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Sample records for achieve high computational

  1. Does Recreational Computer Use Affect High School Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Berland, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the relationship between student academic achievement and use of computers for fun and video gaming has been described from a multitude of perspectives, from positive, to negative, to neutral. However, recent research has indicated that computer use and video gaming may be positively associated with achievement, yet these studies…

  2. A comprehensive approach to decipher biological computation to achieve next generation high-performance exascale computing.

    SciTech Connect

    James, Conrad D.; Schiess, Adrian B.; Howell, Jamie; Baca, Michael J.; Partridge, L. Donald; Finnegan, Patrick Sean; Wolfley, Steven L.; Dagel, Daryl James; Spahn, Olga Blum; Harper, Jason C.; Pohl, Kenneth Roy; Mickel, Patrick R.; Lohn, Andrew; Marinella, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    The human brain (volume=1200cm3) consumes 20W and is capable of performing > 10^16 operations/s. Current supercomputer technology has reached 1015 operations/s, yet it requires 1500m^3 and 3MW, giving the brain a 10^12 advantage in operations/s/W/cm^3. Thus, to reach exascale computation, two achievements are required: 1) improved understanding of computation in biological tissue, and 2) a paradigm shift towards neuromorphic computing where hardware circuits mimic properties of neural tissue. To address 1), we will interrogate corticostriatal networks in mouse brain tissue slices, specifically with regard to their frequency filtering capabilities as a function of input stimulus. To address 2), we will instantiate biological computing characteristics such as multi-bit storage into hardware devices with future computational and memory applications. Resistive memory devices will be modeled, designed, and fabricated in the MESA facility in consultation with our internal and external collaborators.

  3. Comparing Computer Game and Traditional Lecture Using Experience Ratings from High and Low Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Michael; Green, Richard; Nilsen, Trond; Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    Computer games are purported to be effective instructional tools that enhance motivation and improve engagement. The aim of this study was to investigate how tertiary student experiences change when instruction was computer game based compared to lecture based, and whether experiences differed between high and low achieving students. Participants…

  4. One-to-One Computing and Student Achievement in Ohio High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Nancy L.; Larwin, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the impact of one-to-one computing on student achievement in Ohio high schools as measured by performance on the Ohio Graduation Test (OGT). The sample included 24 treatment schools that were individually paired with a similar control school. An interrupted time series methodology was deployed to examine OGT data over a period…

  5. Achieving high research reporting quality through the use of computational ontologies.

    PubMed

    Zaveri, Amrapali; Cofiel, Luciana; Shah, Jatin; Pradhan, Shreyasee; Chan, Edwin; Dameron, Olivier; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Ang, Beng Ti

    2010-12-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses constitute one of the central pillars of evidence-based medicine. However, clinical trials are poorly reported which delays meta-analyses and consequently the translation of clinical research findings to clinical practice. We propose a Center of Excellence in Research Reporting in Neurosurgery (CERR-N) and the creation of a clinically significant computational ontology to encode Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) studies in neurosurgery. A 128 element strong computational ontology was derived from the Trial Bank ontology by omitting classes which were not required to perform meta-analysis. Three researchers from our team tagged five randomly selected RCT's each, published in the last 5 years (2004-2008), in the Journal of Neurosurgery (JoN), Neurosurgery Journal (NJ) and Journal of Neurotrauma (JoNT). We evaluated inter and intra observer reliability for the ontology using percent agreement and kappa coefficient. The inter-observer agreement was 76.4%, 75.97% and 74.9% and intra-observer agreement was 89.8%, 80.8% and 86.56% for JoN, NJ and JoNT respectively. The inter-observer kappa coefficient was 0.60, 0.54 and 0.53 and the intra-observer kappa coefficient was 0.79, 0.82 and 0.79 for JoN, NJ and JoNT journals respectively. The high degree of inter and intra-observer agreement confirms tagging consistency in sections of a given scientific manuscript. Standardizing reporting for neurosurgery articles can be reliably achieved through the integration of a computational ontology within the context of a CERR-N. This approach holds potential for the overall improvement in the quality of reporting of RCTs in neurosurgery, ultimately streamlining the translation of clinical research findings to improvement in patient care. PMID:20953737

  6. Low cost, highly effective parallel computing achieved through a Beowulf cluster.

    PubMed

    Bitner, Marc; Skelton, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    A Beowulf cluster is a means of bringing together several computers and using software and network components to make this cluster of computers appear and function as one computer with multiple parallel computing processors. A cluster of computers can provide comparable computing power usually found only in very expensive super computers or servers.

  7. The Effects of Computer Animated Dissection versus Preserved Animal Dissection on the Student Achievement in a High School Biology Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kariuki, Patrick; Paulson, Ronda

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of computer-animated dissection techniques versus the effectiveness of traditional dissection techniques as related to student achievement. The sample used was 104 general biology students from a small, rural high school in Northeast Tennessee. Random selection was used to separate the…

  8. Achieving high performance in numerical computations on RISC workstations and parallel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goedecker, S.; Hoisie, A.

    1997-08-20

    The nominal peak speeds of both serial and parallel computers is raising rapidly. At the same time however it is becoming increasingly difficult to get out a significant fraction of this high peak speed from modern computer architectures. In this tutorial the authors give the scientists and engineers involved in numerically demanding calculations and simulations the necessary basic knowledge to write reasonably efficient programs. The basic principles are rather simple and the possible rewards large. Writing a program by taking into account optimization techniques related to the computer architecture can significantly speedup your program, often by factors of 10--100. As such, optimizing a program can for instance be a much better solution than buying a faster computer. If a few basic optimization principles are applied during program development, the additional time needed for obtaining an efficient program is practically negligible. In-depth optimization is usually only needed for a few subroutines or kernels and the effort involved is therefore also acceptable.

  9. Computer Simulations in the High School: Students' Cognitive Stages, Science Process Skills and Academic Achievement in Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huppert, J.; Lomask, S. Michal; Lazarowitz, R.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the impact of computer simulation on students' academic achievement and their mastery of science process skills with regard to their cognitive stages. Based on the computer simulation program "The Growth Curve of Microorganisms" which requires 10th grade biology students to use problem solving skills while simultaneously manipulating…

  10. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Achievement of High School Students Participating in a One-to-One Laptop Computer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weers, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of socioeconomic status on the achievement of high school students participating in a one-to-one laptop computer program. Students living in poverty struggle to achieve in schools across the country, educators must address this issue. The independent variable in this study is socioeconomic…

  11. Achieving Curriculum-Integrated Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudd, Samuel; Wilson, William

    1987-01-01

    This discussion of strategies for integrating computers into an undergraduate curriculum on an institution-wide basis focuses on quality instructional documents and the diffusion model, which is used to incorporate innovations in a user population. The plan at Gettysburg College for curriculum-integrated computing (CIC) based on the diffusion…

  12. Comparing the Reading Performance of High-Achieving Adolescents: Computer-Based Testing versus Paper/Pencil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eno, Linda Peet

    2011-01-01

    Literacy is moving into the digital context. Many of the literacy tasks associated with higher education, the workplace, and civic life now take place in the digital world. Literacy in high school, however, languishes in the text world. This study compared the text literacy of a group of high-achieving 10th-grade students, to their digital…

  13. The effects of computer-simulated experiments on high school biology students' problem-solving skills and achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmack, Gay Lynn Dickinson

    2000-10-01

    This two-part quasi-experimental repeated measures study examined whether computer simulated experiments have an effect on the problem solving skills of high school biology students in a school-within-a-school magnet program. Specifically, the study identified episodes in a simulation sequence where problem solving skills improved. In the Fall academic semester, experimental group students (n = 30) were exposed to two simulations: CaseIt! and EVOLVE!. Control group students participated in an internet research project and a paper Hardy-Weinberg activity. In the Spring academic semester, experimental group students were exposed to three simulations: Genetics Construction Kit, CaseIt! and EVOLVE! . Spring control group students participated in a Drosophila lab, an internet research project, and Advanced Placement lab 8. Results indicate that the Fall and Spring experimental groups experienced significant gains in scientific problem solving after the second simulation in the sequence. These gains were independent of the simulation sequence or the amount of time spent on the simulations. These gains were significantly greater than control group scores in the Fall. The Spring control group significantly outscored all other study groups on both pretest measures. Even so, the Spring experimental group problem solving performance caught up to the Spring control group performance after the third simulation. There were no significant differences between control and experimental groups on content achievement. Results indicate that CSE is as effective as traditional laboratories in promoting scientific problem solving and that CSE is a useful tool for improving students' scientific problem solving skills. Moreover, retention of problem solving skills is enhanced by utilizing more than one simulation.

  14. The Impact of Asynchronous Computer-Assisted Language Learning Approaches on English as a Foreign Language High and Low Achievers' Vocabulary Retention and Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjian, Bahman; Moosavinia, Seyyed Rahim; Kavari, Kamal Ebrahimi; Asgari, Parviz; Hydarei, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    This study measured the impact of asynchronous computer-assisted language learning (CALL) approaches on high and low achievers' vocabulary retention and recall of English as foreign language learners. Fifty participants were assigned into two homogeneous groups. Both groups covered eight expository passages, which included "Select readings:…

  15. The Effect of the Computer Assisted Teaching and 7e Model of the Constructivist Learning Methods on the Achievements and Attitudes of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gönen, Selahattin; Kocakaya, Serhat; Inan, Cemil

    2006-01-01

    This study provides a comparative effect study of the Computer Assisted Teaching and the 7E model of the Constructivist Learning methods on attitudes and achievements of the students in physics classes. The experiments have been carried out in a private high school in Diyarbakir/Turkey on groups of first year students whose pre-test scores of…

  16. Poor Results for High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Sa; Imberman, Scott; Craig, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three million students in the United States are classified as gifted, yet little is known about the effectiveness of traditional gifted and talented (G&T) programs. In theory, G&T programs might help high-achieving students because they group them with other high achievers and typically offer specially trained teachers and a more advanced…

  17. Analysis of the Effects of the Computer Enhanced Classroom on the Achievement of Remedial High School Math Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, William Steve; And Others

    The effects of the use of computer-enhanced instruction with remedial students were assessed, using 4,293 ninth through twelfth graders--3,308 Black, 957 White, and 28 Other--involved in the Governor's Remediation Initiative (GRI) in Georgia. Data sources included the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS), a data collection form developed for…

  18. Computer Networks Improve Student Achievement, School Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Steve

    1991-01-01

    Using computer networking programs at two high schools as examples, this article describes what principals should know about networking. The many advantages of computer networking in schools will remain beneficial so long as the principal's objectives are met. Tips are provided for assessing the network. (eight references) (MLH)

  19. Computer Assisted Project-Based Instruction: The Effects on Science Achievement, Computer Achievement and Portfolio Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Yavuz; Dede, Dinçer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of computer assisted project-based instruction on learners' achievement in a science and technology course, in a computer course and in portfolio development. With this aim in mind, a quasi-experimental design was used and a sample of 70 seventh grade secondary school students from Org. Esref…

  20. Technologies for Achieving Field Ubiquitous Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Akira

    Although the term “ubiquitous” may sound like jargon used in information appliances, ubiquitous computing is an emerging concept in industrial automation. This paper presents the author's visions of field ubiquitous computing, which is based on the novel Internet Protocol IPv6. IPv6-based instrumentation will realize the next generation manufacturing excellence. This paper focuses on the following five key issues: 1. IPv6 standardization; 2. IPv6 interfaces embedded in field devices; 3. Compatibility with FOUNDATION fieldbus; 4. Network securities for field applications; and 5. Wireless technologies to complement IP instrumentation. Furthermore, the principles of digital plant operations and ubiquitous production to support the above key technologies to achieve field ubiquitous systems are discussed.

  1. Highly parallel computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.; Tichy, Walter F.

    1990-01-01

    Highly parallel computing architectures are the only means to achieve the computation rates demanded by advanced scientific problems. A decade of research has demonstrated the feasibility of such machines and current research focuses on which architectures designated as multiple instruction multiple datastream (MIMD) and single instruction multiple datastream (SIMD) have produced the best results to date; neither shows a decisive advantage for most near-homogeneous scientific problems. For scientific problems with many dissimilar parts, more speculative architectures such as neural networks or data flow may be needed.

  2. The effects of home computer access and social capital on mathematics and science achievement among Asian-American high school students in the NELS:88 data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Mark Declan

    The purpose of this researcher was to examine specific environmental, educational, and demographic factors and their influence on mathematics and science achievement. In particular, the researcher ascertained the interconnections of home computer access and social capital, with Asian American students and the effect on mathematics and science achievement. Coleman's theory on social capital and parental influence was used as a basis for the analysis of data. Subjects for this study were the base year students from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) and the subsequent follow-up survey data in 1990, 1992, and 1994. The approximate sample size for this study is 640 ethnic Asians from the NELS:88 database. The analysis was a longitudinal study based on the Student and Parent Base Year responses and the Second Follow-up survey of 1992, when the subjects were in 12th grade. Achievement test results from the NELS:88 data were used to measure achievement in mathematics and science. The NELS:88 test battery was developed to measure both individual status and a student's growth in a number of achievement areas. The subject's responses were analyzed by principal components factor analysis, weights, effect sizes, hierarchial regression analysis, and PLSPath Analysis. The results of this study were that prior ability in mathematics and science is a major influence in the student's educational achievement. Findings from the study support the view that home computer access has a negative direct effect on mathematics and science achievement for both Asian American males and females. None of the social capital factors in the study had either a negative or positive direct effect on mathematics and science achievement although some indirect effects were found. Suggestions were made toward increasing parental involvement in their children's academic endeavors. Computer access in the home should be considered related to television viewing and should be closely

  3. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  4. Computer Use, Parental Expectations, & Latino Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taningco, Maria Teresa V.; Pachon, Harry P.

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, traditionally underrepresented minority children have lower levels of academic achievement than their white counterparts. In the broadest perspective, this quantitative study seeks to help stakeholders and policymakers understand the factors responsible for Hispanic or Latino student achievement relative to that of comparison…

  5. Attitude, Gender and Achievement in Computer Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baser, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the relationship among students' attitudes toward programming, gender and academic achievement in programming. The scale used for measuring students' attitudes toward programming was developed by the researcher and consisted of 35 five-point Likert type items in four subscales. The scale was administered to…

  6. Computer Games for the Math Achievement of Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sunha; Chang, Mido

    2010-01-01

    Although computer games as a way to improve students' learning have received attention by many educational researchers, no consensus has been reached on the effects of computer games on student achievement. Moreover, there is lack of empirical research on differential effects of computer games on diverse learners. In response, this study…

  7. Self Regulated Learning of High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathod, Ami

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted on high achievers of Senior Secondary school. Main objectives were to identify the self regulated learners among the high achievers, to find out dominant components and characteristics operative in self regulated learners and to compare self regulated learning of learners with respect to their subject (science and non…

  8. High Stakes Testing and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The effects of high stakes testing may be critical in the lives of public school students and may have many consequences for schools and teachers. There are no easy answers in measuring student achievement and in holding teachers accountable for learner progress. High stakes testing also involves responsibilities on the part of the principal who…

  9. Student Perceptions of High-Achieving Classmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Händel, Marion; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The reported study investigated students' perceptions of their high-performing classmates in terms of intelligence, social skills, and conscientiousness in different school subjects. The school subjects for study were examined with regard to cognitive, physical, and gender-specific issues. The results show that high academic achievements in…

  10. Work Placements and Academic Achievement: Undergraduate Computing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Nayna; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Coughlan, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and understand whether students who complete a work placement as part of their degree course achieve a better classification of degree than those students who do not include a placement. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted by extracting the profiles of computing students from…

  11. The Relationship between Computer Games and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Tammy Dotson

    2010-01-01

    Illiteracy rates are increasing. The negative social and economic effects caused by weak reading skills include political unrest, social and health service inequality, poverty, and employment challenges. This quantitative study explored the proposition that the use of computer software games would increase reading achievement in second grade…

  12. Position Paper: Applying Machine Learning to Software Analysis to Achieve Trusted, Repeatable Scientific Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Prowell, Stacy J; Symons, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    Producing trusted results from high-performance codes is essential for policy and has significant economic impact. We propose combining rigorous analytical methods with machine learning techniques to achieve the goal of repeatable, trustworthy scientific computing.

  13. High Achievers: 23rd Annual Survey. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This report presents data from an annual survey of high school student leaders and high achievers. It is noted that of the nearly 700,000 high achievers featured in this edition, 5,000 students were sent the survey and 2,092 questionnaires were completed. Subjects were high school juniors and seniors selected for recognition by their principals or…

  14. Co-design for High Performance Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Arun; Dosanjh, Sudip; Hemmert, Scott

    2010-09-01

    Co-design has been identified as a key strategy for achieving Exascale computing in this decade. This paper describes the need for co-design in High Performance Computing related research in embedded computing the development of hardware/software co-simulation methods.

  15. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  16. Reliability achievement in high technology space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The production of failure-free hardware is discussed. The elements required to achieve such hardware are: technical expertise to design, analyze, and fully understand the design; use of high reliability parts and materials control in the manufacturing process; and testing to understand the system and weed out defects. The durability of the Hughes family of satellites is highlighted.

  17. Early predictors of high school mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S; Duncan, Greg J; Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Duckworth, Kathryn; Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Chen, Meichu

    2012-07-01

    Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement. Analyses of large, nationally representative, longitudinal data sets from the United States and the United Kingdom revealed that elementary school students' knowledge of fractions and of division uniquely predicts those students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement in high school, 5 or 6 years later, even after statistically controlling for other types of mathematical knowledge, general intellectual ability, working memory, and family income and education. Implications of these findings for understanding and improving mathematics learning are discussed.

  18. Achievements and challenges in structural bioinformatics and computational biophysics

    PubMed Central

    Samish, Ilan; Bourne, Philip E.; Najmanovich, Rafael J.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: The field of structural bioinformatics and computational biophysics has undergone a revolution in the last 10 years. Developments that are captured annually through the 3DSIG meeting, upon which this article reflects. Results: An increase in the accessible data, computational resources and methodology has resulted in an increase in the size and resolution of studied systems and the complexity of the questions amenable to research. Concomitantly, the parameterization and efficiency of the methods have markedly improved along with their cross-validation with other computational and experimental results. Conclusion: The field exhibits an ever-increasing integration with biochemistry, biophysics and other disciplines. In this article, we discuss recent achievements along with current challenges within the field. Contact: Rafael.Najmanovich@USherbrooke.ca PMID:25488929

  19. High Performance Astrophysics Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.; Arca-Sedda, M.; Mastrobuono-Battisti, A.; Punzo, D.; Spera, M.

    2012-07-01

    The application of high end computing to astrophysical problems, mainly in the galactic environment, is developing for many years at the Dep. of Physics of Sapienza Univ. of Roma. The main scientific topic is the physics of self gravitating systems, whose specific subtopics are: i) celestial mechanics and interplanetary probe transfers in the solar system; ii) dynamics of globular clusters and of globular cluster systems in their parent galaxies; iii) nuclear clusters formation and evolution; iv) massive black hole formation and evolution; v) young star cluster early evolution. In this poster we describe the software and hardware computational resources available in our group and how we are developing both software and hardware to reach the scientific aims above itemized.

  20. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 18th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Communications, Inc., Lake Forest, IL.

    This document contains factsheets and news releases which cite findings from a national survey of 1,985 high achieving high school students. Factsheets describe the Who's Who Among American High School Students recognition and service program for high school students and explain the Who's Who survey. A summary report of this eighteenth annual…

  1. 21st Annual Survey of High Achievers: Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey was conducted by Who's Who Among American High School Students during the spring of 1990, to determine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. A survey of high achievers sent to 5,000 students was completed and returned by approximately 2,000 students. All students were members of the junior or senior class during the…

  2. 22nd Annual Survey of High Achievers: Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This study surveyed high school students (N=1,879) who were student leaders or high achievers in the spring of 1991 for the purpose of determining their attitudes. Students were members of the junior or senior high school class during the 1990-91 academic year and were selected for recognition by their principals or guidance counselors, other…

  3. Achieving High Performance on the i860 Microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, King; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The i860 is a high performance microprocessor used in the Intel Touchstone project. This paper proposes a paradigm for programming the i860 that is modelled on the vector instructions of the Cray computers. Fortran callable assembler subroutines were written that mimic the concurrent vector instructions of the Cray. Cache takes the place of vector registers. Using this paradigm we have achieved twice the performance of compiled code on a traditional solve.

  4. Achieving High-Temperature Ferromagnetic Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katmis, Ferhat

    Topological insulators (TIs) are insulating materials that display conducting surface states protected by time-reversal symmetry, wherein electron spins are locked to their momentum. This unique property opens new opportunities for creating next-generation electronic and spintronic devices, including TI-based quantum computation. Introducing ferromagnetic order into a TI system without compromising its distinctive quantum coherent features could lead to a realization of several predicted novel physical phenomena. In particular, achieving robust long-range magnetic order at the TI surface at specific locations without introducing spin scattering centers could open up new possibilities for devices. Here, we demonstrate topologically enhanced interface magnetism by coupling a ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) to a TI (Bi2Se3); this interfacial ferromagnetism persists up to room temperature, even though the FMI (EuS) is known to order ferromagnetically only at low temperatures (<17 K). The induced magnetism at the interface resulting from the large spin-orbit interaction and spin-momentum locking feature of the TI surface is found to greatly enhance the magnetic ordering (Curie) temperature of the TI/FMI bilayer system. Due to the short range nature of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction, the time-reversal symmetry is broken only near the surface of a TI, while leaving its bulk states unaffected. The topological magneto-electric response originating in such an engineered TI could allow for an efficient manipulation of the magnetization dynamics by an electric field, providing an energy efficient topological control mechanism for future spin-based technologies. Work supported by MIT MRSEC through the MRSEC Program of NSF under award number DMR-0819762, NSF Grant DMR-1207469, the ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0301, and the STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF grant DMR-1231319.

  5. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 26th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    A national survey of 3,351 high achieving high school students (junior and senior level) was conducted. All students had A or B averages. Topics covered include lifestyles, political beliefs, violence and entertainment, education, cheating, school violence, sexual violence and date rape, peer pressure, popularity, suicide, drugs and alcohol,…

  6. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 24th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey represents information compiled by the largest national survey of adolescent leaders and high achievers. Of the 5,000 students selected demographically from "Who's Who Among American High School Students," 1,957 responded. All students surveyed had "A" or "B" averages, and 98% planned on attending college. Questions were asked about…

  7. Computational Biology and High Performance Computing 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Horst D.; Zorn, Manfred D.; Spengler, Sylvia J.; Shoichet, Brian K.; Stewart, Craig; Dubchak, Inna L.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2000-10-19

    The pace of extraordinary advances in molecular biology has accelerated in the past decade due in large part to discoveries coming from genome projects on human and model organisms. The advances in the genome project so far, happening well ahead of schedule and under budget, have exceeded any dreams by its protagonists, let alone formal expectations. Biologists expect the next phase of the genome project to be even more startling in terms of dramatic breakthroughs in our understanding of human biology, the biology of health and of disease. Only today can biologists begin to envision the necessary experimental, computational and theoretical steps necessary to exploit genome sequence information for its medical impact, its contribution to biotechnology and economic competitiveness, and its ultimate contribution to environmental quality. High performance computing has become one of the critical enabling technologies, which will help to translate this vision of future advances in biology into reality. Biologists are increasingly becoming aware of the potential of high performance computing. The goal of this tutorial is to introduce the exciting new developments in computational biology and genomics to the high performance computing community.

  8. High Performance Computing Today

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, Jack; Meuer,Hans; Simon,Horst D.; Strohmaier,Erich

    2000-04-01

    In last 50 years, the field of scientific computing has seen a rapid change of vendors, architectures, technologies and the usage of systems. Despite all these changes the evolution of performance on a large scale however seems to be a very steady and continuous process. Moore's Law is often cited in this context. If the authors plot the peak performance of various computers of the last 5 decades in Figure 1 that could have been called the supercomputers of their time they indeed see how well this law holds for almost the complete lifespan of modern computing. On average they see an increase in performance of two magnitudes of order every decade.

  9. Effects of Computer Course on Computer Self-Efficacy, Computer Attitudes and Achievements of Young Individuals in Siirt, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Halil Coskun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of computer courses on young individuals' computer self-efficacy, attitudes and achievement. The study group of this research included 60 unemployed young individuals (18-25 ages) in total; 30 in the experimental group and 30 in the control group. An experimental research model with…

  10. High Involvement Mothers of High Achieving Children: Potential Theoretical Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    In American society, parents who have high aspirations for the achievements of their children are often viewed by others in a negative light. Various pejoratives such as "pushy parent," "helicopter parent," "stage mother," and "soccer mom" are used in the common vernacular to describe these parents. Multiple…

  11. INSPIRED High School Computing Academies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerschuk, Peggy; Liu, Jiangjiang; Mann, Judith

    2011-01-01

    If we are to attract more women and minorities to computing we must engage students at an early age. As part of its mission to increase participation of women and underrepresented minorities in computing, the Increasing Student Participation in Research Development Program (INSPIRED) conducts computing academies for high school students. The…

  12. High Ability Readers and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.; Parke, Cynthia J.; Bramble, Joan G.

    2004-01-01

    To close the achievement gap, the "No Child Left Behind" law calls for all students to make appropriate yearly progress. This presumably means that progress is being made by capable readers at the same time progress is being made by struggling readers. However, there appear to be unintended effects of "No Child Left Behind" that may impede the…

  13. High-Achieving Students in the Era of NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom; Parkas, Steve; Duffett, Ann

    2008-01-01

    This report contains two separate studies examining the status of high-achieving students in the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) era. Part I, An Analysis of NAEP Data, authored by Brookings Institution scholar Tom Loveless, examines achievement trends for high-achieving students (defined, like low-achieving students, by their performance on the…

  14. Reasoning Abilities in Primary School: A Pilot Study on Poor Achievers vs. Normal Achievers in Computer Game Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagnino, Francesca Maria; Ballauri, Margherita; Benigno, Vincenza; Caponetto, Ilaria; Pesenti, Elia

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of preliminary research on the assessment of reasoning abilities in primary school poor achievers vs. normal achievers using computer game tasks. Subjects were evaluated by means of cognitive assessment on logical abilities and academic skills. The aim of this study is to better understand the relationship between…

  15. Improving Student Achievement: A Study of High-Poverty Schools with Higher Student Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the education system at high-poverty schools that had significantly higher student achievement levels as compared to similar schools with lower student achievement levels. A multischool qualitative case study was conducted of the educational systems where there was a significant difference in the scores achieved on the…

  16. High School Employment and Youths' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Donna S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper asks whether employment during high school impacts youths' grade point average. Unlike much of the prior literature, it allows for the endogeneity of the hours and dropout decisions, uses ASVAB test scores, and tests whether youth employment is dynamic. The results indicate that high school employment and its lag have small, negative…

  17. The relationship among self-regulation, internet use, and academic achievement in a computer literacy course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YangKim, SungHee

    This research was a correlational study of the relationship among self-regulation, students' nonacademic internet browsing, and academic achievement in an undergraduate computer literacy class. Nonacademic internet browsing during class can be a distraction from student academic studies. There has been little research on the role of self-regulation on nonacademic internet browsing in influencing academic achievement. Undergraduate computer literacy classes were used as samples (n= 39) for measuring these variables. Data were collected during three class periods in two sections of the computer literacy course taught by one instructor. The data consisted of a demographic survey, selected and modified items from the GVU 10th WWW User Survey Questionnaire, selected items of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and measures of internet use. There were low correlations between self-regulation and academic grades (r= .18, p > .05) and self-regulation and internet use (r= -.14, p > .05). None of the correlations were statistically significant. Also, there was no statistically significant correlation between internet use and academic achievement (r= -.23, p >.05). Self-regulation was highly correlated to self-efficacy (r= .53, p < .05). Total internet access was highly correlated to nonacademic related internet browsing (r= .96, p < .01). Although not statistically significant, the consistent negative correlations between nonacademic internet use with both self-regulation and achievement indicate that the internet may present an attractive distraction to achievement which may be due to lack of self-regulation. The implication of embedded instruction of self-regulation in the computer literacy course was discussed to enhance self-regulated internet use. Further study of interaction of self-regulated internet use and academic achievement is recommended.

  18. Achieving strategic surety for high consequence software

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    A strategic surety roadmap for high consequence software systems under the High Integrity Software (HIS) Program at Sandia National Laboratories guides research in identifying methodologies to improve software surety. Selected research tracks within this roadmap are identified and described detailing current technology and outlining advancements to be pursued over the coming decade to reach HIS goals. The tracks discussed herein focus on Correctness by Design, and System Immunology{trademark}. Specific projects are discussed with greater detail given on projects involving Correct Specification via Visualization, Synthesis, & Analysis; Visualization of Abstract Objects; and Correct Implementation of Components.

  19. Early Predictors of High School Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Duncan, Greg J.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Duckworth, Kathryn; Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Meichu, Chen

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics…

  20. Norview High School: Leadership Fosters Achievment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Often little unsaid things demonstrate what is truly important in a school. When teachers have common planning time and all of the department chairs share a single space as they do at Norview High School in Norfolk, VA, the unmistakable message is that instructional collaboration and leadership are expected and valued. Norview, an urban,…

  1. Self-Concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study "Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students" was investigated to find the relationship between Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students. Data for the study were collected using Self-concept Questionnaire developed by Raj Kumar Saraswath (1984) and Achievement Motive Test (ACMT)…

  2. The Center for Computational Biology: resources, achievements, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Toga, Arthur W; Dinov, Ivo D; Thompson, Paul M; Woods, Roger P; Van Horn, John D; Shattuck, David W; Parker, D Stott

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Computational Biology (CCB) is a multidisciplinary program where biomedical scientists, engineers, and clinicians work jointly to combine modern mathematical and computational techniques, to perform phenotypic and genotypic studies of biological structure, function, and physiology in health and disease. CCB has developed a computational framework built around the Manifold Atlas, an integrated biomedical computing environment that enables statistical inference on biological manifolds. These manifolds model biological structures, features, shapes, and flows, and support sophisticated morphometric and statistical analyses. The Manifold Atlas includes tools, workflows, and services for multimodal population-based modeling and analysis of biological manifolds. The broad spectrum of biomedical topics explored by CCB investigators include the study of normal and pathological brain development, maturation and aging, discovery of associations between neuroimaging and genetic biomarkers, and the modeling, analysis, and visualization of biological shape, form, and size. CCB supports a wide range of short-term and long-term collaborations with outside investigators, which drive the center's computational developments and focus the validation and dissemination of CCB resources to new areas and scientific domains.

  3. Interactive Computer Software: The Effects on Young Children's Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee-Moore, Marilyn E.; Smith, Lawrence L.

    A study investigated the effects of interactive CD-ROM software on children's reading comprehension. It explored whether 31 fourth-grade children in an elementary school in a suburban school district in the Midwest comprehended narratives better when reading from the printed page or from the same text displayed by the computer. One class read each…

  4. How To Achieve Better Impressions in Computer-Mediated Communication?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuliang; Ginther, Dean

    This paper presents a review of the literature on impression formation in face-to-face (FtF) and computer-mediated communication (CMC) and provides impression management recommendations for CMC users in a variety of environments. The first section provides an introduction to impression formation. Factors affecting impression formation in FtF and…

  5. Scientific Temper among Academically High and Low Achieving Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kour, Sunmeet

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the scientific temper of high and low achieving adolescent girl students. Random sampling technique was used to draw the sample from various high schools of District Srinagar. The sample for the present study consisted of 120 school going adolescent girls (60 high and 60 low achievers). Data was…

  6. High Performance Parallel Computational Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saini, Subhash; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At a recent press conference, NASA Administrator Dan Goldin encouraged NASA Ames Research Center to take a lead role in promoting research and development of advanced, high-performance computer technology, including nanotechnology. Manufacturers of leading-edge microprocessors currently perform large-scale simulations in the design and verification of semiconductor devices and microprocessors. Recently, the need for this intensive simulation and modeling analysis has greatly increased, due in part to the ever-increasing complexity of these devices, as well as the lessons of experiences such as the Pentium fiasco. Simulation, modeling, testing, and validation will be even more important for designing molecular computers because of the complex specification of millions of atoms, thousands of assembly steps, as well as the simulation and modeling needed to ensure reliable, robust and efficient fabrication of the molecular devices. The software for this capacity does not exist today, but it can be extrapolated from the software currently used in molecular modeling for other applications: semi-empirical methods, ab initio methods, self-consistent field methods, Hartree-Fock methods, molecular mechanics; and simulation methods for diamondoid structures. In as much as it seems clear that the application of such methods in nanotechnology will require powerful, highly powerful systems, this talk will discuss techniques and issues for performing these types of computations on parallel systems. We will describe system design issues (memory, I/O, mass storage, operating system requirements, special user interface issues, interconnects, bandwidths, and programming languages) involved in parallel methods for scalable classical, semiclassical, quantum, molecular mechanics, and continuum models; molecular nanotechnology computer-aided designs (NanoCAD) techniques; visualization using virtual reality techniques of structural models and assembly sequences; software required to

  7. Accelerated Mathematics and High-Ability Students' Math Achievement in Grades Three and Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the use of a computer-managed integrated learning system entitled Accelerated Math (AM) as a supplement to traditional mathematics instruction on achievement as measured by TerraNova achievement tests of third and fourth grade high-ability students. Gender, socioeconomic status, and…

  8. Smart and Bored: Are We Failing Our High Achievers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleaver, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    Some high achievers are not as easy to engage. Sometimes motivating high achievers is "a matter of being more sensitive to what they are interested in," says Don Ambrose, a professor of education at Rider University in New Jersey. But too often classrooms are not set up for that kind of sensitivity. Research shows that schools are consistently…

  9. Perspectives of High-Achieving Women on Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Helen

    2010-01-01

    High-achieving women are significantly less likely to enter the teaching profession than they were just 40 years ago. Why? While the social and economic reasons for this decline have been well documented in the literature, what is lacking is a discussion with high-achieving women, as they make their first career decisions, about their perceptions…

  10. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) over Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Seda; Basol, Gülsah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to determine the overall effects of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) on academic achievement. After an extensive review of the literature, studies using Turkish samples and observing the effects of Computer-Assisted Education (CAE) on mathematics achievement were examined. As a result of this…

  11. A Dataset from TIMSS to Examine the Relationship between Computer Use and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadijevich, Djordje M.

    2015-01-01

    Because the relationship between computer use and achievement is still puzzling, there is a need to prepare and analyze good quality datasets on computer use and achievement. Such a dataset can be derived from TIMSS data. This paper describes how this dataset can be prepared. It also gives an example of how the dataset may be analyzed. The…

  12. Students' Mathematics Word Problem-Solving Achievement in a Computer-Based Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunbas, N.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a computer-based story, which was designed in anchored instruction framework, on sixth-grade students' mathematics word problem-solving achievement. Problems were embedded in a story presented on a computer as computer story, and then compared with the paper-based version of the same…

  13. Elementary School Computer Access, Socioeconomic Status, Ethnicity, and Grade 5 Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Julie Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the current school computer access rates of elementary school students and to determine the extent to which school computer access relates to academic achievement among Grade 5 students in the state of Texas. Specifically, the relationship of school computer access to student passing rates on the…

  14. Test-Taking Strategies of High and Low Mathematics Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Sas, Maggie; Sas, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored test-preparation and test-taking strategies that high school students used in algebra tests. From a pool of high school students (N = 156), 61 students participated in interviews, and of those interviewed, 26 represented those who were high achieving as well as highly interested in mathematics (n = 15) vs. those who were low…

  15. Effectiveness of High Schools in Australia: Holding Power and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, John; Sheret, Michael

    High schools in Australia are increasingly expected to be effective in holding students at school to year 12 as well as in promoting achievement. Analysis of quantitative data gathered as part of a longitudinal study of 22 New South Wales (Australia) schools shows that schools differ in their holding power as well as in the achievement levels of…

  16. Tracking and Detracking: High Achievers in Massachusetts Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom

    2009-01-01

    This study examines tracking--the practice of grouping students into separate classes or courses based on their prior academic achievement--at the middle-school level, and the percentage of high-achieving students in tracked and untracked schools. It focuses on Massachusetts, a leader in "reforming" tracking, and the changes that have…

  17. Some Correlates of High School Foreign Language Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beanblossom, Gary F.

    This paper investigates the influences of traditional kinds of verbal and quantitative achievement and aptitude variables on high school foreign language achievement, as measured by Modern Language Association and University of Washington tests of language skills administered to entering college students. The report focuses on: (1) the sample and…

  18. Biculturalism and Academic Achievement of African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Jonathan P.; Jackson, Margo A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Blumberg, Fran C.

    2011-01-01

    Biculturalism was examined as a factor that may positively affect the academic achievement of African American high school students, beyond cultural identity and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses determined that cultural identity and academic self-esteem were important factors for academic achievement, but not biculturalism.…

  19. Mobility and Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Janet Denise

    2013-01-01

    Student mobility is an issue for high poverty schools in the shadow of increased rigor and accountability for student performance. Whereas mobility is not a sole cause for poor achievement, it is a contributing factor for students in poverty who are already considered to be at risk of low achievement. Student mobility creates a hardship for…

  20. Programming high-performance reconfigurable computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Melissa C.; Peterson, Gregory D.

    2001-07-01

    High Performance Computers (HPC) provide dramatically improved capabilities for a number of defense and commercial applications, but often are too expensive to acquire and to program. The smaller market and customized nature of HPC architectures combine to increase the cost of most such platforms. To address the problems with high hardware costs, one may create more inexpensive Beowolf clusters of dedicated commodity processors. Despite the benefit of reduced hardware costs, programming the HPC platforms to achieve high performance often proves extremely time-consuming and expensive in practice. In recent years, programming productivity gains come from the development of common APIs and libraries of functions to support distributed applications. Examples include PVM, MPI, BLAS, and VSIPL. The implementation of each API or library is optimized for a given platform, but application developers can write code that is portable across specific HPC architectures. The application of reconfigurable computing (RC) into HPC platforms promises significantly enhanced performance and flexibility at a modest cost. Unfortunately, configuring (programming) the reconfigurable computing nodes remains a challenging task and relatively little work to date has focused on potential high performance reconfigurable computing (HPRC) platforms consisting of reconfigurable nodes paired with processing nodes. This paper addresses the challenge of effectively exploiting HPRC resources by first considering the performance evaluation and optimization problem before turning to improving the programming infrastructure used for porting applications to HPRC platforms.

  1. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 29th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report presents the 1998 statistical findings of the annual survey to determine the attitudes of national high school student leaders. Questionnaires were completed by 3,123 high school juniors and seniors, all of whom were selected for recognition in "Who's Who among American High School Students." In addition to demographic information, the…

  2. The "Renaissance Child": High Achievement and Gender in Late Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the concept of the "Renaissance Child" to illustrate the ways in which gender influences the opportunities and possibilities of high-achieving pupils. Using data from a study of 12-13-year high-achieving boys and girls based in schools in England, the paper considers the ways in which a group of popular boys was able to show an…

  3. Highly parallel computer architecture for robotic computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Bejczy, Anta K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    In a computer having a large number of single instruction multiple data (SIMD) processors, each of the SIMD processors has two sets of three individual processor elements controlled by a master control unit and interconnected among a plurality of register file units where data is stored. The register files input and output data in synchronism with a minor cycle clock under control of two slave control units controlling the register file units connected to respective ones of the two sets of processor elements. Depending upon which ones of the register file units are enabled to store or transmit data during a particular minor clock cycle, the processor elements within an SIMD processor are connected in rings or in pipeline arrays, and may exchange data with the internal bus or with neighboring SIMD processors through interface units controlled by respective ones of the two slave control units.

  4. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 27th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report details the 27th annual study to examine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. Participating in the survey were 3,370 adolescents, primarily 16- and 17-year-olds, who had been featured in the 1996 edition of "Who's Who Among American High School Students." The report presents demographic information on the survey…

  5. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 28th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report details the 28th annual study to examine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. Participating in the survey were 3,210 adolescents, primarily 16- and 17-year-olds, who had been featured in the 1997 edition of "Who's Who Among American High School Students." The report presents demographic information on the survey…

  6. A History of High-Performance Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Faster than most speedy computers. More powerful than its NASA data-processing predecessors. Able to leap large, mission-related computational problems in a single bound. Clearly, it s neither a bird nor a plane, nor does it need to don a red cape, because it s super in its own way. It's Columbia, NASA s newest supercomputer and one of the world s most powerful production/processing units. Named Columbia to honor the STS-107 Space Shuttle Columbia crewmembers, the new supercomputer is making it possible for NASA to achieve breakthroughs in science and engineering, fulfilling the Agency s missions, and, ultimately, the Vision for Space Exploration. Shortly after being built in 2004, Columbia achieved a benchmark rating of 51.9 teraflop/s on 10,240 processors, making it the world s fastest operational computer at the time of completion. Putting this speed into perspective, 20 years ago, the most powerful computer at NASA s Ames Research Center, home of the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division (NAS), ran at a speed of about 1 gigaflop (one billion calculations per second). The Columbia supercomputer is 50,000 times faster than this computer and offers a tenfold increase in capacity over the prior system housed at Ames. What s more, Columbia is considered the world s largest Linux-based, shared-memory system. The system is offering immeasurable benefits to society and is the zenith of years of NASA/private industry collaboration that has spawned new generations of commercial, high-speed computing systems.

  7. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 25th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey was conducted during the spring of 1994 for the purpose of determining the attitudes of student leaders in the nation's high schools. Eight thousand surveys were sent out to students, of which 3177 were returned. All students surveyed were members of the junior or senior class during the 1993-94 academic year. They were selected for…

  8. Student Achievement for Whom? High-Performing and Still "Playing the Game," the Meaning of School Achievement among High Achieving African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggan, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The preponderance of the research on African American students has generally focused on issues of school failure and underperformance. While the literature on high achieving Black students is sparse, very little is known about these students' school experiences and the meanings that they assign to achievement. Using student-based inquiry…

  9. High School Employment and Academic Achievement: A Note for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keister, Mary; Hall, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Educators are often in a position to affect student decisions to work during the school term. This study reviews and summarizes the literature on the effect that employment during high school has on academic achievement. The available evidence suggests that part-time jobs for high school students are beneficial as long as the number of hours…

  10. Exploring High-Achieving Students' Images of Mathematicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Mario Sánchez; Rosas, Alejandro; Zavaleta, Juan Gabriel Molina; Romo-Vázquez, Avenilde

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the images that a group of high-achieving Mexican students hold of mathematicians. For this investigation, we used a research method based on the Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) with a sample of 63 Mexican high school students. The group of students' pictorial and written descriptions of mathematicians assisted us…

  11. Brain Hemisphericity and Mathematics Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Sanny F.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the brain hemisphericity and mathematics achievement of high school students. The respondents of the study were the 168 first year high school students of Colegio de San Jose, during school year 2010-2011 who were chosen through stratified random sampling. The descriptive and interview methods of research were used in…

  12. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted STAD Cooperative Learning Strategy on Physics Problem Solving, Achievement and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-assisted Students' Team Achievement Division (STAD) cooperative learning strategy on physics problem solving, students' achievement and retention. It also examined if the student performance would vary with gender. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two senior secondary schools…

  13. An Analysis of High School Mathematics Achievement and English Language Arts Achievement as Predictors of Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Anthony C.

    2012-01-01

    Science assessments require students to read and comprehend questions and to solve mathematical problems. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the following variables can be used to predict science achievement: English language arts achievement, mathematics achievement, socioeconomic status (SES), limited English proficiency (LEP)…

  14. The Use of Computer Simulations in High School Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visich, Marian, Jr.; Braun, Ludwig

    The Huntington Computer Project has developed 17 simulation games which can be used for instructional purposes in high schools. These games were designed to run on digital computers and to deal with material from either biology, physics, or social studies. Distribution was achieved through the Digital Equipment Corporation, which disseminated…

  15. The path toward HEP High Performance Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolakis, John; Brun, René; Carminati, Federico; Gheata, Andrei; Wenzel, Sandro

    2014-06-01

    High Energy Physics code has been known for making poor use of high performance computing architectures. Efforts in optimising HEP code on vector and RISC architectures have yield limited results and recent studies have shown that, on modern architectures, it achieves a performance between 10% and 50% of the peak one. Although several successful attempts have been made to port selected codes on GPUs, no major HEP code suite has a "High Performance" implementation. With LHC undergoing a major upgrade and a number of challenging experiments on the drawing board, HEP cannot any longer neglect the less-than-optimal performance of its code and it has to try making the best usage of the hardware. This activity is one of the foci of the SFT group at CERN, which hosts, among others, the Root and Geant4 project. The activity of the experiments is shared and coordinated via a Concurrency Forum, where the experience in optimising HEP code is presented and discussed. Another activity is the Geant-V project, centred on the development of a highperformance prototype for particle transport. Achieving a good concurrency level on the emerging parallel architectures without a complete redesign of the framework can only be done by parallelizing at event level, or with a much larger effort at track level. Apart the shareable data structures, this typically implies a multiplication factor in terms of memory consumption compared to the single threaded version, together with sub-optimal handling of event processing tails. Besides this, the low level instruction pipelining of modern processors cannot be used efficiently to speedup the program. We have implemented a framework that allows scheduling vectors of particles to an arbitrary number of computing resources in a fine grain parallel approach. The talk will review the current optimisation activities within the SFT group with a particular emphasis on the development perspectives towards a simulation framework able to profit best from

  16. Behind the High Achievement of East Asian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Frederick K. S.

    2002-01-01

    Studied reasons for the high achievement students from Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, and Singapore on the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Questionnaire data provided by students participating show that the superior results of these students may have come at the expense of other aspects of student development. Results…

  17. Progress Lags in High School, Especially for Advanced Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines trends in the achievement of high school students on the state reading/English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests used for accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). This study confirms that there is reason for concern about…

  18. Learning Environment, Motivation, and Achievement in High School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationship between high school students' perceptions of their science learning environments and their motivation, learning strategies, and achievement. Discusses the focus of shared perceptions and instruction and indicates that shared perceptions focused on understanding and independent thinking positively predicted students'…

  19. High Achieving Girls in Mathematics: What's Wrong with Working Hard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Ann C.; Berenson, Sarah B.

    2003-01-01

    The participation of women in graduate studies and mathematics-related careers remains a social and economic problem in the United States. Part of a larger study to understand this lack of participation, here we present preliminary findings of girls who are high achievers in middle grades mathematics. This interpretive study documents girls'…

  20. Relationship between High School Leadership Team Practices and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Timothy M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated if a relationship existed between student achievement in 10th grade Missouri Assessment Program mathematics and 11th grade communication arts scores in 2007 and high school leadership team perceptions of the extent to which they demonstrated leadership practices. The secondary purpose was to compare perceptional…

  1. Improving Student Achievement in Today's High Schools: What Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Marie S.

    This paper is based on a study of two high schools in Maine that achieved outstanding and consistent gains in English, math, and science over a 5-year period. Three strands of inquiry were used for the study: surveys, interviews, and observations. A multiple-perspective approach was used to integrate the information so as to evaluate the…

  2. Mercer Middle School Case Study: High Science and Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    To spotlight effective practices, the Washington State Board of Education (SBE) is highlighting schools that are closing achievement gaps and performing at high levels. In 2009, the SBE partnered with the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) to create the Washington Accountability Index. The Index is a new way to measure schools'…

  3. Supplementary Education: The Hidden Curriculum of High Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edmund W., Ed.; Bridglall, Beatrice L., Ed.; Meroe, Aundra Saa, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    In this book, the editors argue that while access to schools that enable and expect academic achievement is a necessary ingredient for the education of students, schools alone may not be sufficient to ensure universally high levels of academic development. Supplemental educational experiences may also be needed. The idea of supplementary education…

  4. Analysis of Three High-Achieving Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Chae, Jeong-Lim; Schinck-Mikel, Amelie G.; Watson, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an in-depth cross-case analysis of three high-achieving young adolescent girls who had contrasting mathematics learning experiences during the first year of middle school. In particular, this study examines the foundation for their motivation, as well as the dominant mode of learning and academic engagement in relation to three…

  5. Test Score Decline Among High Achievers: Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jerrold; Hsia, Jayjia

    Since 1967, the mean Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score has declined. Likewise, the numbers of candidates receiving high SAT scores have been decreasing steadily. The same downward trend in student achievement can be seen among student groups from grade 4 through post graduate studies. In recent years, policy has been directed towards making…

  6. Student Achievement through the Development of Complete High School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamphere, Michael Frederick, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation undertook an investigation of school culture and achievement in the high school setting. The national data set ELS:2002 was used as the pool of variables because it allows for a complete picture of school culture comprising students, parents, administrators, and teachers. The data were selected based on current literature and…

  7. The High Trust Classroom: Raising Achievement from the Inside Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lonnie

    2009-01-01

    This book provides a roadmap to developing a high-trust classroom, a classroom: (1) With increased student achievement; (2) With few discipline problems; (3) Where students are intrinsically motivated; and (4) Where the teacher can confidently use creative lesson planning. The author presents a simple step by step approach to earning the trust of…

  8. Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; Rajeswari, K.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the influence of self-esteem on academic achievement among high school students in Miandoab City of Iran. The methodology of the research is descriptive and correlation that descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Statistical Society includes male and female high…

  9. Spatial Experiences of High Academic Achievers: Insights from a Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weckbacher, Lisa Marie; Okamoto, Yukari

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the relationship between types of spatial experiences and spatial abilities among 13- to 14-year-old high academic achievers. Each participant completed two spatial tasks and a survey assessing favored spatial activities across five categories (computers, toys, sports, music, and art) and three developmental periods (early…

  10. Learning environment, motivation, and achievement in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobbitt Nolen, Susan

    2003-04-01

    In a study of the relationship between high school students' perceptions of their science learning environments and their motivation, learning strategies, and achievement, 377 students in 22 introductory science classrooms completed surveys in the fall and spring of their ninth-grade year. Hierarchical linear regression was used to model the effects of variables at both the classroom and individual level simultaneously. High intraclass agreement (indicated by high parameter reliability) on all classroom environment measures indicated that students shared perceptions of the classroom learning environment. Controlling for other factors, shared perceptions that only the most able could succeed in science classrooms and that instruction was fast-paced and focused on correct answers negatively predicted science achievement, as measured on a districtwide curriculum-linked test. Shared perceptions that classrooms focused on understanding and independent thinking positively predicted students' self-reported satisfaction with learning. Implications of these results for both teaching and research into classroom environments are discussed.

  11. Parent Involvement Practices of High-Achieving Elementary Science Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Samara Susan

    This study addressed a prevalence of low achievement in science courses in an urban school district in Georgia. National leaders and educators have identified the improvement of science proficiency as critical to the future of American industry. The purpose of this study was to examine parent involvement in this school district and its contribution to the academic achievement of successful science students. Social capital theory guided this study by suggesting that students achieve best when investments are made into their academic and social development. A collective case study qualitative research design was used to interview 9 parent participants at 2 elementary schools whose children scored in the exceeds category on the Science CRCT. The research questions focused on what these parents did at home to support their children's academic achievement. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview protocol and analyzed through the categorical aggregation of transcribed interviews. Key findings revealed that the parents invested time and resources in 3 practices: communicating high expectations, supporting and developing key skills, and communicating with teachers. These findings contribute to social change at both the local and community level by creating a starting point for teachers, principals, and district leaders to reexamine the value of parent input in the educational process, and by providing data to support the revision of current parent involvement policies. Possibilities for further study building upon the findings of this study may focus on student perceptions of their parents' parenting as it relates to their science achievement.

  12. The Will to Achieve: A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of African American High Achieving Students and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Natalie Faye

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to understand the experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents. The experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents have been missing from literature on the academic achievement of African American students. Much of the literature that has been published…

  13. Computing support for High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, P.; Yelton, J.

    1996-12-01

    This computing proposal (Task S) is submitted separately but in support of the High Energy Experiment (CLEO, Fermilab, CMS) and Theory tasks. The authors have built a very strong computing base at Florida over the past 8 years. In fact, computing has been one of the main contributions to their experimental collaborations, involving not just computing capacity for running Monte Carlos and data reduction, but participation in many computing initiatives, industrial partnerships, computing committees and collaborations. These facts justify the submission of a separate computing proposal.

  14. An Introduction to High Performance Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Sérgio

    2013-09-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) has become an essential tool in every researcher's arsenal. Most research problems nowadays can be simulated, clarified or experimentally tested by using computational simulations. Researchers struggle with computational problems when they should be focusing on their research problems. Since most researchers have little-to-no knowledge in low-level computer science, they tend to look at computer programs as extensions of their minds and bodies instead of completely autonomous systems. Since computers do not work the same way as humans, the result is usually Low Performance Computing where HPC would be expected.

  15. The Impact of Advance Organizers upon Students' Achievement in Computer-Assisted Video Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saidi, Houshmand

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study of undergraduates that was conducted to determine the impact of advance organizers on students' achievement in computer-assisted video instruction (CAVI). Treatments of the experimental and control groups are explained, and results indicate that advance organizers do not facilitate near-transfer of rule-learning in CAVI.…

  16. Factors Impacting Adult Learner Achievement in a Technology Certificate Program on Computer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delialioglu, Omer; Cakir, Hasan; Bichelmeyer, Barbara A.; Dennis, Alan R.; Duffy, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the factors impacting the achievement of adult learners in a technology certificate program on computer networks. We studied 2442 participants in 256 institutions. The participants were older than age 18 and were enrolled in the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) technology training program as "non-degree" or…

  17. The Effects of 3D Computer Simulation on Biology Students' Achievement and Memory Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elangovan, Tavasuria; Ismail, Zurida

    2014-01-01

    A quasi experimental study was conducted for six weeks to determine the effectiveness of two different 3D computer simulation based teaching methods, that is, realistic simulation and non-realistic simulation on Form Four Biology students' achievement and memory retention in Perak, Malaysia. A sample of 136 Form Four Biology students in Perak,…

  18. Computers and Traditional Teaching Practices: Factors Influencing Middle Level Students' Science Achievement and Attitudes about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Stoddard, Elizabeth R.; Wrobel, Jerzy M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of middle school student science achievement and attitudes toward science with student-reported frequency of using computers to learn science and other classroom practices. Baseline comparison data were collected on the frequency of student-centred teaching practices (e.g. the use of group…

  19. Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Secondary School Students' Achievement in Ecological Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkemdilim, Egbunonu Roseline; Okeke, Sam O. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on students' achievement in ecological concepts. Quasi-experimental design, specifically the pre-test post test non-equivalent control group design was adopted. The sample consisted of sixty-six (66) senior secondary year two (SS II) biology students, drawn from two…

  20. Effects of Computer Based Learning on Students' Attitudes and Achievements towards Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcay, Hüsamettin; Durmaz, Asli; Tüysüz, Cengiz; Feyzioglu, Burak

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of computer-based learning and traditional method on students' attitudes and achievement towards analytical chemistry. Students from Chemistry Education Department at Dokuz Eylul University (D.E.U) were selected randomly and divided into three groups; two experimental (Eg-1 and Eg-2) and a control…

  1. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Students' Achievement in Taiwan: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Yuen-kuang Cliff

    2007-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to synthesize existing research comparing the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) versus traditional instruction (TI) on students' achievement in Taiwan. Fifty-two studies were located from four sources, and their quantitative data was transformed into effect size (ES). The overall grand mean of the…

  2. A Meta-Analytical Investigation of the Influence of Computer Assisted Instruction on Achievement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekbiyik, Ahmet; Akdeniz, Ali Riza

    2010-01-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to determine the overall effectiveness of computer assisted instruction on students' academic achievement in science education from 2001 to 2007 in Turkey. The study reported the results of 65 effect sizes (ES) included in 52 studies. Grand mean for 65 ESs was found to be 1.12. This effect size can be interpreted…

  3. Comparative Effects of Two Modes of Computer-Assisted Instructional Package on Solid Geometry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Isiaka Amosa; Ezenwa, Victoria Ifeoma; Anyanwu, Romanus Chogozie

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effects of two modes of computer-assisted instructional package on solid geometry achievement amongst senior secondary school students in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI(AT) and CAI(AN) packages were examined. This study adopted a pretest-posttest…

  4. Learning Achievement in Solving Word-Based Mathematical Questions through a Computer-Assisted Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tzu-Hua; Liu, Yuan-Chen; Chang, Hsiu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a computer-assisted mathematical problem-solving system in the form of a network instruction website to help low-achieving second- and third-graders in mathematics with word-based addition and subtraction questions in Taiwan. According to Polya's problem-solving model, the system is designed to guide these low-achievers…

  5. Effect of Computer-Aided Perspective Drawings on Spatial Orientation and Perspective Drawing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtulus, Aytac

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of computer-aided Perspective Drawings on eighth grade primary school students' achievement in Spatial Orientation and Perspective Drawing. The study made use of pre-test post-test control group experimental design. The study was conducted with thirty 8th grade students attending a primary school…

  6. Instruction of Statistics via Computer-Based Tools: Effects on Statistics' Anxiety, Attitude, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciftci, S. Koza; Karadag, Engin; Akdal, Pinar

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of statistics instruction using computer-based tools, on statistics anxiety, attitude, and achievement. This study was designed as quasi-experimental research and the pattern used was a matched pre-test/post-test with control group design. Data was collected using three scales: a Statistics…

  7. Experiences of High-Achieving High School Students Who Have Taken Multiple Concurrent Advanced Placement Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Problem: An increasing number of high-achieving American high school students are enrolling in multiple Advanced Placement (AP) courses. As a result, high schools face a growing need to understand the impact of taking multiple AP courses concurrently on the social-emotional lives of high-achieving students. Procedures: This phenomenological…

  8. Computer simulation of space station computer steered high gain antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    The mathematical modeling and programming of a complete simulation program for a space station computer-steered high gain antenna are described. The program provides for reading input data cards, numerically integrating up to 50 first order differential equations, and monitoring up to 48 variables on printed output and on plots. The program system consists of a high gain antenna, an antenna gimbal control system, an on board computer, and the environment in which all are to operate.

  9. High Performance Computation of Heart Observation Data through "Grid Computing"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congiusta, Antonio

    Space missions and space researches aim to discover more about space structure and related phenomena. Each of these activities produce a large amount of records and data which need to be analyzed and interpreted. For instance, Hubble telescope sends to the earth from 60 to 100 MB of pictures and telemetry data every day, like the others satellites orbiting around the earth for scientific missions and earth observation. All these data must be elaborated and as they increase in quantity and complexity of the computations needed the classic computing systems cannot provide the required computing power. Grid Computing seems to be the best solution to this problem. It focus on large-scale resource sharing, with a high performance orientation, through a new and distinguished approach in respect of similar technologies, like distributed computing, internet computing and peer-to-peer computing. Grid Computing aims to do for the application of computer power what the Web have done for the distribution of information. It pulls together large numbers of widely scattered computers to solve problems so complicated as to defeat even the fastest and most powerful individual supercomputer. Teams of physicists have used grid computing to attack the most complex challenges in elementary particle physics and astrophysics. Several Space agencies are studying Grid Technologies in order to devise customized computing grid systems. The most important aspects in the "Grid Philosophy" are: Grid Computing lead to another important issue quite interesting: the concept of Virtual Organization, a set of individuals and/or institutions that share resources under certain sharing rules. In this paper will be showed the architecture which Grid Technology is based on; a series of problems in the space domain which can benefit of the Grid advantages; how each space Agency can be thought as a Virtual Organization and an extension of this concept to the whole Space Community.

  10. Generating high temperature tolerant transgenic plants: Achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Grover, Anil; Mittal, Dheeraj; Negi, Manisha; Lavania, Dhruv

    2013-05-01

    Production of plants tolerant to high temperature stress is of immense significance in the light of global warming and climate change. Plant cells respond to high temperature stress by re-programming their genetic machinery for survival and reproduction. High temperature tolerance in transgenic plants has largely been achieved either by over-expressing heat shock protein genes or by altering levels of heat shock factors that regulate expression of heat shock and non-heat shock genes. Apart from heat shock factors, over-expression of other trans-acting factors like DREB2A, bZIP28 and WRKY proteins has proven useful in imparting high temperature tolerance. Besides these, elevating the genetic levels of proteins involved in osmotic adjustment, reactive oxygen species removal, saturation of membrane-associated lipids, photosynthetic reactions, production of polyamines and protein biosynthesis process have yielded positive results in equipping transgenic plants with high temperature tolerance. Cyclic nucleotide gated calcium channel proteins that regulate calcium influxes across the cell membrane have recently been shown to be the key players in induction of high temperature tolerance. The involvement of calmodulins and kinases in activation of heat shock factors has been implicated as an important event in governing high temperature tolerance. Unfilled gaps limiting the production of high temperature tolerant transgenic plants for field level cultivation are discussed.

  11. High-Productivity Computing in Computational Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tel-Zur, Guy

    2011-03-01

    We describe the development of a new course in Computational Physics at the Ben-Gurion University. This elective course for 3rd year undergraduates and MSc. students is being taught during one semester. Computational Physics is by now well accepted as the Third Pillar of Science. This paper's claim is that modern Computational Physics education should deal also with High-Productivity Computing. The traditional approach of teaching Computational Physics emphasizes ``Correctness'' and then ``Accuracy'' and we add also ``Performance.'' Along with topics in Mathematical Methods and case studies in Physics the course deals a significant amount of time with ``Mini-Courses'' in topics such as: High-Throughput Computing - Condor, Parallel Programming - MPI and OpenMP, How to build a Beowulf, Visualization and Grid and Cloud Computing. The course does not intend to teach neither new physics nor new mathematics but it is focused on an integrated approach for solving problems starting from the physics problem, the corresponding mathematical solution, the numerical scheme, writing an efficient computer code and finally analysis and visualization.

  12. Computers and Traditional Teaching Practices: Factors influencing middle level students' science achievement and attitudes about science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Stoddard, Elizabeth R.; Wrobel, Jerzy M.

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of middle school student science achievement and attitudes toward science with student-reported frequency of using computers to learn science and other classroom practices. Baseline comparison data were collected on the frequency of student-centred teaching practices (e.g. the use of group experiments during science class) and traditional teaching practices (e.g. having students copy notes during science class) to learn science. The student sample was composed of 294 seventh-grade students enrolled in middle school science. Multiple regression was used to investigate the association of attitudes toward science, student-centred teaching practices, computer usage, and traditional teaching practices with science achievement. Both attitudes toward science and student-centred teaching practices were positively associated with science achievement, and student-centred teaching practice was positively associated with attitude toward science. Computer usage was found to have a negative association with student achievement, which was moderated by traditional teaching practices.

  13. High-End Computing for Incompressible Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics (June 12-14, 2001) is to bring together industry and academia (and government) to nurture the next generation in computational mechanics. The objective of the current talk, 'High-End Computing for Incompressible Flows', is to discuss some of the current issues in large scale computing for mission-oriented tasks.

  14. Unlocking Emergent Talent: Supporting High Achievement of Low-Income, High Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Clarenbach, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This report takes a comprehensive look at achievement for low-income promising learners--past, present, and future. At its core, it challenges the nation to move beyond its near-singular focus of achieving minimum performance for all students, to identifying and developing the talent of all students who are capable of high achievement, including…

  15. Scalable resource management in high performance computers.

    SciTech Connect

    Frachtenberg, E.; Petrini, F.; Fernandez Peinador, J.; Coll, S.

    2002-01-01

    Clusters of workstations have emerged as an important platform for building cost-effective, scalable and highly-available computers. Although many hardware solutions are available today, the largest challenge in making large-scale clusters usable lies in the system software. In this paper we present STORM, a resource management tool designed to provide scalability, low overhead and the flexibility necessary to efficiently support and analyze a wide range of job scheduling algorithms. STORM achieves these feats by closely integrating the management daemons with the low-level features that are common in state-of-the-art high-performance system area networks. The architecture of STORM is based on three main technical innovations. First, a sizable part of the scheduler runs in the thread processor located on the network interface. Second, we use hardware collectives that are highly scalable both for implementing control heartbeats and to distribute the binary of a parallel job in near-constant time, irrespective of job and machine sizes. Third, we use an I/O bypass protocol that allows fast data movements from the file system to the communication buffers in the network interface and vice versa. The experimental results show that STORM can launch a job with a binary of 12MB on a 64 processor/32 node cluster in less than 0.25 sec on an empty network, in less than 0.45 sec when all the processors are busy computing other jobs, and in less than 0.65 sec when the network is flooded with a background traffic. This paper provides experimental and analytical evidence that these results scale to a much larger number of nodes. To the best of our knowledge, STORM is at least two orders of magnitude faster than existing production schedulers in launching jobs, performing resource management tasks and gang scheduling.

  16. Motivation and Performance within a Collaborative Computer-Based Modeling Task: Relations between Students' Achievement Goal Orientation, Self-Efficacy, Cognitive Processing, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sins, Patrick H. M.; van Joolingen, Wouter R.; Savelsbergh, Elwin R.; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In order to test the model, group measures of…

  17. High temperature superconductors for computer interconnect applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, B.J.L.

    1994-12-31

    High temperature superconductors, because of their extremely low loss at high frequencies and their high current handling capability, have the potential for use in computer interconnect boards. They offer the potential advantages of high interconnect density, reduced interconnect delays, and higher data rate. Because silicon CMOS circuits dramatically improve in performance at low temperatures, cooled computers may become attractive in the future to capture both the improved interconnect and circuit benefits.

  18. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-05-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed.

  19. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed. PMID:25973781

  20. Integration of High-Performance Computing into Cloud Computing Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vouk, Mladen A.; Sills, Eric; Dreher, Patrick

    High-Performance Computing (HPC) projects span a spectrum of computer hardware implementations ranging from peta-flop supercomputers, high-end tera-flop facilities running a variety of operating systems and applications, to mid-range and smaller computational clusters used for HPC application development, pilot runs and prototype staging clusters. What they all have in common is that they operate as a stand-alone system rather than a scalable and shared user re-configurable resource. The advent of cloud computing has changed the traditional HPC implementation. In this article, we will discuss a very successful production-level architecture and policy framework for supporting HPC services within a more general cloud computing infrastructure. This integrated environment, called Virtual Computing Lab (VCL), has been operating at NC State since fall 2004. Nearly 8,500,000 HPC CPU-Hrs were delivered by this environment to NC State faculty and students during 2009. In addition, we present and discuss operational data that show that integration of HPC and non-HPC (or general VCL) services in a cloud can substantially reduce the cost of delivering cloud services (down to cents per CPU hour).

  1. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs—Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  2. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  3. Design considerations for achieving high vacuum integrity in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, G.M.; Haines, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Achieving high vacuum integrity in fusion devices requires close attention to both the overall system configuration and the design details of joints and seals. This paper describes the factors in selecting the system configuration, from a vacuum standpoint, for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) DCT-8 Tokamak device. The DCT-8 (driven current tokamak) is the eighth design in a series of tokamak concepts defined to cover the magnetic confinement and development gap between the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). Leak detection concept development is considered a vital activity, as well as the definition of a configuration that minimizes the consequences of leaks. A major part of the vacuum boundaries of the magnet system and the plasma system is common. For the major penetrations, primary and secondary seals are provided with vacuum control over the region between seals. The intent is to instrument these cavities and provide automated recordings of these measurements for leak maintenance.

  4. Achieving ultra-high temperatures with a resistive emitter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Tom; Franks, Greg; Holmes, Nicholas; LaVeigne, Joe; Matis, Greg; McHugh, Steve; Norton, Dennis; Vengel, Tony; Lannon, John; Goodwin, Scott

    2016-05-01

    The rapid development of very-large format infrared detector arrays has challenged the IR scene projector community to also develop larger-format infrared emitter arrays to support the testing of systems incorporating these detectors. In addition to larger formats, many scene projector users require much higher simulated temperatures than can be generated with current technology in order to fully evaluate the performance of their systems and associated processing algorithms. Under the Ultra High Temperature (UHT) development program, Santa Barbara Infrared Inc. (SBIR) is developing a new infrared scene projector architecture capable of producing both very large format (>1024 x 1024) resistive emitter arrays and improved emitter pixel technology capable of simulating very high apparent temperatures. During earlier phases of the program, SBIR demonstrated materials with MWIR apparent temperatures in excess of 1400 K. New emitter materials have subsequently been selected to produce pixels that achieve even higher apparent temperatures. Test results from pixels fabricated using the new material set will be presented and discussed. A 'scalable' Read In Integrated Circuit (RIIC) is also being developed under the same UHT program to drive the high temperature pixels. This RIIC will utilize through-silicon via (TSV) and Quilt Packaging (QP) technologies to allow seamless tiling of multiple chips to fabricate very large arrays, and thus overcome the yield limitations inherent in large-scale integrated circuits. Results of design verification testing of the completed RIIC will be presented and discussed.

  5. NASA High-End Computing Program Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Jarrett S.

    2008-01-01

    If you are a NASA-sponsored scientist or engineer. computing time is available to you at the High-End Computing (HEC) Program's NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Facility and NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS). The Science Mission Directorate will select from requests NCCS Portals submitted to the e-Books online system for awards beginning on May 1. Current projects set to explore on April 30 must have a request in e-Books to be considered for renewal

  6. How Do the Different Types of Computer Use Affect Math Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Raymond; Inan, Fethi; Lin, Zhangxi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the National Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS:2002) dataset was used and a predictive data mining technique, decision tree analysis, was implemented in order to examine which factors, in conjunction to computer use, can be used to predict high or low probability of success in high school mathematics. Specifically, this study…

  7. How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been used in a large number of fields, such as chemical, agricultural and biopharmaceutical industries. The enzyme production rate and yield are the main factors to consider when choosing the appropriate expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant enzymes have been expressed in bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria), filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and yeasts (e.g., Pichia pastoris). The favorable and very advantageous characteristics of these species have resulted in an increasing number of biotechnological applications. Bacterial hosts (e.g., E. coli) can be used to quickly and easily overexpress recombinant enzymes; however, bacterial systems cannot express very large proteins and proteins that require post-translational modifications. The main bacterial expression hosts, with the exception of lactic acid bacteria and filamentous fungi, can produce several toxins which are not compatible with the expression of recombinant enzymes in food and drugs. However, due to the multiplicity of the physiological impacts arising from high-level expression of genes encoding the enzymes and expression hosts, the goal of overproduction can hardly be achieved, and therefore, the yield of recombinant enzymes is limited. In this review, the recent strategies used for the high-level expression of microbial enzymes in the hosts mentioned above are summarized and the prospects are also discussed. We hope this review will contribute to the development of the enzyme-related research field. PMID:23686280

  8. High heat program, thermal hydraulic computer models

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, D.M.

    1998-03-05

    The purpose of this report is to describe the thermal hydraulic computer models, the computer model benchmarking and methodology to be used in performing the analysis necessary for the resolution of the high heat safety issue for Tank 241-C, -106.

  9. Debugging a high performance computing program

    DOEpatents

    Gooding, Thomas M.

    2013-08-20

    Methods, apparatus, and computer program products are disclosed for debugging a high performance computing program by gathering lists of addresses of calling instructions for a plurality of threads of execution of the program, assigning the threads to groups in dependence upon the addresses, and displaying the groups to identify defective threads.

  10. Debugging a high performance computing program

    DOEpatents

    Gooding, Thomas M.

    2014-08-19

    Methods, apparatus, and computer program products are disclosed for debugging a high performance computing program by gathering lists of addresses of calling instructions for a plurality of threads of execution of the program, assigning the threads to groups in dependence upon the addresses, and displaying the groups to identify defective threads.

  11. Comparison of the Level of Using Metacognitive Strategies during Study between High Achieving and Low Achieving Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doganay, Ahmet; Demir, Ozden

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to compare the level of using metacognitive strategies during study between high achieving and low achieving prospective classroom teachers. This study was designed as a mixed method study. Metacognitive Learning Strategies Scale developed by Namlu (2004) was used to measure the use of metacognitive strategies…

  12. Effects of Partner's Ability on the Achievement and Conceptual Organization of High-Achieving Fifth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Glenda; Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Investigates high-achieving fifth-grade students' achievement gains and conceptual reorganization on convection. Features an instructional sequence of three dyadic inquiry investigations related to convection currents as well as pre- and post-assessment consisting of a multiple-choice test, a card sorting task, construction of a concept map, and…

  13. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Mathematics between Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Fifth Grade Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathbone, A. Sue

    Possible gender differences in attitudes toward mathematics were studied between low-achieving and high-achieving fifth-grade students in selected elementary schools within a large, metropolitan area. The attitudes of pre-adolescent children at an intermediate grade level were assessed to determine the effects of rapidly emerging gender-related…

  14. Cray XMT Brings New Energy to High-Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Gracio, Deborah K.; Marquez, Andres; Nieplocha, Jaroslaw; Scherrer, Chad; Sofia, Heidi J.

    2008-09-30

    The ability to solve our nation’s most challenging problems—whether it’s cleaning up the environment, finding alternative forms of energy or improving public health and safety—requires new scientific discoveries. High performance experimental and computational technologies from the past decade are helping to accelerate these scientific discoveries, but they introduce challenges of their own. The vastly increasing volumes and complexities of experimental and computational data pose significant challenges to traditional high-performance computing (HPC) platforms as terabytes to petabytes of data must be processed and analyzed. And the growing complexity of computer models that incorporate dynamic multiscale and multiphysics phenomena place enormous demands on high-performance computer architectures. Just as these new challenges are arising, the computer architecture world is experiencing a renaissance of innovation. The continuing march of Moore’s law has provided the opportunity to put more functionality on a chip, enabling the achievement of performance in new ways. Power limitations, however, will severely limit future growth in clock rates. The challenge will be to obtain greater utilization via some form of on-chip parallelism, but the complexities of emerging applications will require significant innovation in high-performance architectures. The Cray XMT, the successor to the Tera/Cray MTA, provides an alternative platform for addressing computations that stymie current HPC systems, holding the potential to substantially accelerate data analysis and predictive analytics for many complex challenges in energy, national security and fundamental science that traditional computing cannot do.

  15. Climate Modeling using High-Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Mirin, A A

    2007-02-05

    The Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) and the LLNL Climate and Carbon Science Group of Energy and Environment (E and E) are working together to improve predictions of future climate by applying the best available computational methods and computer resources to this problem. Over the last decade, researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have developed a number of climate models that provide state-of-the-art simulations on a wide variety of massively parallel computers. We are now developing and applying a second generation of high-performance climate models. Through the addition of relevant physical processes, we are developing an earth systems modeling capability as well.

  16. Quantity and Quality of Computer Use and Academic Achievement: Evidence from a Large-Scale International Test Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Zhang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study looked at the effect of both quantity and quality of computer use on achievement. The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 student survey comprising of 4,356 students (boys, n = 2,129; girls, n = 2,227) was used to predict academic achievement from quantity and quality of computer use while controlling for…

  17. Achieving High Throughput for Data Transfer over ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.; Townsend, Jeffrey N.

    1996-01-01

    File-transfer rates for ftp are often reported to be relatively slow, compared to the raw bandwidth available in emerging gigabit networks. While a major bottleneck is disk I/O, protocol issues impact performance as well. Ftp was developed and optimized for use over the TCP/IP protocol stack of the Internet. However, TCP has been shown to run inefficiently over ATM. In an effort to maximize network throughput, data-transfer protocols can be developed to run over UDP or directly over IP, rather than over TCP. If error-free transmission is required, techniques for achieving reliable transmission can be included as part of the transfer protocol. However, selected image-processing applications can tolerate a low level of errors in images that are transmitted over a network. In this paper we report on experimental work to develop a high-throughput protocol for unreliable data transfer over ATM networks. We attempt to maximize throughput by keeping the communications pipe full, but still keep packet loss under five percent. We use the Bay Area Gigabit Network Testbed as our experimental platform.

  18. Student Perception of Academic Achievement Factors at High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahar, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the quality of the "product" is elemental in education, and most studies depend on observational data about student achievement factors, focusing overwhelmingly on quantitative data namely achievement scores, school data like attendance, facilities, expenditure class size, etc. But there is little evidence of learner…

  19. Learning Styles and High School Students' Chemistry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of students' learning styles on their chemistry achievement, and whether matching between teaching and learning styles also affects students' chemistry achievement. Two hundred and sixty-five tenth-grade students enrolled in a chemistry course and seven chemistry teachers participated in…

  20. High-Achieving High School Students and Not so High-Achieving College Students: A Look at Lack of Self-Control, Academic Ability, and Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honken, Nora B.; Ralston, Patricia A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among lack of self-control, academic ability, and academic performance for a cohort of freshman engineering students who were, with a few exceptions, extremely high achievers in high school. Structural equation modeling analysis led to the conclusion that lack of self-control in high school, as measured by…

  1. Achievement of Hispanic Students in American High Schools: Background Characteristics and Achievement. Contractor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Francois; Fernandez, Roberto M.

    Presenting data and analyses from the first wave of the study "High School and Beyond" (HS&B), a longitudinal study of United States high school sophomores and seniors, the report focuses on the composition of the Hispanic tenth and twelfth grade student population with respect to various characteristics; i.e., language use and proficiency, length…

  2. High-End Computing Challenges in Aerospace Design and Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, F. Ronald

    2004-01-01

    High-End Computing (HEC) has had significant impact on aerospace design and engineering and is poised to make even more in the future. In this paper we describe four aerospace design and engineering challenges: Digital Flight, Launch Simulation, Rocket Fuel System and Digital Astronaut. The paper discusses modeling capabilities needed for each challenge and presents projections of future near and far-term HEC computing requirements. NASA's HEC Project Columbia is described and programming strategies presented that are necessary to achieve high real performance.

  3. Software Synthesis for High Productivity Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Bodik, Rastislav

    2010-09-01

    Over the three years of our project, we accomplished three key milestones: We demonstrated how ideas from generative programming and software synthesis can help support the development of bulk-synchronous distributed memory kernels. These ideas are realized in a new language called MSL, a C-like language that combines synthesis features with high level notations for array manipulation and bulk-synchronous parallelism to simplify the semantic analysis required for synthesis. We also demonstrated that these high level notations map easily to low level C code and show that the performance of this generated code matches that of handwritten Fortran. Second, we introduced the idea of solver-aided domain-specific languages (SDSLs), which are an emerging class of computer-aided programming systems. SDSLs ease the construction of programs by automating tasks such as verification, debugging, synthesis, and non-deterministic execution. SDSLs are implemented by translating the DSL program into logical constraints. Next, we developed a symbolic virtual machine called Rosette, which simplifies the construction of such SDSLs and their compilers. We have used Rosette to build SynthCL, a subset of OpenCL that supports synthesis. Third, we developed novel numeric algorithms that move as little data as possible, either between levels of a memory hierarchy or between parallel processors over a network. We achieved progress in three aspects of this problem. First we determined lower bounds on communication. Second, we compared these lower bounds to widely used versions of these algorithms, and noted that these widely used algorithms usually communicate asymptotically more than is necessary. Third, we identified or invented new algorithms for most linear algebra problems that do attain these lower bounds, and demonstrated large speed-ups in theory and practice.

  4. The Effect of Interactive e-Book on Students' Achievement at Najran University in Computer in Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebied, Mohammed Mohammed Ahmed; Rahman, Shimaa Ahmed Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to examine the effect of interactive e-books on students' achievement at Najran University in computer in education course. Quasi-experimental study design is used in the study and to collect data the researchers built achievement test to measure the dependent variable represented in the achievement affected by experimental…

  5. Form One Students' Engagement with Computer Games and Its Effect on Their Academic Achievement in a Malaysian Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eow, Yee Leng; Wan Ali, Wan Zah bte; Mahmud, Rosnaini bt.; Baki, Roselan

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to address the association between computer games and students' academic achievement. The exceptional growth in numbers of children playing computer games, the uneasiness and incomplete understanding foundation when starting the discussion on computer games have stimulated this study to be conducted. From a survey…

  6. Effects of Computer Applications on Elementary School Students' Achievement: A Meta-Analysis of Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Yuen-kuang Cliff; Chang, Huei-wen; Chen, Yu-wen

    2008-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to synthesize existing research comparing the effects of computer applications (i.e., computer-assisted instruction, computer simulations, and Web-based learning) versus traditional instruction on elementary school students' achievement in Taiwan. Forty-eight studies were located from four sources, and their…

  7. The Effect of a Computer Tutor for Writers on Student Writing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Kurt; Meyer, Nick

    2003-01-01

    A Computer Tutor for Writers (CTW) was designed to provide procedural facilitation to high school students while they learn the skills and knowledge associated with composition writing. Four previous year-long studies helped identify how to facilitate specific elements of the writing process. The CTW was designed to combine lessons learned from…

  8. Preferences of High Achieving High School Students in Their Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2010-01-01

    The intent of this study was to identify the needs and preference of high-achieving high school students. In terms of career related programs in high school, students listed AP courses and mentoring as their preferred career-related programs. Also, students stated that career guidance by counselors, workshops or sessions, and tech prep were the…

  9. Threatened and Placed at Risk: High Achieving African American Males in Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Ebony O.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the risk and protective factors of 11 high-achieving African American males attending 4 urban charter high schools in a Midwestern city to determine what factors account for their resilience and success in mathematics courses, and in high school more generally. This research was guided by a Phenomenological Variant of…

  10. The Effect of Music Participation on Mathematical Achievement and Overall Academic Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, H. A.; Stephens, L. J.

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted on high school students, comparing those with some music credits to those with none. No statistically significant difference was found in their mean math grade point averages (GPA) or their mean cumulative GPAs. Students were then separated into two groups based on the number of music credits. Students who had earned at least…

  11. Computing in high-energy physics

    DOE PAGES

    Mount, Richard P.

    2016-05-31

    I present a very personalized journey through more than three decades of computing for experimental high-energy physics, pointing out the enduring lessons that I learned. This is followed by a vision of how the computing environment will evolve in the coming ten years and the technical challenges that this will bring. I then address the scale and cost of high-energy physics software and examine the many current and future challenges, particularly those of management, funding and software-lifecycle management. Lastly, I describe recent developments aimed at improving the overall coherence of high-energy physics software.

  12. High performance computing for drug development on K computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujitani, Hideaki; Shinoda, Keiko; Yamashita, Takefumi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko

    2013-08-01

    Massively parallel computations (MP-CAFEE) ware developed to calculate absolute binding free energies of small molecules bound to a protein by all-atom molecular dynamics. It uses the nonequilibrium work measurement and Bennett acceptance ratio methods to calculate the free energy difference between the bound and unbound states. The FUJI force field was developed in order to assign force field parameters to arbitrary organic molecules in a unified manner including proteins and nucleic acids. Its dihedral parameters agree with the torsion energy profiles calculated by high-level ab initio molecular orbital theory for the model systems of protein backbone. Comparing with various force fields it agrees well with recent observations by vibrational spectroscopy on Ramachandran angle's population of alanine dipeptide in water. MP-CAFEE with FUJI force field has an efficient parallel algorithm and enough accuracy for computer aided drug design.

  13. "Brains before "Beauty"?" High Achieving Girls, School and Gender Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky; Read, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In recent years educational policy on gender and achievement has concentrated on boys' underachievement, frequently comparing it with the academic success of girls. This has encouraged a perception of girls as the "winners" of the educational stakes and assumes that they no longer experience the kinds of gender inequalities identified in earlier…

  14. High-Achieving Middle Schools for Latino Students in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesse, Dan; Davis, Alan; Pokorny, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the characteristics of middle schools in which Latino students from low-income families made substantial achievement gains. Nine schools in Texas were selected where Latino students had shown strong gains in the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills. Data from onsite interviews, focus groups, and documents were…

  15. Dominant Achievement Goals across Tracks in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheltinga, Peter A. M.; Kuyper, Hans; Timmermans, Anneke C.; van der Werf, Greetje P. C.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant achievement goals (DAGs) of 7,008 students in the third grade of Dutch secondary education (US grade 9) were investigated, based on Elliot & McGregors' 2 × 2 framework (2001), in relation to track-level and motivational variables. We found the mastery-approach goal and the performance-approach goal, generally considered adaptive,…

  16. Success Despite Socioeconomics: A Case Study of a High-Achieving, High-Poverty School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Thomas Brent; Smith, Samuel J.; Claxton, Russell L.

    2012-01-01

    This case study of a high-achieving, high-poverty school describes the school's leadership, culture, and programs that contributed to its success. Data were collected from two surveys (the School Culture Survey and the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education), observations at the school site, and interviews with school personnel. The…

  17. Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

  18. High performance computing for domestic petroleum reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zyvoloski, G.; Auer, L.; Dendy, J.

    1996-06-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. High-performance computing offers the prospect of greatly increasing the resolution at which petroleum reservoirs can be represented in simulation models. The increases in resolution can be achieved through large increases in computational speed and memory, if machine architecture and numerical methods for solution of the multiphase flow equations can be used to advantage. Perhaps more importantly, the increased speed and size of today`s computers make it possible to add physical processes to simulation codes that heretofore were too expensive in terms of computer time and memory to be practical. These factors combine to allow the development of new, more accurate methods for optimizing petroleum reservoir production.

  19. Trends in high-performance computing for engineering calculations.

    PubMed

    Giles, M B; Reguly, I

    2014-08-13

    High-performance computing has evolved remarkably over the past 20 years, and that progress is likely to continue. However, in recent years, this progress has been achieved through greatly increased hardware complexity with the rise of multicore and manycore processors, and this is affecting the ability of application developers to achieve the full potential of these systems. This article outlines the key developments on the hardware side, both in the recent past and in the near future, with a focus on two key issues: energy efficiency and the cost of moving data. It then discusses the much slower evolution of system software, and the implications of all of this for application developers.

  20. Climate Modeling using High-Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Mirin, A A; Wickett, M E; Duffy, P B; Rotman, D A

    2005-03-03

    The Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) and the LLNL Atmospheric Science Division (ASD) are working together to improve predictions of future climate by applying the best available computational methods and computer resources to this problem. Over the last decade, researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have developed a number of climate models that provide state-of-the-art simulations on a wide variety of massively parallel computers. We are now developing and applying a second generation of high-performance climate models. As part of LLNL's participation in DOE's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program, members of CASC and ASD are collaborating with other DOE labs and NCAR in the development of a comprehensive, next-generation global climate model. This model incorporates the most current physics and numerics and capably exploits the latest massively parallel computers. One of LLNL's roles in this collaboration is the scalable parallelization of NASA's finite-volume atmospheric dynamical core. We have implemented multiple two-dimensional domain decompositions, where the different decompositions are connected by high-speed transposes. Additional performance is obtained through shared memory parallelization constructs and one-sided interprocess communication. The finite-volume dynamical core is particularly important to atmospheric chemistry simulations, where LLNL has a leading role.

  1. High-performance computing for airborne applications

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Heather M; Manuzzato, Andrea; Fairbanks, Tom; Dallmann, Nicholas; Desgeorges, Rose

    2010-06-28

    Recently, there has been attempts to move common satellite tasks to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are significantly cheaper to buy than satellites and easier to deploy on an as-needed basis. The more benign radiation environment also allows for an aggressive adoption of state-of-the-art commercial computational devices, which increases the amount of data that can be collected. There are a number of commercial computing devices currently available that are well-suited to high-performance computing. These devices range from specialized computational devices, such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and digital signal processors (DSPs), to traditional computing platforms, such as microprocessors. Even though the radiation environment is relatively benign, these devices could be susceptible to single-event effects. In this paper, we will present radiation data for high-performance computing devices in a accelerated neutron environment. These devices include a multi-core digital signal processor, two field-programmable gate arrays, and a microprocessor. From these results, we found that all of these devices are suitable for many airplane environments without reliability problems.

  2. Challenges for high-performance networking for exascale computing.

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Brian W.; Hemmert, K. Scott; Underwood, Keith Douglas; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2010-05-01

    Achieving the next three orders of magnitude performance increase to move from petascale to exascale computing will require a significant advancements in several fundamental areas. Recent studies have outlined many of the challenges in hardware and software that will be needed. In this paper, we examine these challenges with respect to high-performance networking. We describe the repercussions of anticipated changes to computing and networking hardware and discuss the impact that alternative parallel programming models will have on the network software stack. We also present some ideas on possible approaches that address some of these challenges.

  3. High Performance Computing CFRD -- Final Technial Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hope Forsmann; Kurt Hamman

    2003-01-01

    The Bechtel Waste Treatment Project (WTP), located in Richland, WA, is comprised of many processes containing complex physics. Accurate analyses of the underlying physics of these processes is needed to reduce the amount of added costs during and after construction that are due to unknown process behavior. The WTP will have tight operating margins in order to complete the treatment of the waste on schedule. The combination of tight operating constraints coupled with complex physical processes requires analysis methods that are more accurate than traditional approaches. This study is focused specifically on multidimensional computer aided solutions. There are many skills and tools required to solve engineering problems. Many physical processes are governed by nonlinear partial differential equations. These governing equations have few, if any, closed form solutions. Past and present solution methods require assumptions to reduce these equations to solvable forms. Computational methods take the governing equations and solve them directly on a computational grid. This ability to approach the equations in their exact form reduces the number of assumptions that must be made. This approach increases the accuracy of the solution and its applicability to the problem at hand. Recent advances in computer technology have allowed computer simulations to become an essential tool for problem solving. In order to perform computer simulations as quickly and accurately as possible, both hardware and software must be evaluated. With regards to hardware, the average consumer personal computers (PCs) are not configured for optimal scientific use. Only a few vendors create high performance computers to satisfy engineering needs. Software must be optimized for quick and accurate execution. Operating systems must utilize the hardware efficiently while supplying the software with seamless access to the computer’s resources. From the perspective of Bechtel Corporation and the Idaho

  4. High-performance computing in seismology

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The scientific, technical, and economic importance of the issues discussed here presents a clear agenda for future research in computational seismology. In this way these problems will drive advances in high-performance computing in the field of seismology. There is a broad community that will benefit from this work, including the petroleum industry, research geophysicists, engineers concerned with seismic hazard mitigation, and governments charged with enforcing a comprehensive test ban treaty. These advances may also lead to new applications for seismological research. The recent application of high-resolution seismic imaging of the shallow subsurface for the environmental remediation industry is an example of this activity. This report makes the following recommendations: (1) focused efforts to develop validated documented software for seismological computations should be supported, with special emphasis on scalable algorithms for parallel processors; (2) the education of seismologists in high-performance computing technologies and methodologies should be improved; (3) collaborations between seismologists and computational scientists and engineers should be increased; (4) the infrastructure for archiving, disseminating, and processing large volumes of seismological data should be improved.

  5. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  6. Studying an Eulerian Computer Model on Different High-performance Computer Platforms and Some Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, K.; Zlatev, Z.

    2010-11-01

    The Danish Eulerian Model (DEM) is an Eulerian model for studying the transport of air pollutants on large scale. Originally, the model was developed at the National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark. The model computational domain covers Europe and some neighbour parts belong to the Atlantic Ocean, Asia and Africa. If DEM model is to be applied by using fine grids, then its discretization leads to a huge computational problem. This implies that such a model as DEM must be run only on high-performance computer architectures. The implementation and tuning of such a complex large-scale model on each different computer is a non-trivial task. Here, some comparison results of running of this model on different kind of vector (CRAY C92A, Fujitsu, etc.), parallel computers with distributed memory (IBM SP, CRAY T3E, Beowulf clusters, Macintosh G4 clusters, etc.), parallel computers with shared memory (SGI Origin, SUN, etc.) and parallel computers with two levels of parallelism (IBM SMP, IBM BlueGene/P, clusters of multiprocessor nodes, etc.) will be presented. The main idea in the parallel version of DEM is domain partitioning approach. Discussions according to the effective use of the cache and hierarchical memories of the modern computers as well as the performance, speed-ups and efficiency achieved will be done. The parallel code of DEM, created by using MPI standard library, appears to be highly portable and shows good efficiency and scalability on different kind of vector and parallel computers. Some important applications of the computer model output are presented in short.

  7. Enhancing aeropropulsion research with high-speed interactive computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuch, John R.; Arpasi, Dale J.; Strazisar, Anthony J.

    1991-01-01

    NASA-Lewis has committed to a long range goal of creating a numerical test cell for aeropropulsion research and development. Efforts are underway to develop a first generation Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). The NPSS will provide a unique capability to numerically simulate advanced propulsion systems from nose to tail. Two essential ingredients to the NPSS are: (1) experimentally validated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes; and (2) high performing computing systems (hardware and software) that will permit those codes to be used efficiently. To this end, NASA-Lewis is using high speed, interactive computing as a means for achieving Integrated CFD and Experiments (ICE). The development is described of a prototype ICE system for multistage compressor flow physics research.

  8. High Speed Computing, LANs, and WAMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Larry A.; Monacos, Steve

    1994-01-01

    Optical fiber networks may one day offer potential capacities exceeding 10 terabits/sec. This paper describes present gigabit network techniques for distributed computing as illustrated by the CASA gigabit testbed, and then explores future all-optic network architectures that offer increased capacity, more optimized level of service for a given application, high fault tolerance, and dynamic reconfigurability.

  9. High-performance computing in image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Michele; Remondino, Fabio; Dalla Mura, Mauro

    2012-10-01

    Thanks to the recent technological advances, a large variety of image data is at our disposal with variable geometric, radiometric and temporal resolution. In many applications the processing of such images needs high performance computing techniques in order to deliver timely responses e.g. for rapid decisions or real-time actions. Thus, parallel or distributed computing methods, Digital Signal Processor (DSP) architectures, Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) programming and Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices have become essential tools for the challenging issue of processing large amount of geo-data. The article focuses on the processing and registration of large datasets of terrestrial and aerial images for 3D reconstruction, diagnostic purposes and monitoring of the environment. For the image alignment procedure, sets of corresponding feature points need to be automatically extracted in order to successively compute the geometric transformation that aligns the data. The feature extraction and matching are ones of the most computationally demanding operations in the processing chain thus, a great degree of automation and speed is mandatory. The details of the implemented operations (named LARES) exploiting parallel architectures and GPU are thus presented. The innovative aspects of the implementation are (i) the effectiveness on a large variety of unorganized and complex datasets, (ii) capability to work with high-resolution images and (iii) the speed of the computations. Examples and comparisons with standard CPU processing are also reported and commented.

  10. High-performance computers for unmanned vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toms, David; Ettinger, Gil J.

    2005-10-01

    The present trend of increasing functionality onboard unmanned vehicles is made possible by rapid advances in high-performance computers (HPCs). An HPC is characterized by very high computational capability (100s of billions of operations per second) contained in lightweight, rugged, low-power packages. HPCs are critical to the processing of sensor data onboard these vehicles. Operations such as radar image formation, target tracking, target recognition, signal intelligence signature collection and analysis, electro-optic image compression, and onboard data exploitation are provided by these machines. The net effect of an HPC is to minimize communication bandwidth requirements and maximize mission flexibility. This paper focuses on new and emerging technologies in the HPC market. Emerging capabilities include new lightweight, low-power computing systems: multi-mission computing (using a common computer to support several sensors); onboard data exploitation; and large image data storage capacities. These new capabilities will enable an entirely new generation of deployed capabilities at reduced cost. New software tools and architectures available to unmanned vehicle developers will enable them to rapidly develop optimum solutions with maximum productivity and return on investment. These new technologies effectively open the trade space for unmanned vehicle designers.

  11. Optical interconnection networks for high-performance computing systems.

    PubMed

    Biberman, Aleksandr; Bergman, Keren

    2012-04-01

    Enabled by silicon photonic technology, optical interconnection networks have the potential to be a key disruptive technology in computing and communication industries. The enduring pursuit of performance gains in computing, combined with stringent power constraints, has fostered the ever-growing computational parallelism associated with chip multiprocessors, memory systems, high-performance computing systems and data centers. Sustaining these parallelism growths introduces unique challenges for on- and off-chip communications, shifting the focus toward novel and fundamentally different communication approaches. Chip-scale photonic interconnection networks, enabled by high-performance silicon photonic devices, offer unprecedented bandwidth scalability with reduced power consumption. We demonstrate that the silicon photonic platforms have already produced all the high-performance photonic devices required to realize these types of networks. Through extensive empirical characterization in much of our work, we demonstrate such feasibility of waveguides, modulators, switches and photodetectors. We also demonstrate systems that simultaneously combine many functionalities to achieve more complex building blocks. We propose novel silicon photonic devices, subsystems, network topologies and architectures to enable unprecedented performance of these photonic interconnection networks. Furthermore, the advantages of photonic interconnection networks extend far beyond the chip, offering advanced communication environments for memory systems, high-performance computing systems, and data centers.

  12. High-Degree Neurons Feed Cortical Computations

    PubMed Central

    Timme, Nicholas M.; Ito, Shinya; Shimono, Masanori; Yeh, Fang-Chin; Litke, Alan M.; Beggs, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has shown that functional connectivity among cortical neurons is highly varied, with a small percentage of neurons having many more connections than others. Also, recent theoretical developments now make it possible to quantify how neurons modify information from the connections they receive. Therefore, it is now possible to investigate how information modification, or computation, depends on the number of connections a neuron receives (in-degree) or sends out (out-degree). To do this, we recorded the simultaneous spiking activity of hundreds of neurons in cortico-hippocampal slice cultures using a high-density 512-electrode array. This preparation and recording method combination produced large numbers of neurons recorded at temporal and spatial resolutions that are not currently available in any in vivo recording system. We utilized transfer entropy (a well-established method for detecting linear and nonlinear interactions in time series) and the partial information decomposition (a powerful, recently developed tool for dissecting multivariate information processing into distinct parts) to quantify computation between neurons where information flows converged. We found that computations did not occur equally in all neurons throughout the networks. Surprisingly, neurons that computed large amounts of information tended to receive connections from high out-degree neurons. However, the in-degree of a neuron was not related to the amount of information it computed. To gain insight into these findings, we developed a simple feedforward network model. We found that a degree-modified Hebbian wiring rule best reproduced the pattern of computation and degree correlation results seen in the real data. Interestingly, this rule also maximized signal propagation in the presence of network-wide correlations, suggesting a mechanism by which cortex could deal with common random background input. These are the first results to show that the extent to which a neuron

  13. Assigning Students in Cooperative and Individual Learning Environments According to Cognitive Styles: Achievement and Perceptions in Computer Technology Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Hua

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the achievement of teacher education students in computer technology learning and their perceptions on learning experiences according to cognitive styles in learning environments. It was found that independent students in individual learning environment had significantly higher achievement than field-dependent students in…

  14. Problem-Based Learning Environment in Basic Computer Course: Pre-Service Teachers' Achievement and Key Factors for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efendioglu, Akin

    2015-01-01

    This experimental study aims to determine pre-service teachers' achievements and key factors that affect the learning process with regard to problem-based learning (PBL) and lecture-based computer course (LBCC) conditions. The research results showed that the pre-service teachers in the PBL group had significantly higher achievement scores than…

  15. Effectiveness of Computer Animation and Geometrical Instructional Model on Mathematics Achievement and Retention among Junior Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, A. I.; Falode, C. O.; Adegbenro, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer animation and geometry instructional model on mathematics achievement and retention on Junior Secondary School Students in Minna, Nigeria. It also examined the influence of gender on students' achievement and retention. The research was a pre-test post-test experimental and control group…

  16. The Effects of Cooperative and Individualistic Learning Structures on Achievement in a College-Level Computer-Aided Drafting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swab, A. Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study of cooperative learning in post-secondary engineering education investigated achievement of engineering students enrolled in two intact sections of a computer-aided drafting (CAD) course. Quasi-experimental and qualitative methods were employed in comparing student achievement resulting from out-of-class cooperative and individualistic…

  17. Comparing the Effect of Two Types of Computer Screen Background Lighting on Students' Reading Engagement and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botello, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    With increased dependence on computer-based standardized tests to assess academic achievement, technological literacy has become an essential skill. Yet, because students have unequal access to technology, they may not have equal opportunities to perform well on these computer-based tests. The researcher had observed students taking the STAR…

  18. The Effect of a Computer Based Story on 6th Grade Students' Mathematics Word Problem Solving Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunbas, Nilgun

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a computer-based story on sixth grade students' mathematics word problem solving achievement. Problems were embedded in a story presented on a computer, and then compared to a paper-based story and to a condition that presented the problems as typical, isolated words problems. One hundred…

  19. TOWARD HIGHLY SECURE AND AUTONOMIC COMPUTING SYSTEMS: A HIERARCHICAL APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hsien-Hsin S

    2010-05-11

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop novel architectural techniques as well as system software to achieve a highly secure and intrusion-tolerant computing system. Such system will be autonomous, self-adapting, introspective, with self-healing capability under the circumstances of improper operations, abnormal workloads, and malicious attacks. The scope of this research includes: (1) System-wide, unified introspection techniques for autonomic systems, (2) Secure information-flow microarchitecture, (3) Memory-centric security architecture, (4) Authentication control and its implication to security, (5) Digital right management, (5) Microarchitectural denial-of-service attacks on shared resources. During the period of the project, we developed several architectural techniques and system software for achieving a robust, secure, and reliable computing system toward our goal.

  20. Relationship between High School Mathematical Achievement and Quantitative GPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Halpin, Glennelle; Halpin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The demand for STEM graduates has increased, but the number of incoming freshmen who declare a STEM major has remained stagnant. High school courses, such as calculus, can open or close the gate for students interested in careers in STEM. The purpose of this study was to determine if high school mathematics preparation was a significant…

  1. Relationships among Stress, Coping, and Mental Health in High-Achieving High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Hardesty, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among stress, coping, and mental health in 139 students participating in an International Baccalaureate (IB) high school diploma program. Mental health was assessed using both positive indicators (life satisfaction, academic achievement, academic self-efficacy) and negative indicators (psychopathology) of…

  2. The Information Search Process of High-, Middle-, and Low-Achieving High School Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlthau, Carol C.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a model of the information search process as a complex series of stages involving thoughts and feelings as well as actions. A study that sought to verify the model using high school seniors from three different achievement levels is described, and the implications for library instruction are discussed. (five references) (CLB)

  3. The Strengths of High-Achieving Black High School Students in a Racially Diverse Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Kris; Chaney, Cassandra; Jones, Derrick

    2012-01-01

    Robert Hill (1972) identified strengths of Black families: strong kinship bonds, strong work orientation, adaptability of family roles, high achievement orientation, and religious orientation. Some suggest these strengths sustain the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual needs of Blacks. This study used narratives and survey data from a…

  4. Examining Organizational Practices That Predict Persistence among High-Achieving Black Males in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth Alonzo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: This article summarizes an increasing trend of antideficit Black male research in mathematics and highlights opportunities to add to the research. A review of the literature shows that antideficit researchers often examine relationships between individual traits and persistence of high-achieving Black males in mathematics.…

  5. Teaching Computational Physics to High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancio, Antonio C.

    2007-10-01

    This talk describes my experience in developing and giving an experimental workshop to expose high school teachers to basic concepts in computer modeling and give them tools to make simple 3D simulations for class demos and student projects. Teachers learned basic techniques of simulating dynamics using high school and introductory college level physics and basic elements of programming. High quality graphics were implemented in an easy to use, open source software package, VPython, currently in use in college introductory courses. Simulations covered areas of everyday physics accessible to computational approaches which would otherwise be hard to treat at introductory level, such as the physics of sports, realistic planetary motion and chaotic motion. The challenges and successes of teaching this subject in an experimental one-week-long workshop format, and to an audience completely new to the subject will be discussed.

  6. High-Precision Computation and Mathematical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2008-11-03

    At the present time, IEEE 64-bit floating-point arithmetic is sufficiently accurate for most scientific applications. However, for a rapidly growing body of important scientific computing applications, a higher level of numeric precision is required. Such calculations are facilitated by high-precision software packages that include high-level language translation modules to minimize the conversion effort. This paper presents a survey of recent applications of these techniques and provides some analysis of their numerical requirements. These applications include supernova simulations, climate modeling, planetary orbit calculations, Coulomb n-body atomic systems, scattering amplitudes of quarks, gluons and bosons, nonlinear oscillator theory, Ising theory, quantum field theory and experimental mathematics. We conclude that high-precision arithmetic facilities are now an indispensable component of a modern large-scale scientific computing environment.

  7. Japanese High School Entrance Examinations and Scholastic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togashi, Yutaka

    1985-01-01

    The Japanese high school entrance examinations were examined in detail for social studies, mathematics, and science test items. Most items measured knowledge and comprehension rather than synthesis, analysis, or scientific thinking. Implications for middle school instruction were discussed. (GDC)

  8. Practically Perfect in Every Way: Can Reframing Perfectionism for High-Achieving Undergraduates Impact Academic Resilience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Mary J.; Dickinson, David A. G.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on a pan-disciplinary scheme that targeted high-achieving undergraduate students. Earlier research from the scheme argued that high achievers have discernibly different learning and personal development support needs. One of the most frequent self-reported challenges within this high-achieving group is perfectionism. This…

  9. Achieving realistic performance and decison-making capabilities in computer-generated air forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.; Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Zurita, Vincent B.; Benslay, James L., Jr.

    1997-07-01

    For a computer-generated force (CGF) system to be useful in training environments, it must be able to operate at multiple skill levels, exhibit competency at assigned missions, and comply with current doctrine. Because of the rapid rate of change in distributed interactive simulation (DIS) and the expanding set of performance objectives for any computer- generated force, the system must also be modifiable at reasonable cost and incorporate mechanisms for learning. Therefore, CGF applications must have adaptable decision mechanisms and behaviors and perform automated incorporation of past reasoning and experience into its decision process. The CGF must also possess multiple skill levels for classes of entities, gracefully degrade its reasoning capability in response to system stress, possess an expandable modular knowledge structure, and perform adaptive mission planning. Furthermore, correctly performing individual entity behaviors is not sufficient. Issues related to complex inter-entity behavioral interactions, such as the need to maintain formation and share information, must also be considered. The CGF must also be able to acceptably respond to unforeseen circumstances and be able to make decisions in spite of uncertain information. Because of the need for increased complexity in the virtual battlespace, the CGF should exhibit complex, realistic behavior patterns within the battlespace. To achieve these necessary capabilities, an extensible software architecture, an expandable knowledge base, and an adaptable decision making mechanism are required. Our lab has addressed these issues in detail. The resulting DIS-compliant system is called the automated wingman (AW). The AW is based on fuzzy logic, the common object database (CODB) software architecture, and a hierarchical knowledge structure. We describe the techniques we used to enable us to make progress toward a CGF entity that satisfies the requirements presented above. We present our design and

  10. Achieving high sustained performance in an unstructured mesh CFD application

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, D E; Anderson, W K; Gropp, W D; Kaushik, D K; Smith, B F

    1999-12-10

    This paper highlights a three-year project by an interdisciplinary team on a legacy F77 computational fluid dynamics code, with the aim of demonstrating that implicit unstructured grid simulations can execute at rates not far from those of explicit structured grid codes, provided attention is paid to data motion complexity and the reuse of data positioned at the levels of the memory hierarchy closest to the processor, in addition to traditional operation count complexity. The demonstration code is from NASA and the enabling parallel hardware and (freely available) software toolkit are from DOE, but the resulting methodology should be broadly applicable, and the hardware limitations exposed should allow programmers and vendors of parallel platforms to focus with greater encouragement on sparse codes with indirect addressing. This snapshot of ongoing work shows a performance of 15 microseconds per degree of freedom to steady-state convergence of Euler flow on a mesh with 2.8 million vertices using 3072 dual-processor nodes of ASCI Red, corresponding to a sustained floating-point rate of 0.227 Tflop/s.

  11. PREFACE: High Performance Computing Symposium 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talon, Suzanne; Mousseau, Normand; Peslherbe, Gilles; Bertrand, François; Gauthier, Pierre; Kadem, Lyes; Moitessier, Nicolas; Rouleau, Guy; Wittig, Rod

    2012-02-01

    HPCS (High Performance Computing Symposium) is a multidisciplinary conference that focuses on research involving High Performance Computing and its application. Attended by Canadian and international experts and renowned researchers in the sciences, all areas of engineering, the applied sciences, medicine and life sciences, mathematics, the humanities and social sciences, it is Canada's pre-eminent forum for HPC. The 25th edition was held in Montréal, at the Université du Québec à Montréal, from 15-17 June and focused on HPC in Medical Science. The conference was preceded by tutorials held at Concordia University, where 56 participants learned about HPC best practices, GPU computing, parallel computing, debugging and a number of high-level languages. 274 participants from six countries attended the main conference, which involved 11 invited and 37 contributed oral presentations, 33 posters, and an exhibit hall with 16 booths from our sponsors. The work that follows is a collection of papers presented at the conference covering HPC topics ranging from computer science to bioinformatics. They are divided here into four sections: HPC in Engineering, Physics and Materials Science, HPC in Medical Science, HPC Enabling to Explore our World and New Algorithms for HPC. We would once more like to thank the participants and invited speakers, the members of the Scientific Committee, the referees who spent time reviewing the papers and our invaluable sponsors. To hear the invited talks and learn about 25 years of HPC development in Canada visit the Symposium website: http://2011.hpcs.ca/lang/en/conference/keynote-speakers/ Enjoy the excellent papers that follow, and we look forward to seeing you in Vancouver for HPCS 2012! Gilles Peslherbe Chair of the Scientific Committee Normand Mousseau Co-Chair of HPCS 2011 Suzanne Talon Chair of the Organizing Committee UQAM Sponsors The PDF also contains photographs from the conference banquet.

  12. Achieving high-value cardiac imaging: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Wiener, David H

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac imaging is under intense scrutiny as a contributor to health care costs, with multiple initiatives under way to reduce and eliminate inappropriate testing. Appropriate use criteria are valuable guides to selecting imaging studies but until recently have focused on the test rather than the patient. Patient-centered means are needed to define the true value of imaging for patients in specific clinical situations. This article provides a definition of high-value cardiac imaging. A paradigm to judge the efficacy of echocardiography in the absence of randomized controlled trials is presented. Candidate clinical scenarios are proposed in which echocardiography constitutes high-value imaging, as well as stratagems to increase the likelihood that high-value cardiac imaging takes place in those circumstances.

  13. Achieving high CRI from warm to super white

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Edward; Tormey, Ellen S.

    2007-09-01

    Light sources which produce a high color rendering index (CRI) have many applications in the lighting industry today. High color rendering accents the rich color which abounds in nature, interior design, theatrical costumes and props, clothing and fabric, jewelry, and machine vision applications. Multi-wavelength LED sources can pump phosphors at multiple stokes shift emission regimes and when combined with selected direct emission sources can allow for greater flexibility in the production of warm-white and cool white light of specialty interest. Unique solutions to R8 and R14 CRI >95 at 2850K, 4750K, 5250K, and 6750K presented.

  14. Community Schools Seek to Improve High School Achievement, College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The Coalition for Community Schools, an alliance of more than 150 national, state, and local organizations, is bringing public schools in partnership with community resources to improve student success. While that might seem like an abstract idea, it has very concrete goals, such as boosting high school graduation rates and college readiness.…

  15. High-Achieving Schools Put Equity Front and Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Sonia Caus; Gerzon, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    How does professional learning look and feel in high-poverty schools where every student makes at least one year's worth of progress every year? How do schools and leaders put all the varied components of professional learning together so that they support all students learning every day? What professional learning grounds and sustains…

  16. Organizational Citizenship of Faculty and Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaola, Michael F.; Hoy, Wayne K.

    2005-01-01

    All successful organizations, including successful high schools, have employees who go beyond their formal job responsibilities and freely give of their time and energy to succeed. Organ was the first to use the phrase "organizational citizenship behavior" (OCB) to denote organizationally beneficial behavior of workers that was not prescribed but…

  17. Academic Dishonesty among Gifted and High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    Gifted high school students are essentially absent in the research concerning academic integrity; however, over the past few years, educators of gifted students have noticed an increase in the occurrences of academic dishonesty among students in gifted classrooms (Abilock, 2009). This research may be analyzed to provide some insight into the…

  18. Vocational Interests of Intellectually Gifted and Highly Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vock, Miriam; Koller, Olaf; Nagy, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vocational interests play a central role in the vocational decision-making process and are decisive for the later job satisfaction and vocational success. Based on Ackerman's (1996) notion of "trait complexes," specific interest profiles of gifted high-school graduates can be expected. Aims: Vocational interests of gifted and highly…

  19. Common Core and America's High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    While the merit and politics of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have been much debated and discussed, one topic has been virtually ignored: What do the standards portend for America's high-ability students? This brief addresses that question and provides guidance for CCSS-implementing districts and schools as they seek to help these…

  20. The Relationship between Highly Qualified Teachers and Student Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macken, Sherry Lou

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the percentage of highly qualified teachers and standardized measures of student proficiency in the core academic subjects of mathematics, reading, science, social studies, and writing. Signed into law in January of 2002 by President George W. Bush, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act requires teachers…

  1. More High-Achieving Students Are Choosing Community Colleges First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2008-01-01

    Certainly, "Tonight Show" host Jay Leno has nurtured the perception that community colleges are a punishment for underperforming high school students by joking that community colleges aren't "real colleges." This article shows that this perception belies the reality that contemporary community colleges serve students seeking trade skills but also…

  2. Park View High School: A World of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Entering the lobby of Park View High School in Sterling, VA, is like entering another world. The diversity in the student body is reflected in flags from 63 of the 80 countries that are represented in the student population, and in a special project for Hispanic Heritage Month, which covers the walls of an entire hallway. The school walls,…

  3. Testing Theories of Learning: Effects on High School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Cool, Valerie A.

    Theories of school learning consistently point to variables such as ability, time (e.g., homework), quality of instruction, motivation, and academic coursework as important influences on learning. In this study, path analysis was used to test the direct and indirect effects of these variables on high school learning, with learning measured by both…

  4. Gender, Student Motivation and Academic Achievement in a Midsized Wisconsin High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutzke, Steven Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated relationships among gender, academic motivation and achievement in a mid-sized Wisconsin high school. A questionnaire was developed that focused on perceived ability, achievement motives and achievement goals. Interviews with teachers focused on relationships among academic motivation and gender achievement.…

  5. Monitoring SLAC High Performance UNIX Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lettsome, Annette K.; /Bethune-Cookman Coll. /SLAC

    2005-12-15

    Knowledge of the effectiveness and efficiency of computers is important when working with high performance systems. The monitoring of such systems is advantageous in order to foresee possible misfortunes or system failures. Ganglia is a software system designed for high performance computing systems to retrieve specific monitoring information. An alternative storage facility for Ganglia's collected data is needed since its default storage system, the round-robin database (RRD), struggles with data integrity. The creation of a script-driven MySQL database solves this dilemma. This paper describes the process took in the creation and implementation of the MySQL database for use by Ganglia. Comparisons between data storage by both databases are made using gnuplot and Ganglia's real-time graphical user interface.

  6. Impact of learning orientation on African American children's attitudes toward high-achieving peers.

    PubMed

    Marryshow, Derrick; Hurley, Eric A; Allen, Brenda A; Tyler, Kenneth M; Boykin, A Wade

    2005-01-01

    This study examined Ogbu's widely accepted thesis that African American students reject high academic achievement because they perceive its limited utility in a world where their upward mobility is constrained by racial discrimination. Boykin's psychosocial integrity model contends that Black students value high achievement but that discrepancies between their formative cultural experiences and those imposed in school lead them to reject the modes of achievement available in classrooms. Ninety Black children completed a measure of attitudes toward students who achieve via mainstream or African American cultural values. Participants rejected the mainstream achievers and embraced the African American cultural achievers. Moreover, they expected their teachers to embrace the mainstream achievers and reject those who achieved through high-verve behavior. Results suggest that Boykin's thesis is a needed refinement to Ogbu's ideas. They indicate that Black children may reject not high achievement but some of the mainstream cultural values and behaviors on which success in mainstream classrooms is made contingent.

  7. Principals’ Perception of Influence on Factors Affecting Student Achievement in Low- and High-Achieving Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Collette M.; Owens, Emiel W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare and contrast influences principals have on staffing, curriculum issues, and discipline policies in high- and low-performing urban high schools. The data for the present study were drawn from the first year follow up of the Educational Longitudinal Survey of 2002-2004 (ELS: 02), administered by the National…

  8. Achievement of a 920-MHz High Resolution NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashi, Kenjiro; Shimizu, Tadashi; Goto, Atsushi; Kiyoshi, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Shinji; Wada, Hitoshi; Fujito, Teruaki; Hasegawa, Ken-ichi; Yoshikawa, Masatoshi; Miki, Takashi; Ito, Satoshi; Hamada, Mamoru; Hayashi, Seiji

    2002-06-01

    We have developed a 920-MHz NMR system and performed the proton NMR measurement of H 2O and ethylbenzene using the superconducting magnet operating at 21.6 T (920 MHz for proton), which is the highest field produced by a superconducting NMR magnet in the persistent mode. From the NMR measurements, it is verified that both homogeneity and stability of the magnet have a specification sufficient for a high resolution NMR.

  9. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  10. Efforts toward achieving an unmanned, high-altitude LTA platform

    SciTech Connect

    Onda, Masahiko; Ford, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    The modern demands for an unmanned aerospace platform, capable of long-duration stationkeeping at high-altitudes, are well-known. Satellites, balloons, and aircraft have traditionally served in the role of platform, facilitating tasks ranging from telecommunications to deep-space astronomy. However, limitations on the performance and flexibility of these systems, as well as the intrinsically high-cost of satellite construction, operation, and repair, warrants development of a supplemental technology for the platform. Much has been written in the literature on the possible advantages of a lighter-than-air (LTA) platform, if such an LTA could be constructed. Potential applications include remote sensing, environmental monitoring, mobile communications, space and polar observations, cargo delivery, military reconnaissance, and others. At present, conventional LTA`s are not capable of serving in the manner specified. Within this context, a research program known as HALROP (High Altitude Long Range Observational Platform) is currently underway. The goal is to create a stratospheric platform, possibly in the form of a next generation LTA vehicle. The authors present a qualitative review of their efforts, focusing on milestones in the HALROP Program. 12 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Achieving High Reliability Operations Through Multi-Program Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Holly M. Ashley; Ronald K. Farris; Robert E. Richards

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 20 years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has adopted a number of operations and safety-related programs which has each periodically taken its turn in the limelight. As new programs have come along there has been natural competition for resources, focus and commitment. In the last few years, the INL has made real progress in integrating all these programs and are starting to realize important synergies. Contributing to this integration are both collaborative individuals and an emerging shared vision and goal of the INL fully maturing in its high reliability operations. This goal is so powerful because the concept of high reliability operations (and the resulting organizations) is a masterful amalgam and orchestrator of the best of all the participating programs (i.e. conduct of operations, behavior based safety, human performance, voluntary protection, quality assurance, and integrated safety management). This paper is a brief recounting of the lessons learned, thus far, at the INL in bringing previously competing programs into harmony under the goal (umbrella) of seeking to perform regularly as a high reliability organization. In addition to a brief diagram-illustrated historical review, the authors will share the INL’s primary successes (things already effectively stopped or started) and the gaps yet to be bridged.

  12. Advancing Minority High Achievement: National Trends and Promising Programs and Practices. A Report Prepared for the National Task Force on Minority High Achievement, the College Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Stringfield, Sam; Rachuba, Laura

    This report documents recent national progress in advancing the achievements of elementary-aged minority children, the potential for replicable whole-school reform designs to contribute to this advancement, and the individual, classroom, and school characteristics that distinguish those minority students who attain high levels of achievement. The…

  13. High-performance computing MRI simulations.

    PubMed

    Stöcker, Tony; Vahedipour, Kaveh; Pflugfelder, Daniel; Shah, N Jon

    2010-07-01

    A new open-source software project is presented, JEMRIS, the Jülich Extensible MRI Simulator, which provides an MRI sequence development and simulation environment for the MRI community. The development was driven by the desire to achieve generality of simulated three-dimensional MRI experiments reflecting modern MRI systems hardware. The accompanying computational burden is overcome by means of parallel computing. Many aspects are covered that have not hitherto been simultaneously investigated in general MRI simulations such as parallel transmit and receive, important off-resonance effects, nonlinear gradients, and arbitrary spatiotemporal parameter variations at different levels. The latter can be used to simulate various types of motion, for instance. The JEMRIS user interface is very simple to use, but nevertheless it presents few limitations. MRI sequences with arbitrary waveforms and complex interdependent modules are modeled in a graphical user interface-based environment requiring no further programming. This manuscript describes the concepts, methods, and performance of the software. Examples of novel simulation results in active fields of MRI research are given.

  14. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Student Achievement in a Rural Florida High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Willie A.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement is viewed as critical to the development of effective schools and student achievement. The relationship between parental involvement and achievement test scores at a rural high school in Florida was not known. This high school has not met the state standards as determined by the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT)…

  15. High Achievement in Mathematics Education in India: A Report from Mumbai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Manya

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a study aimed at characterizing the conditions that lead to high achievement in mathematics in India. The study involved eight schools in the greater Mumbai region. The main result of the study is that the notion of high achievement itself is problematic, as reflected in the reports about mathematics achievement within and…

  16. Predicting delay in reading achievement in a highly transparent language.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, L; Ahonen, T; Lyytinen, H

    2001-01-01

    A random sample of 91 preschool children was assessed prior to receiving formal reading instruction. Verbal and nonverbal measures were used as predictors for the time of instruction required to accurately decode pseudowords in the highly orthographically regular Finnish language. After 2 years, participants were divided into four groups depending on the duration of instruction they had required to reach 90 % accuracy in their reading of pseudowords. Participants were classified as precocious decoders (PD), who could read at school entry; early decoders (ED), who learned to read within the first 4 months of Grade 1; ordinary decoders (OD), who learned to read within 9 months; and late decoders (LD), who failed to reach the criterion after 18 months of reading instruction at Grade 2. Phonological awareness played a significant role only in differentiating PD from ED and OD. However, phonological awareness failed to predict the delayed learning process of LD. LD differed from all other groups in visual analogical reasoning in an analysis not containing phonological awareness measures. Letter knowledge and visual analogical reasoning explained above 90% of the PD-LD difference. Preschool composite (objects, colors, and digits) naming speed measures best predicted reading fluency at the end of Grade 2. The supportive role of orthographic knowledge in phonological awareness, the role of visual analogical reasoning, and the inability of phonological measures to discriminate late decoders are discussed.

  17. Achieving High-Frequency Optical Control of Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Jackman, Skyler L.; Beneduce, Brandon M.; Drew, Iain R.

    2014-01-01

    The optogenetic tool channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is widely used to excite neurons to study neural circuits. Previous optogenetic studies of synapses suggest that light-evoked synaptic responses often exhibit artificial synaptic depression, which has been attributed to either the inability of ChR2 to reliably fire presynaptic axons or to ChR2 elevating the probability of release by depolarizing presynaptic boutons. Here, we compare light-evoked and electrically evoked synaptic responses for high-frequency stimulation at three synapses in the mouse brain. At synapses from Purkinje cells to deep cerebellar nuclei neurons (PC→DCN), light- and electrically evoked synaptic currents were remarkably similar for ChR2 expressed transgenically or with adeno-associated virus (AAV) expression vectors. For hippocampal CA3→CA1 synapses, AAV expression vectors of serotype 1, 5, and 8 led to light-evoked synaptic currents that depressed much more than electrically evoked currents, even though ChR2 could fire axons reliably at up to 50 Hz. The disparity between optical and electrical stimulation was eliminated when ChR2 was expressed transgenically or with AAV9. For cerebellar granule cell to stellate cell (grc→SC) synapses, AAV1 also led to artificial synaptic depression and AAV9 provided superior performance. Artificial synaptic depression also occurred when stimulating over presynaptic boutons, rather than axons, at CA3→CA1 synapses, but not at PC→DCN synapses. These findings indicate that ChR2 expression methods and light stimulation techniques influence synaptic responses in a neuron-specific manner. They also identify pitfalls associated with using ChR2 to study synapses and suggest an approach that allows optogenetics to be applied in a manner that helps to avoid potential complications. PMID:24872574

  18. Computer synthesis of high resolution electron micrographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1976-01-01

    Specimen damage, spherical aberration, low contrast and noisy sensors combine to prevent direct atomic viewing in a conventional electron microscope. The paper describes two methods for obtaining ultra-high resolution in biological specimens under the electron microscope. The first method assumes the physical limits of the electron objective lens and uses a series of dark field images of biological crystals to obtain direct information on the phases of the Fourier diffraction maxima; this information is used in an appropriate computer to synthesize a large aperture lens for a 1-A resolution. The second method assumes there is sufficient amplitude scatter from images recorded in focus which can be utilized with a sensitive densitometer and computer contrast stretching to yield fine structure image details. Cancer virus characterization is discussed as an illustrative example. Numerous photographs supplement the text.

  19. Computation of high-speed reacting flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clutter, James Keith

    A computational study has been conducted for high-speed reacting flows relevant to munition problems, including shock-induced combustion and gun muzzle blast. The theoretical model considers inviscid and viscous flows, multi-species, finite rate chemical reaction schemes, and turbulence. Both the physical and numerical aspects are investigated to determine their impact on simulation accuracy. A range of hydrogen and oxygen reaction mechanisms are evaluated for the shock-induced combustion flow scenario. Characteristics of the mechanisms such as the induction time, heat release rate, and second explosion limit are found to impact the accuracy of the computation. On the numerical side, reaction source term treatments, including logarithmic weighting and scaling modifications, are investigated to determine their effectiveness in addressing numerical errors caused by disparate length scales between chemical reactions and fluid dynamics. It is demonstrated that these techniques can enhance solution accuracy. Computations of shock-induced combustion have also been performed using a κ-ɛ model to account for the turbulent transport of species and heat. An algebraic model of the temperature fluctuations has been used to estimate the impact of the turbulent effect on the chemical reaction source terms. The turbulence effects when represented with the current models are found to be minimal in the shock-induced combustion flow investigated in the present work. For the gun system simulations, computations for both a large caliber howitzer and small caliber firearms are carried out. A reduced kinetic scheme and an algebraic turbulence model are employed. The present approach, which accounts for the chemical reaction aspects of the gun muzzle blast problem, is found to improve the prediction of peak overpressures and can capture the effects produced by small caliber firearm sound suppressors. The present study has established the numerical and physical requirements for

  20. Instructional Strategies for Achieving a Positive Impression in Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) Distance Education Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuliang; Ginther, Dean W.

    With the rapid development of computer technology in recent years, distance education, and especially computer-mediated communication (CMC), has expanded very quickly. The application of computer technology in education presents many unanswered questions, including issues related to impression formation and impression management in…

  1. "Hole-in-the-Wall" Computer Kiosks Foster Mathematics Achievement--A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inamdar, Parimala; Kulkarni, Arun

    2007-01-01

    Earlier work at unsupervised playground computer kiosks in rural India, popularly called "hole-in-the-wall", showed that children exposed to these kiosks learn to use computers on their own and that they are able to clear school examinations in computer science, without any classroom teaching for it. Extending this, our recent research work…

  2. Computer Assisted Instruction in Schools: Achievements, Present Developments, and Projections for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallworth, H. J.; Brebner, Ann

    This overview of computer assisted instruction (CAI) traces the development and use of computers in learning and instruction and describes some current CAI projects including PLATO, CDC PLATO, TICCIT, and others at Stanford University and the Computer Curriculum Corporation, and in Chicago, Los Nietos (California), Minnesota, Europe, and Canada.…

  3. The effects of modeling instruction on high school physics academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an ex post facto , quasi-experimental research methodology. The independent variables in this study were the instructional methods of teaching. The treatment variable was Modeling Instruction and the control variable was traditional lecture instruction. The Treatment Group consisted of participants in Physical World Concepts who received Modeling Instruction. The Control Group consisted of participants in Physical Science who received traditional lecture instruction. The dependent variable was gains scores on the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI). The participants for this study were 133 students each in both the Treatment and Control Groups (n = 266), who attended a public, high school in rural middle Tennessee. The participants were administered the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) prior to being taught the mechanics of physics. The FCI data were entered into the computer-based Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Two independent samples t-tests were conducted to answer the research questions. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups concerning the instructional method. Modeling Instructional methods were found to be effective in increasing the academic achievement of students in high school physics. There was no statistically significant difference between FCI gains scores for gender. Gender was found to have no effect on the academic achievement of students in high school physics classes. However, even though there was not a statistically significant difference, female students' gains scores were higher than male students' gains scores when Modeling Instructional methods of teaching were used. Based on these findings, it is recommended

  4. High order WENO scheme for computational cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Ishani

    2010-11-01

    This doctoral dissertation is concerned with the formulation and application of a high order accurate numerical algorithm suitable in solving complex multi dimensional equations and the application of this algorithm to a problem in Astrophysics. The algorithm is designed with the aim of resolving solutions of partial differential equations with sharp fronts propagating with time. This high order accurate class of numerical technique is called a Weighted Essentially Non Oscillatory (WENO) method and is well suited for shock capturing in solving conservation laws. The numerical approximation method, in the algorithm, is coupled with high order time marching as well as integration techniques designed to reduce computational cost. This numerical algorithm is used in several applications in computational cosmology to help understand questions about certain physical phenomena which occurred during the formation and evolution of first generation stars. The thesis is divided broadly in terms of the algorithm and its application to the different galactic processes. The first chapter deals with the astrophysical problem and offers an introduction to the numerical algorithm. In chapter 2 we outline the mathematical model and the various functions and parameters associated with the model. We also give a brief description of the relevant physical phenomena and the conservation laws associated with them. In chapter 3, we give a detailed description of the higher order algorithm and its formulation. We also highlight the special techniques incorporated in the algorithm in order to make it more suitable for handling cases which are computationally intensive. In the later chapters, 4-7, we explore in detail the physical processes and the different applications of our numerical scheme. We calculate different results such as the time scale of a temperature coupling mechanism, radiation and intensity changes etc. Different tests are also performed to illustrate the stability and

  5. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-11-24

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report includes

  6. Challenges of Future High-End Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The next major milestone in high performance computing is a sustained rate of one Pflop/s (also written one petaflops, or 10(circumflex)15 floating-point operations per second). In addition to prodigiously high computational performance, such systems must of necessity feature very large main memories, as well as comparably high I/O bandwidth and huge mass storage facilities. The current consensus of scientists who have studied these issues is that "affordable" petaflops systems may be feasible by the year 2010, assuming that certain key technologies continue to progress at current rates. One important question is whether applications can be structured to perform efficiently on such systems, which are expected to incorporate many thousands of processors and deeply hierarchical memory systems. To answer these questions, advanced performance modeling techniques, including simulation of future architectures and applications, may be required. It may also be necessary to formulate "latency tolerant algorithms" and other completely new algorithmic approaches for certain applications. This talk will give an overview of these challenges.

  7. The Chinese High School Student's Stress in the School and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 466 Chinese high school students, we examined the relationships between Chinese high school students' stress in the school and their academic achievements. Regression mixture modelling identified two different classes of the effects of Chinese high school students' stress on their academic achievements. One class contained 87% of…

  8. The Effects of Magnet Schools on Neighborhood High Schools: An Examination of Achievement among Entering Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neild, Ruth Curran

    2004-01-01

    Magnet schools have been criticized for intensifying the concentration of disadvantaged, low-achieving students at neighborhood high schools. This article investigates the impact of academically selective magnet high schools on the average achievement of ninth graders enrolling in neighborhood high schools in a large urban school district. The…

  9. Beyond Academic Reputation: Factors that Influence the College of First Choice for High Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Holly J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies that have investigated college choice factors for high-achieving students repeatedly cite academic reputation as one of the top indicators of choice but have not indicated why some high-achieving students choose to attend universities with a less prestigious reputation than the more highly prestigious options available to them. The purpose…

  10. Preferred Homework Style and Homework Environment in High- versus Low-Achieving Chinese Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Lee, Kit-hung

    This study compared preferred homework styles of Chinese students who were characterized by: (1) high versus low self-perceived homework achievement and attitude; (2) high versus low teacher-rated homework completion and quality; (3) high versus low academic achievement in mathematics. Gender differences in homework styles were also examined.…

  11. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    DOEpatents

    Paulus, Michael J.; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Gleason, Shaun S.; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  12. Evaluation of high-performance computing software

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, S.; Dongarra, J.; Rowan, T.

    1996-12-31

    The absence of unbiased and up to date comparative evaluations of high-performance computing software complicates a user`s search for the appropriate software package. The National HPCC Software Exchange (NHSE) is attacking this problem using an approach that includes independent evaluations of software, incorporation of author and user feedback into the evaluations, and Web access to the evaluations. We are applying this approach to the Parallel Tools Library (PTLIB), a new software repository for parallel systems software and tools, and HPC-Netlib, a high performance branch of the Netlib mathematical software repository. Updating the evaluations with feed-back and making it available via the Web helps ensure accuracy and timeliness, and using independent reviewers produces unbiased comparative evaluations difficult to find elsewhere.

  13. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF THE MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS UNDERLYING ACHIEVEMENT OF ELEVENTH-GRADE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, WILLIAM W.

    ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION WAS STUDIED BETWEEN OVER- AND UNDER-ACHIEVING STUDENTS IN THE ELEVENTH-GRADE TO DEVELOP AN OBJECTIVE MEASURE OF MOTIVATION FOR USE IN PREDICTING ACADEMIC SUCCESS OR FAILURE. APPROXIMATELY 800 STUDENTS IN PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS WERE SELECTED FOR VALIDATION AND CROSS-VALIDATION SAMPLES. THEY WERE DIVIDED BY SEX AND ACHIEVEMENT.…

  14. Does High School Facility Quality Affect Student Achievement? A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Urick, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall…

  15. Department of Energy Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences Division: High Performance Computing and Communications Program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This document is intended to serve two purposes. Its first purpose is that of a program status report of the considerable progress that the Department of Energy (DOE) has made since 1993, the time of the last such report (DOE/ER-0536, The DOE Program in HPCC), toward achieving the goals of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program. The second purpose is that of a summary report of the many research programs administered by the Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences (MICS) Division of the Office of Energy Research under the auspices of the HPCC Program and to provide, wherever relevant, easy access to pertinent information about MICS-Division activities via universal resource locators (URLs) on the World Wide Web (WWW).

  16. Department of Energy: MICS (Mathematical Information, and Computational Sciences Division). High performance computing and communications program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This document is intended to serve two purposes. Its first purpose is that of a program status report of the considerable progress that the Department of Energy (DOE) has made since 1993, the time of the last such report (DOE/ER-0536, {open_quotes}The DOE Program in HPCC{close_quotes}), toward achieving the goals of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program. The second purpose is that of a summary report of the many research programs administered by the Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences (MICS) Division of the Office of Energy Research under the auspices of the HPCC Program and to provide, wherever relevant, easy access to pertinent information about MICS-Division activities via universal resource locators (URLs) on the World Wide Web (WWW). The information pointed to by the URL is updated frequently, and the interested reader is urged to access the WWW for the latest information.

  17. The Effects of Web-Based/Non-Web-Based Problem-Solving Instruction and High/Low Achievement on Students' Problem-Solving Ability and Biology Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wen-Feng; She, Hsiao-Ching; Lee, Yu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two factors: the mode of problem-solving instruction (i.e. Web-based versus non-Web-based) and the level of academic achievement (i.e. high achievers versus low achievers) on students' problem-solving ability and biology achievement. A quasi-experimental design was used, in which the experimental group…

  18. The Impact of Computer Assisted Instruction on Seventh-Grade Students' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Wilson, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The perceived problem of low mathematics achievement is a concern to education leaders at all levels of PK-16 education. Results from various research raise concerns about mathematics learning of U.S. middle school students. Education leaders search for interventions to address issues related to improving mathematics achievement. This article…

  19. The Influence of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Eighth Grade Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Maher, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of lower than expected mathematics achievement is a concern to education leaders and policymakers at all levels of the U.S. PK-12 education system. The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to determine if there was a measurable difference in achievement on the mathematics section of the state test for students (n =…

  20. What Is the Predict Level of Which Computer Using Skills Measured in PISA for Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziya, Engin; Dogan, Nuri; Kelecioglu, Hulya

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at determining the extent to which computer using skills specified in Project for International Students Evaluation (PISA) 2006 predict Turkish students' achievement in mathematics. Apart from questions on mathematics, science and reading competencies, a student questionnaire, a school questionnaire and a parent questionnaire were…

  1. Game-Based Practice versus Traditional Practice in Computer-Based Writing Strategy Training: Effects on Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proske, Antje; Roscoe, Rod D.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    Achieving sustained student engagement with practice in computer-based writing strategy training can be a challenge. One potential solution is to foster engagement by embedding practice in educational games; yet there is currently little research comparing the effectiveness of game-based practice versus more traditional forms of practice. In this…

  2. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Cooperative Learning Methods and Group Size on the EFL Learners' Achievement in Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AbuSeileek, Ali Farhan

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the effect of cooperative learning small group size and two different instructional modes (positive interdependence vs. individual accountability) on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) undergraduate learners' communication skills (speaking and writing) achievement in computer-based environments. The study also examined the…

  3. Effects of Extensive Engagement with Computer-Based Reading and Language Arts Instructional Software on Reading Achievement for Sixth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Securro, Samuel, Jr.; Jones, Jerry D.; Cantrell, Danny R.

    2010-01-01

    K-12 school practitioners and schools administrators need reliable results about the effects of instructional technology products as they strive to meet achievement compliance levels in politically accountable local and national contexts in the U.S. This study presents evidence regarding the effects of extensive engagement with computer-based…

  4. Effects of Lecture Method Supplemented with Music and Computer Animation on Senior Secondary School Students' Academic Achievement in Electrochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpoghol, T. V.; Ezeudu, F. O.; Adzape, J. N.; Otor, E. E.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of Lecture Method Supplemented with Music (LMM) and Computer Animation (LMC) on senior secondary school students' academic achievement in electrochemistry in Makurdi metropolis. Six research questions and six hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study was quasi experimental, specifically the pre-test,…

  5. Middle School Students' Self-Efficacy, Attitudes, and Achievement in a Computer-Enhanced Problem-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; Hsieh, Peggy (Pei-Hsuan); Cho, Yoonjung; Schallert, Diane

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a computer-enhanced problem-based learning (PBL) environment on middle school students' learning, investigating the relationship among students' self-efficacy, attitude toward science, and achievement. As Bandura defined it (1986), self-efficacy refers to the beliefs people have about whether or not they can…

  6. The Effect of Using Computer Games on Lower Basic Stage Students' Achievement in English at Al-SALT Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Elaimat, Abeer Rashed

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using computer games on the lower basic stage student's achievement in learning English at Al-SALT Schools. The population of this study consisted of all lower basic stage students in AL-SALT schools during the scholastic year 2011-2012. However, the sample of this study consisted of 88…

  7. Effects of Using a Computer Algebra System (CAS) on Junior College Students' Attitudes towards CAS and Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leng, Ng Wee; Choo, Kwee Tiow; Soon, Lau Hock; Yi-Huak, Koh; Sun, Yap Yew

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the effects of using Texas Instruments' Voyage 200 calculator (V200), a graphing calculator with a built-in computer algebra system (CAS), on attitudes towards CAS and achievement in mathematics of junior college students (17 year olds). Students' attitudes towards CAS were examined using a 40-item Likert-type instrument…

  8. Scaling the Digital Divide: Home Computer Technology and Student Achievement. Working Paper 48

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigdor, Jacob L.; Ladd, Helen F.

    2010-01-01

    Does differential access to computer technology at home compound the educational disparities between rich and poor? Would a program of government provision of computers to early secondary school students reduce these disparities? The authors use administrative data on North Carolina public school students to corroborate earlier surveys that…

  9. Scaling the Digital Divide: Home Computer Technology and Student Achievement. NBER Working Paper No. 16078

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigdor, Jacob L.; Ladd, Helen F.

    2010-01-01

    Does differential access to computer technology at home compound the educational disparities between rich and poor? Would a program of government provision of computers to early secondary school students reduce these disparities? We use administrative data on North Carolina public school students to corroborate earlier surveys that document broad…

  10. The Effects of Computer Games on Primary School Students' Achievement and Motivation in Geography Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuzun, Hakan; Yilmaz-Soylu, Meryem; Karakus, Turkan; Inal, Yavuz; Kizilkaya, Gonca

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of a computer game for learning about geography by primary school students is the focus of this article. Researchers designed and developed a three-dimensional educational computer game. Twenty four students in fourth and fifth grades in a private school in Ankara, Turkey learnt about world continents and countries through this…

  11. Using Computer-Assisted Instruction to Enhance Achievement of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Hussein, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in English-Language environments offer practice time, motivates students, enhance student learning, increase authentic materials that students can study, and has the potential to encourage teamwork between students. The findings from this particular study suggested that students who used computer assisted…

  12. Studies Relating to Computer Use of Spelling and Grammar Checkers and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radi, Odette Bourjaili

    2015-01-01

    The content of this paper will focus on both language and computer practices and how school age students develop their literacy skills in the two domains of "language" and "computers." The term literacy is a broad concept that has attracted many interpretations over the years. Some of the concepts raised by the literature apply…

  13. Implementing an Affordable High-Performance Computing for Teaching-Oriented Computer Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuzaghleh, Omar; Goldschmidt, Kathleen; Elleithy, Yasser; Lee, Jeongkyu

    2013-01-01

    With the advances in computing power, high-performance computing (HPC) platforms have had an impact on not only scientific research in advanced organizations but also computer science curriculum in the educational community. For example, multicore programming and parallel systems are highly desired courses in the computer science major. However,…

  14. Integrating reconfigurable hardware-based grid for high performance computing.

    PubMed

    Dondo Gazzano, Julio; Sanchez Molina, Francisco; Rincon, Fernando; López, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    FPGAs have shown several characteristics that make them very attractive for high performance computing (HPC). The impressive speed-up factors that they are able to achieve, the reduced power consumption, and the easiness and flexibility of the design process with fast iterations between consecutive versions are examples of benefits obtained with their use. However, there are still some difficulties when using reconfigurable platforms as accelerator that need to be addressed: the need of an in-depth application study to identify potential acceleration, the lack of tools for the deployment of computational problems in distributed hardware platforms, and the low portability of components, among others. This work proposes a complete grid infrastructure for distributed high performance computing based on dynamically reconfigurable FPGAs. Besides, a set of services designed to facilitate the application deployment is described. An example application and a comparison with other hardware and software implementations are shown. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture offers encouraging advantages for deployment of high performance distributed applications simplifying development process.

  15. Integrating reconfigurable hardware-based grid for high performance computing.

    PubMed

    Dondo Gazzano, Julio; Sanchez Molina, Francisco; Rincon, Fernando; López, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    FPGAs have shown several characteristics that make them very attractive for high performance computing (HPC). The impressive speed-up factors that they are able to achieve, the reduced power consumption, and the easiness and flexibility of the design process with fast iterations between consecutive versions are examples of benefits obtained with their use. However, there are still some difficulties when using reconfigurable platforms as accelerator that need to be addressed: the need of an in-depth application study to identify potential acceleration, the lack of tools for the deployment of computational problems in distributed hardware platforms, and the low portability of components, among others. This work proposes a complete grid infrastructure for distributed high performance computing based on dynamically reconfigurable FPGAs. Besides, a set of services designed to facilitate the application deployment is described. An example application and a comparison with other hardware and software implementations are shown. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture offers encouraging advantages for deployment of high performance distributed applications simplifying development process. PMID:25874241

  16. Integrating Reconfigurable Hardware-Based Grid for High Performance Computing

    PubMed Central

    Dondo Gazzano, Julio; Sanchez Molina, Francisco; Rincon, Fernando; López, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    FPGAs have shown several characteristics that make them very attractive for high performance computing (HPC). The impressive speed-up factors that they are able to achieve, the reduced power consumption, and the easiness and flexibility of the design process with fast iterations between consecutive versions are examples of benefits obtained with their use. However, there are still some difficulties when using reconfigurable platforms as accelerator that need to be addressed: the need of an in-depth application study to identify potential acceleration, the lack of tools for the deployment of computational problems in distributed hardware platforms, and the low portability of components, among others. This work proposes a complete grid infrastructure for distributed high performance computing based on dynamically reconfigurable FPGAs. Besides, a set of services designed to facilitate the application deployment is described. An example application and a comparison with other hardware and software implementations are shown. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture offers encouraging advantages for deployment of high performance distributed applications simplifying development process. PMID:25874241

  17. High-Performance Java Codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Christopher; Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The computational science community is reluctant to write large-scale computationally -intensive applications in Java due to concerns over Java's poor performance, despite the claimed software engineering advantages of its object-oriented features. Naive Java implementations of numerical algorithms can perform poorly compared to corresponding Fortran or C implementations. To achieve high performance, Java applications must be designed with good performance as a primary goal. This paper presents the object-oriented design and implementation of two real-world applications from the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD): a finite-volume fluid flow solver (LAURA, from NASA Langley Research Center), and an unstructured mesh adaptation algorithm (2D_TAG, from NASA Ames Research Center). This work builds on our previous experience with the design of high-performance numerical libraries in Java. We examine the performance of the applications using the currently available Java infrastructure and show that the Java version of the flow solver LAURA performs almost within a factor of 2 of the original procedural version. Our Java version of the mesh adaptation algorithm 2D_TAG performs within a factor of 1.5 of its original procedural version on certain platforms. Our results demonstrate that object-oriented software design principles are not necessarily inimical to high performance.

  18. RISC Processors and High Performance Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saini, Subhash; Bailey, David H.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    In this tutorial, we will discuss top five current RISC microprocessors: The IBM Power2, which is used in the IBM RS6000/590 workstation and in the IBM SP2 parallel supercomputer, the DEC Alpha, which is in the DEC Alpha workstation and in the Cray T3D; the MIPS R8000, which is used in the SGI Power Challenge; the HP PA-RISC 7100, which is used in the HP 700 series workstations and in the Convex Exemplar; and the Cray proprietary processor, which is used in the new Cray J916. The architecture of these microprocessors will first be presented. The effective performance of these processors will then be compared, both by citing standard benchmarks and also in the context of implementing a real applications. In the process, different programming models such as data parallel (CM Fortran and HPF) and message passing (PVM and MPI) will be introduced and compared. The latest NAS Parallel Benchmark (NPB) absolute performance and performance per dollar figures will be presented. The next generation of the NP13 will also be described. The tutorial will conclude with a discussion of general trends in the field of high performance computing, including likely future developments in hardware and software technology, and the relative roles of vector supercomputers tightly coupled parallel computers, and clusters of workstations. This tutorial will provide a unique cross-machine comparison not available elsewhere.

  19. The DOE Program in HPCC: High-Performance Computing and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Energy Research.

    This document reports to Congress on the progress that the Department of Energy has made in 1992 toward achieving the goals of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) program. Its second purpose is to provide a picture of the many programs administered by the Office of Scientific Computing under the auspices of the HPCC program.…

  20. An Analysis of Java Programming Behaviors, Affect, Perceptions, and Syntax Errors among Low-Achieving, Average, and High-Achieving Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Andallaza, Thor Collin S.; Castro, Francisco Enrique Vicente G.; Armenta, Marc Lester V.; Dy, Thomas T.; Jadud, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we quantitatively and qualitatively analyze a sample of novice programmer compilation log data, exploring whether (or how) low-achieving, average, and high-achieving students vary in their grasp of these introductory concepts. High-achieving students self-reported having the easiest time learning the introductory programming…

  1. Scalable Multiprocessor for High-Speed Computing in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James; Lang, Minh; Nishimoto, Kouji; Clark, Douglas; Stosic, Dorothy; Bachmann, Alex; Wilkinson, William; Steffke, Richard

    2004-01-01

    A report discusses the continuing development of a scalable multiprocessor computing system for hard real-time applications aboard a spacecraft. "Hard realtime applications" signifies applications, like real-time radar signal processing, in which the data to be processed are generated at "hundreds" of pulses per second, each pulse "requiring" millions of arithmetic operations. In these applications, the digital processors must be tightly integrated with analog instrumentation (e.g., radar equipment), and data input/output must be synchronized with analog instrumentation, controlled to within fractions of a microsecond. The scalable multiprocessor is a cluster of identical commercial-off-the-shelf generic DSP (digital-signal-processing) computers plus generic interface circuits, including analog-to-digital converters, all controlled by software. The processors are computers interconnected by high-speed serial links. Performance can be increased by adding hardware modules and correspondingly modifying the software. Work is distributed among the processors in a parallel or pipeline fashion by means of a flexible master/slave control and timing scheme. Each processor operates under its own local clock; synchronization is achieved by broadcasting master time signals to all the processors, which compute offsets between the master clock and their local clocks.

  2. High performance computing applications in neurobiological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Cheng, Rei; Doshay, David G.; Linton, Samuel W.; Montgomery, Kevin; Parnas, Bruce R.

    1994-01-01

    The human nervous system is a massively parallel processor of information. The vast numbers of neurons, synapses and circuits is daunting to those seeking to understand the neural basis of consciousness and intellect. Pervading obstacles are lack of knowledge of the detailed, three-dimensional (3-D) organization of even a simple neural system and the paucity of large scale, biologically relevant computer simulations. We use high performance graphics workstations and supercomputers to study the 3-D organization of gravity sensors as a prototype architecture foreshadowing more complex systems. Scaled-down simulations run on a Silicon Graphics workstation and scale-up, three-dimensional versions run on the Cray Y-MP and CM5 supercomputers.

  3. Learning Microbiology with Computer Simulations: Students' Academic Achievement by Method and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huppert, Jehuda; Yaakobi, Judith; Lazarowitz, Reuven

    1998-01-01

    Studies the use of a computer-assisted learning simulation episode during a unit on the growth curve of microorganisms in grade ten. Finds no significant gender differences in either the experimental or control groups. Contains 25 references. (DDR)

  4. International Note: Between-Domain Relations of Chinese High School Students' Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yangyang, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the between-domain relations of Chinese high school students' academic achievements. In a sample of 1870 Chinese 10th grade students, the results indicated that Chinese high school students' academic achievements were correlated across nine subjects. In line with the previous Western findings, the findings suggested that…

  5. The Effect of the Time Management Art on Academic Achievement among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zoubi, Maysoon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the effect of the Time Management Art on academic achievement among high school students in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The researcher employed the descriptive-analytic research to achieve the purpose of the study where he chose a sample of (2000) high school female and male students as respondents to the…

  6. High-Achieving and Average Students' Reading Growth: Contrasting School and Summer Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Much is unknown about how initially high-achieving students grow academically, especially given the measurement issues inherent in assessing growth for the highest performing students. This study compared initially high-achieving and average students' growth in reading (in a cohort of third-grade students from 2,000 schools) over 3 years.…

  7. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  8. The Use of Computers in High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crick, Joe E.; Stolurow, Lawrence M.

    A Model 35 KSR teletype was installed in Roxbury Latin School and connected to the SDS 940 system at Harvard University. The equipment was used to teach secondary students to use computers to program and solve math problems. Students learned the Computational Algebraic Language (CAL) and were oriented to computers and programing. They followed the…

  9. Slovak High School Students' Attitudes toward Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan; Halakova, Zuzana; Nagyova, Sona; Nagy, Tibor

    2011-01-01

    The pervasive involvement of information and communication technologies and computers in our daily lives influences changes of attitude toward computers. We focused on finding these ecological effects in the differences in computer attitudes as a function of gender and age. A questionnaire with 34 Likert-type items was used in our research. The…

  10. The Meaning High-Achieving African-American Males in an Urban High School Ascribe to Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, LaTasha; Davis, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers, educators, administrators, policymakers and members of the general public doubt the prevalence of high-achieving African-American males in urban high schools capable of excelling in mathematics. As part of a larger study, the current study explored the educational experiences of four high-achieving African-American males…

  11. Benchmarking: More Aspects of High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindrudu, Rahul

    2004-01-01

    The original HPL algorithm makes the assumption that all data can be fit entirely in the main memory. This assumption will obviously give a good performance due to the absence of disk I/O. However, not all applications can fit their entire data in memory. These applications which require a fair amount of I/O to move data to and from main memory and secondary storage, are more indicative of usage of an Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) System. Given this scenario a well designed I/O architecture will play a significant part in the performance of the MPP System on regular jobs. And, this is not represented in the current Benchmark. The modified HPL algorithm is hoped to be a step in filling this void. The most important factor in the performance of out-of-core algorithms is the actual I/O operations performed and their efficiency in transferring data to/from main memory and disk, Various methods were introduced in the report for performing I/O operations. The I/O method to use depends on the design of the out-of-core algorithm. Conversely, the performance of the out-of-core algorithm is affected by the choice of I/O operations. This implies, good performance is achieved when I/O efficiency is closely tied with the out-of-core algorithms. The out-of-core algorithms must be designed from the start. It is easily observed in the timings for various plots, that I/O plays a significant part in the overall execution time. This leads to an important conclusion, retro-fitting an existing code may not be the best choice. The right-looking algorithm selected for the LU factorization is a recursive algorithm and performs well when the entire dataset is in memory. At each stage of the loop the entire trailing submatrix is read into memory panel by panel. This gives a polynomial number of I/O reads and writes. If the left-looking algorithm was selected for the main loop, the number of I/O operations involved will be linear on the number of columns. This is due to the data access

  12. Scout: high-performance heterogeneous computing made simple

    SciTech Connect

    Jablin, James; Mc Cormick, Patrick; Herlihy, Maurice

    2011-01-26

    Researchers must often write their own simulation and analysis software. During this process they simultaneously confront both computational and scientific problems. Current strategies for aiding the generation of performance-oriented programs do not abstract the software development from the science. Furthermore, the problem is becoming increasingly complex and pressing with the continued development of many-core and heterogeneous (CPU-GPU) architectures. To acbieve high performance, scientists must expertly navigate both software and hardware. Co-design between computer scientists and research scientists can alleviate but not solve this problem. The science community requires better tools for developing, optimizing, and future-proofing codes, allowing scientists to focus on their research while still achieving high computational performance. Scout is a parallel programming language and extensible compiler framework targeting heterogeneous architectures. It provides the abstraction required to buffer scientists from the constantly-shifting details of hardware while still realizing higb-performance by encapsulating software and hardware optimization within a compiler framework.

  13. A High Performance COTS Based Computer Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patte, Mathieu; Grimoldi, Raoul; Trautner, Roland

    2014-08-01

    Using Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) electronic components for space applications is a long standing idea. Indeed the difference in processing performance and energy efficiency between radiation hardened components and COTS components is so important that COTS components are very attractive for use in mass and power constrained systems. However using COTS components in space is not straightforward as one must account with the effects of the space environment on the COTS components behavior. In the frame of the ESA funded activity called High Performance COTS Based Computer, Airbus Defense and Space and its subcontractor OHB CGS have developed and prototyped a versatile COTS based architecture for high performance processing. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: in a first section we will start by recapitulating the interests and constraints of using COTS components for space applications; then we will briefly describe existing fault mitigation architectures and present our solution for fault mitigation based on a component called the SmartIO; in the last part of the paper we will describe the prototyping activities executed during the HiP CBC project.

  14. A Generic Scheduling Simulator for High Performance Parallel Computers

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, B S; Choi, G S; Jette, M A

    2001-08-01

    It is well known that efficient job scheduling plays a crucial role in achieving high system utilization in large-scale high performance computing environments. A good scheduling algorithm should schedule jobs to achieve high system utilization while satisfying various user demands in an equitable fashion. Designing such a scheduling algorithm is a non-trivial task even in a static environment. In practice, the computing environment and workload are constantly changing. There are several reasons for this. First, the computing platforms constantly evolve as the technology advances. For example, the availability of relatively powerful commodity off-the-shelf (COTS) components at steadily diminishing prices have made it feasible to construct ever larger massively parallel computers in recent years [1, 4]. Second, the workload imposed on the system also changes constantly. The rapidly increasing compute resources have provided many applications developers with the opportunity to radically alter program characteristics and take advantage of these additional resources. New developments in software technology may also trigger changes in user applications. Finally, political climate change may alter user priorities or the mission of the organization. System designers in such dynamic environments must be able to accurately forecast the effect of changes in the hardware, software, and/or policies under consideration. If the environmental changes are significant, one must also reassess scheduling algorithms. Simulation has frequently been relied upon for this analysis, because other methods such as analytical modeling or actual measurements are usually too difficult or costly. A drawback of the simulation approach, however, is that developing a simulator is a time-consuming process. Furthermore, an existing simulator cannot be easily adapted to a new environment. In this research, we attempt to develop a generic job-scheduling simulator, which facilitates the evaluation of

  15. "Earth, Sun and Moon": Computer Assisted Instruction in Secondary School Science--Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Orhan; Bilen, Kadir; Ural, Evrim

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a web-based teaching method on students' academic achievement and attitudes in the elementary education fifth grade Science and Technology unit, "System of Earth, Sun and Moon". The study was a quasi-experimental study with experimental and control groups comprising 54 fifth grade students attending…

  16. Educational Assessment: Exploring the Relationship between Computer Adaptive Testing, Data Analysis, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donhost, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The research on the potential relationship of the Northwest Evaluation Association's Measures of Academic Progress (NWEA MAP) and the Illinois Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) was conducted in two phases and focused on middle schools with a grade configuration of 6-8 in the state of Illinois. The first phase of the research examined whether or…

  17. How Does Self-Regulation Affect Computer-Programming Achievement in a Blended Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cigdem, Harun

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on learners' self-regulation which is one of the essential skills for student achievement in blended courses. Research on learners' self-regulation skills in blended learning environments has gained popularity in recent years however only a few studies investigating the correlation between self-regulation skills and student…

  18. Children without Toys: How Home Computer Use Impacts School Achievement, Behavior and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquis, Justin W.

    2009-01-01

    This study chronicles the home and school technology practices of a group of 7th grade middle school students representing varying social and economic backgrounds for the purpose of exploring possible ways in which exposure to computer technology in the home helps to inform the ways in which children demonstrate technology literacy when using…

  19. Effects of Computer Simulations Programs on University Students' Achievements in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayrak, Celal

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated whether computer assisted instruction was more effective than face-to-face instruction in increasing student success in physics. The study was conducted in the spring semester of 2006 at the Department of Science and Mathematics for Secondary Education at Hacettepe University. Seventy-eight freshman students from…

  20. The Impact of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Mathematics Achievement of Underachieving Fifth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce-Simmons, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of computer-assisted instruction on the mathematics performance of underachieving fifth-grade students in a rural school district in South Carolina. The instructional technology program ([IF) is South Carolina's response to addressing the needs of its young, struggling math students. The 449 fifth-grade students in…

  1. Effects of Constructivist and Computer-Facilitated Strategies on Achievement in Heterogeneous Secondary Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Maryellen; Barowy, William

    This paper describes the effects of the implementation of constructivist techniques with interactive computer simulations on conceptual understanding of plant nutrition and critical thinking skills in heterogeneously grouped secondary biology classrooms. The study focused on three strategies for teaching plant nutrition: (1) traditional; (2)…

  2. Effect of Computer-Aided Instruction on Attitude and Achievement of Fifth Grade Math Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Traci L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group study was to test theories of constructivism and motivation, along with research-based teaching practices of differentiating instruction and instructing within a child's Zone of Proximal Development, in measuring the effect of computer-aided instruction on fifth grade students'…

  3. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Yuan; Yu, Zhao-Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun-Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30-60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1-5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200-500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application. PMID:26603776

  4. Lipid target achievement among patients with very high and high cardiovascular risk in a lipid clinic.

    PubMed

    Barkas, Fotios; Liberopoulos, Evangelos N; Kostapanos, Michael S; Liamis, George; Tziallas, Dimitrios; Elisaf, Moses

    2015-04-01

    This was a retrospective study that assessed achievement of lipid-lowering treatment targets in the setting of a University Hospital Lipid Clinic. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment according to National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society (ESC/EAS) guidelines was recorded in 1000 consecutive adult patients followed for ≥3 years (mean 8 years). The LDL-C targets according to the NCEP ATP III were attained by 66% and 86% of patients with "very high" (n = 477) and "high" (n = 408) cardiovascular risk, respectively. Fewer patients were within LDL-C goals according to the ESC/EAS guidelines: 25% and 42%. Overall, 92% of the patients were on statins: 67% were on statin monotherapy, while 33% were on combinations with ezetimibe (25%), ω-3 fatty acids (5%), fibrates (4%), or colesevelam (2%). Even in a specialist lipid clinic, a large proportion of patients are not at goal according to the recent ESC/EAS guidelines. PMID:24830420

  5. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Yuan; Yu, Zhao-Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun-Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2015-11-25

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30-60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1-5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200-500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application.

  6. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui–Yuan; Yu, Zhao–Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun–Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi–Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30–60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1–5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200–500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application. PMID:26603776

  7. Using a Computer Animation to Teach High School Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotbain, Yosi; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Stavy, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    We present an active way to use a computer animation in secondary molecular genetics class. For this purpose we developed an activity booklet that helps students to work interactively with a computer animation which deals with abstract concepts and processes in molecular biology. The achievements of the experimental group were compared with those…

  8. Computational technology for high-temperature aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.; Card, M. F.

    1992-01-01

    The status and some recent developments of computational technology for high-temperature aerospace structures are summarized. Discussion focuses on a number of aspects including: goals of computational technology for high-temperature structures; computational material modeling; life prediction methodology; computational modeling of high-temperature composites; error estimation and adaptive improvement strategies; strategies for solution of fluid flow/thermal/structural problems; and probabilistic methods and stochastic modeling approaches, integrated analysis and design. Recent trends in high-performance computing environment are described and the research areas which have high potential for meeting future technological needs are identified.

  9. Enabling computer models of the heart for high-performance computers and the grid.

    PubMed

    Pitt-Francis, Joe; Garny, Alan; Gavaghan, David

    2006-06-15

    Although it is now feasible to compute multi-cellular models of the heart on a personal desktop or laptop computer, it is not feasible to undertake the detailed sweeps of high-dimensional parameter spaces required if we are to undertake in silico experimentation of the complex processes that constitute heart disease. For this research, modelling requirements move rapidly beyond the limit of commodity computers' resource both in terms of their memory footprint and the speed of calculation, so that multi-processor architectures must be considered. In addition, as such models have become more mature and have been validated against experimental data, there is increasing pressure for experimentalists to be able to make use of these models themselves as a key tool for hypothesis formulation and in planning future experimental studies to test those hypotheses. This paper discusses our initial experiences in a large-scale project (the Integrative Biology (IB) e-Science project) aimed at meeting these dual aims. We begin by putting the research in context by describing in outline the overall aims of the IB project, in particular focusing on the challenge of enabling novice users to make full use of high-performance resources without the need to gain detailed technical expertise in computing. We then discuss our experience of adapting one particular heart modelling package, Cellular Open Resource, and show how the solving engine of this code was dissected from the rest of the package, ported to C++ and parallelized using the Message-Passing Interface. We show that good parallel efficiency and realistic memory reduction can be achieved on simple geometries. We conclude by discussing lessons learnt in this process.

  10. Concept for high speed computer printer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    Printer uses Kerr cell as light shutter for controlling the print on photosensitive paper. Applied to output data transfer, the information transfer rate of graphic computer printers could be increased to speeds approaching the data transfer rate of computer central processors /5000 to 10,000 lines per minute/.

  11. Decreased latent inhibition is associated with increased creative achievement in high-functioning individuals.

    PubMed

    Carson, Shelley H; Peterson, Jordan B; Higgins, Daniel M

    2003-09-01

    Reductions in latent inhibition (LI), the capacity to screen from conscious awareness stimuli previously experienced as irrelevant, have been generally associated with the tendency towards psychosis. However, "failure" to screen out previously irrelevant stimuli might also hypothetically contribute to original thinking, particularly in combination with high IQ. Meta-analysis of two studies, conducted on youthful high-IQ samples. demonstrated that high lifetime creative achievers had significantly lower LI scores than low creative achievers (r(effect size) = .31, p = .0003, one-tailed). Eminent creative achievers (participants under 21 years who reported unusually high scores in a single domain of creative achievement) were 7 times more likely to have low rather than high LI scores, chi2 (1, N = 25) = 10.69, phi = .47. p = .003.

  12. Understanding and Reversing Underachievement, Low Achievement, and Achievement Gaps among High-Ability African American Males in Urban School Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Donna Y.; Moore, James L., III

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the achievement gap, with attention devoted to underachievement and low achievement among African American males in urban school contexts. More specifically, the article explains problems and issues facing or confronting these Black male students in urban education settings. A central part of this discussion is grounded in…

  13. Achieving production-level use of HEP software at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uram, T. D.; Childers, J. T.; LeCompte, T. J.; Papka, M. E.; Benjamin, D.

    2015-12-01

    HEP's demand for computing resources has grown beyond the capacity of the Grid, and these demands will accelerate with the higher energy and luminosity planned for Run II. Mira, the ten petaFLOPs supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, is a potentially significant compute resource for HEP research. Through an award of fifty million hours on Mira, we have delivered millions of events to LHC experiments by establishing the means of marshaling jobs through serial stages on local clusters, and parallel stages on Mira. We are running several HEP applications, including Alpgen, Pythia, Sherpa, and Geant4. Event generators, such as Sherpa, typically have a split workload: a small scale integration phase, and a second, more scalable, event-generation phase. To accommodate this workload on Mira we have developed two Python-based Django applications, Balsam and ARGO. Balsam is a generalized scheduler interface which uses a plugin system for interacting with scheduler software such as HTCondor, Cobalt, and TORQUE. ARGO is a workflow manager that submits jobs to instances of Balsam. Through these mechanisms, the serial and parallel tasks within jobs are executed on the appropriate resources. This approach and its integration with the PanDA production system will be discussed.

  14. Industrial applications of high-performance computing for phylogeny reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, David A.; Moret, Bernard M.; Vawter, Lisa

    2001-07-01

    Phylogenies (that is, tree-of-life relationships) derived from gene order data may prove crucial in answering some fundamental open questions in biomolecular evolution. Real-world interest is strong in determining these relationships. For example, pharmaceutical companies may use phylogeny reconstruction in drug discovery for discovering synthetic pathways unique to organisms that they wish to target. Health organizations study the phylogenies of organisms such as HIV in order to understand their epidemiologies and to aid in predicting the behaviors of future outbreaks. And governments are interested in aiding the production of such foodstuffs as rice, wheat and potatoes via genetics through understanding of the phylogenetic distribution of genetic variation in wild populations. Yet few techniques are available for difficult phylogenetic reconstruction problems. Appropriate tools for analysis of such data may aid in resolving some of the phylogenetic problems that have been analyzed without much resolution for decades. With the rapid accumulation of whole genome sequences for a wide diversity of taxa, especially microbial taxa, phylogenetic reconstruction based on changes in gene order and gene content is showing promise, particularly for resolving deep (i.e., ancient) branch splits. However, reconstruction from gene-order data is even more computationally expensive than reconstruction from sequence data, particularly in groups with large numbers of genes and highly-rearranged genomes. We have developed a software suite, GRAPPA, that extends the breakpoint analysis (BPAnalysis) method of Sankoff and Blanchette while running much faster: in a recent analysis of chloroplast genome data for species of Campanulaceae on a 512-processor Linux supercluster with Myrinet, we achieved a one-million-fold speedup over BPAnalysis. GRAPPA can use either breakpoint or inversion distance (computed exactly) for its computation and runs on single-processor machines as well as

  15. Instructional, Transformational, and Managerial Leadership and Student Achievement: High School Principals Make a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jerry W.; Prater, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This statewide study examined the relationships between principal managerial, instructional, and transformational leadership and student achievement in public high schools. Differences in student achievement were found when schools were grouped according to principal leadership factors. Principal leadership behaviors promoting instructional and…

  16. Low and High Mathematics Achievement in Japanese, Chinese, and American Elementary-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttal, David H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    First and fifth grade students who scored high or low on a mathematics test were tested for intellectual ability and reading achievement. Students and their mothers were interviewed. Results indicated that factors associated with levels of achievement in mathematics operate in a similar fashion across three cultures that differ greatly in their…

  17. A Quantitative Comparison of Pennsylvania High School Student Achievement by Middle States Association's Accreditation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    As public school accountability for student achievement has continued to increase, prior to and as a result of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, schools have sought ways of bringing new instructional services to their students to raise their levels of achievement. Some Pennsylvania public high schools have attempted to improve student…

  18. Achievement Motivation in High School: Contrasting Theoretical Models in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Celay, I. Montero; Tapia, J. Alonso

    1992-01-01

    Three models of achievement motivation in the classroom are contrasted. Results with 155 high school students suggest that the model of C. S. Dweck and E. S. Elliott offers a better explanation of the relationships among achievement motivation, attributions, emotional reactions, expectancies, and performance than do the other models. (SLD)

  19. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Student Achievement and Motivation in a High School Geometry Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Joe D.; Hall, Neff

    In this study, the effects of a form of cooperative group instruction (Student Teams Achievement Divisions) on student motivation and achievement in a high school geometry class were examined. Ninety (mostly 10th-grade) students were randomly assigned to either a control group receiving traditional instruction or one of two treatment groups…

  20. Early Reading Skills and Academic Achievement Trajectories of Students Facing Poverty, Homelessness, and High Residential Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbers, Janette E.; Cutuli, J. J.; Supkoff, Laura M.; Heistad, David; Chan, Chi-Keung; Hinz, Elizabeth; Masten, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation tested the importance of early academic achievement for later achievement trajectories among 18,011 students grouped by level of socioeconomic risk. Students considered to be at highest risk were those who experienced homelessness or high residential mobility (HHM). HHM students were compared with students eligible for free…

  1. Intergenerational Closure and Academic Achievement in High School: A New Evaluation of Coleman's Conjecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Stephen L.; Todd, Jennifer J.

    2009-01-01

    This article reexamines the conjecture of James S. Coleman that intergenerational social closure promotes student achievement in high schools, analyzing the best national data on academic achievement and social networks: the 2002 and 2004 waves of the Education Longitudinal Study. The results show that within the Catholic school sector, schools…

  2. Unforgiving Confucian Culture: A Breeding Ground for High Academic Achievement, Test Anxiety and Self-Doubt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews findings from several studies that contribute to our understanding of cross-cultural differences in academic achievement, anxiety and self-doubt. The focus is on comparisons between Confucian Asian and European regions. Recent studies indicate that high academic achievement of students from Confucian Asian countries is…

  3. Gender and High School Chemistry: Student Perceptions on Achievement in a Selective Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Andrew; Mills, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on research undertaken in a middle-class Australian school. The focus of the research was on the relationship between gender and students' engagement with high school chemistry. Achievement data from many OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] countries suggest that middle-class girls are achieving equally…

  4. Parental Involvement, Homework, and TV Time: Direct and Indirect Effects on High School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A set of High School and Beyond data was used to study the effect of three variables on academic achievement. Homework had a positive effect, TV a negative, and parental involvement no direct effect on seniors' achievement scores, but influenced the amount of time students spent on homework. (Author/JAZ)

  5. The Impact of High-Speed Internet Connectivity at Home on Eighth-Grade Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Kent J.

    2013-01-01

    In the fall of 2008 Westside Community Schools - District 66, in Omaha, Nebraska implemented a one-to-one notebook computer take home model for all eighth-grade students. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a required yearlong one-to-one notebook computer program supported by high-speed Internet connectivity at school on (a)…

  6. DOE research in utilization of high-performance computers

    SciTech Connect

    Buzbee, B.L.; Worlton, W.J.; Michael, G.; Rodrigue, G.

    1980-12-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) and other Government research laboratories depend on high-performance computer systems to accomplish their programatic goals. As the most powerful computer systems become available, they are acquired by these laboratories so that advances can be made in their disciplines. These advances are often the result of added sophistication to numerical models whose execution is made possible by high-performance computer systems. However, high-performance computer systems have become increasingly complex; consequently, it has become increasingly difficult to realize their potential performance. The result is a need for research on issues related to the utilization of these systems. This report gives a brief description of high-performance computers, and then addresses the use of and future needs for high-performance computers within DOE, the growing complexity of applications within DOE, and areas of high-performance computer systems warranting research. 1 figure.

  7. Impacts of comprehensive reading instruction on diverse outcomes of low- and high-achieving readers.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, John T; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S; Lutz Klauda, Susan; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the effects of Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) with traditional instruction (TI) on several outcomes in a 12-week intervention for low achievers and high achievers. Low achievers in the CORI group were afforded explicit instruction, leveled texts, and motivation support. Compared with TI students, CORI students scored higher on posttest measures of word recognition speed, reading comprehension on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, and ecological knowledge. CORI was equally effective for lower achievers and higher achievers. Explicitly supporting multiple aspects of reading simultaneously appeared to benefit diverse learners on a range of reading outcomes.

  8. Understanding the Elements of Operational Reliability: A Key for Achieving High Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews operational reliability and its role in achieving high reliability through design and process reliability. The topics include: 1) Reliability Engineering Major Areas and interfaces; 2) Design Reliability; 3) Process Reliability; and 4) Reliability Applications.

  9. Combining independent, weighted P-values: achieving computational stability by a systematic expansion with controllable accuracy.

    PubMed

    Alves, Gelio; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2011-01-01

    Given the expanding availability of scientific data and tools to analyze them, combining different assessments of the same piece of information has become increasingly important for social, biological, and even physical sciences. This task demands, to begin with, a method-independent standard, such as the P-value, that can be used to assess the reliability of a piece of information. Good's formula and Fisher's method combine independent P-values with respectively unequal and equal weights. Both approaches may be regarded as limiting instances of a general case of combining P-values from m groups; P-values within each group are weighted equally, while weight varies by group. When some of the weights become nearly degenerate, as cautioned by Good, numeric instability occurs in computation of the combined P-values. We deal explicitly with this difficulty by deriving a controlled expansion, in powers of differences in inverse weights, that provides both accurate statistics and stable numerics. We illustrate the utility of this systematic approach with a few examples. In addition, we also provide here an alternative derivation for the probability distribution function of the general case and show how the analytic formula obtained reduces to both Good's and Fisher's methods as special cases. A C++ program, which computes the combined P-values with equal numerical stability regardless of whether weights are (nearly) degenerate or not, is available for download at our group website http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/downloads/CoinedPValues.html.

  10. Real-time Tsunami Inundation Prediction Using High Performance Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Y.; Imamura, F.; Sugawara, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recently off-shore tsunami observation stations based on cabled ocean bottom pressure gauges are actively being deployed especially in Japan. These cabled systems are designed to provide real-time tsunami data before tsunamis reach coastlines for disaster mitigation purposes. To receive real benefits of these observations, real-time analysis techniques to make an effective use of these data are necessary. A representative study was made by Tsushima et al. (2009) that proposed a method to provide instant tsunami source prediction based on achieving tsunami waveform data. As time passes, the prediction is improved by using updated waveform data. After a tsunami source is predicted, tsunami waveforms are synthesized from pre-computed tsunami Green functions of linear long wave equations. Tsushima et al. (2014) updated the method by combining the tsunami waveform inversion with an instant inversion of coseismic crustal deformation and improved the prediction accuracy and speed in the early stages. For disaster mitigation purposes, real-time predictions of tsunami inundation are also important. In this study, we discuss the possibility of real-time tsunami inundation predictions, which require faster-than-real-time tsunami inundation simulation in addition to instant tsunami source analysis. Although the computational amount is large to solve non-linear shallow water equations for inundation predictions, it has become executable through the recent developments of high performance computing technologies. We conducted parallel computations of tsunami inundation and achieved 6.0 TFLOPS by using 19,000 CPU cores. We employed a leap-frog finite difference method with nested staggered grids of which resolution range from 405 m to 5 m. The resolution ratio of each nested domain was 1/3. Total number of grid points were 13 million, and the time step was 0.1 seconds. Tsunami sources of 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake were tested. The inundation prediction up to 2 hours after the

  11. Power/energy use cases for high performance computing.

    SciTech Connect

    Laros, James H.,; Kelly, Suzanne M; Hammond, Steven; Elmore, Ryan; Munch, Kristin

    2013-12-01

    Power and Energy have been identified as a first order challenge for future extreme scale high performance computing (HPC) systems. In practice the breakthroughs will need to be provided by the hardware vendors. But to make the best use of the solutions in an HPC environment, it will likely require periodic tuning by facility operators and software components. This document describes the actions and interactions needed to maximize power resources. It strives to cover the entire operational space in which an HPC system occupies. The descriptions are presented as formal use cases, as documented in the Unified Modeling Language Specification [1]. The document is intended to provide a common understanding to the HPC community of the necessary management and control capabilities. Assuming a common understanding can be achieved, the next step will be to develop a set of Application Programing Interfaces (APIs) to which hardware vendors and software developers could utilize to steer power consumption.

  12. Do Peers Influence Achievement in High School Economics? Evidence from Georgia's Economics End of Course Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christopher; Scafidi, Benjamin; Swinton, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The authors provide the first estimates of the impact of peers on achievement in high school economics. The estimates are obtained by analyzing three years of data on all high school students who take Georgia's required economics course and its accompanying high-stakes End of Course Test (Georgia Department of Education). They use an instrumental…

  13. A Study of Professional Learning Communities and Science Achievement in Large High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincannon, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the science achievement and high school completion rates of students in a large high school implementing professional learning community concepts and practices with two large high schools not participating in professional learning community concepts and practices. The primary methodology employed was a…

  14. High-order computational fluid dynamics tools for aircraft design.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z J

    2014-08-13

    Most forecasts predict an annual airline traffic growth rate between 4.5 and 5% in the foreseeable future. To sustain that growth, the environmental impact of aircraft cannot be ignored. Future aircraft must have much better fuel economy, dramatically less greenhouse gas emissions and noise, in addition to better performance. Many technical breakthroughs must take place to achieve the aggressive environmental goals set up by governments in North America and Europe. One of these breakthroughs will be physics-based, highly accurate and efficient computational fluid dynamics and aeroacoustics tools capable of predicting complex flows over the entire flight envelope and through an aircraft engine, and computing aircraft noise. Some of these flows are dominated by unsteady vortices of disparate scales, often highly turbulent, and they call for higher-order methods. As these tools will be integral components of a multi-disciplinary optimization environment, they must be efficient to impact design. Ultimately, the accuracy, efficiency, robustness, scalability and geometric flexibility will determine which methods will be adopted in the design process. This article explores these aspects and identifies pacing items. PMID:25024419

  15. High-order computational fluid dynamics tools for aircraft design.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z J

    2014-08-13

    Most forecasts predict an annual airline traffic growth rate between 4.5 and 5% in the foreseeable future. To sustain that growth, the environmental impact of aircraft cannot be ignored. Future aircraft must have much better fuel economy, dramatically less greenhouse gas emissions and noise, in addition to better performance. Many technical breakthroughs must take place to achieve the aggressive environmental goals set up by governments in North America and Europe. One of these breakthroughs will be physics-based, highly accurate and efficient computational fluid dynamics and aeroacoustics tools capable of predicting complex flows over the entire flight envelope and through an aircraft engine, and computing aircraft noise. Some of these flows are dominated by unsteady vortices of disparate scales, often highly turbulent, and they call for higher-order methods. As these tools will be integral components of a multi-disciplinary optimization environment, they must be efficient to impact design. Ultimately, the accuracy, efficiency, robustness, scalability and geometric flexibility will determine which methods will be adopted in the design process. This article explores these aspects and identifies pacing items.

  16. High-order computational fluid dynamics tools for aircraft design

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z. J.

    2014-01-01

    Most forecasts predict an annual airline traffic growth rate between 4.5 and 5% in the foreseeable future. To sustain that growth, the environmental impact of aircraft cannot be ignored. Future aircraft must have much better fuel economy, dramatically less greenhouse gas emissions and noise, in addition to better performance. Many technical breakthroughs must take place to achieve the aggressive environmental goals set up by governments in North America and Europe. One of these breakthroughs will be physics-based, highly accurate and efficient computational fluid dynamics and aeroacoustics tools capable of predicting complex flows over the entire flight envelope and through an aircraft engine, and computing aircraft noise. Some of these flows are dominated by unsteady vortices of disparate scales, often highly turbulent, and they call for higher-order methods. As these tools will be integral components of a multi-disciplinary optimization environment, they must be efficient to impact design. Ultimately, the accuracy, efficiency, robustness, scalability and geometric flexibility will determine which methods will be adopted in the design process. This article explores these aspects and identifies pacing items. PMID:25024419

  17. Mass storage: The key to success in high performance computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard R.

    1993-01-01

    There are numerous High Performance Computing & Communications Initiatives in the world today. All are determined to help solve some 'Grand Challenges' type of problem, but each appears to be dominated by the pursuit of higher and higher levels of CPU performance and interconnection bandwidth as the approach to success, without any regard to the impact of Mass Storage. My colleagues and I at Data Storage Technologies believe that all will have their performance against their goals ultimately measured by their ability to efficiently store and retrieve the 'deluge of data' created by end-users who will be using these systems to solve Scientific Grand Challenges problems, and that the issue of Mass Storage will become then the determinant of success or failure in achieving each projects goals. In today's world of High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC), the critical path to success in solving problems can only be traveled by designing and implementing Mass Storage Systems capable of storing and manipulating the truly 'massive' amounts of data associated with solving these challenges. Within my presentation I will explore this critical issue and hypothesize solutions to this problem.

  18. The Outward Bound Bridging Course for Low-Achieving High School Males: Effect on Academic Achievement and Multidimensional Self-Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Richards, Garry

    The Outward Bound Bridging Course is a 6-week residential program designed to improve academic achievement and self-concepts in low-achieving high school males. During 1980-1984, five courses were conducted for 66 Australian high school males. Most of them were ninth grade students, chosen on the basis of poor academic performance, an apparent…

  19. A Comparison of Emotional-Motivational (A-R-D Theory) Personality Characteristics in Learning Disabled, Normal Achieving, and High Achieving Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufano, Linda D.

    The study examined emotional-motivational personality characteristics of 15 learning disabled, 15 normal achieving, and 15 high achieving students (grades 3-5). The study tested the hypothesis derived from the A-R-D (attitude-reinforcer-discriminative) theory of motivation that learning disabled (LD) children differ from normal and high achieving…

  20. The Development of Computational Biology in South Africa: Successes Achieved and Lessons Learnt

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Nicola J.; Christoffels, Alan; de Oliveira, Tulio; Gamieldien, Junaid; Hazelhurst, Scott; Joubert, Fourie; Kumuthini, Judit; Pillay, Ché S.; Snoep, Jacky L.; Tastan Bishop, Özlem; Tiffin, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    Bioinformatics is now a critical skill in many research and commercial environments as biological data are increasing in both size and complexity. South African researchers recognized this need in the mid-1990s and responded by working with the government as well as international bodies to develop initiatives to build bioinformatics capacity in the country. Significant injections of support from these bodies provided a springboard for the establishment of computational biology units at multiple universities throughout the country, which took on teaching, basic research and support roles. Several challenges were encountered, for example with unreliability of funding, lack of skills, and lack of infrastructure. However, the bioinformatics community worked together to overcome these, and South Africa is now arguably the leading country in bioinformatics on the African continent. Here we discuss how the discipline developed in the country, highlighting the challenges, successes, and lessons learnt. PMID:26845152

  1. The Development of Computational Biology in South Africa: Successes Achieved and Lessons Learnt.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Nicola J; Christoffels, Alan; de Oliveira, Tulio; Gamieldien, Junaid; Hazelhurst, Scott; Joubert, Fourie; Kumuthini, Judit; Pillay, Ché S; Snoep, Jacky L; Tastan Bishop, Özlem; Tiffin, Nicki

    2016-02-01

    Bioinformatics is now a critical skill in many research and commercial environments as biological data are increasing in both size and complexity. South African researchers recognized this need in the mid-1990s and responded by working with the government as well as international bodies to develop initiatives to build bioinformatics capacity in the country. Significant injections of support from these bodies provided a springboard for the establishment of computational biology units at multiple universities throughout the country, which took on teaching, basic research and support roles. Several challenges were encountered, for example with unreliability of funding, lack of skills, and lack of infrastructure. However, the bioinformatics community worked together to overcome these, and South Africa is now arguably the leading country in bioinformatics on the African continent. Here we discuss how the discipline developed in the country, highlighting the challenges, successes, and lessons learnt.

  2. Efficient and anonymous two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks: achieving user anonymity with lightweight sensor computation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks).

  3. Efficient and anonymous two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks: achieving user anonymity with lightweight sensor computation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks). PMID:25849359

  4. Efficient and Anonymous Two-Factor User Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks: Achieving User Anonymity with Lightweight Sensor Computation

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks). PMID:25849359

  5. A computational approach to achieve situational awareness from limited observations of a complex system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwin, Jason

    human activities. Nevertheless, since it is not constrained by computational details, the study of situational awareness provides a unique opportunity to approach complex tasks of operation from an analytical perspective. In other words, with SA, we get to see how humans observe, recognize and react to complex systems on which they exert some control. Reconciling this perspective on complexity with complex systems research, it might be possible to further our understanding of complex phenomena if we can probe the anatomical mechanisms by which we, as humans, do it naturally. At this unique intersection of two disciplines, a hybrid approach is needed. So in this work, we propose just such an approach. In particular, this research proposes a computational approach to the situational awareness (SA) of complex systems. Here we propose to implement certain aspects of situational awareness via a biologically-inspired machine-learning technique called Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM). In doing so, we will use either simulated or actual data to create and to test computational implementations of situational awareness. This will be tested in two example contexts, one being more complex than the other. The ultimate goal of this research is to demonstrate a possible approach to analyzing and understanding complex systems. By using HTM and carefully developing techniques to analyze the SA formed from data, it is believed that this goal can be obtained.

  6. Achieving a hybrid brain-computer interface with tactile selective attention and motor imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sangtae; Ahn, Minkyu; Cho, Hohyun; Jun, Sung Chan

    2014-12-01

    Objective. We propose a new hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) system that integrates two different EEG tasks: tactile selective attention (TSA) using a vibro-tactile stimulator on the left/right finger and motor imagery (MI) of left/right hand movement. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) from the MI task and steady-state somatosensory evoked potential (SSSEP) from the TSA task are retrieved and combined into two hybrid senses. Approach. One hybrid approach is to measure two tasks simultaneously; the features of each task are combined for testing. Another hybrid approach is to measure two tasks consecutively (TSA first and MI next) using only MI features. For comparison with the hybrid approaches, the TSA and MI tasks are measured independently. Main results. Using a total of 16 subject datasets, we analyzed the BCI classification performance for MI, TSA and two hybrid approaches in a comparative manner; we found that the consecutive hybrid approach outperformed the others, yielding about a 10% improvement in classification accuracy relative to MI alone. It is understood that TSA may play a crucial role as a prestimulus in that it helps to generate earlier ERD prior to MI and thus sustains ERD longer and to a stronger degree; this ERD may give more discriminative information than ERD in MI alone. Significance. Overall, our proposed consecutive hybrid approach is very promising for the development of advanced BCI systems.

  7. Standardization and Optimization of Computed Tomography Protocols to Achieve Low-Dose

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Cynthia; Cody, Dianna D.; Gupta, Rajiv; Hess, Christopher P.; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Kofler, James M.; Krishnam, Mayil S.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in radiation exposure due to CT scans has been of growing concern in recent years. CT scanners differ in their capabilities and various indications require unique protocols, but there remains room for standardization and optimization. In this paper we summarize approaches to reduce dose, as discussed in lectures comprising the first session of the 2013 UCSF Virtual Symposium on Radiation Safety in Computed Tomography. The experience of scanning at low dose in different body regions, for both diagnostic and interventional CT procedures, is addressed. An essential primary step is justifying the medical need for each scan. General guiding principles for reducing dose include tailoring a scan to a patient, minimizing scan length, use of tube current modulation and minimizing tube current, minimizing-tube potential, iterative reconstruction, and periodic review of CT studies. Organized efforts for standardization have been spearheaded by professional societies such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Finally, all team members should demonstrate an awareness of the importance of minimizing dose. PMID:24589403

  8. Effects of Computer-Assisted STAD, LTM and ICI Cooperative Learning Strategies on Nigerian Secondary School Students' Achievement, Gender and Motivation in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Thomas, David Akpa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction on Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) and Learning Together (LT) cooperative learning strategies on Nigerian secondary students' achievement and motivation in physics. The effectiveness of computer assisted instructional package (CAI) for teaching physics concepts in…

  9. Effects of Computer-Assisted STAD, LTM and ICI Cooperative Learning Strategies on Nigerian Secondary School Students' Achievement, Gender and Motivation in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrari, Isiaka Amosa; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Thomas, David Akpa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction on Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) and Learning Together Model (LTM) cooperative learning strategies on Nigerian secondary students' achievement and motivation in physics. The efficacy of Authors developed computer assisted instructional package (CAI) for teaching…

  10. A Survey of High-Quality Computational Libraries and their Impactin Science and Engineering Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, L.A.; Hernandez, V.; Marques, O.; Roman, J.E.; Vidal, V.

    2004-09-20

    Recently, a number of important scientific and engineering problems have been successfully studied and solved by means of computational modeling and simulation. Many of these computational models and simulations benefited from the use of available software tools and libraries to achieve high performance and portability. In this article, we present a reference matrix of the performance of robust, reliable and widely used tools mapped to scientific and engineering applications that use them. We aim at regularly maintaining and disseminating this matrix to the computational science community. This matrix will contain information on state-of-the-art computational tools, their applications and their use.

  11. High Performance Photogrammetric Processing on Computer Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrov, V. N.; Drakin, M. A.; Sechin, A. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Most cpu consuming tasks in photogrammetric processing can be done in parallel. The algorithms take independent bits as input and produce independent bits as output. The independence of bits comes from the nature of such algorithms since images, stereopairs or small image blocks parts can be processed independently. Many photogrammetric algorithms are fully automatic and do not require human interference. Photogrammetric workstations can perform tie points measurements, DTM calculations, orthophoto construction, mosaicing and many other service operations in parallel using distributed calculations. Distributed calculations save time reducing several days calculations to several hours calculations. Modern trends in computer technology show the increase of cpu cores in workstations, speed increase in local networks, and as a result dropping the price of the supercomputers or computer clusters that can contain hundreds or even thousands of computing nodes. Common distributed processing in DPW is usually targeted for interactive work with a limited number of cpu cores and is not optimized for centralized administration. The bottleneck of common distributed computing in photogrammetry can be in the limited lan throughput and storage performance, since the processing of huge amounts of large raster images is needed.

  12. Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

  13. Evaluation of English Achievement Test: A Comparison between High and Low Achievers amongst Selected Elementary School Students of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Zubair; Latif, Farah; Akhtar, Samina; Mushtaq, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Validity, reliability and item analysis are critical to the process of evaluating the quality of an educational measurement. The present study evaluates the quality of an assessment constructed to measure elementary school student's achievement in English. In this study, the survey model of descriptive research was used as a research method.…

  14. The Effect of Problem-Solving Instruction on the Programming Self-efficacy and Achievement of Introductory Computer Science Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddrey, Elizabeth

    Research in academia and industry continues to identify a decline in enrollment in computer science. One major component of this decline in enrollment is a shortage of female students. The primary reasons for the gender gap presented in the research include lack of computer experience prior to their first year in college, misconceptions about the field, negative cultural stereotypes, lack of female mentors and role models, subtle discriminations in the classroom, and lack of self-confidence (Pollock, McCoy, Carberry, Hundigopal, & You, 2004). Male students are also leaving the field due to misconceptions about the field, negative cultural stereotypes, and a lack of self-confidence. Analysis of first year attrition revealed that one of the major challenges faced by students of both genders is a lack of problem-solving skills (Beaubouef, Lucas & Howatt, 2001; Olsen, 2005; Paxton & Mumey, 2001). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether specific, non-mathematical problem-solving instruction as part of introductory programming courses significantly increased computer programming self-efficacy and achievement of students. The results of this study showed that students in the experimental group had significantly higher achievement than students in the control group. While this shows statistical significance, due to the effect size and disordinal nature of the data between groups, care has to be taken in its interpretation. The study did not show significantly higher programming self-efficacy among the experimental students. There was not enough data collected to statistically analyze the effect of the treatment on self-efficacy and achievement by gender. However, differences in means were observed between the gender groups, with females in the experimental group demonstrating a higher than average degree of self-efficacy when compared with males in the experimental group and both genders in the control group. These results suggest that the treatment from this

  15. Evaluation of the Manitoba High School Computer Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haughey, D. G.; And Others

    Designed to provide information for decision making when the current 5-year contract with the supplier of computing services to the Manitoba High School Computer Network expires in 1982, this study included both an assessment of the existing situation and the identification of alternative options for the provision of computer services to the…

  16. Computer Programmed Milling Machine Operations. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Dennis

    This learning module for a high school metals and manufacturing course is designed to introduce the concept of computer-assisted machining (CAM). Through it, students learn how to set up and put data into the controller to machine a part. They also become familiar with computer-aided manufacturing and learn the advantages of computer numerical…

  17. Computer Assisted Occupational Search. Technical Report. Career Achievement Skills Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontiac City School District, MI.

    This paper describes the use of Holland's Self Directed Search, an occupational survey. The instrument, in response to student difficulties in using the survey, was modified for junior high students and computerized. The standard version was administered to one group and the modified version to another group of ninth graders. Students using the…

  18. Towards an Abstraction-Friendly Programming Model for High Productivity and High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D; Panas, T

    2009-10-06

    General purpose languages, such as C++, permit the construction of various high level abstractions to hide redundant, low level details and accelerate programming productivity. Example abstractions include functions, data structures, classes, templates and so on. However, the use of abstractions significantly impedes static code analyses and optimizations, including parallelization, applied to the abstractions complex implementations. As a result, there is a common perception that performance is inversely proportional to the level of abstraction. On the other hand, programming large scale, possibly heterogeneous high-performance computing systems is notoriously difficult and programmers are less likely to abandon the help from high level abstractions when solving real-world, complex problems. Therefore, the need for programming models balancing both programming productivity and execution performance has reached a new level of criticality. We are exploring a novel abstraction-friendly programming model in order to support high productivity and high performance computing. We believe that standard or domain-specific semantics associated with high level abstractions can be exploited to aid compiler analyses and optimizations, thus helping achieving high performance without losing high productivity. We encode representative abstractions and their useful semantics into an abstraction specification file. In the meantime, an accessible, source-to-source compiler infrastructure (the ROSE compiler) is used to facilitate recognizing high level abstractions and utilizing their semantics for more optimization opportunities. Our initial work has shown that recognizing abstractions and knowing their semantics within a compiler can dramatically extend the applicability of existing optimizations, including automatic parallelization. Moreover, a new set of optimizations have become possible within an abstraction-friendly and semantics-aware programming model. In the future, we will

  19. Automated Approach to Very High-Order Aeroacoustic Computations. Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger W.; Goodrich, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Computational aeroacoustics requires efficient, high-resolution simulation tools. For smooth problems, this is best accomplished with very high-order in space and time methods on small stencils. However, the complexity of highly accurate numerical methods can inhibit their practical application, especially in irregular geometries. This complexity is reduced by using a special form of Hermite divided-difference spatial interpolation on Cartesian grids, and a Cauchy-Kowalewski recursion procedure for time advancement. In addition, a stencil constraint tree reduces the complexity of interpolating grid points that am located near wall boundaries. These procedures are used to develop automatically and to implement very high-order methods (> 15) for solving the linearized Euler equations that can achieve less than one grid point per wavelength resolution away from boundaries by including spatial derivatives of the primitive variables at each grid point. The accuracy of stable surface treatments is currently limited to 11th order for grid aligned boundaries and to 2nd order for irregular boundaries.

  20. Reference Architecture for High Dependability On-Board Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Nuno; Esper, Alexandre; Zandin, Johan; Barbosa, Ricardo; Monteleone, Claudio

    2014-08-01

    The industrial process in the area of on-board computers is characterized by small production series of on-board computers (hardware and software) configuration items with little recurrence at unit or set level (e.g. computer equipment unit, set of interconnected redundant units). These small production series result into a reduced amount of statistical data related to dependability, which influence on the way on-board computers are specified, designed and verified. In the context of ESA harmonization policy for the deployment of enhanced and homogeneous industrial processes in the area of avionics embedded systems and on-board computers for the space industry, this study aimed at rationalizing the initiation phase of the development or procurement of on-board computers and at improving dependability assurance. This aim was achieved by establishing generic requirements for the procurement or development of on-board computers with a focus on well-defined reliability, availability, and maintainability requirements, as well as a generic methodology for planning, predicting and assessing the dependability of on-board computers hardware and software throughout their life cycle. It also provides guidelines for producing evidence material and arguments to support dependability assurance of on-board computers hardware and software throughout the complete lifecycle, including an assessment of feasibility aspects of the dependability assurance process and how the use of computer-aided environment can contribute to the on-board computer dependability assurance.

  1. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Leadership of Kuwaiti High and Low Achieving 11th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnabhan, Mousa

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and the Leadership components (L) of high school students in the state of Kuwait. The possibility of predicting each leadership component via emotional intelligence components was investigated for high and low achievers. A sample of 11th grade students from Kuwaiti…

  2. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Expanding College Opportunities for High-Achieving, Low Income Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of providing low-income, high-achieving high school seniors with college application guidance and information about the costs of college. The "application guidance" included information about deadlines and requirements for college applications at nearby institutions, at the state's flagship institution, and at in-…

  3. The Effects of Modeling Instruction on High School Physics Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an "ex post facto," quasi-experimental research methodology. The…

  4. Effects of an Elementary Dual Language Immersion School Program on Junior High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Brian; Vega, Diego; Kronauge, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a two-way immersion elementary school program on academic achievement at the end of the elementary school and the end of the first year of junior high school. Longitudinal high stakes test data in reading, writing, and mathematics were collected on native English speakers and native Spanish…

  5. The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Achievement in At-Risk High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Jarrett Graham

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this quantitative survey study was the examination of the relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement in 164 at-risk high school students. The study used Bandura's self-efficacy as the theoretical framework. The research questions involved understanding the levels of self-efficacy in at-risk high school students and…

  6. Small Classes in the Early Grades, Academic Achievement, and Graduating From High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Jeremy D.; Gerber, Susan B.; Boyd-Zaharias, Jayne

    2005-01-01

    This investigation addressed 3 questions about the long-term effects of early school experiences: (a) Is participation in small classes in the early grades (K-3) related to high school graduation? (b) Is academic achievement in K-3 related to high school graduation? (c) If class size is related to graduation, is the relationship explained by the…

  7. Mathematics Achievement with Digital Game-Based Learning in High School Algebra 1 Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Terri Lynn Kurley

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact of digital game-based learning (DGBL) on mathematics achievement in a rural high school setting in North Carolina. A causal comparative research design was used in this study to collect data to determine the effectiveness of DGBL in high school Algebra 1 classes. Data were collected from the North Carolina…

  8. Towards Promoting Biliteracy and Academic Achievement: Educational Programs for High School Latino English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Alberto M.; Cadiero-Kaplan, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The Latino student presently faces many obstacles to achieve educational equity and excellence at the high school level. This article examines academic programming for Latino middle and high school English language learners (ELLs) and provides recommendations for addressing programming that promotes biliteracy policy and programming as a valued…

  9. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills in High Achieving Elementary Schools in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egnor, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines if practices that advocate for 21st century skills are in conflict with the mandates of NCLB. Interviews with influential school leaders of high achieving elementary schools focused on collecting data about 21st century skills. This study was designed to (a) Determine if 21st century skills are addressed in high achieving…

  10. Achieve Scholarship Spending on Expanding Access to Rigorous High School Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Office of Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 Legislature enacted the Achieve Scholarship program, which provides a $1,200 scholarship to high school graduates who took rigorous courses in high school and met certain income and other eligibility criteria. In deliberations about this new program, concerns were expressed that certain rigorous courses like Advanced Placement,…

  11. Study-Orientation of High and Low Academic Achievers at Secondary Level in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Bashir, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Naemullah; Khan, Muhammad Saeed

    2009-01-01

    The study orientation of low and high academic achievers was compared, measured through a self-developed study orientation scale (SOS) primarily based on 47 items comparing study habits and attitude. Students' marks obtained in the 10th grade Examination determined the measure of academic performance. The analysis revealed that the high achievers…

  12. Intro - High Performance Computing for 2015 HPC Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Klitsner, Tom

    2015-10-01

    The recent Executive Order creating the National Strategic Computing Initiative (NSCI) recognizes the value of high performance computing for economic competitiveness and scientific discovery and commits to accelerate delivery of exascale computing. The HPC programs at Sandia –the NNSA ASC program and Sandia’s Institutional HPC Program– are focused on ensuring that Sandia has the resources necessary to deliver computation in the national interest.

  13. Idle waves in high-performance computing.

    PubMed

    Markidis, Stefano; Vencels, Juris; Peng, Ivy Bo; Akhmetova, Dana; Laure, Erwin; Henri, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of parallel scientific applications distributes computation among processes that are in a busy state when computing and in an idle state when waiting for information from other processes. We identify the propagation of idle waves through processes in scientific applications with a local information exchange between the two processes. Idle waves are nondispersive and have a phase velocity inversely proportional to the average busy time. The physical mechanism enabling the propagation of idle waves is the local synchronization between two processes due to remote data dependency. This study provides a description of the large number of processes in parallel scientific applications as a continuous medium. This work also is a step towards an understanding of how localized idle periods can affect remote processes, leading to the degradation of global performance in parallel scientific applications.

  14. Does Homogeneous Ability Grouping for High School Honors English Instruction Benefit the High Achiever?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetter, Douglas Paul

    2013-01-01

    Public schools are examining their policies and instructional practices to address the achievement gap exposed by the reporting requirements of NCLB (Wenglinski, 2004). As accountability measures and stakes rise, there is a call for an improved use of scientific evidence to inform educational policymaking (Wiseman, 2010). In terms of the…

  15. Experimental Evidence on the Effects of Home Computers on Academic Achievement among Schoolchildren. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #13-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairlie, Robert W.; Robinson, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Computers are an important part of modern education, yet large segments of the population--especially low-income and minority children--lack access to a computer at home. Does this impede educational achievement? We test this hypothesis by conducting the largest-ever field experiment involving the random provision of free computers for home use to…

  16. Patterns of Self-Regulation: Patterns of Self-Regulatory Strategy Use among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruban, Lilia; Reis, Sally M.

    2006-01-01

    The present mixed-methods study attempts to provide insights into the nature, idiosyncrasies, and inter- and intra-individual patterns of academic self-regulatory strategy use among two different populations of university students. Low-achieving (n = 49) and high-achieving students (n = 131) described their self-regulatory strategy use in their…

  17. Factors That Influence School Board Actions to Support Student Achievement: A Multi-Case Study of High-Achieving Rural School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence the actions taken by school boards that advance student achievement in high-achieving rural public school districts. Much of what is discussed in the literature on school improvement efforts is centered on the work carried out by school personnel at the school level. What is…

  18. High frequency wide-band transformer uses coax to achieve high turn ratio and flat response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Parry, T.

    1966-01-01

    Center-tap push-pull transformer with toroidal core helically wound with a single coaxial cable creates a high frequency wideband transformer. This transformer has a high-turn ratio, a high coupling coefficient, and a flat broadband response.

  19. Effects of a Collaborative Science Intervention on High Achieving Students' Learning Anxiety and Attitudes toward Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zuway-R.

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of a collaborative science intervention on high achieving students' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. Thirty-seven eighth-grade high achieving students (16 boys and 21 girls) were selected as an experimental group who joined a 20-week collaborative science intervention, which integrated and utilized an innovative teaching strategy. Fifty-eight eighth-grade high achieving students were selected as the comparison group. The Secondary School Student Questionnaire was conducted to measure all participants' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. In addition, 12 target students from the experimental group (i.e., six active and six passive students) were recruited for weekly classroom observations and follow-up interviews during the intervention. Both quantitative and qualitative findings revealed that experimental group students experienced significant impact as seen through increased attitudes and decreased anxiety of learning science. Implications for practice and research are provided.

  20. School factors affecting postsecondary career pursuits of high-achieving girls in mathematics and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hyunsil

    This study examined the influences of secondary school experiences of high-achieving girls in math and science on their postsecondary career pursuits in science fields. Specifically, using the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), the study investigated how science class experiences in high school affect science career persistence of high-achieving girls over and above personal and family factors. Selecting the top 10% on the 8 th grade math and science achievement tests from two panel samples of 1988--1994 and 1988--2000, this study examined which science instructional experiences (i.e., lecture-oriented, experiment-oriented, and student-oriented) best predicted college major choices and postsecondary degree attainments in the fields of science after controlling for personal and family factors. A two-stage test was employed for the analysis of each panel sample. The first test examined the dichotomous career pursuits between science careers and non-science careers and the second test examined the dichotomous pursuits within science careers: "hard" science and "soft" science. Logistic regression procedures were used with consideration of panel weights and design effects. This study identified that experiment-oriented and student-oriented instructional practices seem to positively affect science career pursuits of high-achieving females, while lecture-oriented instruction negatively affected their science career pursuits, and that the longitudinal effects of the two positive instructional contributors to science career pursuits appear to be differential between major choice and degree attainment. This study also found that the influences of instructional practices seem to be slight for general females, while those for high-achieving females were highly considerable, regardless of whether negative or positive. Another result of the study found that only student-oriented instruction seemed to have positive effects for high-achieving males. In

  1. Perceived Social Supports, Computer Self-Efficacy, and Computer Use among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Hsi-Chi; Tu, Ya-Ling; Chung, Hsin-Nan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the function of social supports and computer self-efficacy in predicting high school students' perceived effect of computer use. The study was survey method to collect data. The questionnaires were distributed to the high school students in Taiwan. 620 questionnaires were distributed and 525 questionnaires were gathered…

  2. Software Systems for High-performance Quantum Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; Britt, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    Quantum computing promises new opportunities for solving hard computational problems, but harnessing this novelty requires breakthrough concepts in the design, operation, and application of computing systems. We define some of the challenges facing the development of quantum computing systems as well as software-based approaches that can be used to overcome these challenges. Following a brief overview of the state of the art, we present models for the quantum programming and execution models, the development of architectures for hybrid high-performance computing systems, and the realization of software stacks for quantum networking. This leads to a discussion of the role that conventional computing plays in the quantum paradigm and how some of the current challenges for exascale computing overlap with those facing quantum computing.

  3. Promoting High-Performance Computing and Communications. A CBO Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webre, Philip

    In 1991 the Federal Government initiated the multiagency High Performance Computing and Communications program (HPCC) to further the development of U.S. supercomputer technology and high-speed computer network technology. This overview by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) concentrates on obstacles that might prevent the growth of the…

  4. Predictors of Enrollment in High School Computer Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, N. Jo; Perry, Katye M.

    Factors affecting the motivation of high school students to learn to use computers were examined in this study. The subjects were 160 students enrolled in a large city high school, 89 females and 71 males who represented five ethnic groups--White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian. The majority of subjects had prior computer coursework…

  5. NASA High Performance Computing and Communications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee; Smith, Paul; Hunter, Paul

    1994-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's HPCC program is part of a new Presidential initiative aimed at producing a 1000-fold increase in supercomputing speed and a 1(X)-fold improvement in available communications capability by 1997. As more advanced technologies are developed under the HPCC program, they will be used to solve NASA's 'Grand Challenge' problems, which include improving the design and simulation of advanced aerospace vehicles, allowing people at remote locations to communicate more effectively and share information, increasing scientists' abilities to model the Earth's climate and forecast global environmental trends, and improving the development of advanced spacecraft. NASA's HPCC program is organized into three projects which are unique to the agency's mission: the Computational Aerosciences (CAS) project, the Earth and Space Sciences (ESS) project, and the Remote Exploration and Experimentation (REE) project. An additional project, the Basic Research and Human Resources (BRHR) project, exists to promote long term research in computer science and engineering and to increase the pool of trained personnel in a variety of scientific disciplines. This document presents an overview of the objectives and organization of these projects, as well as summaries of early accomplishments and the significance, status, and plans for individual research and development programs within each project. Areas of emphasis include benchmarking, testbeds, software and simulation methods.

  6. NASA high performance computing and communications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee; Smith, Paul; Hunter, Paul

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's HPCC program is part of a new Presidential initiative aimed at producing a 1000-fold increase in supercomputing speed and a 100-fold improvement in available communications capability by 1997. As more advanced technologies are developed under the HPCC program, they will be used to solve NASA's 'Grand Challenge' problems, which include improving the design and simulation of advanced aerospace vehicles, allowing people at remote locations to communicate more effectively and share information, increasing scientist's abilities to model the Earth's climate and forecast global environmental trends, and improving the development of advanced spacecraft. NASA's HPCC program is organized into three projects which are unique to the agency's mission: the Computational Aerosciences (CAS) project, the Earth and Space Sciences (ESS) project, and the Remote Exploration and Experimentation (REE) project. An additional project, the Basic Research and Human Resources (BRHR) project exists to promote long term research in computer science and engineering and to increase the pool of trained personnel in a variety of scientific disciplines. This document presents an overview of the objectives and organization of these projects as well as summaries of individual research and development programs within each project.

  7. Building a High Performance Computing Infrastructure for Novosibirsk Scientific Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adakin, A.; Belov, S.; Chubarov, D.; Kalyuzhny, V.; Kaplin, V.; Kuchin, N.; Lomakin, S.; Nikultsev, V.; Sukharev, A.; Zaytsev, A.

    2011-12-01

    Novosibirsk Scientific Center (NSC), also known worldwide as Akademgorodok, is one of the largest Russian scientific centers hosting Novosibirsk State University (NSU) and more than 35 research organizations of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences including Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Institute of Computational Technologies (ICT), and Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics (ICM&MG). Since each institute has specific requirements on the architecture of the computing farms involved in its research field, currentiy we've got several computing facilities hosted by NSC institutes, each optimized for the particular set of tasks, of which the largest are the NSU Supercomputer Center, Siberian Supercomputer Center (ICM&MG), and a Grid Computing Facility of BINP. Recendy a dedicated optical network with the initial bandwidth of 10 Gbps connecting these three facilities was built in order to make it possible to share the computing resources among the research communities of participating institutes, thus providing a common platform for building the computing infrastructure for various scientific projects. Unification of the computing infrastructure is achieved by extensive use of virtualization technologies based on XEN and KVM platforms. The solution implemented was tested thoroughly within the computing environment of KEDR detector experiment which is being carried out at BINP, and foreseen to be applied to the use cases of other HEP experiments in the upcoming future.

  8. The effects of computer simulation versus hands-on dissection and the placement of computer simulation within the learning cycle on student achievement and attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Kathryn Susan

    The value of dissection as an instructional strategy has been debated, but not evidenced in research literature. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of using computer simulated frog dissection as a substitute for traditional hands-on frog dissection and to examine the possible enhancement of achievement by combining the two strategies in a specific sequence. In this study, 134 biology students at two Central Texas schools were divided into the five following treatment groups: computer simulation of frog dissection, computer simulation before dissection, traditional hands-on frog dissection, dissection before computer simulation, and textual worksheet materials. The effects on achievement were evaluated by labeling 10 structures on three diagrams, identifying 11 pinned structures on a prosected frog, and answering 9 multiple-choice questions over the dissection process. Attitude was evaluated using a thirty item survey with a five-point Likert scale. The quasi-experimental design was pretest/post-test/post-test nonequivalent group for both control and experimental groups, a 2 x 2 x 5 completely randomized factorial design (gender, school, five treatments). The pretest/post-test design was incorporated to control for prior knowledge using analysis of covariance. The dissection only group evidenced a significantly higher performance than all other treatments except dissection-then-computer on the post-test segment requiring students to label pinned anatomical parts on a prosected frog. Interactions between treatment and school in addition to interaction between treatment and gender were found to be significant. The diagram and attitude post-tests evidenced no significant difference. Results on the nine multiple-choice questions about dissection procedures indicated a significant difference between schools. The interaction between treatment and school was also found to be significant. On a delayed post-test, a significant difference in gender was

  9. High Available COTS Based Computer for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, J.; Magistrati, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    The availability and reliability factors of a system are central requirements of a target application. From a simple fuel injection system used in cars up to a flight control system of an autonomous navigating spacecraft, each application defines its specific availability factor under the target application boundary conditions. Increasing quality requirements on data processing systems used in space flight applications calling for new architectures to fulfill the availability, reliability as well as the increase of the required data processing power. Contrary to the increased quality request simplification and use of COTS components to decrease costs while keeping the interface compatibility to currently used system standards are clear customer needs. Data processing system design is mostly dominated by strict fulfillment of the customer requirements and reuse of available computer systems were not always possible caused by obsolescence of EEE-Parts, insufficient IO capabilities or the fact that available data processing systems did not provide the required scalability and performance.

  10. RISC Processors and High Performance Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Saini, Subhash; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This tutorial will discuss the top five RISC microprocessors and the parallel systems in which they are used. It will provide a unique cross-machine comparison not available elsewhere. The effective performance of these processors will be compared by citing standard benchmarks in the context of real applications. The latest NAS Parallel Benchmarks, both absolute performance and performance per dollar, will be listed. The next generation of the NPB will be described. The tutorial will conclude with a discussion of future directions in the field. Technology Transfer Considerations: All of these computer systems are commercially available internationally. Information about these processors is available in the public domain, mostly from the vendors themselves. The NAS Parallel Benchmarks and their results have been previously approved numerous times for public release, beginning back in 1991.

  11. Volume Visualizing High-Resolution Turbulence Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyne, John; Scheitlin, Tim; Weiss, Jeffrey B.

    Using several volume-visualization packages including a new package we developed called Volsh, we investigate a 25-Gbyte dataset from a 2563 computation of decaying quasi-geostrophic turbulence. We compare surface fitting and direct volume rendering approaches, as well as a number of techniques for producing feature-revealing spatial cues. We also study the pros and cons of using batch and interactive tools for visualizing the data and discuss the relative merits of using each approach. We find that each tool has its own advantages and disadvantages, and a combination of tools is most effective at exploring large four-dimensional scalar datasets. The resulting visualizations show several new phenomena in the dynamics of coherent vortices.

  12. High performance computations using dynamical nucleation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Windus, Theresa L.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Crosby, Lonnie D.

    2008-07-14

    Chemists continue to explore the use of very large computations to perform simulations that describe the molecular level physics of critical challenges in science. In this paper, the Dynamical Nucleation Theory Monte Carlo (DNTMC) model - a model for determining molecular scale nucleation rate constants - and its parallel capabilities are described. The potential for bottlenecks and the challenges to running on future petascale or larger resources are delineated. A "master-slave" solution is proposed to scale to the petascale and will be developed in the NWChem software. In addition, mathematical and data analysis challenges are also described. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  13. High-Speed Photography with Computer Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Loren M.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the use of a microcomputer as an intervalometer for the control and timing of several flash units to photograph high-speed events. Applies this technology to study the oscillations of a stretched rubber band, the deceleration of high-speed projectiles in water, the splashes of milk drops, and the bursts of popcorn kernels. (MDH)

  14. "It's a Way of Life for Us": High Mobility and High Achievement in Department of Defense Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smrekar, Claire E.; Owens, Debra E.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the academic performance of students in U.S. Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) schools, which have high student mobility. Some observers contend that these students' high achievement is a function of their middle class family and community characteristics. Asserts that DoDEA schools simultaneously "do the right things" and…

  15. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Updated Analyses with NAEP Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The present research is a follow-up study of earlier published analyses that looked at the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement in 25 states. Using the previously derived Accountability Pressure Index (APR) as a measure of state-level policy pressure for performance on standardized tests, a series of…

  16. Performance-Approach Goal Effects on Achievement under Low versus High Challenge Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Durik, Amanda M.; Patel, Lily; Lovejoy, Chelsea M.; Valentiner, David

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the effects of university students' achievement goals on performance under low versus high challenge conditions. The first was a laboratory experiment in which participants were assigned goals to pursue on a novel mathematics task alleged to be simple or complex to use. The second was a survey study in which students set goals…

  17. Impact of Physical Environment on Academic Achievement of High School Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Bettye B.

    1983-01-01

    To study the relationship of the physical environment to high school students' academic achievement, 60 students participated in an experiential career exploration program at the Alabama Space and Rocket Center while 108 students participated in a traditional careers program. Tests indicated the former group improved more in career choice…

  18. Universal Factors of Student Achievement in High-Performing Eastern and Western Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether a common set of student attitudes and behavioral tendencies can account for academic achievement across different, especially high-performing, countries via analysis of the PISA 2009 international data set. The 13 countries examined are 5 of the top-performing Eastern countries/systems, namely Shanghai China, South…

  19. The Federal Transformation Intervention Model in Persistently Lowest Achieving High Schools: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Patner, Michelle B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act federal mandate of the Transformation Intervention Model (TIM) outlined by the School Improvement Grant, which was designed to turn around persistently lowest achieving schools. The study was conducted in four high schools in a large Southern California urban district that selected the…

  20. Excellence in English in Middle and High School: How Teachers' Professional Lives Support Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Judith A.

    The Center on English Learning and Achievement (CELA) has been studying the characteristics of successful English programs in middle and high schools. This report discusses the findings of the first two years of their 5-year Excellence in English study and focuses on the educational practices that support student literacy as well as the…

  1. Social Media Use, Loneliness, and Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study with Urban High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neto, Roque; Golz, Nancy; Polega, Meaghan

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the association between social media use, loneliness, and academic achievement in high school students and identified the demographic characteristics associated with these three elements. This study also aimed to identify the percentage of variance in loneliness accounted for by social media use and GPA. Participants were 345…

  2. Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement of High School Students in Kanyakumari District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Deepa, T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to find the significant relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement of high school students with reference to the background variables. Survey method was employed. Two tools are used in this study namely self-made Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue SF) and the…

  3. Conflicts and Communication between High-Achieving Chinese American Adolescents and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Chang, Tzu-Fen; Han, Eun-Jin; Chee, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interview data collected on 18 high-achieving Chinese American students, the authors examine domains of acculturation-based conflicts, parent and child internal conflicts, and conflict resolution in their families. Their analyses show that well-established negative communication patterns in educational expectations, divergent…

  4. New Counter-School Cultures: Female Students' Drug Use at a High-Achieving Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Adam; Bonell, Chris; Rhodes, Tim

    2009-01-01

    We draw on case-study research at a high-achieving secondary school in London to illustrate how school experiences may influence drug use and reproduce inequalities in reconstructed ways in late modernity. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with students and teachers, and observations. We focus in particular on the…

  5. How High-Achieving African American Undergraduate Men Negotiate Cultural Challenges at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Elva Elaine

    2010-01-01

    In this study I examine the manner in which high-achieving African American undergraduate men negotiate cultural challenges in a predominantly White institution (PWI). Cultural theory underpins the conceptual framework of this case study. Basing the study in cultural theory provided a lens through which to view the lived experiences of the twenty…

  6. Examining the Relationships between Math Achievement and the Resiliency of High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Mona

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the relationship between math achievement and student resiliency among high school seniors. Seniors from nine school districts in southeast Texas participated by answering a short demographic survey and the "Healthy Kids Resiliency Assessment" (Constantine & Benard, 2001). A total of 457 surveys were…

  7. An Exploratory Study Contrasting High- and Low-Achieving Students' Percent Word Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Star, Jon R.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated whether schema-based instruction (SBI), a promising method for teaching students to represent and solve mathematical word problems, impacted the learning of percent word problems. Of particular interest was the extent that SBI improved high- and low-achieving students' learning and to a lesser degree on the indirect effect of…

  8. High School Success: An Effective Intervention for Achievement and Dropout Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowder, Christopher Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-design study was to use quantitative and qualitative research to explore the effects of High School Success (a course for at-risk ninth graders) and its effectiveness on student achievement, attendance, and dropout prevention. The research questions address whether there is a significant difference between at-risk ninth…

  9. Obesity, High-Calorie Food Intake, and Academic Achievement Trends among U.S. School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jian; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated children's self-reported high-calorie food intake in Grade 5 and its relationship to trends in obesity status and academic achievement over the first 6 years of school. They used 3-level hierarchical linear models in the large-scale database (the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort). Findings indicated…

  10. The Effects of Alcohol Use on Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Giuliano, Laura M.; French, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's grade point average (GPA) abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that…

  11. Confronting the Universal Disbelief that Poor Children Can Achieve at High Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelleher, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In her first year as superintendent of the Atlanta Public Schools, Beverly Hall encountered what she describes as the nearly universal disbelief that poor children of color can achieve high levels of learning. This chapter recounts how she confronted this and other obstacles and challenges as the new leader of the Atlanta Public Schools. Hall is…

  12. Faculty Perceptions of High-Achieving Male Collegians: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    Critical race theory was employed as an interpretive framework to explore faculty perceptions of the academic accomplishments of high-achieving Black and White male collegians. Using photo elicitation methodology, faculty participants responded to a randomly assigned photograph of and vignette about either a Black or White male student. While most…

  13. A Study of the Impact of Block Scheduling on Student Academic Achievement in Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Mary Kay

    2010-01-01

    The number of public high schools implementing a semester 4 x 4 block scheduling design within the state of South Carolina has tripled since 2005. However, minimal local research has been conducted regarding the impact of block scheduling on student academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to determine if significant differences exist…

  14. Antecedent and Concurrent Psychosocial Skills That Support High Levels of Achievement within Talent Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation and emotional regulation are important for the sustained focused study and practice required for high levels of achievement and creative productivity in adulthood. Using the talent development model proposed by the authors as a framework, the authors discuss several important psychosocial skills based on the psychological research…

  15. The Relationship between Student Attendance and Academic Achievement in a Selected South Dakota High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    There is limited research available on the relationship between student attendance and academic achievement in secondary school. This quantitative, non-experimental study, conducted within a South Dakota high school of students in grades 9-12 during the years 2006-2012, examined the relationship between student attendance and academic achievement…

  16. Ugandan Immigrant Students' Perceptions of Barriers to Academic Achievement in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ssekannyo, Denis

    2010-01-01

    In a world that is now a global village, enterprising individuals, especially from Third World countries, who make it to greener pastures do not leave their children behind. But with a long list of barriers to academic achievement associated with immigrant and minority students in American high schools, an understanding of the experiences and…

  17. Narrowing the Academic Achievement Gap among High School Latino Students through Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    The low academic achievement among Latino students in many inner city high schools leads to higher failure, dropout, and absenteeism rates, as well as lower standardized test scores and graduation rates. The purpose of this study was to explore whether Latino parental attitudes toward and perceptions, level of, and form of involvement may be…

  18. Being Labeled "Nerd": Factors that Influence the Social Acceptance of High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzsch, Katrin; Schutz, Astrid; Schroder-Abe, Michela

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation addresses the question of whether certain factors can protect high-achieving students at risk for being labeled a nerd against devaluation. In 2 studies, 125 and 317 students from Grade 8 evaluated vignettes describing average students and students who were called "nerds." Results indicate that being modest about good…

  19. Students' High School Organizational Leadership Opportunities and Their Influences on Academic Achievement and Civic Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elemen, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze high school leadership praxis for its inclusion of students in organizational leadership dialogue and decision-making and the influences of these factors on student achievement and civic participation. Survey questionnaire data were provided by 215 full-time enrolled undergraduate students from…

  20. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Does Accountability Pressure Increase Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement across 25 states. Standardized portfolios were created for each study state. Each portfolio contained a range of documents that told the "story" of accountability implementation and impact in that state. Using the "law of comparative judgments," over…

  1. Further Evidence of an Engagement-Achievement Paradox among U.S. High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shernoff, David J.; Schmidt, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    Achievement, engagement, and students' quality of experience were compared by racial and ethnic group in a sample of students (N = 586) drawn from 13 high schools with diverse ethnic and socioeconomic student populations. Using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), 3,529 samples of classroom experiences were analyzed along with self-reported…

  2. Ego Identity, Cognitive Ability, and Academic Achievement: Variances, Relationships, and Gender Differences Among High School Sophomores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrabel, Thomas J.

    This study examined the contributions of cognitive quantitative ability, cognitive verbal ability, normed test achievement and grade point average to the ego identity of 202 high school sophomores. The instrumentation used in this study was as follows: (1) Rasmussen Ego Identity Scale: Revised Short Form; (2) The 3-R's Abilities and Achievement…

  3. Integrating Economic and Social Policy: Good Practices from High-Achieving Countries. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Santosh

    This paper examines the successes of 10 "high achievers," countries with social indicators far higher than might be expected, given their national wealth, pulling together the lessons learned for social policy in the developing world. The 10 countries identified are Costa Rica, Cuba, Barbados, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Kerala, Sri Lanka,…

  4. The Relationship between Student Achievement and Charter High Schools in Washington, DC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if differences in student achievement existed between traditional public and charter high schools in the District of Columbia. The study examined student outcomes on the standardized state test in reading and math from 2006 to 2010 utilizing descriptive statistics, crosstab analysis, chi-square tests…

  5. Experiencing More Mathematics Anxiety than Expected? Contrasting Trait and State Anxiety in High Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, A.-L.; Bieg, M.; Goetz, T.; Frenzel, A. C.; Taxer, J.; Zeidner, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to…

  6. Actively Closing the Gap? Social Class, Organized Activities, and Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…

  7. The College-Choice Process of High Achieving Freshmen: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the college-choice process of high achieving students. Employing current literature and previous research, it combined current models of college choice and the influential factors identified throughout the literature while utilizing the concept of bounded rationality to create a conceptual framework to…

  8. Communication Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and the Relationship to Student Achievement in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Gayle A.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a correlational design that allowed the researcher to examine the relationship among communication satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and student achievement. High school teachers were surveyed from a convenience sample of 12 school districts in Arizona. Established instruments were used to survey…

  9. Turkish High School Students' Biology Achievement in Relation to Academic Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yumusak, Necmettin; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the contribution of motivational beliefs, cognitive, and metacognitive strategy use to Turkish high school students' achievement in biology. In order to investigate the specified purpose of the study, 519 tenth-grade students were administered the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith,…

  10. Moving beyond Time and Choice: Challenge, Motivation and Achievement during Independent Reading in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perks, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    In response to concerns about poor engagement and achievement in reading, some high schools have implemented independent reading programs to give students time to read self-selected texts during school. Some schools are also adopting the Lexile framework as a tool for matching readers with challenging texts in order to improve reading motivation…

  11. The Impact of Reading Success Academy on High School Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlison, Kelly; Chave, Josh

    2014-01-01

    The study explores the effectiveness of the Reading Success Academy on the reading achievement of the selected group of ninth-grade students in a comprehensive high school. We examine in what ways the Reading Success Academy may improve the reading proficiency rates and amount of reading growth of ninth-grade students. The results indicate that…

  12. Effect of Textbook Readability on Student Achievement in High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, D. Neil

    2001-01-01

    Notes the readability level of many high school chemistry textbooks is far above students' reading levels. Conducts two separate studies, making every effort to keep the two classes as similar as possible in all aspects except text. Finds strong evidence that changing the chemistry textbook resulted in an increase in student achievement. Suggests…

  13. Organizational Practices of High-Achieving Rural School Districts in California's San Joaquin Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerksen, Amanda López; Wise, Donald

    2016-01-01

    For over 25 years, researchers have identified "best practices" used by high-achieving school districts. However, little research exists regarding rural school systems, making it difficult to determine whether the best practices identified are relevant within this context. This study filled a void in research by focusing on the…

  14. Cognitive Abilities and Motivational Processes in High School Students' Situational Engagement and Achievement in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Shun; Roeser, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Building on R. Snow's two pathways to achievement outcomes (1989), examined how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways respectively contributed to prediction of outcomes in science for 491 high school students. Results are consistent with Snow's conjecture that factors related to both pathways…

  15. Balancing Dreams and Realities: The College Choice Process for High-Achieving Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, Ebelia

    2015-01-01

    This study's narratives of 17 high-achieving Latinas revealed how their college choice was a constant balancing of individual and family expectations, being "close, but far enough away," and "getting your money's worth." With the use of critical race theory, further analysis revealed the influence of "familismo" on…

  16. Measuring the Outliers: An Introduction to Out-of-Level Testing with High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; Warne, Russell T.

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-level testing is an underused strategy for addressing the needs of students who score in the extremes, and when used wisely, it could provide educators with a much more accurate picture of what students know. Out-of-level testing has been shown to be an effective assessment strategy with high-achieving students; however, out-of-level…

  17. The Relationship between Illinois School District Superintendent Longevity and High School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libka, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Frequent changes in school district superintendents may be having a detrimental impact on student achievement. Rapid changes in leadership today parallel the present (NCLB) era of high stakes state assessments. The goal of the study was to provide correlation research that would have a positive effect on school district management, superintendent…

  18. Teachers and Student Achievement in the Chicago Public High Schools. WP 2002-28. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, Daniel; Barrow, Lisa; Sander, William

    2003-01-01

    Using unique administrative data on Chicago public high school students and their teachers, we are able to estimate the importance of teachers on student mathematical achievement. We find that teachers are educationally and statistically important. To be sure, sampling variation and other measurement issues can strongly influence estimates of…

  19. School Board-Superintendent Relations in Support of High Student Achievement. The Informed Educator Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porch, Stephanie; Protheroe, Nancy

    The context of school district governance is changing and becoming more complex. The individual roles of school board members and superintendents, and the relationship between school board members and superintendents are becoming increasingly important in light of the recent mandates for high student achievement. This brief looks at issues…

  20. The Transition Experiences of High-Achieving, Low-Income Undergraduates in an Elite College Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Paul J., II

    2012-01-01

    This hermeneutic phenomenological study describes the lived experiences of high-achieving, low-income undergraduates and their transition into a college environment historically reserved for wealthy students. The results of this study indicate that these students are flourishing in full need-based financial aid programs as a result of their own…

  1. What Attracts High-Achieving Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students to the Physical Sciences and Engineering?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Sarah; Canetto, Silvia Sara; MacPhee, David; Farro, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) students are less likely to major in physical sciences or engineering. To guide recruitment and retention of a diversity of talent, this study examined what attracts high-achieving SED students to these fields. Participants were 50 undergraduates majoring in physical sciences or engineering enrolled in the…

  2. Raising Reading Achievement in Middle and High Schools: Five Simple-to-Follow Strategies. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Elaine K.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), raising literacy levels in secondary schools has taken on a new urgency. Recognized literacy author, Elaine K. McEwan, focuses her revised second edition on enhancing the "five big ideas" for raising reading achievement with seven cognitive strategies of highly effective readers and more than…

  3. School Factors Related to Reading Achievement in Rural Schools with and without High Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Seth W.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study identified how rural schools differ on five school-level factors related to student achievement according to their performance on Grade 3 reading. Through use of a MANOVA test, it was shown that principals of high-poverty rural schools that made AYP in Grade 3 reading reported significantly higher levels of guaranteed and…

  4. Brain Structure and Resting-State Functional Connectivity in University Professors with High Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weiwei; Yang, Wenjing; Li, Wenfu; Li, Yadan; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Huimin; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2015-01-01

    Creative persons play an important role in technical innovation and social progress. There is little research on the neural correlates with researchers with high academic achievement. We used a combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity analysis, rsFC) approach to examine the…

  5. Consequences of the Confucian Culture: High Achievement but Negative Psychological Attributes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Irene T.; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2010-01-01

    In "Unforgiving Confucian culture: A breeding ground for high academic achievement, test anxiety and self-doubt?" Stankov (in press) provides three reasons for caution against over-glorifying the academic excellence of Confucian Asian learners, namely that it may lead to a reluctance to change their rote learning approach which is not conducive to…

  6. Academic Identity Status, Goal Orientation, and Academic Achievement among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hejazi, Elaheh; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali; Amani, Habib; Was, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between academic identity status, goal orientations and academic achievement. 301 first year high school students completed the Academic Identity Measure and Goal Orientation Questionnaire. The average of 10 exam scores in the final semester was used as an index of academic…

  7. High energy charged particle optics computer programs

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, D.C.

    1980-09-01

    The computer programs TRANSPORT and TURTLE are described, with special emphasis on recent developments. TRANSPORT is a general matrix evaluation and fitting program. First and second-order transfer matrix elements, including those contributing to time-of-flight differences can be evaluated. Matrix elements of both orders can be fit, separately or simultaneously. Floor coordinates of the beam line may be calculated and included in any fits. Tables of results of misalignments, including effects of bilinear terms can be produced. Fringe fields and pole face rotation angles of bending magnets may be included and also adjusted automatically during the fitting process to produce rectangular magnets. A great variety of output options are available. TURTLE is a Monte Carlo program used to simulate beam line performance. It includes second-order terms and aperture constraints. Replacable subroutines allow an unliminated variety of input beam distributions, scattering algorithms, variables which can be histogrammed, and aperture shapes. Histograms of beam loss can also be produced. Rectangular zero-gradient bending magnets with proper circular trajectories, sagitta offsets, pole face rotation angles, and aperture constraints can be included. The effect of multiple components of quadrupoles up to 40 poles can be evaluated.

  8. A high performance scientific cloud computing environment for materials simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorissen, K.; Vila, F. D.; Rehr, J. J.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the development of a scientific cloud computing (SCC) platform that offers high performance computation capability. The platform consists of a scientific virtual machine prototype containing a UNIX operating system and several materials science codes, together with essential interface tools (an SCC toolset) that offers functionality comparable to local compute clusters. In particular, our SCC toolset provides automatic creation of virtual clusters for parallel computing, including tools for execution and monitoring performance, as well as efficient I/O utilities that enable seamless connections to and from the cloud. Our SCC platform is optimized for the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). We present benchmarks for prototypical scientific applications and demonstrate performance comparable to local compute clusters. To facilitate code execution and provide user-friendly access, we have also integrated cloud computing capability in a JAVA-based GUI. Our SCC platform may be an alternative to traditional HPC resources for materials science or quantum chemistry applications.

  9. Course Syllabi: High Expectations...High Achievement. Social Studies (and) History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray State Univ., KY.

    The document describes social studies and history courses offered in the junior high and senior high schools of Henry County, Tennessee. The syllabi were developed as part of a Teacher's Corps Demonstration Project. The overall objectives of the syllabi are to inform students and parents of the minimum competencies expected in social studies and…

  10. High Expectations--High Achievement on Literacy: "What Shall We Do in This Hangman's Hour?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnakyla, Pirjo

    Finland is a country of great expectations on literacy and literacy education. High expectations and demands have, however, a darker side. High expectations of society, parents, and teachers may have an effect on the students' self-esteem. The economic recession in the early 1990s strongly accelerated the change in literacy demands and…

  11. The Information Search Process of High, Middle, and Low Achieving High School Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlthau, Carol C.

    Traditionally, library instruction has been based on the sources in the library and not on the process of seeking information. A new approach to library skills may be needed to enable students to become effective information users. This study investigated the information search process of 140 high school seniors in six high schools. Subjects were…

  12. Cultivating a Growth Mindset in Students at a High-Achieving High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fegley, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this EPP is to develop a plan for changing the mindset of a large number of Haddonfield Memorial High School (HMHS) students from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset. HMHS is by most conventional measures a high performing school. Typically 100% of the students graduate with 96% of the students attending two or four year colleges…

  13. No More 1s: High Expectations Can Lead to High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervone, Laureen; DiMartino, Lisa; Kerr, Kris

    2010-01-01

    The school district in Middletown, New York, in the state's Orange County, today serves close to 7,000 students in four elementary schools, two middle schools, and one high school. The district is classified by the state in the highest of three Need-to-Resource-Capacity groups, an urban or suburban school district with high student needs in…

  14. Nuclear Forces and High-Performance Computing: The Perfect Match

    SciTech Connect

    Luu, T; Walker-Loud, A

    2009-06-12

    High-performance computing is now enabling the calculation of certain nuclear interaction parameters directly from Quantum Chromodynamics, the quantum field theory that governs the behavior of quarks and gluons and is ultimately responsible for the nuclear strong force. We briefly describe the state of the field and describe how progress in this field will impact the greater nuclear physics community. We give estimates of computational requirements needed to obtain certain milestones and describe the scientific and computational challenges of this field.

  15. Low latency, high bandwidth data communications between compute nodes in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-11-02

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for low latency, high bandwidth data communications between compute nodes in a parallel computer. Embodiments include receiving, by an origin direct memory access (`DMA`) engine of an origin compute node, data for transfer to a target compute node; sending, by the origin DMA engine of the origin compute node to a target DMA engine on the target compute node, a request to send (`RTS`) message; transferring, by the origin DMA engine, a predetermined portion of the data to the target compute node using memory FIFO operation; determining, by the origin DMA engine whether an acknowledgement of the RTS message has been received from the target DMA engine; if the an acknowledgement of the RTS message has not been received, transferring, by the origin DMA engine, another predetermined portion of the data to the target compute node using a memory FIFO operation; and if the acknowledgement of the RTS message has been received by the origin DMA engine, transferring, by the origin DMA engine, any remaining portion of the data to the target compute node using a direct put operation.

  16. Achieving highly dispersed nanofibres at high loading in carbon nanofibre-metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jianli; Nash, Philip; Li, Jiajun; Shi, Chunsheng; Zhao, Naiqin

    2009-06-01

    In order to tap into the advantages of the properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or carbon nanofibres (CNFs) in composites, the high dispersion of CNTs (or CNFs) and strong interfacial bonding are the key issues which are still challenging. In the current work, a novel approach, consisting of in situ synthesis of CNFs within the Cu powders and mixing Cu ions with the in situ CNF(Ni/Y)-Cu composite powders in a solvent, was developed to highly disperse CNFs in a Cu matrix. The composite, produced by vacuum hot pressing, shows extremely high strength, 3.6 times more than that of the matrix material alone. It is worth mentioning that this method can disperse CNFs at high loading in a metal matrix, inferring good potential for applications, such as electronic packaging materials.

  17. Lanczos eigensolution method for high-performance computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostic, Susan W.

    1991-01-01

    The theory, computational analysis, and applications are presented of a Lanczos algorithm on high performance computers. The computationally intensive steps of the algorithm are identified as: the matrix factorization, the forward/backward equation solution, and the matrix vector multiples. These computational steps are optimized to exploit the vector and parallel capabilities of high performance computers. The savings in computational time from applying optimization techniques such as: variable band and sparse data storage and access, loop unrolling, use of local memory, and compiler directives are presented. Two large scale structural analysis applications are described: the buckling of a composite blade stiffened panel with a cutout, and the vibration analysis of a high speed civil transport. The sequential computational time for the panel problem executed on a CONVEX computer of 181.6 seconds was decreased to 14.1 seconds with the optimized vector algorithm. The best computational time of 23 seconds for the transport problem with 17,000 degs of freedom was on the the Cray-YMP using an average of 3.63 processors.

  18. Modeling stability of growth between mathematics and science achievement during middle and high school.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Ma, Lingling

    2004-04-01

    In this study, the authors introduced a multivariate multilevel model to estimate the consistency among students and schools in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement during the entire middle and high school years with data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY). There was no evident consistency in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among students, and this inconsistency was not much influenced by student characteristics and school characteristics. However, there was evident consistency in the average rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among schools, and this consistency was influenced by student characteristics and school characteristics. Major school-level variables associated with parental involvement did not show any significant impacts on consistency among either students or schools. Results call for educational policies that promote collaboration between mathematics and science departments or teachers.

  19. Multicore Challenges and Benefits for High Performance Scientific Computing

    DOE PAGES

    Nielsen, Ida M. B.; Janssen, Curtis L.

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, performance gains in processors were achieved largely by improvements in clock speeds and instruction level parallelism. Thus, applications could obtain performance increases with relatively minor changes by upgrading to the latest generation of computing hardware. Currently, however, processor performance improvements are realized by using multicore technology and hardware support for multiple threads within each core, and taking full advantage of this technology to improve the performance of applications requires exposure of extreme levels of software parallelism. We will here discuss the architecture of parallel computers constructed from many multicore chips as well as techniques for managing the complexitymore » of programming such computers, including the hybrid message-passing/multi-threading programming model. We will illustrate these ideas with a hybrid distributed memory matrix multiply and a quantum chemistry algorithm for energy computation using Møller–Plesset perturbation theory.« less

  20. Toward a new metric for ranking high performance computing systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael Allen; Dongarra, Jack.

    2013-06-01

    The High Performance Linpack (HPL), or Top 500, benchmark [1] is the most widely recognized and discussed metric for ranking high performance computing systems. However, HPL is increasingly unreliable as a true measure of system performance for a growing collection of important science and engineering applications. In this paper we describe a new high performance conjugate gradient (HPCG) benchmark. HPCG is composed of computations and data access patterns more commonly found in applications. Using HPCG we strive for a better correlation to real scientific application performance and expect to drive computer system design and implementation in directions that will better impact performance improvement.

  1. Relationship of constructivist learning environment to student attitudes and achievement in high school mathematics and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethlefs, Theresa Marie

    This study investigated the relationship of constructivist learning environment and standards-based teaching practices to student achievement and attitudes (self-efficacy, intrinsic value, and learning strategies) in Algebra and Biology. Further, these relationships were examined as a function of student gender and prior achievement. A purposive sample of 804 high school students enrolled in Biology I, Algebra I, or Advanced Algebra was selected for inclusion in this study. Although the dimensions of constructivist learning environment that contributed to predicting student achievement and attitudes varied by content area and criterion, the results of the present study generally provide strong support for a positive relationship between constructivist learning environment and student attitudes, but little support for a direct relationship to student achievement. Teacher reports of overall constructivist learning environment were not correlated with achievement or attitudes. Observer reports of constructivist learning environment were correlated with student intrinsic value and learning strategies. Student reports of constructivist learning environment were correlated with all three attitude measures. Multiple regression findings showed that neither overall constructivist learning environment nor standards-based teaching practices predicted achievement in any of the content areas. Overall constructivist learning environment and standards-based teaching practices were significant positive predictors of student intrinsic value and learning strategies in all three content areas, after controlling for student and classroom demographic variables. Overall constructivist learning environment and standards-based teaching practices were also significant positive predictors of self-efficacy in Algebra 1. In addition, standards-based teaching practices was a significant positive predictor of student self-efficacy in Biology. No specific dimensions of constructivist learning

  2. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    PubMed

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  3. High School Computer Science Education: A Five-State Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the place of computer science education in the high school curriculum and reports on a survey of schools in five states that investigated computer science teaching responsibilities, hardware and software use, programming languages, how teachers rank instructional resources, and how teachers rank opportunities for their own skill…

  4. A Research and Development Strategy for High Performance Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC.

    This report is the result of a systematic review of the status and directions of high performance computing and its relationship to federal research and development. Conducted by the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET), the review involved a series of workshops attended by numerous computer scientists and…

  5. Pascal: The New Word in High School Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Argues that trends in upper elementary and higher education computer science programs should lead to programming as focus of high school computer curriculum, and reviews philosophies supporting teaching of programming. Advantages and disadvantages of using Pascal and other languages are discussed and compared. Teacher information sources on Pascal…

  6. Computer-Assisted Behavioral Health Counseling for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Kent E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared computer-assisted behavioral health counseling intervention for high school students (N=45) with a health tip educational intervention (N=17) and an assessment only group (N=15). Found significant dietary improvement among computer-assisted counseling group and lesser improvement among two control groups. (Author/CM)

  7. The Computer Industry. High Technology Industries: Profiles and Outlooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Trade Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

    A series of meetings was held to assess future problems in United States high technology, particularly in the fields of robotics, computers, semiconductors, and telecommunications. This report, which focuses on the computer industry, includes a profile of this industry and the papers presented by industry speakers during the meetings. The profile…

  8. Achievement Motivation of the High School Students: A Case Study among Different Communities of Goalpara District of Assam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarangi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Achievement motivation is a consistent striving force of an individual to achieve success to a certain standard of excellence in competing situation. In this study an attempt was made to study the effect of achievement motivation on the academic achievement of the high school students of tribal and non tribal communities in relation to their sex…

  9. High-performance neural networks. [Neural computers

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.

    1987-06-01

    The new Forth hardware architectures offer an intermediate solution to high-performance neural networks while the theory and programming details of neural networks for synthetic intelligence are developed. This approach has been used successfully to determine the parameters and run the resulting network for a synthetic insect consisting of a 200-node ''brain'' with 1760 interconnections. Both the insect's environment and its sensor input have thus far been simulated. However, the frequency-coded nature of the Browning network allows easy replacement of the simulated sensors by real-world counterparts.

  10. High field electrophoresis—computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, M. J.; Kułakowski, K.

    2004-11-01

    We describe for the first time the results, obtained by means of a new two-dimensional version of a cellular automaton (2DA), designed for the simulation of the gel electrophoresis at high fields. The calculations are performed up to N=442 reptons. The results are compared with those from a modified version of the one-dimensional automaton (1DA), which has been constructed previously. The modification is that the movements of different parts of a molecule of DNA are treated as statistically independent events. This approach is applied also for 2DA. Main results are: (i) for long molecules (N≫1) the velocity v tends to a constant both for 1DA and 2DA; (ii) the diffusion coefficient D for 2DA increases with N; (iii) 2DA enables the formation of so-called hernias, i.e. fragments of DNA locally perpendicular to the molecule, and (iv) a direct observation of the geometration effect. The results (i) and (ii) mimic the experimental behavior at high electric fields. We also calculate a dimensionless quantity y=D/(Lv), where L=Na is the molecule length and a is the stiffness length. The discussion of y reveals the role of the length fluctuations.

  11. Achieving the Complete-Basis Limit in Large Molecular Clusters: Computationally Efficient Procedures to Eliminate Basis-Set Superposition Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Ryan M.; Herbert, John M.

    2013-06-01

    Previous electronic structure studies that have relied on fragmentation have been primarily interested in those methods' abilities to replicate the supersystem energy (or a related energy difference) without recourse to the ability of those supersystem results to replicate experiment or high accuracy benchmarks. Here we focus on replicating accurate ab initio benchmarks, that are suitable for comparison to experimental data. In doing this it becomes imperative that we correct our methods for basis-set superposition errors (BSSE) in a computationally feasible way. This criterion leads us to develop a new method for BSSE correction, which we term the many-body counterpoise correction, or MBn for short. MBn is truncated at order n, in much the same manner as a normal many-body expansion leading to a decrease in computational time. Furthermore, its formulation in terms of fragments makes it especially suitable for use with pre-existing fragment codes. A secondary focus of this study is directed at assessing fragment methods' abilities to extrapolate to the complete basis set (CBS) limit as well as compute approximate triples corrections. Ultimately, by analysis of (H_2O)_6 and (H_2O)_{10}F^- systems, it is concluded that with large enough basis-sets (triple or quad zeta) fragment based methods can replicate high level benchmarks in a fraction of the time.

  12. High-definition three-dimensional television disparity map computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chammem, Afef; Mitrea, Mihai; Prêteux, Françoise

    2012-10-01

    By reconsidering some two-dimensional video inherited approaches and by adapting them to the stereoscopic video content and to the human visual system peculiarities, a new disparity map is designed. First, the inner relation between the left and the right views is modeled by some weights discriminating between the horizontal and vertical disparities. Second, the block matching operation is achieved by considering a visual related measure (normalized cross correlation) instead of the traditional pixel differences (mean squared error or sum of absolute differences). The advanced three-dimensional (3-D) video-new three step search (3DV-NTSS) disparity map (3-D Video-New Three Step Search) is benchmarked against two state-of-the-art algorithms, namely NTSS and full-search MPEG (FS-MPEG), by successively considering two corpora. The first corpus was organized during the 3DLive French national project and regroups 20 min of stereoscopic video sequences. The second one, with similar size, is provided by the MPEG community. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of 3DV-NTSS in both reconstructed image quality (average gains between 3% and 7% in both PSNR and structural similarity, with a singular exception) and computational cost (search operation number reduced by average factors between 1.3 and 13). The 3DV-NTSS was finally validated by designing a watermarking method for high definition 3-D TV content protection.

  13. How One Historically Underperforming Rural and Highly Diverse High School Achieved a Successful Turnaround

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Gerri M.; Huggins, Kristin S.; Scheurich, James J.

    2010-01-01

    "Central High School," a rural school composed largely of students of color from low income homes, experienced a quick, remarkable turnaround of student academic success, measured by State and Federal accountability standards. This turnaround began with an external restructuring grant initiative that required a state-approved external consultant.…

  14. A general strategy to achieve ultra-high gene transfection efficiency using lipid-nanoparticle composites.

    PubMed

    Vankayala, Raviraj; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Chao, Jui-I; Yuan, Chiun-Jye; Lin, Shyr-Yeu; Hwang, Kuo Chu

    2014-09-01

    Gene therapy provides a new hope for previously "incurable" diseases. Low gene transfection efficiency, however, is the bottle-neck to the success of gene therapy. It is very challenging to develop non-viral nanocarriers to achieve ultra-high gene transfection efficiencies. Herein, we report a novel design of "tight binding-but-detachable" lipid-nanoparticle composite to achieve ultrahigh gene transfection efficiencies of 60∼82%, approaching the best value (∼90%) obtained using viral vectors. We show that Fe@CNPs nanoparticles coated with LP-2000 lipid molecules can be used as gene carriers to achieve ultra-high (60-80%) gene transfection efficiencies in HeLa, U-87MG, and TRAMP-C1 cells. In contrast, Fe@CNPs having surface-covalently bound N,N,N-trimethyl-N-2-methacryloxyethyl ammonium chloride (TMAEA) oligomers can only achieve low (23-28%) gene transfection efficiencies. Similarly ultrahigh gene transfection/expression was also observed in zebrafish model using lipid-coated Fe@CNPs as gene carriers. Evidences for tight binding and detachability of DNA from lipid-nanoparticle nanocarriers will be presented. PMID:24973297

  15. A general strategy to achieve ultra-high gene transfection efficiency using lipid-nanoparticle composites.

    PubMed

    Vankayala, Raviraj; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Chao, Jui-I; Yuan, Chiun-Jye; Lin, Shyr-Yeu; Hwang, Kuo Chu

    2014-09-01

    Gene therapy provides a new hope for previously "incurable" diseases. Low gene transfection efficiency, however, is the bottle-neck to the success of gene therapy. It is very challenging to develop non-viral nanocarriers to achieve ultra-high gene transfection efficiencies. Herein, we report a novel design of "tight binding-but-detachable" lipid-nanoparticle composite to achieve ultrahigh gene transfection efficiencies of 60∼82%, approaching the best value (∼90%) obtained using viral vectors. We show that Fe@CNPs nanoparticles coated with LP-2000 lipid molecules can be used as gene carriers to achieve ultra-high (60-80%) gene transfection efficiencies in HeLa, U-87MG, and TRAMP-C1 cells. In contrast, Fe@CNPs having surface-covalently bound N,N,N-trimethyl-N-2-methacryloxyethyl ammonium chloride (TMAEA) oligomers can only achieve low (23-28%) gene transfection efficiencies. Similarly ultrahigh gene transfection/expression was also observed in zebrafish model using lipid-coated Fe@CNPs as gene carriers. Evidences for tight binding and detachability of DNA from lipid-nanoparticle nanocarriers will be presented.

  16. High-performance computing in structural mechanics and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Adeli, H.; Kamat, M.P.; Kulkarni, G.; Vanluchene, R.D. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta Montana State Univ., Bozeman )

    1993-07-01

    Recent advances in computer hardware and software have made multiprocessing a viable and attractive technology. This paper reviews high-performance computing methods in structural mechanics and engineering through the use of a new generation of multiprocessor computers. The paper presents an overview of vector pipelining, performance metrics for parallel and vector computers, programming languages, and general programming considerations. Recent developments in the application of concurrent processing techniques to the solution of structural mechanics and engineering problems are reviewed, with special emphasis on linear structural analysis, nonlinear structural analysis, transient structural analysis, dynamics of multibody flexible systems, and structural optimization. 64 refs.

  17. Scalable High Performance Computing: Direct and Large-Eddy Turbulent Flow Simulations Using Massively Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Philip E.

    2004-01-01

    This final report contains reports of research related to the tasks "Scalable High Performance Computing: Direct and Lark-Eddy Turbulent FLow Simulations Using Massively Parallel Computers" and "Devleop High-Performance Time-Domain Computational Electromagnetics Capability for RCS Prediction, Wave Propagation in Dispersive Media, and Dual-Use Applications. The discussion of Scalable High Performance Computing reports on three objectives: validate, access scalability, and apply two parallel flow solvers for three-dimensional Navier-Stokes flows; develop and validate a high-order parallel solver for Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) problems; and Investigate and develop a high-order Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model. The discussion of High-Performance Time-Domain Computational Electromagnetics reports on five objectives: enhancement of an electromagnetics code (CHARGE) to be able to effectively model antenna problems; utilize lessons learned in high-order/spectral solution of swirling 3D jets to apply to solving electromagnetics project; transition a high-order fluids code, FDL3DI, to be able to solve Maxwell's Equations using compact-differencing; develop and demonstrate improved radiation absorbing boundary conditions for high-order CEM; and extend high-order CEM solver to address variable material properties. The report also contains a review of work done by the systems engineer.

  18. High frame rate photoacoustic computed tomography using coded excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Masataka; Zhang, Haichong K.; Kondo, Kengo; Namita, Takeshi; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic Computed Tomography (PACT) records signals from a wide range of angles to achieve uniform, highresolution images. A high-power laser is generally used for PACT, but the long acquisition time with a single probe is a problem due to the low pulse-repetition frequency (PRF). For PACT, this degrades image resolution and contrast because it is hard to scan with a small step interval. Moreover, in vivo measurement requires a fast image acquisition system to avoid motion artifacts. The problem can be resolved by using a high PRF laser, which provides only weak energy. Averaging measured signals many times can mitigate the low signal-to-noise issue, but the PRF is restricted by the acoustic time of flight, so this is a new source of measurement time increase. Here, we present the coded-excitation approach, which we previously proposed for linear scanning, to increase the PACT frame rate. Coded excitation irradiates temporally encoded pulses and enhances the signal amplitude through decoding. The PRF is thus not restricted to acoustic time of flight. Consequently, acquisition time can be shortened by increasing PRF, and the SNR increases for the same measurement time. To validate the proposed idea, we conducted experiments using a high PRF laser with a revolving motor and compared the performance of coded excitation to that of averaging. Results demonstrated that the contamination of a signal acquired from different angles was negligible, and that the scanning pitch was remarkably improved because the start point of decoding can be set in any code in the periodic sequence.

  19. Resource estimation in high performance medical image computing.

    PubMed

    Banalagay, Rueben; Covington, Kelsie Jade; Wilkes, D M; Landman, Bennett A

    2014-10-01

    Medical imaging analysis processes often involve the concatenation of many steps (e.g., multi-stage scripts) to integrate and realize advancements from image acquisition, image processing, and computational analysis. With the dramatic increase in data size for medical imaging studies (e.g., improved resolution, higher throughput acquisition, shared databases), interesting study designs are becoming intractable or impractical on individual workstations and servers. Modern pipeline environments provide control structures to distribute computational load in high performance computing (HPC) environments. However, high performance computing environments are often shared resources, and scheduling computation across these resources necessitates higher level modeling of resource utilization. Submission of 'jobs' requires an estimate of the CPU runtime and memory usage. The resource requirements for medical image processing algorithms are difficult to predict since the requirements can vary greatly between different machines, different execution instances, and different data inputs. Poor resource estimates can lead to wasted resources in high performance environments due to incomplete executions and extended queue wait times. Hence, resource estimation is becoming a major hurdle for medical image processing algorithms to efficiently leverage high performance computing environments. Herein, we present our implementation of a resource estimation system to overcome these difficulties and ultimately provide users with the ability to more efficiently utilize high performance computing resources.

  20. Resource estimation in high performance medical image computing.

    PubMed

    Banalagay, Rueben; Covington, Kelsie Jade; Wilkes, D M; Landman, Bennett A

    2014-10-01

    Medical imaging analysis processes often involve the concatenation of many steps (e.g., multi-stage scripts) to integrate and realize advancements from image acquisition, image processing, and computational analysis. With the dramatic increase in data size for medical imaging studies (e.g., improved resolution, higher throughput acquisition, shared databases), interesting study designs are becoming intractable or impractical on individual workstations and servers. Modern pipeline environments provide control structures to distribute computational load in high performance computing (HPC) environments. However, high performance computing environments are often shared resources, and scheduling computation across these resources necessitates higher level modeling of resource utilization. Submission of 'jobs' requires an estimate of the CPU runtime and memory usage. The resource requirements for medical image processing algorithms are difficult to predict since the requirements can vary greatly between different machines, different execution instances, and different data inputs. Poor resource estimates can lead to wasted resources in high performance environments due to incomplete executions and extended queue wait times. Hence, resource estimation is becoming a major hurdle for medical image processing algorithms to efficiently leverage high performance computing environments. Herein, we present our implementation of a resource estimation system to overcome these difficulties and ultimately provide users with the ability to more efficiently utilize high performance computing resources. PMID:24906466

  1. Solvent additive to achieve highly ordered nanostructural semicrystalline DPP copolymers: toward a high charge carrier mobility.

    PubMed

    An, Tae Kyu; Kang, Il; Yun, Hui-jun; Cha, Hyojung; Hwang, Jihun; Park, Seonuk; Kim, Jiye; Kim, Yu Jin; Chung, Dae Sung; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yun-Hi; Park, Chan Eon

    2013-12-23

    A facile spin-coating method in which a small percentage of the solvent additive, 1-chloronaphthalene (CN), is found to increase the drying time during film deposition, is reported. The field-effect mobility of a PDPPDBTE film cast from a chloroform-CN mixed solution is 0.46 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The addition of CN to the chloroform solution facilitates the formation of highly crystalline polymer structures. PMID:24115273

  2. Mastering the Challenge of High-Performance Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how, just as all of higher education got serious with wiring individual campuses for the Internet, the nation's leading research institutions have initiated "high-performance computing." Describes several such initiatives involving historically black colleges and universities. (EV)

  3. GPU-based high-performance computing for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xun; Ziegenhein, Peter; Jiang, Steve B

    2014-02-21

    Recent developments in radiotherapy therapy demand high computation powers to solve challenging problems in a timely fashion in a clinical environment. The graphics processing unit (GPU), as an emerging high-performance computing platform, has been introduced to radiotherapy. It is particularly attractive due to its high computational power, small size, and low cost for facility deployment and maintenance. Over the past few years, GPU-based high-performance computing in radiotherapy has experienced rapid developments. A tremendous amount of study has been conducted, in which large acceleration factors compared with the conventional CPU platform have been observed. In this paper, we will first give a brief introduction to the GPU hardware structure and programming model. We will then review the current applications of GPU in major imaging-related and therapy-related problems encountered in radiotherapy. A comparison of GPU with other platforms will also be presented.

  4. GPU-based High-Performance Computing for Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xun; Ziegenhein, Peter; Jiang, Steve B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in radiotherapy therapy demand high computation powers to solve challenging problems in a timely fashion in a clinical environment. Graphics processing unit (GPU), as an emerging high-performance computing platform, has been introduced to radiotherapy. It is particularly attractive due to its high computational power, small size, and low cost for facility deployment and maintenance. Over the past a few years, GPU-based high-performance computing in radiotherapy has experienced rapid developments. A tremendous amount of studies have been conducted, in which large acceleration factors compared with the conventional CPU platform have been observed. In this article, we will first give a brief introduction to the GPU hardware structure and programming model. We will then review the current applications of GPU in major imaging-related and therapy-related problems encountered in radiotherapy. A comparison of GPU with other platforms will also be presented. PMID:24486639

  5. High performance computing: Clusters, constellations, MPPs, and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, Jack; Sterling, Thomas; Simon, Horst; Strohmaier, Erich

    2003-06-10

    Last year's paper by Bell and Gray [1] examined past trends in high performance computing and asserted likely future directions based on market forces. While many of the insights drawn from this perspective have merit and suggest elements governing likely future directions for HPC, there are a number of points put forth that we feel require further discussion and, in certain cases, suggest alternative, more likely views. One area of concern relates to the nature and use of key terms to describe and distinguish among classes of high end computing systems, in particular the authors use of ''cluster'' to relate to essentially all parallel computers derived through the integration of replicated components. The taxonomy implicit in their previous paper, while arguable and supported by some elements of our community, fails to provide the essential semantic discrimination critical to the effectiveness of descriptive terms as tools in managing the conceptual space of consideration. In this paper, we present a perspective that retains the descriptive richness while providing a unifying framework. A second area of discourse that calls for additional commentary is the likely future path of system evolution that will lead to effective and affordable Petaflops-scale computing including the future role of computer centers as facilities for supporting high performance computing environments. This paper addresses the key issues of taxonomy, future directions towards Petaflops computing, and the important role of computer centers in the 21st century.

  6. Challenges to achievement of metal sustainability in our high-tech society

    SciTech Connect

    Izatt, Reed M.; Izatt, Steven R.; Bruening, Ronald L.; Izatt, Neil; Moyer, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Achievement of sustainability in metal life cycles from mining of virgin ore to consumer and industrial devices to end-of-life products requires greatly increased recycling and improved processing of metals. Electronic and other high-tech products containing precious, toxic, and specialty metals usually have short lifetimes and low recycling rates. Products containing these metals generally are incinerated, discarded as waste in landfills, or dismantled in informal recycling using crude and environmentally irresponsible procedures. Low metal recycling rates coupled with increasing demand for products containing them necessitate increased mining with attendant environmental, health, energy, water, and carbon-footprint consequences. In this tutorial review, challenges to achieving metal sustainability in present high-tech society are presented; health, environmental, and economic incentives for various stakeholders to improve metal sustainability are discussed; a case for technical improvements in separations technology, especially employing molecular recognition, is given; and global consequences of continuing on the present path are examined.

  7. High contrast computed tomography with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itai, Yuji; Takeda, Tohoru; Akatsuka, Takao; Maeda, Tomokazu; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Uchida, Akira; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Kazama, Masahiro; Wu, Jin; Ando, Masami

    1995-02-01

    This article describes a new monochromatic x-ray CT system using synchrotron radiation with applications in biomedical diagnosis which is currently under development. The system is designed to provide clear images and to detect contrast materials at low concentration for the quantitative functional evaluation of organs in correspondence with their anatomical structures. In this system, with x-ray energy changing from 30 to 52 keV, images can be obtained to detect various contrast materials (iodine, barium, and gadolinium), and K-edge energy subtraction is applied. Herein, the features of the new system designed to enhance the advantages of SR are reported. With the introduction of a double-crystal monochromator, the high-order x-ray contamination is eliminated. The newly designed CCD detector with a wide dynamic range of 60 000:1 has a spatial resolution of 200 μm. The resulting image quality, which is expected to show improved contrast and spatial resolution, is currently under investigation.

  8. Compact high performance spectrometers using computational imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Kenneth; Weisberg, Arel

    2016-05-01

    Compressive sensing technology can theoretically be used to develop low cost compact spectrometers with the performance of larger and more expensive systems. Indeed, compressive sensing for spectroscopic systems has been previously demonstrated using coded aperture techniques, wherein a mask is placed between the grating and a charge coupled device (CCD) and multiple measurements are collected with different masks. Although proven effective for some spectroscopic sensing paradigms (e.g. Raman), this approach requires that the signal being measured is static between shots (low noise and minimal signal fluctuation). Many spectroscopic techniques applicable to remote sensing are inherently noisy and thus coded aperture compressed sensing will likely not be effective. This work explores an alternative approach to compressed sensing that allows for reconstruction of a high resolution spectrum in sensing paradigms featuring significant signal fluctuations between measurements. This is accomplished through relatively minor changes to the spectrometer hardware together with custom super-resolution algorithms. Current results indicate that a potential overall reduction in CCD size of up to a factor of 4 can be attained without a loss of resolution. This reduction can result in significant improvements in cost, size, and weight of spectrometers incorporating the technology.

  9. The Effect of Instructor-Student Interaction on Achievement in Computer-Based Training (CBT). Interim Technical Paper for Period April 1990-February 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Stanley D.

    The role of the instructor in computer-based training (CBT) has not been previously studied. However, the role of instructor in traditional instruction (TI) has been studied and has been shown to influence student achievement. A key finding from TI research is that instructor-student interaction is positively related to achievement. This…

  10. Computational Aeroscience at NAS and Future Trends in High Performance Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, David M.

    1994-01-01

    NASA's Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) program provides a unique world class supercomputing capability which is readily accessed by the U.S. aeronautics community and offers them the opportunity to perform high speed computations and simulations for a broad range of aerospace research applications. In addition, the NAS program performs on-going research and advanced technology development to ensure the innovative application of newly emerging technologies to computational fluid dynamics and other important aeroscience disciplines. The NAS system and its interaction with industry are described. Furthermore, the results of an analysis of current and future technologies and their potential impact on high performance computing are also presented.

  11. The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence.

    PubMed

    Krapohl, Eva; Rimfeld, Kaili; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Asbury, Kathryn; Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2014-10-21

    Because educational achievement at the end of compulsory schooling represents a major tipping point in life, understanding its causes and correlates is important for individual children, their families, and society. Here we identify the general ingredients of educational achievement using a multivariate design that goes beyond intelligence to consider a wide range of predictors, such as self-efficacy, personality, and behavior problems, to assess their independent and joint contributions to educational achievement. We use a genetically sensitive design to address the question of why educational achievement is so highly heritable. We focus on the results of a United Kingdom-wide examination, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which is administered at the end of compulsory education at age 16. GCSE scores were obtained for 13,306 twins at age 16, whom we also assessed contemporaneously on 83 scales that were condensed to nine broad psychological domains, including intelligence, self-efficacy, personality, well-being, and behavior problems. The mean of GCSE core subjects (English, mathematics, science) is more heritable (62%) than the nine predictor domains (35-58%). Each of the domains correlates significantly with GCSE results, and these correlations are largely mediated genetically. The main finding is that, although intelligence accounts for more of the heritability of GCSE than any other single domain, the other domains collectively account for about as much GCSE heritability as intelligence. Together with intelligence, these domains account for 75% of the heritability of GCSE. We conclude that the high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence.

  12. The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Krapohl, Eva; Rimfeld, Kaili; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Asbury, Kathryn; Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Because educational achievement at the end of compulsory schooling represents a major tipping point in life, understanding its causes and correlates is important for individual children, their families, and society. Here we identify the general ingredients of educational achievement using a multivariate design that goes beyond intelligence to consider a wide range of predictors, such as self-efficacy, personality, and behavior problems, to assess their independent and joint contributions to educational achievement. We use a genetically sensitive design to address the question of why educational achievement is so highly heritable. We focus on the results of a United Kingdom-wide examination, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which is administered at the end of compulsory education at age 16. GCSE scores were obtained for 13,306 twins at age 16, whom we also assessed contemporaneously on 83 scales that were condensed to nine broad psychological domains, including intelligence, self-efficacy, personality, well-being, and behavior problems. The mean of GCSE core subjects (English, mathematics, science) is more heritable (62%) than the nine predictor domains (35–58%). Each of the domains correlates significantly with GCSE results, and these correlations are largely mediated genetically. The main finding is that, although intelligence accounts for more of the heritability of GCSE than any other single domain, the other domains collectively account for about as much GCSE heritability as intelligence. Together with intelligence, these domains account for 75% of the heritability of GCSE. We conclude that the high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence. PMID:25288728

  13. After Installation: Ubiquitous Computing and High School Science in Three Experienced, High-Technology Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drayton, Brian; Falk, Joni K.; Stroud, Rena; Hobbs, Kathryn; Hammerman, James

    2010-01-01

    There are few studies of the impact of ubiquitous computing on high school science, and the majority of studies of ubiquitous computing report only on the early stages of implementation. The present study presents data on 3 high schools with carefully elaborated ubiquitous computing systems that have gone through at least one "obsolescence cycle"…

  14. High-fidelity simulation: Assessment of student nurses' team achievements of clinical judgment.

    PubMed

    Hallin, Karin; Bäckström, Britt; Häggström, Marie; Kristiansen, Lisbeth

    2016-07-01

    Nursing educators have the challenge of preparing nursing students to handle complex patient care situations in real life, but much remains unknown about the ability to make clinical judgments. In this study, high-fidelity simulation (HFS) was used at a Swedish university to find answers about pre-licensure nursing students' success in clinical judgment in terms of team ability and relationships with theoretical achievements, and personal and scenario circumstances. The matrix Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric (LCJR) was used to analyze and score the students' ability in teams to notice, interpret and respond to complex care situations. Overall, the results showed the student teams in their first meeting with HFS in a complex care situation achieved low clinical judgment points; most teams were in the stages of Beginning and Developing. For attaining high team achievements the majority of the students in the team should theoretically be "high performance". Being observers and having HFS experience before nursing education was significant too. However, age, health care experience, and assistant nurse degrees were of secondary importance. Further research at universities regionally, nationally, and internationally is needed. PMID:27428686

  15. High-speed linear optics quantum computing using active feed-forward.

    PubMed

    Prevedel, Robert; Walther, Philip; Tiefenbacher, Felix; Böhi, Pascal; Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Jennewein, Thomas; Zeilinger, Anton

    2007-01-01

    As information carriers in quantum computing, photonic qubits have the advantage of undergoing negligible decoherence. However, the absence of any significant photon-photon interaction is problematic for the realization of non-trivial two-qubit gates. One solution is to introduce an effective nonlinearity by measurements resulting in probabilistic gate operations. In one-way quantum computation, the random quantum measurement error can be overcome by applying a feed-forward technique, such that the future measurement basis depends on earlier measurement results. This technique is crucial for achieving deterministic quantum computation once a cluster state (the highly entangled multiparticle state on which one-way quantum computation is based) is prepared. Here we realize a concatenated scheme of measurement and active feed-forward in a one-way quantum computing experiment. We demonstrate that, for a perfect cluster state and no photon loss, our quantum computation scheme would operate with good fidelity and that our feed-forward components function with very high speed and low error for detected photons. With present technology, the individual computational step (in our case the individual feed-forward cycle) can be operated in less than 150 ns using electro-optical modulators. This is an important result for the future development of one-way quantum computers, whose large-scale implementation will depend on advances in the production and detection of the required highly entangled cluster states.

  16. Nutrition and education. III. Educational achievement and food habits of Chilean elementary and high school graduates.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, D; Vásquez, M; Aguayo, M; Ballester, D; Marambio, M; Zacarías, I

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the educational achievement (EA) of Chilean elementary and high-school graduates with their food habits. For this purpose, a random sample of 550 schoolers from the Metropolitan Area of Santiago, Chile, graduating from elementary and high school (1:1) of both sexes (1:1), from public and private schools and from high, medium and low socioeconomic status (SES) (1:1:1), was selected. Food habits were determined through a specially designed questionnaire and defined as the frequency of consumption of the food groups, expressed as days per week. The EA was established through the Achievement Evaluation Program (AEP) and Academic Aptitude Test (AAT) in elementary-and high-school graduates-, respectively. Results revealed that EA was found significantly and positively correlated with the frequency of consumption of dairy products, meat products and eggs, in both elementary and high school graduates. A significant and inverse correlation between EA and the frequency of vegetables and fruits consumption was observed in both educational levels, and with miscellaneous products, only in elementary school graduates. Food habits explained 24.4% and 16.6% of the EA variance, in elementary and high school graduates, respectively. The frequency of consumption of dairy products was the independent variable with the greatest explanatory power in EA variance (approximately above 70% of the explained variance). These results are important to consider for educational planning focused on the School Feeding Program.

  17. Achieving high performance polymer optoelectronic devices for high efficiency, long lifetime and low fabrication cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinsong

    This thesis described three types of organic optoelectronic devices: polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), polymer photovoltaic solar cell, and organic photo detector. The research in this work focuses improving their performance including device efficiency, operation lifetime simplifying fabrication process. With further understanding in PLED device physics, we come up new device operation model and improved device architecture design. This new method is closely related to understanding of the science and physics at organic/metal oxide and metal oxide/metal interface. In our new device design, both material and interface are considered in order to confine and balance all injected carriers, which has been demonstrated very be successful in increasing device efficiency. We created two world records in device efficiency: 18 lm/W for white emission fluorescence PLED, 22 lm/W for red emission phosphorescence PLED. Slow solvent drying process has been demonstrated to significantly increase device efficiency in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixture polymer solar cell. From the mobility study by time of flight, the increase of efficiency can be well correlated to the improved carrier transport property due to P3HT crystallization during slow solvent drying. And it is found that, similar to PLED, balanced carrier mobility is essential in high efficient polymer solar cell. There is also a revolution in our device fabrication method. A unique device fabrication method is presented by an electronic glue based lamination process combined with interface modification as a one-step polymer solar cell fabrication process. It can completely skip the thermal evaporation process, and benefit device lifetime by several merits: no air reactive. The device obtained is metal free, semi-transparent, flexible, self-encapsulated, and comparable efficiency with that by regular method. We found the photomultiplication (PM) phenomenon in C

  18. Dry Blending to Achieve Isotopic Dilution of Highly Enriched Uranium Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Roger Neil; Chipman, Nathan Alan; Rajamani, R. K.

    2001-04-01

    The end of the cold war produced large amounts of excess fissile materials in the United States and Russia. The Department of Energy has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies for disposition of these excess materials. To date, many of these planning strategies have included isotopic dilution of highly enriched uranium as a means of reducing the proliferation and safety risks. Isotopic dilution by dry blending highly enriched uranium with natural and/or depleted uranium has been identified as one non-aqueous method to achieve these risk (proliferation and criticality safety) reductions. This paper reviews the technology of dry blending as applied to free flowing oxide materials.

  19. Progress toward achieving high power and high efficiency semipolar LEDs and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hong

    Performance of current commercially available wurtzite nitride based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), grown along the polar (0001) c-plane orientation, is limited by the presence of polarization-related electric fields inside multi-quantum wells (MQWs). The discontinuities in both spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization at the heterointerfaces result in internal electric fields in the quantum wells. These electric fields cause carrier separation [quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE)] and reduce the radiative recombination rate within the quantum wells. One approach to reduce and possibly eliminate the polarization-related effects is to grow III-nitride devices on crystal planes that are inclined with respect to the c-axis, i.e., on semipolar planes. In this dissertation, metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been employed for the homoepitaxial growth of GaN based LEDs on semipolar orientations. As a consequence of growing on high-quality bulk GaN substrates, the LEDs have significantly reduced threading dislocation and stacking fault densities, resulting in remarkable improvements in EQE and output power. High efficiency semipolar (1011) violet-blue and blue LEDs have been demonstrated without any intentional effort to enhance the light extraction from those devices. Optimizations of epitaxial structures have led to increased output power and external quantum efficiency. A silicone encapsulated single quantum well blue LED with peak wavelength of 444 nm with output power of 24.3 mW, external quantum efficiency of 43% and luminous efficacy of 75 lm/W (with phosphorescent coating) at 20 mA has been demonstrated. Polarization fields in strained (1011) and (112¯2) InGaN quantum wells have been experimentally determined through bias-dependent optical studies. Our results show that the polarization field flips its direction in semipolar InGaN quantum wells with large inclination angles (i.e. around 60°). This suggests that there exists a polarization

  20. A Component Architecture for High-Performance Scientific Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholdt, D E; Allan, B A; Armstrong, R; Bertrand, F; Chiu, K; Dahlgren, T L; Damevski, K; Elwasif, W R; Epperly, T W; Govindaraju, M; Katz, D S; Kohl, J A; Krishnan, M; Kumfert, G; Larson, J W; Lefantzi, S; Lewis, M J; Malony, A D; McInnes, L C; Nieplocha, J; Norris, B; Parker, S G; Ray, J; Shende, S; Windus, T L; Zhou, S

    2004-12-14

    The Common Component Architecture (CCA) provides a means for software developers to manage the complexity of large-scale scientific simulations and to move toward a plug-and-play environment for high-performance computing. In the scientific computing context, component models also promote collaboration using independently developed software, thereby allowing particular individuals or groups to focus on the aspects of greatest interest to them. The CCA supports parallel and distributed computing as well as local high-performance connections between components in a language-independent manner. The design places minimal requirements on components and thus facilitates the integration of existing code into the CCA environment. The CCA model imposes minimal overhead to minimize the impact on application performance. The focus on high performance distinguishes the CCA from most other component models. The CCA is being applied within an increasing range of disciplines, including combustion research, global climate simulation, and computational chemistry.