand, the related strain levels are much lower, normally in the μstrain range. Fiber-optic solutions for this problem do exist and are particularly attractive for ultrasonic sensing as the sensors offer broadband detection capability.

  5. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a “dream” display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays. PMID:23492854

  6. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a "dream" display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays. PMID:23492854

  7. Identifying and Measuring the Activities That Impact Musical Growth from High School through Graduate School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbett, Gordon C.; And Others

    The impact that high school and college experiences and activities have on students' musical independence (MI) was investigated. MI is related to the actual production and performance of music, as opposed to musical achievement or the mastery of any academic skill related to music. Colwell's Musical Achievement Test 3, Musical Achievement Test 4,…

  8. Achievement and Social Ascription: A Comparison of Public and Private High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Public and private schooling have a roughly uniform effect on achievement, but variability among students' home and neighborhood environments mask the leveling effect. Includes an historical discussion of egalitarianism and stratification in American education. (PS)

  9. The National COSEE Network's decade of assisting scientists to achieve high-quality Broader Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotaling, L. A.; Yoder, J. A.; Scowcroft, G.

    2012-12-01

    Many ocean scientists struggle with defining Broader Impact (BI) activities that will satisfy reviewers or fit within budget and time constraints, and many scientists are uncertain as to how to find assistance in crafting sound BI plans. In 2002, the National Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Network began engaging and connecting scientists and educators to transform ocean sciences education. COSEE's success in engaging scientists in BI activities is due to the Network's ability to find and create opportunities for education and outreach, assist scientists in designing programs that feature their research, and support scientists with courses, workshops and tools, which assist them in becoming better communicators of their research to non-scientific audiences. Among its most significant accomplishments to date is the development of a network of ocean scientists that is connected to education and outreach professionals, formal K-12 educators and students, informal science professionals, learning sciences experts, and graduate and undergraduate students. In addition to networking, COSEE Centers have developed and implemented the Ocean Literacy Principles and Fundamental Concepts and the Ocean Literacy Scope and Sequence for grades K-12. COSEE has also helped engage scientists with public audiences, facilitating the use of real-time ocean observing systems (OOS) data in formal and informal education settings, creating new distance learning and online resources for ocean sciences education, and promoting high quality ocean sciences education and outreach in universities and formal/informal venues. The purpose of this presentation is to review several tools that the COSEE Network has developed to assist ocean scientists with BI activities and to describe the Network's efforts to prepare young scientists to communicate their research to non-expert audiences.

  10. Family socioeconomic status, family health, and changes in students' math achievement across high school: A mediational model.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ashley Brooke

    2015-09-01

    In response to recent calls to integrate understandings of socioeconomic disparities in health with understandings of socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement, this study tested a mediational model whereby family socioeconomic status predicted gains in academic achievement across high school through its impact on both student and parent health. Data on over 8000 high school students in the U.S. were obtained from wave 1 (2009-2010) and wave 2 (2012) of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and structural equation modeling with latent difference scores was used to determine the role of family health problems in mediating the well-established link between family SES and gains in academic achievement. Using both static and dynamic indicators of family SES, support was found for this mediational model. Higher family SES in 9th grade reduced the probability of students and their parents experiencing a serious health problem in high school, thereby promoting growth in academic achievement. In addition, parent and student health problems mediated the effect of changes in family SES across high school on math achievement gains. Results emphasize the importance of considering the dynamic nature of SES and that both student and parent health should be considered in understanding SES-related disparities in academic achievement. This relational process provides new mechanisms for understanding the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status and the status attainment process more broadly. PMID:26189011

  11. Fitness, Fun and Friends through Participation in Preferred Physical Activities: Achievable for Children with Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyquist, Astrid; Moser, Thomas; Jahnsen, Reidun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the preferences for actual participation in and enjoyment of physical out-of-school activities in children with physical disabilities, including what particular activities they are actually participating in, how often, with whom, where, and how enjoyable they find these activities. The data are based on structured…

  12. An Active-Learning Strategies Primer for Achieving Ability-Based Educational Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Brenda L.; Peeters, Michael J.; Resman-Targoff, Beth H.; Karr, Samantha; McBane, Sarah; Kelley, Kristi; Thomas, Tyan

    2011-01-01

    Active learning is an important component of pharmacy education. By engaging students in the learning process, they are better able to apply the knowledge they gain. This paper describes evidence supporting the use of active-learning strategies in pharmacy education and also offers strategies for implementing active learning in pharmacy curricula in the classroom and during pharmacy practice experiences. PMID:22171114

  13. The effects of physical activity and physical fitness on children's achievement and cognitive outcomes: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fedewa, Alicia L; Ahn, Soyeon

    2011-09-01

    It is common knowledge that physical activity leads to numerous health and psychological benefits. However; the relationship between children's physical activity and academic achievement has been debated in the literature. Some studies have found strong, positive relationships between physical activity and cognitive outcomes, while other studies have reported small, negative associations. This study was a comprehensive, quantitative synthesis of the literature, using a total of 59 studies from 1947 to 2009 for analysis. Results indicated a significant and positive effect of physical activity on children's achievement and cognitive outcomes, with aerobic exercise having the greatest effect. A number of moderator variables were also found to play a significant role in this relationship. Findings are discussed in light of improving children's academic performance and changing school-based policy. PMID:21957711

  14. Hands-on Activities versus Worksheets in Reinforcing Physical Science Principles: Effects on Student Achievement and Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald M.; Wardlow, George W.; Franklin, Timothy D.

    1997-01-01

    A group of 132 agricultural science students were divided into an experimental group who completed hands-on activities on Ohm's Law and incline plane and a control group who completed worksheets. There were no significant differences in immediate or follow-up measures of achievement. Hands-on students had significantly more positive attitudes. (SK)

  15. The Effect of Mastery Learning Model with Reflective Thinking Activities on Medical Students' Academic Achievement: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mastery learning model supported with reflective thinking activities on the fifth grade medical students' academic achievement. Mixed methods approach was applied in two samples (n = 64 and n = 6). Quantitative part of the study was based on a pre-test-post-test control group design with an experiment…

  16. Effects of Extracurricular Activities and Their Quality on Primary School-Age Students' Achievement in Mathematics in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuepbach, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the development of mathematics achievement in children attending extracurricular activities intensively in comparison with the development in a control group of children attending only the obligatory hours of school instruction. In addition, we investigated the question of possible effects of intensity of attendance and…

  17. Running to Achieve: Engaging Students in Literacy and Physical Activity through an After-School Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanzandt, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this participant-observation study is to describe rural, southern, 3rd-5th grade children's engagement in running and writing in an after-school learning community called "Running to Achieve." This study provides insights into links between physical activity and writing by using one to engage students in the other. Three…

  18. Out-of-School Activities and Achievement among Middle School Students in the U.S. and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Won, Seoung Joun; Han, Seunghee

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between American and South Korean students' achievement and their time spent in out-of-school activities. Analyzing nationally representative data for 8,912 U.S. and 5,309 Korean middle school students from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003, we found differences in…

  19. Attributes and characteristics of the Mathematics, Engineering, Science, Achievement (MESA) high school program for first-generation Latino students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Ramon

    This study used a web-based survey collected data from 28 first-generation Latino engineers who participated in the Mathematics, Engineering, Science, Achievement (MESA) program during their high school years. From the set of 28 respondents, 5 volunteered to participate in an optional telephone interview. The purpose of this study was to describe the critical attributes and characteristics of the MESA program that lead to success at both the high school and college levels for first-generation Latino students. Success at the high school level was operationally defined as successfully graduating with a high school diploma. Success at the college level was operationally defined here as college graduation with an engineering degree. Using a mixed-methods technique, the researcher attempted to secure consensus of opinion from a sample population of 28 first-generation Latino engineers. The mixed-methods technique was chosen since it allowed the researcher to draw on the strengths of quantitative and qualitative approaches. According to the findings, the typical respondent felt that mentoring was the attribute of the MESA program that most prepared him to graduate from high school. The respondents felt that the following MESA attributes most helped them transition into an undergraduate engineering program: Academic and University Advising; Enrichment Activities; Career Advising; Field Trips; Mentoring; Scholarship Incentive Awards; and Speakers. The respondents viewed study groups as the MESA attribute that best prepared them to graduate college with an engineering degree. This study was purposefully designed as a descriptive study. Future research is required to extend this work into an evaluative study. This would allow for the generalization of the critical attributes to the general student population serviced by the MESA program.

  20. Achievement Emotions as Predictors of High School Science Success Among African-American and European American Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowe, Marilyn Louise Simmons

    The literature includes few studies of the interrelations of achievement goals and achievement emotions with respect to minority students and science achievement. The objective of this study was to test the control-value theory (CVT) of achievement emotions to determine if the eight discrete achievement emotions would be predictive of test scores on the High School Graduation Test (GHSGT)-Science for African-American compared to European-American science students. Convenience cluster sampling was employed to select 160 students who were all juniors in the same public high school at the time that they took the GHSGT-Science. The central research question for this study aimed to uncover whether any of the eight achievement emotions identified in CVT would contribute significantly to the predictability of science achievement as measured by GHSGT-Science scores. Data were collected using a nonexperimental, cross sectional design survey. Data were analyzed using a hierarchal, forced entry, multiple regression analysis. Key results indicated that the eight achievement emotions were predictive of GHSGT-Science score outcomes. Positive social change at the individual level could reflect a boost in confidence for African American science students and help decrease the achievement gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) endeavors between European Americans and African-American students. Educators may consider the importance of achievement emotions in science outcomes by including social emotional learning (SEL) as a part of the regular science curriculum. Future researchers should repeat the study in a school district where the population is available to support the desired cluster sample of equal parts European Americans to African Americans and male to female students.

  1. The Predictive Relation of a High School Mathematic GPA to High-Stakes Assessment Achievement Scores in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Course grades, which often include non-achievement factors such as effort and behavior and are subject to individual teacher grading philosophies, suffer from issues of unreliability. Yet, course grades continue to be utilized as a primary tool for reporting academic achievement to students and parents and are used by most colleges and…

  2. The Impact of Additional Weekdays of Active Commuting to School on Children Achieving a Criterion of 300+ Minutes of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly-Smith, Andy J. W.; McKenna, Jim; Radley, Duncan; Long, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of additional days of active commuting for meeting a criterion of 300+ minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; 60+ mins/day x 5) during the school week. Methods: Based on seven-day diaries supported by teachers, binary logistic regression analyses were used to predict achievement of MVPA…

  3. Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 and high school academic achievement: longitudinal latent variable modeling.

    PubMed

    Breslau, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua; Miller, Elizabeth; Raykov, Tenko

    2011-02-28

    Previous studies documented long-run effects of behavior problems at the start of school on academic achievement. However, these studies did not examine whether the observed effects of early behavior problems are explained by more proximate behavior problems, given the tendency of children's behavior problems to persist. Latent variable modeling was applied to estimate the effects of behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 on academic achievement at age 17, using data from a longitudinal study (n=823). Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11, each stage independently of the other, predicted lower math and reading test scores at age 17, controlling for intelligence quotient (IQ), birth weight, maternal characteristics, family and community environment, and taking into account behavior problems at age 17. Behavior problems at the start of school, independent of later behavior problems, exert lingering effects on achievement by impeding the acquisition of cognitive skills that are the foundation for later academic progress. PMID:20719395

  4. Academic achievement of homeless and highly mobile children in an urban school district: longitudinal evidence on risk, growth, and resilience.

    PubMed

    Obradović, Jelena; Long, Jeffrey D; Cutuli, J J; Chan, Chi-Keung; Hinz, Elizabeth; Heistad, David; Masten, Ann S

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal growth trajectories of reading and math achievement were studied in four primary school grade cohorts (GCs) of a large urban district to examine academic risk and resilience in homeless and highly mobile (H/HM) students. Initial achievement was assessed when student cohorts were in the second, third, fourth, and fifth grades, and again 12 and 18 months later. Achievement trajectories of H/HM students were compared to low-income but nonmobile students and all other tested students in the district, controlling for four well-established covariates of achievement: sex, ethnicity, attendance, and English language skills. Both disadvantaged groups showed markedly lower initial achievement than their more advantaged peers, and H/HM students manifested the greatest risk, consistent with an expected risk gradient. Moreover, in some GCs, both disadvantaged groups showed slower growth than their relatively advantaged peers. Closer examination of H/HM student trajectories in relation to national test norms revealed striking variability, including cases of academic resilience as well as problems. H/HM students may represent a major component of "achievement gaps" in urban districts, but these students also constitute a heterogeneous group of children likely to have markedly diverse educational needs. Efforts to close gaps or enhance achievement in H/HM children require more differentiated knowledge of vulnerability and protective processes that may shape individual development and achievement. PMID:19338695

  5. Comparing the Reading Performance of High-Achieving Adolescents: Computer-Based Testing versus Paper/Pencil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eno, Linda Peet

    2011-01-01

    Literacy is moving into the digital context. Many of the literacy tasks associated with higher education, the workplace, and civic life now take place in the digital world. Literacy in high school, however, languishes in the text world. This study compared the text literacy of a group of high-achieving 10th-grade students, to their digital…

  6. Gender Differences in Korean High School Students' Science Achievements and Attitudes towards Science in Three Different School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, EunJin; Baker, Dale R.

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of high schools' gender organization on Korean tenth-grade students' science achievements, and their attitudes towards science. The high schools involved included an all-male institution, an all-female institution, and a co-educational institution. Three schools, three principals, three science teachers, and 302…

  7. The Grasshopper and the Ant: Motivational Responses of Low-Achieving Students to High-Stakes Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderick, Melissa; Engel, Mimi

    2001-01-01

    Examined the responses of 102 low achieving sixth and eighth graders to Chicago's highly publicized efforts to end social promotion. Students generally described increased work efforts, and students with high levels of work effort generally had greater than average learning gains and positive outcomes in terms of promotion. About one-third of…

  8. Career and Technical Education in the Balance: An Analysis of High School Persistence, Academic Achievement, and Postsecondary Destinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, Stephen

    A study examined the relationship between: (1) the balance struck between career and technical education (CTE) and academic course-taking during the high school years; and (2) academic achievement, persistence in high school, and postsecondary destinations. Data for the study were drawn from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988. The…

  9. Case Studies of Factors Affecting the Motivation of Musical High Achievers to Learn Music in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Bo Wah; McPherson, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the personal beliefs and attitudes of highly motivated Hong Kong school-age subjects who studied music. A total of 24 participants who demonstrated high achievement and interest in learning music were interviewed. Content analysis of the interview data was performed to elucidate four topics: background information about the…

  10. The Contribution of Early Home Literacy Activities to First Grade Reading and Writing Achievements in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Korat, Ofra; Hassunah-Arafat, Safieh

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed the literacy development of native Arabic-speaking children from kindergarten to the end of first grade, focusing on the role of home literacy activities (mother-child shared book reading and joint writing). The contribution of these activities in kindergarten to children's reading and writing at the end of…

  11. The Effectiveness of Social Media Activities on Taiwanese Undergraduates' EFL Grammar Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singman, Cooper

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of social media language learning activities with traditional language learning activities on the development of L2 grammatical competence in two English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classes at a Taiwanese university. The study was grounded in four bodies of knowledge: (a) the…

  12. Factors Influencing Student Achievement at a High-Performing Title I Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeier, Charlann K.

    2012-01-01

    Schools in America are required to provide all students with a quality education regardless of race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background, demonstrated through test scores mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act. Knowledge about factors that influence students' academic performance and serve to reduce the achievement gap between Hispanic…

  13. High School Size, Achievement Equity, and Cost: Robust Interaction Effects and Tentative Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert; Howley, Craig; Williams, Tony; Glascock, Catherine

    Research has revealed interactive effects of school size and socioeconomic status--as school size increases, the mean measured achievement of schools with disadvantaged students declines. The larger the number of less advantaged students attending a school, the greater the decline. The same school-level interactions have been found in California,…

  14. Mathematically Gifted Students and High Achievement: The Role of Motivation and Classroom Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Kollmayer, Marlene; Bergsmann, Evelyn; Jöstl, Gregor; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    One of the most intriguing questions for those who study intellectually gifted students is why some of them reach peak performances at school and others don't. Moderator theories of giftedness assume that domain-specific gifts are transformed into achievement in a process influenced by non-cognitive and environmental variables. Thus, the current…

  15. A Qualitative Study of High Student Achievement in a Rural Appalachian Region: Perceptions of Selected Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Regina

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was based on grounded theory and used purposive sampling for selecting participants. The sample for this study included 12 of the 16 superintendents in this region. This rural Appalachian region has historically outperformed the remainder of the southeastern state on reading and math achievement tests at the elementary and…

  16. Low-Achieving Readers, High Expectations: Image Theatre Encourages Critical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozansky, Carol Lloyd; Aagesen, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    Students in an eighth-grade, urban, low-achieving reading class were introduced to critical literacy through engagement in Image Theatre. Developed by liberatory dramatist Augusto Boal, Image Theatre gives participants the opportunity to examine texts in the triple role of interpreter, artist, and sculptor (i.e., image creator). The researchers…

  17. Inferring Adequate Yearly Progress of Schools from Student Achievement in Highly Mobile Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offenberg, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Many attempts at educational reform, among them No Child Left Behind and a recent Philadelphia effort, assume that the quality of the educational programs being offered by schools can be inferred from the achievements of the children who attend them. This article explores the reasonableness of this assumption for Philadelphia public schools by…

  18. What's Past Is Prologue: Relations between Early Mathematics Knowledge and High School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, and few have investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at…

  19. Principals in Two High Achieving Elementary Schools in Rural New Mexico: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tom, Deborah F.

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written regarding the dire educational state of most schools in rural America. This case study profiles two elementary school principals (preK-6) in rural New Mexico whose schools achieved adequate yearly progress (AYP) for the 2009-10 school year. The focus of this study centered on specific characteristics of the school cultures…

  20. Impacts of Comprehensive Reading Instruction on Diverse Outcomes of Low- and High-Achieving Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the…

  1. Effect of Blended Learning Environment Model on High School Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazu, Ibrahim Yasar; Demirkol, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the students' academic performance by comparing the blended learning environment and traditional learning environment. It has been observed whether there is a significant difference between the academic achievement grade dispersions and the male-female students' grades. The study has been carried out in Diyarbakir…

  2. The Influence of Mathematics Anxiety in Middle and High School Students Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Mutawah, Masooma Ali

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has been the focus of much psychological and educational research in the past few years, there are many international studies showing that mathematics anxiety is an influence on student's achievements in school, but little research has been done about this issue in Bahrain. Bahrain is a country in the Arabian Gulf region, its economic…

  3. Factors Affecting the Achievement of High School Students in Beginning Computer Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinan, Tricia; Stephens, Larry

    1988-01-01

    Considers three questions regarding computer science courses: (1) Can performance be predicted?; (2) Does a solid mathematical background provide the student with an advantage?; and (3) Is gender a factor in performance or aptitude? Reports a strong math background was related to achievement in a beginning course while gender was not related. (MVL)

  4. The Relationship of Grade Span in 9th Grade to Math Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, John; Miller, Mary Lou; Myers, Jim; Norton, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose, Scope, and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between grade span for ninth grade and gains in math achievement test scores in 10th grade and 12th grade. A quantitative, longitudinal, correlational research design was employed to investigate the research questions. The population was high…

  5. Constructions of High Academic Achievement through the Analysis of Critical Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2002-01-01

    In this study, critical events in the career development of 26 Finnish Academy professors describe the trajectories of their achievement and success. Primary themes included mentors, academic years abroad, strong interest in the domain, and luck. Also described are transformative themes. Personal stories illustrate the individualistic nature of…

  6. Comprehensive Achievement Monitoring in the Sequoia Union High School District. Symposium, California Mathematics Council Northern Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easter, John; And Others

    A description is provided of comprehensive Achievement Monitoring (CAM), a tool which enables classroom teachers to function as researchers and evaluators. Part I reviews the CAM philosophy and the section following discusses computerized feedback in CAM operations. The final two portions of the report describes the use of CAM in mathematics…

  7. Self-Regulation, Executive Function, Working Memory, and Academic Achievement of Female High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halloran, Roberta Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation, executive function and working memory are areas of cognitive processing that have been studied extensively. Although many studies have examined the constructs, there is limited empirical support suggesting a formal link between the three cognitive processes and their prediction of academic achievement. Thus, the present study…

  8. Exam High Schools and Academic Achievement: Evidence from New York City. NBER Working Paper No. 17286

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbie, Will; Fryer, Roland G., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Publicly funded exam schools educate many of the world's most talented students. These schools typically contain higher achieving peers, more rigorous instruction, and additional resources compared to regular public schools. This paper uses a sharp discontinuity in the admissions process at three prominent exam schools in New York City to provide…

  9. Differential Prediction of Academic Achievement in Elementary and Junior High School by Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, J. C.

    This study examined differences in predicting achievement by sex on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) from the verbal, quantitative, and nonverbal scores on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT). The sample (n=10,000) consisted of all students in Grades 2, 5, and 8 who completed both tests in fall 1984. Examinations of means and standard…

  10. Three Dopaminergic Polymorphisms Are Associated with Academic Achievement in Middle and High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Wright, John Paul; DeLisi, Matt; Howard, Matthew O.

    2010-01-01

    Although academic achievement is a heritable construct, to date research has yet to explore its molecular genetic underpinnings. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the current longitudinal study investigated the associations between polymorphisms in three dopaminergic genes (DAT1, DRD2, and DRD4) and…

  11. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Problems for the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), standardized test scores are the indicator used to hold schools and school districts accountable for student achievement. Each state is responsible for constructing an accountability system, attaching consequences--or stakes--for student performance. The theory of action implied by this…

  12. Becoming a Great Teacher of Reading: Achieving High Rapid Reading Gains with Powerful, Differentiated Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbo, Marie

    2007-01-01

    Literacy expert Marie Carbo pairs identifying each learner's unique reading style with a wide range of differentiated strategies to help all learners experience greater reading success. Using these research-based methods, both novice and experienced teachers can increase reading achievement with all learners, including those who are at-risk,…

  13. Turnaround Schools: Practices Used by Nationally Recognized Principals to Improve Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Angela Antuanette

    2012-01-01

    The specific purpose of this study was to identify the practices used by leaders of National Blue Ribbon Awarded Schools to successfully turnaround a school or to maintain proficient achievement scores within the school. The school principals answered a four part questionnaire for this study. Part 1 of the questionnaire asked about the extent to…

  14. The Effect of Community Linguistic Isolation on Language-Minority Student Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Timothy Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Research on language-minority student outcomes has revealed sizeable and persistent achievement gaps. The reasons for these gaps are often closely linked with other factors related to underperformance, including generational status, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Using sociocultural second-language acquisition theories and community…

  15. Analyzing Academic Achievement of Junior High School Students by an Improved Rough Set Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pai, Ping-Feng; Lyu, Yi-Jia; Wang, Yu-Min

    2010-01-01

    Rough set theory (RST) is an emerging technique used to deal with problems in data mining and knowledge acquisition. However, the RST approach has not been widely explored in the field of academic achievement. This investigation developed an improved RST (IMRST) model, which employs linear discriminant analysis to determine a reduct of RST, and…

  16. The Role of Schools, Families, and Psychological Variables on Math Achievement of Black High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS;1988/2000), the author conducted hierarchical linear regression analyses, with a nested design, to estimate the influence of affective variables--parent involvement, teacher perceptions, and school environments--on Black students' math achievement in grade 10. Drawing on…

  17. The Contribution of Cultural Capital to Students' Mathematics Achievement in Medium and High Socioeconomic Gradient Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Cheng Yong

    2015-01-01

    The present study addresses the issue of how different forms of cultural capital may influence children's mathematics achievement in economies with different socioeconomic gradients. Data from 73,178 parent-child dyads from 10 economies with different socioeconomic gradients who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment…

  18. Relations among Beliefs about Epistemology, Ability Conceptions, and Achievement in High School Physical Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ken Lodewyk

    2009-01-01

    While the critical role of knowledge in physical education performance is well-documented, there is little research into the role that students' beliefs about what knowing is and how they come to know relate to their achievement in physical education. The purpose of this study was to discover relations between beliefs about epistemology, ability…

  19. Exercise Improves Executive Function and Achievement and Alters Brain Activation in Overweight Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; McDowell, Jennifer E.; Austin, Benjamin P.; Miller, Patricia H.; Yanasak, Nathan E.; Allison, Jerry D.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This experiment tested the hypothesis that exercise would improve executive function. Design Sedentary, overweight 7- to 11-year-old children (N = 171, 56% female, 61% Black, M ± SD age 9.3 ± 1.0 yrs, body mass index (BMI) 26 ± 4.6 kg/m2, BMI z-score 2.1 ± 0.4) were randomized to 13 ± 1.6 weeks of an exercise program (20 or 40 minutes/day), or a control condition. Main outcome measures Blinded, standardized psychological evaluations (Cognitive Assessment System and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III) assessed cognition and academic achievement. Functional magnetic resonance imaging measured brain activity during executive function tasks. Results Intent to treat analysis revealed dose response benefits of exercise on executive function and mathematics achievement. Preliminary evidence of increased bilateral prefrontal cortex activity and reduced bilateral posterior parietal cortex activity due to exercise was also observed. Conclusion Consistent with results obtained in older adults, a specific improvement on executive function and brain activation changes due to exercise were observed. The cognitive and achievement results add evidence of dose response, and extend experimental evidence into childhood. This study provides information on an educational outcome. Besides its importance for maintaining weight and reducing health risks during a childhood obesity epidemic, physical activity may prove to be a simple, important method of enhancing aspects of children’s mental functioning that are central to cognitive development. This information may persuade educators to implement vigorous physical activity. PMID:21299297

  20. An analysis of the impact of three high school schedules on student achievement in advanced placement biology classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arons-Polan, Bonnie

    This study examined the effect of three schedule types on student achievement in Advanced Placement Biology classes. AP Biology test scores from students on three types of full-year schedules were analyzed to assess the impact schedule type had on student achievement. The three schedules included the block and traditional schedules, and the rotating/hybrid, a blend of the former two schedules. The results indicated the variable most closely associated with success on the AP Biology exam was the length of experience the teachers had teaching the course, regardless of schedule type. Although significant differences were seen in mean AP Biology test scores among the three schedule types, this could be explained by the relationship between instructors' experience and schedule type. Regression analysis determined the two strongest predictors of successful performance on the AP Biology exam were instructors' experience and perceived teaching style, regardless of schedule type. It appears that the economically developed suburbs, had teachers with the largest amount of experience teaching AP Biology, and these teachers reported using a direct approach to teaching, using lecture greater than 50% of the time. The results of this study also suggest when restructuring to improve student achievement, educators should examine other variables in addition to the high school schedule. Restructuring the day to allow for longer classes must be accompanied by professional staff development to allow teachers to develop new teaching methods. Most of the teachers in the survey reported using lecture a great deal of the time, regardless of schedule type. Comments from the teachers from the various schedules revealed that the ability to add student centered, inquiry based activities and labs were dependent on adequate class time. No information on whether or not the teachers were given professional development to expand their repertoire of teaching methods when the school adopted a block