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Sample records for achieve high operating

  1. Achieving High Reliability Operations Through Multi-Program Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Holly M. Ashley; Ronald K. Farris; Robert E. Richards

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 20 years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has adopted a number of operations and safety-related programs which has each periodically taken its turn in the limelight. As new programs have come along there has been natural competition for resources, focus and commitment. In the last few years, the INL has made real progress in integrating all these programs and are starting to realize important synergies. Contributing to this integration are both collaborative individuals and an emerging shared vision and goal of the INL fully maturing in its high reliability operations. This goal is so powerful because the concept of high reliability operations (and the resulting organizations) is a masterful amalgam and orchestrator of the best of all the participating programs (i.e. conduct of operations, behavior based safety, human performance, voluntary protection, quality assurance, and integrated safety management). This paper is a brief recounting of the lessons learned, thus far, at the INL in bringing previously competing programs into harmony under the goal (umbrella) of seeking to perform regularly as a high reliability organization. In addition to a brief diagram-illustrated historical review, the authors will share the INL’s primary successes (things already effectively stopped or started) and the gaps yet to be bridged.

  2. Understanding the Elements of Operational Reliability: A Key for Achieving High Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews operational reliability and its role in achieving high reliability through design and process reliability. The topics include: 1) Reliability Engineering Major Areas and interfaces; 2) Design Reliability; 3) Process Reliability; and 4) Reliability Applications.

  3. Efforts to achieve high-performance long-pulse operations in the EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Baonian; EAST Team; Collaborators

    2016-01-01

    To achieve long-pulse tokamak operation, sufficient current drive and self-generated current are required, with the challenges of the exhaust of the heat from the divertor plates. Experiments have proven that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) can broaden the divertor power footprint and cause the splitting of the strike point current and hence reduce the peak heat flux on the divertors. Edge localized mode (ELM) mitigation can be realized by supersonic molecule beam injection (SMBI), modulated LHCD, lithium granule and aerosol injection, as well as resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). Enhanced transport by an electrostatic edge coherent mode at the pedestal region is observed in the ELM mitigated plasmas by LHCD. Long-pulse H-mode plasmas in the small ELMy regime have been demonstrated by a combination of ELM mitigation techniques and the optimization of the plasma confinement performance. These newly achieved H-mode scenarios by using features of LHCD in the control of steady-state peak heat flux and transient heat flux due to ELMs may offer a promising regime for further EAST long-pulse high-performance operation and be applicable to ITER.

  4. New insulating materials and their use to achieve high operating stresses in electrostatic machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Chathan M.

    1986-02-01

    Compressed gas insulation has provided the main insulation for sustaining terminal voltages of electrostatic accelerators. Essentially coaxial geometry is used with mechanical support of the terminal achieved by long columns which also support the acceleration tubes. Because of the vacuum insulation in the acceleration tubes, the electric gradient along the columns is typically 10-20 kV/cm, whereas the radial gas gap can operate at stresses about ten times larger. Until now, the terminal support has always been located in the low stress axial direction along the column and not in the radial high stress region. This paper is concerned with support insulation to be used in the radial direction. Advantages of radial supports include: simpler, more compact column structures, higher total voltages, and support of discrete stress redistribution electrodes such as vivitron. Important factors to the design of radial support insulators include the insulation constraints imposed by the gas gap, mechanical contact to the solid insulator, and basic limits of gas-solid dielectric interfaces. The gas gap insulation strength is shown to be limited by surface microirregularities and this accounts for electrode area and pressure effects. Based on the gas gap requirements, a design strategy for the insulators is developed. Epoxy is employed as the dielectric to allow the use of cast-in metal inserts at the ends. The inserts provide mechanical contact, shielding of the triple junction, and redistribution of the interface electric stresses. By careful design, the electric stress on the interface is made lower than that in the plain coaxial electrode gap. Practical experience shows that voltage increases linearly with insulator length and that designs achieve more than 10 MV/m into the multimegavolt region.

  5. Achieving TASAR Operational Readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been developing and testing the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept for aircraft operations featuring a NASA-developed cockpit automation tool, the Traffic Aware Planner (TAP), which computes traffic/hazard-compatible route changes to improve flight efficiency. The TAP technology is anticipated to save fuel and flight time and thereby provide immediate and pervasive benefits to the aircraft operator, as well as improving flight schedule compliance, passenger comfort, and pilot and controller workload. Previous work has indicated the potential for significant benefits for TASAR-equipped aircraft, and a flight trial of the TAP software application in the National Airspace System has demonstrated its technical viability. This paper reviews previous and ongoing activities to prepare TASAR for operational use.

  6. Integrated Operating Scenario to Achieve 100-Second, High Electron Temperature Discharge on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jinping; Gong, Xianzu; Wan, Baonian; Liu, Fukun; Wang, Mao; Xu, Handong; Hu, Chundong; Wang, Liang; Li, Erzhong; Zeng, Long; Ti, Ang; Shen, Biao; Lin, Shiyao; Shao, Linming; Zang, Qing; Liu, Haiqing; Zhang, Bin; Sun, Youwen; Xu, Guosheng; Liang, Yunfeng; Xiao, Bingjia; Hu, Liqun; Li, Jiangang; EAST Team

    2016-05-01

    Stationary long pulse plasma of high electron temperature was produced on EAST for the first time through an integrated control of plasma shape, divertor heat flux, particle exhaust, wall conditioning, impurity management, and the coupling of multiple heating and current drive power. A discharge with a lower single null divertor configuration was maintained for 103 s at a plasma current of 0.4 MA, q95 ≈7.0, a peak electron temperature of >4.5 keV, and a central density ne(0)∼2.5×1019 m‑3. The plasma current was nearly non-inductive (Vloop <0.05 V, poloidal beta ∼ 0.9) driven by a combination of 0.6 MW lower hybrid wave at 2.45 GHz, 1.4 MW lower hybrid wave at 4.6 GHz, 0.5 MW electron cyclotron heating at 140 GHz, and 0.4 MW modulated neutral deuterium beam injected at 60 kV. This progress demonstrated strong synergy of electron cyclotron and lower hybrid electron heating, current drive, and energy confinement of stationary plasma on EAST. It further introduced an example of integrated “hybrid” operating scenario of interest to ITER and CFETR. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Foundation of China (Nos. 2015GB102000 and 2014GB103000)

  7. Cognitive Style, Operativity, and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, James J.; Flexer, Barbara K.

    1984-01-01

    This developmental study was designed to examine the effects of field dependence-independence and level of operational development on the reading achievement of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. Field dependence-independence had no significant effect on reading achievement, but high-operational students scored significantly higher than…

  8. Cognitive Style, Operativity, and Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, James J.; Flexer, Barbara K.

    1983-01-01

    This study examined the effects of field dependence/independence and the level of operational development on the mathematics achievement of 450 students in grades 6-8. Field-independent students scored significantly higher on total mathematics, concepts, and problem-solving tests. High-operational students scored significantly higher on all tests.…

  9. Self Regulated Learning of High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathod, Ami

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted on high achievers of Senior Secondary school. Main objectives were to identify the self regulated learners among the high achievers, to find out dominant components and characteristics operative in self regulated learners and to compare self regulated learning of learners with respect to their subject (science and non…

  10. Process validation: achieving the Operational Qualification phase.

    PubMed

    Buffaloe, Vera

    2004-01-01

    The OQ phase of process validation is very important and is where the complete understanding of the process is determined by experimentation. This understanding is useful to: * establish optimal process parameters * understand variation that affect the process * aid in investigating process deviations. OQ is an important part of the entire process validation activity and essential to understanding a manufacturing process. The benefits of completing the OQ and overall process validation are the reasons that it makes business sense and receive the long-term benefits of producing high quality product and achieving customer satisfaction. PMID:15521514

  11. Achieving Operability via the Mission System Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Fred J.; Kahr, Joseph R.

    2006-01-01

    In the past, flight and ground systems have been developed largely-independently, with the flight system taking the lead, and dominating the development process. Operability issues have been addressed poorly in planning, requirements, design, I&T, and system-contracting activities. In many cases, as documented in lessons-learned, this has resulted in significant avoidable increases in cost and risk. With complex missions and systems, operability is being recognized as an important end-to-end design issue. Never-the-less, lessons-learned and operability concepts remain, in many cases, poorly understood and sporadically applied. A key to effective application of operability concepts is adopting a 'mission system' paradigm. In this paradigm, flight and ground systems are treated, from an engineering and management perspective, as inter-related elements of a larger mission system. The mission system consists of flight hardware, flight software, telecom services, ground data system, testbeds, flight teams, science teams, flight operations processes, procedures, and facilities. The system is designed in functional layers, which span flight and ground. It is designed in response to project-level requirements, mission design and an operations concept, and is developed incrementally, with early and frequent integration of flight and ground components.

  12. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  13. Achieving stabilization in interferometric logic operations.

    PubMed

    Zavalin, Andrey I; Shamir, Joseph; Vikram, Chandra S; Caulfield, H John

    2006-01-10

    Interferometric systems with amplitude beam splitters can implement reversible operations that, on detection, become Boolean operators. Being passive, they consume no energy, do not limit the operating bandwidth, and have negligible latency. Unfortunately, conventional interferometric systems are notoriously sensitive to uncontrolled disturbances. Here the use of polarization in a common-path interferometric logic gate with and without polarization beam splitters is explored as an attractive alternative to overcome those difficulties. Two of three device configurations considered offer significant stability and lower drive modulator voltage as advantages over the previous systems. The first experimental tests of such a system are reported. Common-path interferometry lends itself to even more stability and robustness by compatibility with no-air-gap, solid optics. PMID:16422166

  14. Achieving stabilization in interferometric logic operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavalin, Andrey I.; Shamir, Joseph; Vikram, Chandra S.; Caulfield, H. John

    2006-01-01

    Interferometric systems with amplitude beam splitters can implement reversible operations that, on detection, become Boolean operators. Being passive, they consume no energy, do not limit the operating bandwidth, and have negligible latency. Unfortunately, conventional interferometric systems are notoriously sensitive to uncontrolled disturbances. Here the use of polarization in a common-path interferometric logic gate with and without polarization beam splitters is explored as an attractive alternative to overcome those difficulties. Two of three device configurations considered offer significant stability and lower drive modulator voltage as advantages over the previous systems. The first experimental tests of such a system are reported. Common-path interferometry lends itself to even more stability and robustness by compatibility with no-air-gap, solid optics.

  15. Challenges in Achieving Trajectory-Based Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cate, Karen Tung

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years much of the global ATM research community has proposed advanced systems based on Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO). The concept of TBO uses four-dimensional aircraft trajectories as the base information for managing safety and capacity. Both the US and European advanced ATM programs call for the sharing of trajectory data across different decision support tools for successful operations. However, the actual integration of TBO systems presents many challenges. Trajectory predictors are built to meet the specific needs of a particular system and are not always compatible with others. Two case studies are presented which examine the challenges of introducing a new concept into two legacy systems in regards to their trajectory prediction software. The first case describes the issues with integrating a new decision support tool with a legacy operational system which overlap in domain space. These tools perform similar functions but are driven by different requirements. The difference in the resulting trajectories can lead to conflicting advisories. The second case looks at integrating this same new tool with a legacy system originally developed as an integrated system, but diverged many years ago. Both cases illustrate how the lack of common architecture concepts for the trajectory predictors added cost and complexity to the integration efforts.

  16. Achieving high performance on the Intel Paragon

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, D.S.; Maccabe, B.; Riesen, R.; Wheat, S.; Womble, D.

    1993-11-01

    When presented with a new supercomputer most users will first ask {open_quotes}How much faster will my applications run?{close_quotes} and then add a fearful {open_quotes}How much effort will it take me to convert to the new machine?{close_quotes} This paper describes some lessons learned at Sandia while asking these questions about the new 1800+ node Intel Paragon. The authors conclude that the operating system is crucial to both achieving high performance and allowing easy conversion from previous parallel implementations to a new machine. Using the Sandia/UNM Operating System (SUNMOS) they were able to port a LU factorization of dense matrices from the nCUBE2 to the Paragon and achieve 92% scaled speed-up on 1024 nodes. Thus on a 44,000 by 44,000 matrix which had required over 10 hours on the previous machine, they completed in less than 1/2 hour at a rate of over 40 GFLOPS. Two keys to achieving such high performance were the small size of SUNMOS (less than 256 kbytes) and the ability to send large messages with very low overhead.

  17. The Constraints of Poverty on High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Virginia H.; Beilke, Jayne R.

    2008-01-01

    Research studies on school success often focus on the impact of discrete elements such as race, culture, ethnicity, gender, language, or school location on high achievement. The condition of poverty, however, may be the most important of all student differences in relation to high achievement; although not all schools have racial diversity, nearly…

  18. Catholic High Schools and Rural Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    1997-01-01

    A study of national longitudinal data examined effects of rural Catholic high schools on mathematics achievement, high school graduation rates, and the likelihood that high school graduates attend college. Findings indicate that rural Catholic high schools had a positive effect on mathematics test scores and no effect on graduation rates or rates…

  19. High Stakes Testing and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The effects of high stakes testing may be critical in the lives of public school students and may have many consequences for schools and teachers. There are no easy answers in measuring student achievement and in holding teachers accountable for learner progress. High stakes testing also involves responsibilities on the part of the principal who…

  20. Student Perceptions of High-Achieving Classmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Händel, Marion; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The reported study investigated students' perceptions of their high-performing classmates in terms of intelligence, social skills, and conscientiousness in different school subjects. The school subjects for study were examined with regard to cognitive, physical, and gender-specific issues. The results show that high academic achievements in…

  1. High Achievers: 23rd Annual Survey. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This report presents data from an annual survey of high school student leaders and high achievers. It is noted that of the nearly 700,000 high achievers featured in this edition, 5,000 students were sent the survey and 2,092 questionnaires were completed. Subjects were high school juniors and seniors selected for recognition by their principals or…

  2. ASTER system operating achievement for 15 years on orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Hitomi; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Tatsumi, Kenji; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2015-10-01

    ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) System is operating more than 15 years since launched on board of NASA's Terra spacecraft in December 1999. ASTER System is composed of 3 radiometers (VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer), SWIR (Short-Wave Infrared Radiometer), and TIR (Thermal Infrared Radiometer)), CSP (Common Signal Processor) and MSP (Master Power Supply). This paper describes the ASTER System operating history and the achievement of ASTER System long term operation since the initial checkout operation, the normal operation, and the continuous operation. Through the 15 years operation, ASTER system had totally checked the all subsystems (MPS, VNIR, TIR, SWIR, and CSP) health and safety check using telemetry data trend evaluation, and executed the necessary action. The watch items are monitored as the life control items. The pointing mechanics for VNIR, SWIR and TIR, and the cooler for SWIR and TIR are all operating with any problem for over 15 years. In 2003, ASTER was successfully operated for the lunar calibration. As the future plan, ASTER team is proposing the 2nd lunar calibration before the end of mission.

  3. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  4. Reliability achievement in high technology space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The production of failure-free hardware is discussed. The elements required to achieve such hardware are: technical expertise to design, analyze, and fully understand the design; use of high reliability parts and materials control in the manufacturing process; and testing to understand the system and weed out defects. The durability of the Hughes family of satellites is highlighted.

  5. Academic achievement in high functioning autistic individuals.

    PubMed

    Minshew, N J; Goldstein, G; Taylor, H G; Siegel, D J

    1994-04-01

    Academic achievement levels in 54 high functioning (IQ > 70) autistic subjects were compared with those of 41 normal controls, who did not differ significantly in age, IQ, gender, race, or SES from the autistic subjects. The measures of academic achievement used included portions of the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-2, the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test, and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement. Based on prior neuropsychological findings, it was hypothesized that autistic subjects would not differ from controls on subtests assessing mechanical and procedural skills, but would differ on subtests measuring comprehension and interpretive skills. As predicted, the autistic subjects performed significantly less well than controls on comprehension tasks, but not on mechanical reading, spelling, and computational tasks. This pattern is at variance with the typical academic profile of individuals with disabilities in reading or spelling, but shares some features with the nonverbal learning disabilities. PMID:8021313

  6. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 18th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Communications, Inc., Lake Forest, IL.

    This document contains factsheets and news releases which cite findings from a national survey of 1,985 high achieving high school students. Factsheets describe the Who's Who Among American High School Students recognition and service program for high school students and explain the Who's Who survey. A summary report of this eighteenth annual…

  7. 22nd Annual Survey of High Achievers: Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This study surveyed high school students (N=1,879) who were student leaders or high achievers in the spring of 1991 for the purpose of determining their attitudes. Students were members of the junior or senior high school class during the 1990-91 academic year and were selected for recognition by their principals or guidance counselors, other…

  8. 21st Annual Survey of High Achievers: Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey was conducted by Who's Who Among American High School Students during the spring of 1990, to determine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. A survey of high achievers sent to 5,000 students was completed and returned by approximately 2,000 students. All students were members of the junior or senior class during the…

  9. The Interim : until you achieve an operationally responsive ground system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendlandt, Bob; Clarke, Kelly; Lei, Jordan; Miyamoto, Charles; Owen-Mankovich, Kyran

    2008-01-01

    Everyone wants to achieve a 'Responsive' Ground Data System (GDS), but that takes time. What do you do in the interim? Our group, called the Integration, Test and Deployment Team (ITD), is a group of responsive engineers whose primary focus is to assist JPL projects to successfully adapt, test, integrate and deploy their ground data system. The team configures and adapts the GDS for a project, so that analysts, engineers and scientist do not need to be experts in the GDS to operate it. The team has developed a human interface to accommodate all types of users. It provides Graphical User Interfaces (GUI's) for those that want GUI's, command line interfaces for those that want control, and selection button interfaces for other users. The cornerstone of a responsive Ground Data System is responsive people. Without individuals who can be aware of a project's changing needs and requirements, how can the GDS become responsive

  10. The Interim: Until You Achieve an Operationally Responsive Ground System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendlandt, Bob; Clarke, Kelly; Miyamoto, Charles; Lei, Jordan; Owen-Mankovich, Kyran

    2008-01-01

    Everyone wants to achieve a 'Responsive' Ground Data System (GDS), but that takes time. What do you do in the interim? Our group, called the Integration, Test and Deployment Team (ITD), is a group of responsive engineers whose primary focus is to assist JPL projects to successfully adapt, test, integrate and deploy their ground data system. The team configures and adapts the GDS for a project, so that analysts, engineers and scientist do not need to be experts in the GDS to operate it. The team has developed a human interface to accommodate all types of users. It provides Graphical User Interfaces (GUI's) for those that want GUI's, command line interfaces for those that want control, and selection button interfaces for other users. The cornerstone of a responsive Ground Data System is responsive people. Without individuals who can be aware of a project's changing needs and requirements, how can the GDS become responsive?.

  11. Academic Attitudes of High Achieving and Low Achieving Academically Able Black Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, John Rhodes

    1981-01-01

    In order to identify the relationships between the attitudes and perceptions of peer pressure and the academic achievement of academically able male adolescents, this study compares the school attitudes of high achieving and low achieving Black male youth. (EF)

  12. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 26th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    A national survey of 3,351 high achieving high school students (junior and senior level) was conducted. All students had A or B averages. Topics covered include lifestyles, political beliefs, violence and entertainment, education, cheating, school violence, sexual violence and date rape, peer pressure, popularity, suicide, drugs and alcohol,…

  13. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 24th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey represents information compiled by the largest national survey of adolescent leaders and high achievers. Of the 5,000 students selected demographically from "Who's Who Among American High School Students," 1,957 responded. All students surveyed had "A" or "B" averages, and 98% planned on attending college. Questions were asked about…

  14. Target plasma achievements for unity beta operation in ET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Carter, T. A.; Gauvreau, J.-L.; Grossman, A.; Lafonteese, D. J.; Pace, D. C.; Schmitz, L. W.; Taylor, R. J.

    2003-10-01

    The Electric Tokamak (ET) at UCLA (t_pulse<5s, τ_E<0.5s, V_loop>0.3V, B=0.25T) is now in a critical stage of research to exceed the conventional beta limit. The latest program is aiming for 10s long plasma discharges at unity peak beta by means of 2^d harmonic ICRF heating and current profile control. A stable computational MHD high beta path has been found for ET high aspect ratio configuration leading from the Troyon limit to unity beta using an in-house equilibrium code and the DCON stability code. This critical path involves high power ICRF injection (5MW) for targeted plasma heating and ballooning/kink modes stabilization by poloidal rotation. Another major component is high plasma density using core and edge fueling relying on kinetic neutral beam and inboard/outboard gas puff. At this regime current profile control using fast wave current drive, with bootstrap current optimization, will be possible. A magnetic well should develop, leading to high beta plasmas with omnigenous properties. To achieve these goals, a tight feedback system between power and particle injections and plasma diagnostics is mandatory.

  15. PLATEAUING COSMIC RAY DETECTORS TO ACHIEVE OPTIMUM OPERATING VOLTAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Knoff, E.N.; Peterson, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Through QuarkNet, students across the country have access to cosmic ray detectors in their high school classrooms. These detectors operate using a scintillator material and a photomultiplier tube (PMT). A data acquisition (DAQ) board counts cosmic ray hits from the counters. Through an online e-Lab, students can analyze and share their data. In order to collect viable data, the PMTs should operate at their plateau voltages. In these plateau ranges, the number of counts per minute remains relatively constant with small changes in PMT voltage. We sought to plateau the counters in the test array and to clarify the plateauing procedure itself. In order to most effectively plateau the counters, the counters should be stacked and programmed to record the number of coincident hits as well as their singles rates. We also changed the threshold value that a signal must exceed in order to record a hit and replateaued the counters. For counter 1, counter 2, and counter 3, we found plateau voltages around 1V. The singles rate plateau was very small, while the coincidence plateau was very long. The plateau voltages corresponded to a singles rate of 700–850 counts per minute. We found very little effect of changing the threshold voltages. Our chosen plateau voltages produced good performance studies on the e-Lab. Keeping in mind the nature of the experiments conducted by the high school students, we recommend a streamlined plateauing process. Because changing the threshold did not drastically affect the plateau voltage or the performance study, students should choose a threshold value, construct plateau graphs, and analyze their data using a performance study. Even if the counters operate slightly off their plateau voltage, they should deliver good performance studies and return reliable results.

  16. High Involvement Mothers of High Achieving Children: Potential Theoretical Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    In American society, parents who have high aspirations for the achievements of their children are often viewed by others in a negative light. Various pejoratives such as "pushy parent," "helicopter parent," "stage mother," and "soccer mom" are used in the common vernacular to describe these parents. Multiple…

  17. Factors Implicated in High Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgasz, Helen J.; Hill, Janelle C.

    2013-01-01

    The most recent Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (2009) mathematical literacy results provide evidence that in Western English-speaking countries, including Australia, the gender gap in achievement appears to be widening in favour of males. In the study reported in this article, the aim was to explore the effects of gender,…

  18. High Ability Readers and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.; Parke, Cynthia J.; Bramble, Joan G.

    2004-01-01

    To close the achievement gap, the "No Child Left Behind" law calls for all students to make appropriate yearly progress. This presumably means that progress is being made by capable readers at the same time progress is being made by struggling readers. However, there appear to be unintended effects of "No Child Left Behind" that may impede the…

  19. Achieving strategic surety for high consequence software

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    A strategic surety roadmap for high consequence software systems under the High Integrity Software (HIS) Program at Sandia National Laboratories guides research in identifying methodologies to improve software surety. Selected research tracks within this roadmap are identified and described detailing current technology and outlining advancements to be pursued over the coming decade to reach HIS goals. The tracks discussed herein focus on Correctness by Design, and System Immunology{trademark}. Specific projects are discussed with greater detail given on projects involving Correct Specification via Visualization, Synthesis, & Analysis; Visualization of Abstract Objects; and Correct Implementation of Components.

  20. Norview High School: Leadership Fosters Achievment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Often little unsaid things demonstrate what is truly important in a school. When teachers have common planning time and all of the department chairs share a single space as they do at Norview High School in Norfolk, VA, the unmistakable message is that instructional collaboration and leadership are expected and valued. Norview, an urban,…

  1. Achieving High-Temperature Ferromagnetic Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katmis, Ferhat

    Topological insulators (TIs) are insulating materials that display conducting surface states protected by time-reversal symmetry, wherein electron spins are locked to their momentum. This unique property opens new opportunities for creating next-generation electronic and spintronic devices, including TI-based quantum computation. Introducing ferromagnetic order into a TI system without compromising its distinctive quantum coherent features could lead to a realization of several predicted novel physical phenomena. In particular, achieving robust long-range magnetic order at the TI surface at specific locations without introducing spin scattering centers could open up new possibilities for devices. Here, we demonstrate topologically enhanced interface magnetism by coupling a ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) to a TI (Bi2Se3); this interfacial ferromagnetism persists up to room temperature, even though the FMI (EuS) is known to order ferromagnetically only at low temperatures (<17 K). The induced magnetism at the interface resulting from the large spin-orbit interaction and spin-momentum locking feature of the TI surface is found to greatly enhance the magnetic ordering (Curie) temperature of the TI/FMI bilayer system. Due to the short range nature of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction, the time-reversal symmetry is broken only near the surface of a TI, while leaving its bulk states unaffected. The topological magneto-electric response originating in such an engineered TI could allow for an efficient manipulation of the magnetization dynamics by an electric field, providing an energy efficient topological control mechanism for future spin-based technologies. Work supported by MIT MRSEC through the MRSEC Program of NSF under award number DMR-0819762, NSF Grant DMR-1207469, the ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0301, and the STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF grant DMR-1231319.

  2. Inspiration, Perspiration, and Time: Operations and Achievement in Edison Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Brian P.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Lockwood, J. R.; Marsh, Julie A.; Zimmer, Ron W.; Hill, Deanna; Pribesh, Shana

    2005-01-01

    New forms of governing and managing public schools have proliferated in recent years, spawning the establishment and growth of companies that operate public schools under contract. Among these education management organizations, or EMOs, the largest and most visible is Edison Schools, Inc., with a nationwide network in 2004-2005 of 103 managed…

  3. Self-Concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study "Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students" was investigated to find the relationship between Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students. Data for the study were collected using Self-concept Questionnaire developed by Raj Kumar Saraswath (1984) and Achievement Motive Test (ACMT)…

  4. Achieving cost reductions in EOSDIS operations through technology evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsome, Penny; Moe, Karen; Harberts, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The earth observing system (EOS) data information system (EOSDIS) mission includes the cost-effective management and distribution of large amounts of data to the earth science community. The effect of the introduction of new information system technologies on the evolution of EOSDIS is considered. One of the steps taken by NASA to enable the introduction of new information system technologies into the EOSDIS is the funding of technology development through prototyping. Recent and ongoing prototyping efforts and their potential impact on the performance and cost-effectiveness of the EOSDIS are discussed. The technology evolution process as it related to the effective operation of EOSDIS is described, and methods are identified for the support of the transfer of relevant technology to EOSDIS components.

  5. Scientific Temper among Academically High and Low Achieving Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kour, Sunmeet

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the scientific temper of high and low achieving adolescent girl students. Random sampling technique was used to draw the sample from various high schools of District Srinagar. The sample for the present study consisted of 120 school going adolescent girls (60 high and 60 low achievers). Data was…

  6. Operational strategies to achieve and maintain malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    Moonen, Bruno; Cohen, Justin M; Snow, Robert W; Slutsker, Laurence; Drakeley, Chris; Smith, David L; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra R; Rodriguez, Mario Henry; Maharaj, Rajendra; Tanner, Marcel; Targett, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    Summary Present elimination strategies are based on recommendations derived during the Global Malaria Eradication Program of the 1960s. However, many countries considering elimination nowadays have high intrinsic transmission potential and, without the support of a regional campaign, have to deal with the constant threat of imported cases of the disease, emphasising the need to revisit the strategies on which contemporary elimination programmes are based. To eliminate malaria, programmes need to concentrate on identification and elimination of foci of infections through both passive and active methods of case detection. This approach needs appropriate treatment of both clinical cases and asymptomatic infections, combined with targeted vector control. Draining of infectious pools entirely will not be sufficient since they could be replenished by imported malaria. Elimination will thus additionally need identification and treatment of incoming infections before they lead to transmission, or, more realistically, embarking on regional initiatives to dry up importation at its source. PMID:21035841

  7. Progress on achieving the ICF conditions needed for high gain

    SciTech Connect

    Lindl, J.D.

    1988-12-23

    Progress during the past two years has moved us much closer to demonstrating the scientific and technological requirements for high gain ICF in the laboratory. This progress has been made possible by operating at the third harmonic of 1..mu..m light which dramatically reduces concern about hot electrons and by advances in diagnostics such as 100 ps x-ray framing cameras which greatly increase the data available from each experiment. Making use of many of these new capabilities, major improvements in confinement conditions have been achieved for ICF implosions. In particular, in an optimized hohlraum on Nova, radiation driven implosions with convergence ratio in excess of 30 (volume compression /approximately/3 /times/ 10/sup 4/) have performed essentially as predicted by spherical implosion calculations. This paper presents these results as well as examples of advances in several other areas and discusses the implications for the future of ICF with lasers and heavy ion beam drivers. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Pre-operative Thresholds for Achieving Meaningful Clinical Improvement after Arthroscopic Treatment of Femoroacetabular Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U.; Fields, Kara G.; Nawabi, Danyal H.; Kelly, Bryan T.; Ranawat, Anil S.

    2016-01-01

    sagittal CEA was the only variable maintaining significance (p = 0.032). Conclusion: We used a large prospective hip arthroscopy database to identify pre-operative patient outcome score thresholds predictive of meaningful post-operative outcome improvement after arthroscopic FAI treatment. This is the largest reported hip arthroscopy cohort to define MCID and the first to do so for iHOT-33. The HOS-ADL may have the best predictive ability for achieving MCID after hip arthroscopy. Patients with relatively high pre-operative ADL, quality of life and functional status appear to have a high chance for achieveing MCID up to our defined thresholds. Hip dysplasia is an important outcome modifier. The findings of this study may be useful for managing preoperative expectation for patients undergoing arthroscopic FAI surgery.

  9. Setting Educational Priorities: High Achievers Speak Out. White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickeson, Robert C.

    Noting that high achieving Indiana high school students can provide important insights into the educational system in the state, this study examined the opinions of recipients of Ameritchieve recognition, National Merit finalists, African-American students who were National Achievement finalists, and national Hispanic Scholar finalists, all from…

  10. Design considerations in achieving 1 MW CW operation with a whispering-gallery-mode gyrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Felch, K.; Feinstein, J.; Hess, C.; Huey, H.; Jongewaard, E.; Jory, H.; Neilson, J.; Pendleton, R.; Pirkle, D.; Zitelli, L. )

    1989-09-01

    Varian is developing high-power, CW gyrotrons at frequencies in the range 100 GHz to 150 GHz, for use in electron cyclotron heating applications. Early test vehicles have utilized a TE{sub 15,2,1} interaction cavity, have achieved short-pulse power levels of 820 kW and average power levels of 80 kW at 140 GHz. Present tests are aimed at reaching 400 kW under CW operating conditions and up to 1 MW for short pulse durations. Work is also underway on modifications to the present design that will enable power levels of up to 1 MW CW to be achieved. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Test-Taking Strategies of High and Low Mathematics Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Sas, Maggie; Sas, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored test-preparation and test-taking strategies that high school students used in algebra tests. From a pool of high school students (N = 156), 61 students participated in interviews, and of those interviewed, 26 represented those who were high achieving as well as highly interested in mathematics (n = 15) vs. those who were low…

  12. Biculturalism and Academic Achievement of African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Jonathan P.; Jackson, Margo A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Blumberg, Fran C.

    2011-01-01

    Biculturalism was examined as a factor that may positively affect the academic achievement of African American high school students, beyond cultural identity and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses determined that cultural identity and academic self-esteem were important factors for academic achievement, but not biculturalism.…

  13. Tracking and Detracking: High Achievers in Massachusetts Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom

    2009-01-01

    This study examines tracking--the practice of grouping students into separate classes or courses based on their prior academic achievement--at the middle-school level, and the percentage of high-achieving students in tracked and untracked schools. It focuses on Massachusetts, a leader in "reforming" tracking, and the changes that have…

  14. Mobility and Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Janet Denise

    2013-01-01

    Student mobility is an issue for high poverty schools in the shadow of increased rigor and accountability for student performance. Whereas mobility is not a sole cause for poor achievement, it is a contributing factor for students in poverty who are already considered to be at risk of low achievement. Student mobility creates a hardship for…

  15. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 29th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report presents the 1998 statistical findings of the annual survey to determine the attitudes of national high school student leaders. Questionnaires were completed by 3,123 high school juniors and seniors, all of whom were selected for recognition in "Who's Who among American High School Students." In addition to demographic information, the…

  16. Associations of Future Expectations, Negative Friends, and Academic Achievement in High-Achieving African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michael; Corprew, Charles S., III; Becker, Jonathan E.

    2009-01-01

    The relations of future expectations (general and academic) to academic outcomes were examined in a sample of 129 African American high-achieving adolescents (majority female participants, n = 92). This study was interested in the multidimensional nature of future expectations. Results from the study confirm the hypothesis that academic future…

  17. Gender and High School Chemistry: Student Perceptions on Achievement in a Selective Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Andrew; Mills, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on research undertaken in a middle-class Australian school. The focus of the research was on the relationship between gender and students' engagement with high school chemistry. Achievement data from many OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] countries suggest that middle-class girls are achieving equally…

  18. Low and High Mathematics Achievement in Japanese, Chinese, and American Elementary-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttal, David H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    First and fifth grade students who scored high or low on a mathematics test were tested for intellectual ability and reading achievement. Students and their mothers were interviewed. Results indicated that factors associated with levels of achievement in mathematics operate in a similar fashion across three cultures that differ greatly in their…

  19. The "Renaissance Child": High Achievement and Gender in Late Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the concept of the "Renaissance Child" to illustrate the ways in which gender influences the opportunities and possibilities of high-achieving pupils. Using data from a study of 12-13-year high-achieving boys and girls based in schools in England, the paper considers the ways in which a group of popular boys was able to show an…

  20. The Effects of Block Scheduling on High School Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Chance W.; Dugan, James J.; Winokur, Marc A.; Cobb, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of block scheduling on high school student achievement in mathematics and reading was investigated in this study through the use of an ex post-facto, longitudinal research design. Specifically, student scores from 9th and 11th-grade standardized tests were matched and sorted by junior high and high school attended. Outcome measures…

  1. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 28th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report details the 28th annual study to examine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. Participating in the survey were 3,210 adolescents, primarily 16- and 17-year-olds, who had been featured in the 1997 edition of "Who's Who Among American High School Students." The report presents demographic information on the survey…

  2. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 27th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report details the 27th annual study to examine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. Participating in the survey were 3,370 adolescents, primarily 16- and 17-year-olds, who had been featured in the 1996 edition of "Who's Who Among American High School Students." The report presents demographic information on the survey…

  3. A Study on the Relationship between Logical Thinking Level and the Achievement in Enrichment Physics of School Science High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Min; Lee, Sung-Yi

    2001-01-01

    Investigates science high achievers' achievement in enrichment physics and logical thinking levels, and analyzes the relationship between logical thinking level and achievement in enrichment physics of high achievers in science. Involves (n=35) 7th and 8th grade junior high school students in the study. Uses the Group Assessment of Logical…

  4. Student Achievement for Whom? High-Performing and Still "Playing the Game," the Meaning of School Achievement among High Achieving African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggan, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The preponderance of the research on African American students has generally focused on issues of school failure and underperformance. While the literature on high achieving Black students is sparse, very little is known about these students' school experiences and the meanings that they assign to achievement. Using student-based inquiry…

  5. Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, A. R.; Yuan, Z. L.; Dynes, J. F.; Sharpe, A. W.; Shields, A. J.

    2010-04-01

    We demonstrate a quantum key distribution with a secure bit rate exceeding 1 Mbit/s over 50 km fiber averaged over a continuous 36 h period. Continuous operation of high bit rates is achieved using feedback systems to control path length difference and polarization in the interferometer and the timing of the detection windows. High bit rates and continuous operation allows finite key size effects to be strongly reduced, achieving a key extraction efficiency of 96% compared to keys of infinite lengths.

  6. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 25th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey was conducted during the spring of 1994 for the purpose of determining the attitudes of student leaders in the nation's high schools. Eight thousand surveys were sent out to students, of which 3177 were returned. All students surveyed were members of the junior or senior class during the 1993-94 academic year. They were selected for…

  7. Student Achievement Levels Raised at Chandler High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Profiles, Programs & Products, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Chandler (Arizona) High School has reported a dramatic increase in student achievement levels since implementing a number of management, curriculum, and discipline policy changes. Among the program changes that contributed to these gains are: (1) creation of a positive school environment, with high expectations for teachers, emphasis on high…

  8. Brain Hemisphericity and Mathematics Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Sanny F.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the brain hemisphericity and mathematics achievement of high school students. The respondents of the study were the 168 first year high school students of Colegio de San Jose, during school year 2010-2011 who were chosen through stratified random sampling. The descriptive and interview methods of research were used in…

  9. Exploring High-Achieving Students' Images of Mathematicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Mario Sánchez; Rosas, Alejandro; Zavaleta, Juan Gabriel Molina; Romo-Vázquez, Avenilde

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the images that a group of high-achieving Mexican students hold of mathematicians. For this investigation, we used a research method based on the Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) with a sample of 63 Mexican high school students. The group of students' pictorial and written descriptions of mathematicians assisted us…

  10. High School Employment and Academic Achievement: A Note for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keister, Mary; Hall, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Educators are often in a position to affect student decisions to work during the school term. This study reviews and summarizes the literature on the effect that employment during high school has on academic achievement. The available evidence suggests that part-time jobs for high school students are beneficial as long as the number of hours…

  11. What Does Quality Programming Mean for High Achieving Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samudzi, Cleo

    2008-01-01

    The Missouri Academy of Science, Mathematics and Computing (Missouri Academy) is a two-year accelerated, early-entrance-to-college, residential school that matches the level, complexity and pace of the curriculum with the readiness and motivation of high achieving high school students. The school is a part of Northwest Missouri State University…

  12. An Analysis of High School Mathematics Achievement and English Language Arts Achievement as Predictors of Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Anthony C.

    2012-01-01

    Science assessments require students to read and comprehend questions and to solve mathematical problems. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the following variables can be used to predict science achievement: English language arts achievement, mathematics achievement, socioeconomic status (SES), limited English proficiency (LEP)…

  13. Operations & Maintenance Best Practices - A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency Release 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-01

    This Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Best Practices Guide was developed under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The mission of FEMP is to facilitate the Federal Government’s implementation of sound, cost effective energy management and investment practices to enhance the nation’s energy security and environmental stewardship.

  14. MCT FPAs at high operating temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, P.; Hipwood, L.; Pillans, L.; Ash, R.; Abbott, P.

    2011-11-01

    This paper summarises measurements and calculations of HOT performance in Selex Galileo's MW detectors and demonstrates that high quality imagery can be achieved up to 175K. The benefits of HOT operation for cooler performance and power dissipation are also quantified. The variable band gap of MCT provides the ability to optimise the cut-off wavelength for a wide range of operating temperatures. In particular, it provides the means to produce a MW detector that is well matched to the 3-5μm atmospheric transmission window at any temperature in the range from 80K up to room temperature. Competing InSb technology is disadvantaged at higher operating temperatures by a narrowing band gap, increasing cut-off wavelength, and inadequate EO performance. The practical upper limit of operating temperature for near-background limited performance is influenced by several factors, which fall into two categories: the fundamental physics of thermal dark current generation and black body emission from the cooled radiation shield, and the technology limitations of MCT diode leakage currents, excess noise, dark current due to defects, and injection efficiency into the ROIC.

  15. Cryosat: ESA'S Ice Explorer Mission, 6 years in operations: status and achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrinello, Tommaso; Maestroni, Elia; Krassenburg, Mike; Badessi, Stefano; Bouffard, Jerome; Frommknecht, Bjorn; Davidson, Malcolm; Fornari, Marco; Scagliola, Michele

    2016-04-01

    CryoSat-2 was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. CryoSat-2 carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL) with two antennas and with extended capabilities to meet the measurement requirements for ice-sheets elevation and sea-ice freeboard. Initial results have shown that data is of high quality thanks to an altimeter that is behaving exceptional well within its design specifications. The CryoSat mission reached its 6th years of operational life in April 2016. Since its launch has delivered high quality products to the worldwide cryospheric and marine community that is increasing every year. Scope of this paper is to describe the current mission status and its main scientific achievements. Topics will also include programmatic highlights and information on the next scientific development of the mission in its extended period of operations.

  16. The Contribution of Limbic Learning Aptitude to Achievement in High School. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ax, Albert F.; And Others

    Achievement in earning grades in high school was resolved into its intellectual and motivational components. This study employed tests of I.Q., personality inventories and classical and operant conditioning of autonomic nervous system controlled variables. Eleven procedures were given to 99 Black inner city high school seniors. Six physiological…

  17. Supplementary Education: The Hidden Curriculum of High Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edmund W., Ed.; Bridglall, Beatrice L., Ed.; Meroe, Aundra Saa, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    In this book, the editors argue that while access to schools that enable and expect academic achievement is a necessary ingredient for the education of students, schools alone may not be sufficient to ensure universally high levels of academic development. Supplemental educational experiences may also be needed. The idea of supplementary education…

  18. Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; Rajeswari, K.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the influence of self-esteem on academic achievement among high school students in Miandoab City of Iran. The methodology of the research is descriptive and correlation that descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Statistical Society includes male and female high…

  19. Student Achievement Levels Climb at Ribault Senior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Profiles, Programs & Products, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Ribault (Florida) Senior High School has reported a dramatic increase in student achievement levels since implementing a comprehensive college preparation curriculum. Among the program changes that contributed to those gains are: (1) the establishment and consistent enforcement of a strong discipline program, including rules for student conduct, a…

  20. Middle School Practices Improve Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Steven B.; Flowers, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Examined how interdisciplinary team practices and classroom instructional practices affected student achievement in high poverty middle schools in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Found that when the combined effects of family poverty level, teaming and common planning time, and duration of teaming were considered, there was a relationship…

  1. Student Achievement through the Development of Complete High School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamphere, Michael Frederick, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation undertook an investigation of school culture and achievement in the high school setting. The national data set ELS:2002 was used as the pool of variables because it allows for a complete picture of school culture comprising students, parents, administrators, and teachers. The data were selected based on current literature and…

  2. Mercer Middle School Case Study: High Science and Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    To spotlight effective practices, the Washington State Board of Education (SBE) is highlighting schools that are closing achievement gaps and performing at high levels. In 2009, the SBE partnered with the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) to create the Washington Accountability Index. The Index is a new way to measure schools'…

  3. Analysis of Three High-Achieving Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Chae, Jeong-Lim; Schinck-Mikel, Amelie G.; Watson, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an in-depth cross-case analysis of three high-achieving young adolescent girls who had contrasting mathematics learning experiences during the first year of middle school. In particular, this study examines the foundation for their motivation, as well as the dominant mode of learning and academic engagement in relation to three…

  4. The High Trust Classroom: Raising Achievement from the Inside Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lonnie

    2009-01-01

    This book provides a roadmap to developing a high-trust classroom, a classroom: (1) With increased student achievement; (2) With few discipline problems; (3) Where students are intrinsically motivated; and (4) Where the teacher can confidently use creative lesson planning. The author presents a simple step by step approach to earning the trust of…

  5. Best Practices for Achieving High, Rapid Reading Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbo, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The percentage of students who read at the proficient level on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has not improved, and is appallingly low. In order for students to achieve high reading gains and become life-long readers, reading comprehension and reading enjoyment must be the top two goals. This article presents several…

  6. Relationship between High School Leadership Team Practices and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Timothy M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated if a relationship existed between student achievement in 10th grade Missouri Assessment Program mathematics and 11th grade communication arts scores in 2007 and high school leadership team perceptions of the extent to which they demonstrated leadership practices. The secondary purpose was to compare perceptional…

  7. Achievement of U.S. High-School Physics Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandavarkar, Marilda S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reports results of the Second International Science Study concerning achievement in physics of U.S. high school students. Makes comparisons between students of 13 other countries and U.S. students, between first- and second-year U.S. physics students, and between U.S. students tested in the mid-1980s and those tested in 1970. (MDH)

  8. Progress Lags in High School, Especially for Advanced Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines trends in the achievement of high school students on the state reading/English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests used for accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). This study confirms that there is reason for concern about…

  9. Operations & Maintenance Best Practices - A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency (Release 3)

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Greg; Pugh, Ray; Melendez, Aldo P.; Hunt, W. D.

    2010-08-04

    This guide highlights operations and maintenance programs targeting energy and water efficiency that are estimated to save 5% to 20% on energy bills without a significant capital investment. The purpose of this guide is to provide you, the Operations and Maintenance (O&M)/Energy manager and practitioner, with useful information about O&M management, technologies, energy and water efficiency, and cost-reduction approaches. To make this guide useful and to reflect your needs and concerns, the authors met with O&M and Energy managers via Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) workshops. In addition, the authors conducted extensive literature searches and contacted numerous vendors and industry experts. The information and case studies that appear in this guide resulted from these activities. It needs to be stated at the outset that this guide is designed to provide information on effective O&M as it applies to systems and equipment typically found at Federal facilities. This guide is not designed to provide the reader with step-by-step procedures for performing O&M on any specific piece of equipment. Rather, this guide first directs the user to the manufacturer's specifications and recommendations. In no way should the recommendations in this guide be used in place of manufacturer's recommendations. The recommendations in this guide are designed to supplement those of the manufacturer, or, as is all too often the case, provide guidance for systems and equipment for which all technical documentation has been lost. As a rule, this guide will first defer to the manufacturer's recommendations on equipment operation and maintenance.

  10. Parent Involvement Practices of High-Achieving Elementary Science Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Samara Susan

    This study addressed a prevalence of low achievement in science courses in an urban school district in Georgia. National leaders and educators have identified the improvement of science proficiency as critical to the future of American industry. The purpose of this study was to examine parent involvement in this school district and its contribution to the academic achievement of successful science students. Social capital theory guided this study by suggesting that students achieve best when investments are made into their academic and social development. A collective case study qualitative research design was used to interview 9 parent participants at 2 elementary schools whose children scored in the exceeds category on the Science CRCT. The research questions focused on what these parents did at home to support their children's academic achievement. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview protocol and analyzed through the categorical aggregation of transcribed interviews. Key findings revealed that the parents invested time and resources in 3 practices: communicating high expectations, supporting and developing key skills, and communicating with teachers. These findings contribute to social change at both the local and community level by creating a starting point for teachers, principals, and district leaders to reexamine the value of parent input in the educational process, and by providing data to support the revision of current parent involvement policies. Possibilities for further study building upon the findings of this study may focus on student perceptions of their parents' parenting as it relates to their science achievement.

  11. Sensor study for high speed autonomous operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anne; La Celle, Zachary; Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Del Giorno, Mark; Close, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    As robotic ground systems advance in capabilities and begin to fulfill new roles in both civilian and military life, the limitation of slow operational speed has become a hindrance to the wide-spread adoption of these systems. For example, military convoys are reluctant to employ autonomous vehicles when these systems slow their movement from 60 miles per hour down to 40. However, these autonomous systems must operate at these lower speeds due to the limitations of the sensors they employ. Robotic Research, with its extensive experience in ground autonomy and associated problems therein, in conjunction with CERDEC/Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), has performed a study to specify system and detection requirements; determined how current autonomy sensors perform in various scenarios; and analyzed how sensors should be employed to increase operational speeds of ground vehicles. The sensors evaluated in this study include the state of the art in LADAR/LIDAR, Radar, Electro-Optical, and Infrared sensors, and have been analyzed at high speeds to study their effectiveness in detecting and accounting for obstacles and other perception challenges. By creating a common set of testing benchmarks, and by testing in a wide range of real-world conditions, Robotic Research has evaluated where sensors can be successfully employed today; where sensors fall short; and which technologies should be examined and developed further. This study is the first step to achieve the overarching goal of doubling ground vehicle speeds on any given terrain.

  12. The Will to Achieve: A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of African American High Achieving Students and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Natalie Faye

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to understand the experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents. The experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents have been missing from literature on the academic achievement of African American students. Much of the literature that has been published…

  13. School Achievement and Personality. Description of School Achievement in Terms of Ability, Trait, Situational and Background Variables. III: Operations at the Factor Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskanen, Erkki A.

    This monograph contains the third section, operations at the factor level, of a report of studies done in Helsinki, Finland, describing school achievement in terms of ability, trait, situational, and background variables. The report (1) investigates the structure of school achievement, (2) describes school achievement in terms of selected…

  14. School Achievement and Personality. Description of School Achievement in Terms of Ability, Trait, Situational and Background Variables. II: Operations at the Variable Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskanen, Erkki A.

    This monograph contains the second section, operations at the variable level, of a report of studies done in Helsinki, Finland, describing school achievement in terms of ability, trait, situational, and background variables. The report (1) investigates the structure of school achievement, (2) describes school achievement in terms of selected…

  15. Experiences of High-Achieving High School Students Who Have Taken Multiple Concurrent Advanced Placement Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Problem: An increasing number of high-achieving American high school students are enrolling in multiple Advanced Placement (AP) courses. As a result, high schools face a growing need to understand the impact of taking multiple AP courses concurrently on the social-emotional lives of high-achieving students. Procedures: This phenomenological…

  16. Efficient high density train operations

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Evans, John A.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference. During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  17. Interface Strategy To Achieve Tunable High Frequency Attenuation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hualiang; Zhang, Haiqian; Ji, Guangbin; Xu, Zhichuan J

    2016-03-16

    Among all polarizations, the interface polarization effect is the most effective, especially at high frequency. The design of various ferrite/iron interfaces can significantly enhance the materials' dielectric loss ability at high frequency. This paper presents a simple method to generate ferrite/iron interfaces to enhance the microwave attenuation at high frequency. The ferrites were coated onto carbonyl iron and could be varied to ZnFe2O4, CoFe2O4, Fe3O4, and NiFe2O4. Due to the ferrite/iron interface inducing a stronger dielectric loss effect, all of these materials achieved broad effective frequency width at a coating layer as thin as 1.5 mm. In particular, an effective frequency width of 6.2 GHz could be gained from the Fe@NiFe2O4 composite. PMID:26918285

  18. Unlocking Emergent Talent: Supporting High Achievement of Low-Income, High Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Clarenbach, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This report takes a comprehensive look at achievement for low-income promising learners--past, present, and future. At its core, it challenges the nation to move beyond its near-singular focus of achieving minimum performance for all students, to identifying and developing the talent of all students who are capable of high achievement, including…

  19. Evaluating student's academic achievement by a non-additive aggregation operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Siti Rohana Goh; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ramli, Mohammad Fadzli; Sakib, Elyana

    2014-07-01

    In the context of multi-criteria decision making (MCDM), the average method used in Integrated Students Information System (ISIS) can be classified as an additive measure where the students' academic achievement are aggregated based on the assumption that there is no interaction among the evaluation criteria or the criteria are independent. This method is not suitable to be used if the schools look for equilibrium in their students' achievement. Thus, the non-additive aggregation operator is chosen to analyze students' academic achievements by further taking into accounts the interactions between the subjects. The measures of interaction were represented as λ-fuzzy measures. The effectiveness and success of this non-additive measures can be recognized by comparing the results of the new ranking which was obtained by nonadditive aggregation operator with the current approach of ranking that were based on the global scores using average score method. Throughout this study, it could be postulated that employing the non-additive aggregation operators to obtain an overall evaluation is more suitable because this method able to deal with interactions among subjects whereas the average method only assumes that there is no interaction between subjects or the subjects must be independent.

  20. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed. PMID:25973781

  1. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-05-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed.

  2. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  3. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs—Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  4. Achieving ultra-high temperatures with a resistive emitter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Tom; Franks, Greg; Holmes, Nicholas; LaVeigne, Joe; Matis, Greg; McHugh, Steve; Norton, Dennis; Vengel, Tony; Lannon, John; Goodwin, Scott

    2016-05-01

    The rapid development of very-large format infrared detector arrays has challenged the IR scene projector community to also develop larger-format infrared emitter arrays to support the testing of systems incorporating these detectors. In addition to larger formats, many scene projector users require much higher simulated temperatures than can be generated with current technology in order to fully evaluate the performance of their systems and associated processing algorithms. Under the Ultra High Temperature (UHT) development program, Santa Barbara Infrared Inc. (SBIR) is developing a new infrared scene projector architecture capable of producing both very large format (>1024 x 1024) resistive emitter arrays and improved emitter pixel technology capable of simulating very high apparent temperatures. During earlier phases of the program, SBIR demonstrated materials with MWIR apparent temperatures in excess of 1400 K. New emitter materials have subsequently been selected to produce pixels that achieve even higher apparent temperatures. Test results from pixels fabricated using the new material set will be presented and discussed. A 'scalable' Read In Integrated Circuit (RIIC) is also being developed under the same UHT program to drive the high temperature pixels. This RIIC will utilize through-silicon via (TSV) and Quilt Packaging (QP) technologies to allow seamless tiling of multiple chips to fabricate very large arrays, and thus overcome the yield limitations inherent in large-scale integrated circuits. Results of design verification testing of the completed RIIC will be presented and discussed.

  5. How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been used in a large number of fields, such as chemical, agricultural and biopharmaceutical industries. The enzyme production rate and yield are the main factors to consider when choosing the appropriate expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant enzymes have been expressed in bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria), filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and yeasts (e.g., Pichia pastoris). The favorable and very advantageous characteristics of these species have resulted in an increasing number of biotechnological applications. Bacterial hosts (e.g., E. coli) can be used to quickly and easily overexpress recombinant enzymes; however, bacterial systems cannot express very large proteins and proteins that require post-translational modifications. The main bacterial expression hosts, with the exception of lactic acid bacteria and filamentous fungi, can produce several toxins which are not compatible with the expression of recombinant enzymes in food and drugs. However, due to the multiplicity of the physiological impacts arising from high-level expression of genes encoding the enzymes and expression hosts, the goal of overproduction can hardly be achieved, and therefore, the yield of recombinant enzymes is limited. In this review, the recent strategies used for the high-level expression of microbial enzymes in the hosts mentioned above are summarized and the prospects are also discussed. We hope this review will contribute to the development of the enzyme-related research field. PMID:23686280

  6. Effects of Partner's Ability on the Achievement and Conceptual Organization of High-Achieving Fifth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Glenda; Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Investigates high-achieving fifth-grade students' achievement gains and conceptual reorganization on convection. Features an instructional sequence of three dyadic inquiry investigations related to convection currents as well as pre- and post-assessment consisting of a multiple-choice test, a card sorting task, construction of a concept map, and…

  7. Comparison of the Level of Using Metacognitive Strategies during Study between High Achieving and Low Achieving Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doganay, Ahmet; Demir, Ozden

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to compare the level of using metacognitive strategies during study between high achieving and low achieving prospective classroom teachers. This study was designed as a mixed method study. Metacognitive Learning Strategies Scale developed by Namlu (2004) was used to measure the use of metacognitive strategies…

  8. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Mathematics between Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Fifth Grade Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathbone, A. Sue

    Possible gender differences in attitudes toward mathematics were studied between low-achieving and high-achieving fifth-grade students in selected elementary schools within a large, metropolitan area. The attitudes of pre-adolescent children at an intermediate grade level were assessed to determine the effects of rapidly emerging gender-related…

  9. Efforts toward achieving an unmanned, high-altitude LTA platform

    SciTech Connect

    Onda, Masahiko; Ford, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    The modern demands for an unmanned aerospace platform, capable of long-duration stationkeeping at high-altitudes, are well-known. Satellites, balloons, and aircraft have traditionally served in the role of platform, facilitating tasks ranging from telecommunications to deep-space astronomy. However, limitations on the performance and flexibility of these systems, as well as the intrinsically high-cost of satellite construction, operation, and repair, warrants development of a supplemental technology for the platform. Much has been written in the literature on the possible advantages of a lighter-than-air (LTA) platform, if such an LTA could be constructed. Potential applications include remote sensing, environmental monitoring, mobile communications, space and polar observations, cargo delivery, military reconnaissance, and others. At present, conventional LTA`s are not capable of serving in the manner specified. Within this context, a research program known as HALROP (High Altitude Long Range Observational Platform) is currently underway. The goal is to create a stratospheric platform, possibly in the form of a next generation LTA vehicle. The authors present a qualitative review of their efforts, focusing on milestones in the HALROP Program. 12 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. MWIR mercury cadmium telluride detectors for high operating temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillans, L.; Ash, R. M.; Hipwood, L.; Knowles, P.

    2012-06-01

    Raising the operating temperature of infrared detectors has benefits in terms of reduced cooler power and increased life and enables an overall reduction in size and weight for handheld applications. With MCT the composition can be tuned to achieve the required wavelength range at a given temperature. Work on detectors operating in the 3-5μm atmospheric transmission window at operating temperatures up to 210K will be described. The influence of limiting factors such as excess noise, radiation shield emission, dark current and injection efficiency will be presented. Packaging aspects will be discussed emphasizing the importance of achieving low cost, weight and power for handheld applications. The impact of the detector design on overall system size and performance is considered with specific attention to time to image, passband and f-number. Finally images will be presented showing performance from a high operating temperature (HOT) camera.

  11. Achieving High Throughput for Data Transfer over ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.; Townsend, Jeffrey N.

    1996-01-01

    File-transfer rates for ftp are often reported to be relatively slow, compared to the raw bandwidth available in emerging gigabit networks. While a major bottleneck is disk I/O, protocol issues impact performance as well. Ftp was developed and optimized for use over the TCP/IP protocol stack of the Internet. However, TCP has been shown to run inefficiently over ATM. In an effort to maximize network throughput, data-transfer protocols can be developed to run over UDP or directly over IP, rather than over TCP. If error-free transmission is required, techniques for achieving reliable transmission can be included as part of the transfer protocol. However, selected image-processing applications can tolerate a low level of errors in images that are transmitted over a network. In this paper we report on experimental work to develop a high-throughput protocol for unreliable data transfer over ATM networks. We attempt to maximize throughput by keeping the communications pipe full, but still keep packet loss under five percent. We use the Bay Area Gigabit Network Testbed as our experimental platform.

  12. High-Achieving High School Students and Not so High-Achieving College Students: A Look at Lack of Self-Control, Academic Ability, and Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honken, Nora B.; Ralston, Patricia A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among lack of self-control, academic ability, and academic performance for a cohort of freshman engineering students who were, with a few exceptions, extremely high achievers in high school. Structural equation modeling analysis led to the conclusion that lack of self-control in high school, as measured by…

  13. Learning Styles and High School Students' Chemistry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of students' learning styles on their chemistry achievement, and whether matching between teaching and learning styles also affects students' chemistry achievement. Two hundred and sixty-five tenth-grade students enrolled in a chemistry course and seven chemistry teachers participated in…

  14. Does Recreational Computer Use Affect High School Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Berland, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the relationship between student academic achievement and use of computers for fun and video gaming has been described from a multitude of perspectives, from positive, to negative, to neutral. However, recent research has indicated that computer use and video gaming may be positively associated with achievement, yet these studies…

  15. Student Perception of Academic Achievement Factors at High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahar, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the quality of the "product" is elemental in education, and most studies depend on observational data about student achievement factors, focusing overwhelmingly on quantitative data namely achievement scores, school data like attendance, facilities, expenditure class size, etc. But there is little evidence of learner…

  16. Rectangular Dielectric-loaded Structures for Achieving High Acceleration Gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Changbiao; Yakovlev, V. P.; Marshall, T. C.; LaPointe, M. A.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2006-11-27

    Rectangular dielectric-loaded structures are described that may sustain higher acceleration gradients than conventional all-metal structures with similar apertures. One structure is a test cavity designed to ascertain the breakdown limits of dielectrics, while a second structure could be the basis for a two-beam accelerator. CVD diamond is an attractive dielectric for a high-gradient structure, since the published DC breakdown limit for CVD diamond is {approx} 2 GV/m, although the limit has never been determined for RF fields. Here we present a design of a diamond-lined test cavity to measure the breakdown limit. The designed cavity operates at 34 GHz, where with 10-MW input power it is expected to produce an {approx}800 MV/m field on the diamond surface - provided breakdown is avoided. The two channel rectangular dielectric-loaded waveguide could be a two-beam accelerator structure, in which a drive beam is in one channel and an accelerated beam is in the other. The RF power produced by drive bunches in the drive channel is continuously coupled to the acceleration channel. The ratio of fields in the channels (transformer ratio) for the operating mode can be designed by adjusting the dimensions of the structure. An example of the two-channel structure is described, in which a train of five 3-nC drive bunches excites wake fields in the accelerator channel of up to 1.3 GV/m with a transformer ratio of 10 for the design mode.

  17. Achievement of Hispanic Students in American High Schools: Background Characteristics and Achievement. Contractor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Francois; Fernandez, Roberto M.

    Presenting data and analyses from the first wave of the study "High School and Beyond" (HS&B), a longitudinal study of United States high school sophomores and seniors, the report focuses on the composition of the Hispanic tenth and twelfth grade student population with respect to various characteristics; i.e., language use and proficiency, length…

  18. Threatened and Placed at Risk: High Achieving African American Males in Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Ebony O.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the risk and protective factors of 11 high-achieving African American males attending 4 urban charter high schools in a Midwestern city to determine what factors account for their resilience and success in mathematics courses, and in high school more generally. This research was guided by a Phenomenological Variant of…

  19. Preferences of High Achieving High School Students in Their Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2010-01-01

    The intent of this study was to identify the needs and preference of high-achieving high school students. In terms of career related programs in high school, students listed AP courses and mentoring as their preferred career-related programs. Also, students stated that career guidance by counselors, workshops or sessions, and tech prep were the…

  20. The Effect of Music Participation on Mathematical Achievement and Overall Academic Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, H. A.; Stephens, L. J.

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted on high school students, comparing those with some music credits to those with none. No statistically significant difference was found in their mean math grade point averages (GPA) or their mean cumulative GPAs. Students were then separated into two groups based on the number of music credits. Students who had earned at least…

  1. Academic attainment and the high school science experiences among high-achieving African American males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trice, Rodney Nathaniel

    This study examines the educational experiences of high achieving African American males. More specifically, it analyzes the influences on their successful navigation through high school science. Through a series of interviews, observations, questionnaires, science portfolios, and review of existing data the researcher attempted to obtain a deeper understanding of high achieving African American males and their limitations to academic attainment and high school science experiences. The investigation is limited to ten high achieving African American male science students at Woodcrest High School. Woodcrest is situated at the cross section of a suburban and rural community located in the southeastern section of the United States. Although this investigation involves African American males, all of whom are successful in school, its findings should not be generalized to this nor any other group of students. The research question that guided this study is: What are the limitations to academic attainment and the high school science experiences of high achieving African American males? The student participants expose how suspension and expulsion, special education placement, academic tracking, science instruction, and teacher expectation influence academic achievement. The role parents play, student self-concept, peer relationships, and student learning styles are also analyzed. The anthology of data rendered three overarching themes: (1) unequal access to education, (2) maintenance of unfair educational structures, and (3) authentic characterizations of African American males. Often the policies and practices set in place by school officials aid in creating hurdles to academic achievement. These policies and practices are often formed without meaningful consideration of the unintended consequences that may affect different student populations, particularly the most vulnerable. The findings from this study expose that high achieving African American males face major

  2. Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

  3. Success Despite Socioeconomics: A Case Study of a High-Achieving, High-Poverty School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Thomas Brent; Smith, Samuel J.; Claxton, Russell L.

    2012-01-01

    This case study of a high-achieving, high-poverty school describes the school's leadership, culture, and programs that contributed to its success. Data were collected from two surveys (the School Culture Survey and the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education), observations at the school site, and interviews with school personnel. The…

  4. "Brains before "Beauty"?" High Achieving Girls, School and Gender Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky; Read, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In recent years educational policy on gender and achievement has concentrated on boys' underachievement, frequently comparing it with the academic success of girls. This has encouraged a perception of girls as the "winners" of the educational stakes and assumes that they no longer experience the kinds of gender inequalities identified in earlier…

  5. Cooperative Learning: A Standard for High Achievement. The Nutshell Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, R. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This book reveals some of the structural complexities involved in implementing authentic cooperative learning in the classroom. It also suggests that when full cooperative learning structures are implemented, the benefits in student achievement often can be astounding. Descriptions, decisions, designs, and developments, a simple four-part scheme,…

  6. Dominant Achievement Goals across Tracks in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheltinga, Peter A. M.; Kuyper, Hans; Timmermans, Anneke C.; van der Werf, Greetje P. C.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant achievement goals (DAGs) of 7,008 students in the third grade of Dutch secondary education (US grade 9) were investigated, based on Elliot & McGregors' 2 × 2 framework (2001), in relation to track-level and motivational variables. We found the mastery-approach goal and the performance-approach goal, generally considered adaptive,…

  7. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement in a Group of High, Medium, and Low Secondary Public High School Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas-Brantley, Betty J.

    This study investigated the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement in a group of 150 high, medium, and low achievers at a large midwestern public high school. Correlating data from the Coopersmith Inventory of self-esteem with grades, cumulative grade point averages, and class rank, the study disclosed a positive correlation…

  8. High-integrity databases for helicopter operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pschierer, Christian; Schiefele, Jens; Lüthy, Juerg

    2009-05-01

    Helicopter Emergency Medical Service missions (HEMS) impose a high workload on pilots due to short preparation time, operations in low level flight, and landings in unknown areas. The research project PILAS, a cooperation between Eurocopter, Diehl Avionics, DLR, EADS, Euro Telematik, ESG, Jeppesen, the Universities of Darmstadt and Munich, and funded by the German government, approached this problem by researching a pilot assistance system which supports the pilots during all phases of flight. The databases required for the specified helicopter missions include different types of topological and cultural data for graphical display on the SVS system, AMDB data for operations at airports and helipads, and navigation data for IFR segments. The most critical databases for the PILAS system however are highly accurate terrain and obstacle data. While RTCA DO-276 specifies high accuracies and integrities only for the areas around airports, HEMS helicopters typically operate outside of these controlled areas and thus require highly reliable terrain and obstacle data for their designated response areas. This data has been generated by a LIDAR scan of the specified test region. Obstacles have been extracted into a vector format. This paper includes a short overview of the complete PILAS system and then focus on the generation of the required high quality databases.

  9. MI high power operation and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Kourbanis, Ioanis; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    Fermilab's Main Injector on acceleration cycles to 120 GeV has been running a mixed mode operation delivering beam to both the antiproton source for pbar production and to the NuMI[1] target for neutrino production since 2005. On January 2008 the slip stacking process used to increase the beam to the pbar target was expanded to include the beam to the NuMI target increasing both the beam intensity and power. The current high power MI operation will be described along with the near future plans.

  10. Harmonic gyrotrons operating in high-order symmetric modes

    SciTech Connect

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Kashyn, Dmytro G.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2015-01-05

    It is shown that gyrotrons operating at cyclotron harmonics can be designed for operation in symmetric TE{sub 0,p}-modes. Such operation in fundamental harmonic gyrotrons is possible only at small radial indices (p≤3) because of the severe mode competition with TE{sub 2,p}-modes, which are equally coupled to annular beams as the symmetric modes. At cyclotron harmonics, however, this “degeneracy” of coupling is absent, and there is a region in the parameter space where harmonic gyrotrons can steadily operate in symmetric modes. This fact is especially important for sub-THz and THz-range gyrotrons where ohmic losses limit the power achievable in continuous-wave and high duty cycle regimes.

  11. Examining Organizational Practices That Predict Persistence among High-Achieving Black Males in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth Alonzo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: This article summarizes an increasing trend of antideficit Black male research in mathematics and highlights opportunities to add to the research. A review of the literature shows that antideficit researchers often examine relationships between individual traits and persistence of high-achieving Black males in mathematics.…

  12. Relationships among Stress, Coping, and Mental Health in High-Achieving High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Hardesty, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among stress, coping, and mental health in 139 students participating in an International Baccalaureate (IB) high school diploma program. Mental health was assessed using both positive indicators (life satisfaction, academic achievement, academic self-efficacy) and negative indicators (psychopathology) of…

  13. The Strengths of High-Achieving Black High School Students in a Racially Diverse Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Kris; Chaney, Cassandra; Jones, Derrick

    2012-01-01

    Robert Hill (1972) identified strengths of Black families: strong kinship bonds, strong work orientation, adaptability of family roles, high achievement orientation, and religious orientation. Some suggest these strengths sustain the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual needs of Blacks. This study used narratives and survey data from a…

  14. Relationship between High School Mathematical Achievement and Quantitative GPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Halpin, Glennelle; Halpin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The demand for STEM graduates has increased, but the number of incoming freshmen who declare a STEM major has remained stagnant. High school courses, such as calculus, can open or close the gate for students interested in careers in STEM. The purpose of this study was to determine if high school mathematics preparation was a significant…

  15. High consequence operations safety symposium 2: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Isbell, D.

    1998-07-01

    From July 29 to 31, 1997, the Surety Assessment Center at Sandia National Laboratories hosted the second international symposium on High Consequence Operations Safety, HCOSSII. The two and one-half day symposium allowed participants to share strategies, methodologies, and experiences in high consequence engineering and system design. The symposium addressed organizational influences on high consequence safety, assessment and analysis processes, lessons-learned from high consequence events, human factors in safety, and software safety. A special session at the end of the symposium featured a presentation by Federal Nuclear Center--All Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics and Sandia National Laboratories personnel on their joint efforts to establish the International Surety Center for Energy Intensive and High Consequence Systems and Infrastructures.

  16. Practically Perfect in Every Way: Can Reframing Perfectionism for High-Achieving Undergraduates Impact Academic Resilience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Mary J.; Dickinson, David A. G.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on a pan-disciplinary scheme that targeted high-achieving undergraduate students. Earlier research from the scheme argued that high achievers have discernibly different learning and personal development support needs. One of the most frequent self-reported challenges within this high-achieving group is perfectionism. This…

  17. The Relationship to Achievement on the California High School Exit Exam for Language Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Paul A.; Gopal, Malati

    2003-01-01

    Examines first year results of the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) required for students to earn a high school diploma. Results suggest this high stakes test failed to meet legislative objectives to increase achievement and close the achievement gap. Instead, language-minority students with passing scores achieved significantly below…

  18. Gender, Student Motivation and Academic Achievement in a Midsized Wisconsin High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutzke, Steven Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated relationships among gender, academic motivation and achievement in a mid-sized Wisconsin high school. A questionnaire was developed that focused on perceived ability, achievement motives and achievement goals. Interviews with teachers focused on relationships among academic motivation and gender achievement.…

  19. Achieving high CRI from warm to super white

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Edward; Tormey, Ellen S.

    2007-09-01

    Light sources which produce a high color rendering index (CRI) have many applications in the lighting industry today. High color rendering accents the rich color which abounds in nature, interior design, theatrical costumes and props, clothing and fabric, jewelry, and machine vision applications. Multi-wavelength LED sources can pump phosphors at multiple stokes shift emission regimes and when combined with selected direct emission sources can allow for greater flexibility in the production of warm-white and cool white light of specialty interest. Unique solutions to R8 and R14 CRI >95 at 2850K, 4750K, 5250K, and 6750K presented.

  20. Impact of learning orientation on African American children's attitudes toward high-achieving peers.

    PubMed

    Marryshow, Derrick; Hurley, Eric A; Allen, Brenda A; Tyler, Kenneth M; Boykin, A Wade

    2005-01-01

    This study examined Ogbu's widely accepted thesis that African American students reject high academic achievement because they perceive its limited utility in a world where their upward mobility is constrained by racial discrimination. Boykin's psychosocial integrity model contends that Black students value high achievement but that discrepancies between their formative cultural experiences and those imposed in school lead them to reject the modes of achievement available in classrooms. Ninety Black children completed a measure of attitudes toward students who achieve via mainstream or African American cultural values. Participants rejected the mainstream achievers and embraced the African American cultural achievers. Moreover, they expected their teachers to embrace the mainstream achievers and reject those who achieved through high-verve behavior. Results suggest that Boykin's thesis is a needed refinement to Ogbu's ideas. They indicate that Black children may reject not high achievement but some of the mainstream cultural values and behaviors on which success in mainstream classrooms is made contingent. PMID:16402748

  1. Technology's Achilles Heel: Achieving High-Quality Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gene E.

    2010-01-01

    An inherent characteristic of technology education is the continual development of new technologies and creating innovative applications of already existing technologies. As exciting as these innovations can be, technology educators and school staffs are frequently challenged to accomplish high levels of implementation. The metaphor of the…

  2. Vocational Interests of Intellectually Gifted and Highly Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vock, Miriam; Koller, Olaf; Nagy, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vocational interests play a central role in the vocational decision-making process and are decisive for the later job satisfaction and vocational success. Based on Ackerman's (1996) notion of "trait complexes," specific interest profiles of gifted high-school graduates can be expected. Aims: Vocational interests of gifted and highly…

  3. Academic Dishonesty among Gifted and High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    Gifted high school students are essentially absent in the research concerning academic integrity; however, over the past few years, educators of gifted students have noticed an increase in the occurrences of academic dishonesty among students in gifted classrooms (Abilock, 2009). This research may be analyzed to provide some insight into the…

  4. Student Achievement Data Systems in High and Low Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowiak, Jeannie E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in how high and low performing elementary school districts use and analyze data to differentiate instruction, make changes to district/grade level curriculum, determine professional development needs, determine teacher effectiveness, and determine the use of school district…

  5. Community Schools Seek to Improve High School Achievement, College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The Coalition for Community Schools, an alliance of more than 150 national, state, and local organizations, is bringing public schools in partnership with community resources to improve student success. While that might seem like an abstract idea, it has very concrete goals, such as boosting high school graduation rates and college readiness.…

  6. Scientific Reasoning and Achievement in a High School English Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kral, E. A.

    1997-01-01

    A Piagetian-based, systematic instructional theory developed by A. E. Lawson was used as a reasoning model in a 12th-grade English course at Grand Island Senior High in Grand Island, Nebraska, from 1982 to 1991. The thinking patterns that comprised the hypothetical-deductive stage of human intellectual development used in the course were…

  7. Common Core and America's High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    While the merit and politics of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have been much debated and discussed, one topic has been virtually ignored: What do the standards portend for America's high-ability students? This brief addresses that question and provides guidance for CCSS-implementing districts and schools as they seek to help these…

  8. Achieving High Performance with FPGA-Based Computing

    PubMed Central

    Herbordt, Martin C.; VanCourt, Tom; Gu, Yongfeng; Sukhwani, Bharat; Conti, Al; Model, Josh; DiSabello, Doug

    2011-01-01

    Numerous application areas, including bioinformatics and computational biology, demand increasing amounts of processing capability. In many cases, the computation cores and data types are suited to field-programmable gate arrays. The challenge is identifying the design techniques that can extract high performance potential from the FPGA fabric. PMID:21603088

  9. Organizational Citizenship of Faculty and Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaola, Michael F.; Hoy, Wayne K.

    2005-01-01

    All successful organizations, including successful high schools, have employees who go beyond their formal job responsibilities and freely give of their time and energy to succeed. Organ was the first to use the phrase "organizational citizenship behavior" (OCB) to denote organizationally beneficial behavior of workers that was not prescribed but…

  10. High-Achieving Schools Put Equity Front and Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Sonia Caus; Gerzon, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    How does professional learning look and feel in high-poverty schools where every student makes at least one year's worth of progress every year? How do schools and leaders put all the varied components of professional learning together so that they support all students learning every day? What professional learning grounds and sustains…

  11. Children's effortful control and academic achievement: do relational peer victimization and classroom participation operate as mediators?

    PubMed

    Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Berger, Rebecca H

    2014-08-01

    Given that early academic achievement is related to numerous developmental outcomes, understanding processes that promote early success in school is important. This study was designed to clarify how students' (N=291; M age in fall of kindergarten=5.66 years, SD=0.39 year) effortful control, relational peer victimization, and classroom participation relate to achievement, as students progress from kindergarten to first grade. Effortful control and achievement were assessed in kindergarten, classroom participation and relational peer victimization were assessed in the fall of first grade, and achievement was reassessed in the spring of first grade. Classroom participation, but not relational peer victimization, mediated relations between effortful control and first grade standardized and teacher-rated achievement, controlling for kindergarten achievement. Findings suggest that aspects of classroom participation, such as the ability to work independently, may be useful targets of intervention for enhancing academic achievement in young children. PMID:25107413

  12. Achieving high sustained performance in an unstructured mesh CFD application

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, D E; Anderson, W K; Gropp, W D; Kaushik, D K; Smith, B F

    1999-12-10

    This paper highlights a three-year project by an interdisciplinary team on a legacy F77 computational fluid dynamics code, with the aim of demonstrating that implicit unstructured grid simulations can execute at rates not far from those of explicit structured grid codes, provided attention is paid to data motion complexity and the reuse of data positioned at the levels of the memory hierarchy closest to the processor, in addition to traditional operation count complexity. The demonstration code is from NASA and the enabling parallel hardware and (freely available) software toolkit are from DOE, but the resulting methodology should be broadly applicable, and the hardware limitations exposed should allow programmers and vendors of parallel platforms to focus with greater encouragement on sparse codes with indirect addressing. This snapshot of ongoing work shows a performance of 15 microseconds per degree of freedom to steady-state convergence of Euler flow on a mesh with 2.8 million vertices using 3072 dual-processor nodes of ASCI Red, corresponding to a sustained floating-point rate of 0.227 Tflop/s.

  13. Principals’ Perception of Influence on Factors Affecting Student Achievement in Low- and High-Achieving Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Collette M.; Owens, Emiel W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare and contrast influences principals have on staffing, curriculum issues, and discipline policies in high- and low-performing urban high schools. The data for the present study were drawn from the first year follow up of the Educational Longitudinal Survey of 2002-2004 (ELS: 02), administered by the National…

  14. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  15. Achieving high data reduction with integral cubic B-splines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin J.

    1993-01-01

    During geometry processing, tangent directions at the data points are frequently readily available from the computation process that generates the points. It is desirable to utilize this information to improve the accuracy of curve fitting and to improve data reduction. This paper presents a curve fitting method which utilizes both position and tangent direction data. This method produces G(exp 1) non-rational B-spline curves. From the examples, the method demonstrates very good data reduction rates while maintaining high accuracy in both position and tangent direction.

  16. Improved high operating temperature MCT MWIR modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, H.; Breiter, R.; Figgemeier, H.; Schallenberg, T.; Schirmacher, W.; Wollrab, R.

    2014-06-01

    High operating temperature (HOT) IR-detectors are a key factor to size, weight and power (SWaP) reduced IR-systems. Such systems are essential to provide infantrymen with low-weight handheld systems with increased battery lifetimes or most compact clip-on weapon sights in combination with high electro-optical performance offered by cooled IR-technology. AIM's MCT standard n-on-p technology with vacancy doping has been optimized over many years resulting in MWIR-detectors with excellent electro-optical performance up to operating temperatures of ~120K. In the last years the effort has been intensified to improve this standard technology by introducing extrinsic doping with Gold as an acceptor. As a consequence the dark current could considerably be suppressed and allows for operation at ~140K with good e/o performance. More detailed investigations showed that limitation for HOT > 140K is explained by consequences from rising dark current rather than from defective pixel level. Recently, several crucial parameters were identified showing great promise for further optimization of HOT-performance. Among those, p-type concentration could successfully be reduced from the mid 1016 / cm3 to the lower 1015/ cm3 range. Since AIM is one of the leading manufacturers of split linear cryocoolers, an increase in operating temperature will directly lead to IR-modules with improved SWaP characteristics by making use of the miniature members of its SX cooler family with single piston and balancer technology. The paper will present recent progress in the development of HOT MWIR-detector arrays at AIM and show electro-optical performance data in comparison to focal plane arrays produced in the standard technology.

  17. High Achievement in Mathematics Education in India: A Report from Mumbai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Manya

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a study aimed at characterizing the conditions that lead to high achievement in mathematics in India. The study involved eight schools in the greater Mumbai region. The main result of the study is that the notion of high achievement itself is problematic, as reflected in the reports about mathematics achievement within and…

  18. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Student Achievement in a Rural Florida High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Willie A.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement is viewed as critical to the development of effective schools and student achievement. The relationship between parental involvement and achievement test scores at a rural high school in Florida was not known. This high school has not met the state standards as determined by the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT)…

  19. Operator manual: High temperature heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, D. F.; Maples, G.; Burch, T. E.; Chancellor, P. D.

    1980-03-01

    Experimental data were obtained from operating a high temperature heat pump system. The use of methanol as a working fluid necessitated careful monitoring of refrigerant temperatures and pressures with chemical analysis performed on the working fluid during scheduled down time. Materials sent to vendors and quotes received concerning equipment (compressor, evaporator, condensor, air heater, dryer, two accumulator tanks, and three expansion valves) are discussed. The detailed design and pricing estimates are included. Additional information on layout and construction; start-up; testing; shut down; scheduled maintenance and inspection; safety precautions; control system; and trouble shooting is presented.

  20. 980nm diode laser pump modules operating at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Jenna; Semenic, Tadej; Leisher, Paul; Bhunia, Avijit; Mashanovitch, Milan; Renner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Existing thermal management technologies for diode laser pumps place a significant load on the size, weight and power consumption of High Power Solid State and Fiber Laser systems, thus making current laser systems very large, heavy, and inefficient in many important practical applications. This problem is being addressed by the team formed by Freedom Photonics and Teledyne Scientific through the development of novel high power laser chip array architectures that can operate with high efficiency when cooled with coolants at temperatures higher than 50 degrees Celsius and also the development of an advanced thermal management system for efficient heat extraction from the laser chip array. This paper will present experimental results for the optical, electrical and thermal characteristics of 980 nm diode laser pump modules operating effectively with liquid coolant at temperatures above 50 degrees Celsius, showing a very small change in performance as the operating temperature increases from 20 to 50 degrees Celsius. These pump modules can achieve output power of many Watts per array lasing element with an operating Wall-Plug-Efficiency (WPE) of >55% at elevated coolant temperatures. The paper will also discuss the technical approach that has enabled this high level of pump module performance and opportunities for further improvement.

  1. SIMULATING ACCELERATOR STRUCTURE OPERATION AT HIGH POWER

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V

    2004-09-15

    The important limiting factors in high-gradient accelerator structure operation are dark current capture, RF breakdown and electron multipacting. These processes involve both primary and secondary electron field emission and produce plasma and X-rays. To better understand these phenomena, they have simulated dark current generation and transport in a linac structure and a square-bend waveguide, both high power tested at SLAC. For these simulations, they use the parallel, time-domain, unstructured-grid code Tau3P and the particle tracking module Track3P. In this paper, they present numerical results and their comparison with measurements on energy spectrum of electrons transmitted in a 30-cell structure and of X-rays emitted from the square-bend waveguide.

  2. New Waste Calciner High Temperature Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, M.C.

    2000-09-01

    A new Calciner flowsheet has been developed to process the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) in the INTEC Tank Farm. The new flowsheet increases the normal Calciner operating temperature from 500 C to 600 C. At the elevated temperature, sodium in the waste forms stable aluminates, instead of nitrates that melt at calcining temperatures. From March through May 2000, the new high-temperature flowsheet was tested in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Calciner. Specific test criteria for various Calciner systems (feed, fuel, quench, off-gas, etc.) were established to evaluate the long-term operability of the high-temperature flowsheet. This report compares in detail the Calciner process data with the test criteria. The Calciner systems met or exceeded all test criteria. The new flowsheet is a visible, long-term method of calcining SBW. Implementation of the flowsheet will significantly increase the calcining rate of SBW and reduce the amount of calcine produced by reducing the amount of chemical additives to the Calciner. This will help meet the future waste processing milestones and regulatory needs such as emptying the Tank Farm.

  3. Towards operating direct methanol fuel cells with highly concentrated fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, T. S.; Yang, W. W.; Chen, R.; Wu, Q. X.

    A significant advantage of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is the high specific energy of the liquid fuel, making it particularly suitable for portable and mobile applications. Nevertheless, conventional DMFCs have to be operated with excessively diluted methanol solutions to limit methanol crossover and the detrimental consequences. Operation with diluted methanol solutions significantly reduces the specific energy of the power pack and thereby prevents it from competing with advanced batteries. In view of this fact, there exists a need to improve conventional DMFC system designs, including membrane electrode assemblies and the subsystems for supplying/removing reactants/products, so that both the cell performance and the specific energy can be simultaneously maximized. This article provides a comprehensive review of past efforts on the optimization of DMFC systems that operate with concentrated methanol. Based on the discussion of the key issues associated with transport of the reactants/products, the strategies to manage the supply/removal of the reactants/products in DMFC operating with highly concentrated methanol are identified. With these strategies, the possible approaches to achieving the goal of concentrated fuel operation are then proposed. Past efforts in the management of the reactants/products for implementing each of the approaches are also summarized and reviewed.

  4. A strategy for achieving high reliability for reusable launch vehicles (RLVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholtis, Joseph A.

    2002-01-01

    Expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) have been used since the early 1960s to put numerous payloads, including humans, into space. Yet, in spite of their widespread use since that time, ELV reliability has not improved much. Why has this been the case? And, more importantly, what might be done to substantially improve the reliability of future reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) to levels needed for commercial viability, i.e., approaching that of the U.S. commercial airline industry? This paper attempts to answer these questions-by reviewing the history of launch vehicles, identifying factors important to their reliability and safety, and in doing so, offering a potential strategy for achieving high RLV reliability. The conclusion reached is that there is every reason to believe that high reliability (~0.99999 per mission) is achievable for future RLVs, if key features to enhance their inherent robustness, forgiveness, and recoverability are considered and integrated into RLV design and operation at the outset. It is hoped that this paper will serve as a catalyst for further discussions intended to ensure that high reliability is realized for RLVs. .

  5. Operation of the ORNL High Particle Flux Helicon Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulding, R. H.; Biewer, T. M.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Chen, G. C.; Owen, L. W.; Sparks, D. O.

    2011-12-01

    A high power, high particle flux rf-based helicon plasma source has been constructed at ORNL and operated at power levels up to 30 kW. High-density hydrogen and helium plasmas have been produced. The source has been designed as the basis for a linear plasma materials interaction (PMI) test facility that will generate particle fluxes Γp1023 m-3 s-1, and utilize additional ion and electron cyclotron heating to produce high parallel (to the magnetic field) heat fluxes of ˜10 MW/m2. An rf-based source for PMI research is of interest because high plasma densities are generated with no internal electrodes, allowing true steady state operation with minimal impurity generation. The ORNL helicon source has a diameter of 15 cm and to-date has operated at a frequency f = 13.56 MHz, with magnetic field strength |B| in the antenna region up to ˜0.15 T. Maximum densities of 3×1019 m-3 in He and 2.5×1019 m-3 in H have been achieved. Radial density profiles have been seen to be dependent on the axial |B| profile.

  6. Iterative optical vector-matrix processors (survey of selected achievable operations)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, D.; Neuman, C.

    1981-01-01

    An iterative optical vector-matrix multiplier with a microprocessor-controlled feedback loop capable of performing a wealth of diverse operations was described. A survey and description of many of its operations demonstrates the versatility and flexibility of this class of optical processor and its use in diverse applications. General operations described include: linear difference and differential equations, linear algebraic equations, matrix equations, matrix inversion, nonlinear matrix equations, deconvolution and eigenvalue and eigenvector computations. Engineering applications being addressed for these different operations and for the IOP are: adaptive phased-array radar, time-dependent system modeling, deconvolution and optimal control.

  7. Beyond Academic Reputation: Factors that Influence the College of First Choice for High Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Holly J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies that have investigated college choice factors for high-achieving students repeatedly cite academic reputation as one of the top indicators of choice but have not indicated why some high-achieving students choose to attend universities with a less prestigious reputation than the more highly prestigious options available to them. The purpose…

  8. The Chinese High School Student's Stress in the School and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 466 Chinese high school students, we examined the relationships between Chinese high school students' stress in the school and their academic achievements. Regression mixture modelling identified two different classes of the effects of Chinese high school students' stress on their academic achievements. One class contained 87% of…

  9. Does High School Facility Quality Affect Student Achievement? A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Urick, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall…

  10. The Effects of Web-Based/Non-Web-Based Problem-Solving Instruction and High/Low Achievement on Students' Problem-Solving Ability and Biology Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wen-Feng; She, Hsiao-Ching; Lee, Yu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two factors: the mode of problem-solving instruction (i.e. Web-based versus non-Web-based) and the level of academic achievement (i.e. high achievers versus low achievers) on students' problem-solving ability and biology achievement. A quasi-experimental design was used, in which the experimental group…

  11. Operator manual: high temperature heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, D.F.; Maples, G.; Burch, T.E.; Chancellor, P.D.

    1980-03-04

    Experimental data is being obtained from operating a high temperature heat pump system. The use of methanol as a working fluid will necessitate careful monitoring of refrigerant temperatures and pressures with chemical analysis performed on the working fluid during scheduled down time. Materials sent to vendors by Auburn University and quotes received by Auburn concerning equipment (compressor, evaporator, condensor, air heater, dryer, two accumulator tanks, and three expansion valves) are discussed. The simulated dryer and two accumulator tanks were designed by Auburn. The detailed design and pricing estimates are included. Additional information is presented on layout and construction; start-up; testing; shut down; scheduled maintenance and inspection; safety precautions; control system; and trouble shooting.

  12. Achieving Lights-Out Operation of SMAP Using Ground Data System Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The approach used in the SMAP ground data system to provide reliable, automated capabilities to conduct unattended operations has been presented. The impacts of automation on the ground data system architecture were discussed, including the three major automation patterns identified for SMAP and how these patterns address the operations use cases. The architecture and approaches used by SMAP will set the baseline for future JPL Earth Science missions.

  13. An Analysis of Java Programming Behaviors, Affect, Perceptions, and Syntax Errors among Low-Achieving, Average, and High-Achieving Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Andallaza, Thor Collin S.; Castro, Francisco Enrique Vicente G.; Armenta, Marc Lester V.; Dy, Thomas T.; Jadud, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we quantitatively and qualitatively analyze a sample of novice programmer compilation log data, exploring whether (or how) low-achieving, average, and high-achieving students vary in their grasp of these introductory concepts. High-achieving students self-reported having the easiest time learning the introductory programming…

  14. Interviews with Students of High Confidence and Low Achievement. Mathematics Education Diagnostic and Instructional Centre (MEDIC) Report No. 5-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feghali, Issa

    A previous study had confirmed that a substantial number of low achievers in grades 5 through 8 had high algorithmic confidence in each of the four arithmetic operations with whole numbers. The purpose of the present study was to follow up the results through interviewing low achievement-high confidence students in order to ascertain if they…

  15. Operating condition limitations of high density QCW arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junghans, Jeremy; Levy, Joseph; Feeler, Ryan

    2012-03-01

    Northrop Grumman Cutting Edge Optronics (NGCEO) has developed a laser diode array package with minimal bar-tobar spacing. These High Density Stack (HDS) packages allow for a power density increase on the order of ~ 2.5x when compared to industry-standard arrays. Power densities as high as 15 kW/cm2 can be achieved when operated at 200 W/bar. This work provides a detailed description of the duty factor, pulse width and power limitations of high density arrays. The absence of the interposing heatsinks requires that all of the heat generated by the interior bars must travel through the adjacent bars to the electrical contacts. This results in limitations to the allowable operating envelope of the HDS arrays. Thermal effects such as wavelength shifts across large HDS arrays are discussed. An overview of recent HDS design and manufacturing improvements is also presented. These improvements result in reliable operation at higher power densities and increased duty factors. A comparison of the effect of bar geometry on HDS performance is provided. Test data from arrays featuring these improvements based on both full 1 cm wide diode bars as well as 3 mm wide mini-bars is also presented.

  16. Tuning charge balance in PHOLEDs with ambipolar host materials to achieve high efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Koech, Phillip K.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Chopra, Neetu; So, Franky; Sapochak, Linda S.; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2009-08-27

    The efficiency and stability of blue organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) continue to be a primary roadblock to developing organic solid state white lighting. For OLEDs to meet the high power conversion efficiency goal, they will require both close to 100% internal quantum efficiency and low operating voltage in a white light emitting device.1 It is generally accepted that such high quantum efficiency, can only be achieved with the use of organometallic phosphor doped OLEDs. Blue OLEDs are particularly important for solid state lighting. The simplest (and therefore likely the lowest cost) method of generating white light is to down convert part of the emission from a blue light source with a system of external phosphors.2 A second method of generating white light requires the superposition of the light from red, green and blue OLEDs in the correct ratio. Either of these two methods (and indeed any method of generating white light with a high color rendering index) critically depends on a high efficiency blue light component.3 A simple OLED generally consists of a hole-injecting anode, a preferentially hole transporting organic layer (HTL), an emissive layer that contains the recombination zone and ideally transports both holes and electrons, a preferentially electron-transporting layer (ETL) and an electron-injecting cathode. Color in state-of-the-art OLEDs is generated by an organometallic phosphor incorporated by co-sublimation into the emissive layer (EML).4 New materials functioning as hosts, emitters, charge transporting, and charge blocking layers have been developed along with device architectures leading to electrophosphorescent based OLEDs with high quantum efficiencies near the theoretical limit. However, the layers added to the device architecture to enable high quantum efficiencies lead to higher operating voltages and correspondingly lower power efficiencies. Achievement of target luminance power efficiencies will require new strategies for lowering

  17. Parent-Child Relations and Psychological Adjustment among High-Achieving Chinese and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Rak, Eniko; Rana, Meenal; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Chinese American students are often perceived as problem-free high achievers. Recent research, however, suggests that high-achieving Chinese American students can experience elevated levels of stress, especially comparing to their peers from other ethnic groups. In this paper, we examine how family dynamics may influence psychological adjustment…

  18. High-Achieving and Average Students' Reading Growth: Contrasting School and Summer Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Much is unknown about how initially high-achieving students grow academically, especially given the measurement issues inherent in assessing growth for the highest performing students. This study compared initially high-achieving and average students' growth in reading (in a cohort of third-grade students from 2,000 schools) over 3 years.…

  19. International Note: Between-Domain Relations of Chinese High School Students' Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yangyang, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the between-domain relations of Chinese high school students' academic achievements. In a sample of 1870 Chinese 10th grade students, the results indicated that Chinese high school students' academic achievements were correlated across nine subjects. In line with the previous Western findings, the findings suggested that…

  20. The Effect of the Time Management Art on Academic Achievement among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zoubi, Maysoon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the effect of the Time Management Art on academic achievement among high school students in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The researcher employed the descriptive-analytic research to achieve the purpose of the study where he chose a sample of (2000) high school female and male students as respondents to the…

  1. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  2. Effects of a Collaborative Science Intervention on High Achieving Students' Learning Anxiety and Attitudes toward Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Zuway-R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a collaborative science intervention on high achieving students' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. Thirty-seven eighth-grade high achieving students (16 boys and 21 girls) were selected as an experimental group who joined a 20-week collaborative science intervention, which integrated and utilized…

  3. Manifest Needs of High Ability Achieving and Underachieving Elementary School Children in a Culturally Disadvantaged Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masih, Lalit K.

    1974-01-01

    Study samples suggest that the high ability underachiever is characterized by low need for order and higher need to belong to supportive groups; the high ability achiever seems more independent and less attached to his peer group. (Author)

  4. The Meaning High-Achieving African-American Males in an Urban High School Ascribe to Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, LaTasha; Davis, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers, educators, administrators, policymakers and members of the general public doubt the prevalence of high-achieving African-American males in urban high schools capable of excelling in mathematics. As part of a larger study, the current study explored the educational experiences of four high-achieving African-American males…

  5. Fermilab main injector: High intensity operation and beam loss control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Bruce C.; Adamson, Philip; Capista, David; Chou, Weiren; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Morris, Denton K.; Seiya, Kiyomi; Wu, Guan Hong; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2013-07-01

    From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at 400 kW beam power. Transmission was very high except for beam lost at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the improvements required to achieve high intensity, the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

  6. Deformable MEMS grating for wide tunability and high operating speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tormen, Maurizio; Peter, Yves-Alain; Niedermann, Philippe; Hoogerwerf, Arno; Shea, Herbert; Stanley, Ross

    2006-01-01

    Diffractive MEMS are interesting for a wide range of applications, including displays, scanners or switching elements. Their advantages are compactness, potentially high actuation speed and in the ability to deflect light at large angles. We have designed and fabricated deformable diffractive MEMS grating to be used as tuning elements for external cavity lasers. The resulting device is compact, has wide tunability and a high operating speed. The initial design is a planar grating where the beams are free-standing and attached to each other using leaf springs. Actuation is achieved through two electrostatic comb drives at either end of the grating. To prevent deformation of the free-standing grating, the device is 10 μm thick made from a Silicon on Insulator (SOI) wafer in a single mask process. At 100V a periodicity tuning of 3% has been measured. The first resonant mode of the grating is measured at 13.8 kHz, allowing high speed actuation. This combination of wide tunability and high operating speed represents state of the art in the domain of tunable MEMS filters. In order to improve diffraction efficiency and to expand the usable wavelength range, a blazed version of the deformable MEMS grating has been designed. A key issue is maintaining the mechanical properties of the original device while providing optically smooth blazed beams. Using a process based on anisotropic KOH etching, blazed gratings have been obtained and preliminary characterization is promising.

  7. Fair and Just Culture, Team Behavior, and Leadership Engagement: The Tools to Achieve High Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Allan S; Leonard, Michael W; Denham, Charles R

    2006-01-01

    Background Disparate health care provider attitudes about autonomy, teamwork, and administrative operations have added to the complexity of health care delivery and are a central factor in medicine's unacceptably high rate of errors. Other industries have improved their reliability by applying innovative concepts to interpersonal relationships and administrative hierarchical structures (Chandler 1962). In the last 10 years the science of patient safety has become more sophisticated, with practical concepts identified and tested to improve the safety and reliability of care. Objective Three initiatives stand out as worthy regarding interpersonal relationships and the application of provider concerns to shape operational change: The development and implementation of Fair and Just Culture principles, the broad use of Teamwork Training and Communication, and tools like WalkRounds that promote the alignment of leadership and frontline provider perspectives through effective use of adverse event data and provider comments. Methods Fair and Just Culture, Teamwork Training, and WalkRounds are described, and implementation examples provided. The argument is made that they must be systematically and consistently implemented in an integrated fashion. Conclusions There are excellent examples of institutions applying Just Culture principles, Teamwork Training, and Leadership WalkRounds—but to date, they have not been comprehensively instituted in health care organizations in a cohesive and interdependent manner. To achieve reliability, organizations need to begin thinking about the relationship between these efforts and linking them conceptually. PMID:16898986

  8. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building occupants and

  9. O&M Best Practices - A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency (Release 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Gregory P.; Pugh, Ray; Melendez, Aldo P.; Hunt, W. D.

    2004-07-31

    This guide, sponsored by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program, highlights operations and maintenance (O&M) programs targeting energy efficiency that are estimated to save 5% to 20% on energy bills without a significant capital investment. The purpose of this guide is to provide the federal O&M energy manager and practitioner with useful information about O&M management, technologies, energy efficiency and cost-reduction approaches.

  10. The use of ECDIS equipment to achieve an optimum value for energy efficiency operation index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acomi, N.; Acomi, O. C.; Stanca, C.

    2015-11-01

    To reduce air pollution produced by ships, the International Maritime Organization has developed a set of technical, operational and management measures. The subject of our research addresses the operational measures for minimizing CO2 air emissions and the way how the emission value could be influenced by external factors regardless of ship-owners’ will. This study aims to analyse the air emissions for a loaded voyage leg performed by an oil tanker. The formula that allows us to calculate the predicted Energy Efficiency Operational Index involves the estimation of distance and fuel consumption, while the quantity of cargo is known. The electronic chart display and information system, ECDIS Simulation Software, will be used for adjusting the passage plan in real time, given the predicted severe environmental conditions. The distance will be determined using ECDIS, while the prediction of the fuel consumption will consider the sea trial and the vessel experience records. That way it will be possible to compare the estimated EEOI value in the case of great circle navigation in adverse weather condition with the estimated EEOI value for weather navigation.

  11. The impact of collective teacher efficacy on student achievement in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burcham, Mark W.

    This dissertation was designed to examine the impact of collective teacher efficacy on high school science achievement by looking at relationships among collective teacher efficacy, its two constructs, group competence and group task analysis, and high school science achievement scores at four rural high schools in Northwestern North Carolina. The researcher gathered historical test data from the testing coordinator from the school system and then administered the Collective Teacher Efficacy Instrument, developed by Goddard, Hoy, and Woolfolk Hoy (2000), to 24 science teachers from the four high schools. Using this information, the researcher conducted statistical analyses to determine the relationships among collective teacher efficacy, group competence, and group task analysis as compared with the tested science curriculum (physical science, biology, chemistry, and physics). The researcher also examined which construct was the most contributing factor and examined differences in efficacy levels and student achievement levels at each high school. Analysis of the data from this study indicated collective teacher efficacy, as well as its two constructs, group competence and group task analysis, does have a positive impact on student achievement in high school science. Analysis of the data revealed group competence is the major contributing factor for student achievement in biology and group task analysis is the major contributing factor for student achievement in physical science, chemistry, and physics. Further analysis of the data in this study, also revealed that the two high schools with the highest levels of collective teacher efficacy had the highest levels of student achievement.

  12. Conceptual design study of advanced acoustic composite nacelle. [for achieving reductions in community noise and operating expense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodall, R. G.; Painter, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual nacelle designs for wide-bodied and for advanced-technology transports were studied with the objective of achieving significant reductions in community noise with minimum penalties in airplane weight, cost, and in operating expense by the application of advanced composite materials to nacelle structure and sound suppression elements. Nacelle concepts using advanced liners, annular splitters, radial splitters, translating centerbody inlets, and mixed-flow nozzles were evaluated and a preferred concept selected. A preliminary design study of the selected concept, a mixed flow nacelle with extended inlet and no splitters, was conducted and the effects on noise, direct operating cost, and return on investment determined.

  13. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui–Yuan; Yu, Zhao–Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun–Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi–Chuan

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30-60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1-5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200-500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application.

  14. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui–Yuan; Yu, Zhao–Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun–Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi–Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30–60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1–5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200–500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application. PMID:26603776

  15. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Yuan; Yu, Zhao-Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun-Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30-60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1-5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200-500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application. PMID:26603776

  16. An Investigation of Student Characteristics as Related to Achievement in an Individualized High School Biology Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, David L.

    Reported is a study of possible differences in student characteristics between high, expected, and low achievers in an individualized learning biology program. Nine variables, ranging from biographical data through attitudinal data were studied. Effects on achievement and explanation of some of the differences were determined by examination of…

  17. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Student Achievement and Motivation in a High School Geometry Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Joe D.; Hall, Neff

    In this study, the effects of a form of cooperative group instruction (Student Teams Achievement Divisions) on student motivation and achievement in a high school geometry class were examined. Ninety (mostly 10th-grade) students were randomly assigned to either a control group receiving traditional instruction or one of two treatment groups…

  18. The Effects of Explicit Teaching of Metastrategic Knowledge on Low- And High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohar, Anat; Peled, Bracha

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of explicit teaching of metastrategic knowledge (MSK) on gains of low-achieving (LA) and high-achieving (HA) 5th grade students (N=41). Gains in reasoning scores of students from the Experimental group (compared to students from the control group) were obtained on the strategic and on the metastrategic level. Gains…

  19. A Quantitative Comparison of Pennsylvania High School Student Achievement by Middle States Association's Accreditation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    As public school accountability for student achievement has continued to increase, prior to and as a result of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, schools have sought ways of bringing new instructional services to their students to raise their levels of achievement. Some Pennsylvania public high schools have attempted to improve student…

  20. Unforgiving Confucian Culture: A Breeding Ground for High Academic Achievement, Test Anxiety and Self-Doubt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews findings from several studies that contribute to our understanding of cross-cultural differences in academic achievement, anxiety and self-doubt. The focus is on comparisons between Confucian Asian and European regions. Recent studies indicate that high academic achievement of students from Confucian Asian countries is…

  1. An Analysis of Mathematics Course Sequences for Low Achieving Students at a Comprehensive Technical High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, D. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This non-experimental study attempted to determine how the different prescribed mathematic tracks offered at a comprehensive technical high school influenced the mathematics performance of low-achieving students on standardized assessments of mathematics achievement. The goal was to provide an analysis of any statistically significant differences…

  2. Instructional, Transformational, and Managerial Leadership and Student Achievement: High School Principals Make a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jerry W.; Prater, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This statewide study examined the relationships between principal managerial, instructional, and transformational leadership and student achievement in public high schools. Differences in student achievement were found when schools were grouped according to principal leadership factors. Principal leadership behaviors promoting instructional and…

  3. Scholastic Achievement in High School Explained? Validation of a Longitudinal Structural Equations Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellle, Laura; Tuijula, Tiina; Laakkonen, Eero

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to shed light on the mechanisms behind scholastic achievement in high school by testing a structural equations model based on the work by Vermunt (1998). It was presumed that self-regulation of learning would predict scholastic achievement and that learning orientations would predict self-regulation of learning. A…

  4. Predicting Early Academic Failure in High School from Prior Academic Achievement, Psychosocial Characteristics, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casillas, Alex; Robbins, Steve; Allen, Jeff; Kuo, Yi-Lung; Hanson, Mary Ann; Schmeiser, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the differential effects of prior academic achievement, psychosocial, behavioral, demographic, and school context factors on early high school grade point average (GPA) using a prospective study of 4,660 middle-school students from 24 schools. The findings suggest that (a) prior grades and standardized achievement are the…

  5. Accelerated Mathematics and High-Ability Students' Math Achievement in Grades Three and Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the use of a computer-managed integrated learning system entitled Accelerated Math (AM) as a supplement to traditional mathematics instruction on achievement as measured by TerraNova achievement tests of third and fourth grade high-ability students. Gender, socioeconomic status, and…

  6. Early Reading Skills and Academic Achievement Trajectories of Students Facing Poverty, Homelessness, and High Residential Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbers, Janette E.; Cutuli, J. J.; Supkoff, Laura M.; Heistad, David; Chan, Chi-Keung; Hinz, Elizabeth; Masten, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation tested the importance of early academic achievement for later achievement trajectories among 18,011 students grouped by level of socioeconomic risk. Students considered to be at highest risk were those who experienced homelessness or high residential mobility (HHM). HHM students were compared with students eligible for free…

  7. Cohort versus Non-Cohort High School Students' Math Performance: Achievement Test Scores and Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Carol S.; Keener, Dana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare multiple measures of mathematics achievement for 1,378 cohort students who attended the same high school in a district from 9th to 12th grade with non-cohort students in each grade level. Results show that mobility had an impact on math achievement. After accounting for gender, ethnicity, and SES, adjusted…

  8. The Impact of Charter Schools on Promoting High Levels of Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.; Makel, Matthew C.; Rapp, Kelly E.

    2007-01-01

    This study compares achievement levels for high ability students attending charter schools and students in traditional public schools in Georgia. Researchers examined student achievement (as assessed by the state's Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests) using three comparison groups: students in the closest traditional schools with similar grade…

  9. The Impact of Placement on Reading and Mathematics Achievement of Students with High Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Jennifer Stell

    2011-01-01

    The question of where best to educate students with disabilities to maximize their academic achievement has been discussed and researched for over four decades, with inconsistent and contradictory results. This study focused on the mathematics and reading achievement of middle and high school students with mild disabilities in an urban district in…

  10. Parental Involvement, Homework, and TV Time: Direct and Indirect Effects on High School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A set of High School and Beyond data was used to study the effect of three variables on academic achievement. Homework had a positive effect, TV a negative, and parental involvement no direct effect on seniors' achievement scores, but influenced the amount of time students spent on homework. (Author/JAZ)

  11. Design guidelines to achieve minimum energy operation for ultra low voltage tunneling FET logic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuketa, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Kazuaki; Fukuda, Koichi; Mori, Takahiro; Ota, Hiroyuki; Takamiya, Makoto; Sakurai, Takayasu

    2015-04-01

    A tunneling field effect transistor (TFET) attracts attention, because TFET circuits can achieve better energy efficiency than conventional MOSFET circuits. Although design issues in ultra low voltage logic circuits, such as the minimum operatable voltage (VDDmin), have been investigated for MOSFET’s, VDDmin for TFET’s have not been discussed. In this paper, VDDmin of TFET logic circuits is evaluated for the first time and a closed-form expression of VDDmin is derived, which indicates that the within-die threshold voltage variation (σVT) strongly affects VDDmin. In addition, since it is not clear how much the energy of the logic circuits is quantitatively reduced when both the subthreshold swing (S) and the power supply voltage are reduced, an analytical equation of the minimum energy of TFET logic circuits is also derived. From the derived equations, the design guideline is presented for the device engineers of TFET’s that σVT should be reduced as S decreases.

  12. Comprehensive Achievement Monitoring in the Sequoia Union High School District. Symposium, California Mathematics Council Northern Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easter, John; And Others

    A description is provided of comprehensive Achievement Monitoring (CAM), a tool which enables classroom teachers to function as researchers and evaluators. Part I reviews the CAM philosophy and the section following discusses computerized feedback in CAM operations. The final two portions of the report describes the use of CAM in mathematics…

  13. Manifest Needs of High Ability Achieving and Underachieving Elementary School Children in a Culturally Disadvantaged Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masih, Lalit K.

    1974-01-01

    This study, conducted in conjunction with a larger project entitled "Project Able" (part of the Madison Area Project), compared manifest needs of high ability achieving and underachieving elementary school children in a culturally disadvantaged setting. (EAK)

  14. Operability driven space system concept with high leverage technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    One of the common objectives of future launch and space transfer systems is to achieve low-cost and effective operational capability by automating processes from pre-launch to the end of mission. Hierarchical and integrated mission management, system management, autonomous GN&C, and integrated micro-nano avionics technologies are critical to extend or revitalize the exploitation of space. Essential to space transfer, orbital systems, Earth-To-Orbit (ETO), commercial and military aviation, and planetary systems are these high leverage hardware and software technologies. This paper covers the driving issues, goals, and requirements definition supported with typical concepts and utilization of multi-use technologies. The approach and method results in a practical system architecture and lower level design concepts. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Achieving high performance polymer optoelectronic devices for high efficiency, long lifetime and low fabrication cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinsong

    This thesis described three types of organic optoelectronic devices: polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), polymer photovoltaic solar cell, and organic photo detector. The research in this work focuses improving their performance including device efficiency, operation lifetime simplifying fabrication process. With further understanding in PLED device physics, we come up new device operation model and improved device architecture design. This new method is closely related to understanding of the science and physics at organic/metal oxide and metal oxide/metal interface. In our new device design, both material and interface are considered in order to confine and balance all injected carriers, which has been demonstrated very be successful in increasing device efficiency. We created two world records in device efficiency: 18 lm/W for white emission fluorescence PLED, 22 lm/W for red emission phosphorescence PLED. Slow solvent drying process has been demonstrated to significantly increase device efficiency in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixture polymer solar cell. From the mobility study by time of flight, the increase of efficiency can be well correlated to the improved carrier transport property due to P3HT crystallization during slow solvent drying. And it is found that, similar to PLED, balanced carrier mobility is essential in high efficient polymer solar cell. There is also a revolution in our device fabrication method. A unique device fabrication method is presented by an electronic glue based lamination process combined with interface modification as a one-step polymer solar cell fabrication process. It can completely skip the thermal evaporation process, and benefit device lifetime by several merits: no air reactive. The device obtained is metal free, semi-transparent, flexible, self-encapsulated, and comparable efficiency with that by regular method. We found the photomultiplication (PM) phenomenon in C

  16. Achieving operational two-way laser acquisition for OPALS payload on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Sindiy, Oleg; Biswas, Abhijit

    2015-03-01

    The Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) experiment was installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in April 2014. Developed as a technology demonstration, its objective was to experiment with space-to-ground optical communications transmissions from Low Earth Orbit. More than a dozen successful optical links were established between a Wrightwood, California-based ground telescope and the OPALS flight terminal from June 2014 to September 2014. Each transmission required precise bi-directional pointing to be maintained between the space-based transmitter and ground-based receiver. This was accomplished by acquiring and tracking a laser beacon signal transmitted from the ground telescope to the OPALS flight terminal on the ISS. OPALS demonstrated the ability to nominally acquire the beacon within three seconds at 25° elevation and maintain lock within 140 μrad (3σ) for the full 150-second transmission duration while slewing at rates up to 1°/sec. Additional acquisition attempts in low elevation and weather-challenged conditions provided valuable insight on the optical link robustness under off-nominal operational conditions.

  17. Use of Virtual Mission Operations Center Technology to Achieve JPDO's Virtual Tower Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Paulsen, Phillip E.

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Program Development Office has proposed that the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) consolidate control centers. NGATS would be managed from a few strategically located facilities with virtual towers and TRACONS. This consolidation is about combining the delivery locations for these services not about decreasing service. By consolidating these locations, cost savings in the order of $500 million have been projected. Evolving to spaced-based communication, navigation, and surveillance offers the opportunity to reduce or eliminate much of the ground-based infrastructure cost. Dynamically adjusted airspace offers the opportunity to reduce the number of sectors and boundary inconsistencies; eliminate or reduce "handoffs;" and eliminate the distinction between Towers, TRACONS, and Enroute Centers. To realize a consolidation vision for air traffic management there must be investment in networking. One technology that holds great potential is the use of Virtual Mission Operations Centers to provide secure, automated, intelligent management of the NGATS. This paper provides a conceptual framework for incorporating VMOC into the NGATS.

  18. Achieving reliable operation of a steam turbine's automatic control and protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, S. A.; Naumov, A. S.; Shvetsov, D. P.; Krymskii, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The algorithms, procedures, and modules for making expert estimates of the technical state of automatic control and protection systems for different types of turbines by means of the SPIDER mobile computerized automation system are presented. It is shown that owing to high trustworthiness with which the kind and location of hidden defects of units are determined without disassembling them, repair works can be scheduled in the optimal way and the costs for carrying them out can be reduced.

  19. Bullying and Victimization Rates among Gifted and High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Megan Parker; Bain, Sherry K.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying and victimization rates among 90 gifted and nongifted, high-achieving (HA) high school students were assessed by using the Reynolds Bully Victimization Scale (BVS; W. M. Reynolds, 2003). The mean scores indicate that gifted and HA high school students bully others and are victimized by others generally at unelevated rates based on BVS…

  20. A Study of Professional Learning Communities and Science Achievement in Large High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincannon, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the science achievement and high school completion rates of students in a large high school implementing professional learning community concepts and practices with two large high schools not participating in professional learning community concepts and practices. The primary methodology employed was a…

  1. Do Peers Influence Achievement in High School Economics? Evidence from Georgia's Economics End of Course Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christopher; Scafidi, Benjamin; Swinton, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The authors provide the first estimates of the impact of peers on achievement in high school economics. The estimates are obtained by analyzing three years of data on all high school students who take Georgia's required economics course and its accompanying high-stakes End of Course Test (Georgia Department of Education). They use an instrumental…

  2. Optimal microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device for achieving high pyroelectric response of AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Bemnnet; Coutu, Ronald A.; Starman, LaVern

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses research being conducted on aluminum nitride (AlN) as a pyroelectric material for use in detecting applications. AlN is being investigated because of its high pyroelectric coefficient, thermal stability, and high Curie temperature. In order to determine suitability of the pyroelectric properties of AlN for use as a detector, testing of several devices was conducted. These devices were fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication processes; the devices were also designed to allow for voltage and current measurements. The deposited AlN films used were 150 nm - 300 nm in thickness. Thin-films were used to rapidly increase the temperature response after the thermal stimulus was applied to the pyroelectric material. This is important because the pyroelectric effect is directly proportional to the rate of temperature change. The design used was a face-electrode bridge that provides thermal isolation which minimizes heat loss to the substrate, thereby increasing operation frequency of the pyroelectric device. A thermal stimulus was applied to the pyroelectric material and the response was measured across the electrodes. A thermal imaging camera was used to monitor the changes in temperature. Throughout the testing process, the annealing temperatures, type of layers, and thicknesses were also varied. These changes resulted in improved MEMS designs, which were fabricated to obtain an optimal design configuration for achieving a high pyroelectric response. A pyroelectric voltage response of 38.9 mVp-p was measured without filtering, 12.45 mVp-p was measured in the infrared (IR) region using a Si filter, and 6.38 mVp-p was measured in the short wavelength IR region using a long pass filter. The results showed that AlN's pyroelectric properties can be used in detecting applications.

  3. High-power operation of a 170 GHz megawatt gyrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Kreischer, K.E.; Kimura, T.; Danly, B.G.; Temkin, R.J.

    1997-05-01

    Recent gyrotron oscillator experiments have achieved record powers at 170 GHz. Single mode emission with a peak output power of 1.5 MW and an efficiency of 35{percent} has been measured. The experiment is based on a resonant TE{sub 28,8,1} cylindrical cavity situated in a 6.7 T magnetic field. Microwaves are generated in the cavity by an 83 kV annular electron beam produced by a triode-type magnetron injection gun that is capable of currents up to 50 A. Megawatt power levels with efficiencies between 30{percent}{endash}36{percent} have been measured over a wide range of operating parameters for the TE{sub 28,8,1} mode. Similar results were also achieved in the neighboring TE{sub 27,8,1} mode at 166.6 GHz, and the TE{sub 29,8,1} mode at 173.5 GHz. The high output power is the result of a carefully designed electron gun with low perpendicular velocity spread (6{percent}{endash}10{percent}) and a novel cavity with an output iris that is less prone to mode competition. These results are in good agreement with nonlinear multimode simulations. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Breathing silicon anodes for durable high-power operations

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Chihyun; Joo, Sehun; Kang, Na-Ri; Lee, Ungju; Kim, Tae-Hee; Jeon, Yuju; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Ju-Young; Kwak, Sang-Kyu; Song, Hyun-Kon

    2015-01-01

    Silicon anode materials have been developed to achieve high capacity lithium ion batteries for operating smart phones and driving electric vehicles for longer time. Serious volume expansion induced by lithiation, which is the main drawback of silicon, has been challenged by multi-faceted approaches. Mechanically rigid and stiff polymers (e.g. alginate and carboxymethyl cellulose) were considered as the good choices of binders for silicon because they grab silicon particles in a tight and rigid way so that pulverization and then break-away of the active mass from electric pathways are suppressed. Contrary to the public wisdom, in this work, we demonstrate that electrochemical performances are secured better by letting silicon electrodes breathe in and out lithium ions with volume change rather than by fixing their dimensions. The breathing electrodes were achieved by using a polysaccharide (pullulan), the conformation of which is modulated from chair to boat during elongation. The conformational transition of pullulan was originated from its α glycosidic linkages while the conventional rigid polysaccharide binders have β linkages. PMID:26395407

  5. Breathing silicon anodes for durable high-power operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Chihyun; Joo, Sehun; Kang, Na-Ri; Lee, Ungju; Kim, Tae-Hee; Jeon, Yuju; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Ju-Young; Kwak, Sang-Kyu; Song, Hyun-Kon

    2015-09-01

    Silicon anode materials have been developed to achieve high capacity lithium ion batteries for operating smart phones and driving electric vehicles for longer time. Serious volume expansion induced by lithiation, which is the main drawback of silicon, has been challenged by multi-faceted approaches. Mechanically rigid and stiff polymers (e.g. alginate and carboxymethyl cellulose) were considered as the good choices of binders for silicon because they grab silicon particles in a tight and rigid way so that pulverization and then break-away of the active mass from electric pathways are suppressed. Contrary to the public wisdom, in this work, we demonstrate that electrochemical performances are secured better by letting silicon electrodes breathe in and out lithium ions with volume change rather than by fixing their dimensions. The breathing electrodes were achieved by using a polysaccharide (pullulan), the conformation of which is modulated from chair to boat during elongation. The conformational transition of pullulan was originated from its α glycosidic linkages while the conventional rigid polysaccharide binders have β linkages.

  6. Breathing silicon anodes for durable high-power operations.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chihyun; Joo, Sehun; Kang, Na-Ri; Lee, Ungju; Kim, Tae-Hee; Jeon, Yuju; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Ju-Young; Kwak, Sang-Kyu; Song, Hyun-Kon

    2015-01-01

    Silicon anode materials have been developed to achieve high capacity lithium ion batteries for operating smart phones and driving electric vehicles for longer time. Serious volume expansion induced by lithiation, which is the main drawback of silicon, has been challenged by multi-faceted approaches. Mechanically rigid and stiff polymers (e.g. alginate and carboxymethyl cellulose) were considered as the good choices of binders for silicon because they grab silicon particles in a tight and rigid way so that pulverization and then break-away of the active mass from electric pathways are suppressed. Contrary to the public wisdom, in this work, we demonstrate that electrochemical performances are secured better by letting silicon electrodes breathe in and out lithium ions with volume change rather than by fixing their dimensions. The breathing electrodes were achieved by using a polysaccharide (pullulan), the conformation of which is modulated from chair to boat during elongation. The conformational transition of pullulan was originated from its α glycosidic linkages while the conventional rigid polysaccharide binders have β linkages. PMID:26395407

  7. Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

  8. Evaluation of English Achievement Test: A Comparison between High and Low Achievers amongst Selected Elementary School Students of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Zubair; Latif, Farah; Akhtar, Samina; Mushtaq, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Validity, reliability and item analysis are critical to the process of evaluating the quality of an educational measurement. The present study evaluates the quality of an assessment constructed to measure elementary school student's achievement in English. In this study, the survey model of descriptive research was used as a research method.…

  9. The Relationship between Cognitive and Emotional Intelligence and High School Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Matešić, Krunoslav

    2015-06-01

    The study investigated the relationship between intelligence, emotional intelligence and academic achievement in high school. The study was conducted within the standardization of two instruments for Croatian samples. A total of 369 high school students from the Republic of Croatia participated in the study. They completed the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT)--a test of cognitive intelligence and the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (EQ-i:YV). Academic achievement criteria were general school achievement, Croatian language and mathematics. Several regression analyses were conducted on the results. The results show that cognitive intelligence and the adaptability scale to be consistent predictors of academic achievement. Emotional intelligence was not shown to be a significant predictor of school success. PMID:26753453

  10. Impact of Principal Leadership on Catholic High School Students' Academic Achievement in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhangbe, Osayamen Samson

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, students of Catholic High/Senior secondary schools in Edo state, Nigeria have maintained a significantly higher level of academic achievement than their counterparts in public schools in the state. This development has not only been a cause of serious concern for parents of students who attend public High/Senior secondary schools…

  11. The Effects of Guided Inquiry Instruction on Student Achievement in High School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Laszlo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to measure the effect of a student-centered instructional method called guided inquiry on the achievement of students in a unit of study in high school biology. The study used a non-random sample of 109 students, the control group of 55 students enrolled in high school one, received…

  12. The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Achievement in At-Risk High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Jarrett Graham

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this quantitative survey study was the examination of the relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement in 164 at-risk high school students. The study used Bandura's self-efficacy as the theoretical framework. The research questions involved understanding the levels of self-efficacy in at-risk high school students and…

  13. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Expanding College Opportunities for High-Achieving, Low Income Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of providing low-income, high-achieving high school seniors with college application guidance and information about the costs of college. The "application guidance" included information about deadlines and requirements for college applications at nearby institutions, at the state's flagship institution, and at in-…

  14. The Relationship between Thinking Style Differences and Career Choices for High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this study was to present information about high-achieving students' career decision making associated with thinking styles. We gathered data from two International Baccalaureate (IB) programs and a Governor's School Program with a sample of 209 high-school students. The findings of this study demonstrated that the effect of program…

  15. Closing the Mathematics Achievement Gap in High-Poverty Middle Schools: Enablers and Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfanz, Robert; Byrnes, Vaughan

    2006-01-01

    The mathematics achievement levels of U.S. students fall far behind those of other developed nations; within the United States itself, the students who are falling behind come predominantly from high-poverty and high-minority areas. This article reports on a series of analyses that followed 4 cohorts of students from 3 such schools through the 5th…

  16. Mathematics Achievement with Digital Game-Based Learning in High School Algebra 1 Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Terri Lynn Kurley

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact of digital game-based learning (DGBL) on mathematics achievement in a rural high school setting in North Carolina. A causal comparative research design was used in this study to collect data to determine the effectiveness of DGBL in high school Algebra 1 classes. Data were collected from the North Carolina…

  17. Urban Students Achieve When High Schools Implement Proven Practices. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene; Han, Lingling; Presson, Alice

    2006-01-01

    Students benefit from a year or more gain in student achievement when urban district and high school leaders commit to the implementation of the "High Schools That Work" ("HSTW") design. It is not enough to be a "HSTW" site--it is about taking effective actions to implement the design. Schools that do take action witness significant progress in…

  18. The Effects of Modeling Instruction on High School Physics Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an "ex post facto," quasi-experimental research methodology. The…

  19. School Context, Precollege Educational Opportunities, and College Degree Attainment among High-Achieving Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Valija C.

    2013-01-01

    Access to high-quality educational opportunities is central to growing postsecondary degree attainment. This study employs secondary data analysis of the public-use National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88/00) to examine how school context and precollege educational opportunities influence college degree attainment among high-achieving Black…

  20. Study-Orientation of High and Low Academic Achievers at Secondary Level in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Bashir, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Naemullah; Khan, Muhammad Saeed

    2009-01-01

    The study orientation of low and high academic achievers was compared, measured through a self-developed study orientation scale (SOS) primarily based on 47 items comparing study habits and attitude. Students' marks obtained in the 10th grade Examination determined the measure of academic performance. The analysis revealed that the high achievers…

  1. The Relationship between Principals' Instructional Focus and Academic Achievement of High Poverty Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aste, Mahri

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between teacher perceptions of the frequency and effectiveness of principal instructional leadership behaviors and student achievement in high-poverty elementary schools. In order to accomplish the purpose, survey methodology was employed. Teachers from six high-poverty elementary schools…

  2. Small Classes in the Early Grades, Academic Achievement, and Graduating From High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Jeremy D.; Gerber, Susan B.; Boyd-Zaharias, Jayne

    2005-01-01

    This investigation addressed 3 questions about the long-term effects of early school experiences: (a) Is participation in small classes in the early grades (K-3) related to high school graduation? (b) Is academic achievement in K-3 related to high school graduation? (c) If class size is related to graduation, is the relationship explained by the…

  3. Causes of Nonattendance and Its Effect on Student Achievement at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracht, Kelly D.

    2010-01-01

    Many high schools in America have issues with student nonattendance. The researcher designed this mixed methods study to determine the affect of nonattendance on student achievement and to ascertain whether home-related factors or school-related factors were more significant causes of nonattendance. Both the high school in this study and other…

  4. Improving High School Students' Mathematics Achievement through the Use of Motivational Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portal, Jamie; Sampson, Lisa

    This report describes a program for motivating students in mathematics in order to improve achievement at the high school level. The targeted population consisted of high school students in a middle class community located in a suburb of a large metropolitan area. The problems of underachievement were documented through data collected from surveys…

  5. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Leadership of Kuwaiti High and Low Achieving 11th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnabhan, Mousa

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and the Leadership components (L) of high school students in the state of Kuwait. The possibility of predicting each leadership component via emotional intelligence components was investigated for high and low achievers. A sample of 11th grade students from Kuwaiti…

  6. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills in High Achieving Elementary Schools in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egnor, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines if practices that advocate for 21st century skills are in conflict with the mandates of NCLB. Interviews with influential school leaders of high achieving elementary schools focused on collecting data about 21st century skills. This study was designed to (a) Determine if 21st century skills are addressed in high achieving…

  7. Academic achievement and career choice in science: Perceptions of African American urban high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sheila Kay

    2007-12-01

    Low test scores in science and fewer career choices in science among African American high school students than their White counterparts has resulted in lower interest during high school and an underrepresentation of African Americans in science and engineering fields. Reasons for this underachievement are not known. This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to examine what influence parental involvement, ethnic identity, and early mentoring had on the academic achievement in science and career choice in science of African American urban high school 10th grade students. Using semi-structured open-ended questions in individual interviews and focus groups, twenty participants responded to questions about African American urban high school student achievement in science and their career choice in science. The median age of participants was 15 years; 85% had passed either high school biology or physical science. The findings of the study revealed influences and interactions of selected factors on African American urban high school achievement in science. Sensing potential emerged as the overarching theme with six subthemes; A Taste of Knowledge, Sounds I Hear, Aromatic Barriers, What Others See, The Touch of Others, and The Sixth Sense. These themes correlate to the natural senses of the human body. A disconnect between what science is, their own individual learning and success, and what their participation in science could mean for them and the future of the larger society. Insight into appropriate intervention strategies to improve African American urban high school achievement in science was gained.

  8. Factors That Influence School Board Actions to Support Student Achievement: A Multi-Case Study of High-Achieving Rural School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence the actions taken by school boards that advance student achievement in high-achieving rural public school districts. Much of what is discussed in the literature on school improvement efforts is centered on the work carried out by school personnel at the school level. What is…

  9. The Impact of Including Children with Intellectual Disability in General Education Classrooms on the Academic Achievement of Their Low-, Average-, and High-Achieving Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; Bless, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aimed at assessing the impact of including children with intellectual disability (ID) in general education classrooms with support on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers without disability. Method: A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an experimental group of 202 pupils from…

  10. Refractive Secondary Solar Concentrator Demonstrated High-Temperature Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2002-01-01

    Space applications that utilize solar thermal energy--such as electric power conversion systems, thermal propulsion systems, and furnaces--require highly efficient solar concentration systems. The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing the refractive secondary concentrator, which uses refraction and total internal reflection to efficiently concentrate and direct solar energy. When used in combination with advanced lightweight primary concentrators, such as inflatable thin films, the refractive secondary concentrator enables very high system concentration ratios and very high temperatures. Last year, Glenn successfully demonstrated a secondary concentrator throughput efficiency of 87 percent, with a projected efficiency of 93 percent using an antireflective coating. Building on this achievement, Glenn recently successfully demonstrated high-temperature operation of the secondary concentrator when it was used to heat a rhenium receiver to 2330 F. The high-temperature demonstration of the concentrator was conducted in Glenn's 68-ft long Tank 6 thermal vacuum facility equipped with a solar simulator. The facility has a rigid panel primary concentrator that was used to concentrate the light from the solar simulator onto the refractive secondary concentrator. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center provided a rhenium cavity, part of a solar thermal propulsion engine, to serve as the high-temperature receiver. The prototype refractive secondary concentrator, measuring 3.5 in. in diameter and 11.2 in. long, is made of single-crystal sapphire. A water-cooled splash shield absorbs spillage light outside of the 3.5-in. concentrator aperture. Multilayer foil insulation composed of tungsten, molybdenum, and niobium is used to minimize heat loss from the hightemperature receiver. A liquid-cooled canister calorimeter is used to measure the heat loss through the multilayer foil insulation.

  11. Does Homogeneous Ability Grouping for High School Honors English Instruction Benefit the High Achiever?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetter, Douglas Paul

    2013-01-01

    Public schools are examining their policies and instructional practices to address the achievement gap exposed by the reporting requirements of NCLB (Wenglinski, 2004). As accountability measures and stakes rise, there is a call for an improved use of scientific evidence to inform educational policymaking (Wiseman, 2010). In terms of the…

  12. Effects of a Collaborative Science Intervention on High Achieving Students' Learning Anxiety and Attitudes toward Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zuway-R.

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of a collaborative science intervention on high achieving students' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. Thirty-seven eighth-grade high achieving students (16 boys and 21 girls) were selected as an experimental group who joined a 20-week collaborative science intervention, which integrated and utilized an innovative teaching strategy. Fifty-eight eighth-grade high achieving students were selected as the comparison group. The Secondary School Student Questionnaire was conducted to measure all participants' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. In addition, 12 target students from the experimental group (i.e., six active and six passive students) were recruited for weekly classroom observations and follow-up interviews during the intervention. Both quantitative and qualitative findings revealed that experimental group students experienced significant impact as seen through increased attitudes and decreased anxiety of learning science. Implications for practice and research are provided.

  13. School factors affecting postsecondary career pursuits of high-achieving girls in mathematics and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hyunsil

    This study examined the influences of secondary school experiences of high-achieving girls in math and science on their postsecondary career pursuits in science fields. Specifically, using the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), the study investigated how science class experiences in high school affect science career persistence of high-achieving girls over and above personal and family factors. Selecting the top 10% on the 8 th grade math and science achievement tests from two panel samples of 1988--1994 and 1988--2000, this study examined which science instructional experiences (i.e., lecture-oriented, experiment-oriented, and student-oriented) best predicted college major choices and postsecondary degree attainments in the fields of science after controlling for personal and family factors. A two-stage test was employed for the analysis of each panel sample. The first test examined the dichotomous career pursuits between science careers and non-science careers and the second test examined the dichotomous pursuits within science careers: "hard" science and "soft" science. Logistic regression procedures were used with consideration of panel weights and design effects. This study identified that experiment-oriented and student-oriented instructional practices seem to positively affect science career pursuits of high-achieving females, while lecture-oriented instruction negatively affected their science career pursuits, and that the longitudinal effects of the two positive instructional contributors to science career pursuits appear to be differential between major choice and degree attainment. This study also found that the influences of instructional practices seem to be slight for general females, while those for high-achieving females were highly considerable, regardless of whether negative or positive. Another result of the study found that only student-oriented instruction seemed to have positive effects for high-achieving males. In

  14. High power and high temperature continuous-wave operation of distributed Bragg reflector quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Feng Caneau, Catherine G.; LeBlanc, Herve P.; Ho, Ming-tsung; Wang, Jie; Chaparala, Satish; Hughes, Lawrence C.; Zah, Chung-en

    2014-02-17

    High temperature continuous-wave (CW) operation of a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) quantum cascade laser is demonstrated up to a heat sink temperature of 80 °C. A CW output power of 2 W and a single mode operation with side mode suppression ratio of 30 dB around wavelength of 4.48 μm were achieved at 20 °C. The maximum pulsed and CW wall-plug-efficiencies reached 14.7% and 10.3% at 20 °C, respectively. A large tuning range of 5 cm{sup −1} between mode hopping was observed and attributed to the thermal cross-talk from the gain section to the DBR section.

  15. High power and high temperature continuous-wave operation of distributed Bragg reflector quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Feng; Caneau, Catherine G.; LeBlanc, Herve P.; Ho, Ming-tsung; Wang, Jie; Chaparala, Satish; Hughes, Lawrence C.; Zah, Chung-en

    2014-02-01

    High temperature continuous-wave (CW) operation of a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) quantum cascade laser is demonstrated up to a heat sink temperature of 80 °C. A CW output power of 2 W and a single mode operation with side mode suppression ratio of 30 dB around wavelength of 4.48 μm were achieved at 20 °C. The maximum pulsed and CW wall-plug-efficiencies reached 14.7% and 10.3% at 20 °C, respectively. A large tuning range of 5 cm-1 between mode hopping was observed and attributed to the thermal cross-talk from the gain section to the DBR section.

  16. Following Different Pathways: Social Integration, Achievement, and the Transition to High School.

    PubMed

    Langenkamp, Amy G

    2009-11-01

    This study expands research on an academic and social turning point for adolescents, the transition to high school, by analyzing how students' level of social integration into school can affect high school academic performance. Using nationally representative data, three different pathways emerged as students transition to high school, characterized by varying amounts of disruption and opportunity for new social relationships upon entering high school. Findings suggest that elements of middle school social integration, including teacher bonding, popularity, and extracurricular participation, affect academic achievement when students enter high school. However, the association between integration into school and academic performance appears to be contingent upon the pathway students follow. PMID:20664813

  17. Following Different Pathways: Social Integration, Achievement, and the Transition to High School

    PubMed Central

    LANGENKAMP, AMY G.

    2010-01-01

    This study expands research on an academic and social turning point for adolescents, the transition to high school, by analyzing how students’ level of social integration into school can affect high school academic performance. Using nationally representative data, three different pathways emerged as students transition to high school, characterized by varying amounts of disruption and opportunity for new social relationships upon entering high school. Findings suggest that elements of middle school social integration, including teacher bonding, popularity, and extracurricular participation, affect academic achievement when students enter high school. However, the association between integration into school and academic performance appears to be contingent upon the pathway students follow. PMID:20664813

  18. Mo' Money, Mo' Problems? High-Achieving Black High School Students' Experiences with Resources, Racial Climate, and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Walter; Griffin, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    A multi-site case study analyzed the college preparatory processes of nine African American high achievers attending a well-resourced, suburban high school and eight academically successful African Americans attending a low-resourced urban school. Students at both schools experienced barriers, that is, racial climate and a lack of resources, that…

  19. High IQ Is Sufficient to Explain the High Achievements in Math and Science of the East Asian Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    It is argued that it is unnecessary to propose that Confucian values explain the high achievements in math and science of the North East Asian peoples, and that these can be satisfactorily and more parsimoniously be explained by their high IQs.

  20. "It's a Way of Life for Us": High Mobility and High Achievement in Department of Defense Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smrekar, Claire E.; Owens, Debra E.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the academic performance of students in U.S. Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) schools, which have high student mobility. Some observers contend that these students' high achievement is a function of their middle class family and community characteristics. Asserts that DoDEA schools simultaneously "do the right things" and…

  1. Operational experience with CW high gradient and high QL cryomodules

    SciTech Connect

    Hovater, J. Curt; Allison, Trent L.; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna; Daly, Edward F.; Drury, Michael A.; Lahti, George E.; Mounts, Clyde I.; Nelson, Richard M.; Plawski, Tomasz E.

    2014-12-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) energy upgrade from 6 GeV to 12 GeV includes the installation of ten new 100 MV cryomodules (80 cavities). The superconducting RF cavities are designed to operate CW at an accelerating gradient of 19.3 MV/m with a QL of 3×107. The RF system employs single cavity control using new digital LLRF controls and 13 kW klystrons. Recently, all of the new cryomodules and associated RF hardware and software have been commissioned and operated in the CEBAF accelerator. Electrons at linac currents up to 10 ?A have been successfully accelerated and used for nuclear physics experiments. This paper reports on the commissioning and operation of the cryomodules and RF system.

  2. Communication Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and the Relationship to Student Achievement in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Gayle A.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a correlational design that allowed the researcher to examine the relationship among communication satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and student achievement. High school teachers were surveyed from a convenience sample of 12 school districts in Arizona. Established instruments were used to survey…

  3. The Relationship between Student Attendance and Academic Achievement in a Selected South Dakota High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    There is limited research available on the relationship between student attendance and academic achievement in secondary school. This quantitative, non-experimental study, conducted within a South Dakota high school of students in grades 9-12 during the years 2006-2012, examined the relationship between student attendance and academic achievement…

  4. The Transition Experiences of High-Achieving, Low-Income Undergraduates in an Elite College Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Paul J., II

    2012-01-01

    This hermeneutic phenomenological study describes the lived experiences of high-achieving, low-income undergraduates and their transition into a college environment historically reserved for wealthy students. The results of this study indicate that these students are flourishing in full need-based financial aid programs as a result of their own…

  5. Central American Refugees and U.S. High Schools. A Psychosocial Study of Motivation and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo M.

    This ethnographic study documents and interprets key school, work, and family life issues in the lives and experiences of a sampling of recent immigrants from the war-torn Central American nations; and suggests a psychocultural theory of achievement motivation. Information was gathered from observation in two urban high schools, interviews with 50…

  6. Growing into Equity: Professional Learning and Personalization in High-Achieving Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Sonia Caus; Gerzon, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    What makes a Title I school high-achieving, and what can we all learn from that experience? Professional learning and leadership that supports personalized instruction makes the difference, as captured in the ground-breaking research of authors Sonia Caus Gleason and Nancy Gerzon. This illuminating book shows how four outstanding schools are…

  7. Excellence in English in Middle and High School: How Teachers' Professional Lives Support Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Judith A.

    The Center on English Learning and Achievement (CELA) has been studying the characteristics of successful English programs in middle and high schools. This report discusses the findings of the first two years of their 5-year Excellence in English study and focuses on the educational practices that support student literacy as well as the…

  8. Performance-Approach Goal Effects on Achievement under Low versus High Challenge Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Durik, Amanda M.; Patel, Lily; Lovejoy, Chelsea M.; Valentiner, David

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the effects of university students' achievement goals on performance under low versus high challenge conditions. The first was a laboratory experiment in which participants were assigned goals to pursue on a novel mathematics task alleged to be simple or complex to use. The second was a survey study in which students set goals…

  9. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Updated Analyses with NAEP Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The present research is a follow-up study of earlier published analyses that looked at the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement in 25 states. Using the previously derived Accountability Pressure Index (APR) as a measure of state-level policy pressure for performance on standardized tests, a series of…

  10. The Influence of Social Capital Factors on African-American and Hispanic High School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jacqueline L.

    2009-01-01

    The underachievement of African American and Hispanic students has been an ongoing problem for schools in the United States. The purpose of this investigation was to add to the existing body of knowledge concerning social capital of African American and Hispanic high school students' academic achievement. Using a nationally representative sample…

  11. Integrating Economic and Social Policy: Good Practices from High-Achieving Countries. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Santosh

    This paper examines the successes of 10 "high achievers," countries with social indicators far higher than might be expected, given their national wealth, pulling together the lessons learned for social policy in the developing world. The 10 countries identified are Costa Rica, Cuba, Barbados, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Kerala, Sri Lanka,…

  12. Turning around Reading Achievement: Predictors of High School Students' Academic Resilience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappella, Elise; Weinstein, Rhona S.

    2001-01-01

    In a national, longitudinal database, factors were examined that enabled public school students on a path toward failure to significantly improve reading achievement by high school graduation. Being Caucasian and female, having an internal locus of control, and taking an academic curriculum independently predicted academic resilience.…

  13. How Does Bennett Woods Elementary School Produce Such High Reading and Writing Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael; Mohan, Lindsey; Raphael, Lisa M.; Fingeret, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed a grounded theory about how a school serving relatively advantaged children produces high reading and writing achievement compared with schools serving similar populations of students. The school's faculty is reading and writing focused, and students experience many books as they receive explicit, demanding instruction (i.e.,…

  14. What Attracts High-Achieving Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students to the Physical Sciences and Engineering?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Sarah; Canetto, Silvia Sara; MacPhee, David; Farro, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) students are less likely to major in physical sciences or engineering. To guide recruitment and retention of a diversity of talent, this study examined what attracts high-achieving SED students to these fields. Participants were 50 undergraduates majoring in physical sciences or engineering enrolled in the…

  15. Experiencing More Mathematics Anxiety than Expected? Contrasting Trait and State Anxiety in High Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, A.-L.; Bieg, M.; Goetz, T.; Frenzel, A. C.; Taxer, J.; Zeidner, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to…

  16. An Analysis of the Academic Achievement of Indian High School Students in Federal and Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Willard P.

    A longitudinal study was designed to determine whether there were significant differences in academic achievement between senior high American Indian students in Federal on-reservation, Federal off-reservation, public on-reservation, and public off-reservation schools. The purpose of the study was to gather a variety of data on psychological and…

  17. Brain Structure and Resting-State Functional Connectivity in University Professors with High Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weiwei; Yang, Wenjing; Li, Wenfu; Li, Yadan; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Huimin; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2015-01-01

    Creative persons play an important role in technical innovation and social progress. There is little research on the neural correlates with researchers with high academic achievement. We used a combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity analysis, rsFC) approach to examine the…

  18. Effectiveness of Refutational Teaching for High- and Low-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Patricia; Taylor, Annette Kujawski

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of refutational readings and lecture on decreasing psychological misconceptions for students of high versus low levels of achievement. During the course of a semester we addressed introductory psychology students' misconceptions with refutational readings, refutational lecture, or not at all. From pre- and post-test…

  19. Faculty Perceptions of High-Achieving Male Collegians: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    Critical race theory was employed as an interpretive framework to explore faculty perceptions of the academic accomplishments of high-achieving Black and White male collegians. Using photo elicitation methodology, faculty participants responded to a randomly assigned photograph of and vignette about either a Black or White male student. While most…

  20. Differential Predictors of Achievement among Kibbutz and Urban High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Amos

    1982-01-01

    A study examines environmental and personality factors as predictors of academic achievement among kibbutz and urban high school students. Results of a comparison of personality factors indicate that kibbutz students are more restrained, reserved, adaptable, and conforming. The higher scores of city students on intelligence tests may stem from a…

  1. High Achievement on Advanced Placement Exams: The Relationship of School-Level Contextual Factors to Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Virginia H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify school- and district-level variables that relate to advanced academic achievement, as defined by the ratio of number of scores of 3, 4, or 5 on Advanced Placement exams to school enrollment. The study initially included 46 variables for 339 public high schools in one Midwestern state. Hierarchical linear…

  2. Diversity and Leadership: A Study of High-Achieving Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.; Rowley, Larry L.; Hu, Shouping

    2009-01-01

    Leadership development has long been considered an important outcome of higher education, but the patterns of leadership development among students of color have not been widely studied. This article develops a theory of leadership as an outcome of engaged learning. Findings from this study of high-achieving, low-income students of color include:…

  3. Ugandan Immigrant Students' Perceptions of Barriers to Academic Achievement in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ssekannyo, Denis

    2010-01-01

    In a world that is now a global village, enterprising individuals, especially from Third World countries, who make it to greener pastures do not leave their children behind. But with a long list of barriers to academic achievement associated with immigrant and minority students in American high schools, an understanding of the experiences and…

  4. Academic Optimism of High School Teachers: Its Relationship to Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Charles A.; DiPaola, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to build on an emergent research base for academic optimism by testing the construct and its relationship to student achievement and organizational citizenship behaviors in schools in a sample of public high schools. All participants in this study were full-time teachers, guidance counselors, and other full-time…

  5. Disabled and Successful: Education in the Life Stories of Disabled High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Sonali; Travers, Cheryl; Arnold, John

    2004-01-01

    There has been much debate concerning the pros and cons of special and mainstream education for young people with a disability. This paper adds data to this debate by reporting the educational experiences of 20 high-achievers with congenital disabilities who live in the United Kingdom and were born between 1950 and 1970. It presents personal…

  6. Balancing Dreams and Realities: The College Choice Process for High-Achieving Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, Ebelia

    2015-01-01

    This study's narratives of 17 high-achieving Latinas revealed how their college choice was a constant balancing of individual and family expectations, being "close, but far enough away," and "getting your money's worth." With the use of critical race theory, further analysis revealed the influence of "familismo" on…

  7. High School Success: An Effective Intervention for Achievement and Dropout Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowder, Christopher Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-design study was to use quantitative and qualitative research to explore the effects of High School Success (a course for at-risk ninth graders) and its effectiveness on student achievement, attendance, and dropout prevention. The research questions address whether there is a significant difference between at-risk ninth…

  8. School Factors Related to Reading Achievement in Rural Schools with and without High Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Seth W.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study identified how rural schools differ on five school-level factors related to student achievement according to their performance on Grade 3 reading. Through use of a MANOVA test, it was shown that principals of high-poverty rural schools that made AYP in Grade 3 reading reported significantly higher levels of guaranteed and…

  9. The College-Choice Process of High Achieving Freshmen: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the college-choice process of high achieving students. Employing current literature and previous research, it combined current models of college choice and the influential factors identified throughout the literature while utilizing the concept of bounded rationality to create a conceptual framework to…

  10. The Relationship between Illinois School District Superintendent Longevity and High School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libka, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Frequent changes in school district superintendents may be having a detrimental impact on student achievement. Rapid changes in leadership today parallel the present (NCLB) era of high stakes state assessments. The goal of the study was to provide correlation research that would have a positive effect on school district management, superintendent…

  11. Universal Factors of Student Achievement in High-Performing Eastern and Western Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether a common set of student attitudes and behavioral tendencies can account for academic achievement across different, especially high-performing, countries via analysis of the PISA 2009 international data set. The 13 countries examined are 5 of the top-performing Eastern countries/systems, namely Shanghai China, South…

  12. Student Satisfaction and Achievement Related to Organizational Structure: A Study on Semestering in Junior High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Rex G.

    1989-01-01

    Examines effects of academic year division on junior high school student satisfaction. Reports no relationship between semester organization and student satisfaction or achievement, although students report dissatisfaction with the length of certain classes. Advanced English students were more satisfied with semester courses than general English…

  13. One-to-One Computing and Student Achievement in Ohio High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Nancy L.; Larwin, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the impact of one-to-one computing on student achievement in Ohio high schools as measured by performance on the Ohio Graduation Test (OGT). The sample included 24 treatment schools that were individually paired with a similar control school. An interrupted time series methodology was deployed to examine OGT data over a period…

  14. Measuring the Outliers: An Introduction to Out-of-Level Testing with High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; Warne, Russell T.

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-level testing is an underused strategy for addressing the needs of students who score in the extremes, and when used wisely, it could provide educators with a much more accurate picture of what students know. Out-of-level testing has been shown to be an effective assessment strategy with high-achieving students; however, out-of-level…

  15. Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement of High School Students in Kanyakumari District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Deepa, T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to find the significant relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement of high school students with reference to the background variables. Survey method was employed. Two tools are used in this study namely self-made Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue SF) and the…

  16. Actively Closing the Gap? Social Class, Organized Activities, and Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…

  17. Effect of Textbook Readability on Student Achievement in High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, D. Neil

    2001-01-01

    Notes the readability level of many high school chemistry textbooks is far above students' reading levels. Conducts two separate studies, making every effort to keep the two classes as similar as possible in all aspects except text. Finds strong evidence that changing the chemistry textbook resulted in an increase in student achievement. Suggests…

  18. The Federal Transformation Intervention Model in Persistently Lowest Achieving High Schools: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Patner, Michelle B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act federal mandate of the Transformation Intervention Model (TIM) outlined by the School Improvement Grant, which was designed to turn around persistently lowest achieving schools. The study was conducted in four high schools in a large Southern California urban district that selected the…

  19. Consequences of the Confucian Culture: High Achievement but Negative Psychological Attributes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Irene T.; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2010-01-01

    In "Unforgiving Confucian culture: A breeding ground for high academic achievement, test anxiety and self-doubt?" Stankov (in press) provides three reasons for caution against over-glorifying the academic excellence of Confucian Asian learners, namely that it may lead to a reluctance to change their rote learning approach which is not conducive to…

  20. The Relationship between Student Achievement and Charter High Schools in Washington, DC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if differences in student achievement existed between traditional public and charter high schools in the District of Columbia. The study examined student outcomes on the standardized state test in reading and math from 2006 to 2010 utilizing descriptive statistics, crosstab analysis, chi-square tests…

  1. Social Media Use, Loneliness, and Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study with Urban High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neto, Roque; Golz, Nancy; Polega, Meaghan

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the association between social media use, loneliness, and academic achievement in high school students and identified the demographic characteristics associated with these three elements. This study also aimed to identify the percentage of variance in loneliness accounted for by social media use and GPA. Participants were 345…

  2. Evaluative and Behavioral Correlates to Intrarehearsal Achievement in High School Bands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships of teaching effectiveness, ensemble performance quality, and selected rehearsal procedures to various measures of intrarehearsal achievement (i.e., musical improvement exhibited by an ensemble during the course of a single rehearsal). Twenty-nine high school bands were observed in two…

  3. A Study of the Impact of Block Scheduling on Student Academic Achievement in Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Mary Kay

    2010-01-01

    The number of public high schools implementing a semester 4 x 4 block scheduling design within the state of South Carolina has tripled since 2005. However, minimal local research has been conducted regarding the impact of block scheduling on student academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to determine if significant differences exist…

  4. New Counter-School Cultures: Female Students' Drug Use at a High-Achieving Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Adam; Bonell, Chris; Rhodes, Tim

    2009-01-01

    We draw on case-study research at a high-achieving secondary school in London to illustrate how school experiences may influence drug use and reproduce inequalities in reconstructed ways in late modernity. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with students and teachers, and observations. We focus in particular on the…

  5. Spatial Experiences of High Academic Achievers: Insights from a Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weckbacher, Lisa Marie; Okamoto, Yukari

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the relationship between types of spatial experiences and spatial abilities among 13- to 14-year-old high academic achievers. Each participant completed two spatial tasks and a survey assessing favored spatial activities across five categories (computers, toys, sports, music, and art) and three developmental periods (early…

  6. The Impact of Reading Success Academy on High School Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlison, Kelly; Chave, Josh

    2014-01-01

    The study explores the effectiveness of the Reading Success Academy on the reading achievement of the selected group of ninth-grade students in a comprehensive high school. We examine in what ways the Reading Success Academy may improve the reading proficiency rates and amount of reading growth of ninth-grade students. The results indicate that…

  7. Students' High School Organizational Leadership Opportunities and Their Influences on Academic Achievement and Civic Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elemen, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze high school leadership praxis for its inclusion of students in organizational leadership dialogue and decision-making and the influences of these factors on student achievement and civic participation. Survey questionnaire data were provided by 215 full-time enrolled undergraduate students from…

  8. Antecedent and Concurrent Psychosocial Skills That Support High Levels of Achievement within Talent Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation and emotional regulation are important for the sustained focused study and practice required for high levels of achievement and creative productivity in adulthood. Using the talent development model proposed by the authors as a framework, the authors discuss several important psychosocial skills based on the psychological research…

  9. Perfectionism in High-Ability Students: Relational Precursors and Influences on Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.; Finch, Holmes

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to create and test a model that (a) illustrated variables influencing the development of perfectionism, and (b) demonstrated how different types of perfectionism may influence the achievement goals of high-ability students. Using a multiple groups path analysis, the researchers found that parenting style was…

  10. The Effects of Alcohol Use on Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Giuliano, Laura M.; French, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's grade point average (GPA) abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that…

  11. Negative Relationship between Achievement in High School and Self-Concept in College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Raymond N.; Grosch, James W.

    Social learning theory implies that there should be a significant positive relationship between academic performance and self-concept and outcomes of recent meta-analyses support this prediction. While path-analytic studies of high school samples in the 1960s and 1970s demonstrated that ability and achievement each made a small positive…

  12. Cognitive Abilities and Motivational Processes in High School Students' Situational Engagement and Achievement in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Shun; Roeser, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Building on R. Snow's two pathways to achievement outcomes (1989), examined how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways respectively contributed to prediction of outcomes in science for 491 high school students. Results are consistent with Snow's conjecture that factors related to both pathways…

  13. Obesity, High-Calorie Food Intake, and Academic Achievement Trends among U.S. School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jian; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated children's self-reported high-calorie food intake in Grade 5 and its relationship to trends in obesity status and academic achievement over the first 6 years of school. They used 3-level hierarchical linear models in the large-scale database (the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort). Findings indicated…

  14. On the Decline of the Achievement Orientation of High School Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Frank W.; Coutts, Larry M.

    Based on the evidence and theory that sex-role differentiation increases in salience during those later high school years as students prepare for their imminent transition into young adulthood, it was anticipated that there would be a lower orientation toward achievement among grade 12 girls than grade 10 girls, and, possibly, the opposite for…

  15. Organizational Practices of High-Achieving Rural School Districts in California's San Joaquin Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerksen, Amanda López; Wise, Donald

    2016-01-01

    For over 25 years, researchers have identified "best practices" used by high-achieving school districts. However, little research exists regarding rural school systems, making it difficult to determine whether the best practices identified are relevant within this context. This study filled a void in research by focusing on the…

  16. Academic Identity Status, Goal Orientation, and Academic Achievement among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hejazi, Elaheh; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali; Amani, Habib; Was, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between academic identity status, goal orientations and academic achievement. 301 first year high school students completed the Academic Identity Measure and Goal Orientation Questionnaire. The average of 10 exam scores in the final semester was used as an index of academic…

  17. The Impact of Inclusion on the Academic Achievement of High School Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Harold Smith

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examined the impact of inclusion on the academic achievement outcome of high school special education students as measured by English 1, biology, and algebra 1 as a function of gender, ethnicity, and years of inclusion. The study also examined the generalizations with confidence that could be made about the use of inclusion…

  18. Conflicts and Communication between High-Achieving Chinese American Adolescents and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Chang, Tzu-Fen; Han, Eun-Jin; Chee, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interview data collected on 18 high-achieving Chinese American students, the authors examine domains of acculturation-based conflicts, parent and child internal conflicts, and conflict resolution in their families. Their analyses show that well-established negative communication patterns in educational expectations, divergent…

  19. World first in high level waste vitrification - A review of French vitrification industrial achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Brueziere, J.; Chauvin, E.; Piroux, J.C.

    2013-07-01

    AREVA has more than 30 years experience in operating industrial HLW (High Level radioactive Waste) vitrification facilities (AVM - Marcoule Vitrification Facility, R7 and T7 facilities). This vitrification technology was based on borosilicate glasses and induction-heating. AVM was the world's first industrial HLW vitrification facility to operate in-line with a reprocessing plant. The glass formulation was adapted to commercial Light Water Reactor fission products solutions, including alkaline liquid waste concentrates as well as platinoid-rich clarification fines. The R7 and T7 facilities were designed on the basis of the industrial experience acquired in the AVM facility. The AVM vitrification process was implemented at a larger scale in order to operate the R7 and T7 facilities in-line with the UP2 and UP3 reprocessing plants. After more than 30 years of operation, outstanding record of operation has been established by the R7 and T7 facilities. The industrial startup of the CCIM (Cold Crucible Induction Melter) technology with enhanced glass formulation was possible thanks to the close cooperation between CEA and AREVA. CCIM is a water-cooled induction melter in which the glass frit and the waste are melted by direct high frequency induction. This technology allows the handling of highly corrosive solutions and high operating temperatures which permits new glass compositions and a higher glass production capacity. The CCIM technology has been implemented successfully at La Hague plant.

  20. A fast position sensitive microstrip-gas-chamber detector at high count rate operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolbnya, I. P.; Alberda, H.; Hartjes, F. G.; Udo, F.; Bakker, R. E.; Konijnenburg, M.; Homan, E.; Cerjak, I.; Goedtkindt, P.; Bras, W.

    2002-11-01

    Testing of a newly developed position sensitive high count rate microstrip gas chamber (MSGC) detector at high count rate operation has been carried out at the Dutch-Belgian x-ray scattering beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble, France) with a high intensity x-ray beam. The measurements show local count rate capabilities up to approx4.5 x105 counts/s/channel. Experimental data taken with this detector are also shown. These tests show that both time resolution down to 1.5 ms/frame and a reliable operation at high counting rates can be achieved.

  1. No More 1s: High Expectations Can Lead to High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervone, Laureen; DiMartino, Lisa; Kerr, Kris

    2010-01-01

    The school district in Middletown, New York, in the state's Orange County, today serves close to 7,000 students in four elementary schools, two middle schools, and one high school. The district is classified by the state in the highest of three Need-to-Resource-Capacity groups, an urban or suburban school district with high student needs in…

  2. Examining the Success Factors of High-Achieving Puerto Rican Male High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Tomas; Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene; Velez, William

    2010-01-01

    This article works to dispel the myth that Latino urban high-school students are not capable of performing at high academic levels. Whereas much educational research emphasizes the academic underachievement of urban Latino students, this article counteracts this research by describing the four success factors that three working-class Puerto Rican…

  3. Cultivating a Growth Mindset in Students at a High-Achieving High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fegley, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this EPP is to develop a plan for changing the mindset of a large number of Haddonfield Memorial High School (HMHS) students from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset. HMHS is by most conventional measures a high performing school. Typically 100% of the students graduate with 96% of the students attending two or four year colleges…

  4. Note: A new regulation method of stable operation of high power cathode ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, C. C.; Xie, Y. H. Hu, C. D.; Xie, Y. L.; Liu, S.; Liang, L. Z.; Liu, Z. M.

    2015-05-15

    The hot cathode ion source will tend to be unstable when operated with high power and long pulse. In order to achieve stable operation, a new regulation method based on the arc power (discharge power) feedback control was designed and tested on the hot cathode ion source test bed with arc discharge and beam extraction. The results show that the new regulation method can achieve stable arc discharge and beam extraction. It verifies the success of feedback control of arc source with arc power.

  5. High Average Power Operation of a Scraper-Outcoupled Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Michelle D. Shinn; Chris Behre; Stephen Vincent Benson; Michael Bevins; Don Bullard; James Coleman; L. Dillon-Townes; Tom Elliott; Joe Gubeli; David Hardy; Kevin Jordan; Ronald Lassiter; George Neil; Shukui Zhang

    2004-08-01

    We describe the design, construction, and operation of a high average power free-electron laser using scraper outcoupling. Using the FEL in this all-reflective configuration, we achieved approximately 2 kW of stable output at 10 um. Measurements of gain, loss, and output mode will be compared with our models.

  6. High-temperature /1100 degrees F/ capacitors operate without supplement cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, R. E.

    1967-01-01

    Multilayered capacitor with one-mil thick pyrolytic boron nitride and wrap around sputtered electrodes achieves parallel electrical interconnections in a stacked configuration of 3 to 9 wafers. These capacitors are compact, lightweight, and suitable for operation in high temperatures without supplemental cooling.

  7. Operating results confirm high efficiency of continuous rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Masselot, J.M.; Pradayrol, G.; Boughton, J.R.

    1995-09-01

    Started up in the middle of 1986, Sollac Sainte-Agathe`s coupled pickle line and cold rolling mill has overtaken the original capacity and quality targets. The results and how they were achieved will be presented. Attention is directed to the features of the key sections which include: pickel line entry; process (scale breaker/tension leveler, pickling tank, rinse tanks); side trimming; mill entry; rolling; and mill exit. The performance reached is the result of optimized global design and involvement of operational staff in an adapted organization. On the basis of the results already obtained, new objectives and the means for achieving them are presented.

  8. Achieving highly dispersed nanofibres at high loading in carbon nanofibre-metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jianli; Nash, Philip; Li, Jiajun; Shi, Chunsheng; Zhao, Naiqin

    2009-06-01

    In order to tap into the advantages of the properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or carbon nanofibres (CNFs) in composites, the high dispersion of CNTs (or CNFs) and strong interfacial bonding are the key issues which are still challenging. In the current work, a novel approach, consisting of in situ synthesis of CNFs within the Cu powders and mixing Cu ions with the in situ CNF(Ni/Y)-Cu composite powders in a solvent, was developed to highly disperse CNFs in a Cu matrix. The composite, produced by vacuum hot pressing, shows extremely high strength, 3.6 times more than that of the matrix material alone. It is worth mentioning that this method can disperse CNFs at high loading in a metal matrix, inferring good potential for applications, such as electronic packaging materials.

  9. Achievement Motivation of the High School Students: A Case Study among Different Communities of Goalpara District of Assam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarangi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Achievement motivation is a consistent striving force of an individual to achieve success to a certain standard of excellence in competing situation. In this study an attempt was made to study the effect of achievement motivation on the academic achievement of the high school students of tribal and non tribal communities in relation to their sex…

  10. Are gender differences in high achievement disappearing? A test in one intellectual domain.

    PubMed

    Howard, Robert W

    2005-05-01

    Males traditionally predominate at upper achievement levels. One general view holds that this is due only to various social factors such as the 'glass ceiling' and lack of female role models. Another view holds that it occurs partly because of innate ability differences, with more males being at upper ability levels. In the last few decades, women have become more achievement focused and competitive and have gained many more opportunities to achieve. The present study examined one intellectual domain, international chess, to quantify its gender differences in achievement and to see if these have been diminishing with the societal changes. Chess is a good test domain because it is a meritocracy, it has objective performance measures, and longitudinal data of a whole population are available. Performance ratings overall and in the top 10, 50 and 100 players of each sex show large gender differences and little convergence over the past three decades, although a few females have become high achievers. The distribution of performance ratings on the January 2004 list shows a higher male mean and evidence for more male variation, just as with traits such as height. Career patterns of players first on the list between 1985 and 1989 show that top males and females entered the list at about the same age but females tend to play fewer games and have shorter careers. In this domain at least, the male predominance is large and has remained roughly constant despite societal changes. PMID:15906890

  11. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    PubMed

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement. PMID:26651154

  12. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  13. Utilization of a buffered dielectric to achieve high field-effect carrier mobility in graphene transistors.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Damon B; Chiu, Hsin-Ying; Lin, Yu-Ming; Jenkins, Keith A; Xia, Fengnian; Avouris, Phaedon

    2009-12-01

    We utilize an organic polymer buffer layer between graphene and conventional gate dielectrics in top-gated graphene transistors. Unlike other insulators, this dielectric stack does not significantly degrade carrier mobility, allowing for high field-effect mobilities to be retained in top-gate operation. This is demonstrated in both two-point and four-point analysis and in the high-frequency operation of a graphene transistor. Temperature dependence of the carrier mobility suggests that phonons are the dominant scatterers in these devices. PMID:19883119

  14. Asymmetric hydrogenation of ketones: Tactics to achieve high reactivity, enantioselectivity, and wide scope

    PubMed Central

    Ohkuma, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Ru complexes with chiral diphosphines and amine-based ligands achieve high catalytic activity and enantioselectivity for the hydrogenation of ketones under neutral to slightly basic conditions. The chiral environment is controllable by changing the combination of these two ligands. A concerted six-membered transition state is proposed to be the origin of the high reactivity. The η6-arene/TsDPEN–Ru and MsDPEN–Cp*Ir catalysts effect the asymmetric reaction under slightly acidic conditions. A variety of chiral secondary alcohols are obtained in high enantiomeric excess. PMID:20228621

  15. The numerical stroop effect in primary school children: a comparison of low, normal, and high achievers.

    PubMed

    Heine, Angela; Tamm, Sascha; De Smedt, Bert; Schneider, Michael; Thaler, Verena; Torbeyns, Joke; Stern, Elsbeth; Verschaffel, Lieven; Jacobs, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Sixty-six primary school children were selected, of which 21 scored low on a standardized math achievement test, 23 were normal, and 22 high achievers. In a numerical Stroop experiment, children were asked to make numerical and physical size comparisons on digit pairs. The effects of congruity and numerical distance were determined. All children exhibited congruity and distance effects in the numerical comparison. In the physical comparison, children of all performance groups showed Stroop effects when the numerical distance between the digits was large but failed to show them when the distance was small. Numerical distance effects depended on the congruity condition, with a typical effect of distance in the congruent, and a reversed distance effect in the incongruent condition. Our results are hard to reconcile with theories that suggest that deficits in the automaticity of numerical processing can be related to differential math achievement levels. Immaturity in the precision of mappings between numbers and their numerical magnitudes might be better suited to explain the Stroop effects in children. However, as the results for the high achievers demonstrate, in addition to numerical processing capacity per se, domain-general functions might play a crucial role in Stroop performance, too. PMID:20437281

  16. Facilitating High Achievement: High School Principals' Reflections on Their Successful Leadership Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crum, Karen S.; Sherman, Whitney H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The burden for school improvement in a time of accountability falls squarely on the shoulders of principals as new requirements demand that they act as instructional leaders. The purpose of this study is to discover the common themes of school leadership and instructional practices of high school principals at successful schools in…

  17. High-Achieving African American Male High School Students: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilt, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    This case study highlighted the fundamental reasons why a small group of African American male high school seniors in the selected school district succeeded academically while their same race peers did not. Through classroom observation, interviews, and focus groups, the researcher uncovered factors related to instructional practices and classroom…

  18. Beam extraction and high stability operation of high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, P. Mishra, L.; Kewlani, H.; Mittal, K. C.; Patil, D. S.

    2014-03-15

    A high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source is designed and developed for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The plasma discharge in the ion source is stabilized by minimizing the reflected microwave power using four stub auto tuner and magnetic field. The optimization of extraction geometry is performed using PBGUNS code by varying the aperture, shape, accelerating gap, and the potential on the electrodes. While operating the source, it was found that the two layered microwave window (6 mm quartz plate and 2 mm boron nitride plate) was damaged (a fine hole was drilled) by the back-streaming electrons after continuous operation of the source for 3 h at beam current of 20–40 mA. The microwave window was then shifted from the line of sight of the back-streaming electrons and located after the water-cooled H-plane bend. In this configuration the stable operation of the high current ion source for several hours is achieved. The ion beam is extracted from the source by biasing plasma electrode, puller electrode, and ground electrode to +10 to +50 kV, −2 to −4 kV, and 0 kV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 30–40 mA is recorded on Faraday cup at 40 keV of beam energy at 600–1000 W of microwave power, 800–1000 G axial magnetic field and (1.2–3.9) × 10{sup −3} mbar of neutral hydrogen gas pressure in the plasma chamber. The dependence of beam current on extraction voltage, microwave power, and gas pressure is investigated in the range of operation of the ion source.

  19. Challenges to achievement of metal sustainability in our high-tech society

    SciTech Connect

    Izatt, Reed M.; Izatt, Steven R.; Bruening, Ronald L.; Izatt, Neil; Moyer, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Achievement of sustainability in metal life cycles from mining of virgin ore to consumer and industrial devices to end-of-life products requires greatly increased recycling and improved processing of metals. Electronic and other high-tech products containing precious, toxic, and specialty metals usually have short lifetimes and low recycling rates. Products containing these metals generally are incinerated, discarded as waste in landfills, or dismantled in informal recycling using crude and environmentally irresponsible procedures. Low metal recycling rates coupled with increasing demand for products containing them necessitate increased mining with attendant environmental, health, energy, water, and carbon-footprint consequences. In this tutorial review, challenges to achieving metal sustainability in present high-tech society are presented; health, environmental, and economic incentives for various stakeholders to improve metal sustainability are discussed; a case for technical improvements in separations technology, especially employing molecular recognition, is given; and global consequences of continuing on the present path are examined.

  20. An investigation into high-achiever and low-achiever knowledge organisation and knowledge processing in concept mapping: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siew Lian, Mary Wong

    1998-09-01

    This study used concept map content analysis and interviews to gain insights into the knowledge organisation and knowledge processing of pre-service teachers. Forty-eight preservice teachers of elementary science from a teachers’ training college in Sarawak, Malaysia, participated in this study. Correlations between achievement and five concept map characteristics showed that there were significant positive correlations ( p<.01) between achievement and: the number of appropriate links; the average number of appropriate concepts per cluster; and, the hierarchy score of subjects’ concept maps, and significant negative correlations ( p<.01) between achievement and: the number of inappropriate links; and, the average number of inappropriate concepts per cluster. Interviews with high-achievers and lowachievers revealed that there were differences in the way they processed knowledge during concept mapping. The high-achievers were more thorough than were the low-achievers in cognitive processing of knowledge, taking time to make sense of concepts, sort and group concepts, form relevant links between concepts, and organise concepts hierarchically. Active cognitive processing of knowledge seems to be related to more complex, well-integrated cognitive structures for the material learned.

  1. The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence.

    PubMed

    Krapohl, Eva; Rimfeld, Kaili; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Asbury, Kathryn; Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2014-10-21

    Because educational achievement at the end of compulsory schooling represents a major tipping point in life, understanding its causes and correlates is important for individual children, their families, and society. Here we identify the general ingredients of educational achievement using a multivariate design that goes beyond intelligence to consider a wide range of predictors, such as self-efficacy, personality, and behavior problems, to assess their independent and joint contributions to educational achievement. We use a genetically sensitive design to address the question of why educational achievement is so highly heritable. We focus on the results of a United Kingdom-wide examination, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which is administered at the end of compulsory education at age 16. GCSE scores were obtained for 13,306 twins at age 16, whom we also assessed contemporaneously on 83 scales that were condensed to nine broad psychological domains, including intelligence, self-efficacy, personality, well-being, and behavior problems. The mean of GCSE core subjects (English, mathematics, science) is more heritable (62%) than the nine predictor domains (35-58%). Each of the domains correlates significantly with GCSE results, and these correlations are largely mediated genetically. The main finding is that, although intelligence accounts for more of the heritability of GCSE than any other single domain, the other domains collectively account for about as much GCSE heritability as intelligence. Together with intelligence, these domains account for 75% of the heritability of GCSE. We conclude that the high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence. PMID:25288728

  2. The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Krapohl, Eva; Rimfeld, Kaili; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Asbury, Kathryn; Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Because educational achievement at the end of compulsory schooling represents a major tipping point in life, understanding its causes and correlates is important for individual children, their families, and society. Here we identify the general ingredients of educational achievement using a multivariate design that goes beyond intelligence to consider a wide range of predictors, such as self-efficacy, personality, and behavior problems, to assess their independent and joint contributions to educational achievement. We use a genetically sensitive design to address the question of why educational achievement is so highly heritable. We focus on the results of a United Kingdom-wide examination, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which is administered at the end of compulsory education at age 16. GCSE scores were obtained for 13,306 twins at age 16, whom we also assessed contemporaneously on 83 scales that were condensed to nine broad psychological domains, including intelligence, self-efficacy, personality, well-being, and behavior problems. The mean of GCSE core subjects (English, mathematics, science) is more heritable (62%) than the nine predictor domains (35–58%). Each of the domains correlates significantly with GCSE results, and these correlations are largely mediated genetically. The main finding is that, although intelligence accounts for more of the heritability of GCSE than any other single domain, the other domains collectively account for about as much GCSE heritability as intelligence. Together with intelligence, these domains account for 75% of the heritability of GCSE. We conclude that the high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence. PMID:25288728

  3. Multipulse operation of a high average power, good beam quality zig-zag dye laser

    SciTech Connect

    Mandl, A.; Klimek, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    A laser pumped zig-zag dye laser operating at 568 nm with a pulse length {approximately} 2 {micro}s has been scaled to high power using a MOPA configuration. Pulse energies in excess of 7 J with beam quality < 2 XDL have been achieved under repetitively pulsed, 10 Hz operation. RMS jitter was measured as 0.12 of a 1 XDL spot. The device has operated with over 70 W output for runs up to 5 s. Substantially longer run times and output powers are possible. This device represents an advance in dye laser capabilities. Improvement in pointing accuracy of better than an order of magnitude have been demonstrated. In addition, an improvement in beam quality by about an order of magnitude has been achieved compared to other dye lasers operating in this power range.

  4. High-fidelity simulation: Assessment of student nurses' team achievements of clinical judgment.

    PubMed

    Hallin, Karin; Bäckström, Britt; Häggström, Marie; Kristiansen, Lisbeth

    2016-07-01

    Nursing educators have the challenge of preparing nursing students to handle complex patient care situations in real life, but much remains unknown about the ability to make clinical judgments. In this study, high-fidelity simulation (HFS) was used at a Swedish university to find answers about pre-licensure nursing students' success in clinical judgment in terms of team ability and relationships with theoretical achievements, and personal and scenario circumstances. The matrix Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric (LCJR) was used to analyze and score the students' ability in teams to notice, interpret and respond to complex care situations. Overall, the results showed the student teams in their first meeting with HFS in a complex care situation achieved low clinical judgment points; most teams were in the stages of Beginning and Developing. For attaining high team achievements the majority of the students in the team should theoretically be "high performance". Being observers and having HFS experience before nursing education was significant too. However, age, health care experience, and assistant nurse degrees were of secondary importance. Further research at universities regionally, nationally, and internationally is needed. PMID:27428686

  5. Ku-band high power amplifier system functionality and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Cheng C.

    1990-06-01

    The subsystems and their respective functionality of a ku-band high power amplifier are carefully documented. Figures identifying physical components, wiring, contact points, switches, and valves with their labels on the system blueprints are presented. These figures will be helpful if system performance parameter adjustments are desired. Operation, maintenance, troubleshooting, and testing procedures are also included to make this thesis a self-contained operator's manual for the high power amplifier.

  6. Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) investigated the operational impacts of very high levels of variable generation penetration rates (up to 35% by energy) in the western United States. This work examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating unit patterns are examined for an aggregation of all hydro generators. The cost impacts of maintaining hydro unit flexibility are assessed and compared for a number of different modes of system operation.

  7. Factors limiting the operation of structures under high gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Schriber, S.O.

    1986-01-01

    Factors limiting the operation of rf structures under high-gradient conditions are described. Included are recent rf measurements at laboratories in Europe, Asia, and North America and how these measurements relate to earlier data as exemplified by the use of the Kilpatrick criterion (Kp). Operation limitations will cover mechanical, geometry, thermal, and surface constraints and the associated impact on structure design, fabrication, and material selection. Generally, structures operating continuous wave (100% duty factor) appear to be limited to peak surface fields at about twice the Kilpatrick limit, whereas pulsed structures operating with pulse lengths less than a millisecond can attain peak surface fields five times the Kilpatrick limit.

  8. Dry Blending to Achieve Isotopic Dilution of Highly Enriched Uranium Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Roger Neil; Chipman, Nathan Alan; Rajamani, R. K.

    2001-04-01

    The end of the cold war produced large amounts of excess fissile materials in the United States and Russia. The Department of Energy has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies for disposition of these excess materials. To date, many of these planning strategies have included isotopic dilution of highly enriched uranium as a means of reducing the proliferation and safety risks. Isotopic dilution by dry blending highly enriched uranium with natural and/or depleted uranium has been identified as one non-aqueous method to achieve these risk (proliferation and criticality safety) reductions. This paper reviews the technology of dry blending as applied to free flowing oxide materials.

  9. Preoperative treatment planning with intraoperative optimization can achieve consistent high-quality implants in prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Pugh, Thomas J.; Swanson, David A.; Bruno, Teresa L.; Bolukbasi, Yasemin; Frank, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in brachytherapy treatment planning systems have allowed the opportunity for brachytherapy to be planned intraoperatively as well as preoperatively. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each approach have been the subject of extensive debate, and some contend that the intraoperative approach is vital to the delivery of optimal therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether high-quality permanent prostate implants can be achieved consistently using a preoperative planning approach that allows for, but does not necessitate, intraoperative optimization. To achieve this purpose, we reviewed the records of 100 men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who had been prospectively treated with brachytherapy monotherapy between 2006 and 2009 at our institution. All patients were treated with iodine-125 stranded seeds; the planned target dose was 145 Gy. Only 8 patients required adjustments to the plan on the basis of intraoperative findings. Consistency and quality were assessed by calculating the correlation coefficient between the planned and implanted amounts of radioactivity and by examining the mean values of the dosimetric parameters obtained on preoperative and 30 days postoperative treatment planning. The amount of radioactivity implanted was essentially identical to that planned (mean planned radioactivity, 41.27 U vs. mean delivered radioactivity, 41.36 U; R{sup 2} = 0.99). The mean planned and day 30 prostate V100 values were 99.9% and 98.6%, respectively. The mean planned and day 30 prostate D90 values were 186.3 and 185.1 Gy, respectively. Consistent, high-quality prostate brachytherapy treatment plans can be achieved using a preoperative planning approach, mostly without the need for intraoperative optimization. Good quality assurance measures during simulation, treatment planning, implantation, and postimplant evaluation are paramount for achieving a high level of quality and consistency.

  10. A comprehensive approach to decipher biological computation to achieve next generation high-performance exascale computing.

    SciTech Connect

    James, Conrad D.; Schiess, Adrian B.; Howell, Jamie; Baca, Micheal J.; Partridge, L. Donald; Finnegan, Patrick Sean; Wolfley, Steven L.; Dagel, Daryl James; Spahn, Olga Blum; Harper, Jason C.; Pohl, Kenneth Roy; Mickel, Patrick R.; Lohn, Andrew; Marinella, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    The human brain (volume=1200cm3) consumes 20W and is capable of performing>10%5E16 operations/s. Current supercomputer technology has reached 1015 operations/s, yet it requires 1500m%5E3 and 3MW, giving the brain a 10%5E12 advantage in operations/s/W/cm%5E3. Thus, to reach exascale computation, two achievements are required: 1) improved understanding of computation in biological tissue, and 2) a paradigm shift towards neuromorphic computing where hardware circuits mimic properties of neural tissue. To address 1), we will interrogate corticostriatal networks in mouse brain tissue slices, specifically with regard to their frequency filtering capabilities as a function of input stimulus. To address 2), we will instantiate biological computing characteristics such as multi-bit storage into hardware devices with future computational and memory applications. Resistive memory devices will be modeled, designed, and fabricated in the MESA facility in consultation with our internal and external collaborators.

  11. A Study of Gifted High, Moderate, and Low Achievers in Their Personal Characteristics and Attitudes toward School and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the problem of underachievement among gifted high school students. Low achievers were compared to high and moderate achievers on their motivation, self-regulation, and attitudes toward their school and teachers. Participants were all highly able students from grades 10 and 11 in an academically selective gifted high school in…

  12. Progress toward achieving high power and high efficiency semipolar LEDs and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hong

    Performance of current commercially available wurtzite nitride based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), grown along the polar (0001) c-plane orientation, is limited by the presence of polarization-related electric fields inside multi-quantum wells (MQWs). The discontinuities in both spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization at the heterointerfaces result in internal electric fields in the quantum wells. These electric fields cause carrier separation [quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE)] and reduce the radiative recombination rate within the quantum wells. One approach to reduce and possibly eliminate the polarization-related effects is to grow III-nitride devices on crystal planes that are inclined with respect to the c-axis, i.e., on semipolar planes. In this dissertation, metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been employed for the homoepitaxial growth of GaN based LEDs on semipolar orientations. As a consequence of growing on high-quality bulk GaN substrates, the LEDs have significantly reduced threading dislocation and stacking fault densities, resulting in remarkable improvements in EQE and output power. High efficiency semipolar (1011) violet-blue and blue LEDs have been demonstrated without any intentional effort to enhance the light extraction from those devices. Optimizations of epitaxial structures have led to increased output power and external quantum efficiency. A silicone encapsulated single quantum well blue LED with peak wavelength of 444 nm with output power of 24.3 mW, external quantum efficiency of 43% and luminous efficacy of 75 lm/W (with phosphorescent coating) at 20 mA has been demonstrated. Polarization fields in strained (1011) and (112¯2) InGaN quantum wells have been experimentally determined through bias-dependent optical studies. Our results show that the polarization field flips its direction in semipolar InGaN quantum wells with large inclination angles (i.e. around 60°). This suggests that there exists a polarization

  13. Strategies to achieve high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover.

    PubMed

    Geng, Wenhui; Jin, Yongcan; Jameel, Hasan; Park, Sunkyu

    2015-01-01

    Three strategies were presented to achieve high solids loading while maximizing carbohydrate conversion, which are fed-batch, splitting/thickening, and clarifier processes. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed at water insoluble solids (WIS) of 15% using washed dilute-acid pretreated corn stover. The carbohydrate concentration increased from 31.8 to 99.3g/L when the insoluble solids content increased from 5% to 15% WIS, while the final carbohydrate conversion was decreased from 78.4% to 73.2%. For the fed-batch process, a carbohydrate conversion efficiency of 76.8% was achieved when solid was split into 60:20:20 ratio, with all enzymes added first. For the splitting/thickening process, a carbohydrate conversion of 76.5% was realized when the filtrate was recycled to simulate a steady-state process. Lastly, the clarifier process was evaluated and the highest carbohydrate conversion of 81.4% was achieved. All of these results suggests the possibility of enzymatic hydrolysis at high solids to make the overall conversion cost-competitive. PMID:25836373

  14. Achieving all-dielectric metamaterial band-pass frequency selective surface via high-permittivity ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liyang; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Wang, Jun; Feng, Mingde; Du, Hongliang; Yan, Mingbao; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo; Xu, Zhuo

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose the design of all-dielectric metamaterial band-pass frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) using high-permittivity ceramics based on effective medium theory and dielectric resonator theory. The band-pass response can be determined by the permittivity of the dielectric material, the periodicity, and geometrical shape of the dielectric unit cell. As an example, a band-pass FSS composed of H shaped ceramic resonators is demonstrated. Both the simulation and experiment results show that the FSS can achieve a pass band in X-band. Since such FSSs are made of low-loss high-permittivity ceramics, they are of important application values, especially in high-temperature, high-power environments. The design method can be readily extended to the design of FSSs in other frequencies.

  15. The role of shaping in achieving high performance in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, E.A.; Hyatt, A.W.; Osborne, T.H.

    1994-10-01

    Experiments to study the effect of plasma shape on performance show that the high performance levels characteristic of VH-mode plasmas are only obtained for high triangularity ({delta}). A characteristic difference in central heating efficiency is observed when high and low {delta} plasmas are compared. The authors find this difference to correlate well with the attainment of Mercier stability. The core plasma for the high {delta} cases achieves Mercier stability when q{sub 0} rises above a critical value which depends on {delta}, providing direct access to the second-stable regime. Other attributes of the VH-mode commence after a delay. The rise in q{sub 0} is attributable to the radial gradients in the neutral beam and bootstrap current sources. Simulation indicates that such plasmas would persist for many seconds if the rise in density could be controlled, maintaining a centrally peaked neutral beam deposition profile.

  16. The effects of modeling instruction on high school physics academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an ex post facto , quasi-experimental research methodology. The independent variables in this study were the instructional methods of teaching. The treatment variable was Modeling Instruction and the control variable was traditional lecture instruction. The Treatment Group consisted of participants in Physical World Concepts who received Modeling Instruction. The Control Group consisted of participants in Physical Science who received traditional lecture instruction. The dependent variable was gains scores on the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI). The participants for this study were 133 students each in both the Treatment and Control Groups (n = 266), who attended a public, high school in rural middle Tennessee. The participants were administered the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) prior to being taught the mechanics of physics. The FCI data were entered into the computer-based Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Two independent samples t-tests were conducted to answer the research questions. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups concerning the instructional method. Modeling Instructional methods were found to be effective in increasing the academic achievement of students in high school physics. There was no statistically significant difference between FCI gains scores for gender. Gender was found to have no effect on the academic achievement of students in high school physics classes. However, even though there was not a statistically significant difference, female students' gains scores were higher than male students' gains scores when Modeling Instructional methods of teaching were used. Based on these findings, it is recommended

  17. Moving to higher ground: Closing the high school science achievement gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebane, Joyce Graham

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of West High School constituents (students, parents, teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors) about the readiness and interest of African American students at West High School to take Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) science courses as a strategy for closing the achievement gap. This case study utilized individual interviews and questionnaires for data collection. The participants were selected biology students and their parents, teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors at West High School. The results of the study indicated that just over half the students and teachers, most parents, and all guidance counselors thought African American students were prepared to take AP science courses. Only one of the three administrators thought the students were prepared to take AP science courses. Between one-half and two-thirds of the students, parents, teachers, and administrators thought students were interested in taking an AP science course. Only two of the guidance counselors thought there was interest among the African American students in taking AP science courses. The general consensus among the constituents about the readiness and interest of African American students at West High School to take IB science courses was that it is too early in the process to really make definitive statements. West is a prospective IB school and the program is new and not yet in place. Educators at the West High School community must find reasons to expect each student to succeed. Lower expectations often translate into lower academic demands and less rigor in courses. Lower academic demands and less rigor in courses translate into less than adequate performance by students. When teachers and administrators maintain high expectations, they encourage students to aim high rather than slide by with mediocre effort (Lumsden, 1997). As a result of the study, the following suggestions should

  18. OPERATIONAL ASPECTS OF HIGH POWER ENERGY RECOVERY LINACS

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Benson; David Douglas; Pavel Evtushenko; Kevin Jordan; George Neil; Paul Powers

    2006-08-21

    We have been operating a high-power energy-recovery linac (ERL) at Jefferson Lab for several years. In the process we have learned quite a bit about both technical and physics limitations in high power ERLs. Several groups are now considering new ERLs that greatly increase either the energy, the current or both. We will present some of our findings on what to consider when designing, building, and operating a high power ERL. Our remarks for this paper are limited to lattice design and setup, magnets, vacuum chamber design, diagnostics, and beam stability.

  19. The effects of using diagramming as a representational technique on high school students' achievement in solving math word problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Banmali

    Methods and procedures for successfully solving math word problems have been, and continue to be a mystery to many U.S. high school students. Previous studies suggest that the contextual and mathematical understanding of a word problem, along with the development of schemas and their related external representations, positively contribute to students' accomplishments when solving word problems. Some studies have examined the effects of diagramming on students' abilities to solve word problems that only involved basic arithmetic operations. Other studies have investigated how instructional models that used technology influenced students' problem solving achievements. Still other studies have used schema-based instruction involving students with learning disabilities. No study has evaluated regular high school students' achievements in solving standard math word problems using a diagramming technique without technological aid. This study evaluated students' achievement in solving math word problems using a diagramming technique. Using a quasi-experimental experimental pretest-posttest research design, quantitative data were collected from 172 grade 11 Hispanic English language learners (ELLS) and African American learners whose first language is English (EFLLs) in 18 classes at an inner city high school in Northern New Jersey. There were 88 control and 84 experimental students. The pretest and posttest of each participating student and samples of the experimental students' class assignments provided the qualitative data for the study. The data from this study exhibited that the diagramming method of solving math word problems significantly improved student achievement in the experimental group (p<.01) compared to the control group. The study demonstrated that urban, high school, ELLs benefited from instruction that placed emphasis on the mathematical vocabulary and symbols used in word problems and that both ELLs and EFLLs improved their problem solving success

  20. High Power Operation of the JLab IR FEL Driver Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Beard; Stephen Benson; George Biallas; James Boyce; Donald Bullard; James Coleman; David Douglas; H. Dylla; Richard Evans; Pavel Evtushenko; Christopher Gould; Albert Grippo; Joseph Gubeli; David Hardy; Carlos Hernandez-Garcia; J. Hovater; Kevin Jordan; John Klopf; Rui Li; Steven Moore; George Neil; Benard Poelker; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Robert Rimmer; Daniel Sexton; Michelle D. Shinn; Christopher Tennant; Richard Walker; Gwyn Williams; Shukui Zhang

    2007-08-01

    Operation of the JLab IR Upgrade FEL at CW powers in excess of 10 kW requires sustained production of high electron beam powers by the driver ERL. This in turn demands attention to numerous issues and effects, including: cathode lifetime; control of beamline and RF system vacuum during high current operation; longitudinal space charge; longitudinal and transverse matching of irregular/large volume phase space distributions; halo management; management of remnant dispersive effects; resistive wall, wake-field, and RF heating of beam vacuum chambers; the beam break up instability; the impact of coherent synchrotron radiation (both on beam quality and the performance of laser optics); magnetic component stability and reproducibility; and RF stability and reproducibility. We discuss our experience with these issues and describe the modus vivendi that has evolved during prolonged high current, high power beam and laser operation.

  1. Stability of gyrotron operation in very high-order modes

    SciTech Connect

    Sinitsyn, O. V.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Antonsen, T. M. Jr.

    2012-06-15

    This study was motivated by the desire to increase the power, which can be delivered by gyrotrons in long pulse and continuous regimes. Since the admissible power level is determined by the density of ohmic losses in resonator walls, to increase the radiated power a gyrotron should operate in higher order modes. Using an existing gyrotron developed for plasma experiments in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor as a base model, the stability of operation of such a gyrotron in modes with larger number of radial variations was studied. It is shown that the power level achievable in such gyrotrons in stable single mode regimes is close to 1.5 MW. The power level 1.7-1.8 MW can be realized in regimes where the oscillations of the desired mode are accompanied by excitation of distant sidebands whose power is about 1% level of the power of the operating mode. Finally, in the case of operation at the 2-MW level, either the desired mode loses its stability and is replaced by less efficient oscillations of a mode with a smaller azimuthal index or oscillations of the operating mode are accompanied by excitation of sidebands with equally spaced frequencies.

  2. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L.; Smith, Gregory M.; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today’s OLEDs in performance. PMID:27063414

  3. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L; Smith, Gregory M; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m(2) with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today's OLEDs in performance. PMID:27063414

  4. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L.; Smith, Gregory M.; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-04-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today’s OLEDs in performance.

  5. Achieving high bit rate logical stochastic resonance in a bistable system by adjusting parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Gu, Feng-Shou; Feng, Guo-Jin; Yang, Yong-Min; Ball, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    The phenomenon of logical stochastic resonance (LSR) in a nonlinear bistable system is demonstrated by numerical simulations and experiments. However, the bit rates of the logical signals are relatively low and not suitable for practical applications. First, we examine the responses of the bistable system with fixed parameters to different bit rate logic input signals, showing that an arbitrary high bit rate LSR in a bistable system cannot be achieved. Then, a normalized transform of the LSR bistable system is introduced through a kind of variable substitution. Based on the transform, it is found that LSR for arbitrary high bit rate logic signals in a bistable system can be achieved by adjusting the parameters of the system, setting bias value and amplifying the amplitudes of logic input signals and noise properly. Finally, the desired OR and AND logic outputs to high bit rate logic inputs in a bistable system are obtained by numerical simulations. The study might provide higher feasibility of LSR in practical engineering applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51379526).

  6. Race and Academic Achievement in Racially Diverse High Schools: Opportunity and Stratification.

    PubMed

    Muller, Chandra; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Schiller, Kathryn S; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Frank, Kenneth A

    2010-04-01

    BACKGROUND/CONTEXT: Brown v Board of Education fundamentally changed our nation's schools, yet we know surprisingly little about how and whether they provide equality of educational opportunity. Although substantial evidence suggests that African American and Latino students who attend these schools face fewer learning opportunities than their White counterparts, until now, it has been impossible to examine this using a representative sample because of lack of data. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE/RESEARCH QUESTION/FOCUS OF STUDY: This study uses newly available data to investigate whether racially diverse high schools offer equality of educational opportunity to students from different racial and ethnic groups. This is examined by measuring the relative representation of minority students in advanced math classes at the beginning of high school and estimating whether and how this opportunity structure limits the level of achievement attained by African American and Latino students by the end of high school. SETTING: This study uses data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA) and its partner study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a stratified, nationally representative study of students in U.S. high schools first surveyed in 1994-1995. POPULATION/PARTICIPANTS/SUBJECTS: Two samples of racially diverse high schools were used in the analysis: one with African Americans, Whites, and Asians (26 schools with 3,149 students), and the other with Latinos, Whites, and Asians (22 schools with 2,775 students). RESEARCH DESIGN: Quantitative analyses first assess how high schools vary in the extent to which minority students are underrepresented in advanced sophomore math classes. Hierarchical multilevel modeling is then used to estimate whether racial-ethnic differences in representation in advanced math have an impact on African American and Latino students' achievement by the end of high school, relative to the Whites and Asians

  7. Number Sense-Based Strategies Used by High-Achieving Sixth Grade Students Who Experienced Reform Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsawaie, Othman N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore strategies used by high-achieving 6th grade students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to solve basic arithmetic problems involving number sense. The sample for the study consisted of 15 high-achieving boys and 15 high-achieving girls in grade 6 from 2 schools in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE. Data for the…

  8. Cognitive abilities and motivational processes in high school students' science achievement and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Shun

    The dissertation presents two analytic approaches, a variable-centered and person-centered approach, to investigating holistic patterns of the cognitive, motivational, and affective correlates of science achievement and engagement in a sample of 491 10th and 11th grade high-school students. Building on Snow's (1989) idea of two pathways to achievement outcomes, Study 1 adopted a variable-centered approach to examining how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways, respectively, contributed to the prediction of achievement outcomes in science. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that (a) students' cognitive abilities were the strongest predictors of their performance in science as measured by standardized test scores; (b) motivational processes enhanced the predictive validity for science test scores and grades beyond the variance accounted for by ability and demography; (c) motivational processes were the strongest predictors of students' commitment to science in the form of situational engagement and anticipated choices of science-related college majors and careers; and (d) competence beliefs served as a point of contact between the performance and commitment pathways. These results are consistent with Snow's (1989) conjecture that both performance and commitment pathway-related factors are necessary for understanding the full range of person-level inputs to achievement outcomes. Study 2 adopted a person-centered approach to examining holistic organizations of psychological factors within individuals and their relations to science achievement and engagement. Four types of students characterized by unique configurations of cognitive, motivational, and affective attributes were identified in both the male and female subsamples using inverse factor analysis. Type membership was found to distinguish students in various indicators of science achievement and engagement. Two of the four types were also found

  9. The effects of alcohol use on academic achievement in high school.

    PubMed

    Balsa, Ana I; Giuliano, Laura M; French, Michael T

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's GPA abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that increases in alcohol consumption result in small yet statistically significant reductions in GPA for male students and in statistically non-significant changes for females. For females, however, higher levels of drinking result in self-reported academic difficulty. The fixed-effects results are substantially smaller than OLS estimates, underscoring the importance of addressing unobserved individual heterogeneity. PMID:21278841

  10. The Relation of High-Achieving Adolescents' Social Perceptions and Motivation to Teachers' Nominations for Advanced Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Carolyn; Torney-Purta, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The discrepancies between test-based and teacher-based criteria of high achievement are well-documented for students of all ages. This study seeks to determine whether certain high school students who score high on tests of academic achievement are more likely than others to be nominated for advanced academic programs by their teachers. Using…

  11. The Differential Impact of Motivation on the Self-Regulated Strategy Use of High- and Low-Achieving College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Low-achieving college students (N=94) evidenced less use of self-regulating strategies and a stronger relationship of self-regulated strategy use to positive motivational orientation than high-achieving students (N=49). Samples were predominantly white and female. Encouraging the use of these strategies may improve low achievers' academic…

  12. The Combined Effect of Teacher Effectiveness Characteristics on Value-Added Student Achievement in Junior High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadleigh, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Student academic achievement in junior high mathematics is an ongoing mission for educational leaders. To achieve that undertaking, teacher effectiveness plays an important role. The purpose of this study was to examine the combined effects of teacher effectiveness on student achievement. The study was conducted in a suburban school district in…

  13. The effects of frequency of technology use on high school students' mathematics and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Michael John

    1998-11-01

    This study examined whether the frequency of technology (calculator, computer) use among a nationally representative, random, sample of U.S. public and private high school seniors significantly (p<.001) impacts mathematics and science achievement. Student survey data from NELS:88 were analyzed to determine how the frequency of technology use among approximately 11,000 high school seniors impacts mathematics and science test scores. Four data sets (calculator/mathematics, calculator/science, computer/mathematics, computer/science) were analyzed using ANCOVA, after statistically controlling for: (a) sophomore exam scores, and socio-economic status. The findings indicated that the frequency of calculator use has a significant (p<.001) impact on mathematics and science exam scores. Likewise, the frequency of computer use, has a significant (p<.001) impact on mathematics and science test scores. Mathematics students using calculators either every day or almost daily scored significantly higher than students who never or rarely used calculators. Mathematics students who employed calculators daily attained significantly greater scores than students using calculators 1-2 times per month. Mathematics students using calculators daily achieved significantly higher scores than students using calculators 1-2 times each week. Science students using calculators at any one of the following three frequencies: (a) daily, (b) almost each day, or (c) 1-2 times per week, scored significantly higher than students who never or rarely used calculators. Science students using calculators at any one of the following three rates: (a) daily, (b) almost each day, or (c) once or twice each week, attained significantly greater science exam scores when compared to students who used calculators once or twice a month. Mathematics students who never or rarely used computers achieved significantly greater test scores when compared with students who employed computers almost each day. Mathematics

  14. Achieving High Contrast for Exoplanet Imaging with a Kalman Filter and Stroke Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Groff, T. D.; Kasdin, N. J.; Carlotti, A.; Vanderbei, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    High contrast imaging requires focal plane wavefront control and estimation to correct aberrations in an optical system; non-common path errors prevent the use of conventional estimation with a separate wavefront sensor. The High Contrast Imaging Laboratory (HCIL) at Princeton has led the development of several techniques for focal plane wavefront control and estimation. In recent years, we developed a Kalman filter for optimal wavefront estimation. Our Kalman filter algorithm is an improvement upon DM Diversity, which requires at least two images pairs each iteration and does not utilize any prior knowledge of the system. The Kalman filter is a recursive estimator, meaning that it uses the data from prior estimates along with as few as one new image pairs per iteration to update the electric field estimate. Stroke minimization has proven to be a feasible controller for achieving high contrast. While similar to a variation of Electric Field Conjugation (EFC), stroke minimization achieves the same contrast with less stroke on the DMs. We recently utilized these algorithms to achieve high contrast for the first time in our experiment at the High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Our HCIT experiment was also the first demonstration of symmetric dark hole correction in the image plane using two DMs--this is a major milestone for future space missions. Our ongoing work includes upgrading our optimal estimator to include an estimate of the incoherent light in the system, which allows for simultaneous estimation of the light from a planet along with starlight. The two-DM experiment at the HCIT utilized a shaped pupil coronagraph. Those tests utilized ripple style, free-standing masks etched out of silicon, but our current work is in designing 2-D optimized reflective shaped pupils. In particular, we have created several designs for the AFTA telescope, whose pupil presents major hurdles because of its atypical pupil obstructions. Our

  15. Design of a Two-stage High-capacity Stirling Cryocooler Operating below 30K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaotao; Dai, Wei; Zhu, Jian; Chen, Shuai; Li, Haibing; Luo, Ercang

    The high capacity cryocooler working below 30K can find many applications such as superconducting motors, superconducting cables and cryopump. Compared to the GM cryocooler, the Stirling cryocooler can achieve higher efficiency and more compact structure. Because of these obvious advantages, we have designed a two stage free piston Stirling cryocooler system, which is driven by a moving magnet linear compressor with an operating frequency of 40 Hz and a maximum 5 kW input electric power. The first stage of the cryocooler is designed to operate in the liquid nitrogen temperature and output a cooling power of 100 W. And the second stage is expected to simultaneously provide a cooling power of 50 W below the temperature of 30 K. In order to achieve the best system efficiency, a numerical model based on the thermoacoustic model was developed to optimize the system operating and structure parameters.

  16. High Intensive Processes and Extreme States of Matter: Achievements and Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Simonenko, V. A.

    2006-08-03

    The paper briefly presents some main highlights of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) achievements starting from its origin in the 1940s to the current time. A decisive role of high explosives (HE) is emphasized in studying high intensive processes and high energy density states of matter. Mechanisms of detonation and kinetics of energy release still remain acute in the HE studying. Research and scientific applications of nuclear explosions opened a new stage in HEDP development. They provided a million-fold increase of energy density if compared to that of high explosives. High intensive heat waves and strong shock waves were studied and used to measure dense plasma opacities and matter properties under extreme conditions. This data remains important for the development of theoretical models of matter. Powerful pulsed facilities (lasers, electric explosion installations, and charged particle accelerators) were constructed to extend opportunities for the HEDP research. One of their main goals is to study inertial confinement fusion. HEDP technologies and results are very useful in space and astrophysical research, and on the contrary, astrophysical studies enrich HEDP with new models, problems and solutions.

  17. The Pentagon-S process: A systematic approach for achieving high confidence in high-consequence products

    SciTech Connect

    D`Antonio, P.E.; Covan, J.M.; Ekman, M.E.

    1997-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a systematic approach for achieving high confidence in major products requiring high reliability for use in high-consequence applications. A high-consequence application is one in which product failure could result in significant loss of life, damage to major systems or to the environment, financial loss, or political repercussions. The application of this process has proven to be of significant benefit in the early identification, verification, and correction of potential product design and manufacturing process failure modes. Early identification and correction of these failures modes and the corresponding controls placed on safety-critical features, ensures product adherence to safety-critical design requirements, and enhances product quality, reliability, and the cost effectiveness of delivered products. Safety-critical features include design features such as materials and dimensions, as well as manufacturing features such as assembly processes, inspections, and testing.

  18. Functional Organosulfide Electrolyte Promotes an Alternate Reaction Pathway to Achieve High Performance in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuru; Dai, Fang; Gordin, Mikhail L; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gao, Yue; Song, Jiangxuan; Wang, Donghai

    2016-03-18

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have recently received great attention because they promise to provide energy density far beyond current lithium ion batteries. Typically, Li-S batteries operate by conversion of sulfur to reversibly form different soluble lithium polysulfide intermediates and insoluble lithium sulfides through multistep redox reactions. Herein, we report a functional electrolyte system incorporating dimethyl disulfide as a co-solvent that enables a new electrochemical reduction pathway for sulfur cathodes. This pathway uses soluble dimethyl polysulfides and lithium organosulfides as intermediates and products, which can boost cell capacity and lead to improved discharge-charge reversibility and cycling performance of sulfur cathodes. This electrolyte system can potentially enable Li-S batteries to achieve high energy density. PMID:26918660

  19. High Altitude Venus Operations Concept Trajectory Design, Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugo, Rafael A.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Van Norman, John W.; Arney, Dale C.; Dec, John A.; Jones, Christopher A.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.

    2015-01-01

    A trajectory design and analysis that describes aerocapture, entry, descent, and inflation of manned and unmanned High Altitude Venus Operation Concept (HAVOC) lighter-than-air missions is presented. Mission motivation, concept of operations, and notional entry vehicle designs are presented. The initial trajectory design space is analyzed and discussed before investigating specific trajectories that are deemed representative of a feasible Venus mission. Under the project assumptions, while the high-mass crewed mission will require further research into aerodynamic decelerator technology, it was determined that the unmanned robotic mission is feasible using current technology.

  20. THE EDUCATIONAL MOTIVATION PATTERNS OF SUPERIOR STUDENTS WHO DO AND DO NOT ACHIEVE IN HIGH SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PIERCE, JAMES V.

    THIS STUDY SOUGHT TO DISCOVER AND ANALYZE SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN MOTIVATIONAL PATTERNS AND THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF TALENTED STUDENTS. THE OBJECTIVES WERE TO DETERMINE--(1) THE DIFFERENCES IN MOTIVATION TOWARD ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT BETWEEN THOSE WHO ACHIEVE AND THOSE WHO DO NOT, (2) THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ACHIEVERS AND NONACHIEVERS IN…

  1. Attributes and characteristics of the Mathematics, Engineering, Science, Achievement (MESA) high school program for first-generation Latino students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Ramon

    This study used a web-based survey collected data from 28 first-generation Latino engineers who participated in the Mathematics, Engineering, Science, Achievement (MESA) program during their high school years. From the set of 28 respondents, 5 volunteered to participate in an optional telephone interview. The purpose of this study was to describe the critical attributes and characteristics of the MESA program that lead to success at both the high school and college levels for first-generation Latino students. Success at the high school level was operationally defined as successfully graduating with a high school diploma. Success at the college level was operationally defined here as college graduation with an engineering degree. Using a mixed-methods technique, the researcher attempted to secure consensus of opinion from a sample population of 28 first-generation Latino engineers. The mixed-methods technique was chosen since it allowed the researcher to draw on the strengths of quantitative and qualitative approaches. According to the findings, the typical respondent felt that mentoring was the attribute of the MESA program that most prepared him to graduate from high school. The respondents felt that the following MESA attributes most helped them transition into an undergraduate engineering program: Academic and University Advising; Enrichment Activities; Career Advising; Field Trips; Mentoring; Scholarship Incentive Awards; and Speakers. The respondents viewed study groups as the MESA attribute that best prepared them to graduate college with an engineering degree. This study was purposefully designed as a descriptive study. Future research is required to extend this work into an evaluative study. This would allow for the generalization of the critical attributes to the general student population serviced by the MESA program.

  2. Human papillomavirus vaccine delivery strategies that achieved high coverage in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Barge, Sandhya; Le, Nga Thi; Mugisha, Emmanuel; Penny, Mary E; Gandhi, Sanjay; Janmohamed, Amynah; Kumakech, Edward; Mosqueira, N Rocio; Nguyen, Nghi Quy; Paul, Proma; Tang, Yuxiao; Minh, Tran Hung; Uttekar, Bella Patel; Jumaan, Aisha O

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage after demonstration projects conducted in India, Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam by PATH and national governments and to explore the reasons for vaccine acceptance or refusal. Methods Vaccines were delivered through schools or health centres or in combination with other health interventions, and either monthly or through campaigns at fixed time points. Using a two-stage cluster sample design, the authors selected households in demonstration project areas and interviewed over 7000 parents or guardians of adolescent girls to assess coverage and acceptability. They defined full vaccination as the receipt of all three vaccine doses and used an open-ended question to explore acceptability. Findings Vaccination coverage in school-based programmes was 82.6% (95% confidence interval, CI: 79.3–85.6) in Peru, 88.9% (95% CI: 84.7–92.4) in 2009 in Uganda and 96.1% (95% CI: 93.0–97.8) in 2009 in Viet Nam. In India, a campaign approach achieved 77.2% (95% CI: 72.4–81.6) to 87.8% (95% CI: 84.3–91.3) coverage, whereas monthly delivery achieved 68.4% (95% CI: 63.4–73.4) to 83.3% (95% CI: 79.3–87.3) coverage. More than two thirds of respondents gave as reasons for accepting the HPV vaccine that: (i) it protects against cervical cancer; (ii) it prevents disease, or (iii) vaccines are good. Refusal was more often driven by programmatic considerations (e.g. school absenteeism) than by opposition to the vaccine. Conclusion High coverage with HPV vaccine among young adolescent girls was achieved through various delivery strategies in the developing countries studied. Reinforcing positive motivators for vaccine acceptance is likely to facilitate uptake. PMID:22084528

  3. The high speed interconnect system architecture and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Steven C.

    The design and operation of a fiber-optic high-speed interconnect system (HSIS) being developed to meet the requirements of future avionics and flight-control hardware with distributed-system architectures are discussed. The HSIS is intended for 100-Mb/s operation of a local-area network with up to 256 stations. It comprises a bus transmission system (passive star couplers and linear media linked by active elements) and network interface units (NIUs). Each NIU is designed to perform the physical, data link, network, and transport functions defined by the ISO OSI Basic Reference Model (1982 and 1983) and incorporates a fiber-optic transceiver, a high-speed protocol based on the SAE AE-9B linear token-passing data bus (1986), and a specialized application interface unit. The operating modes and capabilities of HSIS are described in detail and illustrated with diagrams.

  4. Is Early Ability Grouping Good for High-Achieving Students' Psychosocial Development? Effects of the Transition into Academically Selective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Michael; Neumann, Marko; Tetzner, Julia; Böse, Susanne; Knoppick, Henrike; Maaz, Kai; Baumert, Jürgen; Lehmann, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates school context effects on psychosocial characteristics (academic self-concept, peer relations, school satisfaction, and school anxiety) of high-achieving and gifted students. Students who did or did not make an early transition from elementary to secondary schools for high-achieving and gifted students in 5th grade…

  5. What Can Teacher Education Programs Do to Prepare Teachers to Teach High-Achieving Culturally Diverse Male Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, H. Richard; Tenore, F. Blake; Laughter, Judson

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss what teacher education programs can do to prepare teachers to teach high-achieving culturally diverse male students. They suggest that special attention needs to be directed at the educational experiences of high-achieving Black male students. They also believe that diverse male learners, and especially high…

  6. Robust and Fragile Mathematical Identities: A Framework for Exploring Racialized Experiences and High Achievement among Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Ebony O.

    2015-01-01

    I introduce the construct of fragile and robust identities for the purpose of exploring the experiences that influenced the mathematical and racial identities of high-achieving Black college students in mathematics and engineering. These students maintained high levels of academic achievement in these fields while enduring marginalization,…

  7. Self-Concept and Academic Achievement: Investigating Their Importance as Discriminators of Academic Track Membership in High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Barbara M.

    1990-01-01

    Using linear discriminant analysis, two samples of Canadian high school students (n=929 and n=968) were tested using measures of self-concept, academic self-concept, and academic achievement. Academic self-concept was more effective than was academic achievement in differentiating between low-track and high-track students. (SLD)

  8. A Comparison of Strategic Development for Multiplication Problem Solving in Low-, Average-, and High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dake; Ding, Yi; Barrett, Dave E.; Xin, Yan Ping; Liu, Ru-de

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the differences of strategy use between low-, average-, and high-achieving students when solving different multiplication problems. Nineteen high-, 48 average-, and 17 low-achieving students participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete three different multiplication tests and to explain how…

  9. Trajectories of Chinese Students' Sense of School Belonging and Academic Achievement over the High School Transition Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    The present study identified the different patterns of Chinese students' academic achievement trajectories over the high school transition period and examined the relationships between students' sense of school belonging trajectories and the different patterns of academic achievement trajectories. In a sample of 567 Chinese high school students, a…

  10. The Difference in the Academic Achievement of Hispanic High School Students Based on the Theme of the Small Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Beate M. Winter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the difference in the academic achievement of urban Hispanic high school students based on the small learning community theme. The study used a quantitative method of ex post facto research to examine how the academic achievement of Hispanic high school students differs across the themes of small…

  11. High school students' perceptions of EFL teacher control orientations and their English academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND. Theories distinguish between student-initiated and teacher-initiated regulation of students' learning activities, or between strong, shared, or loose teacher control during the completion of learning tasks. Empirical validations for such distinctions are scarce, however. AIM. The present study aimed at (a) investigating students' perceptions of control behaviours exhibited by their English teachers; and (b) exploring the contribution of different types of teacher control behaviours to students' cognitive outcomes (English Achievement). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 732 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students studying in three major fields of high school (Mathematics, Natural Science, and Humanities). The participants (16-17 years of age) were selected from third-grade classes of 27 EFL teachers working in 25 high schools of 6 main different geographical regions in the Isfahan province, Iran. METHOD. To obtain a comprehensive picture of different control types exhibited by Iranian EFL teachers, the control subscales of the two existing questionnaires, i.e., the Questionnaire on Instructional Behaviours (QIB), adapted by Den Brok et al. (2004) and the Questionnaire on Lesson Activities (QLA) used by Den Brok (2001) were merged to form the Questionnaire of Teacher Control (QTC). The development of this Persian instrument involved several steps: translation and back translation by the researchers, one expert translator, and two EFL teachers; piloting; and a final administration of the questionnaire to the student sample. With respect to the second aim of the study, data regarding students' performances on the Standardized National English Achievement Tests were gathered from local educational offices and schools. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION. Statistical analyses supported acceptable reliability and validity of the instrument. A main factor structure with three types of teacher control (strong/high, shared/mid, and loose/low) was found to underlie students

  12. High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-12-01

    The University of California, Los Angeles, the University of California, Berkeley, and Yale University is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI): High Operating Temperature (HOT) Fluids. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  13. Science literacy in high school students: A comparison of achievement in two curriculum approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlister, Diane C.

    2009-12-01

    Academic achievement as measured by the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) in science for 367 students in two science curriculum options, integrated science and the traditional subject-specific courses, in one central Florida high school were compared. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) of science curriculum choice was analyzed for three variables, total FCAT score, earth science subscore, and scientific thinking subscore. Covariate of academic ability as defined by grade point average (GPA) and academic focus as defined by post secondary plans were considered for use. Analysis of statistically significant results was completed through analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). While statistically significant results were found in favor of the traditional curriculum group, additional statistical analysis of the curriculum groups for differences in socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and instructional level led to a logistic regression to explore the ability of these variables, GPA, and total FCAT score to predict curriculum group membership. GPA, level of instruction and FCAT score were found to be statistically significant predictors. Final conclusions to the study indicated a significant difference in scientific literacy for the two groups in favor of the traditional curriculum. However, logistic regression results indicated that due to significant differences in SES, gender, GPA, and level of instruction for the groups, the differences in academic achievement were probably due to factors other than curriculum design. Limitations of the study and suggestions for further research were presented.

  14. Achievement of high atomic hydrogen densities in cylindrical rf plasmas with magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantz, Ursel; Briefi, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Cylindrical rf plasmas in hydrogen with and without an axial magnetic field of up to 120 G are investigated in the pressure range of 0.3 to 10 Pa. The atomic hydrogen density is determined with optical emission spectroscopy, analyzing the Balmer lines and the molecular radiation (Fulcher band). The results obtained by using different coil geometries (4 to 6 turn windings and Nagoya type antenna) as well as different diameters (10 cm and 25 cm) of a quartz, aluminum oxide or aluminum nitride cylinder are compared. RF powers of up to 600 W at a frequency of 13.56 MHz are available for the 10 cm configuration, whereas up to 70 kW power at 1 MHz are used for the 25 cm cylinder. Density ratios of atoms to molecules of up to 0.3 are achieved in both configurations, whereby the achievement in the high power setup is limited by neutral depletion. The influence of the wall material on the atomic densities, and thus the recombination coefficient, will be pointed out.

  15. Manipulating the wavefront of light by plasmonic metasurfaces operating in high order modes.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiwei; Hao, Jiaming; Huang, Lirong; Li, Hu; Xu, Hao; Sun, Yan; Dai, Ning

    2016-04-18

    In this work, plasmonic metasurfaces with abrupt phase discontinuities operating in high order modes are investigated for manipulating the wavefront of light. We first design two types of meta-super-cells consisting of V-shaped antennas with the phase shift coverage larger than 2π. And then, we create two linear gradient phased metasurfaces using the designed cells, which exhibit exceptional abilities for light-steering functioned as meta-echelette gratings operating in high order diffraction modes, may be valuable for using in high resolution spectrographs and advantage to achieve high numerical aperture plasmonic lenses. Based on the new designed super cells we further build another two azimuthal gradient phased metasurfaces that are able to generate high order optical vortex beams. Our results could lead to wide applications in photonic research. PMID:27137313

  16. Time-resolved photoemission apparatus achieving sub-20-meV energy resolution and high stability

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Y.; Togashi, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tanaka, M.; Kiss, T.; Otsu, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Shin, S.

    2014-12-15

    The paper describes a time- and angle-resolved photoemission apparatus consisting of a hemispherical analyzer and a pulsed laser source. We demonstrate 1.48-eV pump and 5.92-eV probe measurements at the ⩾10.5-meV and ⩾240-fs resolutions by use of fairly monochromatic 170-fs pulses delivered from a regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire laser system operating typically at 250 kHz. The apparatus is capable to resolve the optically filled superconducting peak in the unoccupied states of a cuprate superconductor, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. A dataset recorded on Bi(111) surface is also presented. Technical descriptions include the followings: A simple procedure to fine-tune the spatio-temporal overlap of the pump-and-probe beams and their diameters; achieving a long-term stability of the system that enables a normalization-free dataset acquisition; changing the repetition rate by utilizing acoustic optical modulator and frequency-division circuit.

  17. Alternative scheduling models and their effect on science achievement at the high school level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostal, Jay Roland

    This study will evaluate alternative scheduling methods implemented in secondary level schools. Students were selected based on parent selection of programs. Traditional scheduling involves numerous academic subjects with small increments of time in each class and block scheduling focuses on fewer academic subjects and more instructional time. This study will compare office referral numbers, absence frequency, and Essential Learner Outcome (ELO) science strand scores in the 8th-grade (pretest) to the same students office referrals, absence frequency, and ELO science strand scores in the 11th-grade (posttest) between Seven Period Traditional Scheduling (SPTS) and Four Period Block Scheduling (FPBS) in the hopes that no matter what schedule students are a part of, the achievement results will be similar. (Study participants had completed both grade level ELO assessments and were continuously enrolled in one high school through their junior year.

  18. Conflicts and communication between high-achieving Chinese American adolescents and their parents.

    PubMed

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Chang, Tzu-Fen; Han, Eun-Jin; Chee, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interview data collected on 18 high-achieving Chinese American students, the authors examine domains of acculturation-based conflicts, parent and child internal conflicts, and conflict resolution in their families. Their analyses show that well-established negative communication patterns in educational expectations, divergent attitudes toward other races and country of origin, and cultural and language barriers contributed to parent-child conflicts. Their findings also illustrate important internal conflicts both adolescents and parents had along the cultural tightrope of autonomy and relatedness. Finally, the vertical in-group conflict resolution style that was evidenced in youths' accounts raises questions about cultural differences in constructive versus destructive conflict resolution styles. PMID:22407881

  19. High-temperature operation of broadband bidirectional terahertz quantum-cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Sudeep; Gao, Liang; Zhao, Le; Reno, John L; Kumar, Sushil

    2016-01-01

    Terahertz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) with a broadband gain medium could play an important role for sensing and spectroscopy since then distributed-feedback schemes could be utilized to produce laser arrays on a single semiconductor chip with wide spectral coverage. QCLs can be designed to emit at two different frequencies when biased with opposing electrical polarities. Here, terahertz QCLs with bidirectional operation are developed to achieve broadband lasing from the same semiconductor chip. A three-well design scheme with shallow-well GaAs/Al0.10Ga0.90As superlattices is developed to achieve high-temperature operation for bidirectional QCLs. It is shown that shallow-well heterostructures lead to optimal quantum-transport in the superlattice for bidirectional operation compared to the prevalent GaAs/Al0.15Ga0.85As material system. Broadband lasing in the frequency range of 3.1-3.7 THz is demonstrated for one QCL design, which achieves maximum operating temperatures of 147 K and 128 K respectively in opposing polarities. Dual-color lasing with large frequency separation is demonstrated for a second QCL, that emits at ~3.7 THz and operates up to 121 K in one polarity, and at ~2.7 THz up to 105 K in the opposing polarity. These are the highest operating temperatures achieved for broadband terahertz QCLs at the respective emission frequencies, and could lead to commercial development of broadband terahertz laser arrays. PMID:27615416

  20. Strategies for achieving high-level expression of genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Makrides, S C

    1996-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of several biological processes promises to broaden the usefulness of Escherichia coli as a tool for gene expression. There is an expanding choice of tightly regulated prokaryotic promoters suitable for achieving high-level gene expression. New host strains facilitate the formation of disulfide bonds in the reducing environment of the cytoplasm and offer higher protein yields by minimizing proteolytic degradation. Insights into the process of protein translocation across the bacterial membranes may eventually make it possible to achieve robust secretion of specific proteins into the culture medium. Studies involving molecular chaperones have shown that in specific cases, chaperones can be very effective for improved protein folding, solubility, and membrane transport. Negative results derived from such studies are also instructive in formulating different strategies. The remarkable increase in the availability of fusion partners offers a wide range of tools for improved protein folding, solubility, protection from proteases, yield, and secretion into the culture medium, as well as for detection and purification of recombinant proteins. Codon usage is known to present a potential impediment to high-level gene expression in E. coli. Although we still do not understand all the rules governing this phenomenon, it is apparent that "rare" codons, depending on their frequency and context, can have an adverse effect on protein levels. Usually, this problem can be alleviated by modification of the relevant codons or by coexpression of the cognate tRNA genes. Finally, the elucidation of specific determinants of protein degradation, a plethora of protease-deficient host strains, and methods to stabilize proteins afford new strategies to minimize proteolytic susceptibility of recombinant proteins in E. coli. PMID:8840785

  1. High-gain, high-bandwidth, rail-to-rail, constant-gm CMOS operational amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong-Yi; Wang, Bo-Ruei

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a high-gain, high-bandwidth, constant-gm , rail-to-rail operational amplifier (op-amp). The constant transconductance is improved with a source-to-bulk bias control of an input pair. A source degeneration scheme is also adapted to the output stage for receiving wide input range without degradation of the gain. Additionally, several compensation schemes are employed to enhance the stability. A test chip is fabricated in a 0.18 µm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor process. The active area of the op-amp is 181 × 173 µm2 and it consumes a power of 2.41 mW at a supply voltage of 1.8 V. The op-amp achieves a dc gain of 94.3 dB and a bandwidth of 45 MHz when the output capacitive load is connected to an effective load of 42.5 pF. A class-AB output stage combining a slew rate (SR) boost circuit provides a sinking current of 6 mA and an SR of 17 V/µs.

  2. HIGH POWER OPERATIONS AT THE LOW ENERGY DEMONSTRATION ACCELERATOR (LEDA)

    SciTech Connect

    M. DURAN; V. R. HARRIS

    2001-01-01

    Recently, the Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) portion of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project reached its 100-mA, 8-hr continuous wave (CW) beam operation milestone. The LEDA accelerator is a prototype of the low-energy front-end of the linear accelerator (linac) that would have been used in an APT plant. LEDA consists of a 75-keV proton injector, 6.7-MeV, 350-MHz CW radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) with associated high-power and low-level RF systems, a short high-energy beam transport (HEBT) and high-power (670-kW CW) beam dump. Details of the LEDA design features will be discussed along with the operational health physics experiences that occurred during the LEDA commissioning phase.

  3. Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Rokni, S.H.; Fasso, A.; Liu, J.C.; /SLAC

    2012-04-03

    An overview of operational radiation protection (RP) policies and practices at high-energy electron and proton accelerators used for physics research is presented. The different radiation fields and hazards typical of these facilities are described, as well as access control and radiation control systems. The implementation of an operational RP programme is illustrated, covering area and personnel classification and monitoring, radiation surveys, radiological environmental protection, management of induced radioactivity, radiological work planning and control, management of radioactive materials and wastes, facility dismantling and decommissioning, instrumentation and training.

  4. Superintendent Leadership and Student Achievement in Suburban High Schools: A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellner, Steven Reese

    2012-01-01

    This research study explored the critical nature of the connection between student achievement and superintendent leadership. A great deal of scholarship has addressed either student achievement or leadership and previous evidence has suggested the impact of both parental education and racioethnicity on student achievement, but few studies have…

  5. Examining the Long-Term Impact of Achievement Loss during the Transition to High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joshua S.

    2006-01-01

    Research shows that prior academic achievement is a strong predictor of future academic performance. For some students, the transition from one educational environment to another is associated with academic challenges and achievement loss. This study examined the extent to which achievement loss during the transition from middle school to high…

  6. Held Back: The Impact of Curricular and Pedagogical Factors on Tested Achievement in High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agvanian, Zara

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of curricular factors and teaching practices on students' tested achievement in mathematics, explored the best predictors of the tested achievement, and examined differences in the tested achievement among student subgroups. The study utilized qualitative and quantitative methods and triangulated findings from…

  7. The Effects of School Bonding on High School Seniors' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Julia; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Gaenzle, Stacey; Kim, Jungnam; Lin, Chia-Huei; Na, Goeun

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of school bonding on academic achievement (measured by math achievement scores) in a sample of 12th graders from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (Ingels, Pratt, Rogers, Siegel, & Stutts, 2005). Components of school bonding have proximal and distal effects on academic achievement. Attachment to school and…

  8. Novel DDR Processing of Corn Stover Achieves High Monomeric Sugar Concentrations from Enzymatic Hydrolysis (230 g/L) and High Ethanol Concentration (10% v/v) During Fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaowen; Jennings, Ed; Shekiro, Joe; Kuhn, Erik M.; O'Brien, Marykate; Wang, Wei; Schell, Daniel J.; Himmel, Mike; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2015-04-03

    Distilling and purifying ethanol, butanol, and other products from second and later generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating cost for biofuels production. The energy costs associated with distillation affects plant gate and life cycle analysis costs. Lower titers in fermentation due to lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment increase both energy and production costs. In addition, higher titers decrease the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels. Therefore, increasing biofuels titers has been a research focus in renewable biofuels production for several decades. In this work, we achieved over 200 g/L of monomeric sugars after high solids enzymatic hydrolysis using the novel deacetylation and disc refining (DDR) process on corn stover. The high sugar concentrations and low chemical inhibitor concentrations from the DDR process allowed ethanol titers as high as 82 g/L in 22 hours, which translates into approximately 10 vol% ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that 10 vol% ethanol in fermentation derived from corn stover without any sugar concentration or purification steps has been reported. Techno-economic analysis shows the higher titer ethanol achieved from the DDR process could significantly reduce the minimum ethanol selling price from cellulosic biomass.

  9. Risk assessment of high altitude free flight commercial aircraft operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.; Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Sanzo, D.L.

    1998-04-23

    A quantitative model is under development to assess the safety and efficiency of commercial aircraft operations under the Free Flight Program proposed for air traffic control for the US National Airspace System. The major objective of the Free Flight Program is to accommodate the dramatic growth anticipated in air traffic in the US. However, the potential impacts upon aircraft safety from implementing the Program have not been fully explored and evaluated. The model is directed at assessing aircraft operations at high altitude over the continental US airspace since this action is the initial step for Free Flight. Sequential steps with analysis, assessment, evaluation, and iteration will be required to satisfactorily accomplish the complete transition of US commercial aircraft traffic operations.

  10. Experiments and simulation of high current operation at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Merminga, L.; Crawford, K.; Delayen, J.R.; Doolittle, L.; Hovater, C.; Kazimi, R.; Krafft, G.; Reece, C.; Simrock, S.; Tiefenback, M.; Wang, D.X.

    1996-07-01

    The superconducting rf, cw electron accelerator at CEBAF has achieved the design energy of 4 GeV using 5-pass recirculation through a pair of 400 MeV linacs. Stable beam current of 35 {mu}A has been delivered to the Experimental Hall C. The total beam current that has been recirculated so far is 248 {mu}A. Measurements of the performance of the rf control system have been made in both pulsed and cw mode, and a numerical model has been developed which describes the beam-cavity interaction, includes a realistic representation of low level controls, klystron characteristics and microphonic noise. Experimental data and simulation results on transient beam loading, klystron saturation, a new technique for cavity phasing, and heavy beam loading tests are described; in conclusion, an outlook on full current operation is presented.

  11. Achievement of high nuclear spin polarization using lanthanides as low-temperature NMR relaxation agents.

    PubMed

    Peat, David T; Horsewill, Anthony J; Köckenberger, Walter; Perez Linde, Angel J; Gadian, David G; Owers-Bradley, John R

    2013-05-28

    Many approaches are now available for achieving high levels of nuclear spin polarization. One of these methods is based on the notion that as the temperature is reduced, the equilibrium nuclear polarization will increase, according to the Boltzmann distribution. The main problem with this approach is the length of time it may take to approach thermal equilibrium at low temperatures, since nuclear relaxation times (characterized by the spin-lattice relaxation time T1) can become very long. Here, we show, by means of relaxation time measurements of frozen solutions, that selected lanthanide ions, in the form of their chelates with DTPA, can act as effective relaxation agents at low temperatures. Differential effects are seen with the different lanthanides that were tested, holmium and dysprosium showing highest relaxivity, while gadolinium is ineffective at temperatures of 20 K and below. These observations are consistent with the known electron-spin relaxation time characteristics of these lanthanides. The maximum relaxivity occurs at around 10 K for Ho-DTPA and 20 K for Dy-DTPA. Moreover, these two agents show only modest relaxivity at room temperature, and can thus be regarded as relaxation switches. We conclude that these agents can speed up solid state NMR experiments by reducing the T1 values of the relevant nuclei, and hence increasing the rate at which data can be acquired. They could also be of value in the context of a simple low-cost method of achieving several-hundred-fold improvements in polarization for experiments in which samples are pre-polarized at low temperatures, then rewarmed and dissolved immediately prior to analysis. PMID:23588269

  12. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  13. The influence of momentary classroom goal structures on student engagement and achievement in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleski, Diana Janet

    Teachers' instructional practices fundamentally shape students' classroom experiences. However, it is still unclear what patterns of instructional practice are related to specific classroom goal structures, and how momentary changes in classroom goal structures affect students' momentary cognitive engagement in high school science. This study examined the relationship between classroom goal structures in high school science and two different learning outcomes: (1) students' cognitive engagement in science and (2) students' science course grades. To achieve this aim, classroom goal structures were examined as both a variable feature of the classroom that shifts from activity to activity (i.e., momentary classroom goal structure), and as a single global characteristic describing the dominant goal structure of a classroom over time (i.e., global classroom goal structure). Students' momentary cognitive engagement significantly increased when instructional moments were mastery or performance goal structured compared to moments that had no identifiable goal structure. However, no relationships were found between global classroom goal structure and cognitive engagement or science course grades.

  14. Highly efficient industrial large-area black silicon solar cells achieved by surface nanostructured modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping; Wei, Yi; Zhao, Zengchao; Tan, Xin; Bian, Jiming; Wang, Yuxuan; Lu, Chunxi; Liu, Aimin

    2015-12-01

    Traditional black silicon solar cells show relatively low efficiencies due to the high surface recombination occurring at the front surfaces. In this paper, we present a surface modification process to suppress surface recombination and fabricate highly efficient industrial black silicon solar cells. The Ag-nanoparticle-assisted etching is applied to realize front surface nanostructures on silicon wafers in order to reduce the surface reflectance. Through a further tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) treatment, the carrier recombination at and near the surface is greatly suppressed, due to a lower surface dopant concentration after the surface modification. This modified surface presents a low reflectivity in a range of 350-1100 nm. Large-area solar cells with an average conversion efficiency of 19.03% are achieved by using the TMAH treatment of 30 s. This efficiency is 0.18% higher than that of standard silicon solar cells with pyramidal surfaces, and also a remarkable improvement compared with black silicon solar cells without TMAH modifications.

  15. High-Speed Operation of Interband Cascade Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam A.; Wright, Malcom W.; Farr, William H.; Yang, Rui Q.; Liu, H. C.

    2010-01-01

    Optical sources operating in the atmospheric window of 3-5 microns are of particular interest for the development of free-space optical communication link. It is more advantageous to operate the free-space optical communication link in 3-5-microns atmospheric transmission window than at the telecom wavelength of 1.5 m due to lower optical scattering, scintillation, and background radiation. However, the realization of optical communications at the longer wavelength has encountered significant difficulties due to lack of adequate optical sources and detectors operating in the desirable wavelength regions. Interband Cascade (IC) lasers are novel semiconductor lasers that have a great potential for the realization of high-power, room-temperature optical sources in the 3-5-microns wavelength region, yet no experimental work, until this one, was done on high-speed direct modulation of IC lasers. Here, highspeed interband cascade laser, operating at wavelength 3.0 m, has been developed and the first direct measurement of the laser modulation bandwidth has been performed using a unique, highspeed quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP). The developed laser has modulation bandwidth exceeding 3 GHz. This constitutes a significant increase of the IC laser modulation bandwidth over currently existing devices. This result has demonstrated suitability of IC lasers as a mid-IR light source for multi-GHz free-space optical communications links

  16. High power operation of first and second harmonic gyrotwystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, W.; Latham, P.E.; Calame, J.P.; Cheng, J.; Hogan, B.; Nusinovich, G.S.; Irwin, V.; Granatstein, V.L.; Reiser, M.

    1995-07-01

    We report the first experimental operation of overmoded first and second harmonic gyrotwystron amplifier configurations. Both devices utilize a single cavity which is driven near 9.87 GHz in the TE{sub 011} mode, heavily attenuated drift tubes, and long tapered output waveguide sections. A magnetron injection gun produces a 460 kV, 245 A beam with a maximum average perpendicular-to-parallel velocity ratio approximately equal to one. The axial magnetic field profile is sharply tapered in the output section. Peak powers above 21 MW are achieved in 1 {mu}s pulses with an efficiency exceeding 22% and a large signal gain near 24 dB in the first harmonic tube. The second harmonic tube achieves nearly 12 MW of the peak power with an efficiency of 11% and a gain above 21 dB. First harmonic amplifier performance is limited principally by competition from a fundamental mode output waveguide interaction; the second harmonic tube is limited by both travelling wave output modes and by a down-taper oscillation. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  17. High density operation for reactor-relevant power exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wischmeier, M.

    2015-08-01

    With increasing size of a tokamak device and associated fusion power gain an increasing power flux density towards the divertor needs to be handled. A solution for handling this power flux is crucial for a safe and economic operation. Using purely geometric arguments in an ITER-like divertor this power flux can be reduced by approximately a factor 100. Based on a conservative extrapolation of current technology for an integrated engineering approach to remove power deposited on plasma facing components a further reduction of the power flux density via volumetric processes in the plasma by up to a factor of 50 is required. Our current ability to interpret existing power exhaust scenarios using numerical transport codes is analyzed and an operational scenario as a potential solution for ITER like divertors under high density and highly radiating reactor-relevant conditions is presented. Alternative concepts for risk mitigation as well as strategies for moving forward are outlined.

  18. High-gradient, pulsed operation of superconducting niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, I.E.; Farkas, Z.D.

    1984-02-01

    Tests performed on several Niobium TM/sub 010/ cavities at frequencies of about 2856 MHz using a high-power, pulsed method indicate that, at the end of the charging pulse, peak surface magnetic fields of up to approx. 1300 Oe, corresponding to a peak surface electric field of approx. 68 MV/m, can be reached at 4.2/sup 0/K without appreciable average losses. Further studies of the properties of superconductors under pulsed operation might shed light on fundamental properties of rf superconductivity, as well as lead to the possibility of applying the pulse method to the operation of high-gradient linear colliders. 7 references, 30 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Family MAASAI (Maintaining African-American Survival Achievement Integrity) Rites of Passage After-School Prevention Program. Operational Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jerome, Comp.; Jackson, Anthony, Comp.; James, D'Borah, Comp.; Smith, Bryce, Comp.; Robinson, Luke, Comp.; Cherry, Jennifer, Comp.; Trotter, Jennie, Comp.; Harris, Archie, Comp.; Lenior, Sheila, Comp.; Bellinger, Mary Anne, Comp.

    Family MAASAI is a multiservice substance abuse prevention and intervention program for African American at-risk urban youth. The program commemorates the Maasai people of Africa and uses MAASAI as an acronym that stands for Maintaining African American Survival, Achievement, and Integrity. Cultural awareness, pride, and respect for self, elders,…

  20. A Study Comparing the Academic Achievement of African American Male Students Enrolled in Two Types of Nontraditional High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Anthony B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of the achievement of African American male students enrolled in an early college high school to those enrolled in a performing arts high school. The Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) scores of the 11th-grade African American male students from an early college high school were compared to the GHSGT…

  1. Exploratory studies of new avenues to achieve high electromechanical response and high dielectric constant in polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cheng

    High performance soft electronic materials are key elements in advanced electronic devices for broad range applications including capacitors, actuators, artificial muscles and organs, smart materials and structures, microelectromechanical (MEMS) and microfluidic devices, acoustic devices and sensors. This thesis exploits new approaches to improve the electromechanical response and dielectric response of these materials. By making use of novel material phenomena such as large anisotropy in dipolar response in liquid crystals (LCs) and all-organic composites in which high dielectric constant organic solids and conductive polymers are either physically blended into or chemically grafted to a polymer matrix, we demonstrate that high dielectric constant and high electromechanical conversion efficiency comparable to that in ceramic materials can be achieved. Nano-composite approach can also be utilized to improve the performance of the electronic electroactive polymers (EAPs) and composites, for example, exchange coupling between the fillers and matrix with very large dielectric contrast can lead to significantly enhance the dielectric response as well as electromechanical response when the heterogeneity size of the composite is comparable to the exchange length. In addition to the dielectric composites, in which high dielectric constant fillers raise the dielectric constant of composites, conductive percolation can also lead to high dielectric constant in polymeric materials. An all-polymer percolative composite is introduced which exhibits very high dielectric constant (>7,000). The flexible all-polymer composites with a high dielectric constant make it possible to induce a high electromechanical response under a much reduced electric field in the field effect electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators (a strain of 2.65% with an elastic energy density of 0.18 J/cm3 can be achieved under a field of 16 V/mum). Agglomeration of the particles can also be effectively prevented

  2. Qualitative research study of high-achieving females' life experiences impacting success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, Ann Patrice

    2003-07-01

    This qualitative study investigated the life experiences of five academically gifted female students in math and science in reflection of their elementary learning prior to enrollment at a prestigious science and mathematics high school. The elite high school limits admission to the state of Illinois' top students. The purpose of this study is to unfold the story of five academically gifted females in attendance at the elite high school reflecting on their life experiences in elementary school that contributed to their current academic success. Twelve female students, who at the time of this study were currently in their senior year (12th grade) of high school, were solicited from the top academic groups who are regarded by their teachers as highly successful in class. Students were selected as part of the study based on academic status, survey completion and interest in study, Caucasian and Asian ethnicity, locale of elementary school with preference given to the variety of school demographics---urban, suburban, and rural---further defined the group to the core group of five. All female participants were personally interviewed and communicated via Internet with the researcher. Parents and teachers completing surveys as well met the methodological requirements of triangulation. An emergent theme of paternal influence came from the research. Implications supported in the research drawn from this study to increase achievement of academically gifted females include: (a) proper early identification of learner strengths plays a role; (b) learning with appropriate intellectual peers is more important than learning with their age group; (c) teachers are the greatest force for excellent instruction; (d) effective teaching strategies include cooperative learning, multi-sensory learning, problem-based learning, and hands-on science; (e) rigor in math is important; (f) gender and stereotypes need not be barriers; (g) outside interests and activities are important for self

  3. High power operational experience with the LANSCE Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Rybarcyk, Lawrence J

    2008-01-01

    The heart of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a pulsed linear accelerator that is used to simultaneously provide H+ and H- beams to several user facilities. This accelerator contains two Cockcroft-Walton style injectors, a 100-MeV drift tube linac and an 800-MeV coupled cavity linac. This presentation will touch on various aspects of the high power operation including performance, tune-up strategy, beam losses and machine protection.

  4. Longitudinal Outcomes of Start Time Delay on Sleep, Behavior, and Achievement in High School

    PubMed Central

    Thacher, Pamela V.; Onyper, Serge V.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To establish whether sleep, health, mood, behavior, and academics improved after a 45-minute delay in high school start time, and whether changes persisted longitudinally. Methods: We collected data from school records and student self-report across a number of domains at baseline (May 2012) and at two follow-up time points (November 2012 and May 2013), at a public high school in upstate New York. Students enrolled during academic years (AY) 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; the DASS-21; the “Owl-Lark” Scale; the Daytime Sleepiness Index; and a brief self-report of health. Reports from school records regarding attendance, tardiness, disciplinary violations, and academic performance were collected for AY 2010–2011 through 2013–2014. Results: Students delayed but did not extend their sleep period; we found lasting improvements in tardiness and disciplinary violations after the start-time delay, but no changes to other variables. At the first follow-up, students reported 20 minutes longer sleep, driven by later rise times and stable bed times. At the second follow-up, students maintained later rise times but delayed bedtimes, returning total sleep to baseline levels. A delay in rise time, paralleling the delay in the start time that occurred, resulted in less tardiness and decreased disciplinary incidents, but larger improvements to sleep patterns may be necessary to affect health, attendance, sleepiness, and academic performance. Conclusions: Later start times improved tardiness and disciplinary issues at this school district. A delay in start time may be a necessary but not sufficient means to increase sleep time and may depend on preexisting individual differences. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 267. Citation: Thacher PV, Onyper SV. Longitudinal outcomes of start time delay on sleep, behavior, and achievement in high school. SLEEP 2016;39(2):271–281. PMID

  5. Manifold learning to interpret JET high-dimensional operational space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannas, B.; Fanni, A.; Murari, A.; Pau, A.; Sias, G.; JET EFDA Contributors, the

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, the problem of visualization and exploration of JET high-dimensional operational space is considered. The data come from plasma discharges selected from JET campaigns from C15 (year 2005) up to C27 (year 2009). The aim is to learn the possible manifold structure embedded in the data and to create some representations of the plasma parameters on low-dimensional maps, which are understandable and which preserve the essential properties owned by the original data. A crucial issue for the design of such mappings is the quality of the dataset. This paper reports the details of the criteria used to properly select suitable signals downloaded from JET databases in order to obtain a dataset of reliable observations. Moreover, a statistical analysis is performed to recognize the presence of outliers. Finally data reduction, based on clustering methods, is performed to select a limited and representative number of samples for the operational space mapping. The high-dimensional operational space of JET is mapped using a widely used manifold learning method, the self-organizing maps. The results are compared with other data visualization methods. The obtained maps can be used to identify characteristic regions of the plasma scenario, allowing to discriminate between regions with high risk of disruption and those with low risk of disruption.

  6. Extrinsic Motivation for Large-Scale Assessments: A Case Study of a Student Achievement Program at One Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmett, Joshua; McGee, Dean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to discover the critical attributes of a student achievement program, known as "Think Gold," implemented at one urban comprehensive high school as part of the improvement process. Student achievement on state assessments improved during the period under study. The study draws upon perspectives on motivation as a…

  7. American High School Students from Different Ethnic Backgrounds: The Role of Parents and the Classroom in Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jung-In

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between ethnically diverse US high school students' (N = 331) perceptions of their parents' or classroom's motivating factors and their achievement motivation in their math class, connecting achievement goal orientation and self-determination theories. Two hypothesized path models were…

  8. Bright and Beautiful: High Achieving Girls, Ambivalent Femininities, and the Feminization of Success in the Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renold, Emma; Allan, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    This paper refocuses attention on and problematizes girls' experiences of school achievement and the construction of schoolgirl femininities. In particular, it centres on the relatively neglected experiences and identity work of high achieving primary school girls. Drawing upon ethnographic data (observations, interviews, and pupil diaries) from a…

  9. The Impact of Principal Perception on Student Academic Climate and Achievement in High School: How Does It Measure Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urick, Angela; Bowers, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the independent direct effects of student and principal perceptions of academic climate on student achievement in high school. To date, few studies have considered the influence of principal perceptions of academic climate on student achievement. In the present study, we test a set of two-level hierarchical…

  10. Validation of a Test to Measure Need-Achievement Motivation Among American Indian High School Students. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, Bryan P.

    A cross-cultural test measuring need-achievement motivation was developed and administered to 634 American Indian, Spanish American and Anglo high school seniors attending 24 schools, including Federal, public and private boarding and day types. Need-achievement was related to the following types of measures: academic, aptitude, intelligence, and…

  11. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  12. (Re)Defining the Narrative: High-Achieving Nontraditional Black Male Undergraduates at a Historically Black College and University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goings, Ramon B.

    2016-01-01

    Using Harper's anti-deficit achievement framework as a theoretical guide, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the academic and social experiences of four nontraditional, high-achieving, Black male undergraduates attending one historically Black university. Findings show that the participants were intrinsically motivated…

  13. Academic Achievement Trajectories of Homeless and Highly Mobile Students: Resilience in the Context of Chronic and Acute Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutuli, J. J.; Desjardins, Christopher David; Herbers, Janette E.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Heistad, David; Chan, Chi-Keung; Hinz, Elizabeth; Masten, Ann S.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses examined academic achievement data across third through eighth grades ("N" = 26,474), comparing students identified as homeless or highly mobile (HHM) with other students in the federal free meal program (FM), reduced price meals (RM), or neither (General). Achievement was lower as a function of rising risk status (General greater than RM…

  14. Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement in High School: A Cross-Subject Analysis with Student Fixed Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2010-01-01

    We use data on statewide end-of-course tests in North Carolina to examine the relationship between teacher credentials and student achievement at the high school level. We find compelling evidence that teacher credentials, particularly licensure and certification, affects student achievement in systematic ways and that the magnitudes are large…

  15. An Examination of the Impact of Successive and Non-Successive Geometry Classes on High School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugg, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of successive versus non-successive scheduling of mathematics courses on the achievement of ninth-grade students in a suburban Oregon high school. The Oregon Assessment of Knowledge and Skills and student performance on the geometry course final exam were employed to compare the achievement of intact groups of…

  16. The Relationship between Professional Learning Communities, Personal Teacher Efficacy, and Student Achievement at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sherri L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to determine if there was a relationship between professional learning community (PLC), personal teacher efficacy (PTE), and student achievement. The study examined teacher perception of PLC implementation and PET as it related to student achievement at the high school level on the Virginia End-of Course…

  17. The Relationship between Professional Learning Community Implementation and Academic Achievement and Graduation Rates in Georgia High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardinger, Regina Gail

    2013-01-01

    Many educational administrators in Georgia continue to struggle with low student academic achievement and low high school graduation rates. DuFour's professional learning community (PLC) theory suggests a positive relationship between levels of PLC implementation and academic achievement and between levels of PLC implementation and graduation…

  18. Space Weather Impacts on Spacecraft Operations: Identifying and Establishing High-Priority Operational Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, G.; Reid, S.; Tranquille, C.; Evans, H.

    2013-12-01

    Space Weather is a multi-disciplinary and cross-domain system defined as, 'The physical and phenomenological state of natural space environments. The associated discipline aims, through observation, monitoring, analysis and modelling, at understanding and predicting the state of the Sun, the interplanetary and planetary environments, and the solar and non-solar driven perturbations that affect them, and also at forecasting and nowcasting the potential impacts on biological and technological systems'. National and Agency-level efforts to provide services addressing the myriad problems, such as ESA's SSA programme are therefore typically complex and ambitious undertakings to introduce a comprehensive suite of services aimed at a large number and broad range of end users. We focus on some of the particular threats and risks that Space Weather events pose to the Spacecraft Operations community, and the resulting implications in terms of User Requirements. We describe some of the highest-priority service elements identified as being needed by the Operations community, and outline some service components that are presently available, or under development. The particular threats and risks often vary according to orbit, so the particular User Needs for Operators at LEO, MEO and GEO are elaborated. The inter-relationship between these needed service elements and existing service components within the broader Space Weather domain is explored. Some high-priority service elements and potential correlation with Space Weather drivers include: solar array degradation and energetic proton storms; single event upsets at GEO and solar proton events and galactic cosmic rays; surface charging and deep dielectric charging at MEO and radiation belt dynamics; SEUs at LEO and the South Atlantic Anomaly and its variability. We examine the current capability to provide operational services addressing such threats and identify some advances that the Operations community can expect to benefit

  19. Balance the Carrier Mobility To Achieve High Performance Exciplex OLED Using a Triazine-Based Acceptor.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Chiang, Pin-Yi; Lin, Shih-Wei; Tang, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hung; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hung, Yi-Tzu; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2016-02-01

    A star-shaped 1,3,5-triazine/cyano hybrid molecule CN-T2T was designed and synthesized as a new electron acceptor for efficient exciplex-based OLED emitter by mixing with a suitable electron donor (Tris-PCz). The CN-T2T/Tris-PCz exciplex emission shows a high ΦPL of 0.53 and a small ΔET-S = -0.59 kcal/mol, affording intrinsically efficient fluorescence and highly efficient exciton up-conversion. The large energy level offsets between Tris-PCz and CN-T2T and the balanced hole and electron mobility of Tris-PCz and CN-T2T, respectively, ensuring sufficient carrier density accumulated in the interface for efficient generation of exciplex excitons. Employing a facile device structure composed as ITO/4% ReO3:Tris-PCz (60 nm)/Tris-PCz (15 nm)/Tris-PCz:CN-T2T(1:1) (25 nm)/CN-T2T (50 nm)/Liq (0.5 nm)/Al (100 nm), in which the electron-hole capture is efficient without additional carrier injection barrier from donor (or acceptor) molecule and carriers mobilities are balanced in the emitting layer, leads to a highly efficient green exciplex OLED with external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11.9%. The obtained EQE is 18% higher than that of a comparison device using an exciplex exhibiting a comparable ΦPL (0.50), in which TCTA shows similar energy levels but higher hole mobility as compared with Tris-PCz. Our results clearly indicate the significance of mobility balance in governing the efficiency of exciplex-based OLED. Exploiting the Tris-PCz:CN-T2T exciplex as the host, we further demonstrated highly efficient yellow and red fluorescent OLEDs by doping 1 wt % Rubrene and DCJTB as emitter, achieving high EQE of 6.9 and 9.7%, respectively. PMID:26820247

  20. High strength semi-active energy absorbers using shear- and mixedmode operation at high shear rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becnel, Andrew C.

    This body of research expands the design space of semi-active energy absorbers for shock isolation and crash safety by investigating and characterizing magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) at high shear rates ( > 25,000 1/s) under shear and mixed-mode operation. Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) work well as adaptive isolators due to their ability to quickly and controllably adjust to changes in system mass or impact speed while providing fail-safe operation. However, typical linear stroking MREAs using pressure-driven flows have been shown to exhibit reduced controllability as impact speed (shear rate) increases. The objective of this work is to develop MREAs that improve controllability at high shear rates by using pure shear and mixed shear-squeeze modes of operation, and to present the fundamental theory and models of MR fluids under these conditions. A proof of concept instrument verified that the MR effect persists in shear mode devices at shear rates corresponding to low speed impacts. This instrument, a concentric cylinder Searle cell magnetorheometer, was then used to characterize three commercially available MRFs across a wide range of shear rates, applied magnetic fields, and temperatures. Characterization results are presented both as flow curves according to established practice, and as an alternate nondimensionalized analysis based on Mason number. The Mason number plots show that, with appropriate correction coefficients for operating temperature, the varied flow curve data can be collapsed to a single master curve. This work represents the first shear mode characterization of MRFs at shear rates over 10 times greater than available with commercial rheometers, as well as the first validation of Mason number analysis to high shear rate flows in MRFs. Using the results from the magnetorheometer, a full scale rotary vane MREA was developed as part of the Lightweight Magnetorheological Energy Absorber System (LMEAS) for an SH-60 Seahawk helicopter

  1. High Internal Inductance for High βN Steady-State Tokamak Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferron, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    An attractive scenario for steady-state tokamak operation at relatively high values of the internal inductance, li > 1 , has been demonstrated at DIII-D. The more peaked current density profile leads to reduced core energy transport and higher ideal stability limits that could eliminate the need for n >= 1 active stabilization coils at βN ~ 4, or enable βN ~ 5 with wall stabilization. The scenario's potential is shown by discharges at li ~ 1.3 with high bootstrap current fraction fBS ~0.8 , high plasma pressure βN ~ 5 and excellent confinement H98 (y , 2) ~ 1.8. This very high βN discharge with q95 =7.5 has noninductive current fraction fNI > 1 and too much bootstrap current in the H-mode pedestal, so li decreases with time. To achieve a stationary current profile, the key is to maximize βN and fBS while maintaining li high enough for stability through choice of q95 or by reduced pedestal current. DIII-D modeling shows that with q95 reduced to lower fBS to ~ 0.5, a self-consistent equilibrium has li ~ 1.07 and βN ~ 4 (below the n=1 no-wall limit) with q95 ~ 6. The remainder of the current can be externally-driven near the axis where the efficiency is high. Discharge tests with similar li in the ITER shape at q95=4.8 have reached fNI=0.7, fBS=0.4 at βN ~ 3.5 with performance appropriate for the ITER Q=5 mission, H89βN /q952~ 0.3. The li was shown to increase further above 1, to enable higher self-consistent fBS and βN, by reducing pedestal pressure and bootstrap current density through application of n = 3 resonant magnetic fields. With similar fields for ELM mitigation, and neutral beam and electron cyclotron current drive sources for near-axis current drive, the high li scenario is a potential option for ITER. The increased core confinement can help mitigate the effect of reduced pedestal pressure. Supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  2. A methodology for achieving high-speed rates for artificial conductance injection in electrically excitable biological cells.

    PubMed

    Butera, R J; Wilson, C G; Delnegro, C A; Smith, J C

    2001-12-01

    We present a novel approach to implementing the dynamic-clamp protocol (Sharp et al., 1993), commonly used in neurophysiology and cardiac electrophysiology experiments. Our approach is based on real-time extensions to the Linux operating system. Conventional PC-based approaches have typically utilized single-cycle computational rates of 10 kHz or slower. In thispaper, we demonstrate reliable cycle-to-cycle rates as fast as 50 kHz. Our system, which we call model reference current injection (MRCI); pronounced merci is also capable of episodic logging of internal state variables and interactive manipulation of model parameters. The limiting factor in achieving high speeds was not processor speed or model complexity, but cycle jitter inherent in the CPU/motherboard performance. We demonstrate these high speeds and flexibility with two examples: 1) adding action-potential ionic currents to a mammalian neuron under whole-cell patch-clamp and 2) altering a cell's intrinsic dynamics via MRCI while simultaneously coupling it via artificial synapses to an internal computational model cell. These higher rates greatly extend the applicability of this technique to the study of fast electrophysiological currents such fast a currents and fast excitatory/inhibitory synapses. PMID:11759927

  3. Density limits investigation and high density operation in EAST tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xingwei; Li, Jiangang; Hu, Jiansheng; Liu, Haiqing; Jie, Yinxian; Wang, Shouxin; Li, Jiahong; Duan, Yanming; Li, Miaohui; Li, Yongchun; Zhang, Ling; Ye, Yang; Yang, Qingquan; Zhang, Tao; Cheng, Yingjie; Xu, Jichan; Wang, Liang; Xu, Liqing; Zhao, Hailin; Wang, Fudi; Lin, Shiyao; Wu, Bin; Lyu, Bo; Xu, Guosheng; Gao, Xiang; Shi, Tonghui; He, Kaiyang; Lan, Heng; Chu, Nan; Cao, Bin; Sun, Zhen; Zuo, Guizhong; Ren, Jun; Zhuang, Huidong; Li, Changzheng; Yuan, Xiaolin; Yu, Yaowei; Wang, Houyin; Chen, Yue; Wu, Jinhua; EAST Team

    2016-05-01

    Increasing the density in a tokamak is limited by the so-called density limit, which is generally performed as an appearance of disruption causing loss of plasma confinement, or a degradation of high confinement mode which could further lead to a H  →  L transition. The L-mode and H-mode density limit has been investigated in EAST tokamak. Experimental results suggest that density limits could be triggered by either edge cooling or excessive central radiation. The L-mode density limit disruption is generally triggered by edge cooling, which leads to the current profile shrinkage and then destabilizes a 2/1 tearing mode, ultimately resulting in a disruption. The L-mode density limit scaling agrees well with the Greenwald limit in EAST. The observed H-mode density limit in EAST is an operational-space limit with a value of 0.8∼ 0.9{{n}\\text{GW}} . High density H-mode heated by neutral beam injection (NBI) and lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) are analyzed, respectively. The constancy of the edge density gradients in H-mode indicates a critical limit caused perhaps by e.g. ballooning induced transport. The maximum density is accessed at the H  →  L transition which is generally caused by the excessive core radiation due to high Z impurities (Fe, Cu). Operating at a high density (>2.8× {{10}19} {{\\text{m}}-3} ) is favorable for suppressing the beam shine through NBI. High density H-mode up to 5.3× {{10}19}{{\\text{m}}-3}~≤ft(∼ 0.8{{n}\\text{GW}}\\right) could be sustained by 2 MW 4.6 GHz LHCD alone, and its current drive efficiency is studied. Statistics show that good control of impurities and recycling facilitate high density operation. With careful control of these factors, high density up to 0.93{{n}\\text{GW}} stable H-mode operation was carried out heated by 1.7 MW LHCD and 1.9 MW ion cyclotron resonance heating with supersonic molecular beam injection fueling.

  4. A comparison of rural high school students in Germany with rural Tennessee high school students' mathematics and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, R. Fredrick

    This descriptive study compared the science and mathematics aptitudes and achievement test scores for the final school year students in rural White County and Van Buren County, Tennessee with rural county students in Germany. In accordance with the previous research literature (Stevenson, 2002), German students outperformed U.S. students on The International Trends in Math and Science test (TIMSS). As reform in the U.S. education system has been underway, this study intended to compare German county student final school year performance with White County and Van Buren County (Grade 12) performance in science and mathematics. The entire populations of 176 White and Van Buren Counties senior high final school year students were compared with 120 school final year students from two rural German county high schools. The student responses to identical test and questionnaire items were compared using the t-test statistical analysis. In conclusion after t-test analyses, there was no significant difference (p>.05 level) in student attitudes on the 27 problem achievement and the 35 TIMSS questionnaire items between the sampled population of 120 German students compared with the population of 176 White and Van Buren students. Also, there was no statistically significant difference (p>.05 level) between the German, White, and Van Buren County rural science and math achievement in the TIMSS problem section of the final year test. Based on the research, recommendations to improve U.S. student scores to number one in the world include making changes in teaching methodology in mathematics and science; incorporating pamphlet lessons rather than heavily reliance on textbooks; focusing on problem solving; establishing an online clearinghouse for effective lessons; creating national standards in mathematics and science; matching students' course choices to job aspirations; tracking misbehaving students rather than mainstreaming them into the regular classroom; and designing

  5. Achieving high survival of tournament-caught black bass: past efforts and future needs and opportunities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, Harold, Jr.; Gilliland, Gene

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of black bass (Micropterus spp.) tournaments in the 1960s and 1970s caused concern among fisheries managers and anglers about the impacts of tournament-caused mortality on bass populations. Tournament organizers voluntarily implemented live-release events in the early 1980s. As catch-and-release practices became more common, procedures to improve the survival of tournament-caught fish were developed and have evolved. The objectives of this paper are to review education and outreach efforts to improve survival of tournament-caught black bass, suggest research needs and opportunities to achieve greater survival, and show the relevance of high survival to contemporary black bass management. Since 1985, a succession of informational products describing those techniques have been developed and distributed to anglers. Although research has confirmed the effectiveness of the recommended procedures and documented that angler and tournament organizer behavior has changed and the survival of tournament-caught black bass has increased, the impacts of the outreach efforts on tournament practices have not been quantified. Continued efforts towards increasing angler awareness of proper handling techniques may benefit from better communication, endorsement by professional anglers, and the use of incentives by state agencies to encourage better fish care.

  6. Effect of bead and illustrations models on high school students' achievement in molecular genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotbain, Yosi; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Stavy, Ruth

    2006-05-01

    Our main goal in this study was to explore whether the use of models in molecular genetics instruction in high school can contribute to students' understanding of concepts and processes in genetics. Three comparable groups of 11th and 12th graders participated: The control group (116 students) was taught in the traditional lecture format, while the others received instructions which integrated a bead model (71 students), or an illustration model (71 students). Similar instructions and the same guiding questions accompanied the two models. We used three instruments: a multiple-choice and an open-ended written questionnaire, as well as personal interviews. Five of the multiple-choice questions were also given to students before receiving their genetics instruction (pretest). We found that students who used one of the two types of models improved their knowledge in molecular genetics compared to the control group. However, the open-ended questions revealed that bead model activity was significantly more effective than illustration activity. On the basis of these findings we conclude that, though it is advisable to use a three-dimensional model, such as the bead model, engaging students in activities with illustrations can still improve their achievement in comparison to traditional instruction.

  7. New Powder Metallurgical Approach to Achieve High Fatigue Strength in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei; Ravi Chandran, K. S.; Kumar, Pankaj; Sun, Pei; Zak Fang, Z.; Koopman, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Recently, manufacturing of titanium by sintering and dehydrogenation of hydride powders has generated a great deal of interest. An overarching concern regarding powder metallurgy (PM) titanium is that critical mechanical properties, especially the high-cycle fatigue strength, are lower than those of wrought titanium alloys. It is demonstrated here that PM Ti-6Al-4V alloy with mechanical properties comparable (in fatigue strength) and exceeding (in tensile properties) those of wrought Ti-6Al-4V can be produced from titanium hydride powder, through the hydrogen sintering and phase transformation process. Tensile and fatigue behavior, as well as fatigue fracture mechanisms, have been investigated under three processing conditions. It is shown that a reduction in the size of extreme-sized pores by changing the hydride particle size distribution can lead to improved fatigue strength. Further densification by pneumatic isostatic forging leads to a fatigue strength of ~550 MPa, comparable to the best of PM Ti-6Al-4V alloys prepared by other methods and approaching the fatigue strengths of wrought Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The microstructural factors that limit fatigue strength in PM titanium have been investigated, and pathways to achieve greater fatigue strengths in PM Ti-6Al-4V alloys have been identified.

  8. The Stories Clinicians Tell: Achieving High Reliability and Improving Patient Safety

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Daniel L; Stewart, Kevin O

    2016-01-01

    The patient safety movement has been deeply affected by the stories patients have shared that have identified numerous opportunities for improvements in safety. These stories have identified system and/or human inefficiencies or dysfunctions, possibly even failures, often resulting in patient harm. Although patients’ stories tell us much, less commonly heard are the stories of clinicians and how their personal observations regarding the environments they work in and the circumstances and pressures under which they work may degrade patient safety and lead to harm. If the health care industry is to function like a high-reliability industry, to improve its processes and achieve the outcomes that patients rightly deserve, then leaders and managers must seek and value input from those on the front lines—both clinicians and patients. Stories from clinicians provided in this article address themes that include incident identification, disclosure and transparency, just culture, the impact of clinical workload pressures, human factors liabilities, clinicians as secondary victims, the impact of disruptive and punitive behaviors, factors affecting professional morale, and personal failings. PMID:26580146

  9. High power continuous operation of a widely tunable quantum cascade laser with an integrated amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Slivken, S.; Sengupta, S.; Razeghi, M.

    2015-12-21

    Wide electrical tuning and high continuous output power is demonstrated from a single mode quantum cascade laser emitting at a wavelength near 4.8 μm. This is achieved in a space efficient manner by integrating an asymmetric sampled grating distributed feedback tunable laser with an optical amplifier. An initial demonstration of high peak power operation in pulsed mode is demonstrated first, with >5 W output over a 270 nm (113 cm{sup −1}) spectral range. Refinement of the geometry leads to continuous operation with a single mode spectral coverage of 300 nm (120 cm{sup −1}) and a maximum continuous power of 1.25 W. The output beam is shown to be nearly diffraction-limited, even at high amplifier current.

  10. Highly efficient ytterbium-doped phosphosilicate fiber lasers operating below 1020 nm.

    PubMed

    Gu, Guancheng; Liu, Zhengyong; Kong, Fanting; Tam, Hwayaw; Shori, Ramesh K; Dong, Liang

    2015-07-13

    Highly-efficient high-power fiber lasers operating at wavelength below 1020 nm are critical for tandem-pumping in >10 kW fiber lasers to provide high pump brightness and low thermal loading. Using an ytterbium-doped-phosphosilicate double-clad leakage-channel fiber with ~50 µm core and ~420 µm cladding, we have achieved ~70% optical-to-optical efficiency at 1018 nm. The much larger cladding than those in previous reports demonstrates the much lower required pump brightness, a key for efficient kW operation. The demonstrated 1018 nm fiber laser has ASE suppression of ~41 dB. This is higher than previous reports and further demonstrates the advantages of the fiber used. Limiting factors to efficiency are also systematically studied. PMID:26191831

  11. Combining harmonic generation and laser chirping to achieve high spectral density in Compton sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzić, Balša; Reeves, Cody; Krafft, Geoffrey A.

    2016-04-01

    Recently various laser-chirping schemes have been investigated with the goal of reducing or eliminating ponderomotive line broadening in Compton or Thomson scattering occurring at high laser intensities. As a next level of detail in the spectrum calculations, we have calculated the line smoothing and broadening expected due to incident beam energy spread within a one-dimensional plane wave model for the incident laser pulse, both for compensated (chirped) and unchirped cases. The scattered compensated distributions are treatable analytically within three models for the envelope of the incident laser pulses: Gaussian, Lorentzian, or hyperbolic secant. We use the new results to demonstrate that the laser chirping in Compton sources at high laser intensities: (i) enables the use of higher order harmonics, thereby reducing the required electron beam energies; and (ii) increases the photon yield in a small frequency band beyond that possible with the fundamental without chirping. This combination of chirping and higher harmonics can lead to substantial savings in the design, construction and operational costs of the new Compton sources. This is of particular importance to the widely popular laser-plasma accelerator based Compton sources, as the improvement in their beam quality enters the regime where chirping is most effective.

  12. Achieving accurate simulations of urban impacts on ozone at high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Georgescu, M.; Hyde, P.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.

    2014-11-01

    The effects of urbanization on ozone levels have been widely investigated over cities primarily located in temperate and/or humid regions. In this study, nested WRF-Chem simulations with a finest grid resolution of 1 km are conducted to investigate ozone concentrations [O3] due to urbanization within cities in arid/semi-arid environments. First, a method based on a shape preserving Monotonic Cubic Interpolation (MCI) is developed and used to downscale anthropogenic emissions from the 4 km resolution 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI05) to the finest model resolution of 1 km. Using the rapidly expanding Phoenix metropolitan region as the area of focus, we demonstrate the proposed MCI method achieves ozone simulation results with appreciably improved correspondence to observations relative to the default interpolation method of the WRF-Chem system. Next, two additional sets of experiments are conducted, with the recommended MCI approach, to examine impacts of urbanization on ozone production: (1) the urban land cover is included (i.e., urbanization experiments) and, (2) the urban land cover is replaced with the region’s native shrubland. Impacts due to the presence of the built environment on [O3] are highly heterogeneous across the metropolitan area. Increased near surface [O3] due to urbanization of 10-20 ppb is predominantly a nighttime phenomenon while simulated impacts during daytime are negligible. Urbanization narrows the daily [O3] range (by virtue of increasing nighttime minima), an impact largely due to the region’s urban heat island. Our results demonstrate the importance of the MCI method for accurate representation of the diurnal profile of ozone, and highlight its utility for high-resolution air quality simulations for urban areas.

  13. Culture, Motivation, and Reading Achievement: High School Students in 41 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ming Ming; Chow, Bonnie Wing Yin

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how cultural values and family cultural capital were linked to adolescents' motivation and reading achievement using multilevel analyses on reading tests and questionnaire responses of 193,841 fifteen-year-olds in 41 countries. In countries that valued more rigid gender roles, girls had lower reading achievement than girls in…

  14. Cooperative Learning and Group Educational Modules: Effects on Cognitive Achievement of High School Biology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Scott B.

    1991-01-01

    Reports a study examining the effects of cooperative learning and self-instructional packets--"Group Educational Modules" (GEM)--on the achievement of biology students. Significant differences in achievement (as compared to control groups) were found for students using GEM materials and students in cooperative learning situations. (PR)

  15. A Portrait of Benchmark School: How a School Produces High Achievement in Students who Previously Failed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael; Gaskins, Irene W.; Solic, Katie; Collins, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    This is a case study of Benchmark School, which educates 6-to 15-year-olds with a history of school failure. Grounded theory methodology was employed to generate a theory about how the school promotes achievement. Many elements potentially promoting academic achievement were identified, including ones informed by psychological theory and research…

  16. Social Adaptation and Its Relationship to Achievement Motivation among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlZboon, Saleem Odeh

    2013-01-01

    The study amid at exploring and detecting the level of social adaptation and its relationship with the achievement motivation of the secondary school students in Jordan, the study sample consisted of 495 secondary school students in the province of Jerash, and to achieve the objective of this study comes the development of two tools: the first one…

  17. Longitudinal Analysis of Chinese High School Student's Stress in School and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    In previous research, few studies have examined the effects of adolescents' stress in school on the change rates of their academic achievement. In the present study, we seek to examine the longitudinal relationships between adolescents' stress in school and the change rates of their academic achievement. The results indicated that for those whose…

  18. Achievement Goal Validation among African American High School Students: CFA and Rasch Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Caroline O.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Jones, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goal theory helps describe how and why students engage in various academic behaviors. Historically, achievement goals have been examined almost exclusively with undergraduate, nonminority samples, and predominately with factor analytic techniques. The present study adds to a growing literature by providing initial validation of a…

  19. School Readiness Factors for Predicting High and Low Achieving Students in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davion, Edward, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    When analyzed according to race and ethnicity, poverty level, parental education level, as well as other related factors in schools in America, academic achievement disparities negatively impact educational outcomes for poor children and children of color on a consistent basis. At all educational levels, academic achievement and attainments of…

  20. Motivational Factors Contributing to Turkish High School Students' Achievement in Gases and Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadioglu, Cansel; Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the contribution of motivational factors to 10th grade students' achievement in gases and chemical reactions in chemistry. Three hundred fifty nine 10th grade students participated in the study. The Gases and Chemical Reactions Achievement Test and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire were…

  1. Growth and Achievement Trends of Advanced Placement (AP) Exams in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene; Hobson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined and compared overall trends in growth and student achievement of the Advanced Placement (AP) program. Using data from the past two decades, analyses indicated there has been steady and extensive growth of AP participation, particularly among underclassmen and some minority groups. However, overall achievement, as…

  2. From Division to Vision: Achievement Climbs at a Reservation School High in the Rocky Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lee

    2002-01-01

    In response to Salish and Kootenai tribal demands for educational equity, a Montana school district chose a reform model based on cooperative learning strategies, which fits American Indian learning styles, and switched from tolerating to celebrating American Indian culture. Academic achievement has risen in all subjects, and the achievement gap…

  3. What’s Past is Prologue: Relations Between Early Mathematics Knowledge and High School Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, nor have they investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at 54 months to adolescent mathematics achievement using multi-site longitudinal data. We find that preschool mathematics ability predicts mathematics achievement through age 15, even after accounting for early reading, cognitive skills, and family and child characteristics. Moreover, we find that growth in mathematical ability between age 54 months and first grade is an even stronger predictor of adolescent mathematics achievement. These results demonstrate the importance of pre-kindergarten mathematics knowledge and early math learning for later achievement. PMID:26806961

  4. High-frequency operation of a mid-infrared interband cascade system at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfi, Hossein; Li, Lu; Lei, Lin; Ye, Hao; Shazzad Rassel, S. M.; Jiang, Yuchao; Yang, Rui Q.; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Gupta, James A.; Johnson, Matthew B.

    2016-05-01

    The high-frequency operation of a mid-infrared interband cascade system that consists of a type-I interband cascade laser and an uncooled interband cascade infrared photodetector (ICIP) is demonstrated at room temperature. The 3-dB bandwidth of this system under direct frequency modulation was ˜850 MHz. A circuit model was developed to analyze the high-frequency characteristics. The extracted 3-dB bandwidth for an uncooled ICIP was ˜1.3 GHz, signifying the great potential of interband cascade structures for high-speed applications. The normalized Johnson-noise-limited detectivity of these ICIPs exceeded 109 cm Hz1/2/W at 300 K. These results validate the advantage of ICIPs to achieve both high speed and high sensitivity at high temperatures.

  5. High-quality remote interactive imaging in the operating theatre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimstead, Ian J.; Avis, Nick J.; Evans, Peter L.; Bocca, Alan

    2009-02-01

    We present a high-quality display system that enables the remote access within an operating theatre of high-end medical imaging and surgical planning software. Currently, surgeons often use printouts from such software for reference during surgery; our system enables surgeons to access and review patient data in a sterile environment, viewing real-time renderings of MRI & CT data as required. Once calibrated, our system displays shades of grey in Operating Room lighting conditions (removing any gamma correction artefacts). Our system does not require any expensive display hardware, is unobtrusive to the remote workstation and works with any application without requiring additional software licenses. To extend the native 256 levels of grey supported by a standard LCD monitor, we have used the concept of "PseudoGrey" where slightly off-white shades of grey are used to extend the intensity range from 256 to 1,785 shades of grey. Remote access is facilitated by a customized version of UltraVNC, which corrects remote shades of grey for display in the Operating Room. The system is successfully deployed at Morriston Hospital, Swansea, UK, and is in daily use during Maxillofacial surgery. More formal user trials and quantitative assessments are being planned for the future.

  6. Thyratron characteristics under high di/dt and high-repetition-rate operation

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D.; Hill, J.; Kan, T.

    1981-05-11

    Power conditioning systems for high peak and average power, high repetition rate discharge excited lasers involve operation of modulator components in unconventional regimes. Reliable operation of switches and energy storage elements under high voltage and high di/dt conditions is a pacing item for laser development at the present time. To test and evaluate these components a Modulator Component Test Facility (MCTF) was constructed. The MCTF consists of a command charge system, energy storage capacitors, thyratron switch with inverse thyratron protection, and a resistive load. The modulator has initially been operated at voltages up to 60 kV at 600 Hz. Voltage, current, and calorimetric diagnostics are provided for major modulator components. Measurements of thyratron characteristics under high di/dt operation are presented. Commutation energy loss and di/dt have been measured as functions of the tube hydrogen pressure.

  7. Concurrent file operations in a high performance FORTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brezany, Peter; Gerndt, Michael; Mehrotra, Piyush; Zima, Hans

    1992-01-01

    Distributed memory multiprocessor systems can provide the computing power necessary for large scale scientific applications. A critical performance issue for a number of these applications is the efficient transfer of data to secondary storage. Recently several research groups have proposed FORTRAN language extensions for exploiting the data parallelism of such scientific codes on distributed memory architectures. However, few of these high performance FORTRAN's provide appropriate constructs for controlling the use of the parallel I/O capabilities of modern multiprocessing machines. In this paper, we propose constructs to specify I/O operations for distributed data structures in the context of Vienna Fortran. These operations can be used by the programmer to provide information which can help the compiler and runtime environment make the most efficient use of the I/O subsystem.

  8. Louisiana High School Weathers the Storm to Become a Leader in Student Achievement and High Graduation Rates. "High Schools That Work" Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Warren Easton Charter High School in New Orleans, Louisiana, has weathered changes of many types, including Hurricane Katrina in 2005. After having to close for the 2005-2006 school year, the school reopened as a charter school with a board and stepped up its efforts to raise student achievement. Now the school is receiving attention for the…

  9. Under-Ice Operations with AUVS in High Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, J.; Kaminski, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    In 2010 and 2011, ISE Explorer Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), built for Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), were deployed to Canada's high Arctic. The mission was to undertake under-ice bathymetric surveys supporting Canada's submission under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). During these deployments several under-ice records were broken and several new technologies were demonstrated. The NRCan AUV is a 5000 meter depth rated vehicle, with several innovative additions to make it suitable for arctic survey work. Most notable are a depth rated variable ballast system, a 1300 Hz long-range homing system, and under-ice charging and data transfer capabilities. The Explorer's range was extended to approximately 450 km by adding a hull section to accommodate extra batteries. The scientific payload onboard included a Seabird SBE49 Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) sensor, Knudsen singlebeam echosounder, and a Kongsberg Simrad EM2000 multibeam echosounder. In 2010, operations were conducted from an ice camp near Borden Island (78°14'N, 112°39'W) operating through an ice hole. Following several test missions, the AUV spent 10 days surveying under ice before being successfully recovered. In total, close to 1100 km of under-ice survey was undertaken at depths to 3160 meters. A further set of operations was carried out in August and September 2011 from the Canadian Icebreaker CCGS Louis St. Laurent operating with the American Icebreaker USCGS Healy. Here the operations were much further north to latitudes of 88°30' N and to depths of 3500 meters. In this paper, the 2010 ice camp and the 2011 icebreaker missions are described, with an outline of technology developments that were undertaken, the preparations that were necessary for the success of the missions and finally, the outcome of the missions themselves.

  10. High beta plasma operation in a toroidal plasma producing device

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, John F.

    1978-01-01

    A high beta plasma is produced in a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration by ohmic heating and auxiliary heating. The plasma pressure is continuously monitored and used in a control system to program the current in the poloidal field windings. Throughout the heating process, magnetic flux is conserved inside the plasma and the distortion of the flux surfaces drives a current in the plasma. As a consequence, the total current increases and the poloidal field windings are driven with an equal and opposing increasing current. The spatial distribution of the current in the poloidal field windings is determined by the plasma pressure. Plasma equilibrium is maintained thereby, and high temperature, high beta operation results.

  11. Closing the Academic Achievement Gap on the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) through Professional Learning Communities (PLC) Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buenrostro, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of importance that DuFour's nine characteristics of highly effective schools have on closing the academic achievement gap on the California High School Exit Exam, as perceived by high school principals. The study also examined the strategies believed to be most important in…

  12. High Resolution Doppler Imager FY 2001,2002,2003 Operations and Algorithm Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Wilbert

    2004-01-01

    During the performance period of this grant HRDI (High Resolution Doppler Imager) operations remained nominal. The instrument has suffered no loss of scientific capability and operates whenever sufficient power is available. Generally, there are approximately 5-7 days per month when the power level is too low to permit observations. The daily latitude coverage for HRDI measurements in the mesosphere, lower thermosphere (MLT) region are shown.It shows that during the time of this grant, HRDI operations collected data at a rate comparable to that achieved during the UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) prime mission (1991 -1995). Data collection emphasized MLT wind to support the validation efforts of the TIDI instrument on TIMED, therefore fulfilling one of the primary objectives of this phase of the UARS mission. Skinner et al., (2003) present a summary of the instrument performance during this period.

  13. Highly active cobalt phosphate and borate based oxygen evolving catalysts operating in neutral and natural waters

    SciTech Connect

    Esswein, AJ; Surendranath, Y; Reece, SY; Nocera, DG

    2011-02-01

    A high surface area electrode is functionalized with cobalt-based oxygen evolving catalysts (Co-OEC = electrodeposited from pH 7 phosphate, Pi, pH 8.5 methylphosphonate, MePi, and pH 9.2 borate electrolyte, Bi). Co-OEC prepared from MePi and operated in Pi and Bi achieves a current density of 100 mA cm(-2) for water oxidation at 442 and 363 mV overpotential, respectively. The catalyst retains activity in near-neutral pH buffered electrolyte in natural waters such as those from the Charles River (Cambridge, MA) and seawater (Woods Hole, MA). The efficacy and ease of operation of anodes functionalized with Co-OEC at appreciable current density together with its ability to operate in near neutral pH buffered natural water sources bodes well for the translation of this catalyst to a viable renewable energy storage technology.

  14. High power operation of cladding pumped holmium-doped silica fibre lasers.

    PubMed

    Hemming, Alexander; Bennetts, Shayne; Simakov, Nikita; Davidson, Alan; Haub, John; Carter, Adrian

    2013-02-25

    We report the highest power operation of a resonantly cladding-pumped, holmium-doped silica fibre laser. The cladding pumped all-glass fibre utilises a fluorine doped glass layer to provide low loss cladding guidance of the 1.95 µm pump radiation. The operation of both single mode and large-mode area fibre lasers was demonstrated, with up to 140 W of output power achieved. A slope efficiency of 59% versus launched pump power was demonstrated. The free running emission was measured to be 2.12-2.15 µm demonstrating the potential of this architecture to address the long wavelength operation of silica based fibre lasers with high efficiency. PMID:23481989

  15. Microalgal growth with intracellular phosphorus for achieving high biomass growth rate and high lipid/triacylglycerol content simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yin-Hu; Yu, Yin; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2015-09-01

    Nutrient deprivation is a commonly-used trigger for microalgal lipid accumulation, but its adverse impact on microalgal growth seems to be inevitable. In this study, Scenedesmus sp. LX1 was found to show similar physiological and biochemical variation under oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions during growth with intracellular phosphorus. Under both conditions microalgal chlorophyll content and photosynthesis activity was stable during this growth process, leading to significant increase of single cell weight and size. Therefore, while algal density growth rate dropped significantly to below 1.0 × 10(5)cells mL(-1) d(-1) under oligotrophic condition, the biomass dry weight growth rate still maintained about 40 mg L(-1) d(-1). Meanwhile, the lipid content in biomass and triacylglycerols (TAGs) content in lipids increased significantly to about 35% and 65%, respectively. Thus, high biomass growth rate and high lipid/TAG content were achieved simultaneously at the late growth phase with intracellular phosphorus. Besides, microalgal biomass produced was rich in carbohydrate with low protein content. PMID:26056779

  16. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a “dream” display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays. PMID:23492854

  17. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a "dream" display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays. PMID:23492854

  18. Analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to achieve high Mach numbers and high thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henneberry, Hugh M.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to enhance performance by increasing Mach number capability and by increasing thrust is described. The liquids are injected, either separately or together, into the subsonic diffuser ahead of the engine compressor. A turbojet engine and a mixed-flow turbofan engine (MFTF) are examined, and in pursuit of maximum thrust, both engines are fitted with afterburners. The results indicate that water injection alone can extend the performance envelope of both engine types by one and one-half Mach numbers at which point water-air ratios reach 17 or 18 percent and liquid specific impulse is reduced to some 390 to 470 seconds, a level about equal to the impulse of a high energy rocket engine. The envelope can be further extended, but only with increasing sacrifices in liquid specific impulse. Oxygen-airflow ratios as high as 15 percent were investigated for increasing thrust. Using 15 percent oxygen in combination with water injection at high supersonic Mach numbers resulted in thrust augmentation as high as 76 percent without any significant decrease in liquid specific impulse. The stoichiometric afterburner exit temperature increased with increasing oxygen flow, reaching 4822 deg R in the turbojet engine at a Mach number of 3.5. At the transonic Mach number of 0.95 where no water injection is needed, an oxygen-air ratio of 15 percent increased thrust by some 55 percent in both engines, along with a decrease in liquid specific impulse of 62 percent. Afterburner temperature was approximately 4700 deg R at this high thrust condition. Water and/or oxygen injection are simple and straightforward strategies to improve engine performance and they will add little to engine weight. However, if large Mach number and thrust increases are required, liquid flows become significant, so that operation at these conditions will necessarily be of short duration.

  19. Achievement and Social Ascription: A Comparison of Public and Private High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Public and private schooling have a roughly uniform effect on achievement, but variability among students' home and neighborhood environments mask the leveling effect. Includes an historical discussion of egalitarianism and stratification in American education. (PS)

  20. An examination of the consequences in high consequence operations

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.; Cooper, J.A.

    1996-06-01

    Traditional definitions of risk partition concern into the probability of occurrence and the consequence of the event. Most safety analyses focus on probabilistic assessment of an occurrence and the amount of some measurable result of the event, but the real meaning of the ``consequence`` partition is usually afforded less attention. In particular, acceptable social consequence (consequence accepted by the public) frequently differs significantly from the metrics commonly proposed by risk analysts. This paper addresses some of the important system development issues associated with consequences, focusing on ``high consequence operations safety.``

  1. Characterization of lubricated bearing surfaces operated under high loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, J. L.; Marxer, N.; Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The composition and surface profiles of M-50 steel surfaces were measured after operation at high loads in a bearing contact simulator. An ester lubricant (trimethyolpropane triheptanoate) was used with and without various additives. Optical profiles were obtained + or - to 30 depth resolution with a phase-locked interference microscope in 10 micron diameter areas within and outside the wear tracks. Optical constants and surface film thickness were measured in the same areas with an electronic scanning ellipsometer. Film composition was measured with a scanning Auger electron spectrometer. It is concluded that metal oxide formation is accelerated within the wear tracks.

  2. Scyld Beowulf: A Standard, High-Performance Cluster Operating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Donald

    2001-06-01

    Beowulf systems are high performance computers constructed from commodity hardware connected by a private internal network. Scyld Beowulf is a new generation Beowulf cluster operating system that presents this collection of machines as a single system. New features such as a unified process space, node scheduler, and integrated libraries reduce the complexity of building and using cluster applications. This talk will describe how the Scyld Beowulf system works, how we use it to simplify installation, administration and running applications, and the architectural model and interface it provides to application developers and end users.

  3. Low Impedance Bellows for High-current Beam Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G; Nassiri, A; Waldschmidt, G J; Yang, Y; Feingold, J J; Mammosser, J D; Rimmer, R A; Wang, H; Jang, J; Kim, S H

    2012-07-01

    In particle accelerators, bellows are commonly used to connect beamline components. Such bellows are traditionally shielded to lower the beam impedance. Excessive beam impedance can cause overheating in the bellows, especially in high beam current operation. For an SRF-based accelerator, the bellows must also be particulate free. Many designs of shielded bellows incorporate rf slides or fingers that prevent convolutions from being exposed to wakefields. Unfortunately these mechanical structures tend to generate particulates that, if left in the SRF accelerator, can migrate into superconducting cavities, the accelerator's critical components. In this paper, we describe a prototype unshielded bellows that has low beam impedance and no risk of particulate generation.

  4. Ion accelerator systems for high power 30 cm thruster operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.

    1982-01-01

    Two and three-grid accelerator systems for high power ion thruster operation were investigated. Two-grid translation tests show that over compensation of the 30 cm thruster SHAG grid set spacing the 30 cm thruster radial plasma density variation and by incorporating grid compensation only sufficient to maintain grid hole axial alignment, it is shown that beam current gains as large as 50% can be realized. Three-grid translation tests performed with a simulated 30 cm thruster discharge chamber show that substantial beamlet steering can be reliably affected by decelerator grid translation only, at net-to-total voltage ratios as low as 0.05.

  5. Family socioeconomic status, family health, and changes in students' math achievement across high school: A mediational model.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ashley Brooke

    2015-09-01

    In response to recent calls to integrate understandings of socioeconomic disparities in health with understandings of socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement, this study tested a mediational model whereby family socioeconomic status predicted gains in academic achievement across high school through its impact on both student and parent health. Data on over 8000 high school students in the U.S. were obtained from wave 1 (2009-2010) and wave 2 (2012) of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and structural equation modeling with latent difference scores was used to determine the role of family health problems in mediating the well-established link between family SES and gains in academic achievement. Using both static and dynamic indicators of family SES, support was found for this mediational model. Higher family SES in 9th grade reduced the probability of students and their parents experiencing a serious health problem in high school, thereby promoting growth in academic achievement. In addition, parent and student health problems mediated the effect of changes in family SES across high school on math achievement gains. Results emphasize the importance of considering the dynamic nature of SES and that both student and parent health should be considered in understanding SES-related disparities in academic achievement. This relational process provides new mechanisms for understanding the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status and the status attainment process more broadly. PMID:26189011

  6. High energy pulsed inductive thruster modeling operating with ammonia propellant

    SciTech Connect

    Mikellides, Pavlos G.; Villarreal, James K.

    2007-11-15

    Numerical modeling of the pulsed inductive thruster operating with ammonia propellant at high energy levels, utilized a time-dependent, two-dimensional, and axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamics code to provide bilateral validation of experiment and theory and offer performance insights for improved designs. The power circuit model was augmented by a plasma voltage algorithm that accounts for the propellant's time-dependent resistance and inductance to properly account for plasma dynamics and was verified using available analytic solutions of two idealized plasma problems. Comparisons of the predicted current waveforms to experimental data exhibited excellent agreement for the initial half-period, essentially capturing the dominant acceleration phase. Further validation proceeded by comparisons of the impulse for three different energy levels, 2592, 4050, and 4608 J and a wide range of propellant mass values. Predicted impulse captured both trends and magnitudes measured experimentally for nominal operation. Interpretation of the modeling results in conjunction to experimental observations further confirm the critical mass phenomenon beyond which efficiency degrades due to elevated internal energy mode deposition and anomalous operation.

  7. A Simulation Base Investigation of High Latency Space Systems Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zu Qun; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul; Moore, Michael

    2017-01-01

    mission provides ideal conditions for this study with crew in the loop, an active control center, and real-time flow of high latency communications and data. NEEMO crew and ground support will work through procedures including activation of the transit vehicle power system, opening the hatch between the transit vehicle and a Mars ascent vehicle, transferring simulated crewmembers between vehicles, overcoming subsystem malfunctions, sending simulated crewmember on extra-vehicular activities, and other housekeeping activities. This study is enhancing the understanding of high latency operations and the advantages and disadvantages of different communication methods. It is also providing results that will help improve the design of simulation interfaces and inform the design of Mars transit vehicles.

  8. Achievement of very low jitter extraction of high power proton beams in the J-PARC RCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Fumihiko; Yoshii, Masahito; Schnase, Alexander; Ohmori, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Nomura, Masahiro; Toda, Makoto; Shimada, Taihei; Hara, Keigo; Hasegawa, Katsushi

    2011-08-01

    The 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) delivers high intensity proton beams to the Materials and Life Science Facility (MLF) and the main ring (MR). The repetition rate of the RCS is 25 Hz. The typical operation period of the J-PARC is 3.2 s, which consists of 80 RCS cycles. Four beam pulses are for the MR and the other pulses are led into the MLF. Since a bucket-to-bucket injection scheme is used for the MR, the beam from the RCS must be injected with a precise phase to the proper rf bucket of the MR. In case of the MLF, the beam has to be synchronized to the Fermi chopper, which has a tolerance of only a few 100 ns. Thus, stable beam timings with a very low jitter are required for both destinations. To realize the stable beam timing, we employ the timing system, which is not synchronized to the AC power line. Also the magnetic-alloy accelerating cavities and the full digital low-level RF control system are the keys for the precise beam phase control. For acceleration of a high power beam, the phase feedback loop, which damps the longitudinal dipole oscillation, is necessary. The phase loop is a cause of the jitter of the beam extraction timing. We apply a gain pattern of the phase loop to avoid the influence on the beam phase at the extraction. We have achieved a very low jitter extraction of a high power beam within 1.7 ns, which corresponds to 1 degree of the rf frequency at the extraction.

  9. European tendencies and co-operation in the field of ITS systems - national achievements and challenges in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenbach, Ágnes

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the role of intelligent transport systems/services related to the implementation of the essential European and Hungarian transport policy objectives. The `ITS Directive' will provide a framework for the tasks/works to be performed in the forthcoming years within the priority areas of ITS. The European Commission published regulations / specifications for the priority actions in the form of delegated acts defining the tasks/responsibilities of Member States. Regional/European co-operation for Hungary started after the EU-accession of the country. Hungary was an active partner within the European CONNECT and EasyWay projects, currently Hungary is a member of the CROCODILE consortium.

  10. A squeezed light source operated under high vacuum.

    PubMed

    Wade, Andrew R; Mansell, Georgia L; Chua, Sheon S Y; Ward, Robert L; Slagmolen, Bram J J; Shaddock, Daniel A; McClelland, David E

    2015-01-01

    Non-classical squeezed states of light are becoming increasingly important to a range of metrology and other quantum optics applications in cryptography, quantum computation and biophysics. Applications such as improving the sensitivity of advanced gravitational wave detectors and the development of space-based metrology and quantum networks will require robust deployable vacuum-compatible sources. To date non-linear photonics devices operated under high vacuum have been simple single pass systems, testing harmonic generation and the production of classically correlated photon pairs for space-based applications. Here we demonstrate the production under high-vacuum conditions of non-classical squeezed light with an observed 8.6 dB of quantum noise reduction down to 10 Hz. Demonstration of a resonant non-linear optical device, for the generation of squeezed light under vacuum, paves the way to fully exploit the advantages of in-vacuum operations, adapting this technology for deployment into new extreme environments. PMID:26657616

  11. A squeezed light source operated under high vacuum

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Andrew R.; Mansell, Georgia L.; Chua, Sheon S. Y.; Ward, Robert L.; Slagmolen, Bram J. J.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; McClelland, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Non-classical squeezed states of light are becoming increasingly important to a range of metrology and other quantum optics applications in cryptography, quantum computation and biophysics. Applications such as improving the sensitivity of advanced gravitational wave detectors and the development of space-based metrology and quantum networks will require robust deployable vacuum-compatible sources. To date non-linear photonics devices operated under high vacuum have been simple single pass systems, testing harmonic generation and the production of classically correlated photon pairs for space-based applications. Here we demonstrate the production under high-vacuum conditions of non-classical squeezed light with an observed 8.6 dB of quantum noise reduction down to 10 Hz. Demonstration of a resonant non-linear optical device, for the generation of squeezed light under vacuum, paves the way to fully exploit the advantages of in-vacuum operations, adapting this technology for deployment into new extreme environments. PMID:26657616

  12. A squeezed light source operated under high vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Andrew R.; Mansell, Georgia L.; Chua, Sheon S. Y.; Ward, Robert L.; Slagmolen, Bram J. J.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; McClelland, David E.

    2015-12-01

    Non-classical squeezed states of light are becoming increasingly important to a range of metrology and other quantum optics applications in cryptography, quantum computation and biophysics. Applications such as improving the sensitivity of advanced gravitational wave detectors and the development of space-based metrology and quantum networks will require robust deployable vacuum-compatible sources. To date non-linear photonics devices operated under high vacuum have been simple single pass systems, testing harmonic generation and the production of classically correlated photon pairs for space-based applications. Here we demonstrate the production under high-vacuum conditions of non-classical squeezed light with an observed 8.6 dB of quantum noise reduction down to 10 Hz. Demonstration of a resonant non-linear optical device, for the generation of squeezed light under vacuum, paves the way to fully exploit the advantages of in-vacuum operations, adapting this technology for deployment into new extreme environments.

  13. Operating a real time high accuracy positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, G.; Hanley, J.; Russell, D.; Vooght, A.

    2003-04-01

    The paper shall review the history and development of real time DGPS services prior to then describing the design of a high accuracy GPS commercial augmentation system and service currently delivering over a wide area to users of precise positioning products. The infrastructure and system shall be explained in relation to the need for high accuracy and high integrity of positioning for users. A comparison of the different techniques for the delivery of data shall be provided to outline the technical approach taken. Examples of the performance of the real time system shall be shown in various regions and modes to outline the current achievable accuracies. Having described and established the current GPS based situation, a review of the potential of the Galileo system shall be presented. Following brief contextual information relating to the Galileo project, core system and services, the paper will identify possible key applications and the main user communities for sub decimetre level precise positioning. The paper will address the Galileo and modernised GPS signals in space that are relevant to commercial precise positioning for the future and will discuss the implications for precise positioning performance. An outline of the proposed architecture shall be described and associated with pointers towards a successful implementation. Central to this discussion will be an assessment of the likely evolution of system infrastructure and user equipment implementation, prospects for new applications and their effect upon the business case for precise positioning services.

  14. High density operation with Lower Hybrid waves in FTU tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Mirizzi, F.; Panaccione, L.; Podda, S.

    2001-10-01

    Since April 2001 the lower hybrid (LH) radiofrequency system in FTU (6 gyrotrons @ f=8 GHz) can deliver to the plasma about 2 MW through two equal launchers with a reflection coefficient = 10%. This value is close to the target value of 2.2 MW (net power density of 6.2 kW/cm2 on the waveguides mouth) which could be reached after further conditioning of the grill and of the transmission lines. In high density plasmas (line density *1*1020 m-3), high magnetic field (BT=7.2 T), with PLH=2 MW we drive about 75% of the total current (Ip=500 kA) and stabilise fully the sawteeth activity. The central electron temperature Te0 increases from 1.6 to 3.3 keV (steady), and the neutron rate by about 10 times. Analysis of these pulses with effective electronic heating will be presented. In post-pellet plasmas ( *6*1020 m-3), good coupling of the LH is achieved with the launcher almost flush to the walls, due to the very dense scrape off-layer. The perturbation here induced by the pellet imposes a delay to the LH of only 20 ms. The exact location of the launcher is critical in these regimes, because the high N|| (parallel index of refraction) requested (N||>2.3) for a good penetration of the waves makes more problematic a good coupling all along the poloidal extension of the grill.

  15. Achievement Emotions as Predictors of High School Science Success Among African-American and European American Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowe, Marilyn Louise Simmons

    The literature includes few studies of the interrelations of achievement goals and achievement emotions with respect to minority students and science achievement. The objective of this study was to test the control-value theory (CVT) of achievement emotions to determine if the eight discrete achievement emotions would be predictive of test scores on the High School Graduation Test (GHSGT)-Science for African-American compared to European-American science students. Convenience cluster sampling was employed to select 160 students who were all juniors in the same public high school at the time that they took the GHSGT-Science. The central research question for this study aimed to uncover whether any of the eight achievement emotions identified in CVT would contribute significantly to the predictability of science achievement as measured by GHSGT-Science scores. Data were collected using a nonexperimental, cross sectional design survey. Data were analyzed using a hierarchal, forced entry, multiple regression analysis. Key results indicated that the eight achievement emotions were predictive of GHSGT-Science score outcomes. Positive social change at the individual level could reflect a boost in confidence for African American science students and help decrease the achievement gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) endeavors between European Americans and African-American students. Educators may consider the importance of achievement emotions in science outcomes by including social emotional learning (SEL) as a part of the regular science curriculum. Future researchers should repeat the study in a school district where the population is available to support the desired cluster sample of equal parts European Americans to African Americans and male to female students.

  16. The Predictive Relation of a High School Mathematic GPA to High-Stakes Assessment Achievement Scores in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Course grades, which often include non-achievement factors such as effort and behavior and are subject to individual teacher grading philosophies, suffer from issues of unreliability. Yet, course grades continue to be utilized as a primary tool for reporting academic achievement to students and parents and are used by most colleges and…

  17. Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 and high school academic achievement: longitudinal latent variable modeling.

    PubMed

    Breslau, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua; Miller, Elizabeth; Raykov, Tenko

    2011-02-28

    Previous studies documented long-run effects of behavior problems at the start of school on academic achievement. However, these studies did not examine whether the observed effects of early behavior problems are explained by more proximate behavior problems, given the tendency of children's behavior problems to persist. Latent variable modeling was applied to estimate the effects of behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 on academic achievement at age 17, using data from a longitudinal study (n=823). Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11, each stage independently of the other, predicted lower math and reading test scores at age 17, controlling for intelligence quotient (IQ), birth weight, maternal characteristics, family and community environment, and taking into account behavior problems at age 17. Behavior problems at the start of school, independent of later behavior problems, exert lingering effects on achievement by impeding the acquisition of cognitive skills that are the foundation for later academic progress. PMID:20719395

  18. Comparative Study of Vibration Stability at Operating Light Source Facilities and Lessons Learned in Achieving NSLS II Stability Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Simos,N.; Fallier, M.; Amick, H.

    2008-06-23

    In an effort to ensure that the stability goals of the NSLS II will be met once the accelerator structure is set on the selected BNL site a comprehensive evaluation of the ground vibration observed at existing light source facilities has been undertaken. The study has relied on measurement data collected and reported by the operating facilities as well as on new data collected in the course of this study. The primary goal of this comprehensive effort is to compare the green-field conditions that exist in the various sites both in terms of amplitude as well as frequency content and quantify the effect of the interaction of these accelerator facilities with the green-field vibration. The latter represents the ultimate goal of this effort where the anticipated motion of the NSLS II ring is estimated prior to its construction and compared with the required stability criteria.

  19. Academic achievement of homeless and highly mobile children in an urban school district: longitudinal evidence on risk, growth, and resilience.

    PubMed

    Obradović, Jelena; Long, Jeffrey D; Cutuli, J J; Chan, Chi-Keung; Hinz, Elizabeth; Heistad, David; Masten, Ann S

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal growth trajectories of reading and math achievement were studied in four primary school grade cohorts (GCs) of a large urban district to examine academic risk and resilience in homeless and highly mobile (H/HM) students. Initial achievement was assessed when student cohorts were in the second, third, fourth, and fifth grades, and again 12 and 18 months later. Achievement trajectories of H/HM students were compared to low-income but nonmobile students and all other tested students in the district, controlling for four well-established covariates of achievement: sex, ethnicity, attendance, and English language skills. Both disadvantaged groups showed markedly lower initial achievement than their more advantaged peers, and H/HM students manifested the greatest risk, consistent with an expected risk gradient. Moreover, in some GCs, both disadvantaged groups showed slower growth than their relatively advantaged peers. Closer examination of H/HM student trajectories in relation to national test norms revealed striking variability, including cases of academic resilience as well as problems. H/HM students may represent a major component of "achievement gaps" in urban districts, but these students also constitute a heterogeneous group of children likely to have markedly diverse educational needs. Efforts to close gaps or enhance achievement in H/HM children require more differentiated knowledge of vulnerability and protective processes that may shape individual development and achievement. PMID:19338695

  20. Compressed sensing embedded in an operational wireless sensor network to achieve energy efficiency in long-term monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, S. M.; Lynch, J. P.; Gilbert, A. C.

    2014-08-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) is a powerful new data acquisition paradigm that seeks to accurately reconstruct unknown sparse signals from very few (relative to the target signal dimension) random projections. The specific objective of this study is to save wireless sensor energy by using CS to simultaneously reduce data sampling rates, on-board storage requirements, and communication data payloads. For field-deployed low power wireless sensors that are often operated with limited energy sources, reduced communication translates directly into reduced power consumption and improved operational reliability. In this study, acceleration data from a multi-girder steel-concrete deck composite bridge are processed for the extraction of mode shapes. A wireless sensor node previously designed to perform traditional uniform, Nyquist rate sampling is modified to perform asynchronous, effectively sub-Nyquist rate sampling. The sub-Nyquist data are transmitted off-site to a computational server for reconstruction using the CoSaMP matching pursuit recovery algorithm and further processed for extraction of the structure’s mode shapes. The mode shape metric used for reconstruction quality is the modal assurance criterion (MAC), an indicator of the consistency between CS and traditional Nyquist acquired mode shapes. A comprehensive investigation of modal accuracy from a dense set of acceleration response data reveals that MAC values above 0.90 are obtained for the first four modes of a bridge structure when at least 20% of the original signal is sampled using the CS framework. Reduced data collection, storage and communication requirements are found to lead to substantial reductions in the energy requirements of wireless sensor networks at the expense of modal accuracy. Specifically, total energy reductions of 10-60% can be obtained for a sensor network with 10-100 sensor nodes, respectively. The reduced energy requirements of the CS sensor nodes are shown to directly result in