Science.gov

Sample records for achieve high positioning

  1. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Effects on Pennsylvania High School Achievement, Discipline, and Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jon David

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and administrators are faced with managing the behaviors of students while preparing for the high stakes testing associated with the No Child Left Behind Act. One program that has demonstrated positive results at the elementary and middle school level is the school-wide positive behavior support model (SWPBS). Limited research is…

  2. The Career Development of Latina Women Achieving the Position of Public High School Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacio, Consuelo A.

    2013-01-01

    For this qualitative study, I used the lens of the Social Cognitive Career Theory to investigate the lived experiences of Latina women navigating their career paths into the roles of public high school principals. Latina women are underrepresented and in some states they are not represented at all. Few Latina women have secured the position of…

  3. High school students' science academic achievement: The effect of the Lemov positive framing trust-building technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigliette, Linda Marie

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of a trust-building technique called "positive-framing" (Lemov, 2010, p. 204) on the level of student-teacher trust and students' science academic achievement. The existing literature was reviewed under the constructs of trust, types of trust, trust-building strategies, and student academic achievement. The identified problem is a lack of research into the effect of trust from the high school student perspective and the effect of trust on student academic achievement in science. In addition, there is no empirical evidence to support the effectiveness of the "positive-framing" (Lemov, 2010, p. 204) trust-building intervention. The study involved a volunteer, convenience sample of 9th-grade science students at one high school in Northern California (N=240). The study employed a quasi-experimental, pretest, posttest non-equivalent control group design to examine the level of student trust in the teacher, using the "Student trust in faculty scale" (Forsyth, Adams, & Hoy, 2011, p. 180), and the students' academic achievement, according to the Integrated Process Skills Test II (Okey, Wise, & Burns, 1982). The independent variable was the "positive-framing" (Lemov, 2010, p. 204) trust-building intervention; the two dependent variables were the level of student-teacher trust and student academic achievement. The composite data from the "Student trust in faculty scale" and the academic achievement test were evaluated by a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results of this study indicated that the null hypothesis was accepted. The "positive-framing" (Lemov, 2010, p. 204) trust-building intervention did not have a significant effect on either the student-teacher trust level or academic achievement in science.

  4. A Positive Psychological Viewpoint for Success at School--10 Characteristic Strengths of the Finnish High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela, Mari; Uusiautti, Satu

    2015-01-01

    People who exploit their strengths flourish; they are not only engaged with their goals, but also to their well-being and the content of life. In this study, interest focused on the high-achieving students in the Finnish general upper secondary education, in other words, on straight-A graduates' characteristic strengths. This was a narrative study…

  5. Positive Functions of Emotions in Achievement Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puig, Nuria; Vilanova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of two research projects on the emotions of men engaged in achievement outdoor sports. The conditions were analyzed under which emotions carry out positive functions. The question strikes us as a fundamental one, because it is of crucial importance when it comes to increasing sportspeople's success. The…

  6. How Much Professional Development Is Needed to Effect Positive Gains in K-6 Student Achievement on High Stakes Science Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James A.; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard A.; Yore, Larry D.; Everett, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study that examines the relationship between teacher participation in a multi-year, K-6 professional development effort and the "high stakes" science test scores of different student groups in 33 rural mid-west school districts in the USA. The professional development program involved 1,269 elementary school…

  7. Positive functions of emotions in achievement sports.

    PubMed

    Puig, Núria; Vilanova, Anna

    2011-06-01

    This article presents the results of two research projects on the emotions of men engaged in achievement outdoor sports. The conditions were analyzed under which emotions carry out positive functions. The question strikes us as a fundamental one, because it is of crucial importance when it comes to increasing sportspeople's success. The theoretical framework applied was that of microfunctionalism. The method, of a qualitative nature, was based on in-depth interviews, each lasting between 1.5 and 2 hr with a total of 14 sportspersons. The results show that in order for emotions to fulfill positive functions, three conditions must be met: (a) existence of passion, which, with its dialectical character of pleasure and suffering underlies all the other emotions and acts as a motor that pushes the sportsperson forward, despite all the contretemps he might meet on the way; (b) intense emotion work, which may be conducted only if accompanied by knowledge and experience of the natural environment acquired over the years; and (c) conciliation between emotion work and the feeling rules characteristic of each sport subculture. For those individuals who pursue achievement in outdoor sports, these results will provide more concrete indications regarding how to carry out the emotional preparation required for these sports.

  8. Using Positive Student Engagement to Increase Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Teachers and school-based administrators alike have searched to find ways to increase student achievement in their schools. Several widely known and discussed strategies include: (1) using data to drive instruction; (2) employing highly qualified teachers; and (3) improving school leadership. Additionally, positive student engagement in the…

  9. Association between Schoolwide Positive Behavioural Interventions and Supports and Academic Achievement: A 9-Year Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madigan, Kathleen; Cross, Richard W.; Smolkowski, Keith; Strycker, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term impact of schoolwide positive behavioural interventions and supports (PBIS) on student academic achievement. In this quasi-experimental study, academic achievement data were collected over 9 years. The 21 elementary, middle, and high schools that achieved moderate to high fidelity to the Save & Civil Schools'…

  10. The Effectiveness of CASAs in Achieving Positive Outcomes for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litzelfelner, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of court-appointed special advocates (CASAs) in achieving positive outcomes for children in the child welfare system, using data from court and CASA program files on 200 children. Found that CASAs may have reduced the number of placements and court continuances children experienced. More services were provided to children…

  11. Accentuate the Positive: The Relationship between Positive Explanatory Style and Academic Achievement of Prospective Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    This research examines 480 current event-explanation units using the CAVE technique (Schulman, Castellon, & Seligman, 1989) to note the relationship between positive and negative explanatory style and achievement of prospective early childhood and upper elementary female teachers. This study found a significant positive relationship between…

  12. The Constraints of Poverty on High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Virginia H.; Beilke, Jayne R.

    2008-01-01

    Research studies on school success often focus on the impact of discrete elements such as race, culture, ethnicity, gender, language, or school location on high achievement. The condition of poverty, however, may be the most important of all student differences in relation to high achievement; although not all schools have racial diversity, nearly…

  13. Self Regulated Learning of High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathod, Ami

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted on high achievers of Senior Secondary school. Main objectives were to identify the self regulated learners among the high achievers, to find out dominant components and characteristics operative in self regulated learners and to compare self regulated learning of learners with respect to their subject (science and non…

  14. Systemic Reform and Minority Student High Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treisman, Philip Uri; Surles, Stephanie A.

    The under-representation of African American and Hispanic American students among high achievers on standardized tests, honors graduates of most colleges, and practitioners of mathematics and science professions is well-documented. This paper explores the extent to which the current educational reform movement is achieving the goal of…

  15. Student Perceptions of High-Achieving Classmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Händel, Marion; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The reported study investigated students' perceptions of their high-performing classmates in terms of intelligence, social skills, and conscientiousness in different school subjects. The school subjects for study were examined with regard to cognitive, physical, and gender-specific issues. The results show that high academic achievements in…

  16. High Stakes Testing and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The effects of high stakes testing may be critical in the lives of public school students and may have many consequences for schools and teachers. There are no easy answers in measuring student achievement and in holding teachers accountable for learner progress. High stakes testing also involves responsibilities on the part of the principal who…

  17. High Achievers: 23rd Annual Survey. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This report presents data from an annual survey of high school student leaders and high achievers. It is noted that of the nearly 700,000 high achievers featured in this edition, 5,000 students were sent the survey and 2,092 questionnaires were completed. Subjects were high school juniors and seniors selected for recognition by their principals or…

  18. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  19. High School Employment and Academic Achievement: A Note for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keister, Mary; Hall, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Educators are often in a position to affect student decisions to work during the school term. This study reviews and summarizes the literature on the effect that employment during high school has on academic achievement. The available evidence suggests that part-time jobs for high school students are beneficial as long as the number of hours…

  20. Reliability achievement in high technology space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The production of failure-free hardware is discussed. The elements required to achieve such hardware are: technical expertise to design, analyze, and fully understand the design; use of high reliability parts and materials control in the manufacturing process; and testing to understand the system and weed out defects. The durability of the Hughes family of satellites is highlighted.

  1. Early predictors of high school mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S; Duncan, Greg J; Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Duckworth, Kathryn; Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Chen, Meichu

    2012-07-01

    Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement. Analyses of large, nationally representative, longitudinal data sets from the United States and the United Kingdom revealed that elementary school students' knowledge of fractions and of division uniquely predicts those students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement in high school, 5 or 6 years later, even after statistically controlling for other types of mathematical knowledge, general intellectual ability, working memory, and family income and education. Implications of these findings for understanding and improving mathematics learning are discussed.

  2. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 18th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Communications, Inc., Lake Forest, IL.

    This document contains factsheets and news releases which cite findings from a national survey of 1,985 high achieving high school students. Factsheets describe the Who's Who Among American High School Students recognition and service program for high school students and explain the Who's Who survey. A summary report of this eighteenth annual…

  3. 22nd Annual Survey of High Achievers: Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This study surveyed high school students (N=1,879) who were student leaders or high achievers in the spring of 1991 for the purpose of determining their attitudes. Students were members of the junior or senior high school class during the 1990-91 academic year and were selected for recognition by their principals or guidance counselors, other…

  4. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 26th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    A national survey of 3,351 high achieving high school students (junior and senior level) was conducted. All students had A or B averages. Topics covered include lifestyles, political beliefs, violence and entertainment, education, cheating, school violence, sexual violence and date rape, peer pressure, popularity, suicide, drugs and alcohol,…

  5. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 24th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey represents information compiled by the largest national survey of adolescent leaders and high achievers. Of the 5,000 students selected demographically from "Who's Who Among American High School Students," 1,957 responded. All students surveyed had "A" or "B" averages, and 98% planned on attending college. Questions were asked about…

  6. Connecting Positive Psychology and Organizational Behavior Management: Achievement Motivation and the Power of Positive Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology is becoming established as a reputable sub-discipline in psychology despite having neglected the role of positive reinforcement in enhancing quality of life. The authors discuss the relevance of positive reinforcement for positive psychology, with implications for broadening the content of organizational behavior management.…

  7. High Involvement Mothers of High Achieving Children: Potential Theoretical Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    In American society, parents who have high aspirations for the achievements of their children are often viewed by others in a negative light. Various pejoratives such as "pushy parent," "helicopter parent," "stage mother," and "soccer mom" are used in the common vernacular to describe these parents. Multiple…

  8. The Suppression Role of Positive Affect on Students' Science Achievement in East Asia: The Example of Taipei

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on "high achievement but low motivation" phenomenon that is prevalent in East Asian countries and districts, and uses eighth graders in Taipei that participated in TIMSS 2007 as an example to examine the direct and indirect effects of academic motivation, positive affect, and instruction on science achievement.…

  9. Does High School Homework Increase Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff

    2017-01-01

    Although previous research has shown that homework improves students' academic achievement, the majority of these studies use data on students' homework time from retrospective questionnaires, which may be less accurate than time-diary data. We use data from the combined Child Development Supplement (CDS) and the Transition to Adulthood Survey…

  10. Factors Implicated in High Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgasz, Helen J.; Hill, Janelle C.

    2013-01-01

    The most recent Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (2009) mathematical literacy results provide evidence that in Western English-speaking countries, including Australia, the gender gap in achievement appears to be widening in favour of males. In the study reported in this article, the aim was to explore the effects of gender,…

  11. High Ability Readers and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.; Parke, Cynthia J.; Bramble, Joan G.

    2004-01-01

    To close the achievement gap, the "No Child Left Behind" law calls for all students to make appropriate yearly progress. This presumably means that progress is being made by capable readers at the same time progress is being made by struggling readers. However, there appear to be unintended effects of "No Child Left Behind"…

  12. High speed curved position sensitive detector

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Robert W.; Wilson, Jack W.

    1989-01-01

    A high speed curved position sensitive porportional counter detector for use in x-ray diffraction, the detection of 5-20 keV photons and the like. The detector employs a planar anode assembly of a plurality of parallel metallic wires. This anode assembly is supported between two cathode planes, with at least one of these cathode planes having a serpentine resistive path in the form of a meander having legs generally perpendicular to the anode wires. This meander is produced by special microelectronic fabrication techniques whereby the meander "wire" fans outwardly at the cathode ends to produce the curved aspect of the detector, and the legs of the meander are small in cross-section and very closely spaced whereby a spatial resolution of about 50 .mu.m can be achieved. All of the other performance characteristics are about as good or better than conventional position sensitive proportional counter type detectors. Count rates of up to 40,000 counts per second with 0.5 .mu.s shaping time constants are achieved.

  13. High-Achieving Students in the Era of NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom; Parkas, Steve; Duffett, Ann

    2008-01-01

    This report contains two separate studies examining the status of high-achieving students in the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) era. Part I, An Analysis of NAEP Data, authored by Brookings Institution scholar Tom Loveless, examines achievement trends for high-achieving students (defined, like low-achieving students, by their performance on the…

  14. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement in a Group of High, Medium, and Low Secondary Public High School Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas-Brantley, Betty J.

    This study investigated the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement in a group of 150 high, medium, and low achievers at a large midwestern public high school. Correlating data from the Coopersmith Inventory of self-esteem with grades, cumulative grade point averages, and class rank, the study disclosed a positive correlation…

  15. Does Recreational Computer Use Affect High School Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Berland, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the relationship between student academic achievement and use of computers for fun and video gaming has been described from a multitude of perspectives, from positive, to negative, to neutral. However, recent research has indicated that computer use and video gaming may be positively associated with achievement, yet these studies…

  16. Improving Student Achievement: A Study of High-Poverty Schools with Higher Student Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the education system at high-poverty schools that had significantly higher student achievement levels as compared to similar schools with lower student achievement levels. A multischool qualitative case study was conducted of the educational systems where there was a significant difference in the scores achieved on the…

  17. Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

  18. Achieving strategic surety for high consequence software

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    A strategic surety roadmap for high consequence software systems under the High Integrity Software (HIS) Program at Sandia National Laboratories guides research in identifying methodologies to improve software surety. Selected research tracks within this roadmap are identified and described detailing current technology and outlining advancements to be pursued over the coming decade to reach HIS goals. The tracks discussed herein focus on Correctness by Design, and System Immunology{trademark}. Specific projects are discussed with greater detail given on projects involving Correct Specification via Visualization, Synthesis, & Analysis; Visualization of Abstract Objects; and Correct Implementation of Components.

  19. Achieving High-Temperature Ferromagnetic Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katmis, Ferhat

    Topological insulators (TIs) are insulating materials that display conducting surface states protected by time-reversal symmetry, wherein electron spins are locked to their momentum. This unique property opens new opportunities for creating next-generation electronic and spintronic devices, including TI-based quantum computation. Introducing ferromagnetic order into a TI system without compromising its distinctive quantum coherent features could lead to a realization of several predicted novel physical phenomena. In particular, achieving robust long-range magnetic order at the TI surface at specific locations without introducing spin scattering centers could open up new possibilities for devices. Here, we demonstrate topologically enhanced interface magnetism by coupling a ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) to a TI (Bi2Se3); this interfacial ferromagnetism persists up to room temperature, even though the FMI (EuS) is known to order ferromagnetically only at low temperatures (<17 K). The induced magnetism at the interface resulting from the large spin-orbit interaction and spin-momentum locking feature of the TI surface is found to greatly enhance the magnetic ordering (Curie) temperature of the TI/FMI bilayer system. Due to the short range nature of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction, the time-reversal symmetry is broken only near the surface of a TI, while leaving its bulk states unaffected. The topological magneto-electric response originating in such an engineered TI could allow for an efficient manipulation of the magnetization dynamics by an electric field, providing an energy efficient topological control mechanism for future spin-based technologies. Work supported by MIT MRSEC through the MRSEC Program of NSF under award number DMR-0819762, NSF Grant DMR-1207469, the ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0301, and the STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF grant DMR-1231319.

  20. Norview High School: Leadership Fosters Achievment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Often little unsaid things demonstrate what is truly important in a school. When teachers have common planning time and all of the department chairs share a single space as they do at Norview High School in Norfolk, VA, the unmistakable message is that instructional collaboration and leadership are expected and valued. Norview, an urban,…

  1. Leistungsmessung im Sprachunterricht: Positionspapier (Measuring Achievement in Language Instruction: A Position Paper).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrand, Heinrich, Ed.

    This position paper on the measurement of achievement in language instruction contains nine articles by leading authorities. Three articles, written in German, cover: (1) testing: necessities and dangers, (2) supervision and evaluation of oral achievement in certification examinations, and (3) development of a higher level of an adult education…

  2. Self-Concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study "Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students" was investigated to find the relationship between Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students. Data for the study were collected using Self-concept Questionnaire developed by Raj Kumar Saraswath (1984) and Achievement Motive Test (ACMT)…

  3. Gun requirements to achieve high field spheromaks

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T K

    1999-03-04

    It is shown that a gun similar to that in the SSPX could demonstrate the high fields required for Pulsed Spheromak reactors merely by prolonging the pulse. Important considerations are choosing the voltage to exceed ohmic losses; designing the gun to avoid wasteful short-circuiting of current within the gun; and the injection efficiency factor, f, determined by the ''sag'' in the profile of {lambda} = {mu}{sub o}j/B. Typically f = 0.75 in experiments, giving an overall efficiency > 50 % if short-circuiting is avoided. Theoretical transport models agree qualitatively with the need for a finite gradient in h to pump in helicity by current-driven tearing modes and suggest that pressure-driven resistive modes would not compete with current-driven modes during a buildup to ohmic ignition.

  4. Relationships among Stress, Coping, and Mental Health in High-Achieving High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Hardesty, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among stress, coping, and mental health in 139 students participating in an International Baccalaureate (IB) high school diploma program. Mental health was assessed using both positive indicators (life satisfaction, academic achievement, academic self-efficacy) and negative indicators (psychopathology) of…

  5. Scientific Temper among Academically High and Low Achieving Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kour, Sunmeet

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the scientific temper of high and low achieving adolescent girl students. Random sampling technique was used to draw the sample from various high schools of District Srinagar. The sample for the present study consisted of 120 school going adolescent girls (60 high and 60 low achievers). Data was…

  6. The "Renaissance Child": High Achievement and Gender in Late Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the concept of the "Renaissance Child" to illustrate the ways in which gender influences the opportunities and possibilities of high-achieving pupils. Using data from a study of 12-13-year high-achieving boys and girls based in schools in England, the paper considers the ways in which a group of popular boys was able…

  7. Effects of Modality and Pace on Achievement, Mental Effort, and Positive Affect in Multimedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izmirli, Serkan; Kurt, Adile Askim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of instruction given with different multimedia modalities (written text + animation or narration + animation) on the academic achievement, cognitive load, and positive affect in different paces (learner-paced or system-paced); 97 freshmen university students divided into four groups taught in…

  8. Effective Instruction Delivery and Time-In: Positive Procedures for Achieving Child Compliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandal, Rebecca L.; Olmi, D. Joe; Edwards, Ron P.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Benoit, Denise A.

    2000-01-01

    Preschool children (N=4) from a university-based school psychology clinic were studied to assess whether increases in compliance could be obtained in clinical settings by using only positive procedures such as effective instruction delivery and time-in. Both procedures alone achieved increases in compliance over baseline levels, and additional…

  9. African American Community Education Partnership Summit: Focusing on Reading & Mathematics Achievement. Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Robert L.

    This document was produced as a position paper for background for a summit convened by the San Francisco Unified School District (California) to focus on the education and achievement of African American students. The Education Partnership Summit had the principal goal of developing strategies and techniques to increase the mathematics and reading…

  10. Position Paper: Applying Machine Learning to Software Analysis to Achieve Trusted, Repeatable Scientific Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Prowell, Stacy J; Symons, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    Producing trusted results from high-performance codes is essential for policy and has significant economic impact. We propose combining rigorous analytical methods with machine learning techniques to achieve the goal of repeatable, trustworthy scientific computing.

  11. Test-Taking Strategies of High and Low Mathematics Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Sas, Maggie; Sas, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored test-preparation and test-taking strategies that high school students used in algebra tests. From a pool of high school students (N = 156), 61 students participated in interviews, and of those interviewed, 26 represented those who were high achieving as well as highly interested in mathematics (n = 15) vs. those who were low…

  12. Some Correlates of High School Foreign Language Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beanblossom, Gary F.

    This paper investigates the influences of traditional kinds of verbal and quantitative achievement and aptitude variables on high school foreign language achievement, as measured by Modern Language Association and University of Washington tests of language skills administered to entering college students. The report focuses on: (1) the sample and…

  13. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 29th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report presents the 1998 statistical findings of the annual survey to determine the attitudes of national high school student leaders. Questionnaires were completed by 3,123 high school juniors and seniors, all of whom were selected for recognition in "Who's Who among American High School Students." In addition to demographic…

  14. Achievement Motivation Training for Potential High School Dropouts. Achievement Motivation Development Project Working Paper Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, David C.

    This pilot project sought to determine if instruction in achievement motivation would help potential dropouts to complete their schooling. Subjects were tenth grade students in a suburban Boston high school. A one-week residential course during winter and spring vacations was taken by one group of six boys and a second group of four. Equated…

  15. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 28th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report details the 28th annual study to examine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. Participating in the survey were 3,210 adolescents, primarily 16- and 17-year-olds, who had been featured in the 1997 edition of "Who's Who Among American High School Students." The report presents demographic information on the…

  16. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 27th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report details the 27th annual study to examine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. Participating in the survey were 3,370 adolescents, primarily 16- and 17-year-olds, who had been featured in the 1996 edition of "Who's Who Among American High School Students." The report presents demographic information on the survey…

  17. Actively Closing the Gap? Social Class, Organized Activities, and Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…

  18. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 25th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey was conducted during the spring of 1994 for the purpose of determining the attitudes of student leaders in the nation's high schools. Eight thousand surveys were sent out to students, of which 3177 were returned. All students surveyed were members of the junior or senior class during the 1993-94 academic year. They were selected for…

  19. What Does Quality Programming Mean for High Achieving Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samudzi, Cleo

    2008-01-01

    The Missouri Academy of Science, Mathematics and Computing (Missouri Academy) is a two-year accelerated, early-entrance-to-college, residential school that matches the level, complexity and pace of the curriculum with the readiness and motivation of high achieving high school students. The school is a part of Northwest Missouri State University…

  20. High-Stakes Testing: Does It Increase Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.

    2007-01-01

    I review the literature on the impact on student achievement of high-stakes testing. Its popularity as a mechanism for holding educators accountable has triggered studies to examine whether its promise to increase student learning has been fulfilled. The review concludes there is no consistent evidence to suggest high-stakes testing leads to…

  1. Brain Hemisphericity and Mathematics Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Sanny F.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the brain hemisphericity and mathematics achievement of high school students. The respondents of the study were the 168 first year high school students of Colegio de San Jose, during school year 2010-2011 who were chosen through stratified random sampling. The descriptive and interview methods of research were used in…

  2. Exploring High-Achieving Students' Images of Mathematicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Mario Sánchez; Rosas, Alejandro; Zavaleta, Juan Gabriel Molina; Romo-Vázquez, Avenilde

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the images that a group of high-achieving Mexican students hold of mathematicians. For this investigation, we used a research method based on the Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) with a sample of 63 Mexican high school students. The group of students' pictorial and written descriptions of mathematicians assisted us…

  3. Achieving the College Dream? Examining Disparities in Access to College Information among High Achieving and Non-High Achieving Latina Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura-Walsh, Erin; Yamamura, Erica K.; Griffin, Kimberly A.; Allen, Walter R.

    2009-01-01

    Using an Opportunity to Learn (OTL) framework, this study examines the college preparatory experiences of Latina high and non-high achievers at an urban Latina/o majority high school. Findings indicate that students relied almost exclusively on school resources to navigate their college preparation process. However, the school provided…

  4. Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; Rajeswari, K.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the influence of self-esteem on academic achievement among high school students in Miandoab City of Iran. The methodology of the research is descriptive and correlation that descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Statistical Society includes male and female high…

  5. Comparison of Achievement of Students in High School Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troxel, Verne A.

    1970-01-01

    Compares student achievements on common objectives of CHEMS, CBA, and "Modern Chemistry high school chemistry courses. Results indicate the three couses are not equally effective in meeting their objectives. CHEMS and CBA develop a better understanding of chemistry and science, as well as develop greater ability for critical thinking. CBA…

  6. Relationship between High School Leadership Team Practices and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Timothy M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated if a relationship existed between student achievement in 10th grade Missouri Assessment Program mathematics and 11th grade communication arts scores in 2007 and high school leadership team perceptions of the extent to which they demonstrated leadership practices. The secondary purpose was to compare perceptional…

  7. Early College High School: Closing the Latino Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Kristen Ann

    2016-01-01

    The population of United States Latino students is growing at a rapid rate but their academic achievement lags behind white and Asian students. This issue has significant consequences for the nation's economy, as the job market continues to demand more education and better skills. Early College High School programs have the potential to improve…

  8. Thinking positively: The genetics of high intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Krapohl, Eva; Simpson, Michael A.; Reichenberg, Avi; Cederlöf, Martin; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Plomin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    High intelligence (general cognitive ability) is fundamental to the human capital that drives societies in the information age. Understanding the origins of this intellectual capital is important for government policy, for neuroscience, and for genetics. For genetics, a key question is whether the genetic causes of high intelligence are qualitatively or quantitatively different from the normal distribution of intelligence. We report results from a sibling and twin study of high intelligence and its links with the normal distribution. We identified 360,000 sibling pairs and 9000 twin pairs from 3 million 18-year-old males with cognitive assessments administered as part of conscription to military service in Sweden between 1968 and 2010. We found that high intelligence is familial, heritable, and caused by the same genetic and environmental factors responsible for the normal distribution of intelligence. High intelligence is a good candidate for “positive genetics” — going beyond the negative effects of DNA sequence variation on disease and disorders to consider the positive end of the distribution of genetic effects. PMID:25593376

  9. Thinking positively: The genetics of high intelligence.

    PubMed

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Krapohl, Eva; Simpson, Michael A; Reichenberg, Avi; Cederlöf, Martin; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Plomin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    High intelligence (general cognitive ability) is fundamental to the human capital that drives societies in the information age. Understanding the origins of this intellectual capital is important for government policy, for neuroscience, and for genetics. For genetics, a key question is whether the genetic causes of high intelligence are qualitatively or quantitatively different from the normal distribution of intelligence. We report results from a sibling and twin study of high intelligence and its links with the normal distribution. We identified 360,000 sibling pairs and 9000 twin pairs from 3 million 18-year-old males with cognitive assessments administered as part of conscription to military service in Sweden between 1968 and 2010. We found that high intelligence is familial, heritable, and caused by the same genetic and environmental factors responsible for the normal distribution of intelligence. High intelligence is a good candidate for "positive genetics" - going beyond the negative effects of DNA sequence variation on disease and disorders to consider the positive end of the distribution of genetic effects.

  10. Parent Involvement Practices of High-Achieving Elementary Science Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Samara Susan

    This study addressed a prevalence of low achievement in science courses in an urban school district in Georgia. National leaders and educators have identified the improvement of science proficiency as critical to the future of American industry. The purpose of this study was to examine parent involvement in this school district and its contribution to the academic achievement of successful science students. Social capital theory guided this study by suggesting that students achieve best when investments are made into their academic and social development. A collective case study qualitative research design was used to interview 9 parent participants at 2 elementary schools whose children scored in the exceeds category on the Science CRCT. The research questions focused on what these parents did at home to support their children's academic achievement. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview protocol and analyzed through the categorical aggregation of transcribed interviews. Key findings revealed that the parents invested time and resources in 3 practices: communicating high expectations, supporting and developing key skills, and communicating with teachers. These findings contribute to social change at both the local and community level by creating a starting point for teachers, principals, and district leaders to reexamine the value of parent input in the educational process, and by providing data to support the revision of current parent involvement policies. Possibilities for further study building upon the findings of this study may focus on student perceptions of their parents' parenting as it relates to their science achievement.

  11. The Construction of Black High-Achiever Identities in a Predominantly White High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Dorinda J. Carter

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I examine how black students construct their racial and achievement self-concepts in a predominantly white high school to enact a black achiever identity. By listening to these students talk about the importance of race and achievement to their lives, I came to understand how racialized the task of achieving was for them even…

  12. Improving science achievement at high-poverty urban middle schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruby, Allen

    2006-11-01

    A large percentage of U.S. students attending high-poverty urban middle schools achieve low levels of science proficiency, posing significant challenges to their success in high school science and to national and local efforts to reform science education. Through its work in Philadelphia schools, the Center for Social Organization of Schools at Johns Hopkins University developed a teacher-support model to address variation in science curricula, lack of materials, and underprepared teachers that combined with initial low levels of proficiency block improvements in science achievement. The model includes a common science curriculum based on NSF-supported materials commercially available, ongoing teacher professional development built around day-to-day lessons, and regular in-class support of teachers by expert peer coaches. One cohort of students at three Philadelphia middle schools using the model was followed from the end of fourth grade through seventh grade. Their gains in science achievement and achievement levels were substantially greater than students at 3 matched control schools and the 23 district middle schools serving a similar student population. Under school-by-school comparisons, these results held for the two schools with adequate implementation. Using widely available materials and techniques, the model can be adopted and modified by school partners and districts.

  13. The Will to Achieve: A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of African American High Achieving Students and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Natalie Faye

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to understand the experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents. The experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents have been missing from literature on the academic achievement of African American students. Much of the literature that has been published…

  14. Achieving High Performance on the i860 Microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, King; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The i860 is a high performance microprocessor used in the Intel Touchstone project. This paper proposes a paradigm for programming the i860 that is modelled on the vector instructions of the Cray computers. Fortran callable assembler subroutines were written that mimic the concurrent vector instructions of the Cray. Cache takes the place of vector registers. Using this paradigm we have achieved twice the performance of compiled code on a traditional solve.

  15. The impact of collective teacher efficacy on student achievement in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burcham, Mark W.

    This dissertation was designed to examine the impact of collective teacher efficacy on high school science achievement by looking at relationships among collective teacher efficacy, its two constructs, group competence and group task analysis, and high school science achievement scores at four rural high schools in Northwestern North Carolina. The researcher gathered historical test data from the testing coordinator from the school system and then administered the Collective Teacher Efficacy Instrument, developed by Goddard, Hoy, and Woolfolk Hoy (2000), to 24 science teachers from the four high schools. Using this information, the researcher conducted statistical analyses to determine the relationships among collective teacher efficacy, group competence, and group task analysis as compared with the tested science curriculum (physical science, biology, chemistry, and physics). The researcher also examined which construct was the most contributing factor and examined differences in efficacy levels and student achievement levels at each high school. Analysis of the data from this study indicated collective teacher efficacy, as well as its two constructs, group competence and group task analysis, does have a positive impact on student achievement in high school science. Analysis of the data revealed group competence is the major contributing factor for student achievement in biology and group task analysis is the major contributing factor for student achievement in physical science, chemistry, and physics. Further analysis of the data in this study, also revealed that the two high schools with the highest levels of collective teacher efficacy had the highest levels of student achievement.

  16. The role of faith in adoption: achieving positive adoption outcomes for African American children.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Kathleen; Copeland, Sam; Cheung, Monit

    2008-01-01

    African American children are overrepresented in foster care by more than twice their proportion in the population (U.S. Government Accountability Office [USGAO], 2007). Building upon research relating faith (religiosity) to positive health and mental health, this study utilized cognitive and religious coping theories to examine the influence of faith on choosing to adopt, achieving positive adoption outcomes, and reducing disproportionality. From Louisiana and Texas, 113 families who adopted 226 children, 48% African American, participated in a survey measuring children's behavior and parent distress (PSI-SF Difficult Child and Parent Distress Subscales) and religiosity (Hoge Intrinsic Religiosity Index). Of the respondents, 93% of the respondents belonged to a religious congregation, 86% attended church weekly. Controlling for child's behavior, religiosity predicted lower stress in adoptive parenting; church attendance was related to improvement in parental health since adopting. Faith was rated most frequently as essential in parents' decisions to adopt. The study concludes that faith may be an asset in increasing adoptions and improving adoption outcomes resulting in increased numbers of African American children adopted.

  17. Achieving high data reduction with integral cubic B-splines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin J.

    1993-01-01

    During geometry processing, tangent directions at the data points are frequently readily available from the computation process that generates the points. It is desirable to utilize this information to improve the accuracy of curve fitting and to improve data reduction. This paper presents a curve fitting method which utilizes both position and tangent direction data. This method produces G(exp 1) non-rational B-spline curves. From the examples, the method demonstrates very good data reduction rates while maintaining high accuracy in both position and tangent direction.

  18. The Relationship between Illinois School District Superintendent Longevity and High School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libka, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Frequent changes in school district superintendents may be having a detrimental impact on student achievement. Rapid changes in leadership today parallel the present (NCLB) era of high stakes state assessments. The goal of the study was to provide correlation research that would have a positive effect on school district management, superintendent…

  19. Negative Relationship between Achievement in High School and Self-Concept in College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Raymond N.; Grosch, James W.

    Social learning theory implies that there should be a significant positive relationship between academic performance and self-concept and outcomes of recent meta-analyses support this prediction. While path-analytic studies of high school samples in the 1960s and 1970s demonstrated that ability and achievement each made a small positive…

  20. Experiences of High-Achieving High School Students Who Have Taken Multiple Concurrent Advanced Placement Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Problem: An increasing number of high-achieving American high school students are enrolling in multiple Advanced Placement (AP) courses. As a result, high schools face a growing need to understand the impact of taking multiple AP courses concurrently on the social-emotional lives of high-achieving students. Procedures: This phenomenological…

  1. Interface Strategy To Achieve Tunable High Frequency Attenuation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hualiang; Zhang, Haiqian; Ji, Guangbin; Xu, Zhichuan J

    2016-03-01

    Among all polarizations, the interface polarization effect is the most effective, especially at high frequency. The design of various ferrite/iron interfaces can significantly enhance the materials' dielectric loss ability at high frequency. This paper presents a simple method to generate ferrite/iron interfaces to enhance the microwave attenuation at high frequency. The ferrites were coated onto carbonyl iron and could be varied to ZnFe2O4, CoFe2O4, Fe3O4, and NiFe2O4. Due to the ferrite/iron interface inducing a stronger dielectric loss effect, all of these materials achieved broad effective frequency width at a coating layer as thin as 1.5 mm. In particular, an effective frequency width of 6.2 GHz could be gained from the Fe@NiFe2O4 composite.

  2. Nutrition prescription to achieve positive outcomes in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ash, Susan; Campbell, Katrina L; Bogard, Jessica; Millichamp, Anna

    2014-01-22

    In Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), management of diet is important in prevention of disease progression and symptom management, however evidence on nutrition prescription is limited. Recent international CKD guidelines and literature was reviewed to address the following question "What is the appropriate nutrition prescription to achieve positive outcomes in adult patients with chronic kidney disease?" Databases included in the search were Medline and CINAHL using EBSCOhost search engine, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews published from 2000 to 2009. International guidelines pertaining to nutrition prescription in CKD were also reviewed from 2000 to 2013. Three hundred and eleven papers and eight guidelines were reviewed by three reviewers. Evidence was graded as per the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia criteria. The evidence from thirty six papers was tabulated under the following headings: protein, weight loss, enteral support, vitamin D, sodium, fat, fibre, oral nutrition supplements, nutrition counselling, including protein and phosphate, nutrients in peritoneal dialysis solution and intradialytic parenteral nutrition, and was compared to international guidelines. While more evidence based studies are warranted, the customary nutrition prescription remains satisfactory with the exception of Vitamin D and phosphate. In these two areas, additional research is urgently needed given the potential of adverse outcomes for the CKD patient.

  3. Nutrition Prescription to Achieve Positive Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Susan; Campbell, Katrina L.; Bogard, Jessica; Millichamp, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), management of diet is important in prevention of disease progression and symptom management, however evidence on nutrition prescription is limited. Recent international CKD guidelines and literature was reviewed to address the following question “What is the appropriate nutrition prescription to achieve positive outcomes in adult patients with chronic kidney disease?” Databases included in the search were Medline and CINAHL using EBSCOhost search engine, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews published from 2000 to 2009. International guidelines pertaining to nutrition prescription in CKD were also reviewed from 2000 to 2013. Three hundred and eleven papers and eight guidelines were reviewed by three reviewers. Evidence was graded as per the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia criteria. The evidence from thirty six papers was tabulated under the following headings: protein, weight loss, enteral support, vitamin D, sodium, fat, fibre, oral nutrition supplements, nutrition counselling, including protein and phosphate, nutrients in peritoneal dialysis solution and intradialytic parenteral nutrition, and was compared to international guidelines. While more evidence based studies are warranted, the customary nutrition prescription remains satisfactory with the exception of Vitamin D and phosphate. In these two areas, additional research is urgently needed given the potential of adverse outcomes for the CKD patient. PMID:24451311

  4. Unlocking Emergent Talent: Supporting High Achievement of Low-Income, High Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Clarenbach, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This report takes a comprehensive look at achievement for low-income promising learners--past, present, and future. At its core, it challenges the nation to move beyond its near-singular focus of achieving minimum performance for all students, to identifying and developing the talent of all students who are capable of high achievement, including…

  5. Positive Academic Emotions Moderate the Relationship between Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villavicencio, Felicidad T.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research has shown how academic emotions are related to achievement and to cognitive/motivational variables that promote achievement. Mediated models have been proposed to account for the relationships among academic emotions, cognitive/motivational variables, and achievement, and research has supported such mediated models,…

  6. A Quantitative Assessment of the Effect of Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports on Math Achievement: A Middle School Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Marilyn N.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation between implementation of Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports (PBIS) and academic achievement in middle school math as measured by the Maryland State Assessment (MSA). In particular, the correlation of academic achievement in mathematics, grouped by PBIS implementation status to race, socioeconomic status…

  7. Achieving unusual oxidation state of matter under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Lin, Haiqing; Ma, Yanming; Miao, Maosheng

    2013-03-01

    Pressure has many effects to matter including the reduction of the volume, the increase of the coordination number and the broadening of the band-widths. In the past, most of the high-pressure studies focused on structural and electronic state phase transitions. Using first principles calculations and a bias-free structural search method, we will demonstrate that high pressure can lead to high oxidation state of elements that can never be achieved under ambient condition, making high pressure technique a nice tool to explore many traditional topics in solid state and molecular chemistry. As an example, we will show that Hg can transfer the electrons in its outmost d shell to F atoms and form HgF4 molecular crystals under pressure, thereby acting as a true transition metal. Group IIB elements, including Zn, Cd, and Hg are usually defined as post-transition metals because they are commonly oxidized only to the +2 state. Their d shells are completely filled and do not participate in the formation of chemical bonds. Although the synthesis of HgF4 molecules in gas phase was reported before, the molecules show strong instabilities and dissociate. Therefore, the transition metal propensity of Hg remains an open question.

  8. High-precision positioning of radar scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dheenathayalan, Prabu; Small, David; Schubert, Adrian; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2016-05-01

    Remote sensing radar satellites cover wide areas and provide spatially dense measurements, with millions of scatterers. Knowledge of the precise position of each radar scatterer is essential to identify the corresponding object and interpret the estimated deformation. The absolute position accuracy of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) scatterers in a 2D radar coordinate system, after compensating for atmosphere and tidal effects, is in the order of centimeters for TerraSAR-X (TSX) spotlight images. However, the absolute positioning in 3D and its quality description are not well known. Here, we exploit time-series interferometric SAR to enhance the positioning capability in three dimensions. The 3D positioning precision is parameterized by a variance-covariance matrix and visualized as an error ellipsoid centered at the estimated position. The intersection of the error ellipsoid with objects in the field is exploited to link radar scatterers to real-world objects. We demonstrate the estimation of scatterer position and its quality using 20 months of TSX stripmap acquisitions over Delft, the Netherlands. Using trihedral corner reflectors (CR) for validation, the accuracy of absolute positioning in 2D is about 7 cm. In 3D, an absolute accuracy of up to ˜ 66 cm is realized, with a cigar-shaped error ellipsoid having centimeter precision in azimuth and range dimensions, and elongated in cross-range dimension with a precision in the order of meters (the ratio of the ellipsoid axis lengths is 1/3/213, respectively). The CR absolute 3D position, along with the associated error ellipsoid, is found to be accurate and agree with the ground truth position at a 99 % confidence level. For other non-CR coherent scatterers, the error ellipsoid concept is validated using 3D building models. In both cases, the error ellipsoid not only serves as a quality descriptor, but can also help to associate radar scatterers to real-world objects.

  9. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed. PMID:25973781

  10. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs—Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  11. Achievement of high nitrite accumulation via endogenous partial denitrification (EPD).

    PubMed

    Ji, Jiantao; Peng, Yongzhen; Wang, Bo; Wang, Shuying

    2017-01-01

    This study proposed a novel strategy for achievement of partial denitrification driven by endogenous carbon sources in an anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic activated sludge system. Results showed that in the steady-stage, the nitrate-to-nitrite transformation ratio (NTR) was kept at around 87% without nitrate in the effluent. During the anaerobic period, exogenous carbon sources was completely taken up, accompanied by the consumption of glycogen and production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). During the anoxic period, nitrate was reduced to nitrite by using PHAs as carbon sources, followed by the replenishment of glycogen. Thus, the phenotype of denitrifying GAOs was clearly observed and endogenous partial denitrification (EPD) occurred. Furthermore, results showed the nitrate reduction was prior to the nitrite reduction in the presence of nitrate, which led to the high nitrite accumulation.

  12. Relationship of constructivist learning environment to student attitudes and achievement in high school mathematics and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethlefs, Theresa Marie

    This study investigated the relationship of constructivist learning environment and standards-based teaching practices to student achievement and attitudes (self-efficacy, intrinsic value, and learning strategies) in Algebra and Biology. Further, these relationships were examined as a function of student gender and prior achievement. A purposive sample of 804 high school students enrolled in Biology I, Algebra I, or Advanced Algebra was selected for inclusion in this study. Although the dimensions of constructivist learning environment that contributed to predicting student achievement and attitudes varied by content area and criterion, the results of the present study generally provide strong support for a positive relationship between constructivist learning environment and student attitudes, but little support for a direct relationship to student achievement. Teacher reports of overall constructivist learning environment were not correlated with achievement or attitudes. Observer reports of constructivist learning environment were correlated with student intrinsic value and learning strategies. Student reports of constructivist learning environment were correlated with all three attitude measures. Multiple regression findings showed that neither overall constructivist learning environment nor standards-based teaching practices predicted achievement in any of the content areas. Overall constructivist learning environment and standards-based teaching practices were significant positive predictors of student intrinsic value and learning strategies in all three content areas, after controlling for student and classroom demographic variables. Overall constructivist learning environment and standards-based teaching practices were also significant positive predictors of self-efficacy in Algebra 1. In addition, standards-based teaching practices was a significant positive predictor of student self-efficacy in Biology. No specific dimensions of constructivist learning

  13. Relationships between meaning in life, social and achievement events, and positive and negative affect in daily life.

    PubMed

    Machell, Kyla A; Kashdan, Todd B; Short, Jerome L; Nezlek, John B

    2015-06-01

    Research on meaning in life has generally focused on global meaning judgments. This study examined how people's daily experiences, represented by events that occur in daily life, influence their perceived sense of meaning on a daily basis. One hundred sixty-two college students completed daily reports for 2 weeks. We examined the relationships among daily social and achievement events, daily positive and negative affect, and daily meaning in life. In addition, we tested the possible moderating influence of depressive symptoms on these relationships. Positive daily social and achievement events were related to greater daily meaning, above and beyond the contributions of daily positive and negative affect. Negative social and achievement events were related to less daily meaning, and negative achievement events covaried with daily meaning above and beyond positive and negative affect. Depression moderated the relationships between positive events and meaning, such that people who reported more depressive symptoms had greater increases in daily meaning in response to positive social and achievement events than individuals who reported fewer symptoms. These findings suggest the important role that daily events may play in fluctuations in people's affective experiences and sense of meaning in life.

  14. Achieving ultra-high temperatures with a resistive emitter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Tom; Franks, Greg; Holmes, Nicholas; LaVeigne, Joe; Matis, Greg; McHugh, Steve; Norton, Dennis; Vengel, Tony; Lannon, John; Goodwin, Scott

    2016-05-01

    The rapid development of very-large format infrared detector arrays has challenged the IR scene projector community to also develop larger-format infrared emitter arrays to support the testing of systems incorporating these detectors. In addition to larger formats, many scene projector users require much higher simulated temperatures than can be generated with current technology in order to fully evaluate the performance of their systems and associated processing algorithms. Under the Ultra High Temperature (UHT) development program, Santa Barbara Infrared Inc. (SBIR) is developing a new infrared scene projector architecture capable of producing both very large format (>1024 x 1024) resistive emitter arrays and improved emitter pixel technology capable of simulating very high apparent temperatures. During earlier phases of the program, SBIR demonstrated materials with MWIR apparent temperatures in excess of 1400 K. New emitter materials have subsequently been selected to produce pixels that achieve even higher apparent temperatures. Test results from pixels fabricated using the new material set will be presented and discussed. A 'scalable' Read In Integrated Circuit (RIIC) is also being developed under the same UHT program to drive the high temperature pixels. This RIIC will utilize through-silicon via (TSV) and Quilt Packaging (QP) technologies to allow seamless tiling of multiple chips to fabricate very large arrays, and thus overcome the yield limitations inherent in large-scale integrated circuits. Results of design verification testing of the completed RIIC will be presented and discussed.

  15. Peace of Mind, Academic Motivation, and Academic Achievement in Filipino High School Students.

    PubMed

    Datu, Jesus Alfonso D

    2017-04-09

    Recent literature has recognized the advantageous role of low-arousal positive affect such as feelings of peacefulness and internal harmony in collectivist cultures. However, limited research has explored the benefits of low-arousal affective states in the educational setting. The current study examined the link of peace of mind (PoM) to academic motivation (i.e., amotivation, controlled motivation, and autonomous motivation) and academic achievement among 525 Filipino high school students. Findings revealed that PoM was positively associated with academic achievement β = .16, p < .05, autonomous motivation β = .48, p < .001, and controlled motivation β = .25, p < .01. As expected, PoM was negatively related to amotivation β = -.19, p < .05, and autonomous motivation was positively associated with academic achievement β = .52, p < .01. Furthermore, the results of bias-corrected bootstrap analyses at 95% confidence interval based on 5,000 bootstrapped resamples demonstrated that peace of mind had an indirect influence on academic achievement through the mediating effects of autonomous motivation. In terms of the effect sizes, the findings showed that PoM explained about 1% to 18% of the variance in academic achievement and motivation. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are elucidated.

  16. How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been used in a large number of fields, such as chemical, agricultural and biopharmaceutical industries. The enzyme production rate and yield are the main factors to consider when choosing the appropriate expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant enzymes have been expressed in bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria), filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and yeasts (e.g., Pichia pastoris). The favorable and very advantageous characteristics of these species have resulted in an increasing number of biotechnological applications. Bacterial hosts (e.g., E. coli) can be used to quickly and easily overexpress recombinant enzymes; however, bacterial systems cannot express very large proteins and proteins that require post-translational modifications. The main bacterial expression hosts, with the exception of lactic acid bacteria and filamentous fungi, can produce several toxins which are not compatible with the expression of recombinant enzymes in food and drugs. However, due to the multiplicity of the physiological impacts arising from high-level expression of genes encoding the enzymes and expression hosts, the goal of overproduction can hardly be achieved, and therefore, the yield of recombinant enzymes is limited. In this review, the recent strategies used for the high-level expression of microbial enzymes in the hosts mentioned above are summarized and the prospects are also discussed. We hope this review will contribute to the development of the enzyme-related research field. PMID:23686280

  17. Effects of Partner's Ability on the Achievement and Conceptual Organization of High-Achieving Fifth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Glenda; Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Investigates high-achieving fifth-grade students' achievement gains and conceptual reorganization on convection. Features an instructional sequence of three dyadic inquiry investigations related to convection currents as well as pre- and post-assessment consisting of a multiple-choice test, a card sorting task, construction of a concept map, and…

  18. Comparison of the Level of Using Metacognitive Strategies during Study between High Achieving and Low Achieving Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doganay, Ahmet; Demir, Ozden

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to compare the level of using metacognitive strategies during study between high achieving and low achieving prospective classroom teachers. This study was designed as a mixed method study. Metacognitive Learning Strategies Scale developed by Namlu (2004) was used to measure the use of metacognitive strategies…

  19. Positive Parenting for High-Risk Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devall, Esther L.

    2004-01-01

    Teen, single, divorced, foster, abusive, substance affected, and incarcerated parents and their children participated in intensive parenting education classes lasting 9 to 24 weeks. Participants were primarily single (58%), Hispanic (60%), and female (60%). Parents showed significant increases in empathy and knowledge of positive discipline…

  20. Resolution of a High Performance Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Gronberg, J; Ross, M; Khainovski, O; Kolomensky, Y; Loscutoff, P; Slater, M; Thomson, M; Ward, D; Boogert, S; Vogel, V; Meller, R; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; Miller, D; Frisch, J; Hinton, S; May, J; McCormick, D; Smith, S; Smith, T; White, G; Orimoto, T; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J

    2005-09-12

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved - ideally using beam-based stability measurements. It has been estimated that RF cavity beam position monitors (BPMs) could provide position measurement resolutions of less than one nanometer and could form the basis of the desired beam-based stability measurement. We have developed a high resolution RF cavity BPM system. A triplet of these BPMs has been installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. A metrology system for the three BPMs was recently installed. This system employed optical encoders to measure each BPM's position and orientation relative to a zero-coefficient of thermal expansion carbon fiber frame and has demonstrated that the three BPMs behave as a rigid-body to less than 5 nm. To date, we have demonstrated a BPM resolution of less than 20 nm over a dynamic range of +/- 20 microns.

  1. Achieving High Throughput for Data Transfer over ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.; Townsend, Jeffrey N.

    1996-01-01

    File-transfer rates for ftp are often reported to be relatively slow, compared to the raw bandwidth available in emerging gigabit networks. While a major bottleneck is disk I/O, protocol issues impact performance as well. Ftp was developed and optimized for use over the TCP/IP protocol stack of the Internet. However, TCP has been shown to run inefficiently over ATM. In an effort to maximize network throughput, data-transfer protocols can be developed to run over UDP or directly over IP, rather than over TCP. If error-free transmission is required, techniques for achieving reliable transmission can be included as part of the transfer protocol. However, selected image-processing applications can tolerate a low level of errors in images that are transmitted over a network. In this paper we report on experimental work to develop a high-throughput protocol for unreliable data transfer over ATM networks. We attempt to maximize throughput by keeping the communications pipe full, but still keep packet loss under five percent. We use the Bay Area Gigabit Network Testbed as our experimental platform.

  2. Student Perception of Academic Achievement Factors at High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahar, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the quality of the "product" is elemental in education, and most studies depend on observational data about student achievement factors, focusing overwhelmingly on quantitative data namely achievement scores, school data like attendance, facilities, expenditure class size, etc. But there is little evidence of learner…

  3. High-Achieving High School Students and Not so High-Achieving College Students: A Look at Lack of Self-Control, Academic Ability, and Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honken, Nora B.; Ralston, Patricia A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among lack of self-control, academic ability, and academic performance for a cohort of freshman engineering students who were, with a few exceptions, extremely high achievers in high school. Structural equation modeling analysis led to the conclusion that lack of self-control in high school, as measured by…

  4. The Relationship between Professional Learning Community Implementation and Academic Achievement and Graduation Rates in Georgia High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardinger, Regina Gail

    2013-01-01

    Many educational administrators in Georgia continue to struggle with low student academic achievement and low high school graduation rates. DuFour's professional learning community (PLC) theory suggests a positive relationship between levels of PLC implementation and academic achievement and between levels of PLC implementation and graduation…

  5. Success in Higher Education: The Challenge to Achieve Academic Standing and Social Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Life, James

    2015-01-01

    When students look at their classmates in the classroom, consciously or unconsciously, they see competitors both for academic recognition and social success. How do they fit in relation to others and how do they succeed in achieving both? Traditional views on the drive to succeed and the fear of failure are well known as motivators for achieving…

  6. 2×2 dominant achievement goal profiles in high-level swimmers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Cecchini Estrada, Jose A; Mendez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Garcia, Benjamín; Saavedra, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess achievement goal dominance, self-determined situational motivation and competence in high-level swimmers before and after three training sessions set at different working intensities (medium, sub-maximal and maximal). Nineteen athletes (males, n=9, 18.00±2.32 years; females, n=10, 16.30±2.01 years, range = 14-18) agreed to participate. They completed a questionnaire that included the Dominant Achievement Goal assessment instrument, the 2×2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport (AGQ-S), The Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS) and the Competence subscale of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise questionnaire (BPNES). Results indicated that participants overwhelmingly showed mastery-approach achievement goal dominance, and it remained stable at the conclusion of the different training sessions under all intensity levels. This profile was positively correlated to self-determined situational motivation and competence. However, swimmers' feelings of competence increased only after the medium intensity level training session. After the completion of the maximal intensity training session, swimmers' self-determined motivation was significantly lower compared to the other two training sessions, which could be caused by a temporary period of burnout. Results indicated that high-level swimmers had a distinct mastery-approach dominant achievement goal profile that was not affected by the workload of the different training sessions. They also showed high levels of self-determined situational motivation and competence. However, heavy workloads should be controlled because they can cause transitory burnout.

  7. Threatened and Placed at Risk: High Achieving African American Males in Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Ebony O.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the risk and protective factors of 11 high-achieving African American males attending 4 urban charter high schools in a Midwestern city to determine what factors account for their resilience and success in mathematics courses, and in high school more generally. This research was guided by a Phenomenological Variant of…

  8. Effects of the Maytiv positive psychology school program on early adolescents' well-being, engagement, and achievement.

    PubMed

    Shoshani, Anat; Steinmetz, Sarit; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv

    2016-08-01

    As positive psychology is a nascent area of research, there are very few empirical studies assessing the impact and sustained effects of positive psychology school interventions. The current study presents a 2-year longitudinal evaluation of the effects of a school-based positive psychology program on students' subjective well-being, school engagement, and academic achievements. The study investigated the effectiveness of the Maytiv school program using a positive psychology-based classroom-level intervention with 2517 seventh- to ninth-grade students in 70 classrooms, from six schools in the center of Israel. The classes were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions, which were comparable in terms of students' age, gender, and socio-economic status. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed positive intervention effects on positive emotions, peer relations, emotional engagement in school, cognitive engagement, and grade point average scores (Cohen's ds 0.16-0.71). In the control group, there were significant decreases in positive emotions and cognitive engagement, and no significant changes in peer relations, emotional engagement or school achievements. These findings demonstrate the significant socio-emotional and academic benefits of incorporating components of positive psychology into school curricula.

  9. The Effect of Music Participation on Mathematical Achievement and Overall Academic Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, H. A.; Stephens, L. J.

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted on high school students, comparing those with some music credits to those with none. No statistically significant difference was found in their mean math grade point averages (GPA) or their mean cumulative GPAs. Students were then separated into two groups based on the number of music credits. Students who had earned at least…

  10. Sleep Duration, Positive Attitude toward Life, and Academic Achievement: The Role of Daytime Tiredness, Behavioral Persistence, and School Start Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Sleep timing undergoes profound changes during adolescence, often resulting in inadequate sleep duration. The present study examines the relationship of sleep duration with positive attitude toward life and academic achievement in a sample of 2716 adolescents in Switzerland (mean age: 15.4 years, SD = 0.8), and whether this relationship is…

  11. When Parents' Affection Depends on Child's Achievement: Parental Conditional Positive Regard, Self-Aggrandizement, Shame and Coping in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assor, Avi; Tal, Karen

    2012-01-01

    We examined the idea that adolescents' perceptions of their mothers as using parental conditional positive regard (PCPR) to promote academic achievement are associated with maladaptive self feelings and coping. A study of 153 adolescents supported the hypothesis that PCPR predicts self-aggrandizement following success and self devaluation and…

  12. The Relative Effects of Positive Interdependence and Group Processing on Student Achievement and Attitude in Online Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Chang Woo; Zellner, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of positive interdependence and group processing on student achievement and attitude in online learning. Students in three university courses received initial instruction about teamwork skills and cooperative learning and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups in each course. The "positive…

  13. Examining the Effect of Positive Behaviour Support on Academic Achievement of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitiyo, Morgan; Makweche-Chitiyo, Plaxedes; Park, Meungguk; Ametepee, Lawrence K.; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Students who engage in challenging behaviour compromise the fundamental ability of schools to educate children. Consequently, teachers face the daunting task of designing effective strategies to promote positive educational outcomes for their students. Since the 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act amendments, the use of positive…

  14. The Role of Faith in Adoption: Achieving Positive Adoption Outcomes for African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Kathleen; Copeland, Sam; Cheung, Monit

    2008-01-01

    African American children are overrepresented in foster care by more than twice their proportion in the population (U.S. Government Accountability Office [USGAO], 2007). Building upon research relating faith (religiosity) to positive health and mental health, this study utilized cognitive and religious coping theories to examine the influence of…

  15. Achievement in a Serial Positioning Task and the Role of Learner Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Thomas, J. R. A neo- Piagetian investi- gation of the serial position effect in children’s motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior, 1978, 10, 95-104...W. Induced versus spontaneous rehearsal in short term memory in nursery school children. Developmental Psychology, 1969, 1, 40-46. Maccoby, E. E

  16. Academic attainment and the high school science experiences among high-achieving African American males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trice, Rodney Nathaniel

    This study examines the educational experiences of high achieving African American males. More specifically, it analyzes the influences on their successful navigation through high school science. Through a series of interviews, observations, questionnaires, science portfolios, and review of existing data the researcher attempted to obtain a deeper understanding of high achieving African American males and their limitations to academic attainment and high school science experiences. The investigation is limited to ten high achieving African American male science students at Woodcrest High School. Woodcrest is situated at the cross section of a suburban and rural community located in the southeastern section of the United States. Although this investigation involves African American males, all of whom are successful in school, its findings should not be generalized to this nor any other group of students. The research question that guided this study is: What are the limitations to academic attainment and the high school science experiences of high achieving African American males? The student participants expose how suspension and expulsion, special education placement, academic tracking, science instruction, and teacher expectation influence academic achievement. The role parents play, student self-concept, peer relationships, and student learning styles are also analyzed. The anthology of data rendered three overarching themes: (1) unequal access to education, (2) maintenance of unfair educational structures, and (3) authentic characterizations of African American males. Often the policies and practices set in place by school officials aid in creating hurdles to academic achievement. These policies and practices are often formed without meaningful consideration of the unintended consequences that may affect different student populations, particularly the most vulnerable. The findings from this study expose that high achieving African American males face major

  17. Dominant Achievement Goals across Tracks in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheltinga, Peter A. M.; Kuyper, Hans; Timmermans, Anneke C.; van der Werf, Greetje P. C.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant achievement goals (DAGs) of 7,008 students in the third grade of Dutch secondary education (US grade 9) were investigated, based on Elliot & McGregors' 2 × 2 framework (2001), in relation to track-level and motivational variables. We found the mastery-approach goal and the performance-approach goal, generally considered adaptive,…

  18. Charter High Schools: Closing the Achievement Gap. Innovations in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The eight schools profiled in this document are serving different populations, but all of them are closing the achievement gap between low-income, minority, and special needs students and their peers. By trying out innovative new strategies, these schools are blazing a trail for others to follow. They are dispelling the myth that some students can…

  19. "Brains before "Beauty"?" High Achieving Girls, School and Gender Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky; Read, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In recent years educational policy on gender and achievement has concentrated on boys' underachievement, frequently comparing it with the academic success of girls. This has encouraged a perception of girls as the "winners" of the educational stakes and assumes that they no longer experience the kinds of gender inequalities identified in…

  20. Success Despite Socioeconomics: A Case Study of a High-Achieving, High-Poverty School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Thomas Brent; Smith, Samuel J.; Claxton, Russell L.

    2012-01-01

    This case study of a high-achieving, high-poverty school describes the school's leadership, culture, and programs that contributed to its success. Data were collected from two surveys (the School Culture Survey and the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education), observations at the school site, and interviews with school personnel. The…

  1. Career inflection points of women who successfully achieved the hospital CEO position.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Donald W; Lemak, Christy Harris; Wainio, Joyce Anne

    2014-01-01

    Women are significantly underrepresented in hospital CEO positions, and this gender disparity has changed little over the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to analyze the career trajectories of successful female healthcare executives to determine factors that generated inflections in their careers. Using qualitative research methodology, we studied the career trajectories of 20 women who successfully ascended into a hospital CEO position. Our findings revealed 25 inflection points related to education and training, experience, career management, family, networking, and mentorship and sponsorship. We found substantial differences in the career inflection points by functional background. Inflections were more pronounced early in the careers of women in healthcare management, while clinical and administrative support executives experienced more inflections later as they took on responsibilities outside of their professional roles. Only two inflections were common among all the executives: completing a graduate degree and obtaining experience as a chief operating officer. More importantly, our findings show that organizational support factors are critical for the career advancement of women. We conclude with recommendations for individuals in an effort to enhance their career trajectories. We also provide recommended activities for organizations to support the careers of women in healthcare leadership.

  2. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    PubMed

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  3. Excellence: Achieving High Performance in the Army Personnel System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    purposes. The energy comes in part from a strong, shared sense of motivation, and is expressed in teamwork , which binds people together in pursuit of...physical and spiritual). They possess a positive self- image and have a strong sense of self-confidence. They believe deeply in the rightness of their own...purpose and they practice and visualize goals which they seek, as though they had been attained. Finally, these individuals cultivate networks which

  4. The Grasshopper and the Ant: Motivational Responses of Low-Achieving Students to High-Stakes Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderick, Melissa; Engel, Mimi

    2001-01-01

    Examined the responses of 102 low achieving sixth and eighth graders to Chicago's highly publicized efforts to end social promotion. Students generally described increased work efforts, and students with high levels of work effort generally had greater than average learning gains and positive outcomes in terms of promotion. About one-third of…

  5. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  6. Exploring the Positional Identities of High School Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Edith Lavonne

    2012-01-01

    The identity of the teacher has been determined to influence classroom practices. Positional identity is defined as one's perception of self relative to others. This qualitative research study investigates the positional identity of five high school science teachers of different ethnicities and how their positional identities influence their…

  7. Examining Organizational Practices That Predict Persistence among High-Achieving Black Males in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth Alonzo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: This article summarizes an increasing trend of antideficit Black male research in mathematics and highlights opportunities to add to the research. A review of the literature shows that antideficit researchers often examine relationships between individual traits and persistence of high-achieving Black males in mathematics.…

  8. The Strengths of High-Achieving Black High School Students in a Racially Diverse Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Kris; Chaney, Cassandra; Jones, Derrick

    2012-01-01

    Robert Hill (1972) identified strengths of Black families: strong kinship bonds, strong work orientation, adaptability of family roles, high achievement orientation, and religious orientation. Some suggest these strengths sustain the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual needs of Blacks. This study used narratives and survey data from a…

  9. Relationship between High School Mathematical Achievement and Quantitative GPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Halpin, Glennelle; Halpin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The demand for STEM graduates has increased, but the number of incoming freshmen who declare a STEM major has remained stagnant. High school courses, such as calculus, can open or close the gate for students interested in careers in STEM. The purpose of this study was to determine if high school mathematics preparation was a significant…

  10. Practically Perfect in Every Way: Can Reframing Perfectionism for High-Achieving Undergraduates Impact Academic Resilience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Mary J.; Dickinson, David A. G.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on a pan-disciplinary scheme that targeted high-achieving undergraduate students. Earlier research from the scheme argued that high achievers have discernibly different learning and personal development support needs. One of the most frequent self-reported challenges within this high-achieving group is perfectionism. This…

  11. High Achiever: A School Modernization Uncovers Hidden Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Regina Raiford

    2003-01-01

    Describes the renovation of Lisle Senior High School in Lisle, Illinois, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects, suppliers, and construction team. Also includes the floor plan and photographs. (EV)

  12. Sleep duration, positive attitude toward life, and academic achievement: the role of daytime tiredness, behavioral persistence, and school start times.

    PubMed

    Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Sleep timing undergoes profound changes during adolescence, often resulting in inadequate sleep duration. The present study examines the relationship of sleep duration with positive attitude toward life and academic achievement in a sample of 2716 adolescents in Switzerland (mean age: 15.4 years, SD = 0.8), and whether this relationship is mediated by increased daytime tiredness and lower self-discipline/behavioral persistence. Further, we address the question whether adolescents who start school modestly later (20 min; n = 343) receive more sleep and report better functioning. Sleeping less than an average of 8 h per night was related to more tiredness, inferior behavioral persistence, less positive attitude toward life, and lower school grades, as compared to longer sleep duration. Daytime tiredness and behavioral persistence mediated the relationship between short sleep duration and positive attitude toward life and school grades. Students who started school 20 min later received reliably more sleep and reported less tiredness.

  13. Positive futures? The impact of HIV infection on achieving health, wealth and future planning.

    PubMed

    Harding, Richard; Molloy, Tim

    2008-05-01

    Although HIV is now cast as a chronic condition with favourable clinical outcomes under new treatments, it is unclear how living with HIV affects expectations and planning for the future. This mixed-methods study aimed to investigate UK gay men's expectations of their own future when living with HIV, and to identify the heath and social interventions required to enhance roles, participation and personal fulfilment. A preliminary focus group identified relevant domains of enquiry for a subsequent online cross-sectional survey. A total of 347 gay men living in the UK with HIV participated in the survey, and 56.6% were currently on treatment. However, high 7-day prevalence of psychological and physical symptoms was identified (42.6% in pain, 80.2% worrying); 57.8% perceived reduced career options due to their infection and 71.8% reduced life expectancy. Being on treatment was not significantly associated with perceived life expectancy. Coded open-ended survey data identified eight principle themes related to goal planning and attainment. The integrated open and closed data items offer an understanding of barriers and challenges that focus on poor mental health due to clinical inattention, discrimination and stigma, poor career and job opportunities due to benefit and workplace inflexibility and lack of understanding, a lack of personal goals and associated skills deficit related to confidence and self esteem. Gay men living with HIV require an integrated holistic approach to wellbeing that incorporates clinical, social and individual intervention in order to lead productive lives with maximum benefit from treatment gains.

  14. Gender, Student Motivation and Academic Achievement in a Midsized Wisconsin High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutzke, Steven Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated relationships among gender, academic motivation and achievement in a mid-sized Wisconsin high school. A questionnaire was developed that focused on perceived ability, achievement motives and achievement goals. Interviews with teachers focused on relationships among academic motivation and gender achievement.…

  15. Student Achievement Data Systems in High and Low Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowiak, Jeannie E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in how high and low performing elementary school districts use and analyze data to differentiate instruction, make changes to district/grade level curriculum, determine professional development needs, determine teacher effectiveness, and determine the use of school district…

  16. Behaviour and achievement disorders in children with high intelligence.

    PubMed

    Barchmann, H; Kinze, W

    1990-01-01

    With 6% of the patients of a childpsychiatric population using treatment a high intelligence with an IQ of over 120 was the result. This is in agreement with the results by Reinhard (1981), but is below the results by Schmidt (1977) and justifies neither the association to a higher talent as risk factor nor as protective factor in view of a potential psychic illness. 341 child-neuropsychiatric patients with hyperkinetic syndrome (55%), Enuresis (28%), reactions of adaptation (5%), specific emotional disturbances in childhood (4%), Encopresis (3%), Psychalgy (3%) and tics (2%) were studied; thereby 22 highly intelligent patients were compared with average intelligent patients. With high intelligence better performances of concentration, more reflexive style of study, better school notes and more favourable motor capabilities, less pronounced signs of anxiety and neuroticism are found, but also a poorer social adaptation and less favourable effects of treatment. Concerning the poorer chances of treatment with high intelligence however the behaviour-therapeutic concentration of our therapy has to be pointed out, which might not offer an optimal chance for development.

  17. Organizational Citizenship of Faculty and Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaola, Michael F.; Hoy, Wayne K.

    2005-01-01

    All successful organizations, including successful high schools, have employees who go beyond their formal job responsibilities and freely give of their time and energy to succeed. Organ was the first to use the phrase "organizational citizenship behavior" (OCB) to denote organizationally beneficial behavior of workers that was not prescribed but…

  18. Common Core and America's High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    While the merit and politics of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have been much debated and discussed, one topic has been virtually ignored: What do the standards portend for America's high-ability students? This brief addresses that question and provides guidance for CCSS-implementing districts and schools as they seek to help these…

  19. Syllabication Skills and Reading Achievement of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Robert L.; Geis, Lynna

    A sample of 175 students, constituting grades 10, 11, and 12 of two high schools, was used in the validation of a new Syllabication Skills Test. On the first day, the students completed four forms of the syllabication test; on the second, they completed Survey F of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests. Means and standard deviations were similar for…

  20. Technology's Achilles Heel: Achieving High-Quality Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gene E.

    2010-01-01

    An inherent characteristic of technology education is the continual development of new technologies and creating innovative applications of already existing technologies. As exciting as these innovations can be, technology educators and school staffs are frequently challenged to accomplish high levels of implementation. The metaphor of the…

  1. Alternative High School Scheduling. Student Achievement and Behavior. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisapia, John; Westfall, Amy Lynn

    In 1995 the Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium (MERC), Richmond (Virginia) commissioned a study of alternative high school scheduling modules to determine the effects of different schedules on teaching strategies, teacher and student satisfaction, and student and school performance. This report presents results of an analysis of student…

  2. High-Achieving Schools Put Equity Front and Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Sonia Caus; Gerzon, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    How does professional learning look and feel in high-poverty schools where every student makes at least one year's worth of progress every year? How do schools and leaders put all the varied components of professional learning together so that they support all students learning every day? What professional learning grounds and sustains educators…

  3. More High-Achieving Students Are Choosing Community Colleges First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2008-01-01

    Certainly, "Tonight Show" host Jay Leno has nurtured the perception that community colleges are a punishment for underperforming high school students by joking that community colleges aren't "real colleges." This article shows that this perception belies the reality that contemporary community colleges serve students seeking trade skills but also…

  4. Teaching High-Accuracy Global Positioning System to Undergraduates Using Online Processing Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Guoquan

    2013-01-01

    High-accuracy Global Positioning System (GPS) has become an important geoscientific tool used to measure ground motions associated with plate movements, glacial movements, volcanoes, active faults, landslides, subsidence, slow earthquake events, as well as large earthquakes. Complex calculations are required in order to achieve high-precision…

  5. Impact of learning orientation on African American children's attitudes toward high-achieving peers.

    PubMed

    Marryshow, Derrick; Hurley, Eric A; Allen, Brenda A; Tyler, Kenneth M; Boykin, A Wade

    2005-01-01

    This study examined Ogbu's widely accepted thesis that African American students reject high academic achievement because they perceive its limited utility in a world where their upward mobility is constrained by racial discrimination. Boykin's psychosocial integrity model contends that Black students value high achievement but that discrepancies between their formative cultural experiences and those imposed in school lead them to reject the modes of achievement available in classrooms. Ninety Black children completed a measure of attitudes toward students who achieve via mainstream or African American cultural values. Participants rejected the mainstream achievers and embraced the African American cultural achievers. Moreover, they expected their teachers to embrace the mainstream achievers and reject those who achieved through high-verve behavior. Results suggest that Boykin's thesis is a needed refinement to Ogbu's ideas. They indicate that Black children may reject not high achievement but some of the mainstream cultural values and behaviors on which success in mainstream classrooms is made contingent.

  6. Achieving high sustained performance in an unstructured mesh CFD application

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, D E; Anderson, W K; Gropp, W D; Kaushik, D K; Smith, B F

    1999-12-10

    This paper highlights a three-year project by an interdisciplinary team on a legacy F77 computational fluid dynamics code, with the aim of demonstrating that implicit unstructured grid simulations can execute at rates not far from those of explicit structured grid codes, provided attention is paid to data motion complexity and the reuse of data positioned at the levels of the memory hierarchy closest to the processor, in addition to traditional operation count complexity. The demonstration code is from NASA and the enabling parallel hardware and (freely available) software toolkit are from DOE, but the resulting methodology should be broadly applicable, and the hardware limitations exposed should allow programmers and vendors of parallel platforms to focus with greater encouragement on sparse codes with indirect addressing. This snapshot of ongoing work shows a performance of 15 microseconds per degree of freedom to steady-state convergence of Euler flow on a mesh with 2.8 million vertices using 3072 dual-processor nodes of ASCI Red, corresponding to a sustained floating-point rate of 0.227 Tflop/s.

  7. Achieving High Reliability Operations Through Multi-Program Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Holly M. Ashley; Ronald K. Farris; Robert E. Richards

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 20 years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has adopted a number of operations and safety-related programs which has each periodically taken its turn in the limelight. As new programs have come along there has been natural competition for resources, focus and commitment. In the last few years, the INL has made real progress in integrating all these programs and are starting to realize important synergies. Contributing to this integration are both collaborative individuals and an emerging shared vision and goal of the INL fully maturing in its high reliability operations. This goal is so powerful because the concept of high reliability operations (and the resulting organizations) is a masterful amalgam and orchestrator of the best of all the participating programs (i.e. conduct of operations, behavior based safety, human performance, voluntary protection, quality assurance, and integrated safety management). This paper is a brief recounting of the lessons learned, thus far, at the INL in bringing previously competing programs into harmony under the goal (umbrella) of seeking to perform regularly as a high reliability organization. In addition to a brief diagram-illustrated historical review, the authors will share the INL’s primary successes (things already effectively stopped or started) and the gaps yet to be bridged.

  8. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  9. From Dropout to High Achiever: An Understanding of Academic Excellence through the Ethnography of High and Low Achieving Secondary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar, Alfredo

    This paper, a follow-up to a previous review of literature on academic excellence that synthesized information from the United States and Mexico, describes an ethnographic study of high-achieving and low-achieving Hispanic secondary school students from Calexico, California and Mexicali, Baja California Mexico. Five students for each group were…

  10. Relationships of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies to mathematics achievement in four high-performing East Asian education systems.

    PubMed

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education systems, memorization strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement, whereas control strategies were positively associated with mathematics achievement. However, the association between elaboration strategies and mathematics achievement was a mixed bag. In Shanghai-China and Korea, elaboration strategies were not associated with mathematics achievement. In Hong Kong-China and Singapore, on the other hand, elaboration strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  11. Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Structural, Cultural, and Organizational Barriers Preventing Women from Achieving Senior and Executive Positions

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Merida L.

    2013-01-01

    The business case for gender diversity in senior and executive positions is compelling. Studies show that companies that have the best records for promoting women outstrip their competition on every measure of profitability. Yet women disproportionately are failing to attain high-level positions. Reviewing current data on women in the workplace, findings of studies on the relationship between gender diversity in senior management and company performance, and the literature on gender behavioral differences and the workplace, this article explores the possible reasons for the persistent wage and gender gap between women and men in senior leadership positions and discusses possible remedies. PMID:23346029

  12. Breaking the glass ceiling: structural, cultural, and organizational barriers preventing women from achieving senior and executive positions.

    PubMed

    Johns, Merida L

    2013-01-01

    The business case for gender diversity in senior and executive positions is compelling. Studies show that companies that have the best records for promoting women outstrip their competition on every measure of profitability. Yet women disproportionately are failing to attain high-level positions. Reviewing current data on women in the workplace, findings of studies on the relationship between gender diversity in senior management and company performance, and the literature on gender behavioral differences and the workplace, this article explores the possible reasons for the persistent wage and gender gap between women and men in senior leadership positions and discusses possible remedies.

  13. High Achievement in Mathematics Education in India: A Report from Mumbai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Manya

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a study aimed at characterizing the conditions that lead to high achievement in mathematics in India. The study involved eight schools in the greater Mumbai region. The main result of the study is that the notion of high achievement itself is problematic, as reflected in the reports about mathematics achievement within and…

  14. Rectangular Dielectric-loaded Structures for Achieving High Acceleration Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changbiao; Yakovlev, V. P.; Marshall, T. C.; LaPointe, M. A.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2006-11-01

    Rectangular dielectric-loaded structures are described that may sustain higher acceleration gradients than conventional all-metal structures with similar apertures. One structure is a test cavity designed to ascertain the breakdown limits of dielectrics, while a second structure could be the basis for a two-beam accelerator. CVD diamond is an attractive dielectric for a high-gradient structure, since the published DC breakdown limit for CVD diamond is ˜ 2 GV/m, although the limit has never been determined for RF fields. Here we present a design of a diamond-lined test cavity to measure the breakdown limit. The designed cavity operates at 34 GHz, where with 10-MW input power it is expected to produce an ˜800 MV/m field on the diamond surface—provided breakdown is avoided. The two channel rectangular dielectric-loaded waveguide could be a two-beam accelerator structure, in which a drive beam is in one channel and an accelerated beam is in the other. The RF power produced by drive bunches in the drive channel is continuously coupled to the acceleration channel. The ratio of fields in the channels (transformer ratio) for the operating mode can be designed by adjusting the dimensions of the structure. An example of the two-channel structure is described, in which a train of five 3-nC drive bunches excites wake fields in the accelerator channel of up to 1.3 GV/m with a transformer ratio of 10 for the design mode.

  15. What makes a good program? A case study of a school admitting high academic achievers.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ching Man

    2008-10-10

    This paper reports the results of a qualitative study that explored the administration and implementation of the Tier 1 Program (Secondary 1 Curriculum) of the Project P.A.T.H.S. The case study method was used to explore perceptions of the teachers and the project coordinator of program effectiveness, and to identify various factors for program success. A school admitting high academic achievers was selected, and site visits, as well as individual and focus group interviews, were conducted with the program coordinator, social worker, and course teachers. The results suggested that clear vision and program goals, high quality of curriculum, helpful leadership, positive teacher attitude, and strong administrative support are factors for program success. Analyzing the data enables the researchers to understand the characteristics of a successful program as well as the interplay among factors for producing success.

  16. High-School Students' Need for Cognition, Self-Control Capacity, and School Achievement: Testing a Mediation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrams, Alex; Dickhauser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    In the present article, we examine the hypothesis that high-school students' motivation to engage in cognitive endeavors (i.e., their need for cognition; NFC) is positively related to their dispositional self-control capacity. Furthermore, we test the prediction that the relation between NFC and school achievement is mediated by self-control…

  17. An Examination of Paternal Influence on High-Achieving Gifted Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Thomas P.; Pagnani, Alexander R.; Hammond, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    The challenges facing contemporary boys are complex, highlighting the importance of positive paternal influence for young men to achieve success. This study examines the father-son relationships of 10 prominent gifted men of achievement to identify factors influencing talent development. Through biographical analysis, 6 significant themes were…

  18. Achieving higher pathological complete response rates in HER-2-positive patients with induction chemotherapy without trastuzumab in operable breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Abrial, Catherine; Mouret-Reynier, Marie-Ange; Raoelfils, Inès; Durando, Xavier; Leheurteur, Marianne; Gimbergues, Pierre; Tortochaux, Jacques; Curé, Hervé; Chollet, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    Recent trials of induction chemotherapy in bulky operable breast cancer have shown much higher pathological complete response (pCR) rates with trastuzumab-driven combinations. However, it is useful to take into account the specific chemosensitivity of HER-2-positive tumors. The aim of this study was to assess the pCR rate according to HER-2 status in response to chemotherapy, without an anti-HER-2 specific biological agent, in 710 operable breast cancer patients. Since 1982, these patients have been treated with several different neoadjuvant chemotherapy combinations. During this period, HER-2 overexpression was most often not assessed. Subsequently, we assessed HER-2 expression using archival paraffin-embedded tissue. A technically usable specimen was available for 413 of the 710 patients. Before treatment, 51 patients were HER-2 positive, 287 patients were HER-2 negative, and the results were inconclusive for 75 patients. Of these patients, a pCR in breast and nodes was obtained in 94 patients (14.3%), but this event was threefold more frequent for HER-2-positive patients (23.5%) than for HER-2-negative patients (7%). The overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates at 10 years were 66.6% and 57.4%, respectively. The DFS rate was, as expected, better for HER-2-negative patients, with HER-2 status assessed before as well as after chemotherapy. A significant difference was found for OS in favor of HER-2-negative patients only with postchemotherapy assessment of HER-2, a fact similar to our previous findings. Finally, there was a tendency toward a higher DFS rate for HER-2-positive patients who achieved a pCR compared with HER-2-positive patients who did not.

  19. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, S; Boogert, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Frisch, J; Gronberg, J; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Kolomensky, Y; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; May, J; McCormick, D; Meller, R; Miller, D; Orimoto, T; Ross, M; Slater, M; Smith, S; Smith, T; Terunuma, N; Thomson, M; Urakawa, J; Vogel, V; Ward, D; White, G

    2006-12-18

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {micro}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {micro}m.

  20. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Joe; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David John; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; /Fermilab /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley /Cambridge U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Cornell U., LNS /LLNL, Livermore /University Coll. London /SLAC /Caltech /KEK, Tsukuba

    2007-06-08

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {mu}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {mu}m.

  1. Formal Operational Precocity and Achievement in Biology among Some Nigerian High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehindero, Olusola Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Compares the performances on a battery of six Piagetian tasks of 80 Nigerian high school students classified as high and low achievers in biology. The relationship between performance of very bright biology students (high achievers) and intellectual precocity is also investigated. (HM)

  2. The Chinese High School Student's Stress in the School and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 466 Chinese high school students, we examined the relationships between Chinese high school students' stress in the school and their academic achievements. Regression mixture modelling identified two different classes of the effects of Chinese high school students' stress on their academic achievements. One class contained 87% of…

  3. Beyond Academic Reputation: Factors that Influence the College of First Choice for High Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Holly J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies that have investigated college choice factors for high-achieving students repeatedly cite academic reputation as one of the top indicators of choice but have not indicated why some high-achieving students choose to attend universities with a less prestigious reputation than the more highly prestigious options available to them. The purpose…

  4. Does High School Facility Quality Affect Student Achievement? A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Urick, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall…

  5. The Effects of Web-Based/Non-Web-Based Problem-Solving Instruction and High/Low Achievement on Students' Problem-Solving Ability and Biology Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wen-Feng; She, Hsiao-Ching; Lee, Yu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two factors: the mode of problem-solving instruction (i.e. Web-based versus non-Web-based) and the level of academic achievement (i.e. high achievers versus low achievers) on students' problem-solving ability and biology achievement. A quasi-experimental design was used, in which the experimental group…

  6. Exploring the positional identities of high school science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, Edith Lavonne

    The identity of the teacher has been determined to influence classroom practices. Positional identity is defined as one's perception of self relative to others. This qualitative research study investigates the positional identity of five high school science teachers of different ethnicities and how their positional identities influence their classroom practices. Positional identity is thought to be determined by one's perception of how one's race, ethnicity, gender, age, religion and socioeconomic status position one relative to others. The methods of data collection included classroom observations, structured and semi-structured interviews, book club meetings, teacher journals, and researcher journals, demographic and online questionnaires. The teachers that overcame stereotypes based on race/ethnicity, gender and socioeconomic status felt empowered in their positional identities and were able to empower their students. The data also identified those teachers that struggle the most with finding their power within their positional identities were the immigrants that were not able to merge their personal identities within the pre-determined social positions they encountered in this society. The empowerment or powerlessness of the science teachers' positional identities impacted instruction and practices within the science classroom.

  7. Achieving High Strength and High Ductility in Friction Stir-Processed Cast Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wei; Panigrahi, Sushanta K.; Mishra, Rajiv S.

    2013-08-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) is emerging as an effective tool for microstructural modification and property enhancement. As-cast AZ91 magnesium alloy was friction stir processed with one-pass and two-pass to examine the influence of processing conditions on microstructural evolution and corresponding mechanical properties. Grain refinement accompanied with development of strong basal texture was observed for both processing conditions. Ultrafine-grained (UFG) AZ91 was achieved under two-pass FSP with fine precipitates distributed on the grain boundary. The processed UFG AZ91 exhibited a high tensile strength of ~435 MPa (117 pct improvement) and tensile fracture elongation of ~23 pct. The promising combination of strength and ductility is attributed to the elimination of casting porosity, and high density of fine precipitates in an UFG structure with quite low dislocation density. The effects of grain size, precipitate, and texture on deformation behavior have been discussed.

  8. A new high school science program and its effect on student achievement in mathematics and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Robert

    Student achievement in mathematics and science is a high educational priority worldwide. The American educational system is not meeting its objectives for these subjects: our students are performing below international standards. The problem is endemic, leading to the conclusion that it is structural. During the last seven years, I have led the creation and implementation of a program whose aim is to address this problem. The structure of this program stresses horizontal and vertical curriculum articulations in order to increase curriculum efficiency and meaningfulness to students. My first aim, in conducting this study, was to determine the program's effectiveness. Since this was a long term program created in a real world environment it would be difficult to use experimental or quasi-experimental analysis. However, I was able to develop a plausible argument for the effectiveness of the program by using two measures to create a baseline for student aptitude and three measures to determine student achievement. Together these showed that the school's students, while typical of those in New Jersey, achieved very positive results in mathematic and science. The likelihood that the new program was responsible for this was enhanced by the fact that the verbal and mathematical aptitudes of the students were comparable, but their achievement in areas outside mathematic and science were not exceptional. My second aim was to provide documentation so that the program could be replicated at other schools. This included the scope and sequence of the mathematics and science courses; the curricula of the physics courses; an explanation the pedagogical approach used in the physics courses, and sample chapters of a textbook being written to support the first year physic course. Whiles those documents supply a snapshot of the current state of the program; they are probably insufficient to replicate it. This would also require an understanding of the program's rationale. Towards this

  9. An Analysis of Java Programming Behaviors, Affect, Perceptions, and Syntax Errors among Low-Achieving, Average, and High-Achieving Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Andallaza, Thor Collin S.; Castro, Francisco Enrique Vicente G.; Armenta, Marc Lester V.; Dy, Thomas T.; Jadud, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we quantitatively and qualitatively analyze a sample of novice programmer compilation log data, exploring whether (or how) low-achieving, average, and high-achieving students vary in their grasp of these introductory concepts. High-achieving students self-reported having the easiest time learning the introductory programming…

  10. High precision applications of the global positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.

    1991-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a constellation of U.S. defense navigation satellites which can be used for military and civilian positioning applications. A wide variety of GPS scientific applications were identified and precise positioning capabilities with GPS were already demonstrated with data available from the present partial satellite constellation. Expected applications include: measurements of Earth crustal motion, particularly in seismically active regions; measurements of the Earth's rotation rate and pole orientation; high-precision Earth orbiter tracking; surveying; measurements of media propagation delays for calibration of deep space radiometric data in support of NASA planetary missions; determination of precise ground station coordinates; and precise time transfer worldwide.

  11. The Effect of the Time Management Art on Academic Achievement among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zoubi, Maysoon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the effect of the Time Management Art on academic achievement among high school students in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The researcher employed the descriptive-analytic research to achieve the purpose of the study where he chose a sample of (2000) high school female and male students as respondents to the…

  12. Effects of a Collaborative Science Intervention on High Achieving Students' Learning Anxiety and Attitudes toward Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Zuway-R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a collaborative science intervention on high achieving students' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. Thirty-seven eighth-grade high achieving students (16 boys and 21 girls) were selected as an experimental group who joined a 20-week collaborative science intervention, which integrated and utilized…

  13. Individual and Longitudinal Differences among High and Low-Achieving, LD, and ADHD L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Humbach, Nancy; Javorsky, James

    2008-01-01

    High-achieving (HA) and low-achieving (LA), learning disabled (LD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) high school students were followed over two years of L2 study and compared on measures of L1 literacy (reading and writing) in elementary school, L1 cognitive ability, L2 aptitude, oral and written L2 proficiency, and L2 word…

  14. International Note: Between-Domain Relations of Chinese High School Students' Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yangyang, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the between-domain relations of Chinese high school students' academic achievements. In a sample of 1870 Chinese 10th grade students, the results indicated that Chinese high school students' academic achievements were correlated across nine subjects. In line with the previous Western findings, the findings suggested that…

  15. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  16. Parent-Child Relations and Psychological Adjustment among High-Achieving Chinese and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Rak, Eniko; Rana, Meenal; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Chinese American students are often perceived as problem-free high achievers. Recent research, however, suggests that high-achieving Chinese American students can experience elevated levels of stress, especially comparing to their peers from other ethnic groups. In this paper, we examine how family dynamics may influence psychological adjustment…

  17. High-Achieving and Average Students' Reading Growth: Contrasting School and Summer Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Much is unknown about how initially high-achieving students grow academically, especially given the measurement issues inherent in assessing growth for the highest performing students. This study compared initially high-achieving and average students' growth in reading (in a cohort of third-grade students from 2,000 schools) over 3 years.…

  18. A study on using image serving technology for high precision mechanical positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chuen-Horng; Hsiao, Muh-Don; Lai, Kuo-Jung

    2016-12-01

    This paper focused on using image server technology for high precision mechanical positioning. Rapid and precise positioning systems depend on the correct positions of CCD (Charge Coupled Device) video cameras, as well as on pattern matching modes. This study deals with four different positions captured by an automatic detection system employing a CCD video camera. According to a variety of hybrid image registration systems, this study proposes an entire set of methods for achieving optimal hybrid pattern matching. First, the four different position detections captured by the CCD video camera in low-resolution were examined. Next, the original position detection was carried out in high-resolution, in order to derive a precise set of CCD video camera positions. The fiducial mark (FM) was then divided into two types in the optimal option for pattern matching: the "fiducial mark" and "non-fiducial mark", which were then used for sampling. The automatic detection method is able to achieve the first pattern matching detection for recognized images. Unrecognized images or images that cannot have an FM were subjected to fine pattern matching detection. When it is not possible to find more than one FM after the proposed detection method, this suggests that the position of the CCD video camera should be reset. In this paper, the results of the experiment regarding the CCD camera precision location and the segmentation of fiducial patterns or insignificant fiducial patterns can detect and segment more unique areas and areas with unique features.

  19. The Meaning High-Achieving African-American Males in an Urban High School Ascribe to Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, LaTasha; Davis, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers, educators, administrators, policymakers and members of the general public doubt the prevalence of high-achieving African-American males in urban high schools capable of excelling in mathematics. As part of a larger study, the current study explored the educational experiences of four high-achieving African-American males…

  20. High-accuracy indoor positioning system based on visible light communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ling; Zhang, Hongming; Yu, Bingyan; Guan, Yang

    2015-11-01

    A visible light communication (VLC)-based high-accuracy indoor positioning system is proposed and demonstrated. In this system, the light-emitting diode identification (LED-ID) indicating the position information of the LED can be transmitted to the receiver by the illumination LED through VLC. In the meantime, with the aid of a camera and angular sensors of the mobile device, a coordinate transform can be employed to calculate the relative position between the receiver and the reference LED so that the position of the receiver can be determined. Finally, the experimental results show that 2-cm positioning accuracy can be achieved and the simulation results indicate that the positioning error can be limited within 4.7 cm when the accuracy of angular sensors is 1 deg.

  1. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  2. Achievement Emotions as Predictors of High School Science Success Among African-American and European American Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowe, Marilyn Louise Simmons

    The literature includes few studies of the interrelations of achievement goals and achievement emotions with respect to minority students and science achievement. The objective of this study was to test the control-value theory (CVT) of achievement emotions to determine if the eight discrete achievement emotions would be predictive of test scores on the High School Graduation Test (GHSGT)-Science for African-American compared to European-American science students. Convenience cluster sampling was employed to select 160 students who were all juniors in the same public high school at the time that they took the GHSGT-Science. The central research question for this study aimed to uncover whether any of the eight achievement emotions identified in CVT would contribute significantly to the predictability of science achievement as measured by GHSGT-Science scores. Data were collected using a nonexperimental, cross sectional design survey. Data were analyzed using a hierarchal, forced entry, multiple regression analysis. Key results indicated that the eight achievement emotions were predictive of GHSGT-Science score outcomes. Positive social change at the individual level could reflect a boost in confidence for African American science students and help decrease the achievement gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) endeavors between European Americans and African-American students. Educators may consider the importance of achievement emotions in science outcomes by including social emotional learning (SEL) as a part of the regular science curriculum. Future researchers should repeat the study in a school district where the population is available to support the desired cluster sample of equal parts European Americans to African Americans and male to female students.

  3. Low Cost, High Accuracy Positioning In Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hide, Chris; Moore, Terry; Hill, Chris; Park, David

    It is well known that GPS measurements are regularly obstructed in urban environments. Positioning accuracy in such environments is significantly degraded and in many areas, it is not possible to obtain a GPS position fix at all. There are currently two methods that can be used to improve availability in the urban environment. Firstly, GPS receivers can be augmented with dead reckoning sensors such as an INS. Alternatively, High Sensitivity GPS (HSGPS) receivers can be used which are able to acquire and track very weak signals. This paper assesses the performance obtained from a GPS and low cost INS integrated system and a HSGPS receiver in an urban environment in Nottingham, UK. The navigation systems are compared to a high accuracy integrated GPS/INS system which is used to provide a reference trajectory. It is demonstrated that the differential GPS and low cost INS system can provide horizontal positioning accuracy of better than 2·5 m RMS in real-time, and better than 1 m RMS in post-processing, whereas the non-differential HSGPS receiver provides a real-time performance of 5 m RMS. These results were obtained in an environment where, with conventional GPS receivers, a position solution is only available 48·4% of the time. Operational considerations such as initial alignment of the GPS and low cost INS are also discussed when comparing the two systems for urban positioning applications.

  4. Achieving High Rates and High Uniformity in Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Lucy Marjorie

    The chemical mechanical polishing of Copper (Cu-CMP) is a complex and poorly understood process. Despite this, it is widely used throughout the semiconductor and microelectronics industries, and makes up a significant portion of wafer processing costs. In these contexts, desirable polishing outcomes such as a high rate of removal from the copper surface, and high removal rate uniformity, are achieved largely by trial-and-error. In this study, the same outcomes are pursued through a systematic investigation of polishing lubrication characteristics and abrasive and oxidiser concentrations in the polishing slurry. A strong link between lubrication characteristics, quantified by the dimensionless Sommerfield number, and the uniformity of polishing is demonstrated. A mechanism for the observed relationship is proposed, based on an adaptation of hydrodynamic lubrication theory. The overall rate of removal is maximized by polishing in a slurry containing oxidiser and abrasives in a synergistic ratio. Polishing away from this ratio has additional effects on the overall quality of the surface produced. Transport of slurry across the polishing pad is investigated by using tracers; the results demonstrate that slurry usage can be reduced in many circumstances with no impact on overall polishing outcomes, reducing overall processing costs. These findings are combined to design a polishing process, with good results.

  5. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui–Yuan; Yu, Zhao–Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun–Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi–Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30–60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1–5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200–500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application. PMID:26603776

  6. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui–Yuan; Yu, Zhao–Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun–Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi–Chuan

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30-60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1-5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200-500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application.

  7. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Yuan; Yu, Zhao-Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun-Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2015-11-25

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30-60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1-5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200-500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application.

  8. New York State Superintendents and Board Presidents Attitudes on Superintendent Responsibilities in High-Achieving and Low-Achieving School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of New York State superintendents and board presidents in high-achieving and low-achieving school districts on the six superintendent leadership responsibilities identified by Waters and Marzano (2006) and their relationship to improving student achievement: (1) creating research-relevant…

  9. Optimal Position Estimation for the Automatic Alignment of a High Energy Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; Mcclay, W A; Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W

    2004-07-20

    The alignment of high energy laser beams for potential fusion experiments demand high precision and accuracy by the underlying positioning algorithms whether it be for actuator control or monitoring the beam line for potential anomalies. This paper discusses the feasibility of employing on-line optimal position estimators in the form of model-based processors to achieve the desired results. Here we discuss the modeling, development, implementation and processing of model-based processors applied to both simulated and actual beam line data.

  10. Positive focal shift of gallium nitride high contrast grating focusing reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shumin; Wang, Zhenhai; Liu, Qifa

    2016-09-01

    We design a type of metasurfaces capable of serving as a visible-light focusing reflector based on gallium nitride (GaN) high contrast gratings (HCGs). The wavefront of the reflected light is precisely manipulated by spatial variation of the grating periods along the subwavelength ridge array to achieve light focusing. Different from conventional negative focal shift effect, a positive focal shift is observed in such focusing reflectors. Detailed investigations of the influence of device size on the focusing performance, especially the focal length, are preformed via a finite element method . The results show that all performance parameters are greatly affected by the reflector size. A more concentrated focal point, or a better focusing capability, can be achieved by larger size. With increasing reflector size, the achieved focal length decreases and gradually approaches to the design, thus the corresponding positive focal shift decreases. Our results are helpful for understanding the visible-light control of the planar HCG-based focusing reflectors.

  11. Strategies for high-precision Global Positioning System orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Border, James S.

    1987-01-01

    Various strategies for the high-precision orbit determination of the GPS satellites are explored using data from the 1985 GPS field test. Several refinements to the orbit determination strategies were found to be crucial for achieving high levels of repeatability and accuracy. These include the fine tuning of the GPS solar radiation coefficients and the ground station zenith tropospheric delays. Multiday arcs of 3-6 days provided better orbits and baselines than the 8-hr arcs from single-day passes. Highest-quality orbits and baselines were obtained with combined carrier phase and pseudorange solutions.

  12. Understanding and Reversing Underachievement, Low Achievement, and Achievement Gaps among High-Ability African American Males in Urban School Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Donna Y.; Moore, James L., III

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the achievement gap, with attention devoted to underachievement and low achievement among African American males in urban school contexts. More specifically, the article explains problems and issues facing or confronting these Black male students in urban education settings. A central part of this discussion is grounded in…

  13. Gender and High School Chemistry: Student Perceptions on Achievement in a Selective Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Andrew; Mills, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on research undertaken in a middle-class Australian school. The focus of the research was on the relationship between gender and students' engagement with high school chemistry. Achievement data from many OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] countries suggest that middle-class girls are achieving equally…

  14. Achievement Motivation in High School: Contrasting Theoretical Models in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Celay, I. Montero; Tapia, J. Alonso

    1992-01-01

    Three models of achievement motivation in the classroom are contrasted. Results with 155 high school students suggest that the model of C. S. Dweck and E. S. Elliott offers a better explanation of the relationships among achievement motivation, attributions, emotional reactions, expectancies, and performance than do the other models. (SLD)

  15. Predicting Early Academic Failure in High School from Prior Academic Achievement, Psychosocial Characteristics, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casillas, Alex; Robbins, Steve; Allen, Jeff; Kuo, Yi-Lung; Hanson, Mary Ann; Schmeiser, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the differential effects of prior academic achievement, psychosocial, behavioral, demographic, and school context factors on early high school grade point average (GPA) using a prospective study of 4,660 middle-school students from 24 schools. The findings suggest that (a) prior grades and standardized achievement are the…

  16. Accelerated Mathematics and High-Ability Students' Math Achievement in Grades Three and Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the use of a computer-managed integrated learning system entitled Accelerated Math (AM) as a supplement to traditional mathematics instruction on achievement as measured by TerraNova achievement tests of third and fourth grade high-ability students. Gender, socioeconomic status, and…

  17. An Analysis of Mathematics Course Sequences for Low Achieving Students at a Comprehensive Technical High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, D. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This non-experimental study attempted to determine how the different prescribed mathematic tracks offered at a comprehensive technical high school influenced the mathematics performance of low-achieving students on standardized assessments of mathematics achievement. The goal was to provide an analysis of any statistically significant differences…

  18. The Impact of Charter Schools on Promoting High Levels of Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.; Makel, Matthew C.; Rapp, Kelly E.

    2007-01-01

    This study compares achievement levels for high ability students attending charter schools and students in traditional public schools in Georgia. Researchers examined student achievement (as assessed by the state's Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests) using three comparison groups: students in the closest traditional schools with similar grade…

  19. A Quantitative Comparison of Pennsylvania High School Student Achievement by Middle States Association's Accreditation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    As public school accountability for student achievement has continued to increase, prior to and as a result of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, schools have sought ways of bringing new instructional services to their students to raise their levels of achievement. Some Pennsylvania public high schools have attempted to improve student…

  20. Unforgiving Confucian Culture: A Breeding Ground for High Academic Achievement, Test Anxiety and Self-Doubt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews findings from several studies that contribute to our understanding of cross-cultural differences in academic achievement, anxiety and self-doubt. The focus is on comparisons between Confucian Asian and European regions. Recent studies indicate that high academic achievement of students from Confucian Asian countries is…

  1. Instructional, Transformational, and Managerial Leadership and Student Achievement: High School Principals Make a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jerry W.; Prater, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This statewide study examined the relationships between principal managerial, instructional, and transformational leadership and student achievement in public high schools. Differences in student achievement were found when schools were grouped according to principal leadership factors. Principal leadership behaviors promoting instructional and…

  2. Cohort versus Non-Cohort High School Students' Math Performance: Achievement Test Scores and Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Carol S.; Keener, Dana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare multiple measures of mathematics achievement for 1,378 cohort students who attended the same high school in a district from 9th to 12th grade with non-cohort students in each grade level. Results show that mobility had an impact on math achievement. After accounting for gender, ethnicity, and SES, adjusted…

  3. High accuracy autonomous navigation using the global positioning system (GPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Son H.; Hart, Roger C.; Shoan, Wendy C.; Wood, Terri; Long, Anne C.; Oza, Dipak H.; Lee, Taesul

    1997-01-01

    The application of global positioning system (GPS) technology to the improvement of the accuracy and economy of spacecraft navigation, is reported. High-accuracy autonomous navigation algorithms are currently being qualified in conjunction with the GPS attitude determination flyer (GADFLY) experiment for the small satellite technology initiative Lewis spacecraft. Preflight performance assessments indicated that these algorithms are able to provide a real time total position accuracy of better than 10 m and a velocity accuracy of better than 0.01 m/s, with selective availability at typical levels. It is expected that the position accuracy will be increased to 2 m if corrections are provided by the GPS wide area augmentation system.

  4. Polyaspartamide derivative nanoparticles with tunable surface charge achieve highly efficient cellular uptake and low cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Zhao, Yuefang; Feng, Min

    2012-08-07

    Cationic nanocarrier mediated intracellular therapeutic agent delivery acts as a double-edged sword: the carriers promote cellular uptake, but interact nonspecifically and strongly with negatively charged endogenic proteins and cell membranes, which results in aggregates and high cytotoxicity. The present study was aimed at exploring zwitterionic polyaspartamide derivative nanoparticles for efficient intracellular delivery with low cytotoxicity. Poly(aspartic acid) partially grafted tetraethylenepentamine (PASP-pg-TEPA) with different isoelectric points (IEPs) was synthesized. The PASP-pg-TEPA formed zwitterionic nanoparticles with an irregular core and a well-defined shell structure in aqueous medium. Their particle size decreased from about 300 to 80 nm with an increase of the IEP from 7.5 to 9.1. The surface charge of the PASP-pg-TEPA nanoparticles could be tuned from positive to negative with a change of the pH of the medium. The nanoparticles with an IEP above 8.5 exhibited good stability under simulated physiological conditions. It was noted that the zwitterionic PASP-pg-TEPA nanoparticles displayed highly efficient cellular uptake in HeLa cells (approximately 99%) in serum-containing medium and did not adversely affect the cell viability at concentrations up to 1 mg/mL. Furthermore, thermodynamic analysis using isothermal titration calorimetry provided direct evidence that these zwitterionic nanoparticles had low binding affinities for serum protein. Therefore, the zwitterionic PASP-pg-TEPA nanoparticles could overcome limitations of cationic nanocarriers and achieve efficient intracellular delivery with low cytotoxicity.

  5. Impacts of comprehensive reading instruction on diverse outcomes of low- and high-achieving readers.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, John T; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S; Lutz Klauda, Susan; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the effects of Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) with traditional instruction (TI) on several outcomes in a 12-week intervention for low achievers and high achievers. Low achievers in the CORI group were afforded explicit instruction, leveled texts, and motivation support. Compared with TI students, CORI students scored higher on posttest measures of word recognition speed, reading comprehension on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, and ecological knowledge. CORI was equally effective for lower achievers and higher achievers. Explicitly supporting multiple aspects of reading simultaneously appeared to benefit diverse learners on a range of reading outcomes.

  6. Research of position measuring system for high voltage switchgear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yilin; Qian, Zheng; Pan, Kaikai

    2016-01-01

    The contact position's accurate measurement is the key part of the realization of high voltage switchgear's on-line monitoring. Based on the position measurement, the speed and trip of the switchgear could also be obtained. Thus, the health level and the operation status can be evaluated. The insulation condition and the fault symptom can also be identified. In this paper, the on-line measuring principle for the contact position is presented at first. The indirect measuring method is adopted, and the incremental photoelectric encoder is utilized to realize the measurement of angular displacement. The position could be calculated by establishing the relationship between the angular displacement and the contact's linear displacement. After that, the technical difficulties of the on-line measuring system are demonstrated. The selection of encoder, the difficult parts of hardware design and software design are all discussed deeply. The lab test of the whole measuring system is processed at last, and the measuring results are satisfactory. It will provide powerful support for the realization of on-line monitoring equipment of the high voltage switchgear.

  7. Understanding the Elements of Operational Reliability: A Key for Achieving High Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews operational reliability and its role in achieving high reliability through design and process reliability. The topics include: 1) Reliability Engineering Major Areas and interfaces; 2) Design Reliability; 3) Process Reliability; and 4) Reliability Applications.

  8. A Quantitative Literature Review of Cooperative Learning Effects on High School and College Chemistry Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Craig W.

    2000-01-01

    Describes meta-analysis, a quantitative approach to conducting literature reviews. Illustrates the power of this technique by reporting the quantitative effects of cooperative learning on chemistry achievement in high school and college classes. (Contains 32 references.) (WRM)

  9. A Comparison of Emotional-Motivational (A-R-D Theory) Personality Characteristics in Learning Disabled, Normal Achieving, and High Achieving Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufano, Linda D.

    The study examined emotional-motivational personality characteristics of 15 learning disabled, 15 normal achieving, and 15 high achieving students (grades 3-5). The study tested the hypothesis derived from the A-R-D (attitude-reinforcer-discriminative) theory of motivation that learning disabled (LD) children differ from normal and high achieving…

  10. The Outward Bound Bridging Course for Low-Achieving High School Males: Effect on Academic Achievement and Multidimensional Self-Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Richards, Garry

    The Outward Bound Bridging Course is a 6-week residential program designed to improve academic achievement and self-concepts in low-achieving high school males. During 1980-1984, five courses were conducted for 66 Australian high school males. Most of them were ninth grade students, chosen on the basis of poor academic performance, an apparent…

  11. High precision position control of voice coil motor based on single neuron PID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liyi; Chen, Qiming; Tan, Guangjun; Zhu, He

    2013-01-01

    Voice coil motor(VCM) is widely used in high-speed and high-precision positioning control system in recent years. However, there are system uncertainty, nonlinear, modeling error, and external disturbances in the high-precision positioning control system, traditional PID control method is difficult to achieve precise positioning control. In this paper, a new position control strategy with a single neuron controller which has the capability of self-studying and self-adapting composed with PID controller is put forward, and the feedforward compensator is added to improve the dynamic response of the system in the position loop. Moreover, the disturbance observer is designed to suppress model parameter uncertainty and external disturbance signal in the current loop. In addition, the problem of high precision position control of VCM under the influence of significant disturbances is addressed, which including the gas-lubricated damping, the spring, the back EMF and ripple forces, on the basis, the mathematical model of VCM is established accurately. The simulation results show that this kind of controller can improve the dynamic characteristic and strengthen the robustness of the system, and the current loop with disturbance observer can also restrain disturbance and high frequency.

  12. New linear piezomotors for high-force precise positioning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Letty, Ronan; Claeyssen, Frank; Barillot, Francois; Six, Marc F.; Bouchilloux, Philippe

    1998-07-01

    Piezomotors are an increasingly competitive alternative to electromagnetic stepper motors, especially in applications where large bandwidths and/or precise positioning control are desired. Piezomotors use a combination of electromechanical and frictional forces and, compared to conventional electromagnetic motors, have the advantages that no power supply is required to maintain the motor in position and no lubrication is necessary in the device. The operating principle of these motors relies on the use of an ultrasonic vibration, which is created via the piezoelectric effect (at resonance in most cases), in order to generate vibration forces at the `stator/rotor' contact interface. A mechanical preload is also applied at this contact interface and is responsible for the motor's holding force at rest. To meet the specifications of an aerospace application, we developed a new design of Linear PiezoMotors (LPMs). The first prototype we built shows very promising results, and makes the LPM a serious candidate to replace conventional stepper motors. The LPM features the following characteristics: a standing force of 100 N, a blocked force of 37 N, a maximum actuation speed of 23 mm/s, a maximum run of 10 mm, a mass of 500 g, an electrical power of 2.2 W, and a position accuracy superior to 1 micrometers . To our knowledge, the driving force delivered by the LPM has never before been achieved in resonant devices. This paper describes the physical operating principles of the LPM, as well as the modeling tools and experimental techniques we used for its development. Several implementation schemes are also presented and show the wide range of possible applications offered by the linear piezomotor.

  13. Strictest (0,G/I) constraints achieved by high-rate block codes for class-IV PRML channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Khaled A. S.; Weber, Jos H.

    1995-12-01

    Significant improvements in magnetic storage densities have been made feasible recently by the application of partial response signaling combined with maximum-likelihood sequence estimation (PRML). To enhance the performance of this technique when applied to the class- IV partial response channel, which is recognized as being appropriate to model the magnetic recording channel, it is often required to bound the number of consecutive zeros in the recorded data sequence by some positive integer G and the number of consecutive zeros in each of the odd and the even subsequences of the recorded data sequence by some positive integer I. Such a constraint is referred to as a (0, G/I) constraint. Codes are used to map arbitrary unconstrained sequences to (0, G/I) constrained sequences. We investigate the strictest possible constraints that can be achieved by block codes of high rates and compare between these constraints and the strictest possible constraints that can be achieved by arbitrary coding schemes.

  14. Race and Ethnic Differences in College Achievement: Does High School Attended Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jason M.; Tienda, Marta

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses 10 years of enrollment data at four Texas public universities to examine whether, to what extent, and in what ways high school attended contributes to racial and ethnic differences in college achievement. Like previous studies, we show that controlling for observable pre-college achievement variables (e.g. test scores, class rank) shrinks, but does not eliminate, sizable racial differences in college achievement. Fixed-effects models that take into account differences across high schools that minority and nonminority youth attend largely eliminate, and often reverse, black-white and Hispanic-white gaps in several measures of college achievement. Our results, which are quite robust across universities of varying selectivity, illustrate how high school quality foments race and ethnic inequality in postsecondary achievement. Leveling inequities in the quality of high schools that minority students attend is a long-run agenda, but remediation programs that compensate for instructional shortfalls at low performing high schools may help close achievement gaps in the interim. PMID:23136447

  15. Race and Ethnic Differences in College Achievement: Does High School Attended Matter?

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M; Tienda, Marta

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses 10 years of enrollment data at four Texas public universities to examine whether, to what extent, and in what ways high school attended contributes to racial and ethnic differences in college achievement. Like previous studies, we show that controlling for observable pre-college achievement variables (e.g. test scores, class rank) shrinks, but does not eliminate, sizable racial differences in college achievement. Fixed-effects models that take into account differences across high schools that minority and nonminority youth attend largely eliminate, and often reverse, black-white and Hispanic-white gaps in several measures of college achievement. Our results, which are quite robust across universities of varying selectivity, illustrate how high school quality foments race and ethnic inequality in postsecondary achievement. Leveling inequities in the quality of high schools that minority students attend is a long-run agenda, but remediation programs that compensate for instructional shortfalls at low performing high schools may help close achievement gaps in the interim.

  16. Striving for Excellence Sometimes Hinders High Achievers: Performance-Approach Goals Deplete Arithmetical Performance in Students with High Working Memory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Crouzevialle, Marie; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the goal to attain normative superiority over other students, referred to as performance-approach goals, is particularly distractive for high-Working Memory Capacity (WMC) students—that is, those who are used to being high achievers. Indeed, WMC is positively related to high-order cognitive performance and academic success, a record of success that confers benefits on high-WMC as compared to low-WMC students. We tested whether such benefits may turn out to be a burden under performance-approach goal pursuit. Indeed, for high achievers, aiming to rise above others may represent an opportunity to reaffirm their positive status—a stake susceptible to trigger disruptive outcome concerns that interfere with task processing. Results revealed that with performance-approach goals—as compared to goals with no emphasis on social comparison—the higher the students’ WMC, the lower their performance at a complex arithmetic task (Experiment 1). Crucially, this pattern appeared to be driven by uncertainty regarding the chances to outclass others (Experiment 2). Moreover, an accessibility measure suggested the mediational role played by status-related concerns in the observed disruption of performance. We discuss why high-stake situations can paradoxically lead high-achievers to sub-optimally perform when high-order cognitive performance is at play. PMID:26407097

  17. Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

  18. Progress toward achieving high power and high efficiency semipolar LEDs and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hong

    Performance of current commercially available wurtzite nitride based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), grown along the polar (0001) c-plane orientation, is limited by the presence of polarization-related electric fields inside multi-quantum wells (MQWs). The discontinuities in both spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization at the heterointerfaces result in internal electric fields in the quantum wells. These electric fields cause carrier separation [quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE)] and reduce the radiative recombination rate within the quantum wells. One approach to reduce and possibly eliminate the polarization-related effects is to grow III-nitride devices on crystal planes that are inclined with respect to the c-axis, i.e., on semipolar planes. In this dissertation, metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been employed for the homoepitaxial growth of GaN based LEDs on semipolar orientations. As a consequence of growing on high-quality bulk GaN substrates, the LEDs have significantly reduced threading dislocation and stacking fault densities, resulting in remarkable improvements in EQE and output power. High efficiency semipolar (1011) violet-blue and blue LEDs have been demonstrated without any intentional effort to enhance the light extraction from those devices. Optimizations of epitaxial structures have led to increased output power and external quantum efficiency. A silicone encapsulated single quantum well blue LED with peak wavelength of 444 nm with output power of 24.3 mW, external quantum efficiency of 43% and luminous efficacy of 75 lm/W (with phosphorescent coating) at 20 mA has been demonstrated. Polarization fields in strained (1011) and (112¯2) InGaN quantum wells have been experimentally determined through bias-dependent optical studies. Our results show that the polarization field flips its direction in semipolar InGaN quantum wells with large inclination angles (i.e. around 60°). This suggests that there exists a polarization

  19. The Impact of Block Scheduling on Student Achievement, Attendance, and Discipline at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact block scheduling has on (a) student academic achievement, discipline, and attendance, and (b) administrator, teacher, and student perceptions. The study compared 2005-2010 data from a high school utilizing the A/B block schedule and a high school under a traditional schedule, in one suburban…

  20. The Role of Teachers at University: What Do High Achiever Students Look for?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteiro, Silvia; Almeida, Leandro S.; Vasconcelos, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    The perceptions of students about their teachers have interested the academic and scientific community, regarding the improvement of the quality of higher education. This paper presents data obtained from interviews conducted with ten high achiever engineering students and focuses on the characteristics of teachers that are highly valued by the…

  1. Study-Orientation of High and Low Academic Achievers at Secondary Level in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Bashir, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Naemullah; Khan, Muhammad Saeed

    2009-01-01

    The study orientation of low and high academic achievers was compared, measured through a self-developed study orientation scale (SOS) primarily based on 47 items comparing study habits and attitude. Students' marks obtained in the 10th grade Examination determined the measure of academic performance. The analysis revealed that the high achievers…

  2. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Expanding College Opportunities for High-Achieving, Low Income Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of providing low-income, high-achieving high school seniors with college application guidance and information about the costs of college. The "application guidance" included information about deadlines and requirements for college applications at nearby institutions, at the state's flagship institution, and at in-…

  3. The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Achievement in At-Risk High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Jarrett Graham

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this quantitative survey study was the examination of the relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement in 164 at-risk high school students. The study used Bandura's self-efficacy as the theoretical framework. The research questions involved understanding the levels of self-efficacy in at-risk high school students and…

  4. The Contribution of Limbic Learning Aptitude to Achievement in High School. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ax, Albert F.; And Others

    Achievement in earning grades in high school was resolved into its intellectual and motivational components. This study employed tests of I.Q., personality inventories and classical and operant conditioning of autonomic nervous system controlled variables. Eleven procedures were given to 99 Black inner city high school seniors. Six physiological…

  5. The Effects of Modeling Instruction on High School Physics Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an "ex post facto," quasi-experimental research methodology. The…

  6. Improving High School Students' Mathematics Achievement through the Use of Motivational Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portal, Jamie; Sampson, Lisa

    This report describes a program for motivating students in mathematics in order to improve achievement at the high school level. The targeted population consisted of high school students in a middle class community located in a suburb of a large metropolitan area. The problems of underachievement were documented through data collected from surveys…

  7. Coping with High-Achieving Transnationalist Immigrant Students: The Experience of Israeli Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisikovits, Rivka A.

    2008-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to teacher attitudes toward high-achieving culturally diverse student groups. This in-depth study focuses on the experience of Israeli teachers who tell the story of a decade and a half of educational work with their highly motivated, academically successful immigrant students from the Former Soviet Union. The paper…

  8. 10 Strategies for Raising Achievement and Improving High School Completion Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene

    2004-01-01

    No state can afford to have the percentage of young people who are failing to finish high school remain at the present levels nor can they afford to ease the standards. This document discusses the following 10 strategies that states can implement to raise achievement and increase high school completion rates: (1) Initiate a transition program for…

  9. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Leadership of Kuwaiti High and Low Achieving 11th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnabhan, Mousa

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and the Leadership components (L) of high school students in the state of Kuwait. The possibility of predicting each leadership component via emotional intelligence components was investigated for high and low achievers. A sample of 11th grade students from Kuwaiti…

  10. Dual Enrollment Programs: A Comparative Study of High School Students' College Academic Achievement at Different Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Agnes L. Acker

    2012-01-01

    The "ex post facto" causal-comparative study examined the academic achievement of high school students who took their dual credit English or mathematics college credit-bearing course in two different environments, namely, the college setting and the high school setting. Due to non-experimental nature of the study, no causal inferences…

  11. Classroom Environment, Instructional Resources, and Teaching Differences in High-Performing Kentucky Schools with Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; Cowley, Kimberly S.; Schumacher, Debbie; Hauser, Brenda; Croom, Nona D. M.

    This study examined differences at the classroom level between Kentucky schools with minimum versus large gaps in academic achievement between particular groups of students. Data were gathered via observations of 213 classrooms at 18 elementary, middle, and high schools. Although all the schools were identified as high-performing in terms of…

  12. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills in High Achieving Elementary Schools in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egnor, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines if practices that advocate for 21st century skills are in conflict with the mandates of NCLB. Interviews with influential school leaders of high achieving elementary schools focused on collecting data about 21st century skills. This study was designed to (a) Determine if 21st century skills are addressed in high achieving…

  13. Small Classes in the Early Grades, Academic Achievement, and Graduating From High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Jeremy D.; Gerber, Susan B.; Boyd-Zaharias, Jayne

    2005-01-01

    This investigation addressed 3 questions about the long-term effects of early school experiences: (a) Is participation in small classes in the early grades (K-3) related to high school graduation? (b) Is academic achievement in K-3 related to high school graduation? (c) If class size is related to graduation, is the relationship explained by the…

  14. The Relationship between Thinking Style Differences and Career Choices for High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this study was to present information about high-achieving students' career decision making associated with thinking styles. We gathered data from two International Baccalaureate (IB) programs and a Governor's School Program with a sample of 209 high-school students. The findings of this study demonstrated that the effect of program…

  15. High accuracy position response calibration method for a micro-channel plate ion detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, R.; Leredde, A.; Bagdasarova, Y.; Fléchard, X.; García, A.; Müller, P.; Knecht, A.; Liénard, E.; Kossin, M.; Sternberg, M. G.; Swanson, H. E.; Zumwalt, D. W.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a position response calibration method for a micro-channel plate (MCP) detector with a delay-line anode position readout scheme. Using an in situ calibration mask, an accuracy of 8 μm and a resolution of 85 μm (FWHM) have been achieved for MeV-scale α particles and ions with energies of ∼10 keV. At this level of accuracy, the difference between the MCP position responses to high-energy α particles and low-energy ions is significant. The improved performance of the MCP detector can find applications in many fields of AMO and nuclear physics. In our case, it helps reducing systematic uncertainties in a high-precision nuclear β-decay experiment.

  16. A monolithic MEMS position sensor for closed-loop high-speed atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, N.; Nievergelt, A. P.; Adams, J. D.; Stavrov, V. T.; Fantner, G. E.

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy and repeatability of atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging significantly depend on the accuracy of the piezoactuator. However, nonlinear properties of piezoactuators can distort the image, necessitating sensor-based closed-loop actuators to achieve high accuracy AFM imaging. The advent of high-speed AFM has made the requirements on the position sensors in such a system even more stringent, requiring higher bandwidths and lower sensor mass than traditional sensors can provide. In this paper, we demonstrate a way for high-speed, high-precision closed-loop AFM nanopositioning using a novel, miniaturized micro-electro-mechanical system position sensor in conjunction with a simple PID controller. The sensor was developed to respond to the need for small, lightweight, high-bandwidth, long-range and sub-nm-resolution position measurements in high-speed AFM applications. We demonstrate the use of this sensor for closed-loop operation of conventional as well as high-speed AFM operation to provide distortion-free images. The presented implementation of this closed-loop approach allows for positioning precision down to 2.1 Å, reduces the integral nonlinearity to below 0.2%, and allows for accurate closed loop imaging at line rates up to 300 Hz.

  17. Design of a High Resolution Hexapod Positioning Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Jamie

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a high resolution, six-degree of freedom positioning mechanism. This mechanism, based on the Stewart platform concept, was designed for use with the Developmental Comparative Active Optics Telescope Testbed (DCATT), a ground-based technology testbed for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The mechanism provides active control to the DCATT telescope's segmented primary mirror. Emphasis is on design decisions and technical challenges. Significant issues include undesirable motion properties of PZT-inchworm actuators, testing difficulties, dimensional stability, and use of advanced composite materials. Supporting test data from prototype mechanisms is presented.

  18. Design of a High Resolution Hexapod Positioning Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Jamie; Brodeur, Stephen J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a high resolution, six-degree of freedom positioning mechanism. This mechanism, based on the Stewart platform concept, was designed for use with the Developmental Comparative Active Optics Telescope Testbed (DCATT), a ground-based technology testbed for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The mechanism provides active control to the DCATT telescope's segmented primary mirror. Emphasis is on design decisions and technical challenges. Significant issues include undesirable motion properties of PZT-inchworm actuators, testing difficulties, dimensional stability and use of advanced composite materials. Supporting test data from prototype mechanisms is presented.

  19. Achievements and future developments of ALK-TKIs in the management of CNS metastases from ALK-positive NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Cappuzzo, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents the paradigm of personalized treatment of human cancer. Several oncogenic druggable alterations have been so far identified, with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements being one of the newest and most appealing. Presence of ALK fusions is associated with some particular clinical and pathological features, including a preferential seeding into the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, ALK rearrangements are recognized as the strongest predictor for benefit of anti-ALK therapy. Crizotinib, the first ALK inhibitor (ALK-I) licensed in clinical practice, is the standard of care for newly diagnosed patients. Unfortunately, within the first year of treatment the majority of patients become insensitive to crizotinib, with approximately one third of them developing brain metastases (BMs). Optimal management of BMs is one of the major challenges in treating ALK positive NSCLC. Several novel and highly CNS penetrant ALK-Is are currently under investigation and available data clearly indicated their ability in controlling intracranial disease. PMID:28149753

  20. Does Homogeneous Ability Grouping for High School Honors English Instruction Benefit the High Achiever?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetter, Douglas Paul

    2013-01-01

    Public schools are examining their policies and instructional practices to address the achievement gap exposed by the reporting requirements of NCLB (Wenglinski, 2004). As accountability measures and stakes rise, there is a call for an improved use of scientific evidence to inform educational policymaking (Wiseman, 2010). In terms of the…

  1. Academic achievement and career choice in science: Perceptions of African American urban high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sheila Kay

    2007-12-01

    Low test scores in science and fewer career choices in science among African American high school students than their White counterparts has resulted in lower interest during high school and an underrepresentation of African Americans in science and engineering fields. Reasons for this underachievement are not known. This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to examine what influence parental involvement, ethnic identity, and early mentoring had on the academic achievement in science and career choice in science of African American urban high school 10th grade students. Using semi-structured open-ended questions in individual interviews and focus groups, twenty participants responded to questions about African American urban high school student achievement in science and their career choice in science. The median age of participants was 15 years; 85% had passed either high school biology or physical science. The findings of the study revealed influences and interactions of selected factors on African American urban high school achievement in science. Sensing potential emerged as the overarching theme with six subthemes; A Taste of Knowledge, Sounds I Hear, Aromatic Barriers, What Others See, The Touch of Others, and The Sixth Sense. These themes correlate to the natural senses of the human body. A disconnect between what science is, their own individual learning and success, and what their participation in science could mean for them and the future of the larger society. Insight into appropriate intervention strategies to improve African American urban high school achievement in science was gained.

  2. Patterns of Self-Regulation: Patterns of Self-Regulatory Strategy Use among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruban, Lilia; Reis, Sally M.

    2006-01-01

    The present mixed-methods study attempts to provide insights into the nature, idiosyncrasies, and inter- and intra-individual patterns of academic self-regulatory strategy use among two different populations of university students. Low-achieving (n = 49) and high-achieving students (n = 131) described their self-regulatory strategy use in their…

  3. A Developmental Examination of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Elementary School: Behavior Patterns, School Climate, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betters-Bubon, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) programs integrate research-based practice within a three-tier approach of prevention and intervention to impact change within school systems. Research suggests positive changes in student outcomes with the implementation of SWPBS. Supported by social-ecological and behavioral theory, this longitudinal…

  4. High Self-Control Predicts More Positive Emotions, Better Engagement, and Higher Achievement in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ronnel B.; Gaerlan, Marianne Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    The control-value theory of academic emotions has emerged as a useful framework for studying the antecedents and consequences of different emotions in school. This framework focuses on the role of control-related and value-related appraisals as proximal antecedents of emotions. In this study, we take an individual differences approach to examine…

  5. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports in New Hampshire: Effects of Large-Scale Implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support on Student Discipline and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muscott, Howard S.; Mann, Eric L.; LeBrun, Marcel R.

    2008-01-01

    This evaluation report presents outcomes for the first cohort of 28 early childhood education programs and K-12 schools involved in implementing schoolwide positive behavior support as part of a statewide systems change initiative that began in New Hampshire in 2002. Results indicate that the overwhelming majority of schools were able to implement…

  6. High-intensity positive beams extracted from a compact double-chamber ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Huck, H.; Somacal, H.; Di Gregorio, D.E.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Igarzabal, M.; Di Paolo, H.; Reinoso, M.

    2005-06-15

    This work presents the design and development of a simple ion source, the associated ion extraction optics, and the beam transport of a low-energy and high-current proton accelerator. In its actual version, the ion source can deliver positive proton currents up to 100 mA. This rather high beam current is achieved by adding a small ionization chamber between the discharge chamber containing the filament and the extraction electrode of the ion source. Different parameters of the ion source and the injection beam line are evaluated by means of computer simulations to optimize the beam production and transmission.

  7. Cognitive, Affective, and Meta-Cognitive Skill Development through Instrumental Music: A Positive Impact on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the skills students develop through participation in instrumental music and the effect it has on their academic achievement through student and parent/guardian surveys. Fifty-eight percent of cognitive skills were identified as being obtained by a majority of students, 70% of affective skills, and 71% of meta-cognitive skills…

  8. Beyond Benchmarks and Scores: Reasserting the Role of Motivation and Interest in Children's Academic Achievement--An ACEI Position Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2007-01-01

    There is little question that the fundamental purpose of education--what the ancient Greeks referred to as the "telos"--is to promote student learning. For decades, both experts and the general public have agreed that any effort to improve the education system must focus squarely on optimizing student learning, motivating students to achieve, and…

  9. High IQ Is Sufficient to Explain the High Achievements in Math and Science of the East Asian Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    It is argued that it is unnecessary to propose that Confucian values explain the high achievements in math and science of the North East Asian peoples, and that these can be satisfactorily and more parsimoniously be explained by their high IQs.

  10. "It's a Way of Life for Us": High Mobility and High Achievement in Department of Defense Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smrekar, Claire E.; Owens, Debra E.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the academic performance of students in U.S. Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) schools, which have high student mobility. Some observers contend that these students' high achievement is a function of their middle class family and community characteristics. Asserts that DoDEA schools simultaneously "do the right…

  11. High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Aymanns, Simone; Mauerer, Stefanie; van Zandbergen, Ger; Wolz, Christiane; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb) promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10-50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration.

  12. WWC Review of the Report "Expanding College Opportunities for High-Achieving, Low Income Students." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Do low-income, high-achieving high school seniors benefit from receiving assistance with the college application process? Based on student surveys, a recent study found that providing application guidance, cost information, and fee waivers had a positive impact on postsecondary application submissions and enrollment outcomes. This study meets WWC…

  13. Estimating Causal Effects of Teacher-Child Relationships on Reading and Math Achievement in a High-Risk Sample: A Multi-Level Propensity Score Matching Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Meghan P.; O'Connor, Erin E.; Cappella, Elise; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2013-01-01

    A robust body of research has identified associations between positive teacher-child relationships--characterized by high levels of closeness and low levels of conflict--and children's academic achievement in elementary school (e.g. Roorda, 2012). Additional studies find that high-quality teacher-child relationships may promote academic resilience…

  14. Effects of Part-Time Work on School Achievement During High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Kusum; Chang, Mido; Dika, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    The authors explored the effects of part-time work on school achievement during high school. To estimate the true effects of part-time work on school grades, the authors included family background, students' educational aspirations, and school engagement as controls. Although a substantial literature exists on the relationship of part-time work…

  15. The Federal Transformation Intervention Model in Persistently Lowest Achieving High Schools: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Patner, Michelle B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act federal mandate of the Transformation Intervention Model (TIM) outlined by the School Improvement Grant, which was designed to turn around persistently lowest achieving schools. The study was conducted in four high schools in a large Southern California urban district that selected the…

  16. Balancing Dreams and Realities: The College Choice Process for High-Achieving Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, Ebelia

    2015-01-01

    This study's narratives of 17 high-achieving Latinas revealed how their college choice was a constant balancing of individual and family expectations, being "close, but far enough away," and "getting your money's worth." With the use of critical race theory, further analysis revealed the influence of "familismo" on…

  17. Fostering the Promise of High Achieving Mathematics Students through Curriculum Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmood, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests some teachers may not have a wide range of teaching and learning strategies for their most proficient mathematics students, which could impact on these students' learning and ongoing improvement in performance. This paper outlines the different drivers of high achievement and explores the main curriculum differentiation…

  18. Being Labeled "Nerd": Factors that Influence the Social Acceptance of High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzsch, Katrin; Schutz, Astrid; Schroder-Abe, Michela

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation addresses the question of whether certain factors can protect high-achieving students at risk for being labeled a nerd against devaluation. In 2 studies, 125 and 317 students from Grade 8 evaluated vignettes describing average students and students who were called "nerds." Results indicate that being modest…

  19. Conflicts and Communication between High-Achieving Chinese American Adolescents and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Chang, Tzu-Fen; Han, Eun-Jin; Chee, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interview data collected on 18 high-achieving Chinese American students, the authors examine domains of acculturation-based conflicts, parent and child internal conflicts, and conflict resolution in their families. Their analyses show that well-established negative communication patterns in educational expectations, divergent…

  20. The College-Choice Process of High Achieving Freshmen: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the college-choice process of high achieving students. Employing current literature and previous research, it combined current models of college choice and the influential factors identified throughout the literature while utilizing the concept of bounded rationality to create a conceptual framework to…

  1. Examining the Relationship between Selected Variables and the Academic Achievement of African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, David Mark

    2009-01-01

    Research investigating the impact of factors such as gender, socioeconomic status, racial socialization, and academic self-concept on the academic achievement of African American high school students has been of interest to scholars for decades. Previous literature has focused much attention on the relationship of each of these constructs and…

  2. The Transition Experiences of High-Achieving, Low-Income Undergraduates in an Elite College Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Paul J., II

    2012-01-01

    This hermeneutic phenomenological study describes the lived experiences of high-achieving, low-income undergraduates and their transition into a college environment historically reserved for wealthy students. The results of this study indicate that these students are flourishing in full need-based financial aid programs as a result of their own…

  3. Examining the Predictive Power of Autonomy and Self-Evaluation on High School Students' Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuksel, Ismail; Toker, Yalcin

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine language learners' autonomy, self-evaluation levels and to examine the predictive power of these two variables on language achievement. The study was designed as mixed method design and was conducted with 108 high school students. Data were collected through an autonomy scale, a self-evaluation scale, schools record on…

  4. Mathematics Attitudes and Achievement of U.S. High School Sophomores Based on Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, James

    2017-01-01

    What are high school students thinking? The purpose of this study was to examine the degree that psychosocial attitudes affect academic achievement in mathematics for students of different races during secondary schooling. Based on a quantitative methodology, data was gathered from a nationally distributed survey involving over 16,000 student…

  5. The Effects of Alcohol Use on Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Giuliano, Laura M.; French, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's grade point average (GPA) abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that…

  6. Growing into Equity: Professional Learning and Personalization in High-Achieving Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Sonia Caus; Gerzon, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    What makes a Title I school high-achieving, and what can we all learn from that experience? Professional learning and leadership that supports personalized instruction makes the difference, as captured in the ground-breaking research of authors Sonia Caus Gleason and Nancy Gerzon. This illuminating book shows how four outstanding schools are…

  7. Further Evidence of an Engagement-Achievement Paradox among U.S. High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shernoff, David J.; Schmidt, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    Achievement, engagement, and students' quality of experience were compared by racial and ethnic group in a sample of students (N = 586) drawn from 13 high schools with diverse ethnic and socioeconomic student populations. Using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), 3,529 samples of classroom experiences were analyzed along with self-reported…

  8. Impact of Physical Environment on Academic Achievement of High School Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Bettye B.

    1983-01-01

    To study the relationship of the physical environment to high school students' academic achievement, 60 students participated in an experiential career exploration program at the Alabama Space and Rocket Center while 108 students participated in a traditional careers program. Tests indicated the former group improved more in career choice…

  9. Reliability and Validity Evidence for Achievement Goal Models in High School Physical Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Jianmin; McBride, Ron; Xiang, Ping

    2007-01-01

    Although empirical research in academic areas provides support for both a 3-factor as well as a 4-factor achievement goal model, both models were proposed and tested with a collegiate sample. Little is known about the generalizability of either model with high school level samples. This study was designed to examine whether the 3-factor model…

  10. Antecedent and Concurrent Psychosocial Skills That Support High Levels of Achievement within Talent Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation and emotional regulation are important for the sustained focused study and practice required for high levels of achievement and creative productivity in adulthood. Using the talent development model proposed by the authors as a framework, the authors discuss several important psychosocial skills based on the psychological research…

  11. How High-Achieving African American Undergraduate Men Negotiate Cultural Challenges at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Elva Elaine

    2010-01-01

    In this study I examine the manner in which high-achieving African American undergraduate men negotiate cultural challenges in a predominantly White institution (PWI). Cultural theory underpins the conceptual framework of this case study. Basing the study in cultural theory provided a lens through which to view the lived experiences of the twenty…

  12. Central American Refugees and U.S. High Schools. A Psychosocial Study of Motivation and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo M.

    This ethnographic study documents and interprets key school, work, and family life issues in the lives and experiences of a sampling of recent immigrants from the war-torn Central American nations; and suggests a psychocultural theory of achievement motivation. Information was gathered from observation in two urban high schools, interviews with 50…

  13. The Impact of Inclusion on the Academic Achievement of High School Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Harold Smith

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examined the impact of inclusion on the academic achievement outcome of high school special education students as measured by English 1, biology, and algebra 1 as a function of gender, ethnicity, and years of inclusion. The study also examined the generalizations with confidence that could be made about the use of inclusion…

  14. Experiencing More Mathematics Anxiety than Expected? Contrasting Trait and State Anxiety in High Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, A.-L.; Bieg, M.; Goetz, T.; Frenzel, A. C.; Taxer, J.; Zeidner, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to…

  15. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Updated Analyses with NAEP Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The present research is a follow-up study of earlier published analyses that looked at the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement in 25 states. Using the previously derived Accountability Pressure Index (APR) as a measure of state-level policy pressure for performance on standardized tests, a series of…

  16. Standardized Tests as Measurements of Achievement: Does the High School Assessment Program (HSAP) Measure Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Susan Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between HSAP scores and various measures of classroom achievement such as overall GPA, End Of Course Scores and SAT/ACT scores of Berea High School [BHS] students in the classes of 2005-2006 and 2006-2007. Methodology: The researcher collected the following data for random samples…

  17. Brain Structure and Resting-State Functional Connectivity in University Professors with High Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weiwei; Yang, Wenjing; Li, Wenfu; Li, Yadan; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Huimin; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2015-01-01

    Creative persons play an important role in technical innovation and social progress. There is little research on the neural correlates with researchers with high academic achievement. We used a combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity analysis, rsFC) approach to examine the…

  18. Ugandan Immigrant Students' Perceptions of Barriers to Academic Achievement in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ssekannyo, Denis

    2010-01-01

    In a world that is now a global village, enterprising individuals, especially from Third World countries, who make it to greener pastures do not leave their children behind. But with a long list of barriers to academic achievement associated with immigrant and minority students in American high schools, an understanding of the experiences and…

  19. Students' High School Organizational Leadership Opportunities and Their Influences on Academic Achievement and Civic Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elemen, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze high school leadership praxis for its inclusion of students in organizational leadership dialogue and decision-making and the influences of these factors on student achievement and civic participation. Survey questionnaire data were provided by 215 full-time enrolled undergraduate students from…

  20. Achievement, School Integration, and Self-Efficacy in Single-Sex and Coeducational Parochial High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micucci, Kara Hanson

    2014-01-01

    A structural model for prior achievement, school integration, and self-efficacy was developed using Tinto's theory of student attrition and Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The model was tested and revised using a sample of 1,452 males and females from single-sex and coeducational parochial high schools. Results indicated that the theoretically…

  1. Effect of Textbook Readability on Student Achievement in High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, D. Neil

    2001-01-01

    Notes the readability level of many high school chemistry textbooks is far above students' reading levels. Conducts two separate studies, making every effort to keep the two classes as similar as possible in all aspects except text. Finds strong evidence that changing the chemistry textbook resulted in an increase in student achievement. Suggests…

  2. The Impact of Reading Success Academy on High School Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlison, Kelly; Chave, Josh

    2014-01-01

    The study explores the effectiveness of the Reading Success Academy on the reading achievement of the selected group of ninth-grade students in a comprehensive high school. We examine in what ways the Reading Success Academy may improve the reading proficiency rates and amount of reading growth of ninth-grade students. The results indicate that…

  3. Black High Achieving Undergraduate Mathematics Majors Discuss Success and Persistence in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Roni M.; Frederick, Rona

    2010-01-01

    Experiences of eight Black high-achieving college junior and senior mathematics majors are examined to discern which social and cultural factors shape success and persistence in mathematics. College persistence literature as well as mathematics education studies that document Black students' success in mathematics were used as frameworks to…

  4. Teaching Practices in Grade 5 Mathematics Classrooms with High-Achieving English Learner Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Eileen G.; Palacios, Natalia; Banse, Holland; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Leis, Micela

    2017-01-01

    Teachers need more clarity about effective teaching practices as they strive to help their low-achieving students understand mathematics. Our study describes the instructional practices used by two teachers who, by value-added metrics, would be considered "highly effective teachers" in classrooms with a majority of students who were…

  5. One-to-One Computing and Student Achievement in Ohio High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Nancy L.; Larwin, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the impact of one-to-one computing on student achievement in Ohio high schools as measured by performance on the Ohio Graduation Test (OGT). The sample included 24 treatment schools that were individually paired with a similar control school. An interrupted time series methodology was deployed to examine OGT data over a period…

  6. Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement of High School Students in Kanyakumari District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Deepa, T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to find the significant relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement of high school students with reference to the background variables. Survey method was employed. Two tools are used in this study namely self-made Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue SF) and the…

  7. Integrating Economic and Social Policy: Good Practices from High-Achieving Countries. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Santosh

    This paper examines the successes of 10 "high achievers," countries with social indicators far higher than might be expected, given their national wealth, pulling together the lessons learned for social policy in the developing world. The 10 countries identified are Costa Rica, Cuba, Barbados, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Kerala, Sri…

  8. Spatial Experiences of High Academic Achievers: Insights from a Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weckbacher, Lisa Marie; Okamoto, Yukari

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the relationship between types of spatial experiences and spatial abilities among 13- to 14-year-old high academic achievers. Each participant completed two spatial tasks and a survey assessing favored spatial activities across five categories (computers, toys, sports, music, and art) and three developmental periods (early…

  9. The Impact of High School Size on Math Achievement and Dropout Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werblow, Jacob; Duesbery, Luke

    2009-01-01

    The study explores the ways in which school size influences two important student outcomes commonly used in school effects research: growth in mathematics achievement and dropout rate. Past research suggests that smaller high schools can lead to increased benefits for students. In this study, multilevel analytic models of the first two waves of…

  10. Filial Piety and Academic Motivation: High-Achieving Students in an International School in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This study uses self-determination theory to explore the mechanisms of filial piety in the academic motivation of eight high-achieving secondary school seniors at an international school in South Korea, resulting in several findings. First, the students attributed their parents' values and expectations as a major source of the students'…

  11. Obesity, High-Calorie Food Intake, and Academic Achievement Trends among U.S. School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jian; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated children's self-reported high-calorie food intake in Grade 5 and its relationship to trends in obesity status and academic achievement over the first 6 years of school. They used 3-level hierarchical linear models in the large-scale database (the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort). Findings indicated…

  12. Teachers and Student Achievement in the Chicago Public High Schools. WP 2002-28. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, Daniel; Barrow, Lisa; Sander, William

    2003-01-01

    Using unique administrative data on Chicago public high school students and their teachers, we are able to estimate the importance of teachers on student mathematical achievement. We find that teachers are educationally and statistically important. To be sure, sampling variation and other measurement issues can strongly influence estimates of…

  13. Social Media Use, Loneliness, and Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study with Urban High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neto, Roque; Golz, Nancy; Polega, Meaghan

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the association between social media use, loneliness, and academic achievement in high school students and identified the demographic characteristics associated with these three elements. This study also aimed to identify the percentage of variance in loneliness accounted for by social media use and GPA. Participants were 345…

  14. Turkish High School Students' Biology Achievement in Relation to Academic Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yumusak, Necmettin; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the contribution of motivational beliefs, cognitive, and metacognitive strategy use to Turkish high school students' achievement in biology. In order to investigate the specified purpose of the study, 519 tenth-grade students were administered the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith,…

  15. Communication Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and the Relationship to Student Achievement in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Gayle A.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a correlational design that allowed the researcher to examine the relationship among communication satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and student achievement. High school teachers were surveyed from a convenience sample of 12 school districts in Arizona. Established instruments were used to survey teachers'…

  16. Consequences of the Confucian Culture: High Achievement but Negative Psychological Attributes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Irene T.; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2010-01-01

    In "Unforgiving Confucian culture: A breeding ground for high academic achievement, test anxiety and self-doubt?" Stankov (in press) provides three reasons for caution against over-glorifying the academic excellence of Confucian Asian learners, namely that it may lead to a reluctance to change their rote learning approach which is not conducive to…

  17. Evaluative and Behavioral Correlates to Intrarehearsal Achievement in High School Bands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships of teaching effectiveness, ensemble performance quality, and selected rehearsal procedures to various measures of intrarehearsal achievement (i.e., musical improvement exhibited by an ensemble during the course of a single rehearsal). Twenty-nine high school bands were observed in two…

  18. Faculty Perceptions of High-Achieving Male Collegians: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    Critical race theory was employed as an interpretive framework to explore faculty perceptions of the academic accomplishments of high-achieving Black and White male collegians. Using photo elicitation methodology, faculty participants responded to a randomly assigned photograph of and vignette about either a Black or White male student. While most…

  19. Self-Graded and Teacher-Graded Achievement in a BSCS High School Biology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Wallace Martin

    The effect of self-grading on biology students exposed to the same instruction (except grading) in an upper-middle class public school was investigated by comparing self-graded and teacher-graded populations in (1) achievement in high school biology, (2) level of aspiration behavior, (3) critical thinking skills, and (4) productivity. The…

  20. Cognitive Abilities and Motivational Processes in High School Students' Situational Engagement and Achievement in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Shun; Roeser, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Building on R. Snow's two pathways to achievement outcomes (1989), examined how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways respectively contributed to prediction of outcomes in science for 491 high school students. Results are consistent with Snow's conjecture that factors related to both pathways…

  1. Overall Findings: Common Practices and Procedures across Schools. High Achieving Schools Study. Synthesis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohajeri-Nelson, Nazanin; Bamberry, Lynn; Dunaway, Wendy; Hunter, Ellen; Klein, Jeff; Kuntz, Courtney; Negley, Tina; Singer, Robin; Ottenbreit, Rebekah; Young, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the factors that were commonly noted across five high achieving elementary schools in Colorado: (1) Burlington; (2) Canyon Creek; (3) Soaring Eagles; (4) South Lakewood; and (5) Tavelli. After 10 days of onsite visits to participating schools, noteworthy commonalities surfaced across the schools. Policies, practices, and…

  2. In Their Own Words: Perceived Barriers to Achievement by African American and Latino High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, Desireé; Moore, James L., III; Miranda, Antoinette H.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a larger study, this qualitative investigation explored the factors that African American and Latino high school students perceived as barriers to positive educational opportunities. Eighteen African American and Latino urban high school students comprised the sample. The findings indicated that perceived barriers to positive…

  3. Identifying Aspects of Parental Involvement that Affect the Academic Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulette-McIntyre, Ovella; Bagaka's, Joshua G.; Drake, Daniel D.

    2005-01-01

    This study identified parental practices that relate positively to high school students' academic performance. Parents of 643 high school students participated in the study. Data analysis, using a multiple linear regression model, shows parent-school connection, student gender, and race are significant predictors of student academic performance.…

  4. High Expectations--High Achievement on Literacy: "What Shall We Do in This Hangman's Hour?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnakyla, Pirjo

    Finland is a country of great expectations on literacy and literacy education. High expectations and demands have, however, a darker side. High expectations of society, parents, and teachers may have an effect on the students' self-esteem. The economic recession in the early 1990s strongly accelerated the change in literacy demands and…

  5. Cultivating a Growth Mindset in Students at a High-Achieving High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fegley, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this EPP is to develop a plan for changing the mindset of a large number of Haddonfield Memorial High School (HMHS) students from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset. HMHS is by most conventional measures a high performing school. Typically 100% of the students graduate with 96% of the students attending two or four year colleges…

  6. No More 1s: High Expectations Can Lead to High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervone, Laureen; DiMartino, Lisa; Kerr, Kris

    2010-01-01

    The school district in Middletown, New York, in the state's Orange County, today serves close to 7,000 students in four elementary schools, two middle schools, and one high school. The district is classified by the state in the highest of three Need-to-Resource-Capacity groups, an urban or suburban school district with high student needs in…

  7. Examining the Success Factors of High-Achieving Puerto Rican Male High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Tomas; Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene; Velez, William

    2010-01-01

    This article works to dispel the myth that Latino urban high-school students are not capable of performing at high academic levels. Whereas much educational research emphasizes the academic underachievement of urban Latino students, this article counteracts this research by describing the four success factors that three working-class Puerto Rican…

  8. Positive/Negative Mid Uv Resists With High Thermal Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Wilson, C. G.; Frechet, Jean M.

    1987-08-01

    New mid UV resist systems based on poly(p-vinylbenzoates) sensitized with diphenyl-4-thiophenoxyphenylsulfonium hexafluoroantimonate are described. t-Butyl, cyclohexenyl, a-methylbenzyl, and a-methylallyl esters are converted upon postbake to poly(p-vinylbenzoic acid) through thermolysis reaction catalyzed by the photochemically generated Bronsted acid, inducing a large change in the polarity of the repeating units. Thus, development in aqueous base such as MF312/water or alcohol provides a positive tone image of the mask, while the use of a nonpolar organic developer allows a negative tone imaging. Because the glass transition temperature of poly(p-vinylbenzoic acid) is ca. 250° C, the negative image is devoid of thermal flow to this temperature even without any hardening processes. Another interesting feature of the benzoate resists is their high opacity in the deep UV region. The optical density of a 1μ thick film of poly(p-vinylbenzoic acid) is 3.5 at 254 nm and the benzoate polymers are as absorbing as the acid polymer. This high deep UV absorption of the resin necessitates the imaging above 300 nm for good light penetration (or by e-beam or X-ray) and makes the use of this resist as an imaging layer in the PCM scheme very attractive. This imaging layer is especially useful when employed in conjunction with a planarizing layer absorbing above 240 nm (for example, PMGI) as addition of a dye is not required.

  9. Design and performance of a high resolution, low latency stripline beam position monitor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apsimon, R. J.; Bett, D. R.; Blaskovic Kraljevic, N.; Burrows, P. N.; Christian, G. B.; Clarke, C. I.; Constance, B. D.; Dabiri Khah, H.; Davis, M. R.; Perry, C.; Resta López, J.; Swinson, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    A high-resolution, low-latency beam position monitor (BPM) system has been developed for use in particle accelerators and beam lines that operate with trains of particle bunches with bunch separations as low as several tens of nanoseconds, such as future linear electron-positron colliders and free-electron lasers. The system was tested with electron beams in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Japan. It consists of three stripline BPMs instrumented with analogue signal-processing electronics and a custom digitizer for logging the data. The design of the analogue processor units is presented in detail, along with measurements of the system performance. The processor latency is 15.6 ±0.1 ns . A single-pass beam position resolution of 291 ±10 nm has been achieved, using a beam with a bunch charge of approximately 1 nC.

  10. Asynchronous RTK precise DGNSS positioning method for deriving a low-latency high-rate output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhang; Hanfeng, Lv; Dingjie, Wang; Yanqing, Hou; Jie, Wu

    2015-07-01

    Low-latency high-rate (1 Hz) precise real-time kinematic (RTK) can be applied in high-speed scenarios such as aircraft automatic landing, precise agriculture and intelligent vehicle. The classic synchronous RTK (SRTK) precise differential GNSS (DGNSS) positioning technology, however, is not able to obtain a low-latency high-rate output for the rover receiver because of long data link transmission time delays (DLTTD) from the reference receiver. To overcome the long DLTTD, this paper proposes an asynchronous real-time kinematic (ARTK) method using asynchronous observations from two receivers. The asynchronous observation model (AOM) is developed based on undifferenced carrier phase observation equations of the two receivers at different epochs with short baseline. The ephemeris error and atmosphere delay are the possible main error sources on positioning accuracy in this model, and they are analyzed theoretically. In a short DLTTD and during a period of quiet ionosphere activity, the main error sources decreasing positioning accuracy are satellite orbital errors: the "inverted ephemeris error" and the integration of satellite velocity error which increase linearly along with DLTTD. The cycle slip of asynchronous double-differencing carrier phase is detected by TurboEdit method and repaired by the additional ambiguity parameter method. The AOM can deal with synchronous observation model (SOM) and achieve precise positioning solution with synchronous observations as well, since the SOM is only a specific case of AOM. The proposed method not only can reduce the cost of data collection and transmission, but can also support the mobile phone network data link transfer mode for the data of the reference receiver. This method can avoid data synchronizing process besides ambiguity initialization step, which is very convenient for real-time navigation of vehicles. The static and kinematic experiment results show that this method achieves 20 Hz or even higher rate output in

  11. Modeling stability of growth between mathematics and science achievement during middle and high school.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Ma, Lingling

    2004-04-01

    In this study, the authors introduced a multivariate multilevel model to estimate the consistency among students and schools in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement during the entire middle and high school years with data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY). There was no evident consistency in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among students, and this inconsistency was not much influenced by student characteristics and school characteristics. However, there was evident consistency in the average rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among schools, and this consistency was influenced by student characteristics and school characteristics. Major school-level variables associated with parental involvement did not show any significant impacts on consistency among either students or schools. Results call for educational policies that promote collaboration between mathematics and science departments or teachers.

  12. The Impact of Estimating High-Resolution Tropospheric Gradients on Multi-GNSS Precise Positioning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng; Li, Xingxing; Li, Weiwei; Chen, Wen; Dong, Danan; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2017-04-03

    Benefits from the modernized US Global Positioning System (GPS), the revitalized Russian GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS), and the newly-developed Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and European Galileo, multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has emerged as a powerful tool not only in positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT), but also in remote sensing of the atmosphere and ionosphere. Both precise positioning and the derivation of atmospheric parameters can benefit from multi-GNSS observations. In this contribution, extensive evaluations are conducted with multi-GNSS datasets collected from 134 globally-distributed ground stations of the International GNSS Service (IGS) Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) network in July 2016. The datasets are processed in six different constellation combinations, i.e., GPS-, GLONASS-, BDS-only, GPS + GLONASS, GPS + BDS, and GPS + GLONASS + BDS + Galileo precise point positioning (PPP). Tropospheric gradients are estimated with eight different temporal resolutions, from 1 h to 24 h, to investigate the impact of estimating high-resolution gradients on position estimates. The standard deviation (STD) is used as an indicator of positioning repeatability. The results show that estimating tropospheric gradients with high temporal resolution can achieve better positioning performance than the traditional strategy in which tropospheric gradients are estimated on a daily basis. Moreover, the impact of estimating tropospheric gradients with different temporal resolutions at various elevation cutoff angles (from 3° to 20°) is investigated. It can be observed that with increasing elevation cutoff angles, the improvement in positioning repeatability is decreased.

  13. Computer-Based Drill and Practice in Arithmetic: Widening the Gap between High- and Low-Achieving Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira

    1988-01-01

    The differential effects of computer-assisted instruction for high-achieving and low-achieving students were examined for seven elementary students of varied background. Higher-achieving students were more able to adjust to the requirements of computer work and to derive benefit from it than were lower-achieving students. Implications for teaching…

  14. Achievement Motivation of the High School Students: A Case Study among Different Communities of Goalpara District of Assam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarangi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Achievement motivation is a consistent striving force of an individual to achieve success to a certain standard of excellence in competing situation. In this study an attempt was made to study the effect of achievement motivation on the academic achievement of the high school students of tribal and non tribal communities in relation to their sex…

  15. Premigration School Quality, Time Spent in the United States, and the Math Achievement of Immigrant High School Students.

    PubMed

    Bozick, Robert; Malchiodi, Alessandro; Miller, Trey

    2016-10-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of 1,189 immigrant youth in American high schools, we examine whether the quality of education in their country of origin is related to post-migration math achievement in the 9th grade. To measure the quality of their education in the country of origin, we use country-specific average test scores from two international assessments: the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). We find that the average PISA or TIMSS scores for immigrant youth's country of origin are positively associated with their performance on the 9th grade post-migration math assessment. We also find that each year spent in the United States is positively associated with performance on the 9th grade post-migration math assessment, but this effect is strongest for immigrants from countries with low PISA/TIMSS scores.

  16. Achievement of the POSITIVE (Participation-Oriented Safety Improvement by Trade Union InitiatiVE) activities in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Tachi, Norihide; Itani, Toru; Takeyama, Hidemaro; Yoshikawa, Toru; Suzuki, Koji; Castro, Ariel B

    2006-01-01

    The POSITIVE (Participation-oriented safety improvement by trade union initiative) programme was introduced into the Philippines in 1995. The monitoring of activities was carried out in 2004 among core trainers who had been trained before. The results of the questionnaire survey showed that the core trainers evaluated their activities satisfactory in general, and particularly the training activities were considered excellent. Also, the union workers who had been trained by the POSITIVE programme implemented improvements at the rate of around 5 examples a year on average. It was of note that the installation ratio (the number of installations/that of plans) was higher in small- and medium-sized enterprises than in larger companies, although the numbers of plans and installations of improvements were greater in large enterprises. Together with the previous findings, the present results suggest that the POSITIVE-style participatory training program is effective and efficient for workers to take actions for the OSH in not only larger enterprises but also small enterprises.

  17. Solvent additive to achieve highly ordered nanostructural semicrystalline DPP copolymers: toward a high charge carrier mobility.

    PubMed

    An, Tae Kyu; Kang, Il; Yun, Hui-jun; Cha, Hyojung; Hwang, Jihun; Park, Seonuk; Kim, Jiye; Kim, Yu Jin; Chung, Dae Sung; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yun-Hi; Park, Chan Eon

    2013-12-23

    A facile spin-coating method in which a small percentage of the solvent additive, 1-chloronaphthalene (CN), is found to increase the drying time during film deposition, is reported. The field-effect mobility of a PDPPDBTE film cast from a chloroform-CN mixed solution is 0.46 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The addition of CN to the chloroform solution facilitates the formation of highly crystalline polymer structures.

  18. Challenges to achievement of metal sustainability in our high-tech society

    SciTech Connect

    Izatt, Reed M.; Izatt, Steven R.; Bruening, Ronald L.; Izatt, Neil; Moyer, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Achievement of sustainability in metal life cycles from mining of virgin ore to consumer and industrial devices to end-of-life products requires greatly increased recycling and improved processing of metals. Electronic and other high-tech products containing precious, toxic, and specialty metals usually have short lifetimes and low recycling rates. Products containing these metals generally are incinerated, discarded as waste in landfills, or dismantled in informal recycling using crude and environmentally irresponsible procedures. Low metal recycling rates coupled with increasing demand for products containing them necessitate increased mining with attendant environmental, health, energy, water, and carbon-footprint consequences. In this tutorial review, challenges to achieving metal sustainability in present high-tech society are presented; health, environmental, and economic incentives for various stakeholders to improve metal sustainability are discussed; a case for technical improvements in separations technology, especially employing molecular recognition, is given; and global consequences of continuing on the present path are examined.

  19. Achieving High Pressure Shock Hugoniot Measurements in Cylindrical Geometry Utilizing a High-Explosive Pulsed Power Drive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    to conduct high velocity material experiments and measure shock velocities at pressures near 1 TPa. The DEMG (Disk Explosive Magnetic Generator ... Explosive Magnetic Generator ) will be able to achieve extremely high currents with as much as 70 MA usable for driving a z-pinch experiment. In this...shock velocities at pressures near 1 TPa. The DEMG (Disk Explosive Magnetic Generator ) is used to drive a >60MA current that accelerates an aluminum

  20. Creating a Positive School Climate at the Junior High Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licata, Vincent F.

    One of the seven correlates of an effective school, as identified by the Effective Schools Research, is a positive school climate: a positive attitude on the part of the entire staff and student body exhibited through overt behavior that creates a warm, orderly learning environment. Development of such an environment depends upon: (1) strong…

  1. The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Krapohl, Eva; Rimfeld, Kaili; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Asbury, Kathryn; Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Because educational achievement at the end of compulsory schooling represents a major tipping point in life, understanding its causes and correlates is important for individual children, their families, and society. Here we identify the general ingredients of educational achievement using a multivariate design that goes beyond intelligence to consider a wide range of predictors, such as self-efficacy, personality, and behavior problems, to assess their independent and joint contributions to educational achievement. We use a genetically sensitive design to address the question of why educational achievement is so highly heritable. We focus on the results of a United Kingdom-wide examination, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which is administered at the end of compulsory education at age 16. GCSE scores were obtained for 13,306 twins at age 16, whom we also assessed contemporaneously on 83 scales that were condensed to nine broad psychological domains, including intelligence, self-efficacy, personality, well-being, and behavior problems. The mean of GCSE core subjects (English, mathematics, science) is more heritable (62%) than the nine predictor domains (35–58%). Each of the domains correlates significantly with GCSE results, and these correlations are largely mediated genetically. The main finding is that, although intelligence accounts for more of the heritability of GCSE than any other single domain, the other domains collectively account for about as much GCSE heritability as intelligence. Together with intelligence, these domains account for 75% of the heritability of GCSE. We conclude that the high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence. PMID:25288728

  2. The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence.

    PubMed

    Krapohl, Eva; Rimfeld, Kaili; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Asbury, Kathryn; Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2014-10-21

    Because educational achievement at the end of compulsory schooling represents a major tipping point in life, understanding its causes and correlates is important for individual children, their families, and society. Here we identify the general ingredients of educational achievement using a multivariate design that goes beyond intelligence to consider a wide range of predictors, such as self-efficacy, personality, and behavior problems, to assess their independent and joint contributions to educational achievement. We use a genetically sensitive design to address the question of why educational achievement is so highly heritable. We focus on the results of a United Kingdom-wide examination, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which is administered at the end of compulsory education at age 16. GCSE scores were obtained for 13,306 twins at age 16, whom we also assessed contemporaneously on 83 scales that were condensed to nine broad psychological domains, including intelligence, self-efficacy, personality, well-being, and behavior problems. The mean of GCSE core subjects (English, mathematics, science) is more heritable (62%) than the nine predictor domains (35-58%). Each of the domains correlates significantly with GCSE results, and these correlations are largely mediated genetically. The main finding is that, although intelligence accounts for more of the heritability of GCSE than any other single domain, the other domains collectively account for about as much GCSE heritability as intelligence. Together with intelligence, these domains account for 75% of the heritability of GCSE. We conclude that the high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence.

  3. Motivational profiles in high school students: Differences in behavioural and emotional homework engagement and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Bibiana; Núñez, José C; Valle, Antonio; Piñeiro, Isabel; Rodríguez, Susana; Rosário, Pedro

    2016-12-12

    This work examined whether combinations of academic and non-academic goals generated different motivational profiles in high school students. Besides, differences in homework behavioural engagement (i.e. amount of homework, time spent in homework, homework time management), homework emotional engagement (i.e. homework anxiety) and academic achievement were analysed. Participants were 714 high school students (43.4% boys and 56.6% girls). The study of potential motivational profiles was conducted by latent profile analysis, and the differences between the motivational profiles regarding homework variables and academic achievement were analysed using multivariate analysis. The results indicate the existence of five groups of motivational profiles: a group of students with multiple goals, a group of unmotivated students, two groups of students with a predominance of learning goals and, finally, a group comprising students with a high fear of failure. Both the group with multiple goals and the learning goals-oriented groups reported to do more homework, spending more time on homework, making better use of that time and having a higher academic achievement than counterparts. The avoidance-failure group and the group with multiple goals showed higher levels of homework anxiety. Globally, these results provide support for a person-centred approach.

  4. Family Processes, SES, and Family Structure Differentially Affect Academic Self-Concepts and Achievement of Gifted High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verna, Marilyn Ann; Campbell, James Reed; Beasley, Mark

    A study involving 109 male and 116 female high achieving high school students (ages 16-18) and their parents investigated the causal linkages among home environment, self-concepts, prior ability, and socioeconomic status on mathematics achievement, science achievement, and Scholastic Aptitude Test-Quantitative (SAT-Q) and Verbal scores. Students…

  5. Achieving high strength and high electrical conductivity in Ag/Cu multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, M. Z.; Xu, L. J.; Shi, J.; Pan, G. J.; Cao, Z. H.; Meng, X. K.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the microstructure evolution of Ag/Cu multilayers and its influences on the hardness and electric resistivity with individual layer thickness (h) ranging from 3 to 50 nm. The hardness increases with the decreasing h in the range of 5-20 nm. The barrier to dislocation transmission by stacking faults, twin boundaries, and interfaces leads to hardness enhancement. Simultaneously, in order to get high conductivity, the strong textures in-layers were induced to form for reducing the amount of grain boundaries. The resistivity keeps low even when h decreases to 10 nm. Furthermore, we developed a facile model to evaluate the comprehensive property of Ag/Cu multilayers—the results indicate that the best combination of strength and conductivity occurs when h = 10 nm.

  6. Dry Blending to Achieve Isotopic Dilution of Highly Enriched Uranium Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Roger Neil; Chipman, Nathan Alan; Rajamani, R. K.

    2001-04-01

    The end of the cold war produced large amounts of excess fissile materials in the United States and Russia. The Department of Energy has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies for disposition of these excess materials. To date, many of these planning strategies have included isotopic dilution of highly enriched uranium as a means of reducing the proliferation and safety risks. Isotopic dilution by dry blending highly enriched uranium with natural and/or depleted uranium has been identified as one non-aqueous method to achieve these risk (proliferation and criticality safety) reductions. This paper reviews the technology of dry blending as applied to free flowing oxide materials.

  7. A Study of Gifted High, Moderate, and Low Achievers in Their Personal Characteristics and Attitudes toward School and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the problem of underachievement among gifted high school students. Low achievers were compared to high and moderate achievers on their motivation, self-regulation, and attitudes toward their school and teachers. Participants were all highly able students from grades 10 and 11 in an academically selective gifted high school in…

  8. Tenure Track Policy Increases Representation of Women in Senior Academic Positions, but Is Insufficient to Achieve Gender Balance

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Martha M.; Jacobs, Maarten H.

    2016-01-01

    Underrepresentation of women in senior positions is a persistent problem in universities worldwide, and a wide range of strategies to combat this situation is currently being contemplated. One such strategy is the introduction of a tenure track system, in which decisions to promote scientific staff to higher ranks are guided by a set of explicit and transparent criteria, as opposed to earlier situations in which decisions were based on presumably more subjective impressions by superiors. We examined the effect of the introduction of a tenure track system at Wageningen University (The Netherlands) on male and female promotion rates. We found that chances on being promoted to higher levels were already fairly equal between men and women before the tenure track system was introduced, and improved–more for women than for men–after the introduction of the tenure track system. These results may partly be explained by affirmative actions, but also by the fact that legacy effects of historical discrimination have led to a more competitive female population of scientists. In spite of these outcomes, extrapolations of current promotion rates up to 2025 demonstrate that the equal or even higher female promotion rates do not lead to substantial improvement of the gender balance at higher levels (i.e., associate professor and higher). Since promotion rates are small compared to the total amount of staff, the current distribution of men and women will, especially at higher levels, exhibit a considerable degree of inertia—unless additional affirmative action is taken. PMID:27684072

  9. High performances CNTFETs achieved using CNT networks for selective gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorintin, Louis; Bondavalli, Paolo; Legagneux, Pierre; Pribat, Didier

    2009-08-01

    Our study deals with the utilization of carbon nanotubes networks based transistors with different metal electrodes for highly selective gas sensing. Indeed, carbon nanotubes networks can be used as semi conducting materials to achieve good performances transistors. These devices are extremely sensitive to the change of the Schottky barrier heights between Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) and drain/source metal electrodes: the gas adsorption creates an interfacial dipole that modifies the metal work function and so the bending and the height of the Schottky barrier at the contacts. Moreover each gas interacts specifically with each metal identifying a sort of electronic fingerprinting. Using airbrush technique for deposition, we have been able to achieve uniform random networks of carbon nanotubes suitable for large area applications and mass production such as fabrication of CNT based gas sensors. These networks enable us to achieve transistors with on/off ratio of more than 5 orders of magnitude. To reach these characteristics, the density of the CNT network has been adjusted in order to reach the percolation threshold only for semi-conducting nanotubes. These optimized devices have allowed us to tune the sensitivity (improving it) of our sensors for highly selective detection of DiMethyl-Methyl-Phosphonate (DMMP, a sarin stimulant), and even volatile drug precursors using Pd, Au and Mo electrodes.

  10. Life Satisfaction among Highly Achieving Students in Hong Kong: Do Gratitude and the "Good-Enough Mindset" Add to the Contribution of Perfectionism in Prediction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether gratitude and the "good-enough mindset" added to the contribution of perfectionism in predicting life satisfaction in 245 Chinese highly achieving students in Hong Kong. Participants completed self-report questionnaires that included scales on life satisfaction, positive and negative perfectionism…

  11. A descriptive study of high school Latino and Caucasian students' values about math, perceived math achievement and STEM career choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by Caucasians (n=142). Fifty-three percent of the students rated their math achievement as C or below. Of high math students, 57% were male. Females were 53% of low math students. Caucasians (61%) rated themselves as high in math in a greater proportion than Latinos (39%). Latinos (58%) rated themselves as low in math in a greater proportion than Caucasians (39%). Math Values play a significant role in students' perceived math achievement. Internal math values (r =.68, R2 =.46, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.70, R2 =.49, p =.001; females: r =.65, R2 =.43, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.66, R2 =.44, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.72, R2 =.51, p =.001). External math values (r =.53, R2 =.28, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.54, R2 =.30, p =.001; females: r =.49, R2 =.24, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.47, R2 =.22, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.58, R2 =.33, p =.001). Most high-math students indicated an awareness of being good at math at around 11 years old. Low-math students said that they realized that math was difficult for them at approximately 13 years of age. The influence of parents, teachers, and peers may vary at different academic stages. Approximately half of the participants said there was not a person who had significantly impacted their career choice; only a minority said their parents and teachers were influencing them to a STEM career. Parents and teachers are the most influential relationships in students' career choice. More exposure to STEM role models and in a variety of professions is needed. Possible strategies to impact students

  12. Achieving High Spatial Resolution Surface Plasmon Resonance Microscopy with Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Shan, Xiaonan; Wang, Shaopeng; Tao, Nongjian

    2017-03-07

    Surface plasmon resonance microscopy (SPRM) is a powerful platform for biomedical imaging and molecular binding kinetics analysis. However, the spatial resolution of SPRM along the plasmon propagation direction (longitudinal) is determined by the decaying length of the plasmonic wave, which can be as large as tens of microns. Different methods have been proposed to improve the spatial resolution, but each at the expense of decreased sensitivity or temporal resolution. Here we present a method to achieve high spatial resolution SPRM based on deconvolution of complex field. The method does not require additional optical setup and improves the spatial resolution in the longitudinal direction. We applied the method to image nanoparticles and achieved close-to-diffraction limit resolution in both longitudinal and transverse directions.

  13. The effects of modeling instruction on high school physics academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an ex post facto , quasi-experimental research methodology. The independent variables in this study were the instructional methods of teaching. The treatment variable was Modeling Instruction and the control variable was traditional lecture instruction. The Treatment Group consisted of participants in Physical World Concepts who received Modeling Instruction. The Control Group consisted of participants in Physical Science who received traditional lecture instruction. The dependent variable was gains scores on the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI). The participants for this study were 133 students each in both the Treatment and Control Groups (n = 266), who attended a public, high school in rural middle Tennessee. The participants were administered the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) prior to being taught the mechanics of physics. The FCI data were entered into the computer-based Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Two independent samples t-tests were conducted to answer the research questions. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups concerning the instructional method. Modeling Instructional methods were found to be effective in increasing the academic achievement of students in high school physics. There was no statistically significant difference between FCI gains scores for gender. Gender was found to have no effect on the academic achievement of students in high school physics classes. However, even though there was not a statistically significant difference, female students' gains scores were higher than male students' gains scores when Modeling Instructional methods of teaching were used. Based on these findings, it is recommended

  14. Does parental involvement matter for student achievement and mental health in high school?

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Sheikh-Khalil, Salam

    2014-01-01

    Parental involvement in education remains important for facilitating positive youth development. This study conceptualized parental involvement as a multidimensional construct-including school-based involvement, home-based involvement, and academic socialization-and examined the effects of different types of parental involvement in 10th grade on student achievement and depression in 11th grade (approximately ages 15-17 years). In addition, this study tested whether parental involvement influenced adolescent outcomes by increasing their academic engagement in school. A total of 1,056 adolescents participated in the study (51% males; 53% European American, 40% African American, and 7% other). Parental involvement was found to improve academic and emotional functioning among adolescents. In addition, parental involvement predicted adolescent academic success and mental health both directly and indirectly through behavioral and emotional engagement.

  15. Compton imaging with a highly-segmented, position-sensitive HPGe detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbach, T.; Hirsch, R.; Reiter, P.; Birkenbach, B.; Bruyneel, B.; Eberth, J.; Gernhäuser, R.; Hess, H.; Lewandowski, L.; Maier, L.; Schlarb, M.; Weiler, B.; Winkel, M.

    2017-02-01

    A Compton camera based on a highly-segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and a double-sided silicon-strip detector (DSSD) was developed, tested, and put into operation; the origin of γ radiation was determined successfully. The Compton camera is operated in two different modes. Coincidences from Compton-scattered γ-ray events between DSSD and HPGe detector allow for best angular resolution; while the high-efficiency mode takes advantage of the position sensitivity of the highly-segmented HPGe detector. In this mode the setup is sensitive to the whole 4π solid angle. The interaction-point positions in the 36-fold segmented large-volume HPGe detector are determined by pulse-shape analysis (PSA) of all HPGe detector signals. Imaging algorithms were developed for each mode and successfully implemented. The angular resolution sensitively depends on parameters such as geometry, selected multiplicity and interaction-point distances. Best results were obtained taking into account the crosstalk properties, the time alignment of the signals and the distance metric for the PSA for both operation modes. An angular resolution between 13.8° and 19.1°, depending on the minimal interaction-point distance for the high-efficiency mode at an energy of 1275 keV, was achieved. In the coincidence mode, an increased angular resolution of 4.6° was determined for the same γ-ray energy.

  16. Army Pre-Positioned Stocks and High-Speed Sealift

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    5 One 2x1 Bde Set (Qatar) One 2x1 Bde Set (Kuwait) APS-3 One 2x2 Bde Set (Diago Garcia) One 1x1 Bde Set (Diago Garcia) APS-3 Saipan APS-1 CONUS...Army pre-positioned an additional one brigade set (second brigade set was a 1x1 brigade) and pre-positioned as part of APS-3 on two LARGE Medium Speed...a 1x1 brigade set in addition to port opening equipment, sustainment stocks and ammunition for a contingency corps of five and a third (5 1/3

  17. The effects of using diagramming as a representational technique on high school students' achievement in solving math word problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Banmali

    Methods and procedures for successfully solving math word problems have been, and continue to be a mystery to many U.S. high school students. Previous studies suggest that the contextual and mathematical understanding of a word problem, along with the development of schemas and their related external representations, positively contribute to students' accomplishments when solving word problems. Some studies have examined the effects of diagramming on students' abilities to solve word problems that only involved basic arithmetic operations. Other studies have investigated how instructional models that used technology influenced students' problem solving achievements. Still other studies have used schema-based instruction involving students with learning disabilities. No study has evaluated regular high school students' achievements in solving standard math word problems using a diagramming technique without technological aid. This study evaluated students' achievement in solving math word problems using a diagramming technique. Using a quasi-experimental experimental pretest-posttest research design, quantitative data were collected from 172 grade 11 Hispanic English language learners (ELLS) and African American learners whose first language is English (EFLLs) in 18 classes at an inner city high school in Northern New Jersey. There were 88 control and 84 experimental students. The pretest and posttest of each participating student and samples of the experimental students' class assignments provided the qualitative data for the study. The data from this study exhibited that the diagramming method of solving math word problems significantly improved student achievement in the experimental group (p<.01) compared to the control group. The study demonstrated that urban, high school, ELLs benefited from instruction that placed emphasis on the mathematical vocabulary and symbols used in word problems and that both ELLs and EFLLs improved their problem solving success

  18. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L.; Smith, Gregory M.; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today’s OLEDs in performance. PMID:27063414

  19. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L.; Smith, Gregory M.; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-04-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today’s OLEDs in performance.

  20. Challenges to achievement of metal sustainability in our high-tech society.

    PubMed

    Izatt, Reed M; Izatt, Steven R; Bruening, Ronald L; Izatt, Neil E; Moyer, Bruce A

    2014-04-21

    Achievement of sustainability in metal life cycles from mining of virgin ore to consumer and industrial devices to end-of-life products requires greatly increased recycling rates and improved processing of metals using conventional and green chemistry technologies. Electronic and other high-tech products containing precious, toxic, and specialty metals usually have short lifetimes and low recycling rates. Products containing these metals generally are incinerated, discarded as waste in landfills, or dismantled in informal recycling using crude and environmentally irresponsible procedures. Low recycling rates of metals coupled with increasing demand for high-tech products containing them necessitate increased mining with attendant environmental, health, energy, water, and carbon-footprint consequences. In this tutorial review, challenges to achieving metal sustainability, including projected use of urban mining, in present high-tech society are presented; health, environmental, and economic incentives for various government, industry, and public stakeholders to improve metal sustainability are discussed; a case for technical improvements, including use of molecular recognition, in selective metal separation technology, especially for metal recovery from dilute feed stocks is given; and global consequences of continuing on the present path are examined.

  1. Investigation of a nanofabrication process to achieve high aspect-ratio nanostructures on a quartz substrate.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, K; Alkaisi, M M

    2013-01-11

    This work investigates the development of a nanofabrication process to achieve high aspect-ratio nanostructures on quartz substrates using electron beam lithography (EBL) patterning and fluorinated plasma etching processes. An imaging layer of a poly(methyl methacrylate) bi-layer resist was spun coated on quartz substrate and exposed by an e-beam with the designed patterns of sub-100 nm feature sizes using a Raith-150 EBL patterning tool. Additive pattern transfer was employed by depositing a 40 nm thick Nichrome layer on the resist pattern using a metal evaporator which was later lifted off by soaking in acetone. Nichrome was employed as an etch mask and an Oxford Plasmalab 80Plus reactive ion etcher was used for the etching process. The etching process was carried out in a gas mixture of CHF(3)/Ar with a flow rate ratio of 50/30 sccm, pressure of 20 mTorr, radiofrequency power of 200 W and at room temperature. These etching process parameters were found to achieve a 10 nm min(-1) etch rate and tall vertical side walls profile. An aspect-ratio of 10:1 was achieved on 60 nm feature size structures.

  2. Investigation of a nanofabrication process to achieve high aspect-ratio nanostructures on a quartz substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, K.; Alkaisi, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the development of a nanofabrication process to achieve high aspect-ratio nanostructures on quartz substrates using electron beam lithography (EBL) patterning and fluorinated plasma etching processes. An imaging layer of a poly(methyl methacrylate) bi-layer resist was spun coated on quartz substrate and exposed by an e-beam with the designed patterns of sub-100 nm feature sizes using a Raith-150 EBL patterning tool. Additive pattern transfer was employed by depositing a 40 nm thick Nichrome layer on the resist pattern using a metal evaporator which was later lifted off by soaking in acetone. Nichrome was employed as an etch mask and an Oxford Plasmalab 80Plus reactive ion etcher was used for the etching process. The etching process was carried out in a gas mixture of CHF3/Ar with a flow rate ratio of 50/30 sccm, pressure of 20 mTorr, radiofrequency power of 200 W and at room temperature. These etching process parameters were found to achieve a 10 nm min-1 etch rate and tall vertical side walls profile. An aspect-ratio of 10:1 was achieved on 60 nm feature size structures.

  3. Subpixel shift with Fourier transform to achieve efficient and high-quality image interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qin-Sheng; Weinhous, Martin S.

    1999-05-01

    A new approach to image interpolation is proposed. Different from the conventional scheme, the interpolation of a digital image is achieved with a sub-unity coordinate shift technique. In the approach, the original image is first shifted by sub-unity distances matching the locations where the image values need to be restored. The original and the shifted images are then interspersed together, yielding an interpolated image. High quality sub-unity image shift which is crucial to the approach is accomplished by implementing the shift theorem of Fourier transformation. It is well known that under the Nyquist sampling criterion, the most accurate image interpolation can be achieved with the interpolating function (sinc function). A major drawback is its computation efficiency. The present approach can achieve an interpolation quality as good as that with the sinc function since the sub-unity shift in Fourier domain is equivalent to shifting the sinc function in spatial domain, while the efficiency, thanks to the fast Fourier transform, is very much improved. In comparison to the conventional interpolation techniques such as linear or cubic B-spline interpolation, the interpolation accuracy is significantly enhanced. In order to compensate for the under-sampling effects in the interpolation of 3D medical images owing to a larger inter-slice distance, proper window functions were recommended. The application of the approach to 2- and 3-D CT and MRI images produced satisfactory interpolation results.

  4. Cognitive abilities and motivational processes in high school students' science achievement and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Shun

    The dissertation presents two analytic approaches, a variable-centered and person-centered approach, to investigating holistic patterns of the cognitive, motivational, and affective correlates of science achievement and engagement in a sample of 491 10th and 11th grade high-school students. Building on Snow's (1989) idea of two pathways to achievement outcomes, Study 1 adopted a variable-centered approach to examining how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways, respectively, contributed to the prediction of achievement outcomes in science. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that (a) students' cognitive abilities were the strongest predictors of their performance in science as measured by standardized test scores; (b) motivational processes enhanced the predictive validity for science test scores and grades beyond the variance accounted for by ability and demography; (c) motivational processes were the strongest predictors of students' commitment to science in the form of situational engagement and anticipated choices of science-related college majors and careers; and (d) competence beliefs served as a point of contact between the performance and commitment pathways. These results are consistent with Snow's (1989) conjecture that both performance and commitment pathway-related factors are necessary for understanding the full range of person-level inputs to achievement outcomes. Study 2 adopted a person-centered approach to examining holistic organizations of psychological factors within individuals and their relations to science achievement and engagement. Four types of students characterized by unique configurations of cognitive, motivational, and affective attributes were identified in both the male and female subsamples using inverse factor analysis. Type membership was found to distinguish students in various indicators of science achievement and engagement. Two of the four types were also found

  5. Optical Position Encoders for High or Low Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2004-01-01

    Optoelectronic pattern-recognition systems (optical encoders) for measuring positions of objects of interest at temperatures well below or well above room temperature are undergoing development. At present, the development effort is concentrated on absolute linear, rotary, and Cartesian encoders and Cartesian autocollimators for scientific instruments that operate in cryostats.

  6. Mathematical and numerical models to achieve high speed with special-purpose parallel processors

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.S.; Wulff, W.; Mallen, A.N.

    1986-07-01

    One simulation facility that has been developed is the BNL Plant Analyzer, currently set up for BWR plant simulations at up to seven times faster than real-time process speeds. The principal hardware components of the BNL Plant Analyzer are two units of special-purpose parallel processors, the AD10 of Applied Dynamics International and a PDP-11/34 host computer. The AD10 is specifically designed for time-critical system simulations, utilizing the modern parallel processing technology with pipeline architecture. The simulator employs advanced modeling techniques and efficient integration techniques in conjunction with the parallel processors to achieve high speed performance.

  7. A Highly Reliable and Cost-Efficient Multi-Sensor System for Land Vehicle Positioning.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Xu, Qimin; Li, Bin; Song, Xianghui

    2016-05-25

    In this paper, we propose a novel positioning solution for land vehicles which is highly reliable and cost-efficient. The proposed positioning system fuses information from the MEMS-based reduced inertial sensor system (RISS) which consists of one vertical gyroscope and two horizontal accelerometers, low-cost GPS, and supplementary sensors and sources. First, pitch and roll angle are accurately estimated based on a vehicle kinematic model. Meanwhile, the negative effect of the uncertain nonlinear drift of MEMS inertial sensors is eliminated by an H∞ filter. Further, a distributed-dual-H∞ filtering (DDHF) mechanism is adopted to address the uncertain nonlinear drift of the MEMS-RISS and make full use of the supplementary sensors and sources. The DDHF is composed of a main H∞ filter (MHF) and an auxiliary H∞ filter (AHF). Finally, a generalized regression neural network (GRNN) module with good approximation capability is specially designed for the MEMS-RISS. A hybrid methodology which combines the GRNN module and the AHF is utilized to compensate for RISS position errors during GPS outages. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution, road-test experiments with various scenarios were performed. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed system can achieve accurate and reliable positioning for land vehicles.

  8. A Highly Reliable and Cost-Efficient Multi-Sensor System for Land Vehicle Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu; Xu, Qimin; Li, Bin; Song, Xianghui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel positioning solution for land vehicles which is highly reliable and cost-efficient. The proposed positioning system fuses information from the MEMS-based reduced inertial sensor system (RISS) which consists of one vertical gyroscope and two horizontal accelerometers, low-cost GPS, and supplementary sensors and sources. First, pitch and roll angle are accurately estimated based on a vehicle kinematic model. Meanwhile, the negative effect of the uncertain nonlinear drift of MEMS inertial sensors is eliminated by an H∞ filter. Further, a distributed-dual-H∞ filtering (DDHF) mechanism is adopted to address the uncertain nonlinear drift of the MEMS-RISS and make full use of the supplementary sensors and sources. The DDHF is composed of a main H∞ filter (MHF) and an auxiliary H∞ filter (AHF). Finally, a generalized regression neural network (GRNN) module with good approximation capability is specially designed for the MEMS-RISS. A hybrid methodology which combines the GRNN module and the AHF is utilized to compensate for RISS position errors during GPS outages. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution, road-test experiments with various scenarios were performed. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed system can achieve accurate and reliable positioning for land vehicles. PMID:27231917

  9. High School Principal Instructional Leadership Behavior in High and Low Need and High and Low Achievement Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Theodore T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher perceptions of the ten specific principal instructional leadership behaviors of Hallinger's Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale as they relate to school need, school achievement, years of experience as a teacher, and years working with the current principal. This quantitative…

  10. Number Sense-Based Strategies Used by High-Achieving Sixth Grade Students Who Experienced Reform Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsawaie, Othman N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore strategies used by high-achieving 6th grade students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to solve basic arithmetic problems involving number sense. The sample for the study consisted of 15 high-achieving boys and 15 high-achieving girls in grade 6 from 2 schools in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE. Data for the…

  11. Achieving high mass-throughput of therapeutic proteins through parvovirus retentive filters.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Glen R; Basha, Jonida; Lacasse, Daniel P

    2010-01-01

    Parvovirus retentive filters that assure removal of viruses and virus-like particles during the production of therapeutic proteins significantly contribute to total manufacturing costs. Operational approaches that can increase throughput and reduce filtration area would result in a significant cost savings. A combination of methods was used to achieve high throughputs of an antibody or therapeutic protein solution through three parvovirus retentive filters. These methods included evaluation of diatomaceous earth or size-based prefilters, the addition of additives, and the optimization of protein concentration, temperature, buffer composition, and solution pH. An optimum temperature of 35°C was found for maximizing throughput through the Virosart CPV and Viresolve Pro filters. Mass-throughput values of 7.3, 26.4, and 76.2 kg/m(2) were achieved through the Asahi Planova 20N, Virosart CPV, and Viresolve Pro filters, respectively, in 4 h of processing. Mass-throughput values of 73, 137, and 192 kg/m(2) were achieved through a Millipore Viresolve Pro filter in 4.0, 8.8, and 22.1 h of processing, respectively, during a single experiment. However, large-scale parvovirus filtration operations are typically controlled to limit volumetric throughput to below the level achieved during small-scale virus spiking experiments. The virus spike may cause significant filter plugging, limiting throughput. Therefore newer parvovirus filter spiking strategies should be adopted that may lead to more representative viral clearance data and higher utilization of large-scale filter capacity.

  12. The Combined Effect of Teacher Effectiveness Characteristics on Value-Added Student Achievement in Junior High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadleigh, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Student academic achievement in junior high mathematics is an ongoing mission for educational leaders. To achieve that undertaking, teacher effectiveness plays an important role. The purpose of this study was to examine the combined effects of teacher effectiveness on student achievement. The study was conducted in a suburban school district in…

  13. Achieving High Contrast for Exoplanet Imaging with a Kalman Filter and Stroke Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Groff, T. D.; Kasdin, N. J.; Carlotti, A.; Vanderbei, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    High contrast imaging requires focal plane wavefront control and estimation to correct aberrations in an optical system; non-common path errors prevent the use of conventional estimation with a separate wavefront sensor. The High Contrast Imaging Laboratory (HCIL) at Princeton has led the development of several techniques for focal plane wavefront control and estimation. In recent years, we developed a Kalman filter for optimal wavefront estimation. Our Kalman filter algorithm is an improvement upon DM Diversity, which requires at least two images pairs each iteration and does not utilize any prior knowledge of the system. The Kalman filter is a recursive estimator, meaning that it uses the data from prior estimates along with as few as one new image pairs per iteration to update the electric field estimate. Stroke minimization has proven to be a feasible controller for achieving high contrast. While similar to a variation of Electric Field Conjugation (EFC), stroke minimization achieves the same contrast with less stroke on the DMs. We recently utilized these algorithms to achieve high contrast for the first time in our experiment at the High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Our HCIT experiment was also the first demonstration of symmetric dark hole correction in the image plane using two DMs--this is a major milestone for future space missions. Our ongoing work includes upgrading our optimal estimator to include an estimate of the incoherent light in the system, which allows for simultaneous estimation of the light from a planet along with starlight. The two-DM experiment at the HCIT utilized a shaped pupil coronagraph. Those tests utilized ripple style, free-standing masks etched out of silicon, but our current work is in designing 2-D optimized reflective shaped pupils. In particular, we have created several designs for the AFTA telescope, whose pupil presents major hurdles because of its atypical pupil obstructions. Our

  14. High Titer and Yields Achieved with Novel, Low-Severity Pretreatment Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    NREL researchers obtained high concentration sugar syrups in enzymatic hydrolysis that are fermentable to ethanol and other advanced biofuels and intermediate products at high yields. The novel DMR process is simpler and bypasses all severe pretreatment methods, thus reducing the environmental impact. The results are unprecedented. Researchers achieved a high concentration of sugars (230g/L of monomeric sugar and 270 g/L total sugar) and this low toxicity, highly fermentable syrup yielded 86 g/L ethanol (> 90 percent conversion). In addition, the lignin streams from this process can readily be converted to jet or renewable diesel blendstocks through a hydrodeoxygenation step. The NREL-developed, low severity DMR process may potentially replace higher severity chemical pretreatments and associated expensive reactors constructed of exotic alloys with a simpler process, using commercial-scale equipment commonly associated with the pulp and paper industry, to produce high concentration, low toxicity sugar streams and highly reactive lignin streams from non-food renewable biomass for biological and catalytic upgrading to advanced biofuels and chemicals. The simpler DMR process with black liquor recycling could reduce environmental and life-cycle impacts, and repurpose shuttered pulp and paper mills to help revitalize rural economies.

  15. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils’ academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Jimmefors, Alexander; Mousavi, Fariba; Adrianson, Lillemor; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment). Well-being was measured using Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils’ mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted. Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour. Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (in)direct model to increase pupils’ academic achievement and well-being—assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement. PMID:25861553

  16. The Pentagon-S process: A systematic approach for achieving high confidence in high-consequence products

    SciTech Connect

    D`Antonio, P.E.; Covan, J.M.; Ekman, M.E.

    1997-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a systematic approach for achieving high confidence in major products requiring high reliability for use in high-consequence applications. A high-consequence application is one in which product failure could result in significant loss of life, damage to major systems or to the environment, financial loss, or political repercussions. The application of this process has proven to be of significant benefit in the early identification, verification, and correction of potential product design and manufacturing process failure modes. Early identification and correction of these failures modes and the corresponding controls placed on safety-critical features, ensures product adherence to safety-critical design requirements, and enhances product quality, reliability, and the cost effectiveness of delivered products. Safety-critical features include design features such as materials and dimensions, as well as manufacturing features such as assembly processes, inspections, and testing.

  17. Improving production of 11C to achieve high specific labelled radiopharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savio, E.; García, O.; Trindade, V.; Buccino, P.; Giglio, J.; Balter, H.; Engler, H.

    2012-12-01

    Molecular imaging is usually based on the recognition by the radiopharmaceuticals of specific sites which are present in limited number or density in the cells or biological tissues. Thus is of high importance to label the radiopharmaceuticals with high specific activity to be able to achieve a high target to non target ratio. The presence of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air containing 98,88% of 12C and 1,12% 13C compete with 11CO2 produced at the cyclotron. In order to minimize the presence of these isotopes along the process of irradiation, transferring and synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 11C, we applied this method: previous to the irradiation the target was 3-4 times flushed with He (5.7) as a cold cleaning, followed by a similar conditioning of the line, from the target up to the module, and finally a hot cleaning in order to desorb 12CO2 and 13CO2, this was performed by irradiation during 1 min at 5 uA (3 times). In addition, with the aim of improving quality of gases in the target and in the modules, water traps (Agilent) were incorporated in the inlet lines of the target and modules. Target conditioning process (cold and hot flushings) as well as line cleaning, allowing the desorption of unlabelled CO2, together with the increasing of gas purity in the irradiation and in the synthesis, were critical parameters that enable to achieve 11C-radiopharamaceuticals with high specific activity, mainly in the case of 11C-PIB.

  18. The Family Liaison Position in High-Poverty, Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dretzke, Beverly J.; Rickers, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the roles and responsibilities of family liaisons working in urban schools with enrollments characterized by high poverty, high mobility, and ethnic diversity. Results indicated that the major responsibilities of the liaisons were creating a trusting and welcoming environment, facilitating parent involvement in the school,…

  19. High school students' perceptions of EFL teacher control orientations and their English academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND. Theories distinguish between student-initiated and teacher-initiated regulation of students' learning activities, or between strong, shared, or loose teacher control during the completion of learning tasks. Empirical validations for such distinctions are scarce, however. AIM. The present study aimed at (a) investigating students' perceptions of control behaviours exhibited by their English teachers; and (b) exploring the contribution of different types of teacher control behaviours to students' cognitive outcomes (English Achievement). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 732 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students studying in three major fields of high school (Mathematics, Natural Science, and Humanities). The participants (16-17 years of age) were selected from third-grade classes of 27 EFL teachers working in 25 high schools of 6 main different geographical regions in the Isfahan province, Iran. METHOD. To obtain a comprehensive picture of different control types exhibited by Iranian EFL teachers, the control subscales of the two existing questionnaires, i.e., the Questionnaire on Instructional Behaviours (QIB), adapted by Den Brok et al. (2004) and the Questionnaire on Lesson Activities (QLA) used by Den Brok (2001) were merged to form the Questionnaire of Teacher Control (QTC). The development of this Persian instrument involved several steps: translation and back translation by the researchers, one expert translator, and two EFL teachers; piloting; and a final administration of the questionnaire to the student sample. With respect to the second aim of the study, data regarding students' performances on the Standardized National English Achievement Tests were gathered from local educational offices and schools. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION. Statistical analyses supported acceptable reliability and validity of the instrument. A main factor structure with three types of teacher control (strong/high, shared/mid, and loose/low) was found to underlie students

  20. Not choosing nursing: work experience and career choice of high academic achieving school leavers.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Gavin R; McNally, James G

    2010-01-01

    Work experience has been a feature of the secondary school curriculum in the United Kingdom for a number of years. Usually requested by the pupil, it aims to provide opportunities for school pupils to enhance their knowledge and understanding of an occupation. The main benefits are claimed to be that it can help pupils develop an insight into the skills and attitudes required for an occupation and an awareness of career opportunities. However the quality and choice of placements are considered to be of great importance in this process and in influencing career choice [Department for Education and Skills (DfES), 2002a. Work Experience: A Guide for Employers. Department for Education and Skills, London]. As university departments of nursing experience a decline in the number of school pupils entering student nurse education programmes, and with the competition for school leavers becoming even greater, it is important to consider whether school pupils have access to appropriate work placements in nursing and what influence their experience has on pursuing nursing as a career choice. This paper is based on interview data from 20 high academic achieving fifth and sixth year school pupils in Scotland, paradigmatic cases from a larger survey sample (n=1062), who had considered nursing as a possible career choice within their career preference cluster, but then later disregarded nursing and decided to pursue medicine or another health care profession. This was partly reported by Neilson and Lauder [Neilson, G.R., Lauder, W., 2008. What do high academic achieving school pupils really think about a career in nursing: analysis of the narrative from paradigmatic case interviews. Nurse Education Today 28(6), 680-690] which examined what high academic achieving school pupils really thought about a career in nursing. However, the data was particularly striking in revealing the poor quality of nursing work experience for the pupils, and also their proposal that there was a need

  1. Tuning charge balance in PHOLEDs with ambipolar host materials to achieve high efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Koech, Phillip K.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Chopra, Neetu; So, Franky; Sapochak, Linda S.; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2009-08-27

    The efficiency and stability of blue organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) continue to be a primary roadblock to developing organic solid state white lighting. For OLEDs to meet the high power conversion efficiency goal, they will require both close to 100% internal quantum efficiency and low operating voltage in a white light emitting device.1 It is generally accepted that such high quantum efficiency, can only be achieved with the use of organometallic phosphor doped OLEDs. Blue OLEDs are particularly important for solid state lighting. The simplest (and therefore likely the lowest cost) method of generating white light is to down convert part of the emission from a blue light source with a system of external phosphors.2 A second method of generating white light requires the superposition of the light from red, green and blue OLEDs in the correct ratio. Either of these two methods (and indeed any method of generating white light with a high color rendering index) critically depends on a high efficiency blue light component.3 A simple OLED generally consists of a hole-injecting anode, a preferentially hole transporting organic layer (HTL), an emissive layer that contains the recombination zone and ideally transports both holes and electrons, a preferentially electron-transporting layer (ETL) and an electron-injecting cathode. Color in state-of-the-art OLEDs is generated by an organometallic phosphor incorporated by co-sublimation into the emissive layer (EML).4 New materials functioning as hosts, emitters, charge transporting, and charge blocking layers have been developed along with device architectures leading to electrophosphorescent based OLEDs with high quantum efficiencies near the theoretical limit. However, the layers added to the device architecture to enable high quantum efficiencies lead to higher operating voltages and correspondingly lower power efficiencies. Achievement of target luminance power efficiencies will require new strategies for lowering

  2. Pulsed positive streamer discharges in air at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Ryo; Kamakura, Taku

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric-pressure air pulsed positive streamer discharges are generated in a 13 mm point-plane gap in the temperature range of 293 K-1136 K, and the effect of temperature on the streamer discharges is studied. When the temperature is increased, the product of applied voltage and temperature VT proportional to the reduced electric field can be used as a primary parameter that determines some discharge parameters regardless of temperature. For a given VT, the transferred charge per pulse, streamer diameter, product of discharge energy and temperature, and length of secondary streamer are almost constant regardless of T, whereas the streamer velocity decreases with increasing T and the decay rate of the discharge current is proportional to 1/T. The N2(C) emission intensity is approximately determined by the discharge energy independent of T. These results are useful to predict the streamer discharge and its reactive species production when the ambient temperature is increased.

  3. High and Low Reading Comprehension Achievers' Strategic Behaviors and Their Relation to Performance in a Reading Comprehension Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dermitzaki, Irini; Andreou, Georgia; Paraskeva, Violetta

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the actual strategic behaviors of high and low achievers in reading comprehension and their relation with respective performance. The participants were 45 individually examined third graders, 20 high and 25 low reading comprehension achievers. Cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational aspects of the participants'…

  4. A Comparison of Strategic Development for Multiplication Problem Solving in Low-, Average-, and High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dake; Ding, Yi; Barrett, Dave E.; Xin, Yan Ping; Liu, Ru-de

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the differences of strategy use between low-, average-, and high-achieving students when solving different multiplication problems. Nineteen high-, 48 average-, and 17 low-achieving students participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete three different multiplication tests and to explain how…

  5. Is Early Ability Grouping Good for High-Achieving Students' Psychosocial Development? Effects of the Transition into Academically Selective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Michael; Neumann, Marko; Tetzner, Julia; Böse, Susanne; Knoppick, Henrike; Maaz, Kai; Baumert, Jürgen; Lehmann, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates school context effects on psychosocial characteristics (academic self-concept, peer relations, school satisfaction, and school anxiety) of high-achieving and gifted students. Students who did or did not make an early transition from elementary to secondary schools for high-achieving and gifted students in 5th grade…

  6. The Difference in the Academic Achievement of Hispanic High School Students Based on the Theme of the Small Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Beate M. Winter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the difference in the academic achievement of urban Hispanic high school students based on the small learning community theme. The study used a quantitative method of ex post facto research to examine how the academic achievement of Hispanic high school students differs across the themes of small…

  7. Trajectories of Chinese Students' Sense of School Belonging and Academic Achievement over the High School Transition Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    The present study identified the different patterns of Chinese students' academic achievement trajectories over the high school transition period and examined the relationships between students' sense of school belonging trajectories and the different patterns of academic achievement trajectories. In a sample of 567 Chinese high school students, a…

  8. Robust and Fragile Mathematical Identities: A Framework for Exploring Racialized Experiences and High Achievement among Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Ebony O.

    2015-01-01

    I introduce the construct of fragile and robust identities for the purpose of exploring the experiences that influenced the mathematical and racial identities of high-achieving Black college students in mathematics and engineering. These students maintained high levels of academic achievement in these fields while enduring marginalization,…

  9. Theoretical Study of Monolayer and Double-Layer Waveguide Love Wave Sensors for Achieving High Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuangming; Wan, Ying; Fan, Chunhai; Su, Yan

    2017-03-22

    Love wave sensors have been widely used for sensing applications. In this work, we introduce the theoretical analysis of the monolayer and double-layer waveguide Love wave sensors. The velocity, particle displacement and energy distribution of Love waves were analyzed. Using the variations of the energy repartition, the sensitivity coefficients of Love wave sensors were calculated. To achieve a higher sensitivity coefficient, a thin gold layer was added as the second waveguide on top of the silicon dioxide (SiO₂) waveguide-based, 36 degree-rotated, Y-cut, X-propagating lithium tantalate (36° YX LiTaO₃) Love wave sensor. The Love wave velocity was significantly reduced by the added gold layer, and the flow of wave energy into the waveguide layer from the substrate was enhanced. By using the double-layer structure, almost a 72-fold enhancement in the sensitivity coefficient was achieved compared to the monolayer structure. Additionally, the thickness of the SiO₂ layer was also reduced with the application of the gold layer, resulting in easier device fabrication. This study allows for the possibility of designing and realizing robust Love wave sensors with high sensitivity and a low limit of detection.

  10. Theoretical Study of Monolayer and Double-Layer Waveguide Love Wave Sensors for Achieving High Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuangming; Wan, Ying; Fan, Chunhai; Su, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Love wave sensors have been widely used for sensing applications. In this work, we introduce the theoretical analysis of the monolayer and double-layer waveguide Love wave sensors. The velocity, particle displacement and energy distribution of Love waves were analyzed. Using the variations of the energy repartition, the sensitivity coefficients of Love wave sensors were calculated. To achieve a higher sensitivity coefficient, a thin gold layer was added as the second waveguide on top of the silicon dioxide (SiO2) waveguide–based, 36 degree–rotated, Y-cut, X-propagating lithium tantalate (36° YX LiTaO3) Love wave sensor. The Love wave velocity was significantly reduced by the added gold layer, and the flow of wave energy into the waveguide layer from the substrate was enhanced. By using the double-layer structure, almost a 72-fold enhancement in the sensitivity coefficient was achieved compared to the monolayer structure. Additionally, the thickness of the SiO2 layer was also reduced with the application of the gold layer, resulting in easier device fabrication. This study allows for the possibility of designing and realizing robust Love wave sensors with high sensitivity and a low limit of detection. PMID:28327504

  11. Science literacy in high school students: A comparison of achievement in two curriculum approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlister, Diane C.

    2009-12-01

    Academic achievement as measured by the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) in science for 367 students in two science curriculum options, integrated science and the traditional subject-specific courses, in one central Florida high school were compared. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) of science curriculum choice was analyzed for three variables, total FCAT score, earth science subscore, and scientific thinking subscore. Covariate of academic ability as defined by grade point average (GPA) and academic focus as defined by post secondary plans were considered for use. Analysis of statistically significant results was completed through analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). While statistically significant results were found in favor of the traditional curriculum group, additional statistical analysis of the curriculum groups for differences in socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and instructional level led to a logistic regression to explore the ability of these variables, GPA, and total FCAT score to predict curriculum group membership. GPA, level of instruction and FCAT score were found to be statistically significant predictors. Final conclusions to the study indicated a significant difference in scientific literacy for the two groups in favor of the traditional curriculum. However, logistic regression results indicated that due to significant differences in SES, gender, GPA, and level of instruction for the groups, the differences in academic achievement were probably due to factors other than curriculum design. Limitations of the study and suggestions for further research were presented.

  12. A high-resolution, nucleosome position map of C. elegans reveals a lack of universal sequence-dictated positioning.

    PubMed

    Valouev, Anton; Ichikawa, Jeffrey; Tonthat, Thaisan; Stuart, Jeremy; Ranade, Swati; Peckham, Heather; Zeng, Kathy; Malek, Joel A; Costa, Gina; McKernan, Kevin; Sidow, Arend; Fire, Andrew; Johnson, Steven M

    2008-07-01

    Using the massively parallel technique of sequencing by oligonucleotide ligation and detection (SOLiD; Applied Biosystems), we have assessed the in vivo positions of more than 44 million putative nucleosome cores in the multicellular genetic model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. These analyses provide a global view of the chromatin architecture of a multicellular animal at extremely high density and resolution. While we observe some degree of reproducible positioning throughout the genome in our mixed stage population of animals, we note that the major chromatin feature in the worm is a diversity of allowed nucleosome positions at the vast majority of individual loci. While absolute positioning of nucleosomes can vary substantially, relative positioning of nucleosomes (in a repeated array structure likely to be maintained at least in part by steric constraints) appears to be a significant property of chromatin structure. The high density of nucleosomal reads enabled a substantial extension of previous analysis describing the usage of individual oligonucleotide sequences along the span of the nucleosome core and linker. We release this data set, via the UCSC Genome Browser, as a resource for the high-resolution analysis of chromatin conformation and DNA accessibility at individual loci within the C. elegans genome.

  13. Achieving behavioral control with millisecond resolution in a high-level programming environment.

    PubMed

    Asaad, Wael F; Eskandar, Emad N

    2008-08-30

    The creation of psychophysical tasks for the behavioral neurosciences has generally relied upon low-level software running on a limited range of hardware. Despite the availability of software that allows the coding of behavioral tasks in high-level programming environments, many researchers are still reluctant to trust the temporal accuracy and resolution of programs running in such environments, especially when they run atop non-real-time operating systems. Thus, the creation of behavioral paradigms has been slowed by the intricacy of the coding required and their dissemination across labs has been hampered by the various types of hardware needed. However, we demonstrate here that, when proper measures are taken to handle the various sources of temporal error, accuracy can be achieved at the 1 ms time-scale that is relevant for the alignment of behavioral and neural events.

  14. Superconductive quantum interference magnetometer with high sensitivity achieved by an induced resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Vettoliere, A.; Granata, C.

    2014-08-15

    A fully integrated low noise superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) in a magnetometer configuration is presented. An intrinsic high voltage responsivity as high as 500 μV/Φ{sub 0} has been obtained by introducing a resonance in the voltage – magnetic flux characteristic. This resonance is induced by an integrated superconducting coil surrounding the pick-up coil and connected to one end of the SQUID output. The SQUID magnetometer exhibits a spectral density of magnetic field noise as low as 3 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}. In order to verify the suitability of the magnetometer, measurements of bandwidth and slew rate have been performed and compared with those of the same device without the resonance and with additional positive feedback. Due to their good characteristics such devices can be employed in a large number of applications including biomagnetism.

  15. Superconductive quantum interference magnetometer with high sensitivity achieved by an induced resonance.

    PubMed

    Vettoliere, A; Granata, C

    2014-08-01

    A fully integrated low noise superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) in a magnetometer configuration is presented. An intrinsic high voltage responsivity as high as 500 μV/Φ0 has been obtained by introducing a resonance in the voltage - magnetic flux characteristic. This resonance is induced by an integrated superconducting coil surrounding the pick-up coil and connected to one end of the SQUID output. The SQUID magnetometer exhibits a spectral density of magnetic field noise as low as 3 fT/Hz(1/2). In order to verify the suitability of the magnetometer, measurements of bandwidth and slew rate have been performed and compared with those of the same device without the resonance and with additional positive feedback. Due to their good characteristics such devices can be employed in a large number of applications including biomagnetism.

  16. Program Orientation for High School Sport Coaches. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) believes that prior to the start of each season, all high school head coaches, assistant coaches, and volunteer coaches should be required to participate in a comprehensive orientation to the sport program. This orientation should be planned and conducted by the athletic director or…

  17. High School Student Physics Research Experience Yields Positive Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a…

  18. Gender Positions and High School Students' Attainment in Local Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weldeana, Hailu Nigus

    2015-01-01

    Several studies that suggest for the inclusion of students' cultural background into the mathematics curriculum fail to address gender roles within cultures and the impact it will have on the understanding of academic mathematics. This paper reports a study of high school students' involvement in everyday material production and its connection to…

  19. Strategies for achieving high-level expression of genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Makrides, S C

    1996-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of several biological processes promises to broaden the usefulness of Escherichia coli as a tool for gene expression. There is an expanding choice of tightly regulated prokaryotic promoters suitable for achieving high-level gene expression. New host strains facilitate the formation of disulfide bonds in the reducing environment of the cytoplasm and offer higher protein yields by minimizing proteolytic degradation. Insights into the process of protein translocation across the bacterial membranes may eventually make it possible to achieve robust secretion of specific proteins into the culture medium. Studies involving molecular chaperones have shown that in specific cases, chaperones can be very effective for improved protein folding, solubility, and membrane transport. Negative results derived from such studies are also instructive in formulating different strategies. The remarkable increase in the availability of fusion partners offers a wide range of tools for improved protein folding, solubility, protection from proteases, yield, and secretion into the culture medium, as well as for detection and purification of recombinant proteins. Codon usage is known to present a potential impediment to high-level gene expression in E. coli. Although we still do not understand all the rules governing this phenomenon, it is apparent that "rare" codons, depending on their frequency and context, can have an adverse effect on protein levels. Usually, this problem can be alleviated by modification of the relevant codons or by coexpression of the cognate tRNA genes. Finally, the elucidation of specific determinants of protein degradation, a plethora of protease-deficient host strains, and methods to stabilize proteins afford new strategies to minimize proteolytic susceptibility of recombinant proteins in E. coli. PMID:8840785

  20. The design of an animal PET: flexible geometry for achieving optimal spatial resolution or high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Weber, S; Terstegge, A; Herzog, H; Reinartz, R; Reinhart, P; Rongen, F; Müller-Gärtner, H W; Halling, H

    1997-10-01

    We present the design of a positron emission tomograph (PET) with flexible geometry dedicated to in vivo studies of small animals (TierPET). The scanner uses two pairs of detectors. Each detector consists of 400 small individual yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) scintillator crystals of dimensions 2 x 2 x 15 mm3, optically isolated and glued together, which are coupled to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT's). The detector modules can be moved in a radial direction so that the detector-to-detector spacing can be varied. Special hardware has been built for coincidence detection, position detection, and real-time data acquisition, which is performed by a PC. The single-event data are transferred to workstations where the radioactivity distribution is reconstructed. The dimensions of the crystals and the detector layout are the result of extensive simulations which are described in this report, taking into account sensitivity, spatial resolution and additional parameters like parallax error or scatter effects. For the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction a genuine 3-D expectation-maximization (EM)-algorithm which can include the characteristics of the detector system has been implemented. The reconstruction software is flexible and matches the different detector configurations. The main advantage of the proposed animal PET scanner is its high flexibility, allowing the realization of various detector-system configurations. By changing the detector-to-detector spacing, the system is capable of either providing good spatial resolution or high sensitivity for dynamic studies of pharmacokinetics.

  1. A noninvasive high frequency oscillation ventilator: Achieved by utilizing a blower and a valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, YueYang; Sun, JianGuo; Wang, Baicun; Feng, Pei; Yang, ChongChang

    2016-02-01

    After the High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (HFOV) has been applied in the invasive ventilator, the new technique of noninvasive High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (nHFOV) which does not require opening the patient's airway has attracted much attention from the field. This paper proposes the design of an experimental positive pressure-controlled nHFOV ventilator which utilizes a blower and a special valve and has three ventilation modes: spontaneous controlled ventilation combining HFOV, time-cycled ventilation combining HFOV (T-HFOV), and continuous positive airway pressure ventilation combining HFOV. Experiments on respiratory model are conducted and demonstrated the feasibility of using nHFOV through the control of fan and valve. The experimental ventilator is able to produce an air flow with small tidal volume (VT) and a large minute ventilation volume (MV) using regular breath tubes and nasal mask (e.g., under T-HFOV mode, with a maximum tidal volume of 100 ml, the minute ventilation volume reached 14 400 ml). In the process of transmission, there is only a minor loss of oscillation pressure. (Under experimental condition and with an oscillation frequency of 2-10 Hz, peak pressure loss was around 0%-50% when it reaches the mask.)

  2. A noninvasive high frequency oscillation ventilator: Achieved by utilizing a blower and a valve.

    PubMed

    Yuan, YueYang; Sun, JianGuo; Wang, Baicun; Feng, Pei; Yang, ChongChang

    2016-02-01

    After the High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (HFOV) has been applied in the invasive ventilator, the new technique of noninvasive High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (nHFOV) which does not require opening the patient's airway has attracted much attention from the field. This paper proposes the design of an experimental positive pressure-controlled nHFOV ventilator which utilizes a blower and a special valve and has three ventilation modes: spontaneous controlled ventilation combining HFOV, time-cycled ventilation combining HFOV (T-HFOV), and continuous positive airway pressure ventilation combining HFOV. Experiments on respiratory model are conducted and demonstrated the feasibility of using nHFOV through the control of fan and valve. The experimental ventilator is able to produce an air flow with small tidal volume (VT) and a large minute ventilation volume (MV) using regular breath tubes and nasal mask (e.g., under T-HFOV mode, with a maximum tidal volume of 100 ml, the minute ventilation volume reached 14,400 ml). In the process of transmission, there is only a minor loss of oscillation pressure. (Under experimental condition and with an oscillation frequency of 2-10 Hz, peak pressure loss was around 0%-50% when it reaches the mask.).

  3. Low profile, high load vertical rolling positioning stage

    DOEpatents

    Shu, Deming; Barraza, Juan

    1996-01-01

    A stage or support platform assembly for use in a synchrotron accurately positions equipment to be used in the beam line of the synchrotron. The support platform assembly includes an outer housing in which is disposed a lifting mechanism having a lifting platform or stage at its upper extremity on which the equipment is mounted. A worm gear assembly is located in the housing and is adapted to raise and lower a lifting shaft that is fixed to the lifting platform by an anti-binding connection. The lifting platform is moved vertically as the lifting shaft is moved vertically. The anti-binding connection prevents the shaft from rotating with respect to the platform, but does permit slight canting of the shaft with respect to the lifting platform so as to eliminate binding and wear due to possible tolerance mismatches. In order to ensure that the lifting mechanism does not move in a horizontal direction as it is moved vertically, at least three linear roller bearing assemblies are arranged around the outer-periphery of the lifting mechanism. One of the linear roller bearing assemblies can be adjusted so that the roller bearings apply a loading force against the lifting mechanism. Alternatively, a cam mechanism can be used to provide such a loading force.

  4. The Effects of School Bonding on High School Seniors' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Julia; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Gaenzle, Stacey; Kim, Jungnam; Lin, Chia-Huei; Na, Goeun

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of school bonding on academic achievement (measured by math achievement scores) in a sample of 12th graders from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (Ingels, Pratt, Rogers, Siegel, & Stutts, 2005). Components of school bonding have proximal and distal effects on academic achievement. Attachment to school and…

  5. Superintendent Leadership and Student Achievement in Suburban High Schools: A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellner, Steven Reese

    2012-01-01

    This research study explored the critical nature of the connection between student achievement and superintendent leadership. A great deal of scholarship has addressed either student achievement or leadership and previous evidence has suggested the impact of both parental education and racioethnicity on student achievement, but few studies have…

  6. Influence of a high vacuum on the precise positioning using an ultrasonic linear motor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wan-Soo; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Sun-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the ultrasonic linear motor stage for use in a high vacuum environment. The slider table is driven by the hybrid bolt-clamped Langevin-type ultrasonic linear motor, which is excited with its different modes of natural frequencies in both lateral and longitudinal directions. In general, the friction behavior in a vacuum environment becomes different from that in an environment of atmospheric pressure and this difference significantly affects the performance of the ultrasonic linear motor. In this paper, to consistently provide stable and high power of output in a high vacuum, frequency matching was conducted. Moreover, to achieve the fine control performance in the vacuum environment, a modified nominal characteristic trajectory following control method was adopted. Finally, the stage was operated under high vacuum condition, and the operating performances were investigated compared with that of a conventional PI compensator. As a result, robustness of positioning was accomplished in a high vacuum condition with nanometer-level accuracy.

  7. Influence of a high vacuum on the precise positioning using an ultrasonic linear motor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Wan-Soo; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Sun-Kyu

    2011-01-15

    This paper presents an investigation of the ultrasonic linear motor stage for use in a high vacuum environment. The slider table is driven by the hybrid bolt-clamped Langevin-type ultrasonic linear motor, which is excited with its different modes of natural frequencies in both lateral and longitudinal directions. In general, the friction behavior in a vacuum environment becomes different from that in an environment of atmospheric pressure and this difference significantly affects the performance of the ultrasonic linear motor. In this paper, to consistently provide stable and high power of output in a high vacuum, frequency matching was conducted. Moreover, to achieve the fine control performance in the vacuum environment, a modified nominal characteristic trajectory following control method was adopted. Finally, the stage was operated under high vacuum condition, and the operating performances were investigated compared with that of a conventional PI compensator. As a result, robustness of positioning was accomplished in a high vacuum condition with nanometer-level accuracy.

  8. Influence of a high vacuum on the precise positioning using an ultrasonic linear motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wan-Soo; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Sun-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the ultrasonic linear motor stage for use in a high vacuum environment. The slider table is driven by the hybrid bolt-clamped Langevin-type ultrasonic linear motor, which is excited with its different modes of natural frequencies in both lateral and longitudinal directions. In general, the friction behavior in a vacuum environment becomes different from that in an environment of atmospheric pressure and this difference significantly affects the performance of the ultrasonic linear motor. In this paper, to consistently provide stable and high power of output in a high vacuum, frequency matching was conducted. Moreover, to achieve the fine control performance in the vacuum environment, a modified nominal characteristic trajectory following control method was adopted. Finally, the stage was operated under high vacuum condition, and the operating performances were investigated compared with that of a conventional PI compensator. As a result, robustness of positioning was accomplished in a high vacuum condition with nanometer-level accuracy.

  9. High performance positive electrode for a lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Wen-Hong (Inventor); Bullock, Norma K. (Inventor); Petersen, Ralph A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An electrode suitable for use as a lead-acid battery plate is formed of a paste composition which enhances the performance of the plate. The paste composition includes a basic lead sulfate, a persulfate and water. The paste may also include lead oxide and fibers. An electrode according to the invention is characterized by good strength in combination with high power density, porosity and surface area.

  10. High school student physics research experience yields positive results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a small scale research project while in high school gives them the hands on experience and ultimately prepares them more for the college experience. SUNY Plattsburgh’s Physics department started a five-week summer program for high school students in 2012. This program has proved not only beneficial for students while in the program, but also as they continue on in their development as scientists/engineers. Independent research, such as that offered by SUNY Plattsburgh’s five-week summer program, offers students a feel and taste of the culture of doing research, and life as a scientist. It is a short-term, risk free way to investigate whether a career in research or a particular scientific field is a good fit.

  11. Achieving high performance polymer tandem solar cells via novel materials design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Letian

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices show great promise in low-cost, flexible, lightweight, and large-area energy-generation applications. Nonetheless, most of the materials designed today always suffer from the inherent disadvantage of not having a broad absorption range, and relatively low mobility, which limit the utilization of the full solar spectrum. Tandem solar cells provide an effective way to harvest a broader spectrum of solar radiation by combining two or more solar cells with different absorption bands. However, for polymer solar cells, the performance of tandem devices lags behind single-layer solar cells mainly due to the lack of suitable low-bandgap polymers (near-IR absorbing polymers). In this dissertation, in order to achieve high performance, we focus on design and synthesis of novel low bandgap polymers specifically for tandem solar cells. In Chapter 3, I demonstrate highly efficient single junction and tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap conjugated polymer (PBDTT-DPP: bandgap, ˜1.44 eV). The polymer has a backbone based on alternating benzodithiophene and diketopyrrolopyrrole units. A single-layer device based on the polymer provides a power conversion efficiency of ˜6%. When the polymer is applied to tandem solar cells, a power conversion efficiency of 8.62% is achieved, which was the highest certified efficiency for a polymer solar cell. To further improve this material system, in Chapter 4, I show that the reduction of the bandgap and the enhancement of the charge transport properties of the low bandgap polymer PBDTT-DPP can be accomplished simultaneously by substituting the sulfur atoms on the DPP unit with selenium atoms. The newly designed polymer PBDTT-SeDPP (Eg = 1.38 eV) shows excellent photovoltaic performance in single junction devices with PCEs over 7% and photo-response up to 900 nm. Tandem polymer solar cells based on PBDTT-SeDPP are also demonstrated with a 9.5% PCE, which are more than 10

  12. "I am a scientist": How setting conditions that enhance focused concentration positively relate to student motivation and achievement outcomes in inquiry-based science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwood, Robin B.

    This research investigated how student social interactions within two approaches to an inquiry-based science curriculum could be related to student motivation and achievement outcomes. This qualitative case study consisted of two cases, Off-Campus and On-Campus, and used ethnographic techniques of participant observation. Research participants included eight eighth grade girls, aged thirteen to fourteen years old. Data sources included formal and informal participant interviews, participant journal reflections, curriculum artifacts including quizzes, worksheets, and student-generated research posters, digital video and audio recordings, photographs, and researcher field notes. Data were transcribed verbatim and coded, then collapsed into emergent themes using NVIVO 9. The results of this research illustrate how setting conditions that promote focused concentration and communicative interactions can be positively related to student motivation and achievement outcomes in inquiry-based science. Participants in the Off-Campus case experienced more frequent states of focused concentration and out performed their peers in the On-Campus case on forty-six percent of classroom assignments. Off-Campus participants also designed and implemented a more cognitively complex research project, provided more in-depth analyses of their research results, and expanded their perceptions of what it means to act like a scientist to a greater extent than participants in the On-Campus case. These results can be understood in relation to Flow Theory. Student interactions that promoted the criteria necessary for initiating flow, which included having clearly defined goals, receiving immediate feedback, and maintaining a balance between challenges and skills, fostered enhanced student motivation and achievement outcomes. This research also illustrates the positive gains in motivation and achievement outcomes that emerge from student experiences with extended time in isolated areas referred to

  13. Achieving High-Energy-High-Power Density in a Flexible Quasi-Solid-State Sodium Ion Capacitor.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongsen; Peng, Lele; Zhu, Yue; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yu, Guihua

    2016-09-14

    Simultaneous integration of high-energy output with high-power delivery is a major challenge for electrochemical energy storage systems, limiting dual fine attributes on a device. We introduce a quasi-solid-state sodium ion capacitor (NIC) based on a battery type urchin-like Na2Ti3O7 anode and a capacitor type peanut shell derived carbon cathode, using a sodium ion conducting gel polymer as electrolyte, achieving high-energy-high-power characteristics in solid state. Energy densities can reach 111.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 800 W kg(-1), and 33.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 11200 W kg(-1), which are among the best reported state-of-the-art NICs. The designed device also exhibits long-term cycling stability over 3000 cycles with capacity retention ∼86%. Furthermore, we demonstrate the assembly of a highly flexible quasi-solid-state NIC and it shows no obvious capacity loss under different bending conditions.

  14. New insulating materials and their use to achieve high operating stresses in electrostatic machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Chathan M.

    1986-02-01

    Compressed gas insulation has provided the main insulation for sustaining terminal voltages of electrostatic accelerators. Essentially coaxial geometry is used with mechanical support of the terminal achieved by long columns which also support the acceleration tubes. Because of the vacuum insulation in the acceleration tubes, the electric gradient along the columns is typically 10-20 kV/cm, whereas the radial gas gap can operate at stresses about ten times larger. Until now, the terminal support has always been located in the low stress axial direction along the column and not in the radial high stress region. This paper is concerned with support insulation to be used in the radial direction. Advantages of radial supports include: simpler, more compact column structures, higher total voltages, and support of discrete stress redistribution electrodes such as vivitron. Important factors to the design of radial support insulators include the insulation constraints imposed by the gas gap, mechanical contact to the solid insulator, and basic limits of gas-solid dielectric interfaces. The gas gap insulation strength is shown to be limited by surface microirregularities and this accounts for electrode area and pressure effects. Based on the gas gap requirements, a design strategy for the insulators is developed. Epoxy is employed as the dielectric to allow the use of cast-in metal inserts at the ends. The inserts provide mechanical contact, shielding of the triple junction, and redistribution of the interface electric stresses. By careful design, the electric stress on the interface is made lower than that in the plain coaxial electrode gap. Practical experience shows that voltage increases linearly with insulator length and that designs achieve more than 10 MV/m into the multimegavolt region.

  15. Evaluation of dialyzer jacket structure and hollow-fiber dialysis membranes to achieve high dialysis performance.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ayaka; Yamamoto, Ken-ichiro; Matsuda, Masato; Ogawa, Takehito; Yakushiji, Taiji; Miyasaka, Takehiro; Sakai, Kiyotaka

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimum dialyzer jacket structure and hollow-fiber dialysis membrane, both of which are indispensable factors for achieving high dialysis performance, by clarifying the relationship between the dialysis performance and the flow of dialysate and blood in a hollow-fiber dialyzer. We evaluated the clearance, dialysate, and blood flow for four commercially available hollow-fiber dialyzers, namely, the APS-15S, APS-15SA, TS-1.6UL, and CX-1.6U. To evaluate dialysate and blood flow, we measured the residence-time distribution of dialysate and blood flow of these dialyzers by the pulse-response method. We also determined the clearances of urea, creatinine, vitamin B(12), and lysozyme to evaluate the dialysis performance of these dialyzers. While the baffle and taper structures allow effective supply of dialysate into the dialyzer jacket, the hollow-fiber shape, inner diameter, and packing density significantly influence the dialysate flow. In dialyzers with long taper-holding slits, the slit area is a key design parameter for achieving optimum dialysate flow. Similarly, the blood flow is significantly influenced by the structure of the inflowing and outflowing blood ports at the header of a dialyzer, and the shape and inner diameter of the hollow fibers. Hollow fibers with smaller inner diameters cause an increase in blood pressure, which causes blood to enter the hollow fibers more easily. The hollow-fiber shape hardly affects the blood flow. While improved dialysate and blood flow cause higher clearance of low molecular-weight substances, higher membrane area and pure-water permeability accelerate internal filtration, thereby causing an increase in the clearance of large molecular-weight substances.

  16. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  17. Autonomous Information Fading and Provision to Achieve High Response Time in Distributed Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaodong; Arfaoui, Helene; Mori, Kinji

    In highly dynamic electronic commerce environment, the need for adaptability and rapid response time to information service systems has become increasingly important. In order to cope with the continuously changing conditions of service provision and utilization, Faded Information Field (FIF) has been proposed. FIF is a distributed information service system architecture, sustained by push/pull mobile agents to bring high-assurance of services through a recursive demand-oriented provision of the most popular information closer to the users to make a tradeoff between the cost of information service allocation and access. In this paper, based on the analysis of the relationship that exists among the users distribution, information provision and access time, we propose the technology for FIF design to resolve the competing requirements of users and providers to improve users' access time. In addition, to achieve dynamic load balancing with changing users preference, the autonomous information reallocation technology is proposed. We proved the effectiveness of the proposed technology through the simulation and comparison with the conventional system.

  18. High tibial osteotomy with a dynamic axial fixator: precision in achieving alignment.

    PubMed

    Bachhal, V; Sankhala, S S; Jindal, N; Dhillon, M S

    2011-07-01

    We report the outcome of 32 patients (37 knees) who underwent hemicallostasis with a dynamic external fixator for osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee. There were 16 men (19 knees) and 16 women (18 knees) with a mean age at operation of 54.6 years (27 to 72). The aim was to achieve a valgus overcorrection of 2° to 8° or mechanical axis at 62.5% (± 12.5%). At a mean follow-up of 62.8 months (51 to 81) there was no change in the mean range of movement, and no statistically significant difference in the Insall-Salvati index or tibial slope (p = 0.11 and p = 0.15, respectively). The mean hip-knee-ankle angle changed from 190.6 (183° to 197°) to 176.0° (171° to 181°), with a mean final position of the mechanical axis of 58.5% (35.1% to 71.2%). The desired alignment was attained in 31 of 37 (84%) knees. There were 21 excellent, 13 good, two fair and one poor result according to the Oxford knee score with no correlation between age and final score. This score was at its best at one year with a statistically significant deterioration at two years (p = 0.001) followed by a small but not statistically significant deterioration until the final follow-up (p = 0.17). All the knees with Ahlback grade 1 osteoarthritis had excellent or good results. Complications included pin tract infections involving 16.4% of all pins used, delayed union in two, knee stiffness in four, fracture of the lateral cortex in one and ring sequestrum in one. In conclusion, hemicallostasis provides precision in attaining the desired alignment without interfering with tibial slope or patellar height, and is relatively free of serious complications.

  19. Contributed Review: Application of voice coil motors in high-precision positioning stages with large travel ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Guanqiao; Li, Yingzi; Zhang, Liwen; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Yingxu; Qian, Jianqiang

    2015-10-01

    Recent interest in high-precision positioning stages with large travel ranges has sparked renewed attention to the development of voice coil motors (VCMs). Due to their large output force, VCMs can actuate more complicated flexure structures, eliminate rail friction, and improve positioning speed. The VCM structure is both compact and flexible; hence, it is convenient to design VCMs for a variety of stage structures. Furthermore, VCMs combined with other actuators are able to achieve large travel ranges with high precision. In this paper, we summarize the principles and control methods of a typical VCM, and we analyze its properties, including thrust force, acceleration, and response time. We then present recent research on high-precision VCM positioning stages with large travel ranges.

  20. Qualitative research study of high-achieving females' life experiences impacting success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, Ann Patrice

    2003-07-01

    This qualitative study investigated the life experiences of five academically gifted female students in math and science in reflection of their elementary learning prior to enrollment at a prestigious science and mathematics high school. The elite high school limits admission to the state of Illinois' top students. The purpose of this study is to unfold the story of five academically gifted females in attendance at the elite high school reflecting on their life experiences in elementary school that contributed to their current academic success. Twelve female students, who at the time of this study were currently in their senior year (12th grade) of high school, were solicited from the top academic groups who are regarded by their teachers as highly successful in class. Students were selected as part of the study based on academic status, survey completion and interest in study, Caucasian and Asian ethnicity, locale of elementary school with preference given to the variety of school demographics---urban, suburban, and rural---further defined the group to the core group of five. All female participants were personally interviewed and communicated via Internet with the researcher. Parents and teachers completing surveys as well met the methodological requirements of triangulation. An emergent theme of paternal influence came from the research. Implications supported in the research drawn from this study to increase achievement of academically gifted females include: (a) proper early identification of learner strengths plays a role; (b) learning with appropriate intellectual peers is more important than learning with their age group; (c) teachers are the greatest force for excellent instruction; (d) effective teaching strategies include cooperative learning, multi-sensory learning, problem-based learning, and hands-on science; (e) rigor in math is important; (f) gender and stereotypes need not be barriers; (g) outside interests and activities are important for self

  1. Optimal microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device for achieving high pyroelectric response of AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Bemnnet; Coutu, Ronald A.; Starman, LaVern

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses research being conducted on aluminum nitride (AlN) as a pyroelectric material for use in detecting applications. AlN is being investigated because of its high pyroelectric coefficient, thermal stability, and high Curie temperature. In order to determine suitability of the pyroelectric properties of AlN for use as a detector, testing of several devices was conducted. These devices were fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication processes; the devices were also designed to allow for voltage and current measurements. The deposited AlN films used were 150 nm - 300 nm in thickness. Thin-films were used to rapidly increase the temperature response after the thermal stimulus was applied to the pyroelectric material. This is important because the pyroelectric effect is directly proportional to the rate of temperature change. The design used was a face-electrode bridge that provides thermal isolation which minimizes heat loss to the substrate, thereby increasing operation frequency of the pyroelectric device. A thermal stimulus was applied to the pyroelectric material and the response was measured across the electrodes. A thermal imaging camera was used to monitor the changes in temperature. Throughout the testing process, the annealing temperatures, type of layers, and thicknesses were also varied. These changes resulted in improved MEMS designs, which were fabricated to obtain an optimal design configuration for achieving a high pyroelectric response. A pyroelectric voltage response of 38.9 mVp-p was measured without filtering, 12.45 mVp-p was measured in the infrared (IR) region using a Si filter, and 6.38 mVp-p was measured in the short wavelength IR region using a long pass filter. The results showed that AlN's pyroelectric properties can be used in detecting applications.

  2. Longitudinal Outcomes of Start Time Delay on Sleep, Behavior, and Achievement in High School

    PubMed Central

    Thacher, Pamela V.; Onyper, Serge V.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To establish whether sleep, health, mood, behavior, and academics improved after a 45-minute delay in high school start time, and whether changes persisted longitudinally. Methods: We collected data from school records and student self-report across a number of domains at baseline (May 2012) and at two follow-up time points (November 2012 and May 2013), at a public high school in upstate New York. Students enrolled during academic years (AY) 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; the DASS-21; the “Owl-Lark” Scale; the Daytime Sleepiness Index; and a brief self-report of health. Reports from school records regarding attendance, tardiness, disciplinary violations, and academic performance were collected for AY 2010–2011 through 2013–2014. Results: Students delayed but did not extend their sleep period; we found lasting improvements in tardiness and disciplinary violations after the start-time delay, but no changes to other variables. At the first follow-up, students reported 20 minutes longer sleep, driven by later rise times and stable bed times. At the second follow-up, students maintained later rise times but delayed bedtimes, returning total sleep to baseline levels. A delay in rise time, paralleling the delay in the start time that occurred, resulted in less tardiness and decreased disciplinary incidents, but larger improvements to sleep patterns may be necessary to affect health, attendance, sleepiness, and academic performance. Conclusions: Later start times improved tardiness and disciplinary issues at this school district. A delay in start time may be a necessary but not sufficient means to increase sleep time and may depend on preexisting individual differences. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 267. Citation: Thacher PV, Onyper SV. Longitudinal outcomes of start time delay on sleep, behavior, and achievement in high school. SLEEP 2016;39(2):271–281. PMID

  3. Investigation of Learning Behaviors and Achievement of Vocational High School Students Using an Ubiquitous Physics Tablet PC App

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purba, Siska Wati Dewi; Hwang, Wu-Yuin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we designed and developed an app called Ubiquitous-Physics (U-Physics) for mobile devices like tablet PC or smart phones to help students learn the principles behind a simple pendulum in Physics. The unique characteristic of U-Physics is the use of sensors on mobile devices to collect acceleration and velocity data during pendulum swings. The data collected are transformed to facilitate students' understanding of the pendulum time period. U-Physics helped students understand the effects of pendulum mass, length, and angle in relation to its time period. In addition, U-Physics was equipped with an annotation function such as textual annotation to help students interpret and understand the concepts and phenomena of the simple pendulum. U-Physics also generated graphs automatically to demonstrate the time period during which the pendulum was swinging. Results showed a significant positive correlation between interpreting graphs and applying formula. This finding indicated that the ability to interpret graphs has an important role in scientific learning. Therefore, we strongly recommend that physics teachers use graphs to enrich students' information content and understanding and negative correlation between pair coherence and interpreting graphs. It may be that most of the participants (vocational high school students) have limited skill or confidence in physics problem solving; so, they often seek help from teachers or their high-achieving peers. In addition, the findings also indicated that U-Physics can enhance students' achievement during a 3-week time period. We hope that this app can be globally used to learn physics in the future.

  4. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  5. Bright and Beautiful: High Achieving Girls, Ambivalent Femininities, and the Feminization of Success in the Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renold, Emma; Allan, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    This paper refocuses attention on and problematizes girls' experiences of school achievement and the construction of schoolgirl femininities. In particular, it centres on the relatively neglected experiences and identity work of high achieving primary school girls. Drawing upon ethnographic data (observations, interviews, and pupil diaries) from a…

  6. (Re)Defining the Narrative: High-Achieving Nontraditional Black Male Undergraduates at a Historically Black College and University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goings, Ramon B.

    2016-01-01

    Using Harper's anti-deficit achievement framework as a theoretical guide, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the academic and social experiences of four nontraditional, high-achieving, Black male undergraduates attending one historically Black university. Findings show that the participants were intrinsically motivated…

  7. The Relationship between Professional Learning Communities, Personal Teacher Efficacy, and Student Achievement at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sherri L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to determine if there was a relationship between professional learning community (PLC), personal teacher efficacy (PTE), and student achievement. The study examined teacher perception of PLC implementation and PET as it related to student achievement at the high school level on the Virginia End-of Course…

  8. American High School Students from Different Ethnic Backgrounds: The Role of Parents and the Classroom in Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jung-In

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between ethnically diverse US high school students' (N = 331) perceptions of their parents' or classroom's motivating factors and their achievement motivation in their math class, connecting achievement goal orientation and self-determination theories. Two hypothesized path models were…

  9. Academic Achievement Trajectories of Homeless and Highly Mobile Students: Resilience in the Context of Chronic and Acute Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutuli, J. J.; Desjardins, Christopher David; Herbers, Janette E.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Heistad, David; Chan, Chi-Keung; Hinz, Elizabeth; Masten, Ann S.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses examined academic achievement data across third through eighth grades ("N" = 26,474), comparing students identified as homeless or highly mobile (HHM) with other students in the federal free meal program (FM), reduced price meals (RM), or neither (General). Achievement was lower as a function of rising risk status (General…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of the Social Distribution of Mathematics Achievement for a Cohort of Public High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Garrett K.; Kennedy, Eugene

    This paper reports the results of a study of changes in the social distribution of mathematics achievement for a cohort of public high school students. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) the study sought to identify school characteristics which were significantly correlated with changes in achievement differences from grade 9 to grade 11…

  11. Differences in Self-Concept among Children with Mathematics Disabilities and Their Average and High Achieving Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeleke, Seleshi

    2004-01-01

    Self-concept ratings of children with mathematics disabilities (MD), average mathematics achievement (AA), and high mathematics achievement (HA) who attended regular classes in grades 4 through 6 were compared. Twenty-four children in each group, who were selected from an original pool of 811 children, and who were matched one-to-one by grade,…

  12. New tools for high-precision positioning of optical elements in high-NA microscope objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, Joachim; Bauer, Tobias; Mueller, Willi; Sure, Thomas; Wesner, Joachim

    2004-02-01

    The precise positioning of the individual optical elements is essential for attaining diffraction limited performance in high-numerical-aperture (high-NA) microscope objectives. Tolerances are in the micron range or lower for high-end objectives, e.g. for broad-band scanning confocal applications, metrology objectives in general, and especially for deep ultraviolet (DUV) applications. The ever increasing demands on imaging performance ask for the continuous development and improvement of specialized measurement equipment for the production line. Our award-winning 150x/0.90-DUV-AT-infinity/0 objective for wafer inspection and metrology at 248nm employs air spacings in its doublets because of the instability of optical cements against DUV radiation. This comes however at the cost of a higher number of surfaces and even higher precision demands on their geometry, orientation and positioning. We present several tools enabling us to meet these requirements. A Fourier transform fringe analysis scheme is adapted to high-NA Fizeau interferometry for surface characterization. A white light Mirau interferometer for dimensional measurements on lens groups with sub-μm resolution enables us to keep surface distance errors lower than 2 μm. Residual aberrations of the objective are compensated for by translating special correction elements under observation of the wave-front using a DUV-Twyman-Green interferometer, which also incorporates a 903nm branch for the parfocal adjustment of the infrared (IR) autofocus feature of the objective. To adjust the shifting element for the elimination of on-axis coma, we compute an artificial (real-time) star test from the interferogram, allowing interactive manipulations of the element while monitoring their influence on the point spread function (PSF).

  13. A comparison of rural high school students in Germany with rural Tennessee high school students' mathematics and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, R. Fredrick

    This descriptive study compared the science and mathematics aptitudes and achievement test scores for the final school year students in rural White County and Van Buren County, Tennessee with rural county students in Germany. In accordance with the previous research literature (Stevenson, 2002), German students outperformed U.S. students on The International Trends in Math and Science test (TIMSS). As reform in the U.S. education system has been underway, this study intended to compare German county student final school year performance with White County and Van Buren County (Grade 12) performance in science and mathematics. The entire populations of 176 White and Van Buren Counties senior high final school year students were compared with 120 school final year students from two rural German county high schools. The student responses to identical test and questionnaire items were compared using the t-test statistical analysis. In conclusion after t-test analyses, there was no significant difference (p>.05 level) in student attitudes on the 27 problem achievement and the 35 TIMSS questionnaire items between the sampled population of 120 German students compared with the population of 176 White and Van Buren students. Also, there was no statistically significant difference (p>.05 level) between the German, White, and Van Buren County rural science and math achievement in the TIMSS problem section of the final year test. Based on the research, recommendations to improve U.S. student scores to number one in the world include making changes in teaching methodology in mathematics and science; incorporating pamphlet lessons rather than heavily reliance on textbooks; focusing on problem solving; establishing an online clearinghouse for effective lessons; creating national standards in mathematics and science; matching students' course choices to job aspirations; tracking misbehaving students rather than mainstreaming them into the regular classroom; and designing

  14. New Powder Metallurgical Approach to Achieve High Fatigue Strength in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei; Ravi Chandran, K. S.; Kumar, Pankaj; Sun, Pei; Zak Fang, Z.; Koopman, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Recently, manufacturing of titanium by sintering and dehydrogenation of hydride powders has generated a great deal of interest. An overarching concern regarding powder metallurgy (PM) titanium is that critical mechanical properties, especially the high-cycle fatigue strength, are lower than those of wrought titanium alloys. It is demonstrated here that PM Ti-6Al-4V alloy with mechanical properties comparable (in fatigue strength) and exceeding (in tensile properties) those of wrought Ti-6Al-4V can be produced from titanium hydride powder, through the hydrogen sintering and phase transformation process. Tensile and fatigue behavior, as well as fatigue fracture mechanisms, have been investigated under three processing conditions. It is shown that a reduction in the size of extreme-sized pores by changing the hydride particle size distribution can lead to improved fatigue strength. Further densification by pneumatic isostatic forging leads to a fatigue strength of ~550 MPa, comparable to the best of PM Ti-6Al-4V alloys prepared by other methods and approaching the fatigue strengths of wrought Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The microstructural factors that limit fatigue strength in PM titanium have been investigated, and pathways to achieve greater fatigue strengths in PM Ti-6Al-4V alloys have been identified.

  15. The Stories Clinicians Tell: Achieving High Reliability and Improving Patient Safety

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Daniel L; Stewart, Kevin O

    2016-01-01

    The patient safety movement has been deeply affected by the stories patients have shared that have identified numerous opportunities for improvements in safety. These stories have identified system and/or human inefficiencies or dysfunctions, possibly even failures, often resulting in patient harm. Although patients’ stories tell us much, less commonly heard are the stories of clinicians and how their personal observations regarding the environments they work in and the circumstances and pressures under which they work may degrade patient safety and lead to harm. If the health care industry is to function like a high-reliability industry, to improve its processes and achieve the outcomes that patients rightly deserve, then leaders and managers must seek and value input from those on the front lines—both clinicians and patients. Stories from clinicians provided in this article address themes that include incident identification, disclosure and transparency, just culture, the impact of clinical workload pressures, human factors liabilities, clinicians as secondary victims, the impact of disruptive and punitive behaviors, factors affecting professional morale, and personal failings. PMID:26580146

  16. Fair and Just Culture, Team Behavior, and Leadership Engagement: The Tools to Achieve High Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Allan S; Leonard, Michael W; Denham, Charles R

    2006-01-01

    Background Disparate health care provider attitudes about autonomy, teamwork, and administrative operations have added to the complexity of health care delivery and are a central factor in medicine's unacceptably high rate of errors. Other industries have improved their reliability by applying innovative concepts to interpersonal relationships and administrative hierarchical structures (Chandler 1962). In the last 10 years the science of patient safety has become more sophisticated, with practical concepts identified and tested to improve the safety and reliability of care. Objective Three initiatives stand out as worthy regarding interpersonal relationships and the application of provider concerns to shape operational change: The development and implementation of Fair and Just Culture principles, the broad use of Teamwork Training and Communication, and tools like WalkRounds that promote the alignment of leadership and frontline provider perspectives through effective use of adverse event data and provider comments. Methods Fair and Just Culture, Teamwork Training, and WalkRounds are described, and implementation examples provided. The argument is made that they must be systematically and consistently implemented in an integrated fashion. Conclusions There are excellent examples of institutions applying Just Culture principles, Teamwork Training, and Leadership WalkRounds—but to date, they have not been comprehensively instituted in health care organizations in a cohesive and interdependent manner. To achieve reliability, organizations need to begin thinking about the relationship between these efforts and linking them conceptually. PMID:16898986

  17. Achieving high survival of tournament-caught black bass: past efforts and future needs and opportunities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, Harold; Gilliland, Gene

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of black bass (Micropterus spp.) tournaments in the 1960s and 1970s caused concern among fisheries managers and anglers about the impacts of tournament-caused mortality on bass populations. Tournament organizers voluntarily implemented live-release events in the early 1980s. As catch-and-release practices became more common, procedures to improve the survival of tournament-caught fish were developed and have evolved. The objectives of this paper are to review education and outreach efforts to improve survival of tournament-caught black bass, suggest research needs and opportunities to achieve greater survival, and show the relevance of high survival to contemporary black bass management. Since 1985, a succession of informational products describing those techniques have been developed and distributed to anglers. Although research has confirmed the effectiveness of the recommended procedures and documented that angler and tournament organizer behavior has changed and the survival of tournament-caught black bass has increased, the impacts of the outreach efforts on tournament practices have not been quantified. Continued efforts towards increasing angler awareness of proper handling techniques may benefit from better communication, endorsement by professional anglers, and the use of incentives by state agencies to encourage better fish care.

  18. Hybrid monitor for both beam position and tilt of pulsed high-current beams

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, J. He, X.; Ma, C.; Zhao, L.; Li, Q.; Dai, Z.

    2014-09-15

    A Hybrid beam monitor, integrated with both azimuthal and axial B-dot probes, was designed for simultaneous measurement of both beam position and beam angle for pulsed high-current beams at the same location in beam pipe. The output signals of axial B-dot probes were found to be mixed with signals caused by transverse position deviation. In order to eliminate the unwanted signals, an elimination method was developed and its feasibility tested on a 50-Ω coaxial line test stand. By this method, a waveform, shape-like to that of input current and proportional to the tilt angle, was simulated and processed by following integration step to achieve the tilt angle. The tests showed that the measurement error of displacement and tilt angle less than 0.3 mm and 1.5 mrad, respectively. The latter error could be reduced with improved probes by reducing the inductance of the axial B-dot probe, but the improvement reached a limit due to some unknown systemic mechanism.

  19. Classroom Management, School Staff Relations, School Climate, and Academic Achievement: Testing A Model with Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Back, Lindsey T.; Polk, Elizabeth; Keys, Christopher B.; McMahon, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    Urban learning environments pose distinct instructional challenges for teachers and administrators, and can lead to lower achievement compared to suburban or rural schools. Today's educational climate increasingly emphasises a need for positive academic outcomes, often measured by standardised tests, on which student educational opportunities,…

  20. Extracurricular Activity Participation in High School: Mechanisms Linking Participation to Math Achievement and 4-Year College Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Extracurricular activity participation (EAP) has been positively linked with increased academic achievement and college attendance. However, the mechanisms linking EAP to educational outcomes are poorly understood. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS), this study contributes to our understanding of the relationship between EAP and…

  1. Do Children's Executive Functions Account for Associations between Early Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Achievement through High School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindman, Samantha W.; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the positive association between early autonomy-supportive parenting and children's subsequent achievement is mediated by children's executive functions. Using observations of mothers' parenting from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N…

  2. Achieving high-precision pointing on ExoplanetSat: initial feasibility analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pong, Christopher M.; Lim, Sungyung; Smith, Matthew W.; Miller, David W.; Villaseñor, Jesus S.; Seager, Sara

    2010-07-01

    ExoplanetSat is a proposed three-unit CubeSat designed to detect down to Earth-sized exoplanets in an orbit out to the habitable zone of Sun-like stars via the transit method. To achieve the required photometric precision to make these measurements, the target star must remain within the same fraction of a pixel, which is equivalent to controlling the pointing of the satellite to the arcsecond level. The satellite will use a two-stage control system: coarse control will be performed by a set of reaction wheels, desaturated by magnetic torque coils, and fine control will be performed by a piezoelectric translation stage. Since no satellite of this size has previously demonstrated this high level of pointing precision, a simulation has been developed to prove the feasibility of realizing such a system. The current baseline simulation has demonstrated the ability to hold the target star to within 0.05 pixels or 1.8 arcseconds (with an 85 mm lens and 15 μm pixels), in the presence of large reaction wheel disturbances as well as external environmental disturbances. This meets the current requirement of holding the target star to 0.14 pixels or 5.0 arcseconds. Other high-risk aspects of the design have been analyzed such as the effect of changing the guide star centroiding error, changing the CMOS sampling frequency, and reaction wheel selection on the slew performance of the satellite. While these results are promising as an initial feasibility analysis, further model improvements and hardware-in-the-loop tests are currently underway.

  3. Motivational Factors Contributing to Turkish High School Students' Achievement in Gases and Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadioglu, Cansel; Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the contribution of motivational factors to 10th grade students' achievement in gases and chemical reactions in chemistry. Three hundred fifty nine 10th grade students participated in the study. The Gases and Chemical Reactions Achievement Test and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire were…

  4. Job Choice As a Function of SES and Achievement Scores For High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelms, Charlie; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated impact of socio-economic status (SES) and achievement scores on job choice for 128 participants in a Labor Market Orientation Training program. Neither SES nor the program measure ("World of Work") were significant, but "Wide Range Achievement Test" gain scores did significantly impact on job choice. (Author/BRR)

  5. Social Adaptation and Its Relationship to Achievement Motivation among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlZboon, Saleem Odeh

    2013-01-01

    The study amid at exploring and detecting the level of social adaptation and its relationship with the achievement motivation of the secondary school students in Jordan, the study sample consisted of 495 secondary school students in the province of Jerash, and to achieve the objective of this study comes the development of two tools: the first one…

  6. Achievement Goal Validation among African American High School Students: CFA and Rasch Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Caroline O.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Jones, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goal theory helps describe how and why students engage in various academic behaviors. Historically, achievement goals have been examined almost exclusively with undergraduate, nonminority samples, and predominately with factor analytic techniques. The present study adds to a growing literature by providing initial validation of a…

  7. Longitudinal Analysis of Chinese High School Student's Stress in School and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    In previous research, few studies have examined the effects of adolescents' stress in school on the change rates of their academic achievement. In the present study, we seek to examine the longitudinal relationships between adolescents' stress in school and the change rates of their academic achievement. The results indicated that for those whose…

  8. Growth and Achievement Trends of Advanced Placement (AP) Exams in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene; Hobson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined and compared overall trends in growth and student achievement of the Advanced Placement (AP) program. Using data from the past two decades, analyses indicated there has been steady and extensive growth of AP participation, particularly among underclassmen and some minority groups. However, overall achievement, as…

  9. What’s Past is Prologue: Relations Between Early Mathematics Knowledge and High School Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, nor have they investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at 54 months to adolescent mathematics achievement using multi-site longitudinal data. We find that preschool mathematics ability predicts mathematics achievement through age 15, even after accounting for early reading, cognitive skills, and family and child characteristics. Moreover, we find that growth in mathematical ability between age 54 months and first grade is an even stronger predictor of adolescent mathematics achievement. These results demonstrate the importance of pre-kindergarten mathematics knowledge and early math learning for later achievement. PMID:26806961

  10. On positivity-preserving high order discontinuous Galerkin schemes for compressible Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangxiong

    2017-01-01

    We construct a local Lax-Friedrichs type positivity-preserving flux for compressible Navier-Stokes equations, which can be easily extended to multiple dimensions for generic forms of equations of state, shear stress tensor and heat flux. With this positivity-preserving flux, any finite volume type schemes including discontinuous Galerkin (DG) schemes with strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta time discretizations satisfy a weak positivity property. With a simple and efficient positivity-preserving limiter, high order explicit Runge-Kutta DG schemes are rendered preserving the positivity of density and internal energy without losing local conservation or high order accuracy. Numerical tests suggest that the positivity-preserving flux and the positivity-preserving limiter do not induce excessive artificial viscosity, and the high order positivity-preserving DG schemes without other limiters can produce satisfying non-oscillatory solutions when the nonlinear diffusion in compressible Navier-Stokes equations is accurately resolved.

  11. Psychological maladjustment and academic achievement: a cross-cultural study of Japanese, Chinese, and American high school students.

    PubMed

    Crystal, D S; Chen, C; Fuligni, A J; Stevenson, H W; Hsu, C C; Ko, H J; Kitamura, S; Kimura, S

    1994-06-01

    Psychological maladjustment and its relation to academic achievement, parental expectations, and parental satisfaction were studied in a cross-national sample of 1,386 American, 1,633 Chinese, and 1,247 Japanese eleventh-grade students. 5 indices of maladjustment included measures of stress, depressed mood, academic anxiety, aggression, and somatic complaints. Asian students reported higher levels of parental expectation and lower levels of parental satisfaction concerning academic achievement than their American peers. Nevertheless, Japanese students reported less stress, depressed mood, aggression, academic anxiety, and fewer somatic complaints than did American students. Chinese students reported less stress, academic anxiety, and aggressive feelings than their American counterparts, but did report higher frequencies of depressed mood and somatic complaints. High academic achievement as assessed by a test of mathematics was generally not associated with psychological maladjustment. The only exception was in the United States, where high achievers indicated more frequent feelings of stress than did low achievers.

  12. Louisiana High School Weathers the Storm to Become a Leader in Student Achievement and High Graduation Rates. "High Schools That Work" Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Warren Easton Charter High School in New Orleans, Louisiana, has weathered changes of many types, including Hurricane Katrina in 2005. After having to close for the 2005-2006 school year, the school reopened as a charter school with a board and stepped up its efforts to raise student achievement. Now the school is receiving attention for the…

  13. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a "dream" display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays.

  14. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a “dream” display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays. PMID:23492854

  15. Closing the Academic Achievement Gap on the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) through Professional Learning Communities (PLC) Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buenrostro, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of importance that DuFour's nine characteristics of highly effective schools have on closing the academic achievement gap on the California High School Exit Exam, as perceived by high school principals. The study also examined the strategies believed to be most important in developing…

  16. How to Achieve High-Quality Oocytes? The Key Role of Myo-Inositol and Melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Rossetti, Paola; Corrado, Francesco; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; Condorelli, Rosita Angela; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Buscema, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have experienced growing interest from infertile patients seeking to become pregnant. The quality of oocytes plays a pivotal role in determining ART outcomes. Although many authors have studied how supplementation therapy may affect this important parameter for both in vivo and in vitro models, data are not yet robust enough to support firm conclusions. Regarding this last point, in this review our objective has been to evaluate the state of the art regarding supplementation with melatonin and myo-inositol in order to improve oocyte quality during ART. On the one hand, the antioxidant effect of melatonin is well known as being useful during ovulation and oocyte incubation, two occasions with a high level of oxidative stress. On the other hand, myo-inositol is important in cellular structure and in cellular signaling pathways. Our analysis suggests that the use of these two molecules may significantly improve the quality of oocytes and the quality of embryos: melatonin seems to raise the fertilization rate, and myo-inositol improves the pregnancy rate, although all published studies do not fully agree with these conclusions. However, previous studies have demonstrated that cotreatment improves these results compared with melatonin alone or myo-inositol alone. We recommend that further studies be performed in order to confirm these positive outcomes in routine ART treatment. PMID:27651794

  17. Raising the stakes: How students' motivation for mathematics associates with high- and low-stakes test achievement.

    PubMed

    Simzar, Rahila M; Martinez, Marcela; Rutherford, Teomara; Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie M

    2015-04-01

    This study uses data from an urban school district to examine the relation between students' motivational beliefs about mathematics and high- versus low-stakes math test performance. We use ordinary least squares and quantile regression analyses and find that the association between students' motivation and test performance differs based on the stakes of the exam. Students' math self-efficacy and performance avoidance goal orientation were the strongest predictors for both exams; however, students' math self-efficacy was more strongly related to achievement on the low-stakes exam. Students' motivational beliefs had a stronger association at the low-stakes exam proficiency cutoff than they did at the high-stakes passing cutoff. Lastly, the negative association between performance avoidance goals and high-stakes performance showed a decreasing trend across the achievement distribution, suggesting that performance avoidance goals are more detrimental for lower achieving students. These findings help parse out the ways motivation influences achievement under different stakes.

  18. Influence of Strategy of Learning and Achievement Motivation of Learning Achievement Class VIII Students of State Junior High School in District Blitar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayundawati, Dyah; Setyosari, Punaji; Susilo, Herawati; Sihkabuden

    2016-01-01

    This study aims for know influence of problem-based learning strategies and achievement motivation on learning achievement. The method used in this research is quantitative method. The instrument used in this study is two fold instruments to measure moderator variable (achievement motivation) and instruments to measure the dependent variable (the…

  19. Creating a Positive Learning Environment with the Use of Clickers in a High School Chemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vital, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Although the effectiveness of student response systems in improving student learning is inconclusive, clickers can be used to create a positive learning environment in the classroom, which can help increase student achievement. With the use of clickers, students showed modest improvements in their performance in conceptual summative assessments.…

  20. a Method to Achieve Large Volume, High Accuracy Photogrammetric Measurements Through the Use of AN Actively Deformable Sensor Mounting Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargeant, B.; Robson, S.; Szigeti, E.; Richardson, P.; El-Nounu, A.; Rafla, M.

    2016-06-01

    When using any optical measurement system one important factor to consider is the placement of the sensors in relation to the workpiece being measured. When making decisions on sensor placement compromises are necessary in selecting the best placement based on the shape and size of the object of interest and the desired resolution and accuracy. One such compromise is in the distance the sensors are placed from the measurement surface, where a smaller distance gives a higher spatial resolution and local accuracy and a greater distance reduces the number of measurements necessary to cover a large area reducing the build-up of errors between measurements and increasing global accuracy. This paper proposes a photogrammetric approach whereby a number of sensors on a continuously flexible mobile platform are used to obtain local measurements while the position of the sensors is determined by a 6DoF tracking solution and the results combined to give a single set of measurement data within a continuous global coordinate system. The ability of this approach to achieve both high accuracy measurement and give results over a large volume is then tested and areas of weakness to be improved upon are identified.

  1. Abbreviated Lifestyle Assessment Information as an Indicant of Delinquent Versus High Achieving Male Juveniles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nield, John B.; Taylor, James S.

    A key concept in understanding a person's lifestyle is family constellation. Data on birth order and ordinal position of a child in the family can provide the trained observer with an immediate impression of grouping within the family and the position an individual perceives himself to hold. Observers trained in lifestyle assessment sought to…

  2. Academic Achievement Trajectories of Homeless and Highly Mobile Students: Resilience in the Context of Chronic and Acute Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, J. J.; Desjardins, Christopher David; Herbers, Janette E.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Heistad, David; Chan, Chi-Keung; Hinz, Elizabeth; Masten, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses examined academic achievement data across 3rd through 8th grades (N = 26,474), comparing students identified as homeless or highly mobile (HHM) to other students in the federal free meal program (FM), reduced-price meals (RM), or neither (General). Achievement was lower as a function of rising risk status (General > RM > FM > HHM). Achievement gaps appeared stable or widened between HHM students and lower-risk groups. Math and reading achievement were lower and growth in math was slower in years of HHM identification, suggesting acute consequences of residential instability. Nonetheless, 45% of HHM students scored within or above the average range, suggesting academic resilience. Results underscore the need for research on risk and resilience processes among HHM students to address achievement disparities. PMID:23110492

  3. The Predictive Relation of a High School Mathematic GPA to High-Stakes Assessment Achievement Scores in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Course grades, which often include non-achievement factors such as effort and behavior and are subject to individual teacher grading philosophies, suffer from issues of unreliability. Yet, course grades continue to be utilized as a primary tool for reporting academic achievement to students and parents and are used by most colleges and…

  4. Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 and high school academic achievement: longitudinal latent variable modeling.

    PubMed

    Breslau, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua; Miller, Elizabeth; Raykov, Tenko

    2011-02-28

    Previous studies documented long-run effects of behavior problems at the start of school on academic achievement. However, these studies did not examine whether the observed effects of early behavior problems are explained by more proximate behavior problems, given the tendency of children's behavior problems to persist. Latent variable modeling was applied to estimate the effects of behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 on academic achievement at age 17, using data from a longitudinal study (n=823). Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11, each stage independently of the other, predicted lower math and reading test scores at age 17, controlling for intelligence quotient (IQ), birth weight, maternal characteristics, family and community environment, and taking into account behavior problems at age 17. Behavior problems at the start of school, independent of later behavior problems, exert lingering effects on achievement by impeding the acquisition of cognitive skills that are the foundation for later academic progress.

  5. A Study of the Academic Achievement, Attrition and Group Reactions of High School Equivalency Students Attending Brandon University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colert, Sherril

    The academic achievement and attrition of high school equivalency students attending Brandon University, a small undergraduate Canadian university, were studied, as were the students' reactions to college life. The students, who received a high school equivalency certificate after completing the Tests of General Educational Development (GED), were…

  6. High-Stakes Tests: Comparative Study Examining the Impact on the Achievement Gap that Causes Minority Students Continued Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Smith, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative qualitative study examined the impact of the achievement gap on the lack of highly qualified teachers instructing African American students consistently from K-12th grades and its effects on high-stakes testing. In addition, the study examined teacher perceptions that could also be contributing factors of the…

  7. The Relationship of Mental Pressure with Optimism and Academic Achievement Motivation among Second Grade Male High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouni, Ali Sedigh; Jenaabadi, Hossein; Pourghaz, Abdulwahab

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the relationship of mental pressure with optimism and academic achievement motivation among second grade second period male high school students. This study followed a descriptive-correlational method. The sample included 200 second grade second period male high school students in Sooran. Data collection tools in…

  8. Gender Differences in Korean High School Students' Science Achievements and Attitudes towards Science in Three Different School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, EunJin; Baker, Dale R.

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of high schools' gender organization on Korean tenth-grade students' science achievements, and their attitudes towards science. The high schools involved included an all-male institution, an all-female institution, and a co-educational institution. Three schools, three principals, three science teachers, and 302…

  9. The Influence of the Antecedent Variable on the Teachers' Performance through Achievement Motivation in Senior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewi, Erni R.; Bundu, Patta; Tahmir, Suradi

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at analysing whether the antecedent variable directly affects the performance of the high school teachers or not. In addition, this research strives to find out whether the antecedent variable indirectly affects the teachers' performance through the achievement motivation of the high school teachers. It was a quantitative research…

  10. A Descriptive Study of High School Latino and Caucasian Students' Values about Math, Perceived Math Achievement and STEM Career Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by…

  11. Big School, Small School: (Re)Testing Assumptions about High School Size, School Engagement and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Christopher C.; Carolan, Brian V.; Baker-Smith, E. Christine

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to increase both adolescents' engagement with school and academic achievement, school districts across the United States have created small high schools. However, despite the widespread adoption of size reduction reforms, relatively little is known about the relationship between size, engagement and outcomes in high school. In…

  12. The Effects of College Counseling on High-Achieving, Low-Income Students. NBER Working Paper No. 16359

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a pilot study, using a randomized controlled trial to provide college counseling to high-achieving students from relatively poor families. We followed 107 high school seniors through the college admissions process in 2006-2007; we selected 52 of these students at random, offering them ten hours of individualized…

  13. High sensitivity to aligner and high rate of false positives in the estimates of positive selection in the 12 Drosophila genomes

    PubMed Central

    Markova-Raina, Penka; Petrov, Dmitri

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of aligner choice on inferences of positive selection using site-specific models of molecular evolution. We find that independently of the choice of aligner, the rate of false positives is unacceptably high. Our study is a whole-genome analysis of all protein-coding genes in 12 Drosophila genomes annotated in either all 12 species (∼6690 genes) or in the six melanogaster group species. We compare six popular aligners: PRANK, T-Coffee, ClustalW, ProbCons, AMAP, and MUSCLE, and find that the aligner choice strongly influences the estimates of positive selection. Differences persist when we use (1) different stringency cutoffs, (2) different selection inference models, (3) alignments with or without gaps, and/or additional masking, (4) per-site versus per-gene statistics, (5) closely related melanogaster group species versus more distant 12 Drosophila genomes. Furthermore, we find that these differences are consequential for downstream analyses such as determination of over/under-represented GO terms associated with positive selection. Visual analysis indicates that most sites inferred as positively selected are, in fact, misaligned at the codon level, resulting in false positive rates of 48%–82%. PRANK, which has been reported to outperform other aligners in simulations, performed best in our empirical study as well. Unfortunately, PRANK still had a high, and unacceptable for most applications, false positives rate of 50%–55%. We identify misannotations and indels, many of which appear to be located in disordered protein regions, as primary culprits for the high misalignment-related error levels and discuss possible workaround approaches to this apparently pervasive problem in genome-wide evolutionary analyses. PMID:21393387

  14. The Effect of Community Linguistic Isolation on Language-Minority Student Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Timothy Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Research on language-minority student outcomes has revealed sizeable and persistent achievement gaps. The reasons for these gaps are often closely linked with other factors related to underperformance, including generational status, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Using sociocultural second-language acquisition theories and community…

  15. Sustaining Success toward Closing the Achievement Gap: A Case Study of One Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Kimberly Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Coleman Report (1966), the focus on closing the achievement gap has been a critical component of educational policy for political leaders and field research by educators. The economic crisis which California and the nation at large currently face creates a challenging situation in attempting to narrow the gap.…

  16. Effect of Blended Learning Environment Model on High School Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazu, Ibrahim Yasar; Demirkol, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the students' academic performance by comparing the blended learning environment and traditional learning environment. It has been observed whether there is a significant difference between the academic achievement grade dispersions and the male-female students' grades. The study has been carried out in Diyarbakir Anatolian…

  17. Relationship between Grade One Achievement and Academic Performance through High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simner, Marvin L.; Barnes, Michael J.

    The major purpose of this study was to determine what relationship currently exists between grade 1 marks and later school achievement. Complete academic records were obtained on two samples of students from rural towns in Southwestern Ontario. Each sample contained all the children born between 1964 and 1971 who attended their town's major public…

  18. The Influence of Mathematics Anxiety in Middle and High School Students Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Mutawah, Masooma Ali

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has been the focus of much psychological and educational research in the past few years, there are many international studies showing that mathematics anxiety is an influence on student's achievements in school, but little research has been done about this issue in Bahrain. Bahrain is a country in the Arabian Gulf region, its economic…

  19. Mathematically Gifted Students and High Achievement: The Role of Motivation and Classroom Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Kollmayer, Marlene; Bergsmann, Evelyn; Jöstl, Gregor; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    One of the most intriguing questions for those who study intellectually gifted students is why some of them reach peak performances at school and others don't. Moderator theories of giftedness assume that domain-specific gifts are transformed into achievement in a process influenced by non-cognitive and environmental variables. Thus, the current…

  20. Faculty Sense of Academic Optimism and Its Relationship to Students' Achievement in Well Performing High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, Michael Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the organizational characteristics and behaviors that contribute to sustaining a culture of academic optimism as a mechanism of student achievement. While there is a developing research base identifying both the individual elements of academic optimism as well as the academic optimism construct itself as…

  1. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF ELEVENTH GRADE PUERTO RICAN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, WILLIAM M.; CHRISTENSEN, EDWARD W.

    THIS STUDY INVOLVED--(1) EXPLORING ACADEMIC MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS IN PUERTO RICAN 11TH-GRADE STUDENTS, (2) CREATING A MEASURE FOR THESE FACTORS WHICH MIGHT BE USABLE IN OTHER LATIN AMERICAN AREAS, AND (3) INVESTIGATING THE CHILD-REARING AND OTHER PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTORS RELATED TO ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT. THE METHOD INVOLVED THREE STAGES--(1)…

  2. Academic Achievement of High School Students in Relation to Their Anxiety, Emotional Maturity and Social Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puar, Surjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the non-cognitive variables like anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity and their relationship with academic achievement and also to see the locale-wise differences on the basis of their anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity. The study was conducted over a sample of 400 (200…

  3. Unequal Academic Achievement in High School: The Mediating Roles of Concerted Cultivation and Close Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan, Brian V.

    2016-01-01

    Building from the classic Wisconsin model of status attainment, this study examines whether a specific style of parenting, concerted cultivation, and a close friend's school-related attitudes and behaviors mediate the relationship between a family's socioeconomic status and their child's academic achievement in the United States. Using a recursive…

  4. Teacher Commitment and Its Effects on Student Achievement in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Insim

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the effects of teacher commitment on student achievement. Three teacher commitment dimensions of organizational, professional, and student commitment were derived. The three-dimensional teacher commitment measurement model was tested by a confirmatory factor analysis. Then, the relationships among individual and organizational…

  5. High School Teachers' Perceptions of School Change and Its Implications for Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    This study attempted to observe if there was a statistical significant relationship between perceptions of educational change and student achievement. The independent variables that represented perceptions of educational change included: community pressure for change, faculty anxiety to change, faculty openness to change, principal anxiety to…

  6. Comprehensive Achievement Monitoring in the Sequoia Union High School District. Symposium, California Mathematics Council Northern Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easter, John; And Others

    A description is provided of comprehensive Achievement Monitoring (CAM), a tool which enables classroom teachers to function as researchers and evaluators. Part I reviews the CAM philosophy and the section following discusses computerized feedback in CAM operations. The final two portions of the report describes the use of CAM in mathematics…

  7. Analyzing Academic Achievement of Junior High School Students by an Improved Rough Set Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pai, Ping-Feng; Lyu, Yi-Jia; Wang, Yu-Min

    2010-01-01

    Rough set theory (RST) is an emerging technique used to deal with problems in data mining and knowledge acquisition. However, the RST approach has not been widely explored in the field of academic achievement. This investigation developed an improved RST (IMRST) model, which employs linear discriminant analysis to determine a reduct of RST, and…

  8. Differential Effects of Organizational Processes on High and Low Achieving Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhere, Serge; Azumi, Jann

    Pupils, teachers, and principals in urban elementary schools were interviewed to determine how administrative leadership styles and types of feedback mechanisms affect the academic achievement of two groups of pupils: those enrolled in Title I remedial reading programs, and those enrolled in the regular curriculum. Two components of administrative…

  9. Three Dopaminergic Polymorphisms Are Associated with Academic Achievement in Middle and High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Wright, John Paul; DeLisi, Matt; Howard, Matthew O.

    2010-01-01

    Although academic achievement is a heritable construct, to date research has yet to explore its molecular genetic underpinnings. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the current longitudinal study investigated the associations between polymorphisms in three dopaminergic genes (DAT1, DRD2, and DRD4) and…

  10. Factors Influencing Student Achievement at a High-Performing Title I Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeier, Charlann K.

    2012-01-01

    Schools in America are required to provide all students with a quality education regardless of race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background, demonstrated through test scores mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act. Knowledge about factors that influence students' academic performance and serve to reduce the achievement gap between Hispanic…

  11. Schools Raise Achievement by Setting High Expectations for All Groups of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Schools are raising standards to improve academic and technical achievement and intellectual growth for all groups of students, particularly at-risk students. This newsletter contains tools and strategies that school leaders and teachers are using successfully to help students meet higher expectations. It organizes the techniques into five…

  12. Self-Regulation, Executive Function, Working Memory, and Academic Achievement of Female High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halloran, Roberta Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation, executive function and working memory are areas of cognitive processing that have been studied extensively. Although many studies have examined the constructs, there is limited empirical support suggesting a formal link between the three cognitive processes and their prediction of academic achievement. Thus, the present study…

  13. Impacts of Comprehensive Reading Instruction on Diverse Outcomes of Low- and High-Achieving Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the…

  14. The Role of Schools, Families, and Psychological Variables on Math Achievement of Black High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS;1988/2000), the author conducted hierarchical linear regression analyses, with a nested design, to estimate the influence of affective variables--parent involvement, teacher perceptions, and school environments--on Black students' math achievement in grade 10. Drawing on…

  15. Highly Qualified Teacher Status and the Reading Achievement of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Helene

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine teacher qualification factors believed to affect reading achievement of students with disabilities in intensive reading classes after controlling for certain student and teacher demographics using ANCOVA. Results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the reading…

  16. The Contribution of Cultural Capital to Students' Mathematics Achievement in Medium and High Socioeconomic Gradient Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Cheng Yong

    2015-01-01

    The present study addresses the issue of how different forms of cultural capital may influence children's mathematics achievement in economies with different socioeconomic gradients. Data from 73,178 parent-child dyads from 10 economies with different socioeconomic gradients who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment…

  17. A Qualitative Study of High Student Achievement in a Rural Appalachian Region: Perceptions of Selected Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Regina

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was based on grounded theory and used purposive sampling for selecting participants. The sample for this study included 12 of the 16 superintendents in this region. This rural Appalachian region has historically outperformed the remainder of the southeastern state on reading and math achievement tests at the elementary and…

  18. Transition from High School to University: A Person-Centered Approach to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Clercq, Mikaël; Galand, Benoît; Frenay, Mariane

    2017-01-01

    Although a vast body of studies regarding the variables related to students' achievement exists, only a handful has investigated how these variables combine and interact together. Such an investigation might make it possible to more accurately illustrate the heterogeneity of students enrolling in university and assess the impact of this diversity…

  19. Low-Achieving Readers, High Expectations: Image Theatre Encourages Critical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozansky, Carol Lloyd; Aagesen, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    Students in an eighth-grade, urban, low-achieving reading class were introduced to critical literacy through engagement in Image Theatre. Developed by liberatory dramatist Augusto Boal, Image Theatre gives participants the opportunity to examine texts in the triple role of interpreter, artist, and sculptor (i.e., image creator). The researchers…

  20. The Relationship of Grade Span in 9th Grade to Math Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, John; Miller, Mary Lou; Myers, Jim; Norton, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose, Scope, and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between grade span for ninth grade and gains in math achievement test scores in 10th grade and 12th grade. A quantitative, longitudinal, correlational research design was employed to investigate the research questions. The population was high…

  1. The role of goal structures and peer climate in trajectories of social achievement goals during high school.

    PubMed

    Makara, Kara A; Madjar, Nir

    2015-04-01

    Students' social goals--reasons for engaging in interpersonal relationships with peers--are consequential for students' interactions with their peers at school and for their well-being. Despite the salience of peer relationships during adolescence, research on social goals is generally lacking compared with academic goals, and it is unknown how these social goals develop over time, especially among high school students. The aim of the study was to assess trajectories of students' social goals and to determine how relevant individual and contextual variables predicted initial levels and trajectories of students' social goals. Participants were 9th through 12th grade students (N = 526) attending a U.S. high school. Students filled out surveys of their social goals (social development, social demonstration-approach, and social demonstration-avoidance) 6 times across 2 school years. Nonlinear growth curve analyses and piecewise growth curve analyses were used to assess trajectories of social goals across time. Students' initial levels of social goals differed based on their gender, grade level, prior achievement, and perceptions of classroom goals structures and peer climate. Furthermore, despite substantial stability over time, the shapes of these goal trajectories were predicted by students' gender, grade level, and perceptions of classroom goal structures and peer climate. In particular, students who perceived an increase in performance-avoidance classroom goals maintained higher demonstration social goals and decreased in developmental social goals over time, and students who perceived an increase in positive peer climate decreased in demonstration-avoidance social goals. Implications and directions for future research on social goals are discussed.

  2. Towards a ‘Good Life’ for Farm Animals: Development of a Resource Tier Framework to Achieve Positive Welfare for Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Joanne L.; Mullan, Siobhan M.; Pritchard, Joy C.; McFarlane, Una J. C.; Main, David C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Farm animals can be said to have a ‘good life’ if their quality of life is substantially higher than the current legal minimum and includes positive experiences such as pleasure. In commercial farms, animals can be provided with different resources such as bedding, exercise areas and enrichment objects. We used scientific evidence and expert opinion to determine which resources laying hens need to contribute to a ‘good life’. These resources were organised into three tiers, of increasing welfare, leading towards a ‘good life’. We describe how we developed the resource tiers and suggest how the overall framework might be used to promote a ‘good life’ for farm animals. Abstract The concept of a ‘good life’ recognises the distinction that an animal’s quality of life is beyond that of a ‘life worth living’, representing a standard of welfare substantially higher than the legal minimum (FAWC, 2009). We propose that the opportunities required for a ‘good life’ could be used to structure resource tiers that lead to positive welfare and are compatible with higher welfare farm assurance schemes. Published evidence and expert opinion was used to define three tiers of resource provision (Welfare +, Welfare ++ and Welfare +++) above those stipulated in UK legislation and codes of practice, which should lead to positive welfare outcomes. In this paper we describe the principles underpinning the framework and the process of developing the resource tiers for laying hens. In doing so, we summarise expert opinion on resources required to achieve a ‘good life’ in laying hens and discuss the philosophical and practical challenges of developing the framework. We present the results of a pilot study to establish the validity, reliability and feasibility of the draft laying hen tiers on laying hen production systems. Finally, we propose a generic welfare assessment framework for farm animals and suggest directions for implementation

  3. Neurobehavioral Effects in HIV-Positive Individuals Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in Gaborone, Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, Kathy; Jeremiah, Kealeboga; Mosepele, Mosepele; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Cherry, Catherine; Seloilwe, Esther; Steenhoff, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence and features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDS) in Botswana, a sub-Saharan country at the center of the HIV epidemic. Design and Methods A cross sectional study of 60 HIV-positive individuals, all receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and 80 demographically matched HIV-seronegative control subjects. We administered a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and structured psychiatric interview. The lowest 10th percentile of results achieved by control subjects was used to define the lower limit of normal performance on cognitive measures. Subjects who scored abnormal on three or more measures were classified as cognitively impaired. To determine the clinical significance of any cognitive impairment, we assessed medication adherence, employment, and independence in activities of daily living (ADL). Results HIV+ subjects were impaired for all cognitive-motor ability areas compared with matched, uninfected control subjects. Thirty seven percent of HIV+ patients met criteria for cognitive impairment. Conclusion These findings indicate that neurocognitive impairment is likely to be an important feature of HIV infection in resource-limited countries; underscoring the need to develop effective treatments for subjects with, or at risk of developing, cognitive impairment. PMID:21365002

  4. Academic achievement, violent victimization, and bullying among U.S. high school students.

    PubMed

    Hammig, Bart; Jozkowski, Kristen

    2013-05-01

    The authors examined the relationship between adolescents' experiences with violent victimization and academic achievement. Data from the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed for males (N = 8,537) and females (N = 7,816). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were employed to estimate the relationship between academic achievement and violent victimization. Among males and females, 6.6% and 4.4%, respectively, earned grades of mostly Ds or Fs during the past year. Among males, those earning mostly Ds or Fs had an increased odds of having been injured in a fight (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.5-3.3) or threatened at school (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9) when compared to males who earned mostly As or Bs. Moreover, those who earned mostly Cs were at increased odds of having been threatened at school when compared to males who earned mostly As or Bs (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9). Among females, those earning mostly Ds or Fs had a higher odds of having been bullied at school (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3 ), threatened at school (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3), or violently victimized by an intimate partner (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4-3.0) when compared to females who earned mostly As or Bs. Similar findings were observed when examining females earning mostly C grades. Academic achievement is linked to victimization patterns among male and female adolescents. Although the temporality of the relationship is unclear, the strength of the associations increase as academic achievement decreases.

  5. Is There a Relationship between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement? Positive Results from Public School Children in the Northeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomitz, Virginia R.; Slining, Meghan M.; McGowan, Robert J.; Mitchell, Suzanne E.; Dawson, Glen F.; Hacker, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine relationships between physical fitness and academic achievement in diverse, urban public school children. Methods: This cross-sectional study used public school data from 2004 to 2005. Academic achievement was assessed as a passing score on Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) achievement tests in…

  6. Effect of Direct Teaching Method on the Academic Achievement of High and Low Achievers in the Subject of English at the Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Ishtiaq; Hamdani, Syed Nisar Hussain; Quraishi, Uzma; Zeeshan, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    The major objective of the study was to determine the role of the direct teaching method in the academic achievement of students in English at the secondary level. To achieve the said objective, the Solomon Four-Design pre-test/post-test equivalent group design was considered to be the most useful design for this study. The pre-test was used to…

  7. Beating the Odds: The Real Challenges behind the Math Achievement Gap--And What High-Achieving Schools Can Teach Us about How to Close It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Susan

    2008-01-01

    One of the most persistent inequities in U.S. education is the gap in math achievement along income and race lines. Yet some secondary schools beat the odds, producing consistently strong math performance with students who likely would fail in traditional settings. This report advocates that the math achievement gap is not the result of poor and…

  8. The Effects of Intradistrict School Mobility and High Student Turnover Rates on Early Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBoeuf, Whitney A.

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have identified school mobility as one form of school disengagement that is disproportionately harmful for young children enrolled in large urban districts. However, there is substantial variation in these findings, with some studies actually evidencing positive associations between school mobility and academic outcomes (Mehana…

  9. Does Parental Involvement Matter for Student Achievement and Mental Health in High School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Sheikh-Khalil, Salam

    2014-01-01

    Parental involvement in education remains important for facilitating positive youth development. This study conceptualized parental involvement as a multidimensional construct--including school-based involvement, home-based involvement, and academic socialization--and examined the effects of different types of parental involvement in 10th grade on…

  10. Further Evidence on the "Costs of Privilege": Perfectionism in High-Achieving Youth at Socioeconomic Extremes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Emily L.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2014-01-01

    This study involved two academically-gifted samples of 11th and 12th grade youth at the socioeconomic status (SES) extremes; one from an exclusive private, affluent school, and the other from a magnet school with low-income students. Negative and positive adjustment outcomes were examined in relation to multiple dimensions of perfectionism…

  11. High-school predictors of university achievement: Youths' self-reported relationships with parents, beliefs about success, and university aspirations.

    PubMed

    Kay, Joseph S; Shane, Jacob; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-12-01

    Associations between youths' reported relationships with their parents, beliefs about how success is attained, educational aspirations, and university completion were examined. Data come from the German Socioeconomic Panel. At age 17, youth (n = 3284) reported on their relationships with their parents, beliefs about success, and educational aspirations. University completion was assessed up to eight years later. At age 17, perceptions of parental warmth and interest in youths' academics were associated with beliefs that success is due to merit (positively) and that success is due to external factors or dominance over others (negatively). Beliefs that success is due to merit and external factors were associated with educational aspirations positively and negatively respectively. Educational aspirations positively predicted university completion up to eight years later. Relationships with parents had stronger associations with achievement when parents completed a university degree; beliefs about success had stronger associations with aspirations when parents did not.

  12. Toward Infection-Resistant Surfaces: Achieving High Antimicrobial Peptide Potency by Modulating the Functionality of Polymer Brush and Peptide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kai; Lo, Joey C Y; Mei, Yan; Haney, Evan F; Siren, Erika; Kalathottukaren, Manu Thomas; Hancock, Robert E W; Lange, Dirk; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2015-12-30

    Bacterial infection associated with indwelling medical devices and implants is a major clinical issue, and the prevention or treatment of such infections is challenging. Antimicrobial coatings offer a significant step toward addressing this important clinical problem. Antimicrobial coatings based on tethered antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on hydrophilic polymer brushes have been shown to be one of the most promising strategies to avoid bacterial colonization and have demonstrated broad spectrum activity. Optimal combinations of the functionality of the polymer-brush-tethered AMPs are essential to maintaining long-term AMP activity on the surface. However, there is limited knowledge currently available on this topic. Here we report the development of potent antimicrobial coatings on implant surfaces by elucidating the roles of polymer brush chemistry and peptide structure on the overall antimicrobial activity of the coatings. We screened several combinations of polymer brush coatings and AMPs constructed on nanoparticles, titanium surfaces, and quartz slides on their antimicrobial activity and bacterial adhesion against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Highly efficient killing of planktonic bacteria by the antimicrobial coatings on nanoparticle surfaces, as well as potent killing of adhered bacteria in the case of coatings on titanium surfaces, was observed. Remarkably, the antimicrobial activity of AMP-conjugated brush coatings demonstrated a clear dependence on the polymer brush chemistry and peptide structure, and optimization of these parameters is critical to achieving infection-resistant surfaces. By analyzing the interaction of polymer-brush-tethered AMPs with model lipid membranes using circular dichroism spectroscopy, we determined that the polymer brush chemistry has an influence on the extent of secondary structure change of tethered peptides before and after interaction with biomembranes. The peptide structure also has an influence on the density

  13. Quenching electron runaway in positive high-voltage-impulse discharges in air by laser filaments.

    PubMed

    Eto, S; Zhidkov, A; Oishi, Y; Miki, M; Fujii, T

    2012-03-15

    Strong hard (ε>100 keV) x rays being observed from impulse atmospheric discharges with maximal voltages from U=0.5 to 0.9 MV just before the breakdown were completely stopped with the use of femtosecond-laser-filament plasma. Runaway electrons generating such x rays and being estimated to achieve their maximal energy, ε~U, near the positive electrode disappear if a laser filament plasma is ignited perpendicularly to the runaway near the positive electrode. A preheating mechanism for formation of the electron runaway in air is proposed.

  14. Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activities in Electrochemistry: High School Students' Achievements and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesen, Burcin Acar; Tarhan, Leman

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inquiry-based laboratory activities on high school students' understanding of electrochemistry and attitudes towards chemistry and laboratory work. The participants were 62 high school students (average age 17 years) in an urban public high school in Turkey. Students were assigned to experimental (N =…

  15. Six Challenges Are Key for High-Performing Schools that Aim to Achieve More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray-Taylor, Rossi; Baskerville, Sharon; Bruder, Shelley; Bennett, Elaine; Schulte, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Across the US, some schools are hallmarks of high academic performance. These schools display consistently high test performance, and their students are sought after by competitive colleges and universities. These schools are successful, with consistently above-average test scores, low dropout rates, high percentages of children attending college,…

  16. Short Circuits or Superconductors? Effects of Group Composition on High-Achieving Students' Science Assessment Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Noreen M.; Nemer, Kariane Mari; Zuniga, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Studied the effects of group ability composition (homogeneous versus heterogeneous) on group processes and outcomes for high-ability students completing science assessments. Results for 83 high ability students show the quality of group functioning serves as the strongest predictor of high-ability students' performance and explained much of the…

  17. Conceptualizing Concurrent Enrollment: Why High-Achieving Students Go For It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dare, Lynn; Nowicki, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that carefully planned acceleration offers academic benefits with little social or emotional risk to high-ability learners. However, acceleration is underutilized and little is known about students' motivations to accelerate. In this study, 21 high-ability high school students in Grades 11 and 12 took part in a structured…

  18. Effects of Position and Operator on High-frequency Ultrasound Scan Quality

    PubMed Central

    Burk, Ruth S.; Parker, Angela; Sievers, Lisa; Rooney, Melissa B.; Pepperl, Anathea; Schubert, Christine M.; Grap, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives High-frequency ultrasound may evaluate those at risk for pressure ulcers. Images may be obtained by clinicians with limited training. The prone position is recommended for obtaining sacral scans but may not be feasible in the critically ill. This study investigated image quality using multiple operators and a variety of patient positions. Research Methodology Sacral scans were performed in three randomized positions in 50 volunteers by three different investigators using a 20 MHz ultrasound system. General linear models and ANOVA random effects models were used to examine the effects of operator and position on image quality rating, and measures of dermal thickness, and dermal density. Results The best scan for each position and operator was used for analysis (N=447 images). Image rating varied by operator (p=0.0004), although mean ratings were 3.5 or above for all operators. Dermal thickness was less for the prone position than in 90° or 60° side-lying positions (p=0.0137, p=0.0003). Dermal density was lower for the prone position than for the 90° or 60° positions (p<0.0001 for both). Conclusions These data show that overall scan quality was acceptable in all positions with all operators. However, differences were found between side-lying positions and the prone for dermal thickness and dermal density measures. PMID:25636253

  19. Addressing the Career Development Needs of High-Achieving African American High School Students: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parris, George P.; Owens, Delila; Johnson, Tyrone; Grbevski, Sonja; Holbert-Quince, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    African Americans face numerous obstacles in achieving their fullest developmental and career potentials in the current political, social, and economic environment. These barriers have produced, for the most part, workers who have been wage earners as opposed to being self-employed, and blue-collar workers rather than managers or proprietors…

  20. Highly Qualified Status Type and Student Achievement Scores, Special Education, and General Education: Is There a Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdett, Nicole G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine, through statistical analyses, the impact that the 2 different types of highly qualified teachers have on student achievement reading and math scores among fourth- and fifth-grade special education and general education students for the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 school years. The evaluation…