Science.gov

Sample records for achieve higher conversion

  1. Methanol conversion to higher hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Tabak, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    Several indirect options exist for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from coal, natural gas, or biomass. All involve an initial conversion step to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}). Presently, there are two commercial technologies for converting syngas to liquids: Fischer-Tropsch, which yields a range of aliphatic hydrocarbons with molecular weights determined by Schulz-Flory kinetics, and methanol synthesis. Mobil`s diversity of technology for methanol conversion gives the methanol synthesis route flexibility for production of either gasoline, distillate or chemicals. Mobil`s ZSM-5 catalyst is the key in several processes for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from methanol: MTO for light olefins, MTG for gasoline, MOGD for distillates. The MTG process has been commercialized in New Zealand since 1985, producing one-third of the country`s gasoline supply, while MTO and MOGD have been developed and demonstrated at greater than 100 BPD scale. This paper will discuss recent work in understanding methanol conversion chemistry and the various options for its use.

  2. Higher Education as Virtual Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins-Bell, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not it is an accurate portrayal, the old stereotype of higher education is the lecture hall, where students sit passively and take notes from a wise professor whose experience and knowledge can be shared only in the classroom. The professor's role is to dispense information, and the students' role is to receive it. However idealistic…

  3. Using Records of Achievement in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assiter, Alison, Ed.; Shaw, Eileen, Ed.

    This collection of 22 essays examines the use of records of achievement (student profiles or portfolios) in higher and vocational education in the United Kingdom. They include: (1) "Records of Achievement: Background, Definitions, and Uses" (Alison Assiter and Eileen Shaw); (2) "Profiling in Higher Education" (Alison Assiter…

  4. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  5. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  6. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  7. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  8. Achieving Quality Learning in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nightingale, Peggy; O'Neil, Mike

    This volume on quality learning in higher education discusses issues of good practice particularly action learning and Total Quality Management (TQM)-type strategies and illustrates them with seven case studies in Australia and the United Kingdom. Chapter 1 discusses issues and problems in defining quality in higher education. Chapter 2 looks at…

  9. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results, 2011. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report, issued by the Connecticut Department of Higher Education, reports on trends in higher education for the year 2011. Six goals are presented, each with at least two indicators. Each indicator is broken down into the following subsections: About This Indicator; Highlights; and In the Future. Most indicators also include statistical…

  10. Achieving higher-value obstetrical care.

    PubMed

    Woo, Victoria G; Lundeen, Tifanny; Matula, Sierra; Milstein, Arnold

    2017-03-01

    Obstetrical care in the United States is unnecessarily costly. Birth is 1 of the most common reasons for healthcare use in the United States and 1 of the top expenditures for payers every year. However, compared with other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, the United States spends substantially more money per birth without better outcomes. Our team at the Clinical Excellence Research Center, a center that is focused on improving value in healthcare, spent a year studying ways in which obstetrical care in the United States can deliver better outcomes at a lower cost. After a thoughtful discovery process, we identified ways that obstetrical care could be delivered with higher value. In this article, we recommend 3 redesign steps that foster the delivery of higher-value maternity care: (1) to provide long-acting reversible contraception immediately after birth, (2) to tailor prenatal care according to women's unique medical and psychosocial needs by offering more efficient models such as fewer in-person visits or group care, and (3) to create hospital-affiliated integrated outpatient birth centers as the planned place of birth for low-risk women. For each step, we discuss the redesign concept, current barriers and implementation solutions, and our estimation of potential cost-savings to the United States at scale. We estimate that, if this model were adopted nationally, annual US healthcare spending on obstetrical care would decline by as much as 28%.

  11. Chemical conversion of energetic materials to higher value products

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A.R.; Sanner, R.D.

    1993-03-01

    Objective of this program is to examine new routes for disposal of energetic materials, as there is need to reduce the stockpile of conventional munitions. Disposal through destruction (burning, detonation) is less feasible today due to environmental, cost and safety concerns. Chemical conversion of energetic materials to higher value products useful in civilian and military applications is one area being explored. Initial focus has been on the conversion of TNT to other materials. Reduction of TNT to aminodinitrotoluenes, diaminonitrotoluenes and triaminotoluene is well known. Conversion of these TNT reduction products to corresponding iminodiacetic acid derivatives by N-dialkylation with chloroacetic acid should provide chelators of heavy metals. The preparation and characterization of chelating resins derived from TNT-related molecules and polystyrene are described.

  12. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results, 2008. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with…

  13. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with…

  14. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the principle vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with…

  15. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with…

  16. Chemical Conversion of Energetic Materials to Higher Value Products

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A R; Hsu, P C; Coburn, M D; Schmidt, R D; Pagoria, P F; Lee, G S

    2005-04-19

    The objective of this program is to develop new processes for the disposal of surplus energetic materials. Disposal through open burning/open detonation (OB/OD) is considered less attractive today due to environmental, cost and safety concerns. The use of energetic materials as chemical feedstocks for higher value products can provide environmentally sound and cost-effective alternatives to OB/OD. Our recent studies on the conversion of surplus energetic materials (Explosive D, TNT) to higher value products will be described.

  17. Higher-alcohols biorefinery: improvement of catalyst for ethanol conversion.

    PubMed

    Olson, Edwin S; Sharma, Ramesh K; Aulich, Ted R

    2004-01-01

    The concept of a biorefinery for higher-alcohol production is to integrate ethanol and methanol formation via fermentation and biomass gasification, respectively, with conversion of these simple alcohol intermediates into higher alcohols via the Guerbet reaction. 1-Butanol results from the self-condensation of ethanol in this multistep reaction occurring on a single catalytic bed. Combining methanol with ethanol gives a mixture of propanol, isobutanol, and 2-methyl-1-butanol. All of these higher alcohols are useful as solvents, chemical intermediates, and fuel additives and, consequently, have higher market values than the simple alcohol intermediates. Several new catalysts for the condensation of ethanol and alcohol mixtures to higher alcohols were designed and tested under a variety of conditions. Reactions of methanol-ethanol mixtures gave as high as 100% conversion of the ethanol to form high yields of isobutanol with smaller amounts of 1-propanol, the amounts in the mixture depending on the starting mixture. The most successful catalysts are multifunctional with basic and hydrogen transfer components.

  18. Improving Student Achievement: A Study of High-Poverty Schools with Higher Student Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the education system at high-poverty schools that had significantly higher student achievement levels as compared to similar schools with lower student achievement levels. A multischool qualitative case study was conducted of the educational systems where there was a significant difference in the scores achieved on the…

  19. Surprise as an Interactional Achievement: Reaction Tokens in Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Sue; Kitzinger, Celia

    2006-01-01

    The expression of surprise--at something unexpected--is a key form of emotional display. Focusing on displays of surprise performed by means of reaction tokens (akin to Goffman's "response cries"), such as "wow, gosh, oh my god, ooh!, phew," we use an ethnomethodological, conversation-analytic approach to analyze surprise in talk-in-interaction.…

  20. Achieving Equity in Higher Education: The Unfinished Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Alexander W.; Astin, Helen S.

    2015-01-01

    In this retrospective account of their scholarly work over the past 45 years, Alexander and Helen Astin show how the struggle to achieve greater equity in American higher education is intimately connected to issues of character development, leadership, civic responsibility, and spirituality. While shedding some light on a variety of questions…

  1. Plasma conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons at surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Kamath, V.A.

    1995-12-31

    Natural gas is widely abundant, is easily withdrawn from reservoirs, is commonly produced as an associated gas along with crude oil production, and is found in many geologic settings as a resource separate from oil. A much larger fraction of the natural gas may be produced from a gas reservoir, as compared with a crude oil reservoir. However, natural gas is normally transported by pipeline, and the energy throughput of such a pipeline is perhaps only 20% to 30% of the throughput of an oil pipeline of the same size and cost. Gas is difficult to transport in moderate quantities at low cost, as it must either have a special pipeline or must be liquified into LNG, shipped in cryogenic LNG tankers, and regasified chemical stability of methane has made it difficult to convert it directly into conventional hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, and has also impeded its use as a feedstock for petrochemical production. Experiments are described in which a methane plasma is created, and the resulting methyl and hydrogen ions have been accelerated within a microchannel array so that they interact with neutral methane molecules on the inside surfaces of the microchannels. No catalysts are used, and the device operates at room temperature. Impact energies of the ions are in the range of 15 ev to greater than 100 ev, and the energy delivered in the interaction at the surfaces has caused the production of larger hydrocarbon molecules, such as C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, along with C{sub 3}, C{sub 4}, C{sub 5}, C{sub 6}, C{sub 7}, and C{sub 8} molecules. Conversion effectiveness is greater at higher pressure, due to the increased ionic activity. The costs of production of the plasma conversion devices are projected to be quite low, and the technology appears to be commercially and economically feasible.

  2. Achieving Higher Energies via Passively Driven X-band Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipahi, Taylan; Sipahi, Nihan; Milton, Stephen; Biedron, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Due to their higher intrinsic shunt impedance X-band accelerating structures significant gradients with relatively modest input powers, and this can lead to more compact particle accelerators. At the Colorado State University Accelerator Laboratory (CSUAL) we would like to adapt this technology to our 1.3 GHz L-band accelerator system using a passively driven 11.7 GHz traveling wave X-band configuration that capitalizes on the high shunt impedances achievable in X-band accelerating structures in order to increase our overall beam energy in a manner that does not require investment in an expensive, custom, high-power X-band klystron system. Here we provide the design details of the X-band structures that will allow us to achieve our goal of reaching the maximum practical net potential across the X-band accelerating structure while driven solely by the beam from the L-band system.

  3. Chemical conversion of energetic materials to higher value products

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A.R.; Sanner, R.D.; Pagoria, P.F.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this program is to develop novel, innovative solutions for the disposal of surplus explosives resulting from the demilitarization of nuclear and conventional munitions. Studies related to the conversion of TNT and Explosive D to potentially useful materials are described.

  4. English Language Learners in Higher Education: An Exploratory Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Jamie; Shi, Hong

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses an exploratory conversation between a newly hired assistant professor of ESOL Education and one of her graduate level students taking the methods and materials course. The graduate student was an English learner (international student), and therefore offered this new professor an opportunity to explore her practice of…

  5. Heterogeneous Catalytic Conversion of Dry Syngas to Ethanol and Higher Alcohols on Cu-Based Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Mayank; Smith, Miranda L.; Spivey, James J.

    2011-04-19

    Ethanol and higher alcohols have been identified as potential fuel additives or hydrogen carriers for use in fuel cells. One method of ethanol production is catalytic conversion of syngas (a mixture of CO, H₂, CO₂, and H₂O), derived from biomass, coal, or natural gas. Thermodynamics of CO hydrogenation shows that ethanol is favored as the sole product at conditions of practical interest, but if methane is allowed as product in this analysis, essentially no ethanol is formed at equilibrium. The kinetics of ethanol formation must therefore be maximized. Although rhodium-based catalysts give C{sup 2+} oxygenates with high selectivity, their prohibitive cost has spurred research on less expensive copper-based alternatives. Copper-based catalysts require an optimum amount of promoter to suppress undesired reactions and maximize the yields of ethanol and higher alcohols. Common promoters include alkali, transition metals and their oxides, and rare earth oxides. Careful selection of operating variables is also necessary to achieve the desired activity and selectivity. This review describes the effects of promoters, supports, and operating conditions on the performance of copper-based catalysts for conversion of dry syngas to ethanol and higher alcohols. Proposed mechanisms from the literature for ethanol and higher-alcohol synthesis are outlined.

  6. Mode conversion at the higher ion cyclotron harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, S. C.; Chan, V. S.; Harvey, R. W.; Porkolab, M.

    1989-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that mode conversion of fast waves to ion Bernstein waves can be calculated from a reduced second order differential equation for the wave fields rather than the 4th order equations used in earlier studies near the ion-ion hybrid resonance and the second harmonic resonance. Here the underlying justification of the method is discussed. It is shown that the method works for high harmonic resonances and an analytical formula for the tunneling coefficient is derived. The result is a generalization of a previous result obtained by Ngan and Swanson and is applicable when κ⊥ρi is large. Recently, there is interest in using fast waves for current drive at high ion cyclotron harmonics frequencies in tokamaks. Generally, the fast wave will encounter ion cyclotron harmonics within the plasma cross-section. For efficient current drive, the minimization of the mode conversion processes sets restrictions to the choice of frequencies and magnetic fields. This is discussed using the derived formula.

  7. The Effect of Mobile Learning on Students' Achievement and Conversational Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfeky, Abdellah Ibrahim Mohammed; Masadeh, Thouqan Saleem Yakoub

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of Mobile Learning, which is a kind of E-learning that uses mobile devices, on the development of the academic achievement and conversational skills of English language specialty students at Najran University. The study used the quasi-experimental approach. Participants consisted of (50) students who…

  8. Coping with Achievement-Related Failure: An Examination of Conversations between Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altermatt, Ellen Rydell; Broady, Elizabeth F.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has identified ways in which parents and teachers contribute to learned helpless responses to failure, but little is known about the role that interactions with peers might play. In this study, the conversations of fourth- through sixth- grade children and their friends were observed after children experienced an achievement-related…

  9. Chemical conversion of energetic materials to higher value products

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A. R., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this project is to develop new and innovative solutions for the disposal of surplus energetic materials. Disposal through open burning/open detonation (OB/OD) is less attractive today due to environmental, cost and safety concerns. We are examining the use of military high explosives as raw materials for the production of higher value products useful in civilian and military applications. We have developed scenarios where Explosive D and TNT can be used as raw materials for industrial processes to produce higher value products. 1,2 The use of Explosive D as a precursor to picramide, an intermediate potentially useful for the production of many higher value products, is illustrated in Figure 1.

  10. Higher Education Quality Assessment Model: Towards Achieving Educational Quality Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noaman, Amin Y.; Ragab, Abdul Hamid M.; Madbouly, Ayman I.; Khedra, Ahmed M.; Fayoumi, Ayman G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a developed higher education quality assessment model (HEQAM) that can be applied for enhancement of university services. This is because there is no universal unified quality standard model that can be used to assess the quality criteria of higher education institutes. The analytical hierarchy process is used to identify the…

  11. Integrated electromicrobial conversion of CO2 to higher alcohols.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Opgenorth, Paul H; Wernick, David G; Rogers, Steve; Wu, Tung-Yun; Higashide, Wendy; Malati, Peter; Huo, Yi-Xin; Cho, Kwang Myung; Liao, James C

    2012-03-30

    One of the major challenges in using electrical energy is the efficiency in its storage. Current methods, such as chemical batteries, hydraulic pumping, and water splitting, suffer from low energy density or incompatibility with current transportation infrastructure. Here, we report a method to store electrical energy as chemical energy in higher alcohols, which can be used as liquid transportation fuels. We genetically engineered a lithoautotrophic microorganism, Ralstonia eutropha H16, to produce isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol in an electro-bioreactor using CO(2) as the sole carbon source and electricity as the sole energy input. The process integrates electrochemical formate production and biological CO(2) fixation and higher alcohol synthesis, opening the possibility of electricity-driven bioconversion of CO(2) to commercial chemicals.

  12. Charting the course for nurses' achievement of higher education levels.

    PubMed

    Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol; Katigbak, Carina; Djukic, Maja; Fatehi, Farida

    2012-01-01

    To improve patient outcomes and meet the challenges of the U.S. health care system, the Institute of Medicine recommends higher educational attainment for the nursing workforce. Characteristics of registered nurses (RNs) who pursue additional education are poorly understood, and this information is critical to planning long-term strategies for U.S. nursing education. To identify factors predicting enrollment and completion of an additional degree among those with an associate or bachelor's as their pre-RN licensure degree, we performed logistic regression analysis on data from an ongoing nationally representative panel study following the career trajectories of newly licensed RNs. For associate degree RNs, predictors of obtaining a bachelor's degree are the following: being Black, living in a rural area, nonnursing work experience, higher positive affectivity, higher work motivation, working in the intensive care unit, and working the day shift. For bachelor's RNs, predictors of completing a master's degree are the following: being Black, nonnursing work experience, holding more than one job, working the day shift, working voluntary overtime, lower intent to stay at current employer, and higher work motivation. Mobilizing the nurse workforce toward higher education requires integrated efforts from policy makers, philanthropists, employers, and educators to mitigate the barriers to continuing education.

  13. Catalysts for conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1993-01-01

    Catalysts for converting methane to higher hydrocarbons such as ethane and ethylene in the presence of oxygen at temperatures in the range of about 700.degree. to 900.degree. C. are described. These catalysts comprise calcium oxide or gadolinium oxide respectively promoted with about 0.025-0.4 mole and about 0.1-0.7 mole sodium pyrophosphate. A preferred reaction temperature in a range of about 800.degree. to 850.degree. C. with a preferred oxygen-to-methane ratio of about 2:1 provides an essentially constant C.sub.2 hydrocarbon yield in the range of about 12 to 19 percent over a period of time greater than about 20 hours.

  14. Strategies for Increasing Academic Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Julene; Woods, Amelia Mays

    2014-01-01

    Higher education today faces unique challenges. Decreasing student engagement, increasing diversity, and limited resources all contribute to the issues being faced by students, educators, and administrators alike. The unique characteristics and expectations that students bring to their professional programs require new methods of addressing…

  15. Direct Conversion of Syngas-to-Hydrocarbons over Higher Alcohols Synthesis Catalysts Mixed with HZSM-5

    SciTech Connect

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Dagle, Robert A.; Li, Jinjing; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2014-09-10

    The synthesis of hydrocarbon fuels directly from synthesis gas (i.e. one step process) was investigated with a catalytic system comprised of HZSM-5 physically mixed with either a methanol synthesis catalyst or a higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) catalyst. The metal sites of the methanol or HAS synthesis catalyst enable the conversion of syngas to alcohols, whereas HZSM-5 provides acid sites required for methanol dehydration, and dimethyl ether-to-hydrocarbons reactions. Catalytic performance for HZSM-5 when mixed with either a 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 methanol synthesis catalyst or a HAS catalyst was evaluated at 300°C, 70 bars, GHSV=700 h-1 and H2/CO=1 using a HZSM-5: alcohols synthesis catalyst weight ratio of 3:1. The major difference observed between the methanol synthesis and HAS catalyst mixtures was found in the production of durene which is an undesirable byproduct. While durene formation is negligible with any of the HAS catalysts mixed with the HZSM-5 evaluated in this study, it represents almost 50% of the C5+ fraction for the methanol synthesis catalyst (5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 ) mixed with HZSM-5. This presents an advantage for using HAS catalysts over the methanol synthesis catalyst to minimize the durene by-product. The yield toward the desired C5+ hydrocarbons is thus twice higher with selected HAS catalysts as compared to when HZSM-5 is mixed with 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3. Among all the HAS catalysts evaluated in this study, a catalyst with 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst was found the most promising due to higher production of C5+ hydrocarbons and low durene formation. The efficiency of the one-step process was thus further evaluated using the HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst mixture under a number of process conditions to maximize liquid hydrocarbons product yield. At 300oC, 70 bars, GHSV = 700 h-1 and HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu = 3:1 (wt.), the C5+ fraction represents 48.5% of the hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, it is more difficult to achieve higher selectivity

  16. Strong Field-Induced Frequency Conversion of Laser Radiation in Plasma Plumes: Recent Achievements

    PubMed Central

    Ganeev, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    New findings in plasma harmonics studies using strong laser fields are reviewed. We discuss recent achievements in the growth of the efficiency of coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation sources based on frequency conversion of the ultrashort pulses in the laser-produced plasmas, which allowed for the spectral and structural studies of matter through the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) spectroscopy. These studies showed that plasma HHG can open new opportunities in many unexpected areas of laser-matter interaction. Besides being considered as an alternative method for generation of coherent XUV radiation, it can be used as a powerful tool for various spectroscopic and analytical applications. PMID:23864818

  17. Stable Same-Sex Friendships with Higher Achieving Partners Promote Mathematical Reasoning in Lower Achieving Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study is designed to investigate friend influence over mathematical reasoning in a sample of 374 children in 187 same-sex friend dyads (184 girls in 92 friendships; 190 boys in 95 friendships). Participants completed surveys that measured mathematical reasoning in the 3rd grade (approximately 9 years old) and one year later in the 4th grade (approximately 10 years old). Analyses designed for dyadic data (i.e., longitudinal Actor-Partner Interdependence Models) indicated that higher achieving friends influenced the mathematical reasoning of lower achieving friends, but not the reverse. Specifically, greater initial levels of mathematical reasoning among higher achieving partners in the 3rd grade predicted greater increases in mathematical reasoning from 3rd grade to 4th grade among lower achieving partners. These effects held after controlling for peer acceptance and rejection, task avoidance, interest in mathematics, maternal support for homework, parental education, length of the friendship, and friendship group norms on mathematical reasoning. PMID:26402901

  18. Conversion of ethene and propene to higher hydrocarbons over ZSM-5

    SciTech Connect

    Bessell, S.; Seddon, D.

    1987-05-01

    The acid-catalyzed polymerization of lower olefins is an important refinery operation aimed at obtaining gasoline range hydrocarbons from light, olefin rich gases. A product with a higher motor octane number can be obtained by olefin conversion over ZSM-5 zeolites which enable aromatic formation. Light olefins are also claimed to be intermediates in the conversion of methanol into gasoline. The fundamental chemistry of the reactions of olefins with ZSM-5 zeolite is thus worthy of study. In this study, the authors report their observations of the products formed from the conversion of ethene and propene over ZSM-5 catalysts at low conversions and low (< 300/sup 0/C) temperatures. From these observations the authors deduce some of the fundamental processes of olefin oligomerization, isomerization, cracking, and hydrogen transfer. 12 references.

  19. Stable same-sex friendships with higher achieving partners promote mathematical reasoning in lower achieving primary school children.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate friend influence over mathematical reasoning in a sample of 374 children in 187 same-sex friend dyads (184 girls in 92 friendships; 190 boys in 95 friendships). Participants completed surveys that measured mathematical reasoning in the 3rd grade (approximately 9 years old) and 1 year later in the 4th grade (approximately 10 years old). Analyses designed for dyadic data (i.e., longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model) indicated that higher achieving friends influenced the mathematical reasoning of lower achieving friends, but not the reverse. Specifically, greater initial levels of mathematical reasoning among higher achieving partners in the 3rd grade predicted greater increases in mathematical reasoning from 3rd grade to 4th grade among lower achieving partners. These effects held after controlling for peer acceptance and rejection, task avoidance, interest in mathematics, maternal support for homework, parental education, length of the friendship, and friendship group norms on mathematical reasoning.

  20. Validity of Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminskiene, Lina; Stasiunaitiene, Egle

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies the validity of assessment of non-formal and informal learning achievements (NILA) as one of the key factors for encouraging further development of the process of assessing and recognising non-formal and informal learning achievements in higher education. The authors analyse why the recognition of non-formal and informal…

  1. Soy Mujer!: A Case Study for Understanding Latina Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Latinas are one of fastest growing segments of the population in the United States, which clearly shows a need to better understand and support education for Latinas within higher education. This study sought to understand the process for and experience of Latinas' academic achievement within higher education. The study focused particularly on the…

  2. Comparing Episodes of Mathematics Teaching for Higher Achievers in England and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Peter; Kotthoff, Hans-Georg

    2016-01-01

    To illustrate similarities and differences in lower secondary level mathematics teaching with higher achievers and thereby explore privileging processes, we contrast a teaching episode in Baden-Württemberg, Germany with one in South West England. These have been selected from a larger study as typical within each region for higher achieving…

  3. Latina/o Student Achievement: A Collaborative Mission of Professional Associations of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arredondo, Patricia; Castillo, Linda G.

    2011-01-01

    Latina/o student achievement is a priority for the American Association of Hispanics in Higher Education (AAHHE). To date, AAHHE has worked deliberately on this agenda. However, well-established higher education associations such as the Association of American Universities (AAU) and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) are…

  4. Variables Associated With Achievement in Higher Education: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Michael; Preckel, Franzis

    2017-03-23

    The last 2 decades witnessed a surge in empirical studies on the variables associated with achievement in higher education. A number of meta-analyses synthesized these findings. In our systematic literature review, we included 38 meta-analyses investigating 105 correlates of achievement, based on 3,330 effect sizes from almost 2 million students. We provide a list of the 105 variables, ordered by the effect size, and summary statistics for central research topics. The results highlight the close relation between social interaction in courses and achievement. Achievement is also strongly associated with the stimulation of meaningful learning by presenting information in a clear way, relating it to the students, and using conceptually demanding learning tasks. Instruction and communication technology has comparably weak effect sizes, which did not increase over time. Strong moderator effects are found for almost all instructional methods, indicating that how a method is implemented in detail strongly affects achievement. Teachers with high-achieving students invest time and effort in designing the microstructure of their courses, establish clear learning goals, and employ feedback practices. This emphasizes the importance of teacher training in higher education. Students with high achievement are characterized by high self-efficacy, high prior achievement and intelligence, conscientiousness, and the goal-directed use of learning strategies. Barring the paucity of controlled experiments and the lack of meta-analyses on recent educational innovations, the variables associated with achievement in higher education are generally well investigated and well understood. By using these findings, teachers, university administrators, and policymakers can increase the effectivity of higher education. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Photonic subsampling analog-to-digital conversion of microwave signals at 40-GHz with higher than 7-ENOB resolution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungwon; Park, Matthew J; Perrott, Michael H; Kärtner, Franz X

    2008-10-13

    Conversion of analog signals into digital signals is one of the most important functionalities in modern signal processing systems. As the signal frequency increases beyond 10 GHz, the timing jitter from electronic clocks, currently limited at approximately 100 fs, compromises the achievable resolution of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). Owing to their ultralow timing jitter, the use of optical pulse trains from passively mode-locked lasers has been considered to be a promising way for sampling electronic signals. In this paper, based on sub-10 fs jitter optical sampling pulse trains, we demonstrate a photonic subsampling ADC that downconverts and digitizes a narrowband microwave signal at 40 GHz carrier frequency with higher than 7 effective-number-of-bit (ENOB) resolution.

  6. Storytelling in the digital world: achieving higher-level learning objectives.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Melissa R

    2012-01-01

    Nursing students are not passive media consumers but instead live in a technology ecosystem where digital is the language they speak. To prepare the next generation of nurses, educators must incorporate multiple technologies to improve higher-order learning. The author discusses the evolution and use of storytelling as part of the digital world and how digital stories can be aligned with Bloom's Taxonomy so that students achieve higher-level learning objectives.

  7. Electrode Build-Up of Reducible Metal Composites toward Achievable Electrochemical Conversion of Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghwa; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2016-02-19

    At the beginning of the 21st century, our world is faced with a global-warming problem due to the continuous increase in carbon dioxide emission, and thus, the development of novel experimental techniques is needed. The electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide into high-value organic compounds could be of vital importance to solve this issue. The biggest challenge has always been to develop an electrocatalyst that is chemically active and structurally stable. Herein, previous studies, recent approaches, and current points of view on the electrode structure of metal oxide composites for the advanced electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide are reviewed.

  8. Technology's Effect on Achievement in Higher Education: A Stage I Meta-Analysis of Classroom Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Richard F.; Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Tamim, Rana; Abrami, Philip C.; Wade, C. Anne; Surkes, Michael A.; Lowerison, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Stage I meta-analysis exploring the achievement effects of computer-based technology use in higher education classrooms (non-distance education). An extensive literature search revealed more than 6,000 potentially relevant primary empirical studies. Analysis of a representative sample of 231 studies (k = 310)…

  9. An Analysis of Factors Influencing the Achievement of Higher Education by Chief Fire Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditch, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    The leadership of the United States Fire Service (FS) believes that higher education increases the professionalism of FS members. The research problem at the research site, which is a multisite fire department located in southeastern United States, was the lack of research-based findings on the factors influencing the achievement of higher…

  10. Predictors of Retention and Achievement of Higher Education Students within a Further Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Cathy; Dismore, Harriet

    2010-01-01

    Following recent developments within higher education where provision of foundation degree courses at further education colleges has been extended, it seemed appropriate to investigate the extent to which the system is working. This should not necessarily be measured by the number of students enrolling, but rather by how many are achieving their…

  11. Teaching Processes To Improve Both Higher As Well As Lower Mental Process Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soled, Suzanne Wegener

    A major purpose of this research was to measure the effect of four different teaching processes on lower and higher mental process achievement. Two separate studies, one in science and one in mathematics, involved approximately 100 seventh grade students in four classrooms in a public junior high school in a middle-income neighborhood, and 85…

  12. Achieving "Transparency, Consistency and Fairness" in English Higher Education Admissions: Progress since Schwartz?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adnett, Nick; McCaig, Colin; Slack, Kim; Bowers-Brown, Tamsin

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 the Schwartz Review advised English higher education institutions that their admissions systems should: be transparent; select students who are able to complete their courses based upon achievements and potential; use assessment methods that are reliable and valid; minimise barriers to applicants; be professional; and be underpinned by…

  13. Leveraging Quality Improvement to Achieve Student Learning Assessment Success in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Nancy Gentry

    2009-01-01

    Mounting pressure for transformational change in higher education driven by technology, globalization, competition, funding shortages, and increased emphasis on accountability necessitates that universities implement reforms to demonstrate responsiveness to all stakeholders and to provide evidence of student achievement. In the face of the demand…

  14. The Effects of Learning Strategies on Mathematical Literacy: A Comparison between Lower and Higher Achieving Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen-Nagar, Noga

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to explore the effects of learning strategies on Mathematical Literacy (ML) of students in higher and lower achieving countries. To address this issue, the study utilizes PISA2002 data to conduct a multi-level analysis (HLM) of Hong Kong and Israel students. In PISA2002, Israel was rated 31st in Mathematics,…

  15. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from three…

  16. Achieving Higher Levels of Success for A.D.H.D. Students Working in Collaborative Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph S. C.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores a new and innovative strategy for helping students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (A.D.H.D.) achieve higher levels of academic success when working in collaborative groups. Since the research indicates that students with this disorder often have difficulty in maintaining their concentration this strategy is…

  17. Natural gas conversion to higher hydrocarbons using plasma interactions with surfaces. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Kamath, V.A.; Morgan, B.L.; Airey, R.W.

    1993-12-01

    Experiments are reported in which a methane plasma is created, and the methyl ions and hydrogen ions are accelerated within a microchannel array so that they interact with neutral methane molecules on the inside surfaces of the microchannels. No catalysts are used, and the device operates at room temperature. Impact energies of the ions are in the range of 10 eV to greater than 100 eV, and the energy delivered in the interaction at the surfaces causes the production of larger hydrocarbon molecules, such as C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, along with C{sub 3}, C{sub 4}, C{sub 5}m C{sub 6}, C{sub 7}m and C{sub 8} molecules. There is a decreasing percentage of larger molecules produced, in comparison with the C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} types. Conversion effectiveness is greater at higher pressure, due to the increased ionic activity. The yield of the higher hydrocarbons depends upon the external voltage used, and voltage can be used as a control parameter to adjust the output mixture proportions. A conversion energy of 2.59 kilowatt hours/killogram of output has been demonstrated, and a reduction of this by a factor of 10 is possible using known techniques. In batch experiments, the selectivity for C{sub 2} has varied from 47% to 88%, and selectivity for C{sub 6} has ranged from 0% to 12.8%. Other hydrocarbon selectivities also span a wide and useful range. The estimated costs for hydrocarbons produced with this technology are in the range of $200 per tonne, in production quantities, depending upon natural gas costs. Pilot production experiments are recommended to make these estimates more precise, and to address strategies for scaling the technology up to production levels. Applications are discussed.

  18. Lead-Free Inverted Planar Formamidinium Tin Triiodide Perovskite Solar Cells Achieving Power Conversion Efficiencies up to 6.22%

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Weiqiang; Zhao, Dewei; Yu, Yue; Grice, Corey R.; Wang, Changlei; Cimaroli, Alexander J.; Schulz, Philip; Meng, Weiwei; Zhu, Kai; Xiong, Ren-Gen; Yan, Yanfa

    2016-11-09

    Efficient lead (Pb)-free inverted planar formamidinium tin triiodide (FASnI3) perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) are demonstrated. Our FASnI3 PVSCs achieved average power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 5.41% +/- 0.46% and a maximum PCE of 6.22% under forward voltage scan. The PVSCs exhibit small photocurrent-voltage hysteresis and high reproducibility. The champion cell showed a steady-state efficiency of almost equal to 6.00% for over 100 s.

  19. Lead-Free Inverted Planar Formamidinium Tin Triiodide Perovskite Solar Cells Achieving Power Conversion Efficiencies up to 6.22.

    PubMed

    Liao, Weiqiang; Zhao, Dewei; Yu, Yue; Grice, Corey R; Wang, Changlei; Cimaroli, Alexander J; Schulz, Philip; Meng, Weiwei; Zhu, Kai; Xiong, Ren-Gen; Yan, Yanfa

    2016-11-01

    Efficient lead (Pb)-free inverted planar formamidinium tin triiodide (FASnI3 ) perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) are demonstrated. Our FASnI3 PVSCs achieved average power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 5.41% ± 0.46% and a maximum PCE of 6.22% under forward voltage scan. The PVSCs exhibit small photocurrent-voltage hysteresis and high reproducibility. The champion cell shows a steady-state efficiency of ≈6.00% for over 100 s.

  20. Recent studies on the chemical conversion of energetic materials to higher value products

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A.R.; Pagoria, P.F.; Schmidt, R.D.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of our program is to develop novel, innovative solutions for the disposal of surplus energetic materials (high explosives, propellants) resulting from the demilitarization of nuclear and conventional munitions. Historically, energetic materials have been disposed of by open burning/open detonation (OB/OD) which is becoming unacceptable due to public concerns and increasingly stringent environmental regulations. The use of energetic materials as chemical feedstocks for higher value products potentially provides environmentally sound and cost-effective alternatives to OB/OD. The conversion of UDMH (unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine) and Explosive D (ammonium picrate) to higher value explosives such as 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB) illustrates our approach. TATB is a reasonably powerful high explosive whose thermal and shock stability is considerably greater than that of any other known material of comparable energy. We have developed a new synthesis of TATB that can utilize surplus UDMH (propellant) and Explosive D (high explosive) as starting materials.

  1. Ewe lambs with higher breeding values for growth achieve higher reproductive performance when mated at age 8 months.

    PubMed

    Nieto, C A Rosales; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Wood, D A; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2013-09-15

    We studied the relationships among growth, body composition and reproductive performance in ewe lambs with known phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post-weaning live weight (PWT) and depth of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). To detect estrus, vasectomized rams were placed with 190 Merino ewe lambs when on average they were 157 days old. The vasectomized rams were replaced with entire rams when the ewe lambs were, on average, 226 days old. Lambs were weighed every week and blood was sampled on four occasions for assay of ghrelin, leptin and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Almost 90% of the lambs attained puberty during the experiment, at an average live weight of 41.4 kg and average age of 197 days. Ewe lambs with higher values for EMD (P < 0.001), FAT (P < 0.01), PWT (P < 0.001), PEMD (P < 0.05) and PFAT (P < 0.05) were more likely to achieve puberty by 251 days of age. Thirty-six percent of the lambs conceived and, at the estimated date of conception, the average live weight was 46.9 ± 0.6 kg and average age was 273 days. Fertility, fecundity and reproductive rate were positively related to PWT (P < 0.05) and thus live weight at the start of mating (P < 0.001). Reproductive performance was not correlated with blood concentrations of ghrelin, leptin or ß-hydroxybutyrate. Many ewe lambs attained puberty, as detected by vasectomized rams, but then failed to become pregnant after mating with entire rams. Nevertheless, we can conclude that in ewe lambs mated at 8 months of age, higher breeding values for growth, muscle and fat are positively correlated with reproductive performance, although the effects of breeding values and responses to live weight are highly variable.

  2. Advances in the chemical conversion of energetic materials to higher value products

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A.R.; Pagoria, P.F.; Sanner, R.D.

    1995-01-24

    The objective of this program is to develop novel, innovative solutions for the disposal of surplus explosives resulting from the demilitarization of nuclear and conventional munitions by DOE and DoD. Studies related to the conversion of TNT and Explosive D to potentially useful materials are described. The paper describes the feasibility of conversion of TNT to TATB; conversion of TNT to 3,5-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (DATNT); conversion of TNT to tolylene 2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and nitrotolylene and diisocyanate (NTDI); chelating resins derived from trinitroarenes.

  3. Courageous Conversations: Achieving the Dream and the Importance of Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Achieving the Dream: Community Colleges Count is a national initiative dedicated to the premise that community colleges should be as successful at student retention and graduation, particularly for students of color and low-income, as they are at enrollment. On campus, the initiative is focused on creating a culture of evidence, one in which data…

  4. Conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons (Biomimetic catalysis of the conversion of methane to methanol). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, B.E.; Taylor, R.T.; Satcher, J.H.

    1993-09-01

    In addition to inorganic catalysts that react with methane, it is well-known that a select group of aerobic soil/water bacteria called methanotrophs can efficiently and selectively utilize methane as the sole source of their energy and carbon for cellular growth. The first reaction in this metabolic pathway is catalyzed by the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) forming methanol. Methanol is a technology important product from this partial oxidation of methane since it can be easily converted to liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels (gasoline), used directly as a liquid fuel or fuel additive itself, or serve as a feedstock for chemicals production. This naturally occurring biocatalyst (MMO) is accomplishing a technologically important transformation (methane directly to methanol) for which there is currently no analogous chemical (non-biological) process. The authors approach has been to use the biocatalyst, MMO, as the initial focus in the development of discrete chemical catalysts (biomimetic complexes) for methane conversion. The advantage of this approach is that it exploits a biocatalytic system already performing a desired transformation of methane. In addition, this approach generated needed new experimental information on catalyst structure and function in order to develop new catalysts rationally and systematically. The first task is a comparative mechanistic, biochemical, and spectroscopic investigation of MMO enzyme systems. This work was directed at developing a description of the structure and function of the catalytically active sites in sufficient detail to generate a biomimetic material. The second task involves the synthesis, characterization, and chemical reactions of discrete complexes that mimic the enzymatic active site. These complexes were synthesized based on their best current understanding of the MMO active site structure.

  5. Discrepancies between academic achievement and intellectual ability in higher-functioning school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Estes, Annette; Rivera, Vanessa; Bryan, Matthew; Cali, Philip; Dawson, Geraldine

    2011-08-01

    Academic achievement patterns and their relationships with intellectual ability, social abilities, and problem behavior are described in a sample of 30 higher-functioning, 9-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both social abilities and problem behavior have been found to be predictive of academic achievement in typically developing children but this has not been well studied in children with ASD. Participants were tested for academic achievement and intellectual ability at age 9. Problem behaviors were assessed through parent report and social functioning through teacher report at age 6 and 9. Significant discrepancies between children's actual academic achievement and their expected achievement based on their intellectual ability were found in 27 of 30 (90%) children. Both lower than expected and higher than expected achievement was observed. Children with improved social skills at age 6 demonstrated higher levels of academic achievement, specifically word reading, at age 9. No relationship was found between children's level of problem behavior and level of academic achievement. These results suggest that the large majority of higher-functioning children with ASD show discrepancies between actual achievement levels and levels predicted by their intellectual ability. In some cases, children are achieving higher than expected, whereas in others, they are achieving lower than expected. Improved social abilities may contribute to academic achievement. Future studies should further explore factors that can promote strong academic achievement, including studies that examine whether intervention to improve social functioning can support academic achievement in children with ASD.

  6. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  7. Strategic administration of enrofloxacin in poultry to achieve higher maximal serum concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sumano, L H; Gutierrez, O L; Zamora, Q M

    2003-03-01

    To achieve a higher maximal serum concentration (Cs(max)) of enrofloxacin after oral administration of 10mg/kg/day of three commercial preparations of enrofloxacin to chickens, two concentrations of the drug were tested (0.1 and 0.2%), under controlled laboratory conditions. A single oral bolus dose was delivered directly into the proventriculus of each of 240 chickens, which were equally divided into six groups: three received the customary concentration (0.1%), and three received the higher concentration. A quantitative/qualitative microbiological analytical method to determine serum concentrations of enrofloxacin and a software program to obtain pharmacokinetic variables, revealed that time vs. concentration relationships best fitted double peak shape curves, Cs(max1) and Cs(max2). Statistically significant (P>0.01) increments were obtained when 0.2% enrofloxacin oral solutions from the three different commercial preparations were administered. The increments ranged from 175% to 338% for Cs(max1) and 69% to 342% for Cs(max2). Optimal bactericidal concentrations of enrofloxacin are usually twice the value of their minimal inhibitory concentration. Although clinical trials are now required, it would appear that increments in the serum concentration of enrofloxacin may reduce to the rate at which bacterial resistance occurs and so increase clinical efficacy without affecting the cost per treatment.

  8. Pyramiding B genes in cotton achieves broader but not always higher resistance to bacterial blight.

    PubMed

    Essenberg, Margaret; Bayles, Melanie B; Pierce, Margaret L; Verhalen, Laval M

    2014-10-01

    Near-isogenic lines of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) carrying single, race-specific genes B4, BIn, and b7 for resistance to bacterial blight were used to develop a pyramid of lines with all possible combinations of two and three genes to learn whether the pyramid could achieve broad and high resistance approaching that of L. A. Brinkerhoff's exceptional line Im216. Isogenic strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum carrying single avirulence (avr) genes were used to identify plants carrying specific resistance (B) genes. Under field conditions in north-central Oklahoma, pyramid lines exhibited broader resistance to individual races and, consequently, higher resistance to a race mixture. It was predicted that lines carrying two or three B genes would also exhibit higher resistance to race 1, which possesses many avr genes. Although some enhancements were observed, they did not approach the level of resistance of Im216. In a growth chamber, bacterial populations attained by race 1 in and on leaves of the pyramid lines decreased significantly with increasing number of B genes in only one of four experiments. The older lines, Im216 and AcHR, exhibited considerably lower bacterial populations than any of the one-, two-, or three-B-gene lines. A spreading collapse of spray-inoculated AcBIn and AcBInb7 leaves appears to be a defense response (conditioned by BIn) that is out of control.

  9. Conversion of Surplus Picric Acid/Explosive D to Higher Value Products

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A R; Hsu, P C; Coburn, M D; Schmidt, R D; Pagoria, P F; Lee, G S; Kwak, S S W

    2003-02-28

    The global demilitarization of nuclear and conventional munitions is producing millions of pounds of surplus energetic materials. Historically, energetic materials (high explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics) have been disposed of by open burning/open detonation (OB/OD). The use of OB/OD is becoming unacceptable due to public concerns and increasingly stringent environmental regulations. Clearly, there is a great need to develop environmentally sound and cost-effective alternatives to OB/OD. The conversion of surplus picric acid and/or ammonium picrate (Explosive D) to 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) has been subject of extensive process development studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL, under the direction and sponsorship of the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), is developing a process for the conversion of picric acid to TATB on a pilot scale.

  10. Direct conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons using AlBr3-HBr superacid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Vasireddy, Sivakumar; Ganguly, Sreemoyee; Sauer, Joe; Cook, Wyndham; Spivey, James J

    2011-01-14

    The direct gas phase catalytic oligomerization of methane at temperatures ≤673 K has been demonstrated using AlBr(3)-HBr superacid. The reaction produces C(2)+ hydrocarbons and hydrogen in a single step at 1 atm in a continuous flow reactor at a nominal residence time of 60 s. The essentially complete conversion of methane appears to be due to protolytic activation of methane in the presence of H(+)AlBr(4)(-).

  11. Is Equal Access to Higher Education in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa Achievable by 2030?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilie, Sonia; Rose, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is back in the spotlight, with post-2015 sustainable development goals emphasising equality of access. In this paper, we highlight the long distance still to travel to achieve the goal of equal access to higher education for all, with a focus on poorer countries which tend to have lower levels of enrolment in higher education.…

  12. Theme--Achieving 2020. Goal 3: All Students Are Conversationally Literate in Agriculture, Food, Fiber, and Natural Resource Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Cary, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Nine theme articles focus on the need for students to be conversationally literate about agriculture, food, fiber, and natural resources systems. Discusses the definition of conversational literacy, the human and institutional resources needed, and exemplary models for promoting literacy. (JOW)

  13. Torrefaction of invasive alien plants: Influence of heating rate and other conversion parameters on mass yield and higher heating value.

    PubMed

    Mundike, Jhonnah; Collard, François-Xavier; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-06-01

    With the aim of controlling their proliferation, two invasive alien plants, Lantana camara (LC) and Mimosa pigra (MP), both widespread in Africa, were considered for torrefaction for renewable energy applications. Using thermogravimetric analysis, the influence of heating rate (HR: 2.18-19.82°Cmin(-1)) together with variable temperature and hold time on char yield and HHV (in a bomb calorimeter) were determined. Statistically significant effects of HR on HHV with optima at 10.5°Cmin(-1) for LC and 20°Cmin(-1) for MP were obtained. Increases of HHV up to 0.8MJkg(-1) or energy yield greater than 10%, together with a 3-fold reduction in torrefaction conversion time could be achieved by optimisation of HR. Analysis of the torrefaction volatiles by TG-MS showed that not only hemicelluloses, but also lignin conversion, could influence the optimum HR value.

  14. Recent Progress on the Conversion of Surplus Picric Acid/Explosive D to Higher Value Products

    SciTech Connect

    R.Mitchell, A; Hsu, P C; Coburn, M D; Schmidt, R D; Pagoria, P F; Lee, G S; Kwak, S W

    2004-07-06

    The global demilitarization of nuclear and conventional munitions is producing millions of pounds of surplus energetic materials. Historically, energetic materials (high explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics) have been disposed of by open burning/open detonation (OB/OD). The use of OB/OD is becoming unacceptable due to public concerns and increasingly stringent environmental regulations. Clearly, there is a great need to develop environmentally sound and cost-effective alternatives to OB/OD. The conversion of surplus picric acid and/or ammonium picrate (Explosive D) to1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6- trinitrobenzene (TATB) has been subject of extensive process development studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL, under the direction and sponsorship of the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), is developing a process for the conversion of picric acid to TATB on a larger scale. In FY 03, a 10 g per batch process was developed with good results. Development for a one pound per batch system is required as part of overall scale up process for producing TATB from the surplus feedstocks.

  15. Discrepancies between Academic Achievement and Intellectual Ability in Higher-Functioning School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Annette; Rivera, Vanessa; Bryan, Matthew; Cali, Philip; Dawson, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Academic achievement patterns and their relationships with intellectual ability, social abilities, and problem behavior are described in a sample of 30 higher-functioning, 9-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both social abilities and problem behavior have been found to be predictive of academic achievement in typically…

  16. What Matters to Alexander Astin? A Conversation with Higher Education's Senior Scholar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    About Campus, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Since the mid-1960s, the work of Alexander Astin--Allan M. Cartter Professor of Higher Education at the University of California-Los Angeles and director of the Higher Education Research Institute--has served as both bellwether for and mirror of the American college and university system. He was there to study and shed light on the student…

  17. Preserving the Higher Education Legacy: A Conversation with California Leaders. Report No. 95-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immerwahr, John; Boese, Jill

    This study reports the results of confidential, in-depth interviews with 29 business, education, and community leaders in California to determine their attitudes toward the higher education needs of the state. The interviews examined areas of consensus and controversy in many facets of higher education policy. The most important findings included:…

  18. In Vivo Conversion of 5-Oxoproline to Glutamate by Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Mazelis, Mendel; Pratt, Helen M.

    1976-01-01

    l-(U-14C)-5-oxoproline (pyrollidone carboxylic acid or pyroglutamic acid) was infiltrated into detached leaves of a number of species and incubated for 1 to 6 hours. In every case, conversion to labeled glutamate and glutamine was observed. The amount converted varied from 1 to 64% of the total label fed depending on the species. The ratio of glutamate-14C to glutamine-14C ranged from 5 in Vicia faba to 1 in sugar beet. This ratio could be affected by preinfiltrating various compounds before allowing the uptake of the 5-oxoproline. When l-methionine-dl-sulfoximine was prefed to sugar beet leaves, the glutamate-glutamine ratio increased from 1 to 10. Prior treatment of V. faba leaves with azaserine resulted in essentially only labeled glutamine being recovered. Preinfiltration with NaF or ATP gave similar results in that the glutamate-glutamine ratio was greatly decreased. The results are consistent with glutamate being produced from the 5-oxoproline and then being converted to glutamine. PMID:16659431

  19. Does higher quality early child care promote low-income children's math and reading achievement in middle childhood?

    PubMed

    Dearing, Eric; McCartney, Kathleen; Taylor, Beck A

    2009-01-01

    Higher quality child care during infancy and early childhood (6-54 months of age) was examined as a moderator of associations between family economic status and children's (N = 1,364) math and reading achievement in middle childhood (4.5-11 years of age). Low income was less strongly predictive of underachievement for children who had been in higher quality care than for those who had not. Consistent with a cognitive advantage hypothesis, higher quality care appeared to promote achievement indirectly via early school readiness skills. Family characteristics associated with selection into child care also appeared to promote the achievement of low-income children, but the moderating effect of higher quality care per se remained evident when controlling for selection using covariates and propensity scores.

  20. Beyond Virtual Equality: Liberatory Consciousness as a Path to Achieve Trans* Inclusion in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, D. Chase J.

    2015-01-01

    Trans* men have not, as yet, received specific research attention in higher education. Based on intensive interviews with 25 trans* men enrolled in colleges or universities in New England, I explore their experiences in higher education. I analyze participants' descriptions of supports and challenges in their collegiate environments, as well as…

  1. Examining the Link between Adult Attachment Style, Employment and Academic Achievement in First Semester Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Guy; Martineau, Marc; Gagnon, André

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research indicates that both employment and adult attachment style have an influence on academic achievement, the interaction of these two factors has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating effect of adult attachment style on the relationship between employment status and first semester…

  2. Success in Higher Education: The Challenge to Achieve Academic Standing and Social Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Life, James

    2015-01-01

    When students look at their classmates in the classroom, consciously or unconsciously, they see competitors both for academic recognition and social success. How do they fit in relation to others and how do they succeed in achieving both? Traditional views on the drive to succeed and the fear of failure are well known as motivators for achieving…

  3. The Relationship between Epistemological Beliefs, Learning Strategies and Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Beth, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    This study provides important insights into the relationship between the epistemological beliefs of community college students, the selection of learning strategies, and academic achievement. This study employed a quantitative survey design. Data were collected by surveying students at a community college during the spring semester of 2010. The…

  4. Gender Disparity Analysis in Academic Achievement at Higher Education Preparatory Schools: Case of South Wollo, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshetu, Amogne Asfaw

    2015-01-01

    Gender is among the determinant factors affecting students' academic achievement. This paper tried to investigate the impact of gender on academic performance of preparatory secondary school students based on 2014 EHEECE result. Ex post facto research design was used. To that end, data were collected from 3243 students from eight purposively…

  5. Aiming Higher: Meeting the Challenges of Education Reform in Texas. Achieve's Benchmarking Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Texas has spent nearly 2 decades in a slow, steady push for educational reform, and it has successfully adjusted its school improvement initiatives when initial attempts proved off the mark. The Texas record in terms of student achievement has been the subject of some scholarly, and much political, debate over the last 2 years, but this evaluation…

  6. Exploring Individual Differences as Determining Factors in Student Academic Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the association and relative influence of cognitive/motivational and demographic factors on final degree grade point average (GPA) in a single undergraduate cohort. Although academic self-efficacy, approaches to learning, prior achievement and age all produced significant correlations with GPA, regression analysis identified…

  7. The Little District that Could: Literacy Reform Leads to Higher Achievement in California District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia R.; Budicin-Senters, Antoinette; King, L. McLean

    2005-01-01

    This article describes educational reform developed over a 10-year period in California's Lemon Grove School District, which resulted in a steady and remarkable upward shift in achievement for the students of this multicultural district just outside San Diego. Six elements of literacy reform emerged as the most significant factors affecting…

  8. Tuning interactions between zeolite and supported metal by physical-sputtering to achieve higher catalytic performances

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Gang; Liu, Cheng; Sun, Jian; Xian, Hui; Tan, Yi-Sheng; Jiang, Zheng; Taguchi, Akira; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Yoneyama, Yoshiharu; Abe, Takayuki; Tsubaki, Noritatsu

    2013-01-01

    To substitute for petroleum, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is an environmentally benign process to produce synthetic diesel (n-paraffin) from syngas. Industrially, the synthetic gasoline (iso-paraffin) can be produced with a FTS process followed by isomerization and hydrocracking processes over solid-acid catalysts. Herein, we demonstrate a cobalt nano-catalyst synthesized by physical-sputtering method that the metallic cobalt nano-particles homogeneously disperse on the H-ZSM5 zeolite support with weak Metal-Support Interactions (MSI). This catalyst performed the high gasoline-range iso-paraffin productivity through the combined FTS, isomerization and hydrocracking reactions. The weak MSI results in the easy reducibility of the cobalt nano-particles; the high cobalt dispersion accelerates n-paraffin diffusion to the neighboring acidic sites on the H-ZSM5 support for isomerization and hydrocracking. Both factors guarantee its high CO conversion and iso-paraffin selectivity. This physical-sputtering technique to synthesize the supported metallic nano-catalyst is a promising way to solve the critical problems caused by strong MSI for various processes. PMID:24085106

  9. High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution

    DOEpatents

    Terwilliger, Steve [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-06-05

    Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

  10. Maryland Higher Education Commission Data Book 2016. Creating a State of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Higher Education Commission, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This document presents statistics about higher education in Maryland for 2016. The tables in this document are presented according to the following categories: (1) Students; (2) Retention and Graduation; (3) Degrees; (4) Faculty; (5) Revenues & Expenditures; (6) Tuition and Fees; (7) Financial Aid, and (8) Private Career Schools. [For…

  11. Maryland Higher Education Commission Data Book 2015. Creating a State of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Higher Education Commission, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This document presents statistics about higher education in Maryland for 2015. The tables in this document are presented according to the following categories: (1) Students; (2) Retention and Graduation; (3) Degrees; (4) Faculty; (5) Revenues & Expenditures; (6) Tuition and Fees; (7) Financial Aid, (8) Private Career Schools, and (9) Distance…

  12. Research Considerations and Theoretical Application for Best Practices in Higher Education: Latina/os Achieving Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Jeanett; Gloria, Alberta M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the authors take a critical look at what general measures of success do and do not disclose about the Latina/o experience in higher education and use that assessment to set forth a reconceptualization of the elements of success within a psychosociocultural (PSC) framework. Using "dichos," or widely used sayings of wisdom…

  13. Achieving Canadian Excellence in and for the World: Leveraging Canada's Higher Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2004

    2004-01-01

    As Canada's opportunities to claim international leadership are assessed, the best prospects lie in a combination of our impressive higher education and research commitments, civic and institutional values, and quality of life. This paper concludes that as an exporting country, the benefits will come in economic growth. As citizens of the world,…

  14. Linking Emotional Intelligence to Achieve Technology Enhanced Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Janette; Blignaut, A. Seugnet

    2013-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) increasingly use technology-enhanced learning (TEL) environments (e.g. blended learning and e-learning) to improve student throughput and retention rates. As the demand for TEL courses increases, expectations rise for faculty to meet the challenge of using TEL effectively. The promises that TEL holds have not…

  15. Maryland Higher Education Commission Data Book 2011. Creating a State of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Higher Education Commission, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This document presents statistics about higher education in Maryland for 2011. The tables in this document are presented according to the following categories: (1) Students; (2) Retention and Graduation; (3) Degrees; (4) Faculty; (5) Revenues and Expenditures; (6) Tuition and Fees; (7) Financial Aid; (8) Private Career Schools; and (9) Distance…

  16. Maryland Higher Education Commission Data Book 2010. Creating a State of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Higher Education Commission, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This document presents statistics about the higher education in Maryland for 2010. The tables in this document are presented according to the following categories: (1) Students; (2) Retention and Graduation; (3) Degrees; (4) Faculty; (5) Revenues and Expenditures; (6) Tuition and Fees; (7) Financial Aid; (8) Private Career Schools; and (9)…

  17. Differences in General Cognitive Abilities and Domain-Specific Skills of Higher-and Lower-Achieving Students in Stoichiometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Eilks, Ingo; Bowman, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a comparison of a group of higher-and lower-achieving undergraduate chemistry students, 17 in total, as separated on their ability in stoichiometry. This exploratory study of 17 students investigated parallels and differences in the students' general and domain-specific cognitive abilities. Performance, strategies, and mistakes…

  18. What Educational Initiatives Contribute to Higher than Expected Achievement in Student Performance for Public Schools in the State of Indiana?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Thomas Allen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the areas of teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school structure, school-community partnerships or school leadership were significantly embedded in practice and acted as a change agent among school systems that achieve higher than expected results on their state standardized testing…

  19. Statistical Summary of Missouri Higher Education 1989-1990 with FY 1989 Missouri Student Achievement Study Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Coordinating Board for Higher Education, Jefferson City.

    The statistical summary for 1989-90 higher education in Missouri presents data in the form of 120 tables for 7 categories: (1) the Missouri Student Achievement Study (fiscal year 1989); (2) preparation; (3) enrolled freshmen; (4) access; (5) participation; (6) resources; and (7) completions. Sample tables provide the following information: mean…

  20. Achievement and Expectations of Immigrant, Second Generation, and Non-Immigrant Black Students in U.S. Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Research on academic achievement contrasting Black immigrant, second generation, and non-immigrant students as distinct groups is surprisingly sparse in the higher education literature. This study examined Black immigrant and second generation undergraduates from Africa and the Caribbean and non-immigrant Black American undergraduates, using the…

  1. The Effects of Social Identification and Organizational Identification on Student Commitment, Achievement and Satisfaction in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Stephen; Butt, Muhammad Mohsin; Kratochvil, Daniel; Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of social and organizational identifications on student commitment, achievement and satisfaction in higher education. The sample comprised 437 students enrolled in an undergraduate or postgraduate programme in business or management. A model was developed and tested using structural…

  2. Administration of ciprofloxacin and capsaicin in rats to achieve higher maximal serum concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sumano-López, Héctor; Gutiérrez-Olvera, Lilia; Aguilera-Jiménez, Rita; Gutiérrez-Olvera, Carlos; Jiménez-Gómez, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    To test if capsaicin could improve the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin (1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid, CAS 85721-33-1, Bay q 3939) in rats, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1% capsaicin ((E)-N-[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-8-methyl-6-nonenamide, trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide, CAS 404-86-4) dissolved in ethanol and mixed with 20 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin were orally administered to groups of 10 rats each. Control groups were dosed with capsaicin-free, ethanol-containing or ethanol-free ciprofloxacin. Reference intravenous pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin was also established. The results revealed that capsaicin increased ciprofloxacin bioavailability by approximately 70% in groups receiving preparations containing capsaicin at a rate of 0.01, 0.1 and 0.5%. Higher concentrations failed to further increase bioavailability. However, capsaicin appears to have little or no impact on the rate of absorption or clearance of ciprofloxacin. Considering that 0.01% or 0.1% capsaicin are unlikely to upset the gastrointestinal tract, it may be worth attempting to study if a similar effect occurs in man, and to evaluate if the addition of capsaicin can be used as a method to increase the area under the curve/minimum inhibitory concentration rate, a key variable to improve clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin.

  3. Divided We Fail: Why It's Time for a Broader, More Inclusive Conversation on the Future of Higher Education. A Final Report on the 2013 National Issues Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean

    2014-01-01

    At state and institutional levels, leaders are discussing and enacting policy changes that could shape the future of higher education for decades-especially public higher education. But when citizens talk about the mission of higher education today, their conversations are different from those of policymakers. How do their values and concerns…

  4. Design and synthesis of copper-cobalt catalysts for the selective conversion of synthesis gas to ethanol and higher alcohols.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Gonzalo; Beijer, Steven; Smith, Miranda L; He, Ming; Au, Yuen; Wang, Zi; Bruce, David A; de Jong, Krijn P; Spivey, James J; de Jongh, Petra E

    2014-06-16

    Combining quantum-mechanical simulations and synthesis tools allows the design of highly efficient CuCo/MoO(x) catalysts for the selective conversion of synthesis gas (CO+H2) into ethanol and higher alcohols, which are of eminent interest for the production of platform chemicals from non-petroleum feedstocks. Density functional theory calculations coupled to microkinetic models identify mixed Cu-Co alloy sites, at Co-enriched surfaces, as ideal for the selective production of long-chain alcohols. Accordingly, a versatile synthesis route is developed based on metal nanoparticle exsolution from a molybdate precursor compound whose crystalline structure isomorphically accommodates Cu(2+) and Co(2+) cations in a wide range of compositions. As revealed by energy-dispersive X-ray nanospectroscopy and temperature-resolved X-ray diffraction, superior mixing of Cu and Co species promotes formation of CuCo alloy nanocrystals after activation, leading to two orders of magnitude higher yield to high alcohols than a benchmark CuCoCr catalyst. Substantiating simulations, the yield to high alcohols is maximized in parallel to the CuCo alloy contribution, for Co-rich surface compositions, for which Cu phase segregation is prevented.

  5. WWC Review of the Report "Staying on Track: Testing Higher Achievement's Long-Term Impact on Academic Outcomes and High School Choice." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This study of 952 fifth and sixth graders in Washington, DC, and Alexandria, Virginia, found that students who were offered the "Higher Achievement" program had higher test scores in mathematical problem solving and were more likely to be admitted to and attend private competitive high schools. "Higher Achievement" is a…

  6. Leadership and culture of data governance for the achievement of higher education goals (Case study: Indonesia University of Education)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putro, Budi Laksono; Surendro, Kridanto; Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Data is a vital asset in a business enterprise in achieving organizational goals. Data and information affect the decision-making process on the various activities of an organization. Data problems include validity, quality, duplication, control over data, and the difficulty of data availability. Data Governance is the way the company / institution manages its data assets. Data Governance covers the rules, policies, procedures, roles and responsibilities, and performance indicators that direct the overall management of data assets. Studies on governance data or information aplenty recommend the importance of cultural factors in the governance of research data. Among the organization's leadership culture has a very close relationship, and there are two concepts turn, namely: Culture created by leaders, leaders created by culture. Based on the above, this study exposure to the theme "Leadership and Culture Of Data Governance For The Achievement Of Higher Education Goals (Case Study: Indonesia University Of Education)". Culture and Leadership Model Development of on Higher Education in Indonesia would be made by comparing several models of data governance, organizational culture, and organizational leadership on previous studies based on the advantages and disadvantages of each model to the existing organizational business. Results of data governance model development is shown in the organizational culture FPMIPA Indonesia University Of Education today is the cultural market and desired culture is a culture of clan. Organizational leadership today is Individualism Index (IDV) (83.72%), and situational leadership on selling position.

  7. Enhanced Conversion Efficiencies in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Achieved through Self-Assembled Platinum(II) Metallacages

    PubMed Central

    He, Zuoli; Hou, Zhiqiang; Xing, Yonglei; Liu, Xiaobin; Yin, Xingtian; Que, Meidan; Shao, Jinyou; Que, Wenxiu; Stang, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes with particular photo-physical property, wherein unique donors are combined with a single metal acceptor, can be utilized for many applications including in photo-devices. In this communication, we described the synthesis and characterization of two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) bearing triazine and porphyrin faces with promising light-harvesting properties. These complexes were obtained from the self-assembly of a 90° Pt(II) acceptor with 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPyT) or 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (TPyP). The greatly improved conversion efficiencies of the dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells were 6.79 and 6.08 respectively, while these SCCs were introduced into the TiO2 nanoparticle film photoanodes. In addition, the open circuit voltage (Voc) of dye-sensitized solar cells was also increased to 0.769 and 0.768 V, which could be ascribed to the inhibited interfacial charge recombination due to the addition of SCCs. PMID:27404912

  8. Enhanced Conversion Efficiencies in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Achieved through Self-Assembled Platinum(II) Metallacages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zuoli; Hou, Zhiqiang; Xing, Yonglei; Liu, Xiaobin; Yin, Xingtian; Que, Meidan; Shao, Jinyou; Que, Wenxiu; Stang, Peter J.

    2016-07-01

    Two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes with particular photo-physical property, wherein unique donors are combined with a single metal acceptor, can be utilized for many applications including in photo-devices. In this communication, we described the synthesis and characterization of two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) bearing triazine and porphyrin faces with promising light-harvesting properties. These complexes were obtained from the self-assembly of a 90° Pt(II) acceptor with 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPyT) or 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (TPyP). The greatly improved conversion efficiencies of the dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells were 6.79 and 6.08 respectively, while these SCCs were introduced into the TiO2 nanoparticle film photoanodes. In addition, the open circuit voltage (Voc) of dye-sensitized solar cells was also increased to 0.769 and 0.768 V, which could be ascribed to the inhibited interfacial charge recombination due to the addition of SCCs.

  9. Case study: Comparison of motivation for achieving higher performance between self-directed and manager-directed aerospace engineering teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlick, Katherine

    "The stereotype of engineers is that they are not people oriented; the stereotype implies that engineers would not work well in teams---that their task emphasis is a solo venture and does not encourage social aspects of collaboration" (Miner & Beyerlein, 1999, p. 16). The problem is determining the best method of providing a motivating environment where design engineers may contribute within a team in order to achieve higher performance in the organization. Theoretically, self-directed work teams perform at higher levels. But, allowing a design engineer to contribute to the team while still maintaining his or her anonymity is the key to success. Therefore, a motivating environment must be established to encourage greater self-actualization in design engineers. The purpose of this study is to determine the favorable motivational environment for design engineers and describe the comparison between two aerospace design-engineering teams: one self-directed and the other manager directed. Following the comparison, this study identified whether self-direction or manager-direction provides the favorable motivational environment for operating as a team in pursuit of achieving higher performance. The methodology used in this research was the case study focusing on the team's levels of job satisfaction and potential for higher performance. The collection of data came from three sources, (a) surveys, (b) researcher observer journal and (c) collection of artifacts. The surveys provided information regarding personal behavior characteristics, potentiality for higher performance and motivational attributes. The researcher journal provided information regarding team dynamics, individual interaction, conflict and conflict resolution. The milestone for performance was based on the collection of artifacts from the two teams. The findings from this study illustrated that whether the team was manager-directed or self-directed does not appear to influence the needs and wants of the

  10. Sustained availability of trimethoprim in drinking water to achieve higher plasma sulphonamide-trimethoprim antibacterial activity in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sumano, H; Hernandez, L; Gutierrez, L; Bernad-Bernad, M J

    2005-02-01

    (1) In order to make trimethoprim (TMP) available to broilers throughout the day, a sustained release formulation (SRF) of the drug in the form of granules was added to the water tank that supplies drinking water. (2) Broilers were initially dosed with sulphachloropiridazine-TMP (SCP-TMP 5:1) and then further medicated throughout the day, achieving in the end a dose of 30 mg/kg each of SCP and TMP (group A). Group B received a preparation with the same dose of SCP and TMP (1:1) as group A, but administered as a single dose without the SRF of TMP. Group C received the customary SCP-TMP 5:1 preparation (30 and 6 mg/kg, respectively). Water tanks were completely consumed in 3 to 4 h. (3) Broilers were bled at different times and concentration of antibacterial activity in serum determined by correlating the composite antibacterial activity of SCP and TMP with actual concentrations of these drugs by means of a microbiological agar diffusion assay. (4) Time vs serum concentrations of activity were higher in group B; the increments in the maximum serum concentration for group B over groups A and C being 39 and 67%, respectively. (5) However, the sustained concentration of activity over time, measured as the area under the cu)rve, was highest in group A. Group B had higher values for area under the curve than group C. (6) An additional dose of TMP to achieve 30 mg/kg of both SCP and TMP improves the serum concentration of this combination over the customary 5:1 proportion. The best values for sustaining antibacterial activity were obtained using a 1:1 ratio as in group A. The use of a SRF as in group A may translate into better clinical results.

  11. Achieving higher pathological complete response rates in HER-2-positive patients with induction chemotherapy without trastuzumab in operable breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Abrial, Catherine; Mouret-Reynier, Marie-Ange; Raoelfils, Inès; Durando, Xavier; Leheurteur, Marianne; Gimbergues, Pierre; Tortochaux, Jacques; Curé, Hervé; Chollet, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    Recent trials of induction chemotherapy in bulky operable breast cancer have shown much higher pathological complete response (pCR) rates with trastuzumab-driven combinations. However, it is useful to take into account the specific chemosensitivity of HER-2-positive tumors. The aim of this study was to assess the pCR rate according to HER-2 status in response to chemotherapy, without an anti-HER-2 specific biological agent, in 710 operable breast cancer patients. Since 1982, these patients have been treated with several different neoadjuvant chemotherapy combinations. During this period, HER-2 overexpression was most often not assessed. Subsequently, we assessed HER-2 expression using archival paraffin-embedded tissue. A technically usable specimen was available for 413 of the 710 patients. Before treatment, 51 patients were HER-2 positive, 287 patients were HER-2 negative, and the results were inconclusive for 75 patients. Of these patients, a pCR in breast and nodes was obtained in 94 patients (14.3%), but this event was threefold more frequent for HER-2-positive patients (23.5%) than for HER-2-negative patients (7%). The overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates at 10 years were 66.6% and 57.4%, respectively. The DFS rate was, as expected, better for HER-2-negative patients, with HER-2 status assessed before as well as after chemotherapy. A significant difference was found for OS in favor of HER-2-negative patients only with postchemotherapy assessment of HER-2, a fact similar to our previous findings. Finally, there was a tendency toward a higher DFS rate for HER-2-positive patients who achieved a pCR compared with HER-2-positive patients who did not.

  12. Effects of the Higher Order Thinking Skills Program on At-Risk Young Adolescents' Self-Concept, Reading Achievement, and Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenman, Gordon; Payne, Beverly D.

    1997-01-01

    Contrasted effects of Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) program to those of Chapter 1 programs on fourth and fifth graders' reading achievement, self-concept, and higher-order thinking skills. Found that HOTS is more effective in raising self-concept and some higher-order thinking skills in fifth grade and after two years of treatment, with…

  13. Protection of quantum information and optimal singlet conversion through higher-dimensional quantum systems and environment monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Mascarenhas, E.; Marques, B.; Santos, M. Franca; Cavalcanti, D.; Cunha, M. Terra

    2010-03-15

    We study how to protect quantum information in quantum systems subjected to local dissipation. We show that combining the use of three-level systems, environment monitoring, and local feedback can fully and deterministically protect any available quantum information, including entanglement initially shared by different parties. These results can represent a gain in resources and/or distances in quantum communication protocols such as quantum repeaters and teleportation as well as time for quantum memories. Finally, we show that monitoring local environments physically implements the optimum singlet conversion protocol, which is essential for classical entanglement percolation.

  14. A Study to Assess the Achievement Motivation of Higher Secondary Students in Relation to Their Noise Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latha, Prema

    2014-01-01

    Disturbing sounds are often referred to as noise, and if extreme enough in degree, intensity or frequency, it is referred to as noise pollution. Achievement refers to a change in study behavior in relation to their noise sensitivity and learning in the educational sense by achieving results in changed responses to certain types of stimuli like…

  15. Study of the Relationship between Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Students: A Case of Spicer Higher Secondary School, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siahi, Evans Atsiaya; Maiyo, Julius K.

    2015-01-01

    The studies on the correlation of academic achievement have paved way for control and manipulation of related variables for quality results in schools. In spite of the facts that schools impart uniform classroom instructions to all students, wide range of difference is observed in their academic achievement. The study sought to determine the…

  16. Aptitude Tests Versus School Exams as Selection Tools for Higher Education and the Case for Assessing Educational Achievement in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Advocates of using a US-style SAT for university selection claim that it is fairer to applicants from disadvantaged backgrounds than achievement tests because it assesses potential, not achievement, and that it allows finer discrimination between top applicants than GCEs. The pros and cons of aptitude tests in principle are discussed, focusing on…

  17. Minority Student Participation and Achievement in Graduate and First-Professional Degree Programs in Illinois Higher Education. Item #10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    In Illinois, as in other states, minorities, Blacks and Hispanics in particular, are under-represented in higher education. The historically low rates of Black and Hispanic participation in higher education raise equity and labor supply issues. This report supplements the annual report of the Illinois Board of Higher Education and provides further…

  18. Preparing for a Global Community. Achieving an International Perspective in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 2, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickert, Sarah M.

    This report discusses the response of colleges and universities in the United States to the need of graduate students to become equipped to make personal and public policy decisions as citizens of an international society. Curriculum changes are showing a tightening of foreign language standards in schools of higher education and, throughout the…

  19. Boosting K-12 Student Achievement: How Corporate America and Higher Ed Can Help. Forum Focus. Fall 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Jenifer, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Forum Focus" was a semi-annual magazine of the Business-Higher Education Forum (BHEF) that featured articles on the role of business and higher education on significant issues affecting the P-16 education system. The magazine typically focused on themes featured at the most recently held semi-annual Forum meeting at the time of…

  20. Retrospective Understandings: Individual-Collective Influences on High Achieving Black Students at a Predominantly White Institution of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Candice Elaine

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of an exploratory qualitative study that examined the influences of individual and collective sociocultural identities on the community involvements and high academic achievement of 10 Black alumni who attended a predominantly White institution between 1985 and 2008. Syntagmatic narrative analysis and…

  1. Ubiquitous Laptop Usage in Higher Education: Effects on Student Achievement, Student Satisfaction, and Constructivist Measures in Honors and Traditional Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurst, Christian; Smarkola, Claudia; Gaffney, Mary Anne

    2008-01-01

    Three years of graduating business honors cohorts in a large urban university were sampled to determine whether the introduction of ubiquitous laptop computers into the honors program contributed to student achievement, student satisfaction and constructivist teaching activities. The first year cohort consisted of honors students who did not have…

  2. The Impact of Higher Expectations in Math on the Perception of Achievement of High School Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przybylinski, Vincent S., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    There exists a dearth of research on strategies that will help students with disabilities gain greater access to standards-based mathematics and close the mathematics achievement gap between general education students and students with disabilities (Browder et al., 2012; Jitendra, 2013; van Garderen, Scheuermann, Jackson, & Hampton, 2009).…

  3. The Effects of School Climate on Student Achievement in Lower and Higher Performing Public and Charter Elementary Schools in Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Aszure Emond

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the number of charter schools that exist has occurred due, in part, to expectations that are aimed toward producing better results through student achievement, as compared to traditional public schools. An abundance of professional literature has supported the concept that school climate is important in the effort to improve student…

  4. Going Green: A Comparative Case Study of How Three Higher Education Institutions Achieved Progressive Measures of Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    Leal Filho, MacDermot, and Padgam (1996) contended that post-secondary institutions are well suited to take on leadership responsibilities for society's environmental protection. Higher education has the unique academic freedom to engage in critical thinking and bold experimentation in environmental sustainability (Cortese, 2003). Although…

  5. Achievements and Consequences of Two Decades of Quality Assurance in Higher Education: A Personal View from the Edge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Don

    2010-01-01

    While the past two decades have seen significant expansion and harmonisation of quality assurance mechanisms in higher education, there is limited evidence of positive effects on the quality of core processes of teaching and learning. The paradox of the separation of assurance from improvement is explored. A shift in focus from surveillance to…

  6. A Fresh Perspective on Progress Files--A Way of Representing Complex Learning and Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Norman; Ward, Rob

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the challenge of developing new conceptual knowledge to help us make better sense of the way that higher education is approaching the "problem" of representing (documenting, certifying and communicating by other means) students' learning for the super-complex world described by Barnett (2000b). The current UK…

  7. Unraveling the sequence information in COI barcode to achieve higher taxon assignment based on Indian freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Mohua; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Efficacy of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) DNA barcode in higher taxon assignment is still under debate in spite of several attempts, using the conventional DNA barcoding methods, to assign higher taxa. Here we try to understand whether nucleotide and amino acid sequence in COI gene carry sufficient information to assign species to their higher taxonomic rank, using 160 species of Indian freshwater fishes. Our results reveal that with increase in the taxonomic rank, sequence conservation decreases for both nucleotides and amino acids. Order level exhibits lowest conservation with 50% of the nucleotides and amino acids being conserved. Among the variable sites, 30-50% were found to carry high information content within an order, while it was 70-80% within a family and 80-99% within a genus. High information content shows sites with almost conserved sequence but varying at one or two locations, which can be due to variations at species or population level. Thus, the potential of COI gene in higher taxon assignment is revealed with validation of ample inherent signals latent in the gene.

  8. Oxygen-free conversion of methane to higher alkanes through an isothermal two-step reaction on ruthenium

    SciTech Connect

    Belgued, M.; Amariglio, A.; Lefort, L.; Amariglio, H.

    1996-06-01

    Ruthenium dispersed on silica is able to chemisorb CH{sub 4} at temperatures significantly lower than EUROPT-1. At the temperatures used ({ge}80{degrees}C), H{sub 2} desorption parallels CH{sub 4} chemisorption but no C{sub 2}H{sub 6} is observed. During the following temperature programmed desorption under flowing argon, CH{sub 4} is removed through a wide range of temperature (from room temperature to 300{degrees}C) with a first contribution peaking at less than 100{degrees}C. Very small amounts of CH{sub 4} are desorbed after an adsorption carried out at T{ge} 180{degrees}C, due to strong dehydrogenation of the adspecies. Subsequent temperature programmed surface reaction of the remaining adspecies with hydrogen displays upto four CH{sub 4} peaks at well defined temperatures (ranging from {approx} 60 to {approx} 340{degrees}C), accompanied by a negligible formation of ethane. No C{sub {gamma}} was formed. The total amount of adsorbed CH{sub 4} and the average H/C ratio of the corresponding adspecies can be derived from these experiments. In a separate set of experiments, CH{sub 4} is switched to H{sub 2} at the end of the exposure step, the temperature being fixed. An immediate formation of alkanes ranging from C{sub 1} to C{sub 6} is then evidenced. A sizeable fraction of the chemisorbed layer can so be homologated to higher alkanes. The influences of the various operating factors are reported. In particular a neat maximum of the C{sub 2+} production versus temperature (at 160{degrees}C) is evidenced and is clearly due to the adverse hydrogenolysis reactions, efficiently catalyzed by Ru. All the results can be interpreted in complete similarity with the Pt case. 5 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Women in Leadership: Factors That Affect the Achievement of Women in Higher Education Administration at Four-Year Public and Private Universities in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Dawn Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the factors that affect women administrators in higher education at four-year public and private universities in Texas. By comparing private and public universities, the research provided an assessment of similarities and differences of the factors impacting achievement of women in higher…

  10. How endogenous plant cell-wall degradation mechanisms can help achieve higher efficiency in saccharification of biomass.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Eveline Q P; De Souza, Amanda P; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-07-01

    Cell-wall recalcitrance to hydrolysis still represents one of the major bottlenecks for second-generation bioethanol production. This occurs despite the development of pre-treatments, the prospect of new enzymes, and the production of transgenic plants with less-recalcitrant cell walls. Recalcitrance, which is the intrinsic resistance to breakdown imposed by polymer assembly, is the result of inherent limitations in its three domains. These consist of: (i) porosity, associated with a pectin matrix impairing trafficking through the wall; (ii) the glycomic code, which refers to the fine-structural emergent complexity of cell-wall polymers that are unique to cells, tissues, and species; and (iii) cellulose crystallinity, which refers to the organization in micro- and/or macrofibrils. One way to circumvent recalcitrance could be by following cell-wall hydrolysis strategies underlying plant endogenous mechanisms that are optimized to precisely modify cell walls in planta. Thus, the cell-wall degradation that occurs during fruit ripening, abscission, storage cell-wall mobilization, and aerenchyma formation are reviewed in order to highlight how plants deal with recalcitrance and which are the routes to couple prospective enzymes and cocktail designs with cell-wall features. The manipulation of key enzyme levels in planta can help achieving biologically pre-treated walls (i.e. less recalcitrant) before plants are harvested for bioethanol production. This may be helpful in decreasing the costs associated with producing bioethanol from biomass.

  11. Selected factors associated with achievement of biology preparatory students and their follow-up to higher level biology courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, Carol A.; Sarinsky, Gary B.

    This study was undertaken to determine whether a biology preparatory course given at an urban community college was helping students to develop the proper skills and background necessary for them to successfully complete follow-up courses in biology. A group of students who enrolled in a biology preparatory course, and subsequently, a follow-up anatomy and physiology or general biology course (experimental group) was compared to a group of students who should have registered for the preparatory course, but who enrolled directly into the anatomy and physiology or general biology course (control group). It was shown that there was no significant difference in their anatomy and physiology or general biology grades. Furthermore, only 16% of the initial group of preparatory students enrolled in and passed a follow-up biology course. Examination of the preparatory group using discriminant analysis ascertained that mathematics score was the principle discriminator between pass/fail groups. A stepwise multiple regression analysis of the variables explaining the preparatory grade showed that mathematics score, reading score, and type of high school degree explained 33% of the variance. Of the students who did pass the preparatory course and enrolled in a follow-up biology class, their preparatory grade was a good predictor of their achievement (measured by follow-up course grade), as determined by multiple regression.

  12. [Perception of the teaching-learning process and academic achievement in diverse instructional contexts of Higher Education].

    PubMed

    de la Fuente Arias, Jesús; Martínez Vicente, José Manuel; Peralta Sánchez, Francisco Javier; García Berbén, Ana Belén

    2010-11-01

    In Higher Education, performance and Teaching-Learning (T-L) contexts are highly current concerns. Based on the DEDEPRO model, interdependence can be established between instructional contexts and levels of performance as they relate to the T-L process. Partitipants were 2020 pupils from two Spanish universities. Measurements of both variables were used in a quasi-experimental and correlational design. The univariate and causal analyses showed the effect of context on the T-L process and on performance; thus, the interdependent relationships between the latter and perception of the T-L process. Partial interaction effects also appeared, as well as a causal model of academic performance. Results are discussed and implications for the ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) are analyzed.

  13. Effects of tactual and kinesthetic instructional resources on simple recall and higher-level cognitive science achievement and attitudes toward science of third-grade suburban students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searson, Robert Francis

    This researcher investigated the effects of tactual and kinesthetic instructional resources on the simple recall and higher-level cognitive science achievement and attitudes toward science of third-grade suburban students in a northern New Jersey school district. The Learning Style Inventory (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1996) was administered to ascertain the identity of the learning-style perceptual preferences of all 59 third-graders who completed the three science units. Each of the three classes was presented two science units using learning-style instructional resources; one science unit was taught using traditional methods. All three science units were completed in a six-week period. Students were administered a pretest and posttest for each science unit and the Semantic Differential Scale (Pizzo, 1981) at the conclusion of each science unit. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) assessed the effects of treatments and attitudes toward science. The statistical analysis of this study revealed a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between students' simple recall science achievement posttest scores when taught tactually and/or kinesthetically compared to when they were taught science traditionally. Furthermore, the Contingency Table analysis, using Fisher's Exact Test indicated a significant difference (p = 0.00008) between the higher-level cognitive science achievement posttest scores when students are taught science tactually and/or kinesthetically compared to when they are taught science traditionally. The findings of this study supported the view when tactual and/or kinesthetic methods were employed, higher achievement gains were realized for simple recall and higher-level cognitive science achievement. Further recommendations called for a reexamination of science instructional methods employed in our elementary classroom.

  14. Novice Couples Coping with Network Trouble in Personal Videoconferencing: Managing the Intersection of Interaction and Technology in the Collaborative Achievement of Conversational Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rintel, E. Sean

    2010-01-01

    The limitations of home Internet connections make Personal Videoconferencing (PV) interaction vulnerable to network trouble. This dissertation explores how novice couples collaboratively manage PV network trouble so as to carry on their conversation. It is found that transmission/reception and their perturbations are material frames for…

  15. How Age, Linguistic Status, and the Nature of the Auditory Scene Alter the Manner in Which Listening Comprehension Is Achieved in Multitalker Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avivi-Reich, Meital; Jakubczyk, Agnes; Daneman, Meredyth; Schneider, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated how age and linguistic status affected listeners' ability to follow and comprehend 3-talker conversations, and the extent to which individual differences in language proficiency predict speech comprehension under difficult listening conditions. Method: Younger and older L1s as well as young L2s listened to 3-talker…

  16. The effects of higher-order questioning strategies on nonscience majors' achievement in an introductory environmental science course and their attitudes toward the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eason, Grace Teresa

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the effect a higher-order questioning strategy (Bloom, 1956) had on undergraduate non-science majors' attitudes toward the environment and their achievement in an introductory environmental science course, EDS 1032, "Survey of Science 2: Life Science," which was offered during the Spring 2000 term. Students from both treatment and control groups (N = 63), which were determined using intact classes, participated in eight cooperative group activities based on the Biological Sciences Curriculum Studies (BSCS) 5E model (Bybee, 1993). The treatment group received a higher-order questioning method combined with the BSCS 5E model. The control group received a lower-order questioning method, combined with the BSCS 5E model. Two instruments were used to measure students' attitude and achievement changes. The Ecology Issue Attitude (EIA) survey (Schindler, 1995) and a comprehensive environmental science final exam. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (KLSI, 1985) was used to measure students' learning style type. After a 15-week treatment period, results were analyzed using MANCOVA. The overall MANCOVA model used to test the statistical difference between the collective influences of the independent variables on the three dependent variables simultaneously was found to be not significant at alpha = .05. This differs from findings of previous studies in which higher-order questioning techniques had a significant effect on student achievement (King 1989 & 1992; Blosser, 1991; Redfield and Rousseau, 1981; Gall 1970). At the risk of inflated Type I and Type II error rates, separate univariate analyses were performed. However, none of the research factors, when examined collectively or separately, made any significant contribution to explaining the variability in EIA attitude, EIA achievement, and comprehensive environmental science final examination scores. Nevertheless, anecdotal evidence from student's self

  17. Achievement of 6.03% conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells with single-crystalline rutile TiO2 nanorod photoanode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiguang; Wan, Farong; Wang, Yali; Jiang, Chunhua

    2009-09-01

    The rutile TiO2 nanorods (RTNs) with the length of 40-130 nm and diameters approximately 8-15 nm, containing some 300-500 nm sized RTN aggregates and 6% of anatase TiO2 nanocrystals, were prepared by surfactant-assisted hydrothermal method. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) based on the RTNs exhibited power conversion efficiency of 6.03%. As compared to P25 TiO2 based DSC, RTNs based DSC shows improved light-harvesting and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, leading to an increase in short-circuit current (Jsc) by 40.6%.

  18. Diversity Initiatives in Higher Education: Deconstructing "The Down Low"--People of Color "Coming Out" and "Being Out" on Campus: A Conversation with Mark Brimhall-Vargas, Sivagami Subbaraman, and Robert Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christine

    2005-01-01

    This article emerges from an extensive conversation with three people of color--one Latino, one South Asian, and one African American--about their experiences of "coming out" and "being out" as gay, lesbian, and bisexual in a variety of higher education contexts. The article is divided into three parts. Part one offers a brief overview of…

  19. The Importance of Internal Conversations and Reflexivity for Work-Based Students in Higher Education: Valuing Contextual Continuity and "Giving Something Back"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovill, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This paper utilises the theories of Archer to explore the impact of student "internal conversations" upon the development of reflexive approaches employed by work-based students (WBS). The study informing this paper draws on the voices of a range of WBS on a Foundation Degree in Educational Support within a new university. A range of reflexivities…

  20. Acute Response of Well-Trained Sprinters to a 100-m Race: Higher Sprinting Velocity Achieved With Increased Step Rate Compared With Speed Training.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Mitsuo; Kawahara, Taisuke; Isaka, Tadao

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the contribution of differences in step length and step rate to sprinting velocity in an athletic race compared with speed training. Nineteen well-trained male and female sprinters volunteered to participate in this study. Sprinting motions were recorded for each sprinter during both 100-m races and speed training (60-, 80-, and 100-m dash from a block start) for 14 days before the race. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance was used to compare the step characteristics and sprinting velocity between race and speed training, adjusted for covariates including race-training differences in the coefficients of restitution of the all-weather track, wind speed, air temperature, and sex. The average sprinting velocity to the 50-m mark was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (8.26 ± 0.22 m·s vs. 8.00 ± 0.70 m·s, p < 0.01). Although no significant difference was seen in the average step length to the 50-m mark between the race and speed training (1.81 ± 0.09 m vs. 1.80 ± 0.09 m, p = 0.065), the average step rate was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (4.56 ± 0.17 Hz vs. 4.46 ± 0.13 Hz, p < 0.01). These findings suggest that sprinters achieve higher sprinting velocity and can run with higher exercise intensity and more rapid motion during a race than during speed training, even if speed training was performed at perceived high intensity.

  1. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  2. Variations in Mathematics Problem-Solving Support for Lower and Higher Achieving Elementary Students: A Study of the One-on-One Instructional Practices of Teachers Who Use a Reform-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Nancy D.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether and how upper elementary grade teachers who use a reform-based mathematics curriculum adjust instruction for their lower achieving (LA) compared to higher achieving (HA) students during a one-on-one mathematics problem-solving lesson. Little is known about the individualized support teachers provide…

  3. The Agony and the Ecstasy: Current Status of Hispanic Individuals' Achievement in Higher Education and Earnings - With a Glimpse to the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Santos, Gilberto; Asgary, Nader; Nazemzadeh, Asghar; DeShields, Jr., Oscar W.

    2005-01-01

    Some projections about Hispanic individuals point to a rosy picture regarding gains in higher educational enrollment. Other studies lament that these gains are, at best, minimal. Although the so-called higher education pie is undoubtedly expanding, this article concludes that Hispanic adults are losing, rather than gaining, educational attainment…

  4. Think about It: Volume III, Part I. A Collection of Articles on Higher Order Thinking Skills. REACH: Realistic Educational Achievement Can Happen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Twenty-three papers on the use of higher order thinking approaches to improve basic skills education are presented. The key note article is (1) "A Case for Higher Order Thinking" (G. Garcia, Jr.). Under the heading "English Language Arts" are: (2) "Developing an Elementary Writing Program" (K. Contreras); (3)…

  5. Solar Thermal Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1982-11-01

    The thermal conversion process of solar energy is based on well-known phenomena of heat transfer (Kreith 1976). In all thermal conversion processes, solar radiation is absorbed at the surface of a receiver, which contains or is in contact with flow passages through which a working fluid passes. As the receiver heats up, heat is transferred to the working fluid which may be air, water, oil, or a molten salt. The upper temperature that can be achieved in solar thermal conversion depends on the insolation, the degree to which the sunlight is concentrated, and the measures taken to reduce heat losses from the working fluid.

  6. Changing the Conversation about Productivity: Strategies for Engaging Faculty and Institutional Leaders. A Report by Public Agenda for the Lumina Foundation's Higher Education Productivity Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Agenda, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report builds on and extends Public Agenda's ongoing research on the attitudes of various stakeholder groups toward higher education reform. It explores the purpose and promise of more effective engagement of those stakeholders who--at first blush, at least--appear to express the deepest resistance to the productivity agenda: faculty. The…

  7. A Stronger Nation through Higher Education: How and Why Americans Must Achieve a Big Goal for College Attainment. A Special Report from Lumina Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Lumina Foundation officially adopted its Big Goal that 60 percent of Americans obtain a high-quality postsecondary degree or credential by 2025. That same year, Lumina began reporting on progress toward the Big Goal in a series of reports titled "A Stronger Nation through Higher Education". The core of the reports is Census data…

  8. Missing in Action: Writing Process-Based Instructional Practices and Measures of Higher-Order Literacy Achievement in Predominantly Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briddell, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This study of 1,974 fifth grade students investigated potential relationships between writing process-based instruction practices and higher-order thinking measured by a standardized literacy assessment. Writing process is defined as a highly complex, socio-cognitive process that includes: planning, text production, review, metacognition, writing…

  9. Think about It, Too: Volume III, Part II. A Collection of Articles on Higher Order Thinking Skills. REACH: Realistic Educational Achievement Can Happen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This volume presents 22 papers that discuss thinking in the context of subjects taught in general education, special and vocational education, educational technology, and special programs. The key note article is: (1) "A Case for Higher Order Thinking" (G. Garcia Jr.). Under the heading "Educational Technology" are: (2)…

  10. Energy savings and higher volumetric loading rate achieved in the conventional anoxic-oxic process for sewage treatment by enhancing biomass retention in the secondary clarifier.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueyu; Liu, Fengyuan; Zheng, Shaokui

    2017-06-01

    This is the first study to achieve a short HRT (∼2h for the A/O reactor), high MLSS (∼10gL(-1)), and high volumetric loading (∼3.7kg CODm(-3)d(-1) and ∼0.6kg NH4-Nm(-3)d(-1)) in the A/O process for sewage treatment by enhancing biomass retention in the secondary clarifier (∼4h settling time), which we refer to as the high-performance A/O process (HP-A/O) in this paper. Over 258days of continuous operation, with a decrease in HRT from 12 to 2h, remarkable COD (95±3%), NH4(+)-N (98±2%), TN (79±5%), and TP (74±10%) removals were stably achieved, while the air requirement significantly decreased by 22%. The HP-A/O process offers advantages over the conventional A/O process (6-8h for A/O reactor, 3-5gL(-1)MLSS, and ∼1.0kg CODm(-3)d(-1)) for sewage treatment in terms of its lower energy consumption, smaller footprint and reactor requirements.

  11. Contentious Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuidema, Leah A.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of joining a conversation through reading and writing is not new; in his 1941 book "The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action," Kenneth Burke suggests that the acts of reading and writing are like entering a parlor where others are already conversing. The author explores the place of professional debate within NCTE and…

  12. Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Takayoshi; Mino, Takuya; Sakai, Jun; Noguchi, Norimichi; Tsubaki, Kenji; Hirayama, Hideki

    2017-03-01

    Enhancing the light-extraction efficiency is the key issue for realizing highly efficient AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs). We introduced several features to improve the light extraction: a transparent AlGaN:Mg contact layer, a Rh mirror electrode, an AlN template on a patterned sapphire substrate, and encapsulation resin. The combination of the AlGaN:Mg contact layer and the Rh mirror electrode significantly improved the output power and the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of UV-LEDs. By introducing the aforementioned features, a maximum EQE of >20% at an emission wavelength of 275 nm and a 20-mA direct current was achieved.

  13. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic material with fungi capable of higher lignin degradation and lower carbohydrate degradation improves substrate acid hydrolysis and the eventual conversion to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Sarika; Nair, Lavanya M; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2008-04-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus,and fungal isolates RCK-1 and RCK-3 were tested for their lignin degradation abilities when grown on wheat straw (WS) and Prosopis juliflora (PJ) under solid-state cultivation conditions. Fungal isolate RCK-1 degraded more lignin in WS (12.26% and 22.64%) and PJ (19.30% and 21.97%) and less holocellulose in WS (6.27% and 9.39%) and PJ (3.01% and 4.58%) after 10 and 20 days, respectively, than other fungi tested. Phanerochaete chrysosporium caused higher substrate mass loss and degraded more of holocellulosic content (WS: 55.67%; PJ: 48.89%) than lignin (WS: 18.89%; PJ: 20.20%) after 20 days. The fungal pretreatment of WS and PJ with a high-lignin-degrading and low-holocellulose-degrading fungus (fungal isolate RCK-1) for 10 days resulted in (i) reduction in acid load for hydrolysis of structural polysaccharides (from 3.5% to 2.5% in WS and from 4.5% to 2.5% in PJ), (ii) an increase in the release of fermentable sugars (from 30.27 to 40.82 g L(-1) in WS and from 18.18 to 26.00 g L(-1) in PJ), and (iii) a reduction in fermentation inhibitors (total phenolics) in acid hydrolysate of WS (from 1.31 to 0.63 g L(-1)) and PJ (from 2.05 to 0.80 g L(-1)). Ethanol yield and volumetric productivity from RCK-1-treated WS (0.48 g g(-1) and 0.54 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively) and PJ (0.46 g g(-1) and 0.33 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively) were higher than untreated WS (0.36 g g(-1) and 0.30 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively) and untreated PJ (0.42 g g(-1) and 0.21 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively).

  14. Using Composite Metrics to Measure Student Diversity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.; McLaughlin, Gerald W.; McLaughlin, Josetta

    2015-01-01

    The role and impact of diversity in higher education has permeated conversations about student access and achievement for many years. Language articulated by various courts suggests that higher education policies should reflect a broad conceptualisation of diversity beyond that of the magnitude and proportion of race and ethnicity, yet…

  15. Metric Conversion

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-12

    ... petabyte = one quadrillion bytes The Bureau International Poids et Measures (BIPM) brochure on the International System ... For accurate conversions, see the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publications: NIST Guide to ...

  16. Conversion Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recent significant stress or emotional trauma Being female — women are much more likely to develop conversion disorder Having a mental health condition, such as mood or anxiety disorders, dissociative disorder or certain personality disorders Having ...

  17. Molten Slag Would Boost Coal Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrall, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Reactor increases residence time of uncovered char. Near-100percent carbon conversion achievable in reactor incorporating moltenslag bath. Slag maintains unconverted carbon impinging on surface at high temperatures for longer period of time, enhancing conversion.

  18. Conversational Telugu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beinstein, Judith; And Others

    The purpose of this text is to develop elementary conversational skills in Telugu. The language materials consist of four types of language learning activities. The first, and most predominant, is the unit microwave cycle. These cycles divide the learning process into two basic phases, the first of which involves mimicry, memorization, and…

  19. Conversational Tamil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beinstein, Judith; And Others

    The purpose of this text is to develop conversational skills in Tamil. It is to be used as a review of what has been learned in class and not as a teaching device. The language materials consist of four types of language learning activities. The unit microwave cycle divides the learning process into two basic phases. The first phase involves…

  20. Multichannel mode conversion and multiplexing based on a single spatial light modulator for optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Song; Yu, Song; Cai, Shanyong; Lan, Mingying; Gu, Wanyi

    2016-07-01

    A method is proposed to achieve multichannel mode conversion and multiplexing by dividing a single spatial light modulator into several blocks with the mode conversion pattern and blazed grating loaded on each block. The conversion patterns realize the precise excitation of higher order modes using combined amplitude and phase modulation. The blazed gratings bring together incident beams, so these beams can be coupled into few-mode fiber (FMF). In the experiment, four higher order modes are precisely excited and converge with a tilt angle. Through the simulation method, these beams can be coupled into FMF with small tilt angles (0.0344 deg for LP11 mode).

  1. Research on the Coordinative Development of Regional Higher Education and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Yingjun

    2012-01-01

    In the current society, economic development in any region has to rely on higher education. Conversely, higher education cannot do without regional economic development in order to achieve greater progress in scale and level. Starting with the function of higher education in Wenzhou, this paper analyzes the reality and problems in Wenzhou's higher…

  2. Conversational sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  3. Conversational sensemaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  4. The Role of Conversation Policy in Carrying Out Agent Conversations

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Hamilton E.; Phillips, Laurence R.

    1999-05-20

    Structured conversation diagrams, or conversation specifications, allow agents to have predictable interactions and achieve predefined information-based goals, but they lack the flexibility needed to function robustly in an unpredictable environment. We propose a mechanism that combines a typical conversation structure with a separately established policy to generate an actual conversation. The word "policy" connotes a high-level direction external to a specific planned interaction with the environment. Policies, which describe acceptable procedures and influence decisions, can be applied to broad sets of activity. Based on their observation of issues related to a policy, agents may dynamically adjust their communication patterns. The policy object describes limitations, constraints, and requirements that may affect the conversation in certain circumstances. Using this new mechanism of interaction simplifies the description of individual conversations and allows domain-specific issues to be brought to bear more easily during agent communication. By following the behavior of the conversation specification when possible and deferring to the policy to derive behavior in exceptional circumstances, an agent is able to function predictably under normal situations and still act rationally in abnormal situations. Different conversation policies applied to a given conversation specification can change the nature of the interaction without changing the specification.

  5. Reading and math achievement profiles and longitudinal growth trajectories of children with an autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Christiano, Elizabeth R A; Yu, Jennifer W; Wagner, Mary; Spiker, Donna

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the reading and math achievement profiles and longitudinal growth trajectories of a nationally representative sample of children ages 6 through 9 with an autism spectrum disorder. Four distinct achievement profiles were identified: higher-achieving (39%), hyperlexia (9%), hypercalculia (20%) and lower-achieving (32%). Children with hypercalculia and lower-achieving profiles were more likely to be from low socioeconomic families and had lower functional cognitive skills than the higher-achieving profile. All four profiles lost ground in passage comprehension over time. Slower improvement occurred for the higher-achieving group on letter-word identification, the hyperlexia group on conversation abilities and the hypercalculia group on calculation and functional cognitive skills relative to the lower-achieving group.

  6. Achieving Salary Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Dorothy D.

    1975-01-01

    Three techniques are outlined for use by higher education institutions to achieve salary equity: salary prediction (using various statistical procedures), counterparting (comparing salaries of persons of similar rank), and grievance procedures. (JT)

  7. Advanced Thermal Energy Conversion of Temperature under 300°C by Thermoelectric Conversion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Tadashi; Uchida, Yoshiyuki; Shingu, Hiroyasu

    Many approaches have been developing for energy conversion throughout the world. However, it is difficult to achieve the global warming countermeasure based on “The Kyoto protocol”. Until now effective utilization of low temperature thermal energy (under 300°C) is not advancing one. For example, effective utilization method has not been established for waste heat energy which arise from industry machine tools, automobiles, internal combustion engines and thermal energy from natural environment, etc. In this paper, we reported the experiment for effective utilizing of low temperature (under 300°C) thermal energy conversion. The device used for the measurement is a copper thermo device. Thermo electromotive force of 150mW/cm2 was obtained at 200°C. The obtained thermo electromotive force is about 15 times higher in comparison with generally used alumal-chromal thermocouple. Our aim is that utilizes low temperature thermal energy effectively by converting into electricity.

  8. Drivers of Inequalities in Higher Education and the Unexpected Consequences of Equality Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reale, Emanuela; Seeber, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Diversity is generally considered as a goal to be achieved in order to bring the Higher Education (HE) system closer to the needs of society. Conversely, some European countries have not favoured diversification processes in HE; instead, they have preferred to pursue a policy aimed at homogeneity across higher education institutions (HEIs),…

  9. ICRF mode conversion heating and long-pulse discharges in LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, K.; Mutoh, T.; Kumazawa, R.; Seki, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Ashikawa, N.; Sato, K.; Shoji, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Kasahara, H.; Shimpo, F.; Nomura, G.; Yokota, M.; Takahashi, C.; Komori, A.; Ogawa, H.; Takeuchi, H.

    2007-09-28

    In LHD, long-pulse discharge has been conducted by ICRF minority ion heating. Plasma duration time of 525 seconds was achieved with the heating power of more than 1 MW supported by ECH and NBI. Electron heating by the mode conversion from the fast wave to the ion Bernstein wave was investigated to achieve a longer pulse length with the higher injection power. Plasma was sustained for 88 seconds by the mode conversion heating and ECH. The temperature distribution on divertor plates was less localized than that of minority ion heating.

  10. Intellectual Interest Mediates Gene x Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Adolescent Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that genetic influences on cognitive ability and academic achievement are larger for children raised in higher socioeconomic status (SES) homes. However, little work has been done to document the psychosocial processes that underlie this Gene x Environment interaction. One process may involve the conversion of…

  11. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-24

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the roadmap

  12. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-01

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the roadmap

  13. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  14. Conversation at the Intermediate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Ian

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the use of free conversation, especially with regard to vocabulary. Recommends group discussion in the FL, using, at the intermediate level, limited, familiar vocabulary. At a higher level, words from a special technical vocabulary may be introduced, aurally and visually. A teaching example ("Traffic") is given with thorough…

  15. Achievement Motivation of Women: Effects of Achievement and Affiliation Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth Maria Pinheiro

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 139 Brazilian women to neutral, affiliation arousal, and achievement arousal conditions based on their levels of achievement (Ach) and affiliative (Aff) needs. Results of story analyses revealed that achievement arousal increased scores of high Ach subjects and that high Aff subjects obtained higher scores than low Aff subjects. (BL)

  16. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  17. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  18. More on the catalysis of internal conversion in chlorophyll a by an adjacent carotenoid in light-harvesting complex (Chl a/ b LHCII) of higher plants: time-resolved triplet-minus-singlet spectra of detergent-perturbed complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, K. Razi; Jávorfi, Tamás; Melø, T. B.; Garab, Gyözö

    1998-12-01

    Wavelength-selective photo-excitation of samples containing a detergent and LHCII (the main light-harvesting complex pertaining to photosystem II of green plants) is used for recording time-resolved triplet-minus-singlet (TmS) difference spectra, with a view to probing interactions between chlorophyll a (Chl a) and chlorophyll b (Chl b), and between Chl a and lutein (Lut). Once the detergent concentration ( CD) exceeds a threshold, C©, the TmS spectrum becomes sensitive to λ⊗, the wavelength of excitation, and to t, the delay between excitation and observation. Each increment in CD brings about a diminution in the efficiency of a†→ x† transfer (triplet-triplet transfer from Chl a to Lut) and a rise in both the triplet formation yield and the fluorescence yield of Chl a. What is more, b*→ a* transfer (singlet-singlet transfer from Chl b to Chl a) slackens to such an extent that Chl b*→Chl b† intersystem crossing, negligible when CD is below C©, begins to vie with transfer, for the deactivation of Chl b* (in the foregoing an asterisk/dagger denotes singlet/triplet excitation). The reduction in the efficiencies of the two transfers is easily understood by: (i) invoking the Kühlbrandt-Wang-Fujiyoshi model of LHCII, which posits each Chl b in contact with a Chl a and each Chl a in contact with a Lut, and (ii) assuming that the detergent severs contact between adjacent chromophores. That a growth in the triplet yield of Chl a* accompanies the detergent-induced decrease in the efficiency of a†→ x† transfer becomes intelligible if one assumes, further, that internal conversion in Chla* is faster than that in overlineChla * , where under or over lining betokens the presence or absence of a carotenoid neighbour. When CD is close to C©, most Chl a molecules are adjacent to a Lut, internal conversion dominates, and the overall triplet yield is low. As CD is gradually raised the Chla → overlineChla transformation sets in, causing concomitant drops in

  19. Pashto Conversation Manual and Pashto Conversation Tapescript.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

    This conversation manual and tapescript are part of a set of materials that have been developed to teach oral and written Afghan Pashto to English speakers. In addition to the conversation manual and tapescript, the set consists of a beginning textbook, an intermediate textbook, a reader, and a set of taped lessons that correlate with the…

  20. Satisfaction, Settlement and Exposition: Conversation and the University Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulford, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I consider the tutorial conversation in Higher Education. To focus the discussion I use the scenario of a tutorial conversation between a lecturer and a student. I begin by suggesting that the increasing emphasis placed on student satisfaction in certain Higher Education Institutions tends to focus the tutorial conversation towards…

  1. The Ideal of Conversation in the Study of Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schudson, Michael

    1978-01-01

    Examines the "ideal of conversation," and demonstrates that most actual conversation rarely achieves the "ideal." Argues that the rise of mass media is responsible for making ideal conversation more realizable, however, by making talk between men and women, and adults and children, more egalitarian and spontaneous. (PD)

  2. Hydrothermal conversion of lignin to substituted phenols and aromatic ethers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rawel; Prakash, Aditya; Dhiman, Shashi Kumar; Balagurumurthy, Bhavya; Arora, Ajay K; Puri, S K; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2014-08-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction of lignin was performed using methanol and ethanol at various temperatures (200, 250 and 280°C) and residence times of 15, 30 and 45min. Maximum liquid product yield (85%) was observed at 200°C and 15min residence time using methanol. Increase in temperature was seen to decrease the liquid products yield. With increase in residence time, liquid yields first increased and then decreased. FTIR and (1)H NMR showed the presence of substituted phenols and aromatic ethers in liquid products and breakage of β-O-4 or/and α-O-4 ether bonds present in lignin during hydrothermal liquefaction was confirmed through FTIR of bio-residue. In comparison to the existing literature information, higher lignin conversion to liquid products and maximum carbon conversion (72%) was achieved in this study.

  3. Serious Illness Conversations in ESRD.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Ernest I; Bernacki, Rachelle E; Block, Susan D

    2016-12-28

    Dialysis-dependent ESRD is a serious illness with high disease burden, morbidity, and mortality. Mortality in the first year on dialysis for individuals over age 75 years old approaches 40%, and even those with better prognoses face multiple hospitalizations and declining functional status. In the last month of life, patients on dialysis over age 65 years old experience higher rates of hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, procedures, and death in hospital than patients with cancer or heart failure, while using hospice services less. This high intensity of care is often inconsistent with the wishes of patients on dialysis but persists due to failure to explore or discuss patient goals, values, and preferences in the context of their serious illness. Fewer than 10% of patients on dialysis report having had a conversation about goals, values, and preferences with their nephrologist, although nearly 90% report wanting this conversation. Many nephrologists shy away from these conversations, because they do not wish to upset their patients, feel that there is too much uncertainty in their ability to predict prognosis, are insecure in their skills at broaching the topic, or have difficulty incorporating the conversations into their clinical workflow. In multiple studies, timely discussions about serious illness care goals, however, have been associated with enhanced goal-consistent care, improved quality of life, and positive family outcomes without an increase in patient distress or anxiety. In this special feature article, we will (1) identify the barriers to serious illness conversations in the dialysis population, (2) review best practices in and specific approaches to conducting serious illness conversations, and (3) offer solutions to overcome barriers as well as practical advice, including specific language and tools, to implement serious illness conversations in the dialysis population.

  4. Solar energy conversion using surface plasmons for broadband energy transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    A new strategy for efficient solar energy conversion based on parallel processing with surface plasmons is introduced. The approach is unique in identifying: (1) a broadband carrier with suitable range for energy transport, and (2) a technique to extract more energy from the more energetic photons, without sequential losses or unique materials for each frequency band. The aim is to overcome the fundamental losses associated with the broad solar spectrum and to achieve a higher level of spectrum splitting than has been possible in semiconductor systems.

  5. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  6. Learning through Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia R.; Klein, Adria F.; Pinnell, Gay Su

    1996-01-01

    Through teacher-child conversation, experts use oral language to help novices take on more complex tasks; and Reading Recovery children, who are obviously having difficulty with school-based learning, are especially in need of significant conversations with adults. Reading and writing processes are supported through conversation with Reading…

  7. NGL data conversion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Masahiro; Horiuchi, Nobuyasu

    2005-06-01

    We are developing a NGL data conversion system for EPL, for LEEPL, and for EBDW, which is based on our established photomask data conversion system, PATACON PC-cluster. For EPL data conversion, it has SF division, Complementary division, Stitching, Proximity effect correction, Alignment mark insertion, EB stepper control data creation, and Mask inspection data creation. For LEEPL data conversion, it has Pattern checking, Complementary division, Stitching, Stress distortion correction, Alignment mark insertion, and Mask inspection data creation. For EB direct-writing data conversion, it has Proximity effect correction and Extraction of aperture pattern for cell projection exposure.

  8. Iterated multidimensional wave conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Brizard, A. J.; Tracy, E. R.; Johnston, D.; Kaufman, A. N.; Richardson, A. S.; Zobin, N.

    2011-12-23

    Mode conversion can occur repeatedly in a two-dimensional cavity (e.g., the poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak). We report on two novel concepts that allow for a complete and global visualization of the ray evolution under iterated conversions. First, iterated conversion is discussed in terms of ray-induced maps from the two-dimensional conversion surface to itself (which can be visualized in terms of three-dimensional rooms). Second, the two-dimensional conversion surface is shown to possess a symplectic structure derived from Dirac constraints associated with the two dispersion surfaces of the interacting waves.

  9. Hemicellulose conversion by anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Christopher, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The digestibility of an aquatic biomass (water hyacinth), a land-based biomass (Coastal Bermuda grass), and a biomass-waste blend (a mixture of hyacinth, grass, MSW, and sludge) under various digestion conditions was studied. Anaerobic digestion of hemicellulose consists of the steps of enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose to glucans, mannans, galactans, xylans, and arabans, and then to simple hexose and pentose sugars; production of C/sub 2/ and higher fatty acids from the simple sugars; conversion of higher fatty acids to acetate; and finally, production of methane and CO/sub 2/ from acetate, and CO/sub 2/ and hydrogen. The conversion of hemicellulose was higher under mesophilic conditions than those of cellulose or protein for all biomass test feeds, probably because the hemicellulose structure was more vulnerable to enzymatic attack than that of the lignocellulosic component. Cellulose conversion efficiencies at the mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures were about the same. However, hemicellulose was converted at a much lower efficiency than cellulose during thermophilic digestion - a situation that was the reverse of that observed at the mesophilic temperature. Cellulose was utilized in preference to hemicellulose during mesophilic digestion of nitrogen-supplemented Bermuda grass. It was speculated that Bermuda grass cellulose was converted at a higher efficiency than hemicellulose in the presence of external nitrogen because the metabolism of the breakdown product (glucose) of cellulose requires the least investment of enzymes and energy.

  10. Condenser design for AMTEC power conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Christopher J.

    1991-01-01

    The condenser and the electrodes are the two elements of an alkali metal thermal-to-electric conversion (AMTEC) cell which most greatly affect the energy conversion performance. A condenser is described which accomplishes two critical functions in an AMTEC cell: management of the fluid under microgravity conditions and optimization of conversion efficiency. The first function is achieved via the use of a controlled surface shape, along with drainage grooves and arteries to collect the fluid. Capillary forces manage the fluid in microgravity and dominate hydrostatic effects on the ground so the device is ground-testable. The second function is achieved via a smooth film of highly reflective liquid sodium on the condensing surface, resulting in minimization of parasitic heat losses due to radiation heat transfer. Power conversion efficiencies of 25 percent to 30 percent are estimated with this condenser using present technology for the electrodes.

  11. Frequency conversion with nonlinear graphene photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chuantong; Huang, Beiju; Mao, Xurui; Zhang, Zanyun; Zhang, Zan; Geng, Zhaoxin; Xue, Ping; Chen, Hongda

    2017-03-23

    Frequency conversion with nonlinear electronic components, a common approach for signal processing required in various communication applications, has found its operation bandwidth bottleneck due to the limited carrier mobility of the traditional materials. Meanwhile, fiber-optics communications are playing a significant role in communication services due to their excellent signal transmission properties. However, the transmitted optical signals had to be converted to electrical signals with photodetectors before frequency conversion was performed through conventional electronic devices, which make this conversion system very complex and costly. Hence, to develop a compact device that can achieve the photodetection and frequency conversion functions simultaneously is critical and significative. Here, we have proposed a novel concept for frequency conversion and demonstrated a nonlinear graphene photodetector based frequency converter that performs frequency conversion from optical signals directly. With this new concept, a frequency doubling signal at 4 GHz was obtained from a 2 GHz intensity-modulated optical signal. Moreover, using a 10 MHz intensity-modulated optical signal and another 3 GHz intensity-modulated optical signal, we show the frequency up-conversion to 3 ± 0.01 GHz. In particular, the frequency down-conversion to 100 MHz was achieved successfully by using a 2 GHz intensity-modulated optical signal and another 2.1 GHz intensity-modulated optical signal. Considering the broadband optical absorption, strong saturable absorption, high carrier mobility, and short photogenerated carrier lifetime of the graphene material, graphene photodetectors have the potential to achieve the frequency conversion of millimeter-wave band, which will open promising prospects in the domain of microwave photonics for next-gen communication systems.

  12. NASA Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology NRA Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The focus of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Development program is aimed at developing nuclear power and technologies that would improve the effectiveness of space science missions. The Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology (RPCT) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) is an important mechanism through which research and technology activities are supported in the Advanced Power Conversion Research and Technology project of the Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Development program. The purpose of the RPCT NRA is to advance the development of radioisotope power conversion technologies to provide higher efficiencies and specific powers than existing systems. These advances would enable a factor of two to four decrease in the amount of fuel and a reduction of waste heat required to generate electrical power, and thus could result in more cost effective science missions for NASA. The RPCT NRA selected advanced RPS power conversion technology research and development proposals in the following three areas: innovative RPS power conversion research, RPS power conversion technology development in a nominal 100 W(sub e) scale; and, milliwatt/multi-watt RPS (mWRPS) power conversion research. Ten RPCT NRA contracts were awarded in 2003 in the areas of Brayton, Stirling, thermoelectric (TE), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion technologies. This paper will provide an overview of the RPCT NRA, a summary of the power conversion technologies approaches being pursued, and a brief digest of first year accomplishments.

  13. NASA Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology NRA Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The focus of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Development program is aimed at developing nuclear power and technologies that would improve the effectiveness of space science missions. The Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology (RPCT) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) is an important mechanism through which research and technology activities are supported in the Advanced Power Conversion Research and Technology project of the Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Development program. The purpose of the RPCT NRA is to advance the development of radioisotope power conversion technologies to provide higher efficiencies and specific powers than existing systems. These advances would enable a factor of 2 to 4 decrease in the amount of fuel and a reduction of waste heat required to generate electrical power, and thus could result in more cost effective science missions for NASA. The RPCT NRA selected advanced RPS power conversion technology research and development proposals in the following three areas: innovative RPS power conversion research, RPS power conversion technology development in a nominal 100We scale; and, milliwatt/multi-watt RPS (mWRPS) power conversion research. Ten RPCT NRA contracts were awarded in 2003 in the areas of Brayton, Stirling, thermoelectric (TE), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion technologies. This paper will provide an overview of the RPCT NRA, a summary of the power conversion technologies approaches being pursued, and a brief digest of first year accomplishments.

  14. 1982 annual report: Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program's activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1982. The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate scientific data and fundamental biomass converison process information that, in the long term, could lead to establishment of cost effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels and petrochemical substitutes. The goal of the program is to improve the data base for biomass conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and exploring those parameters which are critical to these conversion processes. To achieve this objective and goal, the Thermochemical Conversion Program is sponsoring high-risk, long-term research with high payoff potential which industry is not currently sponsoring, nor is likely to support. Thermochemical conversion processes employ elevated temperatures to convert biomass materials into energy. Process examples include: combustion to produce heat, steam, electricity, direct mechanical power; gasification to produce fuel gas or synthesis gases for the production of methanol and hydrocarbon fuels; direct liquefaction to produce heavy oils or distillates; and pyrolysis to produce a mixture of oils, fuel gases, and char. A bibliography of publications for 1982 is included.

  15. Conversing with Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    I/NET, Inc., is making the dream of natural human-computer conversation a practical reality. Through a combination of advanced artificial intelligence research and practical software design, I/NET has taken the complexity out of developing advanced, natural language interfaces. Conversational capabilities like pronoun resolution, anaphora and ellipsis processing, and dialog management that were once available only in the laboratory can now be brought to any application with any speech recognition system using I/NET s conversational engine middleware.

  16. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  17. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.

  18. Reciprocal Effects between Adolescent Externalizing Problems and Measures of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Schütte, Kerstin; Taskinen, Päivi; Köller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Student misbehavior is a pervasive problem and may seriously affect academic achievement. Previous research hints at different effects depending on whether achievement tests or achievement judgments are used as academic outcomes. Previous research also indicates that low achievement can conversely contribute to problem behavior and that low…

  19. Conversations in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardige, Betty; Segal, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    In this article, Bardige and Segal discuss how teachers can help a toddler's language and literacy development through conversation. They suggest an array of tactics, from asking young children open-ended, intellectually challenging questions to going beyond the here and now when carrying on a conversation. Research has shown that the practice of…

  20. Recording Conversations in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckman, Ivan B.; Koerner, Thomas J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    In general, because of varying federal and state legislation and a paucity of court decisions, the law governing the recording of conversations is in considerable flux. School personnel desiring to record conversations in school without the consent or knowledge of all parties involved must proceed with considerable caution. (Author)

  1. Energy conversion alternatives study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  2. Assessment through Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Danling; Lamme, Linda L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents conversations with parents, teachers, and children around portfolios that provide a better picture of a child's growth and understanding than standardized test scores ever can. Concludes that the involvement of students, teachers, and parents in conversation about children's literacy development brings the potential of a common vision and…

  3. NUCLEAR CONVERSION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-09-13

    A nuclear conversion apparatus is described which comprises a body of neutron moderator, tubes extending therethrough, uranium in the tubes, a fluid- circulating system associated with the tubes, a thorium-containing fluid coolant in the system and tubes, and means for withdrawing the fluid from the system and replacing it in the system whereby thorium conversion products may be recovered.

  4. Content for Conversation Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that a good strategy for helping English language learners to develop communicative competence in English is by pairing them with native English speakers. In such conversation programs, conversation partners should be provided with topics and activities that incorporate the goals, interests, and experiences of the learners. Recommends…

  5. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  6. Prediction of conversion to psychosis: review and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Dylan G.; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent findings on predictors of conversion to psychosis among youth deemed at ultra high risk (UHR) based on the presence of subpsychotic-intensity symptoms or genetic risk for psychosis and a recent decline in functioning. Although transition rates differ between studies, the most well powered studies have observed rates of conversion to full psychosis in the 30–40% range over 2–3 years of follow-up. Across studies, severity of subthreshold positive symptoms, poorer social functioning, and genetic risk for schizophrenia appear to be consistent predictors of conversion to psychosis, with algorithms combining these indicators achieving positive predictive power ≥ 80%. Nevertheless, a substantial fraction of UHR cases do not convert to psychosis. Recent work indicates that UHR cases who present with lower levels of negative symptoms and higher levels of social functioning are more likely to recover symptomatically and no longer meet criteria for an at-risk mental state. In general, it appears that about 1/3 of UHR cases convert to psychosis, about 1/3 do not convert but remain symptomatic and functionally impaired, and about 1/3 recover symptomatically and functionally. Continued efforts to detect early risk for psychosis are critical for informing early intervention and provide increasing promise of delaying or even preventing the onset of psychosis. PMID:22286564

  7. Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yongchun; Periana, Roy; Chen, Weiqun; van Duin, Adri; Nielsen, Robert; Shuler, Patrick; Ma, Qisheng; Blanco, Mario; Li, Zaiwei; Oxgaard, Jonas; Cheng, Jihong; Cheung, Sam; Pudar, Sanja

    2009-09-28

    This is the Final Report of the five-year project Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes (DE-FC36-04GO14276, July 1, 2004- June 30, 2009), in which we present our major accomplishments with detailed descriptions of our experimental and theoretical efforts. Upon the successful conduction of this project, we have followed our proposed breakdown work structure completing most of the technical tasks. Finally, we have developed and demonstrated several optimized homogenously catalytic methane conversion systems involving applications of novel ionic liquids, which present much more superior performance than the Catalytica system (the best-to-date system) in terms of three times higher reaction rates and longer catalysts lifetime and much stronger resistance to water deactivation. We have developed in-depth mechanistic understandings on the complicated chemistry involved in homogenously catalytic methane oxidation as well as developed the unique yet effective experimental protocols (reactors, analytical tools and screening methodologies) for achieving a highly efficient yet economically feasible and environmentally friendly catalytic methane conversion system. The most important findings have been published, patented as well as reported to DOE in this Final Report and our 20 Quarterly Reports.

  8. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations.

  9. ATR technique, an appropriate method for determining the degree of conversion in dental giomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prejmerean, Cristina; Prodan, Doina; Vlassa, Mihaela; Streza, Mihaela; Buruiana, Tinca; Colceriu, Loredana; Prejmerean, Vasile; Cuc, Stanca; Moldovan, Marioara

    2016-12-01

    Dental light-curing giomers were developed to combine the favourable properties of diacrylic resin composites (DRCs) and glass-ionomer cements (GICs) in a single material and to eliminate their inherent drawbacks. Giomers are characterized by their aesthetic appearance, high mechanical properties, adhesion to dental tissues as well as fluoride release and recharge abilities. The qualities of the giomers are greatly influenced by the level of conversion of the component resins. Infrared spectroscopy is one of the most largely used techniques for the determination of the degree of conversion in resin-based dental materials. However different results were obtained due to the performances of the used methods. The present work presents the determination of conversion degree in a series of dental copolymers and their corresponding giomers using transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and an attenuated total reflection technique (ATR) technique, respectively, the main aim being the study of the influence of the materials composition and of the light curing modes upon the achieved conversion in the cured giomers. Beautifil II commercial giomer was used as a control. A halogen lamp and a diode-blue LED lamp were used for the curing of the materials. The results showed that the composition of the resins greatly influenced the conversion. The highest conversions (up to 79%) were obtained in the case of the experimental giomers which contained the experimental Bis-GMA urethane analogue, followed by the Beautifil II giomer (61%) and experimental giomers based on commercial Bis-GMA (up to 50%), respectively. The resins light-cured by using the diode-blue LED lamp presented slightly higher conversions than the resins cured by halogen lamp. The study demonstrates the possibility to evaluate easily and reproducibly the conversion in light-curing composite materials with complex chemical composition and structure, particularly in the case of giomers by using the

  10. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  11. Responsive Teaching through Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Cheryl; Garnett, Susan; Tabatabai, Simeen

    2011-01-01

    Conversations are the heart of responsive teaching. By talking with struggling learners, teachers can find out about their interests in order to design effective, personalized instruction; build relationships; work through complexities in teaching and learning; and celebrate successes.

  12. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOEpatents

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  13. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    PubMed

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  14. Formation of alcohol conversion catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2001-01-01

    The method of the present invention involves a composition containing an intimate mixture of (a) metal oxide support particles and (b) a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, its method of manufacture, and its method of use for converting alcohols to aldehydes. During the conversion process, catalytically active metal oxide from the discrete catalytic metal oxide particles migrates to the oxide support particles and forms a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on the oxide support particle to form a catalyst composition having a higher specific activity than the admixed particle composition.

  15. Syngas Conversion to Hydrocarbon Fuels through Mixed Alcohol Intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Li, Jinjing; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2013-05-13

    Synthesis gas (syngas) can be used to synthesize a variety of fuels and chemicals. Domestic transportation and military operational interests have driven continued focus on domestic syngas-based fuels production. Liquid transportation fuels may be made from syngas via four basic processes: 1) higher alcohols, 2) Fischer-Tropsch (FT), 3) methanol-to-gasoline (MTG), and 4) methanol-to-olefins (MTO) and olefins-to-gasoline/distillate (MOGD). Compared to FT and higher alcohols, MTG and MTO-MOGD have received less attention in recent years. Due to the high capital cost of these synthetic fuel plants, the production cost of the finished fuel cannot compete with petroleum-derived fuel. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has recently evaluated one way to potentially reduce capital cost and overall production cost for MTG by combining the methanol and MTG syntheses in a single reactor. The concept consists of mixing the conventional MTG catalyst (i.e. HZSM-5) with an alcohol synthesis catalyst. It was found that a methanol synthesis catalyst, stable at high temperature (i.e. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3) [1], when mixed with ZSM-5, was active for syngas conversion. Relatively high syngas conversion can be achieved as the equilibrium-driven conversion limitations for methanol and dimethyl ether are removed as they are intermediates to the final hydrocarbon product. However, selectivity control was difficult to achieve as formation of undesirable durene and light hydrocarbons was problematic [2]. The objective of the present study was thus to evaluate other potential composite catalyst systems and optimize the reactions conditions for the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon fuels, through the use of mixed alcohol intermediates. Mixed alcohols are of interest as they have recently been reported to produce higher yields of gasoline compared to methanol [3]. 1. Lebarbier, V.M., Dagle, R.A., Kovarik, L., Lizarazo-Adarme, J.A., King, D.L., Palo, D.R., Catalyst Science & Technology, 2012, 2

  16. Conversion of Biomass Syngas to DME Using a Microchannel Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jianli; Wang, Yong; Cao, Chunshe; Elliott, Douglas C.; Stevens, Don J.; White, James F.

    2005-03-01

    The capability of a microchannel reactor for direct synthesis of dimethylether (DME) from biomass syngas was explored. The reactor was operated in conjunction with a hybrid catalyst system consisting of methanol synthesis and dehydration catalysts, and the influence of reaction parameters on syngas conversion was investigated. The activities of different dehydration catalysts were compared under DME synthesis conditions. Reaction temperature and pressure exhibited similar positive effects on DME formation. A catalytic stability test of the hybrid catalyst system was performed for 880 hours, during which CO conversion only decreased from 88% to 81%. In the microchannel reactor, the catalyst deactivation rate appeared to be much slower than in a tubular fixed-bed reactor tested for comparison. Test results also indicated that the dehydration reaction rate and the water depletion rate via a water-gas-shift reaction should be compatible in order to achieve high selectivity to DME. Using the microchannel reactor, it was possible to achieve a space time yield almost three times higher than commercially demonstrated performance results. A side-by-side comparison indicated that the heat removal capability of the microchannel reactor was at least six times greater than that of a commercial slurry reactor under similar reaction conditions.

  17. Fabrication of stable polyaniline foams and their photoelectric conversion behaviors.

    PubMed

    Heng, Liping; Wang, Xinyi; Zhai, Jin; Sun, Zhongwei; Jiang, Lei

    2008-08-04

    We report a foaming-polymerization method to prepare stable polyaniline (PANI)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) foams. The formation mechanism of the foam materials is investigated and the photoelectric conversion properties of PANI/PVA foams are studied in detail. The enhancement of photoelectric conversion behavior in foams is achieved, which has potential application in solar cells and nano-electronics devices.

  18. Enzymatic conversion of sucrose to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.; Orr, M.

    1998-11-01

    The enzymatic conversion of sugars to hydrogen could be a promising method for alternative fuel production. Maple tree sap is a source of environmental sugar (e.g., sucrose) that has the potential to be converted into hydrogen using the enzymes invertase, glucose dehydrogenase (GDH), hydrogenase, and glucose isomerase (GI) and the cofactor NADP{sup +}/NADPH. The kinetics of hydrogen production have been studied, and optimal conditions for hydrogen production are described. At low initial sucrose concentrations, in the absence of glucose isomerase, stoichiometric yields of mol of H{sub 2}/mol of sucrose were achieved. At higher sucrose concentrations, the yield of hydrogen declined so that at an initial sucrose concentration of 292 mM only 7% yield of hydrogen was obtained. The reason for this low yield was studied and shown not to be caused by enzyme inactivation or a pH drop during the reaction but due to an instability of the cofactor NADP{sup +}. Although gluconic and inhibited both NADPH production and oxidation of GDH and hydrogenase, respectively, it was not the major cause of NADP{sup +} instability. Fructose was also shown to be converted to hydrogen if GI was present in the reaction mixture. Also, by starting with sucrose, 1.34 mol of H{sub 2}/mol of sucrose was obtained if GI was present in the reaction mixture.

  19. Nonlinear frequency conversion effect in a one-dimensional graphene-based photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicharn, S.; Buranasiri, P.

    2015-07-01

    In this research, the nonlinear frequency conversion effect based on four-wave mixing (FWM) principle in a onedimensional graphene-based photonics crystal (1D-GPC) has been investigated numerically. The 1D-GPC structure is composed of two periodically alternating material layers, which are graphene-silicon dioxide bilayer system and silicon membrane. Since, the third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) of bilayer system is hundred time higher than pure silicon dioxide layer, so the enhancement of FWM response can be achieved inside the structure with optimizing photon energy being much higher than a chemical potential level (μ) of graphene sheet. In addition, the conversion efficiencies of 1DGPC structure are compared with chalcogenide based photonic structure for showing that 1D-GPC structure can enhance nonlinear effect by a factor of 100 above the chalcogenide based structure with the same structure length.

  20. Time Management and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyril, A. Vences

    2015-01-01

    The only thing, which can't be changed by man, is time. One cannot get back time lost or gone Nothing can be substituted for time. Time management is actually self management. The skills that people need to manage others are the same skills that are required to manage themselves. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relation between…

  1. Isomolybdate conversion coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minevski, Zoran (Inventor); Maxey, Jason (Inventor); Nelson, Carl (Inventor); Eylem, Cahit (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A conversion coating solution and process forms a stable and corrosion-resistant layer on metal substrates or layers or, more preferably, on a boehmite layer or other base conversion coating. The conversion coating process involves contacting the substrate, layer or coating with an aqueous alkali metal isomolybdate solution in order to convert the surface of the substrate, layer or coating to a stable conversion coating. The aqueous alkali metal molybdates are selected from sodium molybdate (Na.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), lithium molybdate (Li.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), potassium molybdate (K.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), or combinations thereof, with the most preferred alkali metal molybdate being sodium molybdate. The concentration of alkali metal molybdates in the solution is preferably less than 5% by weight. In addition to the alkali metal molybdates, the conversion coating solution may include alkaline metal passivators selected from lithium nitrate (LiNO.sub.3), sodium nitrate (NaNO.sub.3), ammonia nitrate (NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3), and combinations thereof; lithium chloride, potassium hexafluorozirconate (K.sub.2 ZrF.sub.6) or potassium hexafluorotitanate (K.sub.2 TiF.sub.6).

  2. Laser energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1989-01-01

    The conversion of laser energy to other, more useful, forms is an important element of any space power transmission system employing lasers. In general the user, at the receiving sight, will require the energy in a form other than laser radiation. In particular, conversion to rocket power and electricity are considered to be two major areas where one must consider various conversion techniques. Three systems (photovoltaic cells, MHD generators, and gas turbines) have been identified as the laser-to-electricity conversion systems that appear to meet most of the criteria for a space-based system. The laser thruster also shows considerable promise as a space propulsion system. At this time one cannot predict which of the three laser-to-electric converters will be best suited to particular mission needs. All three systems have some particular advantages, as well as disadvantages. It would be prudent to continue research on all three systems, as well as the laser rocket thruster. Research on novel energy conversion systems, such as the optical rectenna and the reverse free-electron laser, should continue due to their potential for high payoff.

  3. Synchronous generator wind energy conversion control system

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, A.L.R.; Lima, A.M.N.; Jacobina, C.B.; Simoes, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the performance evaluation and the design of the control system of a WECS (Wind Energy Conversion System) that employs a synchronous generator based on its digital simulation. The WECS discussed in this paper is connected to the utility grid through two Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) power converters. The structure of the proposed WECS enables us to achieve high performance energy conversion by: (i) maximizing the wind energy capture and (ii) minimizing the reactive power flowing between the grid and the synchronous generator. 8 refs., 19 figs.

  4. Hello, Who is Calling?: Can Words Reveal the Social Nature of Conversations?

    PubMed

    Stark, Anthony; Shafran, Izhak; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to infer the social nature of conversations from their content automatically. To place this work in context, our motivation stems from the need to understand how social disengagement affects cognitive decline or depression among older adults. For this purpose, we collected a comprehensive and naturalistic corpus comprising of all the incoming and outgoing telephone calls from 10 subjects over the duration of a year. As a first step, we learned a binary classifier to filter out business related conversation, achieving an accuracy of about 85%. This classification task provides a convenient tool to probe the nature of telephone conversations. We evaluated the utility of openings and closing in differentiating personal calls, and find that empirical results on a large corpus do not support the hypotheses by Schegloff and Sacks that personal conversations are marked by unique closing structures. For classifying different types of social relationships such as family vs other, we investigated features related to language use (entropy), hand-crafted dictionary (LIWC) and topics learned using unsupervised latent Dirichlet models (LDA). Our results show that the posteriors over topics from LDA provide consistently higher accuracy (60-81%) compared to LIWC or language use features in distinguishing different types of conversations.

  5. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-02-26

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  6. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  7. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  8. Power conversion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Haigh, R E

    1998-01-01

    The Power Conservation Technologies thrust area supports initiatives that enhance the core competencies of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Engineering Directorate in the area of solid-state power electronics. Through partnerships with LLNL programs, projects focus on the development of enabling technologies for existing and emerging programs that have unique power conversion requirements. This year, a multi-disciplinary effort was supported which demonstrated solid-state, high voltage generation by using a dense, monolithic photovoltaic array. This effort builds upon Engineering's strengths in the core technology areas of power conversion, photonics, and microtechnologies.

  9. Electromagnetic wave energy conversion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. L.; Callahan, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Known electromagnetic wave absorbing structures found in nature were first studied for clues of how one might later design large area man-made radiant-electric converters. This led to the study of the electro-optics of insect dielectric antennae. Insights were achieved into how these antennae probably operate in the infrared 7-14um range. EWEC theoretical models and relevant cases were concisely formulated and justified for metal and dielectric absorber materials. Finding the electromagnetic field solutions to these models is a problem not yet solved. A rough estimate of losses in metal, solid dielectric, and hollow dielectric waveguides indicates future radiant-electric EWEC research should aim toward dielectric materials for maximum conversion efficiency. It was also found that the absorber bandwidth is a theoretical limitation on radiant-electric conversion efficiency. Ideally, the absorbers' wavelength would be centered on the irradiating spectrum and have the same bandwith as the irradiating wave. The EWEC concept appears to have a valid scientific basis, but considerable more research is needed before it is thoroughly understood, especially for the complex randomly polarized, wide band, phase incoherent spectrum of the sun. Specific recommended research areas are identified.

  10. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

  11. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    Litigation in 1987 was very brisk with an increase in the number of higher education cases reviewed. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under four major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining and denial of employee benefits; (3)…

  12. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

  13. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Laurence W.; Wedlock, Eldon D., Jr.

    Courts have been consistently reluctant to interfere with governing boards' powers to control the administration of institutions of higher education. This deference seems to be based on the belief that board expertise makes it significantly more qualified than are the courts to make the necessary administrative decisions. Uncritical deference by…

  14. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all

  15. Conversion of laparoscopic colorectal resection for cancer: What is the impact on short-term outcomes and survival?

    PubMed Central

    Allaix, Marco E; Furnée, Edgar J B; Mistrangelo, Massimiliano; Arezzo, Alberto; Morino, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic resection for colon and rectal cancer is associated with quicker return of bowel function, reduced postoperative morbidity rates and shorter length of hospital stay compared to open surgery, with no differences in long-term survival. Conversion to open surgery is reported in up to 30% of patients enrolled in randomized control trials comparing open and laparoscopic colorectal resection for cancer. In this review, reasons for conversion are anatomical-related factors, disease-related-factors and surgeon-related factors. Body mass index, local tumour extension and co-morbidities are independent predictors of conversion. The current evidence has shown that patients with converted resection for colon cancer have similar outcomes compared to patients undergoing a laparoscopic completed or open resection. The few studies that have assessed the outcomes after conversion of laparoscopic rectal resection reported significantly higher rates of complications and longer length of hospital stay in converted patients compared to laparoscopically treated patients. No definitive conclusions can be drawn when converted and open rectal resections are compared. Early and pre-emptive conversion appears to have more favourable outcomes than reactive conversion; however, further large studies are needed to better define the optimal timing of conversion. With regard to long-term oncologic outcome, overall and disease-free survival in the case of conversion in laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery seems to be worse than those achieved in patients in whom resection was successfully completed by laparoscopy. Although a worse long-term oncologic outcome has been suggested, it remains difficult to draw a proper conclusion due to the heterogeneity of the long-term outcomes as well as the inclusion of both colon and rectal cancer patients in most of the studies. Therefore, we discuss the currently available evidence of the impact of conversion in laparoscopic resection for colon

  16. Polarization conversion in cubic Raman crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Aaron; Sabella, Alexander; Mildren, Richard P.

    2017-02-01

    Nonlinear conversion of unpolarized beams to lower frequencies is generally inefficient in c(2) materials, as it is challenging to achieve phase-matching for input ordinary and extraordinary beams simultaneously in the normal dispersion regime. Here, we show that cubic Raman crystals having doubly and triply degenerate (E and F type) modes provide a method for efficient nonlinear frequency downconversion of an unpolarized beam and yield a linearly polarized output state. Using Mueller calculus, optimal crystal directions for such polarization conversion are determined. Using diamond, an example of an F-class Raman crystal, we have verified that such conversion is possible with near quantum-defect-limited slope efficiency and a linear polarization contrast of more than 23.9 dB.

  17. Polarization conversion in cubic Raman crystals

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Aaron; Sabella, Alexander; Mildren, Richard P.

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear conversion of unpolarized beams to lower frequencies is generally inefficient in c(2) materials, as it is challenging to achieve phase-matching for input ordinary and extraordinary beams simultaneously in the normal dispersion regime. Here, we show that cubic Raman crystals having doubly and triply degenerate (E and F type) modes provide a method for efficient nonlinear frequency downconversion of an unpolarized beam and yield a linearly polarized output state. Using Mueller calculus, optimal crystal directions for such polarization conversion are determined. Using diamond, an example of an F-class Raman crystal, we have verified that such conversion is possible with near quantum-defect-limited slope efficiency and a linear polarization contrast of more than 23.9 dB. PMID:28169327

  18. Energy-Level Modulation of Small-Molecule Electron Acceptors to Achieve over 12% Efficiency in Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Sunsun; Ye, Long; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhang, Shaoqing; Mukherjee, Subhrangsu; Ade, Harald; Hou, Jianhui

    2016-11-01

    Fine energy-level modulations of small-molecule acceptors (SMAs) are realized via subtle chemical modifications on strong electron-withdrawing end-groups. The two new SMAs (IT-M and IT-DM) end-capped by methyl-modified dicycanovinylindan-1-one exhibit upshifted lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) levels, and hence higher open-circuit voltages can be observed in the corresponding devices. Finally, a top power conversion efficiency of 12.05% is achieved.

  19. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  20. Teaching Conversation with Trivia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a rationale for utilizing trivia to teach conversation. Shows how trivia-based materials fit into communicative language teaching approaches and provides examples of trivia-based activities and explains how to use them in the classroom. (Author/VWL)

  1. Clinical Linguistics: Conversational Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference…

  2. Conversations and Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korpan, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at how a series of conversations contributed to the development of a newly formed role at the University of Victoria--Teaching Assistant Consultants (TACs). TACs act as departmental mentors for teaching assistants (TAs) in their respective departments, charged with providing support in the form of discipline-specific workshops…

  3. Mechanochemical Energy Conversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pines, E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the thermodynamics of macromolecular systems, including theories and experiments of cyclic energy conversion with rubber and collagen as working substances. Indicates that an early introduction into the concept of chemical potential and solution thermodynamics is made possible through the study of the cyclic processes. (CC)

  4. Ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, W.H.

    1983-03-17

    A brief explanation of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) concept and an estimate of the amount of energy that can be produced from the ocean resource without introducing environmental concerns are presented. Use of the OTEC system to generate electric power and products which can replace fossil fuels is shown. The OTEC program status and its prospects for the future are discussed.

  5. Electromechanical Energy Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Wilbur R.

    This programed text on electromechanical energy conversion (motors and generators) was developed under contract with the U.S. Office of Education as Number 12 in a series of materials for use in an electrical engineering sequence. It is intended to be used in conjunction with other materials and with other short texts in the series. (DH)

  6. Conversion or New Building?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Phil

    1970-01-01

    Examined first is "the overall problem of housing a TV studio complex to see what particular sorts of buildings are required and how they must be related," and then considered are "the relative merits and particular problems of new studio building or a conversion." (LS)

  7. Planetary image conversion task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. D.; Stanley, C. L.; Laughlin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Planetary Image Conversion Task group processed 12,500 magnetic tapes containing raw imaging data from JPL planetary missions and produced an image data base in consistent format on 1200 fully packed 6250-bpi tapes. The output tapes will remain at JPL. A copy of the entire tape set was delivered to US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. A secondary task converted computer datalogs, which had been stored in project specific MARK IV File Management System data types and structures, to flat-file, text format that is processable on any modern computer system. The conversion processing took place at JPL's Image Processing Laboratory on an IBM 370-158 with existing software modified slightly to meet the needs of the conversion task. More than 99% of the original digital image data was successfully recovered by the conversion task. However, processing data tapes recorded before 1975 was destructive. This discovery is of critical importance to facilities responsible for maintaining digital archives since normal periodic random sampling techniques would be unlikely to detect this phenomenon, and entire data sets could be wiped out in the act of generating seemingly positive sampling results. Reccomended follow-on activities are also included.

  8. Evaluating Energy Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    Devices that convert solar radiation directly into storable chemical or electrical energy, have characteristic energy absorption spectrum; specifically, each of these devices has energy threshold. The conversion efficiency of generalized system that emcompasses all threshold devices is analyzed, resulting in family of curves for devices of various threshold energies operating at different temperatures.

  9. A Conversation about Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.; Mao, Minnie Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In the spirit of the Lindau Meeting, we present a dialogue between a Nobel laureate and a young researcher. This interchange started online, where it continues to unfold. Here is a digest of this conversation, which has developed across time and space.

  10. Leadership is a conversation.

    PubMed

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate.

  11. Solar energy conversion.

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S.

    2008-03-01

    If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience. The Sun has the enormous untapped potential to supply our growing energy needs. The barrier to greater use of the solar resource is its high cost relative to the cost of fossil fuels, although the disparity will decrease with the rising prices of fossil fuels and the rising costs of mitigating their impact on the environment and climate. The cost of solar energy is directly related to the low conversion efficiency, the modest energy density of solar radiation, and the costly materials currently required. The development of materials and methods to improve solar energy conversion is primarily a scientific challenge: Breakthroughs in fundamental understanding ought to enable marked progress. There is plenty of room for improvement, since photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for inexpensive organic and dye-sensitized solar cells are currently about 10% or less, the conversion efficiency of photosynthesis is less than 1%, and the best solar thermal efficiency is 30%. The theoretical limits suggest that we can do much better. Solar conversion is a young science. Its major growth began in the 1970s, spurred by the oil crisis that highlighted the pervasive importance of energy to our personal, social, economic, and political lives. In contrast, fossil-fuel science has developed over more than 250 years, stimulated by the Industrial Revolution and the promise of abundant fossil fuels. The science of thermodynamics, for example, is intimately intertwined with the development of the steam engine. The Carnot cycle, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and entropy all played starring roles in the development of thermodynamics and the technology of heat engines. Solar-energy science faces

  12. Institutional Climate and Minority Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C.

    This paper discusses ways that institutions can change the higher education system and environment to accommodate more minority students. The first section, "Institutional Climate and Minority Achievement," presents an overview of the problems facing colleges and universities with respect to recruiting and retaining minority students. In the…

  13. Teacher Dispositions and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Kathleen Adams

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to close the achievement gap between students of minority and majority populations and between students in higher and lower economic circumstances, the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) added instruction and evaluation of teacher dispositions to its requirements for credentialing prospective teachers.…

  14. Conversion of biomass to selected chemical products.

    PubMed

    Gallezot, Pierre

    2012-02-21

    This critical review provides a survey illustrated by recent references of different strategies to achieve a sustainable conversion of biomass to bioproducts. Because of the huge number of chemical products that can be potentially manufactured, a selection of starting materials and targeted chemicals has been done. Also, thermochemical conversion processes such as biomass pyrolysis or gasification as well as the synthesis of biofuels were not considered. The synthesis of chemicals by conversion of platform molecules obtained by depolymerisation and fermentation of biopolymers is presently the most widely envisioned approach. Successful catalytic conversion of these building blocks into intermediates, specialties and fine chemicals will be examined. However, the platform molecule value chain is in competition with well-optimised, cost-effective synthesis routes from fossil resources to produce chemicals that have already a market. The literature covering alternative value chains whereby biopolymers are converted in one or few steps to functional materials will be analysed. This approach which does not require the use of isolated, pure chemicals is well adapted to produce high tonnage products, such as paper additives, paints, resins, foams, surfactants, lubricants, and plasticisers. Another objective of the review was to examine critically the green character of conversion processes because using renewables as raw materials does not exempt from abiding by green chemistry principles (368 references).

  15. Task 3.3: Warm Syngas Cleanup and Catalytic Processes for Syngas Conversion to Fuels Subtask 3: Advanced Syngas Conversion to Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Li, J.; Taylor, Charles E.; Wang, Yong; Dagle, Robert A.; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Bao, Xinhe

    2014-03-31

    This collaborative joint research project is in the area of advanced gasification and conversion, within the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)-National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)-Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Memorandum of Understanding. The goal for this subtask is the development of advanced syngas conversion technologies. Two areas of investigation were evaluated: Sorption-Enhanced Synthetic Natural Gas Production from Syngas The conversion of synthetic gas (syngas) to synthetic natural gas (SNG) is typically catalyzed by nickel catalysts performed at moderate temperatures (275 to 325°C). The reaction is highly exothermic and substantial heat is liberated, which can lead to process thermal imbalance and destruction of the catalyst. As a result, conversion per pass is typically limited, and substantial syngas recycle is employed. Commercial methanation catalysts and processes have been developed by Haldor Topsoe, and in some reports, they have indicated that there is a need and opportunity for thermally more robust methanation catalysts to allow for higher per-pass conversion in methanation units. SNG process requires the syngas feed with a higher H2/CO ratio than typically produced from gasification processes. Therefore, the water-gas shift reaction (WGS) will be required to tailor the H2/CO ratio. Integration with CO2 separation could potentially eliminate the need for a separate WGS unit, thereby integrating WGS, methanation, and CO2 capture into one single unit operation and, consequently, leading to improved process efficiency. The SNG process also has the benefit of producing a product stream with high CO2 concentrations, which makes CO2 separation more readily achievable. The use of either adsorbents or membranes that selectively separate the CO2 from the H2 and CO would shift the methanation reaction (by driving WGS for hydrogen production) and greatly improve the overall efficiency and economics of the process. The scope of this

  16. Biological conversion of synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Basu, R.; Johnson, E.R.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    Mass transfer and kinetic studies were carried out for the Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum bacterial systems. R. rubrum is a photosynthetic anaerobic bacterium which catalyzes the biological water gas shift reaction: CO + H[sub 2]0 [yields] CO[sub 2] + H[sub 2]. C. thiosulfatophilum is also a H[sub 2]S and COS to elemental sulfur. The growth of R. rubrum may be satisfactorily carried out at 25[degree] and 30[degree]C, while CO uptake and thus the conversion of CO best occurs at temperatures of either 30[degree], 32[degree] or 34[degree]C. The rate of conversion of COs and H[sub 2]O to CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2]S may be modeled by a first order rate expression. The rate constant at 30[degree]C was found to be 0.243 h[sup [minus]1]. The growth of C. thiosulfatophilum may be modeled in terms of incoming light intensity using a Monod equation: [mu] = [sub 351] + I[sub o]/[sup 0.152]I[sub o]. Comparisons of the growth of R. rubrum and C. thiosulfatophilum shows that the specific growth rate of C. thiosulfatophilum is much higher at a given light intensity.

  17. Conversion disorder in a pediatric transgender patient.

    PubMed

    Orfanelli, Laura; Borkowski, Winslow J

    2006-04-01

    Somatoform disorders are difficult to diagnosis and often present as a neurological illness in pediatric populations. Conversion disorder is the somatoform disorder most commonly seen in children, particularly adolescents, who have anxiety related to sexual behaviors and orientation. In a transgender patient, the risk of conversion disorder is even higher. The patient described in this article presented with multiple neurological symptoms that disappeared after she began presenting herself as a male. There is a significant need for research into somatoform disorders as well as research into the transgender population.

  18. Wind energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  19. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  20. Persuasion Detection in Conversation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    is the first step in developing machine learning systems that can automatically detect persuasion in conversations. This corpus was developed from...requires some form of persuasion. Based on this research, it may be possible to construct a machine learning system that can automatically detect...specific markers, can these markers be learned and identified by annotators? Our research attempted to answer all of these questions by annotating a

  1. Advanced Thermal Conversion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-18

    BAA09-31 3  Figure 1. (a) Energy diagram of the PETE process. Photo -excitation leads to enhanced...photovoltaic cells at 3000x concentration (~38%). As shown in Fig. 2(b), the highest conversion efficiencies are obtained by using photo -cathodes...p-type 4H-SiC (left) and polycrystalline n-type 3C-SiC (right). The fabrication process for p-type devices used bulk p- doped 4H-SiC wafers from

  2. Session: Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, David; LaSala, Raymond J.; Kukacka, Lawrence E.; Bliem, Carl J.; Premuzic, Eugene T.; Weare, John H.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology'' by David Robertson and Raymond J. LaSala; ''Materials for Geothermal Production'' by Lawrence E. Kukacka; ''Supersaturated Turbine Expansions for Binary Geothermal Power Plants'' by Carl J. Bliem; ''Geothermal Waster Treatment Biotechnology: Progress and Advantages to the Utilities'' by Eugen T. Premuzic; and ''Geothermal Brine Chemistry Modeling Program'' by John H. Weare.

  3. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    PubMed

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  4. Direct conversion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massier, P. F.; Bankston, C. P.; Fabris, G.; Kirol, L. D.

    1988-01-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1988 through December 1988. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. In addition, status reviews and assessments are presented for thermomagnetic converter concepts and for thermoelastic converters (Nitinol heat engines). Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic thermophotovoltaic and thermoacoustic; and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems. A tabulated summary of the various systems which have been reviewed thus far has been prepared. Some of the important technical research needs are listed and a schematic of each system is shown.

  5. Coherent Control of Optical Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion in Metasurface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huifang; Kang, Ming; Zhang, Xueqian; Guo, Wengao; Lv, Changgui; Li, Yanfeng; Zhang, Weili; Han, Jiaguang

    2017-02-01

    Efficient control over the conversion of optical angular momentum from spin to orbital form in a metasurface system is achieved. Under coherent symmetric incidence, it can support nearly 100% conversion and unitary output, while it can support 50% conversion with 25% transmittance under one beam incidence.

  6. Conversion of the Forces Mobilization Model (FORCEMOB) from FORTRAN to C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    maintenance and development. Conversion was achieved through a combination of automated translation with the FOR-C tool and human code review and...3 3. Impetus for Code Conversion...This document reports the conversion of the computer code for the Forces Mobilization Model (FORCEMOB), a software program used in the Risk Assessment

  7. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann

  8. Refractory materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C.; Emin, D.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical work of two decades ago adequately explained the transport behavior and effectively guided the development of thermoelectric materials of high conversion efficiencies of conventional semiconductors (e.g., SiGe alloys). The more significant contributions involved the estimaiation of optimum doping concentrations, the reduction of thermal conductivity by solid solution doping and the development of a variety of materials with ZT approx. 1 in the temperature range 300 K to 1200 K. ZT approx. 1 is not a theoretical limitation although, experimentally, values in excess of one were not achieved. Work has continued with emphasis on higher temperature energy conversion. A number of promising materials have been discovered in which it appears that ZT 1 is realizable. These materials are divided into two classes: (1) the rare-earth chalcogenides which behave as itinerant highly-degenerate n-type semiconductors at room-temperature, and (2) the boron-rich borides, which exhibit p-type small-polaronic hopping conductivity.

  9. Refractory materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C.; Emin, D.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical work of two decades ago adequately explained the transport behavior and effectively guided the development of thermoelectric materials of high conversion efficiencies of conventional semiconductors (e.g., SiGe alloys). The more significant contributions involved the estimation of optimum doping concentrations, the reduction of thermal conductivity by solid solution doping and the development of a variety of materials with ZT approx. 1 in the temperature range 300 K to 1200 K. ZT approx. 1 is not a theoretical limitation although, experimentally, values in excess of one were not achieved. Work has continued with emphasis on higher temperature energy conversion. A number of promising materials have been discovered in which it appears that ZT 1 is realizable. These materials are divided into two classes: (1) the rare-earth chalcogenides which behave as itinerant highly-degenerate n-type semiconductors at room-temperature, and (2) the boron-rich borides, which exhibit p-type small-polaronic hopping conductivity.

  10. A universal electromagnetic energy conversion adapter based on a metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yunsong; Fan, Xin; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chen, Yunpeng; Xiao, John Q.

    2014-09-01

    On the heels of metamaterial absorbers (MAs) which produce near perfect electromagnetic (EM) absorption and emission, we propose a universal electromagnetic energy conversion adapter (UEECA) based on MA. By choosing the appropriate energy converting sensors, the UEECA is able to achieve near 100% signal transfer ratio between EM energy and various forms of energy such as thermal, DC electric, or higher harmonic EM energy. The inherited subwavelength dimension and the EM field intensity enhancement can further empower UEECA in many critical applications such as energy harvesting, photoconductive antennas, and nonlinear optics. The principle of UEECA is understood with a transmission line model, which further provides a design strategy that can incorporate a variety of energy conversion devices. The concept is experimentally validated at a microwave frequency with a signal transfer ratio of 96% by choosing an RF diode as the energy converting sensor.

  11. A universal electromagnetic energy conversion adapter based on a metamaterial absorber

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yunsong; Fan, Xin; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chen, Yunpeng; Xiao, John Q.

    2014-01-01

    On the heels of metamaterial absorbers (MAs) which produce near perfect electromagnetic (EM) absorption and emission, we propose a universal electromagnetic energy conversion adapter (UEECA) based on MA. By choosing the appropriate energy converting sensors, the UEECA is able to achieve near 100% signal transfer ratio between EM energy and various forms of energy such as thermal, DC electric, or higher harmonic EM energy. The inherited subwavelength dimension and the EM field intensity enhancement can further empower UEECA in many critical applications such as energy harvesting, photoconductive antennas, and nonlinear optics. The principle of UEECA is understood with a transmission line model, which further provides a design strategy that can incorporate a variety of energy conversion devices. The concept is experimentally validated at a microwave frequency with a signal transfer ratio of 96% by choosing an RF diode as the energy converting sensor. PMID:25200005

  12. A universal electromagnetic energy conversion adapter based on a metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yunsong; Fan, Xin; Wilson, Jeffrey D; Simons, Rainee N; Chen, Yunpeng; Xiao, John Q

    2014-09-09

    On the heels of metamaterial absorbers (MAs) which produce near perfect electromagnetic (EM) absorption and emission, we propose a universal electromagnetic energy conversion adapter (UEECA) based on MA. By choosing the appropriate energy converting sensors, the UEECA is able to achieve near 100% signal transfer ratio between EM energy and various forms of energy such as thermal, DC electric, or higher harmonic EM energy. The inherited subwavelength dimension and the EM field intensity enhancement can further empower UEECA in many critical applications such as energy harvesting, photoconductive antennas, and nonlinear optics. The principle of UEECA is understood with a transmission line model, which further provides a design strategy that can incorporate a variety of energy conversion devices. The concept is experimentally validated at a microwave frequency with a signal transfer ratio of 96% by choosing an RF diode as the energy converting sensor.

  13. Structured catalyst bed and method for conversion of feed materials to chemical products and liquid fuels

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Yong , Liu; Wei, [Richland, WA

    2012-01-24

    The present invention is a structured monolith reactor and method that provides for controlled Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The invention controls mass transport limitations leading to higher CO conversion and lower methane selectivity. Over 95 wt % of the total product liquid hydrocarbons obtained from the monolithic catalyst are in the carbon range of C.sub.5-C.sub.18. The reactor controls readsorption of olefins leading to desired products with a preselected chain length distribution and enhanced overall reaction rate. And, liquid product analysis shows readsorption of olefins is reduced, achieving a narrower FT product distribution.

  14. Microbial Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Merry; Wall, Judy D.

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  15. Conversion efficiency of skutterudite-based thermoelectric modules.

    PubMed

    Salvador, James R; Cho, Jung Y; Ye, Zuxin; Moczygemba, Joshua E; Thompson, Alan J; Sharp, Jeffrey W; Koenig, Jan D; Maloney, Ryan; Thompson, Travis; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Wang, Hsin; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2014-06-28

    Presently, the only commercially available power generating thermoelectric (TE) modules are based on bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) alloys and are limited to a hot side temperature of 250 °C due to the melting point of the solder interconnects and/or generally poor power generation performance above this point. For the purposes of demonstrating a TE generator or TEG with higher temperature capability, we selected skutterudite based materials to carry forward with module fabrication because these materials have adequate TE performance and are mechanically robust. We have previously reported the electrical power output for a 32 couple skutterudite TE module, a module that is type identical to ones used in a high temperature capable TEG prototype. The purpose of this previous work was to establish the expected power output of the modules as a function of varying hot and cold side temperatures. Recent upgrades to the TE module measurement system built at the Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measurement Techniques allow for the assessment of not only the power output, as previously described, but also the thermal to electrical energy conversion efficiency. Here we report the power output and conversion efficiency of a 32 couple, high temperature skutterudite module at varying applied loading pressures and with different interface materials between the module and the heat source and sink of the test system. We demonstrate a 7% conversion efficiency at the module level when a temperature difference of 460 °C is established. Extrapolated values indicate that 7.5% is achievable when proper thermal interfaces and loading pressures are used.

  16. Enhanced conversion efficiency in perovskite solar cells by effectively utilizing near infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Que, Meidan; Que, Wenxiu; Yin, Xingtian; Chen, Peng; Yang, Yawei; Hu, Jiaxing; Yu, Boyan; Du, Yaping

    2016-07-01

    Up-conversion β-NaYF4:Yb3+,Tm3+/NaYF4 core-shell nanoparticles (NYF NPs) with a high luminous intensity in the visible light region were synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction process. Photocurrent densities of the mesoscopic perovskite solar cells fabricated by incorporating up-conversion NYF NPs into the electron transporting layer are effectively enhanced. The effects of the thicknesses of the electron transporting layer and the weight ratio of up-conversion NYF NPs/TiO2 on the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the as-fabricated devices were also investigated. The results indicate that the PCE of the optimized device achieves 16.9%, which is 20% higher than that of the device without introducing NYF NPs, and the steady-state PCE of the as-fabricated devices is close to its transient-state PCE. The up-conversion effect of NYF NPs is conducive to higher device performance rather than the nanoparticles as scattering centers to increase possible light absorption of the perovskite film or the electronic effect of the NaYF4 shell surface. These results can be further confirmed by finite-difference time-domain simulation. Photoluminescence results suggest that the multiphonon-assistance can accelerate the nonradiative recombination process at a lower temperature. Incorporating NYF NPs into the electron transporting layer opens a new approach to a promising family of electron transporting materials for mesoscopic perovskite solar cells.Up-conversion β-NaYF4:Yb3+,Tm3+/NaYF4 core-shell nanoparticles (NYF NPs) with a high luminous intensity in the visible light region were synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction process. Photocurrent densities of the mesoscopic perovskite solar cells fabricated by incorporating up-conversion NYF NPs into the electron transporting layer are effectively enhanced. The effects of the thicknesses of the electron transporting layer and the weight ratio of up-conversion NYF NPs/TiO2 on the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the as

  17. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1983 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1984-08-01

    Highlights of progress achieved in the program of thermochemical conversion of biomass into clean fuels during 1983 are summarized. Gasification research projects include: production of a medium-Btu gas without using purified oxygen at Battelle-Columbus Laboratories; high pressure (up to 500 psia) steam-oxygen gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor at IGT; producing synthesis gas via catalytic gasification at PNL; indirect reactor heating methods at the Univ. of Missouri-Rolla and Texas Tech Univ.; improving the reliability, performance, and acceptability of small air-blown gasifiers at Univ. of Florida-Gainesville, Rocky Creek Farm Gasogens, and Cal Recovery Systems. Liquefaction projects include: determination of individual sequential pyrolysis mechanisms at SERI; research at SERI on a unique entrained, ablative fast pyrolysis reactor for supplying the heat fluxes required for fast pyrolysis; work at BNL on rapid pyrolysis of biomass in an atmosphere of methane to increase the yields of olefin and BTX products; research at the Georgia Inst. of Tech. on an entrained rapid pyrolysis reactor to produce higher yields of pyrolysis oil; research on an advanced concept to liquefy very concentrated biomass slurries in an integrated extruder/static mixer reactor at the Univ. of Arizona; and research at PNL on the characterization and upgrading of direct liquefaction oils including research to lower oxygen content and viscosity of the product. Combustion projects include: research on a directly fired wood combustor/gas turbine system at Aerospace Research Corp.; adaptation of Stirling engine external combustion systems to biomass fuels at United Stirling, Inc.; and theoretical modeling and experimental verification of biomass combustion behavior at JPL to increase biomass combustion efficiency and examine the effects of additives on combustion rates. 26 figures, 1 table.

  18. Crucial Conversations about America's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, John C.; Protheroe, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    It's up to school leaders to shift the momentum away from conversations based on misperceptions and toward those that study critical issues about school improvement. "Crucial Conversations About America's Schools" talks about how to do this and provides examples of how to reframe conversations on the hot-button but important topics of…

  19. Special Features in Children's Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karjalainen, Merja

    In a study of features that seem to be typical of children's conversations, 10 Finnish preschool children's conversations were videotaped and audiotaped over a period of 10 hours. The children were taped in conversation, play, fairy tale, and eating situations. Among the findings are that all children enjoy playing with language, but some initiate…

  20. Comparative life cycle assessment of lignocellulosic ethanol production: biochemical versus thermochemical conversion.

    PubMed

    Mu, Dongyan; Seager, Thomas; Rao, P Suresh; Zhao, Fu

    2010-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into ethanol through either biochemical or thermochemical conversion processes. Biochemical conversion involves hydrolysis and fermentation while thermochemical conversion involves gasification and catalytic synthesis. Even though these routes produce comparable amounts of ethanol and have similar energy efficiency at the plant level, little is known about their relative environmental performance from a life cycle perspective. Especially, the indirect impacts, i.e. emissions and resource consumption associated with the production of various process inputs, are largely neglected in previous studies. This article compiles material and energy flow data from process simulation models to develop life cycle inventory and compares the fossil fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and water consumption of both biomass-to-ethanol production processes. The results are presented in terms of contributions from feedstock, direct, indirect, and co-product credits for four representative biomass feedstocks i.e., wood chips, corn stover, waste paper, and wheat straw. To explore the potentials of the two conversion pathways, different technological scenarios are modeled, including current, 2012 and 2020 technology targets, as well as different production/co-production configurations. The modeling results suggest that biochemical conversion has slightly better performance on greenhouse gas emission and fossil fuel consumption, but that thermochemical conversion has significantly less direct, indirect, and life cycle water consumption. Also, if the thermochemical plant operates as a biorefinery with mixed alcohol co-products separated for chemicals, it has the potential to achieve better performance than biochemical pathway across all environmental impact categories considered due to higher co-product credits associated with chemicals being displaced. The results from this work serve as a starting point for developing full life cycle

  1. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production: Biochemical Versus Thermochemical Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Dongyan; Seager, Thomas; Rao, P. Suresh; Zhao, Fu

    2010-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into ethanol through either biochemical or thermochemical conversion processes. Biochemical conversion involves hydrolysis and fermentation while thermochemical conversion involves gasification and catalytic synthesis. Even though these routes produce comparable amounts of ethanol and have similar energy efficiency at the plant level, little is known about their relative environmental performance from a life cycle perspective. Especially, the indirect impacts, i.e. emissions and resource consumption associated with the production of various process inputs, are largely neglected in previous studies. This article compiles material and energy flow data from process simulation models to develop life cycle inventory and compares the fossil fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and water consumption of both biomass-to-ethanol production processes. The results are presented in terms of contributions from feedstock, direct, indirect, and co-product credits for four representative biomass feedstocks i.e., wood chips, corn stover, waste paper, and wheat straw. To explore the potentials of the two conversion pathways, different technological scenarios are modeled, including current, 2012 and 2020 technology targets, as well as different production/co-production configurations. The modeling results suggest that biochemical conversion has slightly better performance on greenhouse gas emission and fossil fuel consumption, but that thermochemical conversion has significantly less direct, indirect, and life cycle water consumption. Also, if the thermochemical plant operates as a biorefinery with mixed alcohol co-products separated for chemicals, it has the potential to achieve better performance than biochemical pathway across all environmental impact categories considered due to higher co-product credits associated with chemicals being displaced. The results from this work serve as a starting point for developing full life cycle

  2. Energy and data conversion circuits for low power sensory systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Suvradip

    This dissertation focuses on the problem of increasing the lifetime of wireless sensors. This problem is addressed from two different angles: energy harvesting and data compression. Energy harvesting enables a sensor to extract energy from its environment and use it to power itself or recharge its batteries. Data compression, on the other hand, allows a sensor to save energy by reducing the radio transmission bandwidth. This dissertation proposes a fractal-based photodiode fabricated on standard CMOS process as an energy harvesting device with increased efficiency. Experiments show that, the fractal based photodiodes are 6% more efficient compared to the conventional square shaped photodiode. The fractal shape photodiode has more perimeter-to-area ratio which increases the lateral response, improving its efficiency. With increased efficiency, more current is generated but the open-circuit voltage still remains low (0.3V--0.45V depending on illumination condition). These voltages have to be boosted up to higher values if they are going to be used to power up any sensory circuit or recharge a battery. We propose a switched-inductor DC-DC converter to boost the low voltage of the photodiodes to higher voltages. The proposed circuit uses two on-chip switches and two off-chip Components: an inductor and a capacitor. Experiments show a voltage up to 2.81V can be generated from a single photodiode of 1mm2 area. The voltage booster circuit achieved a conversion efficiency of 59%. Data compression was also explored in an effort to reduce energy consumption during radio transmission. An analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which can jointly perform the tasks of digital conversion and entropy encoding, has also been proposed in this dissertation. The joint data conversion/compression help savings in area and power resources, making it suitable for on-sensor compression. The proposed converter combines a cyclic converter architecture and Golomb-Rice entropy encoder. The

  3. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  4. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  5. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-17

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  6. Kinetic parameters and monomeric conversion of different dental composites using standard and soft-start photoactivation modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, A. B.; Viana, R. B.; Plepis, A. M. G.

    2012-06-01

    This paper evaluates the photopolymerization kinetics and degree of conversion of different commercial dental composites when photoactivated by a LED curing unit using two different modes (standard and soft-start mode). The investigation was performed on with RelyX ARC (dual-cured), Filtek Z-350 (Nanocomposite), Filtek Z-250 (Hybrid), and Filtek Z-350flow (Flowable) resin composites. The analysis used was attenuated total reflection with a Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR). The RelyX ARC resin demonstrated the highest degree of conversion with both LED photoactivation modes. For this resin a 28% decrease in maximum rate was observed and the time to reach its highest rate was almost 2.3 times higher than when the soft-start photoactivation light curing was used. Z-350flow resin recorder a higher maximum rate using the soft-start mode rather than the standard mode. In contrast, the Z-250 showed a higher value using the standard mode. Although Z-250 and Z-350 showed a higher total degree of conversion effectiveness using the soft-start mode, RelyX and Z-350flow achieved a higher value using the standard mode.

  7. Spatial language and converseness.

    PubMed

    Burigo, Michele; Coventry, Kenny R; Cangelosi, Angelo; Lynott, Dermot

    2016-12-01

    Typical spatial language sentences consist of describing the location of an object (the located object) in relation to another object (the reference object) as in "The book is above the vase". While it has been suggested that the properties of the located object (the book) are not translated into language because they are irrelevant when exchanging location information, it has been shown that the orientation of the located object affects the production and comprehension of spatial descriptions. In line with the claim that spatial language apprehension involves inferences about relations that hold between objects it has been suggested that during spatial language apprehension people use the orientation of the located object to evaluate whether the logical property of converseness (e.g., if "the book is above the vase" is true, then also "the vase is below the book" must be true) holds across the objects' spatial relation. In three experiments using sentence acceptability rating tasks we tested this hypothesis and demonstrated that when converseness is violated people's acceptability ratings of a scene's description are reduced indicating that people do take into account geometric properties of the located object and use it to infer logical spatial relations.

  8. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to design and operate a laboratory apparatus for the catalytic reforming of natural gas in order to provide data for a large-scale process. To accelerate the assembly and calibration of this equipment, a request has been made to the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for assistance, under the DOE's Industrial Visitor Exchange Program. Pr. Heinz Heinemann (Catalysis), Dr. John Apps (Geochemistry) and Dr. Robert Fulton (Mechanical Engineering) have expressed interest in supporting our request. Pr. Heinemann's recent results on the conversion of Petroleum Coke residues into CO2 and H2 mixtures using highly basic metal oxides catalysts, similar to ours, are very encouraging regarding the possibility of converting the Coke residue on our catalyst into Syngas in the Regenerator/riser, as proposed. To minimize Coke formation in the vapor phase, by the Plasmapyrolytic Methane Conversion reactions, the experimental data of H. Drost et al. (Ref. 12) have been reviewed. Work is underway to design equipment for the safe and non-polluting disposal of the two gaseous product streams of the flow loop. 2 refs.

  9. Energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, L.M.

    1985-09-16

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

  10. Energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1987-01-01

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weatherproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction, and operational with a minimal power draw.

  11. Direct somatic lineage conversion

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Koji; Haag, Daniel; Wernig, Marius

    2015-01-01

    The predominant view of embryonic development and cell differentiation has been that rigid and even irreversible epigenetic marks are laid down along the path of cell specialization ensuring the proper silencing of unrelated lineage programmes. This model made the prediction that specialized cell types are stable and cannot be redirected into other lineages. Accordingly, early attempts to change the identity of somatic cells had little success and was limited to conversions between closely related cell types. Nuclear transplantation experiments demonstrated, however, that specialized cells even from adult mammals can be reprogrammed into a totipotent state. The discovery that a small combination of transcription factors can reprogramme cells to pluripotency without the need of oocytes further supported the view that these epigenetic barriers can be overcome much easier than assumed, but the extent of this flexibility was still unclear. When we showed that a differentiated mesodermal cell can be directly converted to a differentiated ectodermal cell without a pluripotent intermediate, it was suggested that in principle any cell type could be converted into any other cell type. Indeed, the work of several groups in recent years has provided many more examples of direct somatic lineage conversions. Today, the question is not anymore whether a specific cell type can be generated by direct reprogramming but how it can be induced. PMID:26416679

  12. Mode conversion in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Myra, J. R.

    2006-10-01

    Fast magnetosonic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) can convert to much shorter wavelength modes such as ion Bernstein waves (IBW) and ion cyclotron waves (ICW) [1]. These modes are potentially useful for plasma control through the generation of localized currents and sheared flows. As part of the SciDAC Center for Simulation of Wave-Plasma Interactions project, the AORSA global-wave solver [2] has been ported to the new, dual-core Cray XT-3 (Jaguar) at ORNL where it demonstrates excellent scaling with the number of processors. Preliminary calculations using 4096 processors have allowed the first full-wave simulations of mode conversion in ITER. Mode conversion from the fast wave to the ICW is observed in mixtures of deuterium, tritium and helium3 at 53 MHz. The resulting flow velocity and electric field shear will be calculated. [1] F.W. Perkins, Nucl. Fusion 17, 1197 (1977). [2] E.F. Jaeger, L.A. Berry, J.R. Myra, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 195001-1 (2003).

  13. Conversion program in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson, E.B.

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  14. Light alkane conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1991-07-09

    This patent describes a process for the aromatization of an aliphatic feedstream. It comprises fluidizing finely divided solid particles in a combustion zone; charging oxygen-containing combustion gas and fuel to the combustion zone under combustion conditions; withdrawing a stream of finely divided particles from the combustion zone; flowing the withdrawn stream of finely divided particles above to a cracking/dehydrogenation zone; fluidizing the finely divided particles above in an aliphatic feedstream under conditions within the cracking/dehydrogenation zone controlled to at least partially crack and at least partially dehydrogenate the aliphatic feedstream to form an intermediate product stream containing a quantity of C{sub 4}-olefins such that the exothermic catalytic conversion of the C{sub 4}-olefins is sufficient to supply a portion of the endothermic heat of reaction for the endothermic catalytic conversion of paraffins contained in the intermediate feedstream to aromatics; contacting the intermediate product stream with an aromatization catalyst under aromatization conditions sufficient to evolve an aromatics-rich products stream.

  15. Direct observation of up-conversion via femtosecond photoelectron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuzhu; Knopp, Gregor; Gerber, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Ultrafast relaxation dynamics in 2-methylfuran has been investigated by time-resolved photoelectron imaging. An "up" internal conversion from a low-lying state into a higher-lying one has been observed experimentally. Temporal photoelectron kinetic-energy distributions and angular distributions of the photoelectrons are analyzed. In the up-conversion process, the vibrational energy in the initial state is converted to the electronic energy of the final state during the energy transfer. And the time scale for the up-conversion process is estimated by the observed onset delay for the corresponding photoelectron bands.

  16. Thermodynamics fundamentals of energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Nicolae

    The work reported in the chapters 1-5 focuses on the fundamentals of heat transfer, fluid dynamics, thermodynamics and electrical phenomena related to the conversion of one form of energy to another. Chapter 6 is a re-examination of the fundamental heat transfer problem of how to connect a finite-size heat generating volume to a concentrated sink. Chapter 1 extends to electrical machines the combined thermodynamics and heat transfer optimization approach that has been developed for heat engines. The conversion efficiency at maximum power is 1/2. When, as in specific applications, the operating temperature of windings must not exceed a specified level, the power output is lower and efficiency higher. Chapter 2 addresses the fundamental problem of determining the optimal history (regime of operation) of a battery so that the work output is maximum. Chapters 3 and 4 report the energy conversion aspects of an expanding mixture of hot particles, steam and liquid water. At the elemental level, steam annuli develop around the spherical drops as time increases. At the mixture level, the density decreases while the pressure and velocity increases. Chapter 4 describes numerically, based on the finite element method, the time evolution of the expanding mixture of hot spherical particles, steam and water. The fluid particles are moved in time in a Lagrangian manner to simulate the change of the domain configuration. Chapter 5 describes the process of thermal interaction between the molten material and water. In the second part of the chapter the model accounts for the irreversibility due to the flow of the mixture through the cracks of the mixing vessel. The approach presented in this chapter is based on exergy analysis and represents a departure from the line of inquiry that was followed in chapters 3-4. Chapter 6 shows that the geometry of the heat flow path between a volume and one point can be optimized in two fundamentally different ways. In the "growth" method the

  17. 'No delays achiever'.

    PubMed

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  18. Vicarious Achievement Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others

    This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…

  19. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  20. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  1. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  2. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  3. Selective catalytic process for conversion of light naphtha to aromatics

    SciTech Connect

    Law, D.V.; Tamm, P.W.; Detz, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    AROMAX catalyst represents a unique advance in the development of modern reforming catalysts. The catalyst employs a zeolite to take advantage of a conversion chemistry that is entirely different from that of conventional reforming catalysts. This process chemistry, however, can still be carried out under process conditions which are essentially identical to those of conventional reforming. The result is the use of conventional designs and hardware to achieve highly efficient conversion of previously undesirable light feedstocks to high value aromatics.

  4. Treatment of conversion disorder. A clinical and holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Tocchio, Sandra L

    2009-08-01

    Conversion disorder is rare, but when it affects a young woman on the verge of adulthood, it can be devastating. The intent of this article is to encourage others by describing the success that psychiatry and alternative medicine can offer to patients with conversion disorder and to emphasize the value of nursing as a part of that team. This article will explore the attitude change in both staff and patient that was needed to achieve the ultimate goal of wellness.

  5. Solid-state conversion of fly ash to effective adsorbents for Cu removal from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaobin; Li, Lin; Zhu, Z H

    2007-01-10

    Solid-state conversion of fly ash to an amorphous aluminosilicate adsorbent (geopolymer) has been investigated under different conditions and the synthesised material has been tested for Cu2+ removal from aqueous solution. It has been found that higher reaction temperature and Na:FA ratio will make the adsorbents achieving higher removal efficiency. The adsorbent loading and Cu2+ initial concentration will also affect the removal efficiency while the adsorption capacity exhibits similarly at 30-40 degrees C. The adsorption capacity of the synthesised adsorbent shows much higher value than fly ash and natural zeolite. The capacity is 0.1, 3.5 and 92 mg/g, for fly ash, natural zeolite, and FA derived adsorbent, respectively. The kinetic studies indicate that the adsorption can be fitted by the second-order kinetic model. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms also can fit to the adsorption isotherm.

  6. Tm{sup 3+}-sensitized up- and down-conversions in nano-structured oxyfluoride glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hang; Marqués-Hueso, José; Chen, Daqin; Wang, Yuansheng; Richards, Bryce S.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► UC and DC are achieved in a single-ion sensitized phosphor for PV applications. ► The most intense fractions of AM 1.5G spectrum below/above c-Si bandgap are absorbed. ► The converted photons match the optimal spectral response of c-Si. -- Abstract: Tm{sup 3+}-sensitized up-conversion and down-conversion are studied in transparent glass ceramics embedded with β-YF{sub 3} nanocrystals. Upon excitation at 1220 nm, where crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells no longer absorb, the sub-bandgap photons could be converted to the higher-energy ones via up-conversion. In addition, under excitation at 468 nm (a wavelength close to the peak in the air-mass 1.5 global solar spectrum), one blue photon might be split in up to two near-infrared ones via down-conversion. In both cases, the frequency-converted photons match the spectral response of c-Si solar cell well. Hopefully, the investigated luminescent materials may act as the spectral conversion layers to reduce the sub-bandgap transmission and charge carrier thermalization losses of c-Si solar cells, and in turn, enhance the energy efficiency.

  7. Influence of ambient air pressure on the energy conversion of laser-breakdown induced blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2013-09-01

    Influence of ambient pressure on energy conversion efficiency from a Nd : glass laser pulse (λ = 1.053 µm) to a laser-induced blast wave was investigated at reduced pressure. Temporal incident and transmission power histories were measured using sets of energy meters and photodetectors. A half-shadowgraph half-self-emission method was applied to visualize laser absorption waves. Results show that the blast energy conversion efficiency ηbw decreased monotonically with the decrease in ambient pressure. The decrease was small, from 40% to 38%, for the pressure change from 101 kPa to 50 kPa, but the decrease was considerable, to 24%, when the pressure was reduced to 30 kPa. Compared with a TEA-CO2-laser-induced blast wave (λ = 10.6 µm), higher fraction absorption in the laser supported detonation regime ηLSD of 90% was observed, which is influenced slightly by the reduction of ambient pressure. The conversion fraction ηbw/ηLSD≈90% was achieved at pressure >50 kPa, which is significantly higher than that in a CO2 laser case.

  8. All-optical phase modulated format conversion for high transmission rates based on fiber nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Vanessa C.; Drummond, Miguel V.; Nogueira, Rogério N.

    2013-11-01

    Advanced modulation formats are an emerging area since they allow reducing the symbol rate while encoding more bits per symbol. This allows higher spectral efficiencies. In addition, we can achieve higher data rates using lower-speed equipment like in all-optical format conversion systems, an important step for the development of systems with high transmission rates. In this paper we study the impact of some impairments found in all-optical advanced format conversions based on cross phase modulation (XPM) on a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), such as amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), nonlinear fiber length and group velocity dispersion (GVD), and analyze its performance based on error vector magnitude (EVM) for different bitrate transmissions. This simulation study is applied on earlier proposed phase modulated format conversion where n nonreturn-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) channels at 10 Gb/s are converted into a return-to-zero m phase shift keying (RZ-mPSK) at 20Gb/s. We extend the work with simulations and show the results for n NRZ-OOK channels at 20Gb/s, 40 Gb/s and 50Gb/s to RZ-PSK at 40Gb/s, 80 Gb/s and 100Gb/s, respectively.

  9. Integrated Micro-scale Power Conversion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    1.2 V CMOS, fsw = 100 MHz. – Vout = 7 V from 1.2 V input (6x conversion). • Inductor wirebonded to PCB. • Performance limited at higher current...levels by winding resistance. Load Current (mA) fsw =50MHz, Vout=7V fsw =50MHz, Vout=10V fsw =45MHz, Vout=7V fsw =45MHz, Vout=10V E ff ic ie n c y E ff ic ie

  10. Power conversion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  11. Achievability for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.

    2001-02-01

    Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .

  12. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  13. Strategic Planning for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

    1981-01-01

    The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

  14. Advanced nanostructured materials for energy storage and conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, Gregory S.

    ideal hydrogen binding energies were identified. Bulk alloy electrocatalysts with comparable compositions to the model surfaces were synthesized and tested for performance in alkaline, neutral, and acidic conditions. Cu-Ti was found to exhibit the lowest overpotentials and highest overall performance, and was redesigned as a nanoporous catalyst which achieved higher current at lower overpotentials than even commercial Pt/C, with remarkably high stability. Through applying design principles developed during the HER work, self-supported nanoporous Cu-Co alloy catalysts were synthesized for the improvement of product selectivity and overall conversion of reactants in furfural hydro(deoxy)genation. Under vapor-phase reaction conditions, it was found that adding 1% to 10% oxophilic Co in a solid solution with Cu enhanced overall conversion towards products. In particular, a Cu95Co5 alloy produced 64.9% yield of 2-methylfuran at a high sustained total conversion of 85.0% and under moderate temperature conditions, which is the highest 2-methylfuran production reported for non-precious catalysts. Further analysis at a wider range of temperature conditions and sustained reaction time on stream provided a more detailed understanding of the behavior of these nanoporous materials, and possible mechanistic explanations of the high activity for Cu-Co are proposed to aid in the design of new materials with even higher product selectivities.

  15. A TEG Efficiency Booster with Buck-Boost Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongfei; Sun, Kai; Zhang, Junjun; Xing, Yan

    2013-07-01

    A thermoelectric generator (TEG) efficiency booster with buck-boost conversion and power management is proposed as a TEG battery power conditioner suitable for a wide TEG output voltage range. An inverse-coupled inductor is employed in the buck-boost converter, which is used to achieve smooth current with low ripple on both the TEG and battery sides. Furthermore, benefiting from the magnetic flux counteraction of the two windings on the coupled inductor, the core size and power losses of the filter inductor are reduced, which can achieve both high efficiency and high power density. A power management strategy is proposed for this power conditioning system, which involves maximum power point tracking (MPPT), battery voltage control, and battery current control. A control method is employed to ensure smooth switching among different working modes. A modified MPPT control algorithm with improved dynamic and steady-state characteristics is presented and applied to the TEG battery power conditioning system to maximize energy harvesting. A 500-W prototype has been built, and experimental tests carried out on it. The power efficiency of the prototype at full load is higher than 96%, and peak efficiency of 99% is attained.

  16. Neuroanatomical Correlates of the Income Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Allyson P.; Finn, Amy S.; Leonard, Julia A.; Jacoby Senghor, Drew S.; West, Martin R.; Gabrieli, Christopher F.O.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, the difference in academic achievement between higher- and lower-income students (i.e., the income achievement gap) is substantial and growing. Here, we investigated neuroanatomical correlates of this gap in adolescents (n = 58) in whom academic achievement was measured by statewide standardized testing. Cortical gray matter volume was significantly greater in students from higher-income backgrounds (n = 35) compared to students from lower-income backgrounds (n = 23), but cortical white matter volume and total cortical surface area did not differ between groups. Cortical thickness in all lobes of the brain was greater in students from higher-income than lower-income backgrounds. Thicker cortex, particularly in temporal and occipital lobes, was associated with better test performance. These results represent the first evidence that cortical thickness differs across broad swaths of the brain between higher- and lower-income students, and that cortical thickness is related to academic achievement test scores. PMID:25896418

  17. Rethinking the Rules of the Higher Education Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The familiar conversation about access to higher education is limited to what college costs and whether colleges are giving people their money's worth. While important, that conversation may be constricting people's ability to understand what is really limiting the promise of higher education in America. Americans are clearly troubled about the…

  18. Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1974-01-01

    A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)

  19. Mathematics Coursework Regulates Growth in Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), we examined the extent to which students' mathematics coursework regulates (influences) the rate of growth in mathematics achievement during middle and high school. Graphical analysis showed that students who started middle school with higher achievement took individual mathematics…

  20. Maryland's Achievements in Public Education, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents Maryland's achievements in public education for 2011. Maryland's achievements include: (1) Maryland's public schools again ranked #1 in the nation in Education Week's 2011 Quality Counts annual report; (2) Maryland ranked 1st nationwide for a 3rd year in a row in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on…

  1. Study on the Feasibility of Direct Fusion Energy Conversion for Deep-Space Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarditi, Alfonso G.; Miley, George H.; Scott, John H.

    2012-10-01

    A significant change in the current space mission capabilities can be achieved with a highly efficient integration of a fusion energy source with an advanced space propulsion thruster, both with low specific mass. With aneutronic nuclear fusion as the high-density primary energy source, this study considers first electric energy extraction from the fusion reaction products via direct energy conversion to recirculate power as required for the operation of the fusion core. Then the beam of remaining reaction products is conditioned to achieve the optimal thrust and specific impulse for the mission. The research is specifically focused on two key issues: (i) Efficiency improvement of a Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC, [1]) by achieving a higher ion beam density and optimization of the electrode coupling and of the neutralizing electron flow. (ii) A fast-particle kinetic energy-to-thrust conversion process based on collective interaction between ion bunches well separated in space [2]. Computer simulation results and a design for a basic physics experiment currently under development are reported. [4pt] [1] H. Momota et al., Fus. Tech., 35, 60(1999)[0pt] [2] A. G. Tarditi et al. Proc. NETS 2012 Conf., Woodlands, TX (2012)

  2. The incongruous achiever in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kline, S A; Golombek, H

    1974-06-01

    The authors wished to study some of the internal psychological dynamics of achievement in a nonpatient identified high school population. Questionnaires were administered to the Grade 13 students and their parents in a large high school. A number of students whose achievement and educational plans were not congruous with their general background were selected for interview. The findings suggest that a wide variety of ages and developmental stages can be discerned as critical points in the development of a student's attitude toward higher education. These students have many values in common, and their values appear related to a positive or negative identification with parental values. The students themselves show a wide range of personality integration. They relate in a special way to a wide variety of teachers' personalities.

  3. Energy conversion apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, D.R.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes an energy conversion apparatus comprising: an engine, the engine comprising a cylinder and a piston reciprocally mounted therein, the cylinder defining a combustion chamber on one side of the piston for receiving a fuel mixture and a fluid drive chamber on the other side of the piston for receiving hydraulic fluid, a turbine, the turbine comprising a housing and a vaned turbine wheel rotatably mounted on a drive shaft journalled in the housing, hydraulic means for coupling fluid in the fluid drive chamber of the cylinder with the housing for rotatably driving the turbine wheel and the drive shaft upon a given movement of the piston, means for providing the combustion chamber of the engine with a fuel mixture comprising hydrogen and oxygen, an ignition means for selectively igniting the mixture in the combustion chamber, and purging means for selectively rotating the turbine prior to ignition of the fuel mixture in the engine to remove air therefrom, the purging means comprising a pump means for moving fluid from the reservoir into the fluid drive chambers, the conduit means and the turbine housing, whereby the piston driven by the ignited fuel mixture forces fluid in the fluid drive chamber against the vanes of the turbine wheel to rotate the drive shaft.

  4. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  5. Microbial conversion of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The objectives of this project were to describe in detail the degradation of coals by fungi and microbes, to expand the range of applicability of the process to include new microbes and other coal types, to identify the means by which biosolubilization of coal is accomplished, and to explore means to enhance the rates and extent of coal bioconversion. The project was initiated in a response to the discovery by Dr. Martin Cohen at the University of Hartford, of a fungal strain of Coriolus versicolor that would render a solid coal substance, leonardite, into a liquid product. The project has identified the principal agent of leonardite solubilization as a powerful metal chelator, most likely a fungal-produced siderophore. Another nonlaccase enzyme has also been identified as a unique biosolubilizing agent produced by C. versicolor. Assays were developed for the quantitative determination of biological coal conversion, and for the determination of potency of biosolubilizing agent. Screening studies uncovered several microbial organisms capable of coal biodegradation, and led to the discovery that prolonged heating in air at the moderate temperature of 150{degree}C allowed the biodegradation of Illinois {number sign}6 coal to material soluble in dilute base. Chemical studies showed that leonardite biosolubilization was accompanied by relatively small change in composition, while solubilization of Illinois {number sign}6 coal involves considerable oxidation of the coal. 24 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Solar energy conversion apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, S.G.

    1983-10-18

    Solar energy conversion apparatus is disclosed including a housing portion, an energy absorbing portion, a fluid directing portion and a cover portion; the housing portion including a molded plastic pan member including a base section with upwardly extending spaced spacer sections, the pan member including outwardly inclined sidewall sections having spaced inner and outer wall sections with a top section including an outwardly extending flange section and an inwardly extending slotted frame section; the energy absorbing portion including a conductive metal liner member positioned within the housing portion and resting on the upper surfaces of the spacer sections, a conductive metal separator section extending between the liner sidewall sections adjacent the upper ends thereof and enclosing the liner member; the fluid directing portion including a plurality of parallel spaced longitudinal baffle members arranged in a staggered relationship to provide a tortuous fluid path through the apparatus, an inlet opening and an outlet opening to the tortuous path, the baffle members extending upwardly from the liner bottom to the separator section; the cover portion including transparent impact resistant flat and dome members, the edges of the flat member being secured to the top section, the dome member being disposed over the flat member with its edges engaged with the flange section slots, the dome member including flat sections extending upwardly at an angle of 20/sup 0/ to 30/sup 0/ and a convex central section joining the flat sections.

  7. Muon-to-Electron Conversion with COMET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Y.

    2014-09-01

    The Coherent Muon-to-Electron Transition (COMET) experiment is presented, focusing on the particle detection systems. COMET is currently under construction as the first of two phases at the J-PARC proton accelerator laboratory in Tokai, Japan. COMET will search for muon-to-electron conversion with a single-event sensitivity of 2.6 × 10-17, with Phase-I achieving a sensitivity of 3.1 × 10-15 and due to enter commissioning in 2016. Phase-I will also allow us to study the novel pion and muon beamline and the rates of background processes.

  8. Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion for Personal Power Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    solar spectrum, thus the photovoltaic cells used in thermophotovoltaic conversion must be engineered from different material systems. Most common... indium gallium arsenide antimonide (InGaAsSb) on GaSb: 0.53 eV) or indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) on an indium phosphide (InP) substrate (0.5 to 0.6 eV...The lower bandgap structures are achieved on the InP substrate using InP-based lattice-matched indium gallium arsenide phosphide (InGaAsP) and

  9. Combining Video, Audio and Lexical Indicators of Affect in Spontaneous Conversation via Particle Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Savran, Arman; Cao, Houwei; Shah, Miraj; Nenkova, Ani; Verma, Ragini

    2013-01-01

    We present experiments on fusing facial video, audio and lexical indicators for affect estimation during dyadic conversations. We use temporal statistics of texture descriptors extracted from facial video, a combination of various acoustic features, and lexical features to create regression based affect estimators for each modality. The single modality regressors are then combined using particle filtering, by treating these independent regression outputs as measurements of the affect states in a Bayesian filtering framework, where previous observations provide prediction about the current state by means of learned affect dynamics. Tested on the Audio-visual Emotion Recognition Challenge dataset, our single modality estimators achieve substantially higher scores than the official baseline method for every dimension of affect. Our filtering-based multi-modality fusion achieves correlation performance of 0.344 (baseline: 0.136) and 0.280 (baseline: 0.096) for the fully continuous and word level sub challenges, respectively. PMID:25300451

  10. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit criteria (signifying worsening seizure control). In each study, treatment was considered effective if the upper 95% confidence limit for exit rate was lower than the historical control threshold (65.3%). Results: Pooled exit rates were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 20.6% (95% confidence interval: 15.6%–26.8%); ESL 1,200 mg = 30.8% (23.0%–40.5%). Use of 2 baseline AEDs or rescue medication, US location, epilepsy duration ≥20 years, and higher maximum baseline seizure frequency were associated with higher exit risks. Median percent reductions in standardized seizure frequency between baseline and the 18-week double-blind period were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 43.2%; ESL 1,200 mg = 35.7%; baseline carbamazepine use was associated with smaller reductions. Safety profiles were similar between ESL doses. Conclusions: Exit rates for ESL monotherapy (1,600 mg and 1,200 mg once daily) were lower than the historical control threshold, irrespective of baseline AED use and region, with no additional safety concerns identified. Clinical factors and location clearly influence treatment responses in conversion-to-monotherapy trials. Classification of evidence: This pooled analysis provides Class IV evidence that for adults with medically uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, ESL monotherapy is well tolerated and effective. PMID:26911639

  11. Testosterone and Occupational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbs, James M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Archival data on 4,462 military veterans linked higher levels of serum testosterone to lower-status occupations. A structural equation model was supported in which higher testosterone, mediated through lower intellectual ability, greater antisocial behavior, and lower education, leads away from white-collar occupations. Contains 49 references.…

  12. Selecting a Retrospective Conversion Vendor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisowski, Andrew; Sessions, Judith

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of using vendors for retrospective conversion of library catalogs rather than in-house projects highlights reasons to consider vendors, four conversion methodologies, and vendor selection criteria (database, non-matches, local data, accuracy, charging, schedule, product delivery time, local system compatibility, MARC format, impact on…

  13. In Conversation with Jim Blair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Jim Blair is the only consultant nurse working with people with learning disabilities in the country. His job helps make people better and saves money. This article shares a conversation with Jim Blair. In the conversation, Blair says he is unhappy Valuing People programme did not do as much as it could have done. Jim is worried all the changes,…

  14. Language Teacher Educators Collaborative Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Francis; Hawkins, Maggie; Irujo, Suzanne; Larsen-Freeman, Diane; Rintell, Ellen; Willett, Jerri

    1998-01-01

    Conveys the power and value of collaborative conversation among a small group of language teacher educators who meet regularly to discuss practice. Excerpts from a discussion are presented to show a sample of real issues the teachers face and illustrate how the conversations allow ongoing feedback about real dilemmas from a supportive community of…

  15. Older Siblings as Conversational Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff-Ginsberg, Erika; Krueger, Wendy M.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a study of conversational dyadic interaction between children aged 1.5 to 3 years; their 4-, 5-, 7-, or 8-year-old siblings; and their mothers. Mothers were more supportive conversational partners and adapted their level of speech more than siblings. (GH)

  16. Record Conversion at Oregon State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Deane

    1985-01-01

    Describes the conversion of card catalog records at William Jasper Kerr Library, Oregon State University, to an online system. Discussion covers the use of OCLC and student assistants, procedures and specifications, and problems associated with massive retrospective conversion needs and uncertain budget allocations. Eight sources are recommended.…

  17. Faculty Meetings: Hidden Conversational Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    In the everydayness of faculty meetings, collegial conversations mirror distinctive dynamics and practices, which either enhance or undercut organizational effectiveness. A cluster of conversational practices affect how colleagues connect, engage, interact, and influence others during faculty meetings in diverse educational settings. The…

  18. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  19. Pyroelectric conversion in space: A conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Pyroelectric conversion is potentially a very lightweight means of providing electrical power generation in space. Two conceptualized systems approaches for the direct conversion of heat (from sunlight) into electrical energy using the pyroelectric effect of a new class of polar polymers were evaluated. Both of the approaches involved large area thin sheets of plastic which are thermally cycled by radiative input and output of thermal energy. The systems studied are expected to eventually achieve efficiencies of the order of 8% and may deliver as much as one half kilowatt per kilogram. In addition to potentially very high specific power, the pyroelectric conversion approaches outlined appear to offer low cost per watt in the form of an easily deployed, flexible, strong, electrically ""self-healing'', and high voltage sheet. This study assessed several potential problems such as plasma interactions and radiation degradation and suggests approaches to overcome them. The fundamental technological issues for space pyroelectric conversion are: (1) demonstration of the conversion cycle with the proposed class of polymers, (2) achievement of improved dielectric strength of the material, (3) demonstration of acceptable plasma power losses for low altitude, and (4) establishment of reasonable lifetime for the pyroelectric material in the space environment. Recommendations include an experimental demonstration of the pyroelectric conversion cycle followed by studies to improve the dielectric strength of the polymer and basic studies to discover additional pyroelectric materials.

  20. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  1. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  2. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  3. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  4. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  5. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  6. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  7. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  8. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  9. Improving Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York University Education Quarterly, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is a slightly abridged version of the report of the National Academy of Education panel, convened at the request of HEW Secretary Joseph Califano and Assistant Secretary for Education Mary F. Berry, to study recent declines in student achievement and methods of educational improvement. (SJL)

  10. The Achievement Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Ibram

    2009-01-01

    When Gabrielle Carpenter became a guidance counselor in Northern Virginia nine years ago, she focused on the academic achievement gap and furiously tried to close it. At first, she was compelled by tremendous professional interest. However, after seeing her son lose his zeal for school, Carpenter joined forces with other parents to form an…

  11. Achievement in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebele, David

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.…

  12. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  13. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  14. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  15. Semiconducting materials for photoelectrochemical energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivula, Kevin; van de Krol, Roel

    2016-02-01

    To achieve a sustainable society with an energy mix primarily based on solar energy, we need methods of storing energy from sunlight as chemical fuels. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices offer the promise of solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis. Although the idea of a carbon-neutral energy economy powered by such ‘artificial leaves’ is intriguing, viable PEC energy conversion on a global scale requires the development of devices that are highly efficient, stable and simple in design. In this Review, recently developed semiconductor materials for the direct conversion of light into fuels are scrutinized with respect to their atomic constitution, electronic structure and potential for practical performance as photoelectrodes in PEC cells. The processes of light absorption, charge separation and transport, and suitable energetics for energy conversion in PEC devices are emphasized. Both the advantageous and unfavourable aspects of multinary oxides, oxynitrides, chalcogenides, classic semiconductors and carbon-based semiconductors are critically considered on the basis of their experimentally demonstrated performance and predicted properties.

  16. Towards a formalism for conversation protocols using joint intention theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Huber, Marcus J.; Cohen, Philip R.; McGee, David R. )

    2001-12-01

    Conversation protocols are meant to achieve certain tasks or to bring about certain state of affairs in the world. Therefore, one may identify the landmarks or the state of affairs that must be brought about during the execution of a protocol in order to achieve its goal. Accordingly, the most important aspect of protocols is these landmarks rather than the communicative actions needed to achieve the landmarks. We show that families of conversation protocols can be expressed formally as partially ordered landmarks where each landmark is characterized by propositions that are true in the state represented by that landmark. Dialogue in natural languages is regarded as joint activity. Conversation protocols in multi-agent systems are treated as dialogue templates and are composed using speech acts from natural language dialogues. As such, we treat conversation protocols as joint action expressions and gainfully apply existing formal theories of dialogue, specifically the Joint Intention Theory, to protocols and their compositions. Conversation protocols may require agents to communicate with groups as well as individuals. However, most contemporary agent communication languages, notably FIPA and KQML, have either no provision or no well-defined semantics for group communication. Furthermore, the research on protocols so far does not correctly incorporate groups into the protocols. We give a formal semantics to group communicative acts and use it to handle group communication in a formal treatment of protocols.

  17. Alkaline oxide conversion coatings for aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheit, R.G.

    1996-02-01

    Three related conversion coating methods are described that are based on film formation which occurs when aluminum alloys are exposed to alkaline Li salt solutions. Representative examples of the processing methods, resulting coating structure, composition and morphology are presented. The corrosion resistance of these coatings to aerated 0.5 M NaCl solution has been evaluated as a function of total processing time using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This evaluation shows that excellent corrosion resistance can be uniformly achieved using no more than 20 minutes of process time for 6061-T6. Using current methods a minimum of 80 minutes of process time is required to get marginally acceptable corrosion resistance for 2024-T3. Longer processing times are required to achieve uniformly good corrosion resistance.

  18. Photon-added coherent states in parametric down-conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Sivakumar, S.

    2011-03-15

    Photon-added coherent states have been realized in optical parametric down-conversion by Zavatta et al. [Science 306, 660 (2004)]. In this report, it is established that the states generated in the process are ideal photon-added coherent states. It is shown that the scheme can generate higher-order photon-added coherent states. A comparative study of the down-conversion process and atom-cavity interaction in generating the photon-added coherent states is presented.

  19. Novel Nuclear Powered Photocatalytic Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    White,John R.; Kinsmen,Douglas; Regan,Thomas M.; Bobek,Leo M.

    2005-08-29

    fabrication of a range of new cell materials and geometries at Konarka's manufacturing facilities, and the irradiation testing and evaluation of these new cell designs within the UML Radiation Laboratory. The primary focus of all this work was to establish the proof of concept of the basic gammavoltaic principle using a new class of dye-sensitized photon converter (DSPC) materials based on KTI's original DSSC design. In achieving this goal, this report clearly establishes the viability of the basic gammavoltaic energy conversion concept, yet it also identifies a set of challenges that must be met for practical implementation of this new technology.

  20. Processing of Microalgae: Acoustic Cavitation and Hydrothermal Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenly, Justin Michael

    The production of energy dense fuels from renewable algal biomass feedstocks -- if sustainably developed at a sufficiently large scale -- may reduce the consumption of petroleum from fossil fuels and provide many environmental benefits. Achieving economic feasibility has several technical engineering challenges that arise from dilute concentration of growing algae in aqueous media, small cell sizes, and durable cell walls. For microalgae to be a sustainable source of biofuels and co-products, efficient fractionation and conversion of the cellular contents is necessary. Research was carried out to address two processing options for efficient microalgae biofuel production: 1. Ultrasonic cavitation for cell disruption and 2. Hydrothermal conversion of a model algal triglyceride. 1. Ultrasonic cell disruption, which relies on cavitating bubbles in the suspension to produce damaging shock waves, was investigated experimentally over a range of concentrations and species types. A few seconds of high intensity sonication at fixed frequency yielded significant cell disruption, even for the more durable cells. At longer exposure times, effectiveness was seen to decline and was attributed, using acoustic measurements, to ultrasonic power attenuation in the ensuing cloud of cavitating bubbles. Processing at higher cell concentrations slowed cell disintegration marginally, but increased the effectiveness of dissipating ultrasonic energy. A theoretical study effectively predicted optimal conditions for a variety of parameters that were inaccessible in this experimental investigation. In that study, single bubble collapse was modeled to identify operating conditions that would increase cavitation, and thus cell disruption. Simulations were conducted by varying frequency and pressure amplitude of the ultrasound wave, and initial bubble size. The simulation results indicated that low frequency, high sound wave amplitudes, and small initial bubble size generate the highest shock

  1. Petite fabrique de conversation francaise (Little Factory of French Conversation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubroca, Danielle

    1987-01-01

    A technique using dialogues and realistic prose passages from the works of Georges Simenon and Simone de Beauvoir to teach French conversational skills at the college level is explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  2. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  3. Wavelength conversion through soliton self-frequency shift in tellurite microstructured fiber with picosecond pump pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Wanjun; Li, Xia; Xing, Zhaojun; Zhou, Qinling; Fang, Yongzheng; Gao, Weiqing; Xiong, Liangming; Hu, Lili; Liao, Meisong

    2016-01-01

    Wavelength conversion to the wavelength range that is not covered by commercially available lasers could be accomplished through the soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) effect. In this study, the phenomenon of SSFS pumped by a picosecond-order pulse in a tellurite microstructured fiber is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The balance between the dispersion and the nonlinearity achieved by a 1958 nm pump laser induces a distinct SSFS effect. Attributed to the large spectral distance between the pump pulse and the fiber zero-dispersion wavelength, the SSFS is not cancelled due to energy shedding from the soliton to the dispersive wave. Details about the physical mechanisms behind this phenomenon and the variations of the wavelength shift, the conversion efficiency are revealed based on numerical simulations. Owing to the large soliton number N, the pulse width of the first split fundamental soliton is approximately 40 fs, producing a pulse compression factor of ˜38, much higher than that pumped by a femtosecond pulse. Experiments were also conducted to confirm the validity of the simulation results. By varying the pump power, a continuous soliton shift from 1990 nm to 2264 nm was generated. The generation of SSFS in tellurite microstructured fibers with picosecond pump pulse can provide a new approach for wavelength conversion in the mid-infrared range and could be useful in medical and some other areas.

  4. Direct conversion of wet algae to crude biodiesel under supercritical ethanol conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Harvind K.; Muppaneni, Tapaswy; Patil, Prafulla D.; Ponnusamy, Sundaravadivelnathan; Cooke, Peter; Schaub, Tanner; Deng, Shuguang

    2013-08-06

    This paper presents a single-step, environmentally friendly approach for the direct conversion of wet algae to crude biodiesel under supercritical ethanol conditions. Ethanol was used for the simultaneous extraction and transesterification of lipids in algae to produce fatty acid ethyl esters at supercritical conditions. In this work the effects of process parameters dry algae to ethanol (wt./vol.) ratio (1:6-1:15), reaction temperature (245-270 C), and reaction time (2-30 min.) on the yield of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were studied. 67% conversion was achieved at 265 C and 20 min of reaction time. The calorific value of a purified biodiesel sample produced at optimum conditions was measured to be 43 MJ/kg, which is higher than that of fatty acid methyl esters produced from the same biomass. The purified fatty acid ethyl esters were analyzed using GC-MS and FTIR. TGA analysis of algal biomass and purified FAEE was presented along with TEM images of the biomass captured before and after supercritical ethanol transesterification. This green conversion process has the potential to provide an energy-efficient and economical route for the production of renewable biodiesel production.

  5. Energy conversion and storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemical and chemical engineering principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels; (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy storage; (4) characterization of complex chemical processes; and (5) the application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, and advanced methods of analysis. The following five areas are discussed: electrochemical energy storage and conversion; microstructured materials; biotechnology; fossil fuels; and high temperature superconducting processing. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  6. Orienting to Topic in Clinical Discourse Elicitation of Everyday Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fond, Marissa Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Talking topically, as it is understood intuitively and evoked metadiscursively, requires constructing an intersubjective orientation to talk that must be continually renewed. Analysis of interactants' ability to orient to topic emergence provides evidence of what is achieved in interaction, as well as why conversational coordination can lapse…

  7. The Conversational Historical Present in Oral Spanish Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla, Carrie L.

    2011-01-01

    This article contributes to the literature on the use of the present tense to refer to past events in oral narratives, otherwise known as the Conversational Historical Present (CHP) (Wolfson 1978). Previous research has found that the CHP switches with the past (Wolfson 1979) frequently with verbs of saying and achievement verbs (Dunn 1998; Van…

  8. Critical Influence of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Aging and Decomposition on the Utility of Biomass Conversion in Organic Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Galkin, Konstantin I; Krivodaeva, Elena A; Romashov, Leonid V; Zalesskiy, Sergey S; Kachala, Vadim V; Burykina, Julia V; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2016-07-11

    Spectral studies revealed the presence of a specific arrangement of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) molecules in solution as a result of a hydrogen-bonding network, and this arrangement readily facilitates the aging of 5-HMF. Deterioration of the quality of this platform chemical limits its practical applications, especially in synthesis/pharma areas. The model drug Ranitidine (Zantac®) was synthesized with only 15 % yield starting from 5-HMF which was isolated and stored as an oil after a biomass conversion process. In contrast, a much higher yield of 65 % was obtained by using 5-HMF isolated in crystalline state from an optimized biomass conversion process. The molecular mechanisms responsible for 5-HMF decomposition in solution were established by NMR and ESI-MS studies. A highly selective synthesis of a 5-HMF derivative from glucose was achieved using a protecting group at O(6) position.

  9. Wind energy conversion in the MW range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lois, L.

    The purpose of this paper is threefold: (1) to show that certain wind patterns above the continental United States are particularly suited for wind energy conversion utilizing wind powered stations in the MWe range, (2) to describe a system specifically designed for such stations, and (3) to present calculations which show that such a system is within the range of existing technology. The proposed system is based on the existence of a wind pattern called the low level jet in which (a) the average wind speed is 2.0 to 3.0 times higher than at the 300 ft level, and (b) the diurnal and seasonal variations are smaller than at 300 ft. The higher specific power and utilization factor which result from the characteristics of the low level jet contribute to higher power level per installation and power cost per unit energy produced.

  10. Dynamic Conversion Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaffee, N.; Sovie, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of dynamic conversion devices for use in solar and nuclear dynamic space power systems was addressed. Conversion systems considered were based on the use of Brayton, Stirling and Rankine cycles. Both organic and liquid metal Rankine cycles were included. The basic system considerations were: mission requirements, system attributes, system options, technology issues and constraints, and priorities of needed technology development. Mission requirements, where dynamic conversion was considered enabling technology, were identified along with the associated power levels and potential energy sources. When considering the system options special attention was given to recommend operating temperatures and other significant discriminators. A list of prioritized tasks considered important for the successful development of dynamic conversion systems for 1995 and beyond was compiled.

  11. Conversational topics in transsexual persons.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Cayzeele, Miet; Heirman, Eva; T'sjoen, Guy

    2014-06-01

    Abstract In general, speech language therapy for transsexual persons focuses on pitch and pitch variation and more recently also on resonance. Other communicative aspects are dealt with far less often, especially language. This study investigated to what extent conversational topics might need attention in therapy for transsexual persons. A total of 111 males, 116 females, 28 male-to-female and 18 female-to-male transsexuals were asked to indicate on a list with 34 topics how often they speak about each topic (never, sometimes, often) in conversations with males, with females and in a gender mixed group. Results showed that transsexual persons behave in accordance with the desired gender. However, they also tend to adopt a position depending on the gender of their conversational partner. It can be concluded that in general it is not necessary to pay attention to conversational topics in therapy for transsexual persons.

  12. Energy conversion at dipolarization fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Divin, A.; Vaivads, A.; André, M.; Markidis, S.

    2017-02-01

    We use multispacecraft observations by Cluster in the Earth's magnetotail and 3-D particle-in-cell simulations to investigate conversion of electromagnetic energy at the front of a fast plasma jet. We find that the major energy conversion is happening in the Earth (laboratory) frame, where the electromagnetic energy is being transferred from the electromagnetic field to particles. This process operates in a region with size of the order several ion inertial lengths across the jet front, and the primary contribution to E·j is coming from the motional electric field and the ion current. In the frame of the front we find fluctuating energy conversion with localized loads and generators at sub-ion scales which are primarily related to the lower hybrid drift instability excited at the front; however, these provide relatively small net energy conversion.

  13. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  14. Virginia Hamilton: Continuing the Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkelsen, Nina

    1995-01-01

    Relates the latest installment of a continuing conversation between the author and Virginia Hamilton. Discusses ethnicity and identity, environmental issues, the creative process, and the way heritage, history, and family storytelling affect a writer's work. (RS)

  15. NASA thermionic-conversion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Technological processes in out-of-core thermionic energy conversion are described. The emphasis was on high temperature electrode materials and system engineering of converter geometries to produce practical power densities.

  16. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    PubMed

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior

  17. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  18. Development of Geodetic Conversion Routines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    horizontal and vertical datums in the United States. It provides examples to invoke the Dynamic Link Library and use conversion functions in various programming languages, such as Visual Basic , C, and C++.

  19. Efficient quantum computing using coherent photon conversion.

    PubMed

    Langford, N K; Ramelow, S; Prevedel, R; Munro, W J; Milburn, G J; Zeilinger, A

    2011-10-12

    Single photons are excellent quantum information carriers: they were used in the earliest demonstrations of entanglement and in the production of the highest-quality entanglement reported so far. However, current schemes for preparing, processing and measuring them are inefficient. For example, down-conversion provides heralded, but randomly timed, single photons, and linear optics gates are inherently probabilistic. Here we introduce a deterministic process--coherent photon conversion (CPC)--that provides a new way to generate and process complex, multiquanta states for photonic quantum information applications. The technique uses classically pumped nonlinearities to induce coherent oscillations between orthogonal states of multiple quantum excitations. One example of CPC, based on a pumped four-wave-mixing interaction, is shown to yield a single, versatile process that provides a full set of photonic quantum processing tools. This set satisfies the DiVincenzo criteria for a scalable quantum computing architecture, including deterministic multiqubit entanglement gates (based on a novel form of photon-photon interaction), high-quality heralded single- and multiphoton states free from higher-order imperfections, and robust, high-efficiency detection. It can also be used to produce heralded multiphoton entanglement, create optically switchable quantum circuits and implement an improved form of down-conversion with reduced higher-order effects. Such tools are valuable building blocks for many quantum-enabled technologies. Finally, using photonic crystal fibres we experimentally demonstrate quantum correlations arising from a four-colour nonlinear process suitable for CPC and use these measurements to study the feasibility of reaching the deterministic regime with current technology. Our scheme, which is based on interacting bosonic fields, is not restricted to optical systems but could also be implemented in optomechanical, electromechanical and superconducting

  20. Natural gas conversion process. Sixth quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  1. Frequency conversion of structured light.

    PubMed

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P

    2016-02-15

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging.

  2. Frequency conversion of structured light

    PubMed Central

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P.

    2016-01-01

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging. PMID:26875448

  3. Frequency conversion of structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P.

    2016-02-01

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging.

  4. Intermodal Čerenkov radiation in a higher-order-mode fiber.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ji; Pedersen, Martin E V; Charan, Kriti; Wang, Ke; Xu, Chris; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate an intermodal Čerenkov radiation effect in a higher-order-mode (HOM) fiber with a mode crossing (i.e., two guided modes having the same propagation constant at the same wavelength). A frequency-shifted soliton in the vicinity of the mode-crossing wavelength emits a phase-matched dispersive wave in a different propagation mode. We develop a theoretical explanation for this nonlinear optical effect and demonstrate that the mode crossing in HOM fibers can be utilized to achieve simultaneous wavelength and mode conversion; the strength of this intermodal nonlinear interaction can be tuned by controlled fiber bending.

  5. Enhancing The Mode Conversion Efficiency In JET Plasmas With Multiple Mode Conversion Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E.; Johnson, T.; Hellsten, T.; Ongena, J.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Frigione, D.; Sozzi, C.; Calabro, G.; Lennholm, M.; Beaumont, P.; Blackman, T.; Brennan, D.; Brett, A.; Cecconello, M.; Coffey, I.; Coyne, A.; Crombe, K.; Czarnecka, A.; Felton, R.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Giroud, C.; Gorini, G.; Hellesen, C.; Jacquet, P.; Kazakov, Y.; Kiptily, V.; Knipe, S.; Krasilnikov, A.; Lin, Y.; Maslov, M.; Monakhov, I.; Noble, C.; Nocente, M.; Pangioni, L.; Proverbio, I.; Stamp, M.; Studholme, W.; Tardocchi, M.; Versloot, T. W.; Vdovin, V.; Whitehurst, A.; Wooldridge, E.; Zoita, V.

    2011-12-01

    The constructive interference effect described by Fuchs et al. [1] shows that the mode conversion and thereby the overall heating efficiency can be enhanced significantly when an integer number of fast wave wavelengths can be folded in between the high field side fast wave cutoff and the ion-ion hybrid layer(s) at which the ion Bernstein or ion cyclotron waves are excited. This effect was already experimentally identified in (3He)-D plasmas [2] and was recently tested in (3He)-H JET plasmas. The latter is an `inverted' scenario, which differs significantly from the (3He)-D scenarios since the mode-conversion layer is positioned between the low field side edge of the plasma and the ion-cyclotron layer of the minority 3He ions (whereas the order in which a wave entering the plasma from the low field side encounters these layers is inverted in a `regular' scenario), and because much lower 3He concentrations are needed to achieve the mode-conversion heating regime. The presence of small amounts of 4He and D in the discharges gave rise to an additional mode conversion layer on top of the expected one associated with 3He-H, which made the interpretation of the results more complex but also more interesting: Three different regimes could be distinguished as a function of X[3He], and the differing dynamics at the various concentrations could be traced back to the presence of these two mode conversion layers and their associated fast wave cutoffs. Whereas (1-D and 2-D) numerical modeling yields quantitative information on the RF absorptivity, recent analytical work by Kazakov [3] permits to grasp the dominant underlying wave interaction physics.

  6. Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teofilo, V. L.; Choong, P.; Chen, W.; Chang, J.; Tseng, Y.-L.

    2006-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion cells have made steady and over the years considerable progress since first evaluated by Lockheed Martin for direct conversion using nuclear power sources in the mid 1980s. The design trades and evaluations for application to the early defensive missile satellites of the Strategic Defense Initiative found the cell technology to be immature with unacceptably low cell efficiencies comparable to thermoelectric of <10%. Rapid advances in the epitaxial growth technology for ternary compound semiconductors, novel double hetero-structure junctions, innovative monolithic integrated cell architecture, and bandpass tandem filter have, in concert, significantly improved cell efficiencies to 25% with the promise of 35% using solar cell like multi-junction approach in the near future. Recent NASA sponsored design and feasibility testing programs have demonstrated the potential for 19% system efficiency for 100 We radioisotopic power sources at an integrated specific power of ~14 We/kg. Current state of TPV cell technology however limits the operating temperature of the converter cells to < 400K due to radiator mass consideration. This limitation imposes no system mass penalty for the low power application for use with radioisotopes power sources because of the high specific power of the TPV cell converters. However, the application of TPV energy conversion for high power sources has been perceived as having a major impediment above 1 kWe due to the relative low waste heat rejection temperature. We explore this limitation and compare the integrated specific power of TPV converters with current and projected TPV cells with other advanced space power conversion technologies. We find that when the redundancy needed required for extended space exploration missions is considered, the TPV converters have a much higher range of applicability then previously understood. Furthermore, we believe that with a relatively modest modifications of the

  7. 2011 Higher Education Sustainability Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Margo, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Looking through the lens of AASHE Bulletin stories in 2011, this year's review reveals an increased focus on higher education access, affordability, and success; more green building efforts than ever before; and growing campus-community engagement on food security, among many other achievements. Contributors include James Applegate (Lumina…

  8. Social Justice and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Massification of higher education has not been able to solve societal issues in the UK to the extent originally envisaged. Whilst universities have achieved increased student numbers and widened participation from various societal groups, those coming from socially disadvantaged groups can still often have a very different experience of university…

  9. Plasmolysis for efficient CO2 -to-fuel conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooij, Gerard

    2015-09-01

    The strong non-equilibrium conditions provided by the plasma phase offer the opportunity to beat traditional thermal process energy efficiencies via preferential excitation of molecular vibrational modes. It is therefore a promising option for creating artificial solar fuels from CO2as raw material using (intermittently available) sustainable energy surpluses, which can easily be deployed within the present infrastructure for conventional fossil fuels. In this presentation, a common microwave reactor approach is evaluated experimentally with Rayleigh scattering and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to assess gas temperatures and conversion degrees, respectively. The results are interpreted on basis of estimates of the plasma dynamics obtained with electron energy distribution functions calculated with a Boltzmann solver. It indicates that the intrinsic electron energies are higher than is favourable for preferential vibrational excitation due to dissociative excitation, which causes thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry still to dominate the initial experiments. Novel reactor approaches are proposed to tailor the plasma dynamics to achieve the non-equilibrium in which vibrational excitation is dominant. In collaboration with Dirk van den Bekerom, Niek den Harder, Teofil Minea, Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Eindhoven, Netherlands; Gield Berden, Institute for Molecules and Materials, FELIX facility, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands; Richard Engeln, Applied Physics, Plasma en Materials Processing, Eindhoven University of Technology; and Waldo Bongers, Martijn Graswinckel, Erwin Zoethout, Richard van de Sanden, Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Eindhoven, Netherlands.

  10. Preliminary core design studies for the advanced burner reactor over a wide range of conversion ratios.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E. A.; Yang, W. S.; Hill, R. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-05-05

    A consistent set of designs for 1000 MWt commercial-scale sodium-cooled Advance Burner Reactors (ABR) have been developed for both metal and oxide-fueled cores with conversion ratios from breakeven (CR=1.0) to fertile-free (CR=0.0). These designs are expected to satisfy thermal and irradiation damage limits based on the currently available data. The very low conversion ratio designs require fuel that is beyond the current fuel database, which is anticipated to be qualified by and for the Advanced Burned Test Reactor. Safety and kinetic parameters were calculated, but a safety analysis was not performed. Development of these designs was required to achieve the primary goal of this study, which was to generate representative fuel cycle mass flows for system studies of ABRs as part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). There are slight variations with conversion ratio but the basic ABR configuration consists of 144 fuel assemblies and between 9 and 22 primary control assemblies for both the metal and oxide-fueled cores. Preliminary design studies indicated that it is feasible to design the ABR to accommodate a wide range of conversion ratio by employing different assembly designs and including sufficient control assemblies to accommodate the large reactivity swing at low conversion ratios. The assemblies are designed to fit within the same geometry, but the size and number of fuel pins within each assembly are significantly different in order to achieve the target conversion ratio while still satisfying thermal limits. Current irradiation experience would allow for a conversion ratio of somewhat below 0.75. The fuel qualification for the first ABR should expand this experience to allow for much lower conversion ratios and higher bunrups. The current designs were based on assumptions about the performance of high and very high enrichment fuel, which results in significant uncertainty about the details of the designs. However, the basic fuel cycle performance

  11. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  12. Leadership, self-efficacy, and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Kristin

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the Leadership Behavior Description Question (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969), the Science Efficacy and Belief Expectations for Science Teaching (SEBEST) by Ritter, Boone, and Rubba (2001, January). Students' scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) measured fifth-grade science achievement. At the teacher level of analysis multiple regressions showed the following relationships between teachers' science self-efficacy and teacher classroom leadership behaviors and the various teacher and school demographic variables. Predictors of teacher self efficacy beliefs included teacher's level of education, gender, and leadership initiating structure. The only significant predictor of teacher self-efficacy outcome expectancy was gender. Higher teacher self-efficacy beliefs predicted higher leadership initiating structure. At the school level of analysis, higher school levels of percentage of students from low socio-economic backgrounds and higher percentage of limited English proficient students predicted lower school student mean science achievement. These findings suggest a need for continued research to clarify relationships between teacher classroom leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement especially at the teacher level of analysis. Findings also indicate the importance of developing instructional methods to address student demographics and their needs so that all students, despite their backgrounds, will achieve in science.

  13. Biological conversion of methane to liquid fuels: status and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xumeng; Yang, Liangcheng; Sheets, Johnathon P; Yu, Zhongtang; Li, Yebo

    2014-12-01

    Methane is the main component of natural gas and biogas. As an abundant energy source, methane is crucial not only to meet current energy needs but also to achieve a sustainable energy future. Conversion of methane to liquid fuels provides energy-dense products and therefore reduces costs for storage, transportation, and distribution. Compared to thermochemical processes, biological conversion has advantages such as high conversion efficiency and using environmentally friendly processes. This paper is a comprehensive review of studies on three promising groups of microorganisms (methanotrophs, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and acetogens) that hold potential in converting methane to liquid fuels; their habitats, biochemical conversion mechanisms, performance in liquid fuels production, and genetic modification to enhance the conversion are also discussed. To date, methane-to-methanol conversion efficiencies (moles of methanol produced per mole methane consumed) of up to 80% have been reported. A number of issues that impede scale-up of this technology, such as mass transfer limitations of methane, inhibitory effects of H2S in biogas, usage of expensive chemicals as electron donors, and lack of native strains capable of converting methane to liquid fuels other than methanol, are discussed. Future perspectives and strategies in addressing these challenges are also discussed.

  14. What Happens to the Fish's Achievement in a Little Pond? A Simultaneous Analysis of Class-Average Achievement Effects on Achievement and Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stäbler, Franziska; Dumont, Hanna; Becker, Michael; Baumert, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Empirical studies have demonstrated that students who are taught in a group of students with higher average achievement benefit in terms of their achievement. However, there is also evidence showing that being surrounded by high-achieving students has a negative effect on students' academic self-concept, also known as the big-fish--little-pond…

  15. Targeted heritable mutation and gene conversion by Cas9-CRISPR in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Katic, Iskra; Großhans, Helge

    2013-11-01

    We have achieved targeted heritable genome modification in Caenorhabditis elegans by injecting mRNA of the nuclease Cas9 and Cas9 guide RNAs. This system rapidly creates precise genomic changes, including knockouts and transgene-instructed gene conversion.

  16. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, E. J.

    1993-06-01

    This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  17. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  18. CSUMB: Military base conversion as an opportunity for sustainable design

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, M.; Cooper, P.; Haggard, K.

    1995-11-01

    The conversion of military bases around the country creates an imperative to infuse social, economic, and environmental vitality back into the affected region. Fort Ord in Monterey County, a recent casualty of base closures, is being turned into an opportunity for adaptive reuse as it undergoes the transformation from an army base to a magnet campus of the California State University (CSU) system. The CSU Monterey Bay (CSUMB) campus visionaries included sustainability as a priority in the base conversion. To achieve this goal, the university hired a team of sustainable design consultants. This paper reports on the outcomes of the preliminary design and planning phases.

  19. Prospect of triggering the 178m2Hf isomer and the role of resonance conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpeshin, F. F.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.; Zhang, J.

    2009-03-01

    A mechanism of triggering the 12.7keV E3 transition, based on the new decay mode of the 31y isomer via resonance internal conversion and emission of a 1.4keV X-ray quantum, is considered. Actually, this decay mode was observed previously in the decay of 45- and 46-fold ions of 125Te . For the purpose of triggering, the atomic radiative vertex has to be induced by resonance radiation. This mechanism makes triggering by an order of magnitude more efficient than triggering a bare nucleus, and is achieved at a lower combination frequency. An experiment is proposed for the direct observation of the new decay mode. This also offers a new way of resonance scattering of these X-rays. Triggering through higher-lying 2573 and 2805keV states is also considered. The results are extended to the general problem of triggering. The main obstacle for enhancing the efficiency is a high internal conversion rate. For this reason, shape isomers with low multipole order -- E1 , M1 , and with a high enough energy of triggering transition are of interest for triggering. The partial ionization of the outer electrons will also help. The same recommendations hold for triggering isomers in laser-produced plasma.

  20. "Hunger Hurts, but Starving Works". The Moral Conversion to Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Gisella

    2017-03-01

    This article aims to shed light on the self-perceptions of people with eating disorders in Malta and Italy through a deep understanding of their narratives. In contrast to the biomedical perception of the phenomenon and in opposition with the prevalent feminist theories on the subject, I consider eating disorders as the result of self-transformative processes. I suggest that anorexics, bulimics and binge eaters are actively and deliberately engaged in a project of moral self-transformation that is culturally defined. The moral transformations of women with eating disorders in Malta and Italy, the two considered contexts of this research, reflect the social expectations of women in these societies. The drastic changes in personal attitudes towards both food and the body that characterise eating disorders are the result of a complete dedication to the moral values embodied in thinness, namely the control of bodily needs and pleasure. The self-transformative process of people with eating disorders can be understood as a form of moral conversion along a continuum of increasing control over hunger: the higher the control, the higher the level of satisfaction and the degree of moral conversion achieved. Considering the general low recovery rates of people with eating disorders, this approach helps in the understanding of why people who are diagnosed with an eating disorder accept medical definitions and treatments to different extents.

  1. Asymptotic cost in document conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blostein, Dorothea; Nagy, George

    2012-01-01

    In spite of a hundredfold decrease in the cost of relevant technologies, the role of document image processing systems is gradually declining due to the transition to an on-line world. Nevertheless, in some high-volume applications, document image processing software still saves millions of dollars by accelerating workflow, and similarly large savings could be realized by more effective automation of the multitude of low-volume personal document conversions. While potential cost savings, based on estimates of costs and values, are a driving force for new developments, quantifying such savings is difficult. The most important trend is that the cost of computing resources for DIA is becoming insignificant compared to the associated labor costs. An econometric treatment of document processing complements traditional performance evaluation, which focuses on assessing the correctness of the results produced by document conversion software. Researchers should look beyond the error rate for advancing both production and personal document conversion.

  2. Conversations with Environmental Educators: A Conversation with Four Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volk, Trudi L.

    2003-01-01

    This article includes a conversation with four environmental education classroom teachers. The author introduces the four classroom teachers, Marie Marrs, Barb Pietrucha, Vicki Newberry, and Dara Lukonen. In the interview, the four environmental education classroom teachers describe the environmental education in their classrooms. Three of these…

  3. La Conversation par le theatre (Conversation through Theater).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayoff, Marie-Jose

    1986-01-01

    A successful advanced college-level French conversation course using French theater as a basis for students to learn oral skills has six phases: an overview of the history of French theater, reading, adaptation of the text, rehearsal-readings, final rehearsals, and performance. (MSE)

  4. Power conversion in electrical networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Aspects of dc to dc conversion were studied in terms of a class of switching voltage regulators from a stability viewpoint. Background concepts of nonlinear system theory were considered, including the problem of obtaining suitable realizations for a class of positive operators. It is shown that the state evolution equations for a power conversion network are in general of bilinear form, and that the theory of lie groups and lie algebras is useful in analyzing such systems. The feedback stabilization of a class of bilinear systems whose state space is a manifold is also discussed.

  5. Review of betavoltaic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Larry C.

    1993-01-01

    Betavoltaic energy conversion refers to the generation of power by coupling a beta source to a semiconductor junction device. The theory of betavoltaic energy conversion and some past studies of the subject are briefly reviewed. Calculations of limiting efficiencies for semiconductor cells versus bandgap are presented along with specific studies for Pm-147 and Ni-63 fueled devices. The approach used for fabricating Pm-147 fueled batteries by the author in the early 1970's is reviewed. Finally, the potential performance of advanced betavoltaic power sources is considered.

  6. Pronunciation models for conversational speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Keith

    2005-09-01

    Using a pronunciation dictionary of clear speech citation forms a segment deletion rate of nearly 12% is found in a corpus of conversational speech. The number of apparent segment deletions can be reduced by constructing a pronunciation dictionary that records one or more of the actual pronunciations found in conversational speech; however, the resulting empirical pronunciation dictionary often fails to include the citation pronunciation form. Issues involved in selecting pronunciations for a dictionary for linguistic, psycholinguistic, and ASR research will be discussed. One conclusion is that Ladefoged may have been the wiser for avoiding the business of producing pronunciation dictionaries. [Supported by NIDCD Grant No. R01 DC04330-03.

  7. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A. N.; Brizard, A.J.; Kaufman, A.N.; Tracy, E.R.

    2008-07-30

    A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.

  8. Electrocatalytic process for carbon dioxide conversion

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2017-01-31

    An electrocatalytic process for carbon dioxide conversion includes combining a Catalytically Active Element and Helper Catalyst in the presence of carbon dioxide, allowing a reaction to proceed to produce a reaction product, and applying electrical energy to said reaction to achieve electrochemical conversion of said reactant to said reaction product. The Catalytically Active Element can be a metal in the form of supported or unsupported particles or flakes with an average size between 0.6 nm and 100 nm. the reaction products comprise at least one of CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and CF.sub.3COOH.

  9. Plasma-induced conversion of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental results are reported for an electrical device for direct conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons. A microchannel plate is excited with electrons from a photoemissive source, and electron impact ionization of methane on the inner surfaces of the microchannels creates an ion feedback process. The resulting low-density plasma creates higher hydrocarbons when charged particles impact the surfaces at grazing incidence. The production Of C{sub 2} to C{sub 8}-containing gases was noted, with a selectivity for C{sub 2} of 39% in one case. The proportions of converted products and the conversion rates depend upon the electrical voltage, the microchannel geometry, and the operating pressure. Conversion rates increase with operating pressure.

  10. Plasma-induced conversion of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.

    1992-07-01

    Experimental results are reported for an electrical device for direct conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons. A microchannel plate is excited with electrons from a photoemissive source, and electron impact ionization of methane on the inner surfaces of the microchannels creates an ion feedback process. The resulting low-density plasma creates higher hydrocarbons when charged particles impact the surfaces at grazing incidence. The production Of C{sub 2} to C{sub 8}-containing gases was noted, with a selectivity for C{sub 2} of 39% in one case. The proportions of converted products and the conversion rates depend upon the electrical voltage, the microchannel geometry, and the operating pressure. Conversion rates increase with operating pressure.

  11. Calculation Methods and Conversions for Pesticide Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of conversion tables and formulas for determining concentration and rate of application of pesticides. Contents include: (1) Area and volume conversions; (2) Important conversion formulae; (3) Conversions for rates of application; (4) Quantities of pesticide…

  12. 16 CFR 1012.7 - Telephone conversations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Telephone conversations. 1012.7 Section 1012... AGENCY PERSONNEL AND OUTSIDE PARTIES § 1012.7 Telephone conversations. (a) Telephone conversations... meet with Agency employees. However, because telephone conversations, by their very nature, are...

  13. 16 CFR 1012.7 - Telephone conversations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Telephone conversations. 1012.7 Section 1012... AGENCY PERSONNEL AND OUTSIDE PARTIES § 1012.7 Telephone conversations. (a) Telephone conversations... meet with Agency employees. However, because telephone conversations, by their very nature, are...

  14. 16 CFR 1012.7 - Telephone conversations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Telephone conversations. 1012.7 Section 1012... AGENCY PERSONNEL AND OUTSIDE PARTIES § 1012.7 Telephone conversations. (a) Telephone conversations... meet with Agency employees. However, because telephone conversations, by their very nature, are...

  15. 16 CFR 1012.7 - Telephone conversations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Telephone conversations. 1012.7 Section 1012... AGENCY PERSONNEL AND OUTSIDE PARTIES § 1012.7 Telephone conversations. (a) Telephone conversations... meet with Agency employees. However, because telephone conversations, by their very nature, are...

  16. 16 CFR 1012.7 - Telephone conversations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Telephone conversations. 1012.7 Section 1012... AGENCY PERSONNEL AND OUTSIDE PARTIES § 1012.7 Telephone conversations. (a) Telephone conversations... meet with Agency employees. However, because telephone conversations, by their very nature, are...

  17. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Sands, M. Dale

    1980-08-01

    Significant achievements in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology have increased the probability of producing OTEC-derived power in this decade with subsequent large-scale commercialization to follow by the turn of the century. Under U.S. Department of Energy funding, Interstate Electronics has prepared an OTEC Programmatic Environmental Assessment (EA) that considers tne development, demonstration, and commercialization of OTEC power systems. The EA considers several tecnnological designs (open cycle and closed cycle), plant configurations (land-based, moored, and plantship), and power usages (baseload electricity and production of ammonia and aluminum). Potencial environmental impacts, health and safety issues, and a status update of international, federal, and state plans and policies, as they may influence OTEC deployments, are included.

  18. On-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in photonic-phononic hybrid waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guodong; Zhang, Ruiwen; Sun, Junqiang

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme for reversible and tunable on-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in a hybrid photonic-phononic waveguide. The dynamic grating is built up through the acousto-optic effect and the theoretical model of the optical mode conversion is developed by considering the geometrical deformation and refractive index change. Three kinds of mode conversions are able to be realized using the same hybrid waveguide structure in a large bandwidth by only changing the launched acoustic frequency. The complete mode conversion can be achieved by choosing a proper acoustic power under a given waveguide length. PMID:25996236

  19. Values, achievement goals, and individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motivations among Chinese and Indonesian secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Liem, Arief Darmanegara; Nie, Youyan

    2008-10-01

    This study examined how values related to achievement goals and individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motivations among secondary school students in China (N = 355) and Indonesia (N = 356). Statistical comparisons showed the Chinese students endorsed more strongly than the Indonesian students on self-direction and hedonism values, individual-oriented achievement motivation, and mastery-approach goals. Conversely, the Indonesian students endorsed more strongly than their Chinese counterparts on security, conformity, tradition, universalism and achievement values, social-oriented achievement motivation, and performance-approach and mastery-avoidance goals. Values explained a significant amount of the variance in almost all of the dimensions of motivation. Etic and emic relationships between values and achievement motivations were found.

  20. Achieving Small School Success in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Of Washington State's 296 school districts, two-thirds have 2,000 or fewer students. These small school districts provide unique learning opportunities for Washington's children, but also present special challenges to achieving the higher standards called for in the state education reform bill and recent federal legislation. This report provides…

  1. A Human Achievement: Mathematics without Boundaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzioglu, Tosun

    This paper describes three fundamental principles, dictated by Wilhelm von Humboldt, that were widely adapted as the basic philosophy of higher education in the United States, and proposes to revise the unfulfilled dream of von Humboldt to make it come true. This paper stresses the achievements of humanity not only in technology, health, or the…

  2. Achievement in Boys' Schools 2010-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Cathy; Berg, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This report explores the achievement of school leavers from state and state-integrated boys' schools. The analysis from 2010 to 2012 shows school leavers from state boys' schools had higher qualifications than their male counterparts who attended state co-educational schools. The research was carried out for the Association of Boys' Schools of New…

  3. Academic Freedom, Achievement Standards and Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, D. Royce

    2011-01-01

    The tension between the freedom of academics to grade the achievements of their students without interference or coercion and the prerogative of higher education institutions to control grading standards is often deliberated by weighing up the authority and rights of the two parties. An alternative approach is to start with an analysis of the…

  4. The Virginia Plan for Higher Education, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Council of Higher Education, Richmond.

    The Council of Higher Education, in this state-mandated biennial plan, sets four goals for Virginia's state-supported system of higher education to achieve: access, excellence, accountability, and placement among the best systems of higher education in the United States. The plan concentrates on the 84 degree-granting institutions that have been…

  5. Materials of construction for advanced coal conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nangia, V.K.

    1982-01-01

    This book describes materials of construction, and materials problems for equipment used in advanced coal conversion systems. The need for cost effective industrial operation is always a prime concern, particularly in this age of energy consciousness. Industry is continually seeking improved materials for more efficient systems. The information presented here is intended to be of use in the design and planning of these systems. Coal conversion and utilization impose severe demands on construction materials because of high temperature, high pressure, corrosive/erosive, and other hostile environmental factors. Successful economic development of these processes can be achieved only to the extent that working materials can withstand increasingly more aggressive operating conditions. The book, which reviews present and past work on the behavior of materials in the environments of advanced coal conversion systems, is divided into three parts: atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, coal gasification and liquefaction, and advanced power systems.

  6. Novel, Integrated Reactor / Power Conversion System (LMR-AMTEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Pablo Rubiolo, Principal Investigator

    2003-03-21

    The main features of this project were the development of a long life (up to 10 years) Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) and a static conversion subsystem comprising an Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric (AMTEC) topping cycle and a ThermoElectric (TE) Bottom cycle. Various coupling options of the LMR with the energy conversion subsystem were explored and, base in the performances found in this analysis, an Indirect Coupling (IC) between the LMR and the AMTEC/TE converters with Alkali Metal Boilers (AMB) was chosen as the reference design. The performance model of the fully integrated sodium-and potassium-AMTEC/TE converters shows that a combined conversion efficiency in excess of 30% could be achieved by the plant. (B204)

  7. Conversion of lignocellulosics pretreated with liquid hot water to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Walsum, G.P. van; Laser, M.S.; Lynd, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    Lignocellulosic materials pretreated using liquid hot water (LHW) (220{degrees}C, 5 MPa, 120 s) were fermented to ethanol by batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of Trichoderma reesei cellulose. SSF of sugarcane bagasse (as received), aspen chips (smallest dimension 3 mm), and mixed hardwood flour (-60 +70 mesh) resulted in 90% conversion to ethanol in 2-5 d at enzyme loadings of 15-30 FPU/g. In most cases, 90% of the final conversion was achieved within 75 h of inoculation. Comminution of the pretreated substrates did not affect the conversion to ethanol. The hydrolysate produced from the LHW pretreatment showed slight inhibition of batch growth of S. cerevisiae. Solids pretreated at a concentration of 100 g/L were as reactive as those pretreated at a lower concentration, provided that the temperature was maintained at 220{degrees}C. 51 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  9. Taking the Grading Conversation Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    To manage effective grading reform, education leaders must engage teachers, parents, communities, and policymakers in a rational discussion about grading. Doug Reeves suggests that leaders start the conversation with a discussion of the principles on which all stakeholders can agree; make clear what will not change under the new grading policy; be…

  10. A Conversation with Edwin Shneidman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestian, John

    2010-01-01

    This article is a transcript of a conversation that took place with Edwin Shneidman, PhD, on August 19, 2008. Recent advances in machine learning, particularly neurocognitive computing, have provided a fresh approach to the idea of using computers to analyze the language of the suicidal person. Here this notion and many others are discussed.

  11. Batteries: Beyond intercalation and conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaud, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Conventional positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries, such as intercalation and conversion compounds, feature a host structure to reversibly insert and conduct lithium ions. Now, electrochemically activated transition metal oxide-lithium fluoride composite materials are shown to be a promising class of positive electrodes.

  12. Turbulence and energy conversion research

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, R.A.

    1985-07-01

    This report examines the role of fluid mechanics research (particularly turbulence research) in improving energy conversion systems. In this report two of the listed application areas are selected as examples: fluidization and cavitation. Research needs in general, and research possibilities for ECUT in particular, are examined.

  13. A conversation with Edwin Shneidman.

    PubMed

    Pestian, John

    2010-10-01

    This article is a transcript of a conversation that took place with Edwin Shneidman, PhD, on August 19, 2008. Recent advances in machine learning, particularly neurocognitive computing, have provided a fresh approach to the idea of using computers to analyze the language of the suicidal person. Here this notion and many others are discussed.

  14. Technology for satellite power conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. P.; Gouker, M. A.; Summers, C.; Gallagher, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for satellite electromagnetic energy transfer and power conversion at millimeter and infrared wavelengths are discussed. The design requirements for rectenna receiving elements are reviewed for both coherent radiation sources and Earth thermal infrared emission. Potential power transmitters including gyrotrons, free electron lasers, and CO2 lasers are assessed along with the rectification properties of metal-oxide metal diode power converters.

  15. INDOOR EMISSIONS FROM CONVERSION VARNISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conversion varnishes are two-component, acid-catalyzed varnishes that are commonly used to finish cabinets. They are valued for their water- and stain-resistance, as well as their appearance. They have been found, however, to contribute to indoor emissions of organic compounds. F...

  16. Coaching Conversations: Enacting Instructional Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sharan A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed coaching conversations and interviews of four coach/teacher partnerships for specific ways in which kindergarten and first-grade teachers, and coaches, conceptualized instructional scaffolding for guided reading. Interview transcripts were coded for coaches' and teachers' specific hypotheses/ ideas regarding instructional…

  17. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Lockerby, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is reviewed briefly. The two types of OTEC system (open and closed) are described and limitations are pointed out. A bibliography of 148 references on OTEC is given for the time period 1975 to 1980. Entries are arranged alphabetically according to the author's name. (MJJ)

  18. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavi, A.

    1977-01-01

    Energy Research and Development Administration research progress in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is outlined. The development program is being focused on cost effective heat exchangers; ammonia is generally used as the heat exchange fluid. Projected costs for energy production by OTEC vary between $1000 to $1700 per kW.

  19. Inferring Social Nature of Conversations from Words: Experiments on a Corpus of Everyday Telephone Conversations.

    PubMed

    Stark, Anthony; Shafran, Izhak; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Language is being increasingly harnessed to not only create natural human-machine interfaces but also to infer social behaviors and interactions. In the same vein, we investigate a novel spoken language task, of inferring social relationships in two-party conversations: whether the two parties are related as family, strangers or are involved in business transactions. For our study, we created a corpus of all incoming and outgoing calls from a few homes over the span of a year. On this unique naturalistic corpus of everyday telephone conversations, which is unlike Switchboard or any other public domain corpora, we demonstrate that standard natural language processing techniques can achieve accuracies of about 88%, 82%, 74% and 80% in differentiating business from personal calls, family from non-family calls, familiar from unfamiliar calls and family from other personal calls respectively. Through a series of experiments with our classifiers, we characterize the properties of telephone conversations and find: (a) that 30 words of openings (beginnings) are sufficient to predict business from personal calls, which could potentially be exploited in designing context sensitive interfaces in smart phones; (b) our corpus-based analysis does not support Schegloff and Sack's manual analysis of exemplars in which they conclude that pre-closings differ significantly between business and personal calls - closing fared no better than a random segment; and (c) the distribution of different types of calls are stable over durations as short as 1-2 months. In summary, our results show that social relationships can be inferred automatically in two-party conversations with sufficient accuracy to support practical applications.

  20. Overview of novel photovoltaic conversion techniques at high intensity levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes several photovoltaic devices currently under development that can operate under light intensities considerably higher than can silicon solar cells. The technologies discussed include GaAs heteroface solar cells, multi-color systems, thermophotovoltaics, and laser energy conversion. Array costs for the GaAs and multi-color elements are estimated.

  1. Simplified 2-bit photonic digital-to-analog conversion unit based on polarization multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fangzheng; Gao, Bindong; Ge, Xiaozhong; Pan, Shilong

    2016-03-01

    A 2-bit photonic digital-to-analog conversion unit is proposed and demonstrated based on polarization multiplexing. The proposed 2-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC) unit is realized by optical intensity weighting and summing, and its complexity is greatly reduced compared with the traditional 2-bit photonic DACs. Performance of the proposed 2-bit DAC unit is experimentally investigated. The established 2-bit DAC unit achieves a good linear transfer function, and the effective number of bits is calculated to be 1.3. Based on the proposed 2-bit DAC unit, two DAC structures with higher (>2) bit resolutions are proposed and discussed, and the system complexity is expected to be reduced by half by using the proposed technique.

  2. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  3. Achieving reuse of computable guideline systems.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P; Tu, S; Jones, N

    2001-01-01

    We describe an architecture for reusing computable guidelines and the programs used to interpret them across varied legacy clinical systems. Developed for the PRODIGY 3 project, our architecture aims to support interactive, point of care use of guidelines in primary care. Legacy medical record systems in UK primary care are diverse, using different terminologies, different data models, and varying user-interface philosophies. However, our goal is to provide common guideline knowledge bases and system components, while achieving full integration with the host medical record system, and a user interface tailored to that system. In conjunction with system suppliers, we identified areas of standardization required to achieve this goal. Firstly, standardized interfaces were created for mediation with the legacy system medical record and for act management. Secondly, a standard interface was developed for communication with the User Interface for guideline interaction. Thirdly, a terminology mapping knowledge base and system component was provided. Lastly, we developed a numeric unit conversion knowledge base and system component. The standardization of this architecture was achieved by close collaboration with existing vendors of Primary Care computing systems in the UK. The work has been verified by two suppliers successfully building and deploying systems with User Interfaces which mirror their normal look and feel, communicating fully with existing medical records, while using identical Guideline Interpreter components and knowledge bases. Encouragingly further experiments in other areas of clinical decision support have not required extension of our interfaces.

  4. Energy conversion in laser propulsion: III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Carl W.; Mead, Franklin B., Jr.; Kalliomaa, Wayne M.

    2002-09-01

    Conversion of pulses of CO2 laser energy (18 microsecond pulses) to propellant kinetic energy was studied in a Myrabo Laser Lightcraft (MLL) operating with laser heated STP air and laser ablated delrin propellants. The MLL incorporates an inverted parabolic reflector that focuses laser energy into a toroidal volume where it is absorbed by a unit of propellant mass that subsequently expands in the geometry of the plug nozzle aerospike. With Delrin propellant, measurements of the coupling coefficients and the ablated mass as a function of laser pulse energy showed that the efficiency of conversion of laser energy to propellant kinetic energy was approximately 54%. With STP air, direct experimental measurement efficiency was not possible because the propellant mass associated with measured coupling coefficients was not known. Thermodynamics predicted that the upper limit of the efficiency of conversion of the internal energy of laser heated air to jet kinetic energy, (alpha) , is approximately 0.30 for EQUILIBRIUM expansion to 1 bar pressure. For FROZEN expansion (alpha) approximately 0.27. These upper limit efficiencies are nearly independent of the initial specific energy from 1 to 110 MJ/kg. With heating of air at its Mach 5 stagnation density (5.9 kg/m3 as compared to STP air density of 1.18 kg/m3) these efficiencies increase to about 0.55 (equilibrium) and 0.45 (frozen). Optimum blowdown from 1.18 kg/m3 to 1 bar occurs with expansion ratios approximately 1.5 to 4 as internal energy increases from 1 to 100 MJ/kg. Optimum expansion from the higher density state requires larger expansion ratios, 8 to 32. Expansion of laser ablated Delrin propellant appears to convert the absorbed laser energy more efficiently to jet kinetic energy because the effective density of the ablated gaseous Delrin is significantly greater than that of STP air.

  5. Energy conversion in laser propulsion III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, C. William; Mead, Franklin B.; Kalliomaa, Wayne M.

    2003-05-01

    Conversion of pulses of CO2 laser energy (18 microsecond pulses) to propellant kinetic energy was studied in a Myrabo Laser Lightcraft (MLL) operating with laser heated STP air and laser ablated delrin propellants. The MLL incorporates an inverted parabolic reflector that focuses laser energy into a toroidal volume where it is absorbed by a unit of propellant mass that subsequently expands in the geometry of the plug nozzle aerospike. With Delrin propellant, measurements of the coupling coefficients and the ablated mass as a function of laser pulse energy showed that the efficiency of conversion of laser energy to propellant kinetic energy was ~ 54%. With STP air, direct experimental measurement of efficiency was not possible because the propellant mass associated with measured coupling coefficients was not known. Thermodynamics predicted that the upper limit of the efficiency of conversion of the internal energy of laser heated air to jet kinetic energy, α, is ~ 0.30 for EQUILIBRIUM expansion to 1 bar pressure. For FROZEN expansion α ~ 0.27. These upper limit efficiencies are nearly independent of the initial specific energy from 1 to 110 MJ/kg. With heating of air at its Mach 5 stagnation density (5.9 kg/m3 as compared to STP air density of 1.18 kg/m3) these efficiencies increase to about 0.55 (equilibrium) and 0.45 (frozen). Optimum blowdown from 1.18 kg/m3 to 1 bar occurs with expansion ratios ~ 1.5 to 4 as internal energy increases from 1 to 100 MJ/kg. Optimum expansion from the higher density state requires larger expansion ratios, 8 to 32. Expansion of laser ablated Delrin propellant appears to convert the absorbed laser energy more efficiently to jet kinetic energy because the effective density of the ablated gaseous Delrin is significantly greater than that of STP air.

  6. Reconnection in compressible plasmas: Extended conversion region

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J.; Hesse, M.; Zenitani, S.

    2011-11-15

    The classical Sweet-Parker approach to steady-state magnetic reconnection is extended into the regime of large resistivity (small magnetic Reynolds or Lundquist number) when the aspect ratio between the outflow and inflow scale, {delta} = d/L, approaches unity. In a previous paper [Paper I, Hesse et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 042104 (2011)], the vicinity of the dissipation site (''diffusion region'') was investigated. In this paper, the approach is extended to cover larger sites, in which the energy transfer and conversion is not confined to the diffusion region. Consistent with the results of Paper I, we find that increasing aspect ratio {delta} is associated with increasing compression, increasing reconnection rate for low {beta}, but slightly decreasing rate for higher {beta}, decreasing outflow speed, and increasing outflow magnetic field. These trends are stronger for lower {beta}. Deviations from the traditional Sweet-Parker limit {delta}{yields} 0 become significant for R{sub m}<{approx}10, where R{sub m} is the magnetic Reynolds number (Lundquist number) based on the half-thickness of the current layer responsible for the Ohmic dissipation. They are also more significant for small {gamma}, that is, for increasing compressibility. In contrast to the results of Paper I, but consistent with earlier results for {delta}<<1, we find that in this limit the outflow speed is given by the Alfven speed {nu}{sub A} in the inflow region and the energy conversion is given by an even split of Poynting flux into enthalpy flux and bulk kinetic energy flux. However, with increasing {delta} the conversion to enthalpy flux becomes more and more dominant.

  7. Reconnection in compressible plasmas: Extended conversion region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birn, J.; Hesse, M.; Zenitani, S.

    2011-11-01

    The classical Sweet-Parker approach to steady-state magnetic reconnection is extended into the regime of large resistivity (small magnetic Reynolds or Lundquist number) when the aspect ratio between the outflow and inflow scale, δ = d/L, approaches unity. In a previous paper [Paper I, Hesse et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 042104 (2011)], the vicinity of the dissipation site ("diffusion region") was investigated. In this paper, the approach is extended to cover larger sites, in which the energy transfer and conversion is not confined to the diffusion region. Consistent with the results of Paper I, we find that increasing aspect ratio δ is associated with increasing compression, increasing reconnection rate for low β, but slightly decreasing rate for higher β, decreasing outflow speed, and increasing outflow magnetic field. These trends are stronger for lower β. Deviations from the traditional Sweet-Parker limit δ → 0 become significant for Rm <~10, where Rm is the magnetic Reynolds number (Lundquist number) based on the half-thickness of the current layer responsible for the Ohmic dissipation. They are also more significant for small γ, that is, for increasing compressibility. In contrast to the results of Paper I, but consistent with earlier results for δ ≪1, we find that in this limit the outflow speed is given by the Alfvén speed νA in the inflow region and the energy conversion is given by an even split of Poynting flux into enthalpy flux and bulk kinetic energy flux. However, with increasing δ the conversion to enthalpy flux becomes more and more dominant.

  8. Reconnection in Compressible Plasmas: Extended Conversion Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birn, J.; Hesse, M.; Zenitani, S.

    2011-01-01

    The classical Sweet-Parker approach to steady-state magnetic reconnection is extended into the regime of large resistivity (small magnetic Reynolds or Lundquist number) when the aspect ratio between the outflow and inflow scale, delta = d/L, approaches unity. In a previous paper the vicinity of the dissipation site ("diffusion region") was investigated. In this paper, the approach is extended to cover larger sites, in which the energy transfer and conversion is not confined to the diffusion region. Consistent with the results of Paper I, we find that increasing aspect ratio delta is associated with increasing compression, increasing reconnect ion rate for low Beta, but slightly decreasing rate for higher Beta, decreasing outflow speed, and increasing outflow magnetic field. These trends are stronger for lower Beta. Deviations from the traditional Sweet-Parker limit delta approaches 0 become significant for R(sub m) approx < 10, where R(sub m) is the magnetic Reynolds number (Lundquist number) based on the half-thickness of the current layer responsible for the Ohmic dissipation. They are also more significant for small gamma, that is, for increasing compressibility. In contrast to the results of Paper I, but consistent with earlier results for delta much < 1,nu(sub A) we find that in this limit the outflow speed is given by the Alfven speed nu(sub A) in the inflow region and the energy conversion is given by an even split of Poynting flux into enthalpy flux and bulk kinetic energy flux. However, with increasing delta the conversion to enthalpy flux becomes more and more dominant.

  9. Lifting Minority Achievement: Complex Answers. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This fourth in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist describes the Minority Achievement Committee scholars program at Shaker Heights High School in Cleveland, Ohio, a powerful antidote to the achievement gap between minority and white and Asian American students. It explains the need to break down stereotypes about academic…

  10. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  11. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  12. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  13. Depolarization technique for wavelength conversion using four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taotao; Shu, Chester; Lin, Chinlon

    2005-07-11

    We have developed a depolarization technique to achieve polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion using four-wave mixing in an optical fiber. A maximum conversion efficiency of -11.79 dB was achieved over a 3 dB bandwidth of 26 nm in a 100-m-long dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber. The polarization-dependent conversion efficiency was less than 0.38 dB and the measured power penalty for a 10 Gbit/s NRZ signal was 1.9 dB. The relation between the conversion efficiency and the degree of polarization of the pump was also formulated.

  14. Complex higher order derivative theories

    SciTech Connect

    Margalli, Carlos A.; Vergara, J. David

    2012-08-24

    In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.

  15. Wavelength conversion of incoherent light by sum-frequency generation.

    PubMed

    Arahira, Shin; Murai, Hitoshi

    2014-06-02

    In this paper, we reveal that some kinds of optical nonlinearities are further enhanced when incoherent light, instead of a laser, is used as a pump light. This idea was confirmed both theoretically and experimentally in the case of sum-frequency generation (SFG) using the optical second nonlinearity. The conversion efficiency of the SFG with incoherent light pumping increased as the bandwidth of the incoherent pump light decreased, finally reaching twice the conversion efficiency of conventional second harmonic generation (SHG) by laser pumping. This method dramatically relaxes the severe requirements of phase matching in the nonlinear optical process. The conversion efficiency became less sensitive to misalignment of the wavelength of pump light and also of device operation temperature when the bandwidth of the incoherent pump light was sufficiently broad, although the improvement of the conversion efficiency had an inverse relationship with the insensitivity to the phase-matching condition. The temperature tuning range was enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude in comparison with the conventional SHG method. As an example of a promising application of this new idea, we performed the generation of quantum entangled photon-pairs using cascaded optical nonlinearities (SFG and the subsequent spontaneous parametric down conversion) in a single periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide device, in which the incoherent light was used as the pump source for both the parametric processes. We have achieved high fidelity exceeding 99% in quantum-state tomography experiments.

  16. Two-step photon up-conversion solar cells.

    PubMed

    Asahi, Shigeo; Teranishi, Haruyuki; Kusaki, Kazuki; Kaizu, Toshiyuki; Kita, Takashi

    2017-04-06

    Reducing the transmission loss for below-gap photons is a straightforward way to break the limit of the energy-conversion efficiency of solar cells (SCs). The up-conversion of below-gap photons is very promising for generating additional photocurrent. Here we propose a two-step photon up-conversion SC with a hetero-interface comprising different bandgaps of Al0.3Ga0.7As and GaAs. The below-gap photons for Al0.3Ga0.7As excite GaAs and generate electrons at the hetero-interface. The accumulated electrons at the hetero-interface are pumped upwards into the Al0.3Ga0.7As barrier by below-gap photons for GaAs. Efficient two-step photon up-conversion is achieved by introducing InAs quantum dots at the hetero-interface. We observe not only a dramatic increase in the additional photocurrent, which exceeds the reported values by approximately two orders of magnitude, but also an increase in the photovoltage. These results suggest that the two-step photon up-conversion SC has a high potential for implementation in the next-generation high-efficiency SCs.

  17. Bio-electrolytic conversion of acidogenic effluents to biohydrogen: an integration strategy for higher substrate conversion and product recovery.

    PubMed

    Babu, M Lenin; Subhash, G Venkata; Sarma, P N; Mohan, S Venkata

    2013-04-01

    Feasibility of integrating Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) process with dark-fermentation process for additional hydrogen recovery as well as substrate degradation was demonstrated in the present study. MEC was employed in order to utilize the residual organic fraction present in the acidogenic effluents of dark fermentation process as substrate for hydrogen production with input of small electric current. MEC was operated at volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration of 3000 mg/l under different poised potentials (0.2, 0.5, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 V) using anaerobic consortia as biocatalyst. Maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR), cumulative hydrogen production (CHP) (0.53 mmol/h and 3.6 mmol), dehydrogenase activity (1.65 μg/ml) and VFA utilization (49.8%) was recorded at 0.6 V. Bio-electrochemical behavior of mixed consortia was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry and by Tafel slope analysis. Microbial diversity analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis confirmed the presence of γ-proteobacteria (50%), Bacilli (25%) and Clostridia (25%).

  18. Highly efficient frequency conversion with bandwidth compression of quantum light

    PubMed Central

    Allgaier, Markus; Ansari, Vahid; Sansoni, Linda; Eigner, Christof; Quiring, Viktor; Ricken, Raimund; Harder, Georg; Brecht, Benjamin; Silberhorn, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid quantum networks rely on efficient interfacing of dissimilar quantum nodes, as elements based on parametric downconversion sources, quantum dots, colour centres or atoms are fundamentally different in their frequencies and bandwidths. Although pulse manipulation has been demonstrated in very different systems, to date no interface exists that provides both an efficient bandwidth compression and a substantial frequency translation at the same time. Here we demonstrate an engineered sum-frequency-conversion process in lithium niobate that achieves both goals. We convert pure photons at telecom wavelengths to the visible range while compressing the bandwidth by a factor of 7.47 under preservation of non-classical photon-number statistics. We achieve internal conversion efficiencies of 61.5%, significantly outperforming spectral filtering for bandwidth compression. Our system thus makes the connection between previously incompatible quantum systems as a step towards usable quantum networks. PMID:28134242

  19. Highly efficient frequency conversion with bandwidth compression of quantum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allgaier, Markus; Ansari, Vahid; Sansoni, Linda; Eigner, Christof; Quiring, Viktor; Ricken, Raimund; Harder, Georg; Brecht, Benjamin; Silberhorn, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid quantum networks rely on efficient interfacing of dissimilar quantum nodes, as elements based on parametric downconversion sources, quantum dots, colour centres or atoms are fundamentally different in their frequencies and bandwidths. Although pulse manipulation has been demonstrated in very different systems, to date no interface exists that provides both an efficient bandwidth compression and a substantial frequency translation at the same time. Here we demonstrate an engineered sum-frequency-conversion process in lithium niobate that achieves both goals. We convert pure photons at telecom wavelengths to the visible range while compressing the bandwidth by a factor of 7.47 under preservation of non-classical photon-number statistics. We achieve internal conversion efficiencies of 61.5%, significantly outperforming spectral filtering for bandwidth compression. Our system thus makes the connection between previously incompatible quantum systems as a step towards usable quantum networks.

  20. Achievements in Stratospheric Ozone Protection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes achievements in protecting the ozone layer, the benefits of these achievements, and strategies involved (e.g., using alternatives to ozone-depleting substances, phasing out harmful substances, and creating partnerships).

  1. Room temperature molecular up conversion in solution

    PubMed Central

    Nonat, Aline; Chan, Chi Fai; Liu, Tao; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Liu, Zhenyu; Wong, Wing-Tak; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Wong, Ka-Leung; Charbonnière, Loïc J.

    2016-01-01

    Up conversion is an Anti-Stokes luminescent process by which photons of low energy are piled up to generate light at a higher energy. Here we show that the addition of fluoride anions to a D2O solution of a macrocyclic erbium complex leads to the formation of a supramolecular [(ErL)2F]+ assembly in which fluoride is sandwiched between two complexes, held together by the synergistic interactions of the Er-F-Er bridging bond, four intercomplex hydrogen bonds and two aromatic stacking interactions. Room temperature excitation into the Er absorption bands at 980 nm of a solution of the complex in D2O results in the observation of up converted emission at 525, 550 and 650 nm attributed to Er centred transitions via a two-step excitation. The up conversion signal is dramatically increased upon formation of the [(ErL)2F]+ dimer in the presence of 0.5 equivalents of fluoride anions. PMID:27302144

  2. Higher Education Exchange 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.

    Seven articles explore ways in which students, administrators, and faculty can initiate and sustain conversation about the public life they share, and about dealing with the multiculturalism of today's campuses. The articles are: (1) "Backing into the Future: Columbus, Cleopatra, Custer, & the Diversity Revolution" by Carlos E.…

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion by using convexly divergent channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Okuno, Yoshihiro

    2009-12-01

    We describe a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generator equipped with a convexly divergent channel, as determined through shock-tunnel-based experiments. The quality of MHD power-generating plasma and the energy conversion efficiency in the convexly divergent channel are compared with those from previous linearly divergent channel. The divergence enhancement in the channel upstream is effective for suppressing an excessive increase in static pressure, whereby notably high isentropic efficiency is achieved.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion by using convexly divergent channel

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Okuno, Yoshihiro

    2009-12-21

    We describe a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generator equipped with a convexly divergent channel, as determined through shock-tunnel-based experiments. The quality of MHD power-generating plasma and the energy conversion efficiency in the convexly divergent channel are compared with those from previous linearly divergent channel. The divergence enhancement in the channel upstream is effective for suppressing an excessive increase in static pressure, whereby notably high isentropic efficiency is achieved.

  5. Modified surface loading process for achieving improved performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Jin, Zhongxiu; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Yafeng; Zhou, Li; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    Achieving high surface coverage of the colloidal quantum dots (QDs) on TiO2 films has been challenging for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Herein, a general surface engineering approach was proposed to increase the loading of these QDs. It was found that S2- treatment/QD re-uptake process can significantly improve the attachment of the QDs on TiO2 films. Surface concentration of the QDs was improved by ∼60%, which in turn greatly enhances light absorption and decreases carrier recombination in QDSCs. Ensuing QDSCs with optimized QD loading exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 3.66%, 83% higher than those fabricated with standard procedures.

  6. Achievement motivation and memory: achievement goals differentially influence immediate and delayed remember-know recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Kou; Elliot, Andrew J

    2011-10-01

    Little research has been conducted on achievement motivation and memory and, more specifically, on achievement goals and memory. In the present research, the authors conducted two experiments designed to examine the influence of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals on immediate and delayed remember-know recognition memory. The experiments revealed differential effects for achievement goals over time: Performance-approach goals showed higher correct remember responding on an immediate recognition test, whereas mastery-approach goals showed higher correct remember responding on a delayed recognition test. Achievement goals had no influence on overall recognition memory and no consistent influence on know responding across experiments. These findings indicate that it is important to consider quality, not just quantity, in both motivation and memory, when studying relations between these constructs.

  7. Preliminary results on the conversion of laser energy into electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. W.; Manista, E. J.; Alger, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary experiment was performed to investigate conversion of 10.6 micron laser energy to electrical energy via a laser-sustained argon plasma. Short-circuit currents of 0.7 A were measured between a thoriated-tungsten emitter and collector electrodes immersed in the laser-sustained argon plasma. Open-circuit voltages of about 1.5 V were inferred from the current-voltage load characteristics. The dominant mechanism of laser energy conversion is uncertain at this time. Much higher output powers appear possible.

  8. Chromate-free corrosion resistant conversion coatings for aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheit, R.G. ); Stoner, G.E. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a method for generating chromate-free corrosion resistant coatings on aluminum alloys using a process procedurally similar to standard chromate conversion. These coatings provide good corrosion resistance on 6061-T6 and 1100 A1 under salt spray testing conditions. The resistance of the new coating is comparable to that of chromate conversion coatings in four point probe tests, but higher when a mercury probe technique is used. Initial tests of paint adhesion, and under paint corrosion resistance are promising. Primary advantage of this new process is that no hazardous chemicals are used or produced during the coating operation.

  9. Chromate-free corrosion resistant conversion coatings for aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheit, R.G.; Stoner, G.E.

    1993-03-01

    We have developed a method for generating chromate-free corrosion resistant coatings on aluminum alloys using a process procedurally similar to standard chromate conversion. These coatings provide good corrosion resistance on 6061-T6 and 1100 A1 under salt spray testing conditions. The resistance of the new coating is comparable to that of chromate conversion coatings in four point probe tests, but higher when a mercury probe technique is used. Initial tests of paint adhesion, and under paint corrosion resistance are promising. Primary advantage of this new process is that no hazardous chemicals are used or produced during the coating operation.

  10. Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2015-04-21

    Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion include at least one catalytically active element with a particle size above 0.6 nm. The electrocatalysts can also include a Helper Catalyst. The catalysts can be used to increase the rate, modify the selectivity or lower the overpotential of electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts also include processes to produce CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  11. Complexity matching in dyadic conversation.

    PubMed

    Abney, Drew H; Paxton, Alexandra; Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies of dyadic interaction have examined phenomena of synchronization, entrainment, alignment, and convergence. All these forms of behavioral matching have been hypothesized to play a supportive role in establishing coordination and common ground between interlocutors. In the present study, evidence is found for a new kind of coordination termed complexity matching. Temporal dynamics in conversational speech signals were analyzed through time series of acoustic onset events. Timing in periods of acoustic energy was found to exhibit behavioral matching that reflects complementary timing in turn-taking. In addition, acoustic onset times were found to exhibit power law clustering across a range of timescales, and these power law functions were found to exhibit complexity matching that is distinct from behavioral matching. Complexity matching is discussed in terms of interactive alignment and other theoretical principles that lead to new hypotheses about information exchange in dyadic conversation and interaction in general.

  12. Coal conversion products Industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, D.; Dunkin, J.

    1980-01-01

    The synfuels economic evaluation model was utilized to analyze cost and product economics of the TVA coal conversion facilities. It is concluded that; (1) moderate yearly future escalations ( 6%) in current natural gas prices will result in medium-Btu gas becoming competitive with natural gas at the plant boundary; (2) utilizing DRI price projections, the alternate synfuel products, except for electricity, will be competitive with their counterparts; (3) central site fuel cell generation of electricity, utilizing MBG, is economically less attractive than the other synthetic fuels, given projected price rises in electricity produced by other means; and (4) because of estimated northern Alabama synfuels market demands, existing conventional fuels, infrastructure and industrial synfuels retrofit problems, a diversity of transportable synfuels products should be produced by the conversion facility.

  13. Observation of Thermoacoustic Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, Yusuke; Biwa, Tetsushi; Yazaki, Taichi

    In order to understand thermoacoustic phenomena from a point of view of thermodynamics, oscillating pressure, velocity and temperature were measured in the tube having a temperature gradient. By converting the measured Eulerian quantities to the Lagrangian quantities associated with a given gas parcel, we determined the local energy conversion rate per unit volume and time. The obtained data demonstrate the validity of the thermodynamic approach to thermoacoustic phenomena.

  14. Direct Energy Conversion Literature Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-12-01

    for single and multiloop first in handy packages for use anywhere Carnot cycles. Parameters related to on earth or in space, and eventually in...by Various inorganic fluids which may be o F.X. Dobler, and others.306p., Feb.8,1962. potential value for energy conversion or (Prog. Rept.- First Q...during the first three months. background material is discussed, including thermodynamic cycle, heat transfer, compati- 4679 bility, and working

  15. Direct Energy Conversion Literature Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1962-12-01

    3530-3533 4. Fusion ........................................................ 3534-3536 C. Solar Collection and Concentration...Cooley, W.C. SOLAR DIRECT-CONVERSION. 245p., New York, United Nations, 1961. POWER SYSTEMS. Inst. Radio Engra. Trans. MIL-6: 91-98, illus., Jan. j 1962...In ch.V entitled Fuel and Power Research, nuclear and solar energy are discussed, in A survey is made of the present status of general. technology of

  16. Materials for thermoelectric energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C.

    1988-01-01

    The field of thermoelectric energy conversion is reviewed from both a theoretical and an experimental standpoint. The basic theory is introduced and the thermodynamic and solid state views are compared. An overview of the development of thermoelectric materials is presented with particular emphasis being placed on the most recent developments in high-temperature semiconductors. A number of possible device applications are discussed and the successful use and suitability of these devices for space power is manifest.

  17. Conversion of heavy petroleum oils

    SciTech Connect

    Farcasiu, M.

    1982-03-02

    Heavy petroleum oils, such as vacuum resids, and heavy fractions of tar sands and shale oil, are partially converted to more volatile hydrocarbons by mixing with light aromatic hydrocarbons and treatment of the mixture with a friedel-crafts catalyst such as aluminum chloride. It is believed that the conversion found is essentially a transalkylation, I.E. The resid undergoes dealkylation with concurrent alkylation of the light aromatic hydrocarbon.

  18. Beyond Grade Inflation: Grading Problems in Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 30, Number 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Shouping, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    College grades play important educational and social roles (Milton, Pollio, and Eison, 1986; Walvoord and Anderson, 1998). What is not well understood are the types of problems that exist in college grading practices. Conversations about grade inflation in higher education are often based on sparse anecdotal evidence and charged with value…

  19. Introduction to hydrocarbon conversion science and achievement of Professor Isao Mochida

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, H.

    1996-10-01

    In recent years significant attention has been given to the commercial utilization of petroleum residue materials (pitches) and coal-tar pitch in the manufacture of a wide-range of carbon materials. Such utilization has only been possible because of the intriguing ability of these pitch materials, on pyrolysis in the liquid phase, to form discotic, aromatic, nematic liquid crystals (mesophase). The sciences related to mesophase generation and carbon structure will be reviewed.

  20. Bilayer Polymer Solar Cells with Improved Power Conversion Efficiency and Enhanced Spectrum Coverage

    SciTech Connect

    Kekuda, Dhananjaya; Chu, Chih-Wei

    2011-10-20

    We demonstrate the construction of an efficient bilayer polymer solar cell comprising of Poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT) as a p-type semiconductor and asymmetric fullerene (C{sub 70}) as n-type counterparts. The bilayer configuration was very efficient compared to the individual layer performance and it behaved like a regular p-n junction device. The photovoltaic characteristic of the bilayers were studied under AM 1.5 solar radiation and the optimized device parameters are the following: Voc = 0.5V, Jsc = 10.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF = 0.60 and power conversion efficiency of 3.6 %. A high fill factor of {approx}0.6 was achieved, which is only slightly reduced at very intense illumination. Balanced mobility between p-and n-layers is achieved which is essential for achieving high device performance. Correlation between the crystallinity, morphology and the transport properties of the active layers is established. The External quantum efficiency (EQE) spectral distribution of the bilayer devices with different processing solvents correlates well with the trends of short circuit current densities (J{sub sc}) measured under illumination. Efficiency of the bilayer devices with rough P3HT layer was found to be about 3 times higher than those with a planar P3HT surface. Hence it is desirable to have a larger grains with a rough surface of P3HT layer for providing larger interfacial area for the exciton dissociation.

  1. Irradiation enhancement of biomass conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. S.; Kiesling, H. E.; Galyean, M. L.; Bader, J. R.

    The vast supply of cellulosic agricultural residues and industrial by-products that is produced each year is a prospective resource of biomass suitable for conversion to useful products such as feedstock for the chemicals industry and feedstuffs for the livestock industry. Conversions of such biomass is poor at present, and utilization is inefficient, because of physio-chemical barriers to biological degradation and (or) anti-quality components such as toxicants that restrict biological usages. Improvements in biodegradability of ligno-cellulosic materials have been accomplished by gamma-ray and electron-beam irradiation at intermediate dosage (˜ 50 Mrad; .5 MGy); but applications of the technology have been hampered by questionable interpretations of results. Recent research with organic wastes such as sewage sludge and straw suggests opportunity for important applications of irradiation technology in enhancement of biomass conversion. Data from experiments using irradiated straw as feed for ruminants are presented and discussed in relation to research on prospective usage of sewage products as feed for ruminants. Findings are discussed in regard to prospective applications in industrial fermentation processes. Possible usage of irradiation technology for destruction of toxicants in exotic plants is considered in regard to prospective new feedstuffs.

  2. Allocation of speech in conversation.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carsta; Baum, William M

    2017-03-01

    In a replication and extension of Conger and Killeen's (1974) widely cited demonstration of matching in conversations, we evaluated nine participants' allocation of speech and gaze to two conversational partners. German speakers participated in two 90-min sessions in which confederates uttered approval on independent variable-interval schedules. In one of the sessions, confederates uttered approval contingent upon and contiguous with eye contact whereas in the other session approval was uttered independent of the participant's gaze. Several measures of participants' verbal behavior were taken, including relative duration and rate of speech and gaze. These were compared to confederates' relative rate of approval and relative duration and rate of talk. The generalized matching equation was fitted to the various relations between participants' behavior and confederates' behavior. Conger and Killeen's results were not replicated; participants' response allocation did not show a systematic relation to the confederates' relative rate of approval. The strongest relations were to overall talk, rather than approval. In both conditions, the participant talked more to the confederate who talked less-inverse or antimatching. Participants' gaze showed the same inverse relation to the confederates' talk. Requiring gaze to be directed toward a confederate for delivery of approval made no difference in the results. The absence of a difference combined with prior research suggests that matching or antimatching in conversations is more likely due to induction than to reinforcement.

  3. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  4. Chemotherapy plus targeted drugs in conversion therapy for potentially resectable colorectal liver metastases: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Sun, Yinan; Zhao, Ben; Zhang, Huixian; Yu, Qianqian; Yuan, Xianglin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the safety and efficiency of the conversion therapy : chemotherapy plus anti-epidermal growth factor Receptor (EGFR) or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) with different rat sarcoma (RAS) status in patients with potentially resectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified and the association between RAS mutation and clinical outcome in CRLM patients treated with anti-EGFR or anti-VEGFR MoAbs was investigated. Searches were performed for data recorded between January 2005 and August 2015 in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE. Objective response rates (ORR), conversion resection rates (CRR), R0 resection rates (R0R) and rate ratios (RR) were used to assess the strength of the association between different RAS status, MoAbs and conversion efficiency. Results In the conversion therapy, ORR and RR were associated with patients with wild type RAS and different MoAbs. Patients treated with MoAbs: anti-VEGFR or anti-EGFR drugs, resulted in higher ORR, (RR=1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27-1.84, P < 0.05). Furthermore, anti-EGFR regimens displayed higher ORR compared with anti-VEGFR regimens in CRLM patients, (RR=1.15, 95%CI: 1.04-1.26, P < 0.05). However, CRLM patients with mutant type RAS did not benefit from anti-EGFR therapy, (RR=0.91, 95%CI: 0.76-1.08, P<0.05) and wild type RAS patients displayed higher ORR with anti-EGFR therapy, (RR=1.56, 95%CI: 1.16-2.01, P <0.05). In addition, the patients achieved higher resection rates (RR=1.67, 95%CI: 1.00-2.81, P ≤ 0.05) and R0 resection (RR=1.85, 95%CI: 1.04-3.27, P < 0.05). Conclusion We noted that the addition of MoAbs (anti-EGFR or anti-VEGFR) to standard chemotherapy could improve conversion efficiency for patients with potentially resectable CRLM patients, and anti-EGFR therapies maybe more effective than anti-VEGFR therapies. RAS status is a potential predictive

  5. Conversion of radiant light energy in photobioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cornet, J.F.; Dussap, C.G.; Gros, J.B. . Lab. de Genie Chimique Biologique)

    1994-06-01

    The conversion of radiant light energy into chemical affinity by microorganisms in photobioreactors is examined. The kinetics of entropy production in the system is theoretically established from entropy and energy balances for the material and photonic phases in the reactor. A negative chemical affinity term compensated for by a radiant energy term at a higher level of energy characterizes photosynthetic organisms. The local volumetric rate of radiant light energy absorbed, which appears in the dissipation function as an irreversible term, is calculated for monodimensional approximations providing analytical solutions and for general tridimensional equations requiring the solution of a new numerical algorithm. Solutions for the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis cultivated in photoreactors with different geometries and light energy inputs are compared. Thermodynamic efficiency of the photosynthesis is calculated. The highest value of 15% found for low radiant energy absorption rates corresponds to a maximum quantum yield in the reactor.

  6. The Economic Value of Higher Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    Most analyses of teacher quality end without any assessment of the economic value of altered teacher quality. This paper combines information about teacher effectiveness with the economic impact of higher achievement. It begins with an overview of what is known about the relationship between teacher quality and student achievement. This provides…

  7. Conversations in Equity and Social Justice: Constructing Safe Schools for Queer Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Donn

    2010-01-01

    The paper is a critique of discourse focused on at-risk behaviour and homophobic bullying. The paper argues that conversations around homophobic bullying must include discussions of doing equity and achieving social justice,in which the ultimate goal of constructing safe schools is achieved through the utter transformation of school culture.…

  8. Review of two-phase flow liquid metal MHD and turbine energy conversion concepts for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabris, Gracio

    1992-01-01

    Two-phase energy conversion systems could be liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic (LMMHD) with no moving parts or two-phase turbines. Both of them are inherently simple and reliable devices which can operate in a wide range of temperatures. Their thermal efficiency is significantly higher than for conventional cycles due to reheat of vapor by liquid phase during the energy converting expansion. Often they can be more easily coupled to heat sources. These features make two-phase systems particularly promising for space application. Insufficient research has been done in the past. So far achieved LMMHD generator and two-phase turbine efficiencies are in the 40 to 45 percent range. However if certain fluid dynamic and design problems are resolved these efficiencies could be brought into the range of 70 percent. This would make two-phase systems extremely competitive as compared to present or other proposed conversion system for space. Accordingly, well directed research effort on potential space applications of two-phase conversion systems would be a wise investment.

  9. Doubly resonant metallic nanostructure for high conversion efficiency of second harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Park, Sinjeung; Hahn, Jae W; Lee, Jae Yong

    2012-02-27

    The recent discovery of strong nonlinear emission in metallic nanostructures has offered possibilities for realization of functional nano photonic devices. Here, we demonstrate a novel design of a plasmonic nano device for high conversion efficiency of second harmonic generation. A 4 × 4 bowtie aperture array is fabricated to have both plasmonic resonance for local field enhancement of the fundamental wave and Fabry-Pérot resonance for high transmission of second harmonic wave. Combining nano structures for exciting surface plasmon polariton and suppressing higher order diffraction and anti-reflection layer, we achieve a second harmonic conversion efficiency of 1.4 × 10(-8) that is nearly an order of magnitude larger than the results published in recent literatures. We also theoretically analyze evidences of the role of double resonances tuned to the fundamental wave and the second harmonic wave, resulting in the augmentation of second harmonic response approximately an order of magnitude greater than that without the help of the resonance.

  10. Suppression of sludge formation by two-stage hydrocracking of vacuum residue at high conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Mochida, I.; Zhao, X.; Sakanishi, K. )

    1990-12-01

    This paper reports on hydrocracked products from Arabian light vacuum residue at high conversion into distillate ({gt}50%) that were analyzed in order to reveal how sludge formation was suppressed in the two-stage reaction. Although the asphaltene in the starting residue was highly soluble in the starting maltene in spite of is largest molecular weight, single-stage hydrocracking at a higher temperature of 420{degrees}C increased the aromaticity of the asphaltene through extensive deaklylation and dehydrogenation, leading to sludge formation. In contrast, two-stage hydrocracking at 390{degrees}C--3 h/420{degrees}C--1/h accomplished effective depolymerization of the asphaltene, high conversion being achieved without sludge. The carbon aromaticity (f{sub a}) of the produced asphaltene was maintained rather low, although its amount in the product was much the same regardless of the reaction conditions. The heptane-soluble maltenes in the hydrocracked oils exhibited variable dissolving abilities against the asphaltene according to the content and aromaticity of its aromatic fraction, also influencing sludge formation. Hydrocracking produced paraffins through the hydrogenative deaklylation of long-chain alkylbenzenes, decreasing f{sub a} and the dissolving ability of the hydrocracked maltene.

  11. Photoemission of Energetic Hot Electrons Produced via Up-Conversion in Doped Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yitong; Parobek, David; Rossi, Daniel; Son, Dong Hee

    2016-11-09

    The benefits of the hot electrons from semiconductor nanostructures in photocatalysis or photovoltaics result from their higher energy compared to that of the band-edge electrons facilitating the electron-transfer process. The production of high-energy hot electrons usually requires short-wavelength UV or intense multiphoton visible excitation. Here, we show that highly energetic hot electrons capable of above-threshold ionization are produced via exciton-to-hot-carrier up-conversion in Mn-doped quantum dots under weak band gap excitation (∼10 W/cm(2)) achievable with the concentrated solar radiation. The energy of hot electrons is as high as ∼0.4 eV above the vacuum level, much greater than those observed in other semiconductor or plasmonic metal nanostructures, which are capable of performing energetically and kinetically more-challenging electron transfer. Furthermore, the prospect of generating solvated electron is unique for the energetic hot electrons from up-conversion, which can open a new door for long-range electron transfer beyond short-range interfacial electron transfer.

  12. Optimal oxide-aperture for improving the power conversion efficiency of VCSEL arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen-Juan; Li, Chong; Zhou, Hong-Yi; Wu, Hua; Luan, Xin-Xin; Shi, Lei; Guo, Xia

    2015-02-01

    The maximum power conversion efficiencies of the top-emitting, oxide-confined, two-dimensional integrated 2×2 and 4×4 vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays with the oxide-apertures of 6 μm, 16 μm, 19 μm, 26 μm, 29 μm, 36 μm, 39 μm, and 46 μm are fabricated and characterized, respectively. The maximum power conversion efficiencies increase rapidly with the augment of oxide-aperture at the beginning and then decrease slowly. A maximum value of 27.91% at an oxide-aperture of 18.6 μm is achieved by simulation. The experimental data are well consistent with the simulation results, which are analyzed by utilizing an empirical model. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61222501 and 61335004) and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20111103110019)

  13. Conversion of poultry wastes into energy feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Kabadayi, Arzu; Ucar, Suat; Yanik, Jale

    2016-10-01

    In this study, conversion of wastes from poultry farming and industry into biochar and bio-oil via thermochemical processes was investigated. Fuel characteristics and chemical structure of biochars and bio-oils have been investigated using standard fuel analysis and spectroscopic methods. Biochars were produced from poultry litter through both hydrothermal carbonization (sub-critical water, 175-250°C) and pyrolysis over a temperature range between 250 and 500°C. In comparison to hydrothermal carbonization, pyrolysis at lower temperatures produced biochar with greater energy yield due to the higher mass yield. Biochars obtained by both processes were comparable to coal. Hydrothermal liquefaction of poultry meal at different temperatures (200-325°C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions. Higher temperatures favored the formation of bio-crude oil, with a maximum yield of 35wt.% at 300°C. The higher heating values of bio-oils showed that bio-oil could be a potential source of synthetic fuels. However, elemental analysis demonstrated the high nitrogen content of bio-oils. Therefore, bio-oils obtained from hydrothermal liquefaction of poultry meal should be upgraded for utilization as a transport and heating fuel.

  14. Unity-Efficiency Parametric Down-Conversion via Amplitude Amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Murphy Yuezhen; Sanders, Barry C.; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2017-03-01

    We propose an optical scheme, employing optical parametric down-converters interlaced with nonlinear sign gates (NSGs), that completely converts an n -photon Fock-state pump to n signal-idler photon pairs when the down-converters' crystal lengths are chosen appropriately. The proof of this assertion relies on amplitude amplification, analogous to that employed in Grover search, applied to the full quantum dynamics of single-mode parametric down-conversion. When we require that all Grover iterations use the same crystal, and account for potential experimental limitations on crystal-length precision, our optimized conversion efficiencies reach unity for 1 ≤n ≤5 , after which they decrease monotonically for n values up to 50, which is the upper limit of our numerical dynamics evaluations. Nevertheless, our conversion efficiencies remain higher than those for a conventional (no NSGs) down-converter.

  15. Radio-over-fiber DSB-to-SSB conversion using semiconductor lasers at stable locking dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Kun-Lin; Hung, Yu-Han; Hwang, Sheng-Kwang; Lin, Chien-Chung

    2016-05-02

    In radio-over-fiber systems, optical single-sideband (SSB) modulation signals are preferred to optical double-sideband (DSB) modulation signals for fiber distribution in order to mitigate the microwave power fading effect. However, typically adopted modulation schemes generate DSB signals, making DSB-to-SSB conversion necessary before or after fiber distribution. This study investigates a semiconductor laser at stable locking dynamics for such conversion. The conversion relies solely on the nonlinear dynamical interaction between an input DSB signal and the laser. Only a typical semiconductor laser is therefore required as the key conversion unit, and no pump or probe signal is necessary. The conversion can be achieved for a broad tunable range of microwave frequency up to at least 60 GHz. In addition, the conversion can be carried out even when the microwave frequency, the power of the input DSB signal, or the frequency of the input DSB signal fluctuates over a wide range, leading to high adaptability and stability of the conversion system. After conversion, while the microwave phase quality, such as linewidth and phase noise, is mainly preserved, a bit-error ratio down to 10-9 is achieved for a data rate up to at least 8 Gb/s with a detection sensitivity improvement of more than 1.5 dB.

  16. Variations in soil microbial community structure induced by the conversion from paddy fields to upland fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, X.

    2015-12-01

    Land-use conversion is an important factor influencing the carbon and nitrogen gas exchange between land and atmosphere, and soil microorganisms is main driver of soil carbon and nitrogen gas production. Understanding the effect of land-use conversion on soil microbial communities and its influencing factor is important for greenhouse gas emission reduction and soil organic carbon and nitrogen sequestration and stability. The influence of land use conversion on soil process was undergoing a dynamic change, but little research has been done to understand the effect on soil microbial communities during the initial years after land conversion. In the study, the influences of land-use conversion from double rice cropping (RR) to maize-maize (MM) and soybean-peanut (SP) double cropping systems on soil physical and chemical properties, and microbial community structure was studied after two years of the conversion in southern China. The results showed that land use conversion significantly changed soil properties, microbial communities and biomass. Soil pH significantly decreased by 0.50 and 0.52 after conversion to MM and SP, respectively. Soil TN and NH4-N also significantly decreased by 9%-15% and 60% after conversion to upland fields, respectively. The total PLFAs, bacterial, gram-positive bacterial (G+), gram-negative bacterial (G-) and actinomycetic PLFAs decreased significantly. The ng g-1 soil concentration of monounsaturated chain PLFAs 16:1ω7c and 18:1ω9t were significantly higher at paddy fields than at upland fields. No significant differences in soil properties, microbial communities and biomass were found between conversed MM and SP. Our results indicated that land use conversion, not crop type conversed had a significant effects on soil properties and microbial communities at the initial of land conversion. And soil pH was the key factor regulating the variations in soil microbial community structure after land use conversion from paddy to upland fields.

  17. Higher Education Exchange, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  18. Higher Education Exchange, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The Higher Education Exchange is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the Higher Education Exchange publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

  19. Higher Education Exchange, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that not only does higher education not see the public; when the public, in turn, looks at higher education, it sees mostly malaise, inefficiencies, expense, and unfulfilled promises. Yet, the contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" tell of bright spots in higher education where experiments in working…

  20. Higher Education Exchange, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…