Science.gov

Sample records for achieve higher energy

  1. Achieving Higher Energies via Passively Driven X-band Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipahi, Taylan; Sipahi, Nihan; Milton, Stephen; Biedron, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Due to their higher intrinsic shunt impedance X-band accelerating structures significant gradients with relatively modest input powers, and this can lead to more compact particle accelerators. At the Colorado State University Accelerator Laboratory (CSUAL) we would like to adapt this technology to our 1.3 GHz L-band accelerator system using a passively driven 11.7 GHz traveling wave X-band configuration that capitalizes on the high shunt impedances achievable in X-band accelerating structures in order to increase our overall beam energy in a manner that does not require investment in an expensive, custom, high-power X-band klystron system. Here we provide the design details of the X-band structures that will allow us to achieve our goal of reaching the maximum practical net potential across the X-band accelerating structure while driven solely by the beam from the L-band system.

  2. Korean Experience and Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the transition of Korean education reform and to weigh Korean experience and achievement in contemporary higher education. The paper first of all illustrates a historical perspective on higher education in light of educational reform. Secondly, this study reviews the achievements of Korean higher education…

  3. Using Records of Achievement in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assiter, Alison, Ed.; Shaw, Eileen, Ed.

    This collection of 22 essays examines the use of records of achievement (student profiles or portfolios) in higher and vocational education in the United Kingdom. They include: (1) "Records of Achievement: Background, Definitions, and Uses" (Alison Assiter and Eileen Shaw); (2) "Profiling in Higher Education" (Alison Assiter and Angela Fenwick);…

  4. Effect of the energy-environment simulator on achievement, attitudes, and behavior relative to energy-education concepts systematically replicated in higher education

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    This study was a systematic replication of a study by Stagliano (1981). Additional hypotheses concerning pretest, student major, and student section variance were tested. Achievement in energy knowledge and conservation attitudes attained by (a) lecture-discussion enriched with the Energy-Environment Simulator and (b) lecture-discussion methods of instruction were measured. Energy knowledge was measured on the Energy Knowledge Assessment Test (EKAT), and attitudes were measured on the Youth Energy Survey (YES), the Lecture-discussion simulation (LDS) used a two hour out-of-class activity in debriefing. The population consisted of 142 college student volunteers randomly selected, and assigned to one of two groups of 71 students for each treatment. Stagliano used three groups (n = 35), one group receiving an energy-game treatment. Both studies used the pretest-posttest true experimental design. The present study included 28 hypotheses, eight of which were found to be significant. Stagliano used 12 hypotheses, all of which were rejected. The present study hypothesized that students who received the LDS treatment would obtain significantly higher scores on the EKAT and the YES instruments. Results showed that significance was found (alpha level .05) on the EKAT and also found on the YES total subscale when covaried for effects of pretest, student major, and student section. When covarying the effects of pretest scores only, significance was found on the EKAT. All YES hypotheses were rejected.

  5. Higher Education Is Key To Achieving MDGs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Imagine trying to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) without higher education. As key institutions of civil society, universities are uniquely positioned between the communities they serve and the governments they advise. Through the CIDA-funded University Partnerships in Cooperation and Development program, Canadian universities have…

  6. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  7. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  8. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  9. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  10. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results, 2011. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report, issued by the Connecticut Department of Higher Education, reports on trends in higher education for the year 2011. Six goals are presented, each with at least two indicators. Each indicator is broken down into the following subsections: About This Indicator; Highlights; and In the Future. Most indicators also include statistical…

  11. Achieving Quality Learning in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nightingale, Peggy; O'Neil, Mike

    This volume on quality learning in higher education discusses issues of good practice particularly action learning and Total Quality Management (TQM)-type strategies and illustrates them with seven case studies in Australia and the United Kingdom. Chapter 1 discusses issues and problems in defining quality in higher education. Chapter 2 looks at…

  12. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results, 2008. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…

  13. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the principle vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with…

  14. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…

  15. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…

  16. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agencies are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.

  17. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agenciesmore » are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.« less

  18. Achieving Equity in Higher Education: The Unfinished Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Alexander W.; Astin, Helen S.

    2015-01-01

    In this retrospective account of their scholarly work over the past 45 years, Alexander and Helen Astin show how the struggle to achieve greater equity in American higher education is intimately connected to issues of character development, leadership, civic responsibility, and spirituality. While shedding some light on a variety of questions…

  19. Achieving energy efficiency during collective communications

    SciTech Connect

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav; Sosonkina, Masha; Zhang, Zhao

    2012-09-13

    Energy consumption has become a major design constraint in modern computing systems. With the advent of petaflops architectures, power-efficient software stacks have become imperative for scalability. Techniques such as dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (called DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (called throttling) are often used to reduce the power consumption of the compute nodes. To avoid significant performance losses, these techniques should be used judiciously during parallel application execution. For example, its communication phases may be good candidates to apply the DVFS and CPU throttling without incurring a considerable performance loss. They are often considered as indivisible operations although little attention is being devoted to the energy saving potential of their algorithmic steps. In this work, two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather, are investigated as to their augmentation with energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. The experiments prove the viability of such a fine-grain approach. They also validate a theoretical power consumption estimate for multicore nodes proposed here. While keeping the performance loss low, the obtained energy savings were always significantly higher than those achieved when DVFS or throttling were switched on across the entire application run

  20. Elementary School Counselors and Teachers: Collaborators for Higher Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sink, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article I contend that elementary school teachers need to work more closely with school counselors to enhance student learning and academic performance and to narrow the achievement gap among student groups. Research showing the influence that counselors can exert on the educational process is summarized. Using the American School…

  1. Charting the course for nurses' achievement of higher education levels.

    PubMed

    Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol; Katigbak, Carina; Djukic, Maja; Fatehi, Farida

    2012-01-01

    To improve patient outcomes and meet the challenges of the U.S. health care system, the Institute of Medicine recommends higher educational attainment for the nursing workforce. Characteristics of registered nurses (RNs) who pursue additional education are poorly understood, and this information is critical to planning long-term strategies for U.S. nursing education. To identify factors predicting enrollment and completion of an additional degree among those with an associate or bachelor's as their pre-RN licensure degree, we performed logistic regression analysis on data from an ongoing nationally representative panel study following the career trajectories of newly licensed RNs. For associate degree RNs, predictors of obtaining a bachelor's degree are the following: being Black, living in a rural area, nonnursing work experience, higher positive affectivity, higher work motivation, working in the intensive care unit, and working the day shift. For bachelor's RNs, predictors of completing a master's degree are the following: being Black, nonnursing work experience, holding more than one job, working the day shift, working voluntary overtime, lower intent to stay at current employer, and higher work motivation. Mobilizing the nurse workforce toward higher education requires integrated efforts from policy makers, philanthropists, employers, and educators to mitigate the barriers to continuing education. PMID:23158196

  2. Strategies for Increasing Academic Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Julene; Woods, Amelia Mays

    2014-01-01

    Higher education today faces unique challenges. Decreasing student engagement, increasing diversity, and limited resources all contribute to the issues being faced by students, educators, and administrators alike. The unique characteristics and expectations that students bring to their professional programs require new methods of addressing…

  3. Alternative Energy for Higher Education

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Cherney, PhD

    2012-02-22

    This project provides educational opportunities creating both a teaching facility and center for public outreach. The facility is the largest solar array in Nebraska. It was designed to allow students to experience a variety of technologies and provide the public with opportunities for exposure to the implementation of an alternative energy installation designed for an urban setting. The project integrates products from 5 panel manufacturers (including monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film technologies) mounted on both fixed and tracking structures. The facility uses both micro and high power inverters. The majority of the system was constructed to serve as an outdoor classroom where panels can be monitored, tested, removed and replaced by students. As an educational facility it primarily serves students in the Creighton University and Metropolitan Community College, but it also provides broader educational opportunities. The project includes a real-time dashboard and a historical database of the output of individual inverters and the corresponding meteorological data for researcher and student use. This allows the evaluation of both panel types and the feasibility of installation types in a region of the country subject to significant temperature, wind and precipitation variation.

  4. Inspection applications with higher electron beam energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, D. R.; Jones, J. L.; Yoon, W. Y.; Haskell, K. J.; Sterbentz, J. W.; Zabriskie, J. M.; Hunt, A. W.; Harmon, F.; Kinlaw, M. T.

    2005-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory has developed prototype shielded nuclear material detection systems based on pulsed photonuclear assessment (PPA) techniques for the inspection of cargo containers. During this work, increased nuclear material detection capabilities have been demonstrated at higher electron beam energies than those allowed by federal regulations for cargo inspection. This paper gives a general overview of a nuclear material detection system, the PPA technique and discusses the benefits of using these higher energies. This paper also includes a summary of the numerical and test results from LINAC operations up to 24 MeV and discusses some of the federal energy limitations associated with cargo inspection.

  5. Stable same-sex friendships with higher achieving partners promote mathematical reasoning in lower achieving primary school children.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate friend influence over mathematical reasoning in a sample of 374 children in 187 same-sex friend dyads (184 girls in 92 friendships; 190 boys in 95 friendships). Participants completed surveys that measured mathematical reasoning in the 3rd grade (approximately 9 years old) and 1 year later in the 4th grade (approximately 10 years old). Analyses designed for dyadic data (i.e., longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model) indicated that higher achieving friends influenced the mathematical reasoning of lower achieving friends, but not the reverse. Specifically, greater initial levels of mathematical reasoning among higher achieving partners in the 3rd grade predicted greater increases in mathematical reasoning from 3rd grade to 4th grade among lower achieving partners. These effects held after controlling for peer acceptance and rejection, task avoidance, interest in mathematics, maternal support for homework, parental education, length of the friendship, and friendship group norms on mathematical reasoning. PMID:26402901

  6. Validity of Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminskiene, Lina; Stasiunaitiene, Egle

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies the validity of assessment of non-formal and informal learning achievements (NILA) as one of the key factors for encouraging further development of the process of assessing and recognising non-formal and informal learning achievements in higher education. The authors analyse why the recognition of non-formal and informal…

  7. Latina/o Student Achievement: A Collaborative Mission of Professional Associations of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arredondo, Patricia; Castillo, Linda G.

    2011-01-01

    Latina/o student achievement is a priority for the American Association of Hispanics in Higher Education (AAHHE). To date, AAHHE has worked deliberately on this agenda. However, well-established higher education associations such as the Association of American Universities (AAU) and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) are…

  8. Relationship between Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul

    2014-01-01

    The present study was probed to find the significant relationship between study habits and academic achievement of higher secondary school students with reference to the background variables. Survey method was employed. Data for the study were collected from 300 students in 13 higher secondary schools using Study Habits Inventory by V.G. Anantha…

  9. Achieving Energy Independence by Reviving America's Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Neil; Winterer, Amey

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how it is in our nation's energy interest that cities and city living prosper and that movement of people out of cities and into nonurban areas be reversed. However, national energy policy itself favors suburban sprawl-type development and works against city revival. (AM)

  10. Achieving Self-Reliance: Backyard Energy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Stephen

    Appropriate technology (the process most appropriate for local cultural, economic, and social conditions) is geared toward projects which: are small in scale, decentralized, and energy efficient; use local materials, labor, and ingenuity; are not capital-intensive; and maximize the use of renewable energy resources. Descriptions of such projects…

  11. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed. PMID:25973781

  12. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-05-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed.

  13. Elastic form factors at higher CEBAF energies

    SciTech Connect

    Petratos, G.G.

    1994-04-01

    The prospects for elastic scattering from few body systems with higher beam energies at CEBAF is presented. The deuteron and{sup 3}He elastic structure functions A(Q{sup 2}) can be measured at sufficiently high momentum transfers to study the transition between the conventional meson-nucleon and the constituent quark-gluon descriptions. Possible improvements in the proton magnetic form factor data are also presented.

  14. Achieving Energy Efficiency Through Real-Time Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, Ronald J.

    2011-09-01

    Through the careful implementation of simple behavior change measures, opportunities exist to achieve strategic gains, including greater operational efficiencies, energy cost savings, greater tenant health and ensuing productivity and an improved brand value through sustainability messaging and achievement.

  15. Technology's Effect on Achievement in Higher Education: A Stage I Meta-Analysis of Classroom Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Richard F.; Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Tamim, Rana; Abrami, Philip C.; Wade, C. Anne; Surkes, Michael A.; Lowerison, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Stage I meta-analysis exploring the achievement effects of computer-based technology use in higher education classrooms (non-distance education). An extensive literature search revealed more than 6,000 potentially relevant primary empirical studies. Analysis of a representative sample of 231 studies (k = 310)…

  16. Leveraging Quality Improvement to Achieve Student Learning Assessment Success in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Nancy Gentry

    2009-01-01

    Mounting pressure for transformational change in higher education driven by technology, globalization, competition, funding shortages, and increased emphasis on accountability necessitates that universities implement reforms to demonstrate responsiveness to all stakeholders and to provide evidence of student achievement. In the face of the demand…

  17. An Exploratory Study of the Achievement of the Twenty-First Century Skills in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaith, Ghazi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a survey study of the achievement of twenty-first century skills in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The study employs a quantitative survey design. Findings: The findings indicate that the basic scientific and technological skills of reading critically and writing…

  18. Achieving Higher Levels of Success for A.D.H.D. Students Working in Collaborative Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph S. C.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores a new and innovative strategy for helping students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (A.D.H.D.) achieve higher levels of academic success when working in collaborative groups. Since the research indicates that students with this disorder often have difficulty in maintaining their concentration this strategy is…

  19. The Effects of Learning Strategies on Mathematical Literacy: A Comparison between Lower and Higher Achieving Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen-Nagar, Noga

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to explore the effects of learning strategies on Mathematical Literacy (ML) of students in higher and lower achieving countries. To address this issue, the study utilizes PISA2002 data to conduct a multi-level analysis (HLM) of Hong Kong and Israel students. In PISA2002, Israel was rated 31st in Mathematics,…

  20. An Analysis of Factors Influencing the Achievement of Higher Education by Chief Fire Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditch, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    The leadership of the United States Fire Service (FS) believes that higher education increases the professionalism of FS members. The research problem at the research site, which is a multisite fire department located in southeastern United States, was the lack of research-based findings on the factors influencing the achievement of higher…

  1. Workshop on CEBAF at higher energies

    SciTech Connect

    Isgur, N.; Stoler, P.

    1994-04-01

    Since the current parameters of CEBAF were defined almost a decade ago, there has been a remarkably fruitful evolution of our picture of the behavior of strongly interacting matter that apparently could be addressed by CEBAF at higher energies. Favorable technical developments coupled with foresight in initial laboratory planning have now made it feasible to consider approximately doubling CEBAF`s current design energy of 4 GeV to approach 10 GeV at rather modest cost. The purpose of the workshop, sponsored by the CEBAF User Group, was to begin to develop the next phase of CEBAF`s program by giving the entire community the opportunity to participate in defining the future of our field, and in particular the physics accessible with an upgraded CEBAF energy. It is intended that this report mark the first step toward an ultimate goal of defining a physics program that will form the basis for an upgrade of CEBAF. The report begins with a brief overview of the workshop`s conclusions. Its body consists of sections corresponding to the workshop`s Working Groups on Hadron Spectroscopy and Production, High Q{sup 2} Form Factors and Exclusive Reactions, Inclusive and Semi-Inclusive Processes, and Hadrons in the Nuclear Medium. Each section begins with the working group summaries and is followed by associated plenary talks summarizing the outstanding physics issues addressable by an upgrade, which are in turn followed by individual contributions presenting specific physics programs. An appendix describes capabilities of CEBAF`s current experimental equipment at higher energies; another appendix lists workshop participants. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Using the network to achieve energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Giglio, M.

    1995-12-01

    Novell, the third largest software company in the world, has developed Netware Embedded Systems Technology (NEST). NEST will take the network deeper into non-traditional computing environments and will imbed networking into more intelligent devices. Ultimately, this will lead to energy efficiencies in the office. NEST can make point-of-sale terminals, alarm systems, televisions, traffic controls, printers, lights, fax machines, copiers, HVAC controls, PBX machines, etc., either intelligent or more intelligent than they are currently. The mission statement for this particular group is to integrate over 30 million new intelligent devices into the workplace and the home with Novell networks by 1997. Computing trends have progressed from mainframes in the 1960s to keys, security systems, and airplanes in the year 2000. In fact, the new Boeing 777 has NEST in it, and it also has network servers on board. NEST enables the embedded network with the ability to put intelligence into devices. This gives one more control of the devices from wherever one is. For example, the pharmaceutical industry could use NEST to coordinate what the consumer is buying, what is in the warehouse, what the manufacturing plant is tooled for, and so on. Through NEST technology, the pharmaceutical industry now uses a camera that takes pictures of the pills. It can see whether an {open_quotes}overdose{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}underdose{close_quotes} of a particular type of pill is being manufactured. The plant can be shut down and corrections made immediately.

  3. Do Parents Make a Difference to Children's Academic Achievement? Differences between Parents of Higher and Lower Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Nicky; Harvey, David

    2005-01-01

    Differences in family factors in determining academic achievement were investigated by testing 432 parents in nine independent, coeducational Melbourne schools. Schools were ranked and categorized into three groups (high, medium and low), based on student achievement (ENTER) scores in their final year of secondary school and school improvement…

  4. Fraction of the theoretical specific energy achieved on pack level for hypothetical battery chemistries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eroglu, Damla; Ha, Seungbum; Gallagher, Kevin G.

    2014-12-01

    In valuing new active materials chemistries for advanced batteries, the theoretical specific energy is commonly used to motivate research and development. A packaging factor is then used to relate the theoretical specific energy to the pack-level specific energy. As this factor is typically assumed constant, higher theoretical specific energies are judged to result in higher pack-level specific energies. To test this implicit assumption, we calculated the fraction of the theoretical specific energy achieved on the pack level for hypothetical cell chemistries with various open-circuit voltages and theoretical specific energies using a peer-review bottom-up battery design model. The pack-level specific energy shows significant dependence on the open-circuit voltage and electrochemical impedance due to changes in the quantity of inactive materials required. At low-valued average open-circuit voltages, systems with dramatically different theoretical specific energies may result in battery packs similar in mass and volume. The fraction of the theoretical specific energy achieved on the pack level is higher for the lower theoretical specific energy systems mainly because the active materials mass dominates the pack mass. Finally, low-valued area-specific impedance is shown to be critical for chemistries of high theoretical specific energy and low open-circuit voltage to achieve higher pack-level specific energies.

  5. Developing Students' Energy Literacy in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Debby R. E.; Miller, Wendy; Winter, Jennie; Bailey, Ian; Sterling, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate students' energy literacy at a UK university, and recommends ways in which it can be enhanced using a behaviour change model. Developing students' energy literacy is a key part of the "greening" agenda, yet little is known about how students develop their ideas about energy use and energy saving at…

  6. Building aggressively duty-cycled platforms to achieve energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Yuvraj

    Managing power consumption and improving energy efficiency is a key driver in the design of computing devices today. This is true for both battery-powered mobile devices as well as mains-powered desktop PCs and servers. In case of mobile devices, the focus of optimization is on energy efficiency to maximize battery lifetime. In case of mains-powered devices, we seek to optimize power consumption to reduce energy costs, thermal and environmental concerns. Traditionally, there are two main mechanisms to improve energy efficiency in systems: slowdown techniques that seek to reduce processor speed or radio power against the rate of work done, and shutdown techniques that seek to shut down specific components or subsystems -- such as processor, radio, memory -- to reduce power used by these components when not in use. The adverse effect of using these techniques is either reduced performance (e.g., increase in latency) and/or usability or loss of functionality. The thesis behind this dissertation is that improved energy efficiency can be achieved through system architectures that seek to design and exploit "collaboration" among heterogeneous but functionally similar subsystems. For instance, multiple radio interfaces with different power/performance characteristics can collaborate to provide an energy-efficient wireless communication subsystem. Furthermore, we show that in systems where such heterogeneity is not naturally present, we can introduce heterogeneous components to improve overall energy efficiency. We show that using collaboration, individual subsystems and even entire platforms can be shut down more aggressively to reduce energy consumption, while reducing adverse impacts on performance or usability. We have used collaboration to do energy efficient operation in several contexts. For battery powered mobile devices we show that wireless radios are the dominant power consumers, and then describe several techniques that use various heterogeneous radios present

  7. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  8. Design and performance of tapered cubic anvil used for achieving higher pressure and larger sample cell.

    PubMed

    Han, Qi-Gang; Yang, Wen-Ke; Zhu, Pin-Wen; Ban, Qing-Chu; Yan, Ni; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-07-01

    In order to increase the maximum cell pressure of the cubic high pressure apparatus, we have developed a new structure of tungsten carbide cubic anvil (tapered cubic anvil), based on the principle of massive support and lateral support. Our results indicated that the tapered cubic anvil has some advantages. First, tapered cubic anvil can push the transfer rate of pressure well into the range above 36.37% compare to the conventional anvil. Second, the rate of failure crack decreases about 11.20% after the modification of the conventional anvil. Third, the limit of static high-pressure in the sample cell can be extended to 13 GPa, which can increase the maximum cell pressure about 73.3% than that of the conventional anvil. Fourth, the volume of sample cell compressed by tapered cubic anvils can be achieved to 14.13 mm(3) (3 mm diameter × 2 mm long), which is three and six orders of magnitude larger than that of double-stage apparatus and diamond anvil cell, respectively. This work represents a relatively simple method for achieving higher pressures and larger sample cell. PMID:23902079

  9. Pyramiding B genes in cotton achieves broader but not always higher resistance to bacterial blight.

    PubMed

    Essenberg, Margaret; Bayles, Melanie B; Pierce, Margaret L; Verhalen, Laval M

    2014-10-01

    Near-isogenic lines of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) carrying single, race-specific genes B4, BIn, and b7 for resistance to bacterial blight were used to develop a pyramid of lines with all possible combinations of two and three genes to learn whether the pyramid could achieve broad and high resistance approaching that of L. A. Brinkerhoff's exceptional line Im216. Isogenic strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum carrying single avirulence (avr) genes were used to identify plants carrying specific resistance (B) genes. Under field conditions in north-central Oklahoma, pyramid lines exhibited broader resistance to individual races and, consequently, higher resistance to a race mixture. It was predicted that lines carrying two or three B genes would also exhibit higher resistance to race 1, which possesses many avr genes. Although some enhancements were observed, they did not approach the level of resistance of Im216. In a growth chamber, bacterial populations attained by race 1 in and on leaves of the pyramid lines decreased significantly with increasing number of B genes in only one of four experiments. The older lines, Im216 and AcHR, exhibited considerably lower bacterial populations than any of the one-, two-, or three-B-gene lines. A spreading collapse of spray-inoculated AcBIn and AcBInb7 leaves appears to be a defense response (conditioned by BIn) that is out of control. PMID:24655289

  10. Color transparency experiments at higher energies

    SciTech Connect

    Filippone, B.W.

    1994-04-01

    The phenomena of Color Transparency has recently attracted a significant amount of theoretical (and experimental) interest. With an increase in the CEBAF beam energy to 8 - 10 GeV, important new data on the process could become available. The present status of the experiments and future prospects at CEBAF are discussed.

  11. Effects of Traditional, Blended and E-Learning on Students' Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qahtani, Awadh A. Y.; Higgins, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the effect of e-learning, blended learning and classroom learning on students' achievement. Two experimental groups together with a control group from Umm Al-Qura University in Saudi Arabia were identified randomly. To assess students' achievement in the different groups, pre- and post-achievement tests were used. The…

  12. Inclusion and Achievement: Student Achievement in Secondary Schools with Higher and Lower Proportions of Pupils Designated as Having Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Martyn; Florian, Lani

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a multi-method study that examined the effects of including higher and lower proportions of students designated as having special educational needs on student achievement in secondary schools. It explores some of the issues involved in conducting such research and considers the extent to which newly available national data in…

  13. Teacher Quality and Educational Equality: Do Teachers with Higher Standards-Based Evaluation Ratings Close Student Achievement Gaps?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Kimball, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Using standards-based evaluation ratings for nearly 400 teachers, and achievement results for over 7,000 students from grades 4-6, this study investigated the distribution and achievement effects of teacher quality in Washoe County, a mid-sized school district serving Reno and Sparks, Nevada. Classrooms with higher concentrations of minority,…

  14. What Is the Best Way to Achieve Broader Reach of Improved Practices in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a common problem in higher education--how to create more widespread use of improved practices, often commonly referred to as innovations. I argue that policy models of scale-up are often advocated in higher education but that they have a dubious history in community development and K-12 education and that higher education…

  15. Beyond Virtual Equality: Liberatory Consciousness as a Path to Achieve Trans* Inclusion in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, D. Chase J.

    2015-01-01

    Trans* men have not, as yet, received specific research attention in higher education. Based on intensive interviews with 25 trans* men enrolled in colleges or universities in New England, I explore their experiences in higher education. I analyze participants' descriptions of supports and challenges in their collegiate environments, as well as…

  16. Using the Internet To Deliver Higher Education: A Cautionary Tale about Achieving Good Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Steven J.; Rodd, Jillian

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the development and delivery of a higher education course module that was designed to provide remote learners in England with computer-supported solutions to access higher education as part of a technology-assisted distance education program. Highlights include use of a Web site; e-mail; videoconferencing; and student attrition rate.…

  17. Higher Education and the Achievement (and/or Prevention) of Equity and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, John; Naidoo, Rajani

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the theoretical and empirical literature on higher education's role in relation to social equity and related notions of citizenship, social justice, social cohesion and meritocracy. It considers both the education and the research functions of higher education and how these impact upon different sections of society, on who…

  18. Using Regional Cooperation and Technology To Achieve Cost Savings: The Midwestern Higher Education Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David; Williams, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    Describes four successful cost-containment initiatives of the Midwestern Higher Education Commission, which was established to advance higher education in the Midwest through interstate cooperation. Projects include development of Academic Scheduling and Management Software; Internet-based activities; the Virtual Private Network, to reduce…

  19. Colonialism on Campus: A Critique of Mentoring to Achieve Equity in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Roger L.

    In order to reconceptualize the mentoring relationship in higher education, parallels to colonialist strategies of subordination are drawn. The objective is to stimulate renewed thinking and action more consistent with stated policy goals in higher education. One of the primary functions of a mentor or sponsor is to exercise personal power to…

  20. Method of achieving the controlled release of thermonuclear energy

    DOEpatents

    Brueckner, Keith A.

    1986-01-01

    A method of achieving the controlled release of thermonuclear energy by illuminating a minute, solid density, hollow shell of a mixture of material such as deuterium and tritium with a high intensity, uniformly converging laser wave to effect an extremely rapid build-up of energy in inwardly traveling shock waves to implode the shell creating thermonuclear conditions causing a reaction of deuterons and tritons and a resultant high energy thermonuclear burn. Utilizing the resulting energy as a thermal source and to breed tritium or plutonium. The invention also contemplates a laser source wherein the flux level is increased with time to reduce the initial shock heating of fuel and provide maximum compression after implosion; and, in addition, computations and an equation are provided to enable the selection of a design having a high degree of stability and a dependable fusion performance by establishing a proper relationship between the laser energy input and the size and character of the selected material for the fusion capsule.

  1. The Effects of Higher Education/Military Service on Achievement Levels of Police Academy Cadets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas Allen

    This study compared levels of achievement of three groups of Houston (Texas) police academy cadets: those with no military service but with 60 or more college credit hours, those with military service and 0 hours of college credit, and those with military service and 1 to 59 hours of college credit. Prior to 1991, police cadets in Houston were…

  2. Postponement in the Completion of the Final Dissertation: An Underexplored Dimension of Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Serge; Meert, Gaëlle; Galand, Benoît; Nils, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Research on academic achievement at a university has mainly focused on success and persistence among first year students. Very few studies have looked at delay or failure in the completion of a final dissertation. However, this phenomenon could affect a substantial proportion of students and has considerable costs. The purpose of the present study…

  3. Gender Segregation in Higher Education: Effects of Aspirations, Mathematics Achievement, and Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kenneth L; Boldizar, Janet P.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the relationships among mathematics achievement levels, income potential, high school aspirations, and the gender segregation of bachelor's degrees. Investigates how gender segregation changed between 1973 and 1983. Concludes that gender segregation is present at the high school and bachelor's levels. Maintains that psychological barriers…

  4. The Relationship between Epistemological Beliefs, Learning Strategies and Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Beth, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    This study provides important insights into the relationship between the epistemological beliefs of community college students, the selection of learning strategies, and academic achievement. This study employed a quantitative survey design. Data were collected by surveying students at a community college during the spring semester of 2010. The…

  5. Success in Higher Education: The Challenge to Achieve Academic Standing and Social Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Life, James

    2015-01-01

    When students look at their classmates in the classroom, consciously or unconsciously, they see competitors both for academic recognition and social success. How do they fit in relation to others and how do they succeed in achieving both? Traditional views on the drive to succeed and the fear of failure are well known as motivators for achieving…

  6. Correlation of Conditional Admittance and Student Achievement in an Undergraduate Higher Education Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores several research questions that identify differences between conditionally admitted students and regularly admitted students in terms of achievement results at one institution. The research provides specific variables as well as relationships including historical and comparative aggregate data from 2009 and 2010 that indicate…

  7. The Little District that Could: Literacy Reform Leads to Higher Achievement in California District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia R.; Budicin-Senters, Antoinette; King, L. McLean

    2005-01-01

    This article describes educational reform developed over a 10-year period in California's Lemon Grove School District, which resulted in a steady and remarkable upward shift in achievement for the students of this multicultural district just outside San Diego. Six elements of literacy reform emerged as the most significant factors affecting…

  8. Important Learning Dimensions Influencing Undergraduate Students' Learning and Academic Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usun, Salih

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the opinions of the undergraduate students and faculty members on factors that affect student learning and academic achievement. The sub aims of this study were to: (1) Develop a mean rank ordering of the 23 dimensions affecting learning, for both the students and faculty, and determine the similarities…

  9. Gender Disparity Analysis in Academic Achievement at Higher Education Preparatory Schools: Case of South Wollo, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshetu, Amogne Asfaw

    2015-01-01

    Gender is among the determinant factors affecting students' academic achievement. This paper tried to investigate the impact of gender on academic performance of preparatory secondary school students based on 2014 EHEECE result. Ex post facto research design was used. To that end, data were collected from 3243 students from eight purposively…

  10. Increasing Access to Higher Education among Low-Income Students: The Washington State Achievers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carrie B.; Brown, Doreen E.; Pavel, D. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how a comprehensive precollege intervention and developmental program among low-income high school students contributed to college enrollment outcomes measured in 2006. Our focus was on the Fifth Cohort of the Washington State Achievers (WSA) Program, which provides financial, academic, and college…

  11. WISC-III and CAS: Which Correlates Higher with Achievement for a Clinical Sample?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naglieri, Jack A.; De Lauder, Brianna Y.; Goldstein, Sam; Schwebech, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The relationships between Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) and the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) with the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement (WJ-III) were examined for a sample of 119 children (87 males and 32 females) ages 6 to 16. The sample was comprised of children who were referred to a specialty clinic…

  12. Demographic Inertia Revisited: An Immodest Proposal to Achieve Equitable Gender Representation among Faculty in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschke, Robyn; Laursen, Sandra; Nielsen, Joyce McCarl; Rankin, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Progress toward equitable gender representation among faculty in higher education has been "glacial" since the early 1970s (Glazer-Raymo, 1999; Lomperis, 1990; Trower & Chait, 2002). Women, who now make up a majority of undergraduate degree earners and approximately 46% of Ph.D. earners nationwide (National Center for Education Statistics [NCES],…

  13. Achieving Canadian Excellence in and for the World: Leveraging Canada's Higher Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2004

    2004-01-01

    As Canada's opportunities to claim international leadership are assessed, the best prospects lie in a combination of our impressive higher education and research commitments, civic and institutional values, and quality of life. This paper concludes that as an exporting country, the benefits will come in economic growth. As citizens of the world,…

  14. Linking Emotional Intelligence to Achieve Technology Enhanced Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Janette; Blignaut, A. Seugnet

    2013-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) increasingly use technology-enhanced learning (TEL) environments (e.g. blended learning and e-learning) to improve student throughput and retention rates. As the demand for TEL courses increases, expectations rise for faculty to meet the challenge of using TEL effectively. The promises that TEL holds have not…

  15. Goals, Strategies, and Achievements in the Internationalization of Higher Education in Japan and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsuan-Fu; Lin, Ming-Huang; Yang, Cheng-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    International knowledge and skills are essential for success in today's highly competitive global marketplace. As one of the key providers of such knowledge and skills, universities have become a key focus of the internationalization strategies of governments throughout the world. While the internationalization of higher education clearly has…

  16. Moving to higher ground: Closing the high school science achievement gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebane, Joyce Graham

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of West High School constituents (students, parents, teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors) about the readiness and interest of African American students at West High School to take Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) science courses as a strategy for closing the achievement gap. This case study utilized individual interviews and questionnaires for data collection. The participants were selected biology students and their parents, teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors at West High School. The results of the study indicated that just over half the students and teachers, most parents, and all guidance counselors thought African American students were prepared to take AP science courses. Only one of the three administrators thought the students were prepared to take AP science courses. Between one-half and two-thirds of the students, parents, teachers, and administrators thought students were interested in taking an AP science course. Only two of the guidance counselors thought there was interest among the African American students in taking AP science courses. The general consensus among the constituents about the readiness and interest of African American students at West High School to take IB science courses was that it is too early in the process to really make definitive statements. West is a prospective IB school and the program is new and not yet in place. Educators at the West High School community must find reasons to expect each student to succeed. Lower expectations often translate into lower academic demands and less rigor in courses. Lower academic demands and less rigor in courses translate into less than adequate performance by students. When teachers and administrators maintain high expectations, they encourage students to aim high rather than slide by with mediocre effort (Lumsden, 1997). As a result of the study, the following suggestions should

  17. Accreditation Matters: Achieving Academic Recognition and Renewal. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report. Volume 30, Issue 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alstete, Jeffrey W.

    2004-01-01

    This book focuses on contemporary accreditation, why it matters, and how it can be done effectively. The author covers historical background, getting started, strategies for achieving accreditation, and visions for future academic success, with examples and case studies. Accreditation is the primary way of ensuring the quality of higher education…

  18. Differences in General Cognitive Abilities and Domain-Specific Skills of Higher-and Lower-Achieving Students in Stoichiometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Eilks, Ingo; Bowman, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a comparison of a group of higher-and lower-achieving undergraduate chemistry students, 17 in total, as separated on their ability in stoichiometry. This exploratory study of 17 students investigated parallels and differences in the students' general and domain-specific cognitive abilities. Performance, strategies, and…

  19. What Educational Initiatives Contribute to Higher than Expected Achievement in Student Performance for Public Schools in the State of Indiana?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Thomas Allen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the areas of teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school structure, school-community partnerships or school leadership were significantly embedded in practice and acted as a change agent among school systems that achieve higher than expected results on their state standardized testing…

  20. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from…

  1. Parental Level of Education: Associations with Psychological Well-Being, Academic Achievement and Reasons for Pursuing Higher Education in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechter, Melissa; Milevsky, Avidan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the interconnection between parental level of education, psychological well-being, academic achievement and reasons for pursuing higher education in adolescents. Participants included 439 college freshmen from a mid-size state university in the northeastern USA. A survey, including indices of…

  2. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.7 Water used to achieve energy efficiency....

  3. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.7 Water used to achieve energy efficiency....

  4. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND... achieve energy efficiency....

  5. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.7 Water used to achieve energy efficiency....

  6. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND... achieve energy efficiency....

  7. Achieving Higher Diagnostic Results in Stereotactic Brain Biopsy by Simple and Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    Gulsen, Salih

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurosurgeons have preferred to perform the stereotactic biopsy for pathologic diagnosis when the intracranial pathology located eloquent areas and deep sites of the brain. AIM: To get a higher ratio of definite pathologic diagnosis during stereotactic biopsy and develop practical method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We determined at least two different target points and two different trajectories to take brain biopsy during stereotactic biopsy. It is a different way from the conventional stereotactic biopsy method in which one point has been selected to take a biopsy. We separated our patients into two groups, group 1 (N=10), and group 2 (N= 19). We chose one target to take a biopsy in group 1, and two different targets and two different trajectories in group 2. In group 2, one patient underwent craniotomy due to hemorrhage at the site of the biopsy during tissue biting. However, none of the patients in both groups suffered any neurological complication related biopsy procedure. RESULTS: In group 1, two of 10 cases, and, in group 2, fourteen of 19 cases had positive biopsy harvesting. These results showed statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 2 (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Regarding these results, choosing more than one trajectories and taking at least six specimens from each target provides higher diagnostic rate in stereotaxic biopsy taking method.

  8. Comparing Cattell-Horn-Carroll factor models: differences between bifactor and higher order factor models in predicting language achievement.

    PubMed

    Beaujean, A Alexander; Parkin, Jason; Parker, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    Previous research using the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities has shown a relationship between cognitive ability and academic achievement. Most of this research, however, has been done using the Woodcock-Johnson family of instruments with a higher order factor model. For CHC theory to grow, research should be done with other assessment instruments and tested with other factor models. This study examined the relationship between different factor models of CHC theory and the factors' relationships with language-based academic achievement (i.e., reading and writing). Using the co-norming sample for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--4th Edition and the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test--2nd Edition, we found that bifactor and higher order models of the subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th Edition produced a different set of Stratum II factors, which, in turn, have very different relationships with the language achievement variables of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test--2nd Edition. We conclude that the factor model used to represent CHC theory makes little difference when general intelligence is of major interest, but it makes a large difference when the Stratum II factors are of primary concern, especially when they are used to predict other variables. PMID:24840178

  9. Multiphase Nano-Composite Coatings for Achieving Energy Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Nainaparampil, Jose

    2012-03-26

    UES Inc. and ANL teamed in this work to develop novel coating systems for the protection of surfaces from thermal degradation mainly in two applications; Machining and Die casting. These coatings were specifically designed for the purpose by incorporating required material phases and the overall architecture, which led to reduce the energy usage and increase efficiency of the operations. Following the UES/ANL's feasibility work, the coatings were developed utilizing High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPMS) and Large area filtered arc deposition (LAFAD) techniques. Toughness, hardness and oxidation resistance: contrasting qualities have been mixed in the right proportion to attain the suitable material characteristic for the cause. Hafnium diboride (HfB2) based materials provided such a system and its properties were tamed to attain the right combination of toughness and hardness by working on the microstructure and architecture of coatings. An effective interfacing material (graded concentrations of topcoat) was also achieved in this work to provide the required adhesion between the substrate and the coating. Combination of an appropriate bond coat and a functional top coat provided the present thermal degradation resistant coating for cutting tools and die-casting applications. Laboratory level performance tests and industrial level application tests by partner companies (Beta Site Testing) were used for the development of these coatings.

  10. Energy Efficiency of Higher Education Buildings: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Nelson; Pereira, Luísa Dias; Ferreira, João; Conceição, Pedro; da Silva, Patrícia Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to propose an energy efficiency plan (with technical and behavioural improvement measures) for a Portuguese higher education building--the Teaching Building of the Faculty of Economics of the University of Coimbra (FEUC). Design/methodology/approach: The study was developed in the context of both the "Green…

  11. Performance Achievements and Challenges for FELs based on Energy Recovered Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2006-08-27

    During the past decade several groups have assembled free electron lasers based on energy recovered linacs (ERLs). Such arrangements have been built to obtain high average power electron and photon beams, by using high repetition rate beam pulses driving FEL oscillators. In this paper the performance of many existing and several proposed facilities from around the world are reviewed. Going forward, many questions must be addressed to achieve still better performance including: higher average current injectors, better optimized accelerating cavities, higher energy acceptance and lower loss beam recirculation systems, and better optical cavity designs for dealing with the optical beam power circulating in the ERL FELs. This paper presents some of the current thinking on each of these issues.

  12. Perspectives on achieving sustainable energy production and use

    EPA Science Inventory

    The traditional definition of sustainability calls for polices and strategies that meet society's present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Achieving operational sustainability requires three critical elements: advances in scien...

  13. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  14. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  15. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  16. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  17. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  18. Paradigms and poverty in global energy policy: research needs for achieving universal energy access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Bazilian, Morgan; Toman, Michael

    2016-06-01

    This research letter discusses elements of a long-term interdisciplinary research effort needed to help ensure the maximum social, economic, and environmental benefits of achieving secure universal access to modern energy services. Exclusion of these services affects the lives and livelihoods of billions of people. The research community has an important, but not yet well-defined, role to play.

  19. Leadership and culture of data governance for the achievement of higher education goals (Case study: Indonesia University of Education)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putro, Budi Laksono; Surendro, Kridanto; Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Data is a vital asset in a business enterprise in achieving organizational goals. Data and information affect the decision-making process on the various activities of an organization. Data problems include validity, quality, duplication, control over data, and the difficulty of data availability. Data Governance is the way the company / institution manages its data assets. Data Governance covers the rules, policies, procedures, roles and responsibilities, and performance indicators that direct the overall management of data assets. Studies on governance data or information aplenty recommend the importance of cultural factors in the governance of research data. Among the organization's leadership culture has a very close relationship, and there are two concepts turn, namely: Culture created by leaders, leaders created by culture. Based on the above, this study exposure to the theme "Leadership and Culture Of Data Governance For The Achievement Of Higher Education Goals (Case Study: Indonesia University Of Education)". Culture and Leadership Model Development of on Higher Education in Indonesia would be made by comparing several models of data governance, organizational culture, and organizational leadership on previous studies based on the advantages and disadvantages of each model to the existing organizational business. Results of data governance model development is shown in the organizational culture FPMIPA Indonesia University Of Education today is the cultural market and desired culture is a culture of clan. Organizational leadership today is Individualism Index (IDV) (83.72%), and situational leadership on selling position.

  20. Case study: Comparison of motivation for achieving higher performance between self-directed and manager-directed aerospace engineering teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlick, Katherine

    "The stereotype of engineers is that they are not people oriented; the stereotype implies that engineers would not work well in teams---that their task emphasis is a solo venture and does not encourage social aspects of collaboration" (Miner & Beyerlein, 1999, p. 16). The problem is determining the best method of providing a motivating environment where design engineers may contribute within a team in order to achieve higher performance in the organization. Theoretically, self-directed work teams perform at higher levels. But, allowing a design engineer to contribute to the team while still maintaining his or her anonymity is the key to success. Therefore, a motivating environment must be established to encourage greater self-actualization in design engineers. The purpose of this study is to determine the favorable motivational environment for design engineers and describe the comparison between two aerospace design-engineering teams: one self-directed and the other manager directed. Following the comparison, this study identified whether self-direction or manager-direction provides the favorable motivational environment for operating as a team in pursuit of achieving higher performance. The methodology used in this research was the case study focusing on the team's levels of job satisfaction and potential for higher performance. The collection of data came from three sources, (a) surveys, (b) researcher observer journal and (c) collection of artifacts. The surveys provided information regarding personal behavior characteristics, potentiality for higher performance and motivational attributes. The researcher journal provided information regarding team dynamics, individual interaction, conflict and conflict resolution. The milestone for performance was based on the collection of artifacts from the two teams. The findings from this study illustrated that whether the team was manager-directed or self-directed does not appear to influence the needs and wants of the

  1. UPGRADING THE CEBAF INJECTOR WITH A NEW BOOSTER, HIGHER VOLTAGE GUN, AND HIGHER FINAL ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Reza Kazimi, Arne Freyberger, Alicia Hofler, Andrew Hutton, Fay Hannon

    2012-07-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) accelerator at Jefferson Lab will be upgraded from 6 GeV to 12 GeV in the next few years. To meet the requirement of the new machine and to take the opportunity to improve the beam quality, the CEBAF injector will be upgraded with a higher voltage gun, a new booster, and a new accelerating RF module. The CEBAF injector creates and accelerates three beams at different currents simultaneously. The beams are interleaved, each at one third of the RF frequency, traveling through the same beam line. The higher voltage gun will lower the space charge effects. The new booster with optimized beam dynamics will complete the bunching process and provide initial acceleration matched to the new gun voltage. Using our latest SRF design, the new booster has significantly lower x/y coupling effects that should improve our beam setup and operation for the highly sensitive parity experiments scheduled for the CEBAF's future. Finally, the new accelerating RF module will roughly double the injector final energy to match the rest of the 12 GeV accelerator. In this paper we will provide more detail about this upgrade.

  2. Achieving Energy Savings in Municipal Construction in Long Beach California

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Long Beach Gas and Oil (LBGO), the public gas utility in Long Beach, California, partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build a new, low-energy modular office building that is at least 50% below requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program. The LBGO building, which demonstrates that modular construction can be very energy efficient, is expected to exceed the ASHRAE baseline by about 45%.

  3. Higher-dimensional evolving wormholes satisfying the null energy condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangeneh, Mahdi Kord; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Riazi, Nematollah

    2014-07-01

    In this work, we consider the possibility of expanding wormholes in higher dimensions, which is an important ingredient of modern theories of fundamental physics. An important motivation is that nontrivial topological objects such as microscopic wormholes may have been enlarged to macroscopic sizes in an expanding inflationary cosmological background. Since the Ricci scalar is only a function of time in standard cosmological models, we use this property as a simplifying assumption. More specifically, we consider a particular class of wormhole solutions corresponding to the choice of a spatially homogeneous Ricci scalar. The possibility of obtaining solutions with normal and exotic matter is explored and we find a variety of solutions including those in four dimensions that satisfy the null energy condition in specific time intervals. In particular, for five dimensions, we find solutions that satisfy the null energy condition throughout the respective evolution.

  4. Achieving tunable sensitivity in composite high-energy density materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashkeev, Sergey; Tsyshevsky, Roman; Kuklja, Maija

    2015-06-01

    Laser irradiation provides a unique opportunity for selective, predictive, and controlled initiation of energetic materials. We propose a consistent micro-scale mechanism of photoexcitation at the interface, formed by a molecular energetic material and a metal oxide. A specific PETN-MgO model composite is used to illustrate and explain seemingly puzzling experiments on selective laser initiation of energetic materials, which reported that the presence of metal oxide additives triggered the photoinitiation by an unusually low energy. We suggest that PETN photodecomposition is catalyzed by oxygen vacancies (F0 centers) at the MgO surface. The proposed model suggests ways to tune sensitivity of energetic molecular materials to photoinitiation. Our quantum-chemical calculations suggest that the structural defects (e.g., oxygen vacancies) strongly interact with the molecular material (e.g., adsorbed energetic molecules) by inducing a charge transfer at the interface and hence play an imperative role in governing both energy absorption and energy release in the system. Our approach and conclusions provide a solid basis for novel design of energetic interfaces with desired properties and offers a new perspective in the field of explosive materials and devices.

  5. Stable topological insulators achieved using high energy electron beams

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lukas; Konczykowski, Marcin; Deng, Haiming; Korzhovska, Inna; Begliarbekov, Milan; Chen, Zhiyi; Papalazarou, Evangelos; Marsi, Marino; Perfetti, Luca; Hruban, Andrzej; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators are potentially transformative quantum solids with metallic surface states which have Dirac band structure and are immune to disorder. Ubiquitous charged bulk defects, however, pull the Fermi energy into the bulk bands, denying access to surface charge transport. Here we demonstrate that irradiation with swift (∼2.5 MeV energy) electron beams allows to compensate these defects, bring the Fermi level back into the bulk gap and reach the charge neutrality point (CNP). Controlling the beam fluence, we tune bulk conductivity from p- (hole-like) to n-type (electron-like), crossing the Dirac point and back, while preserving the Dirac energy dispersion. The CNP conductance has a two-dimensional character on the order of ten conductance quanta and reveals, both in Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3, the presence of only two quantum channels corresponding to two topological surfaces. The intrinsic quantum transport of the topological states is accessible disregarding the bulk size. PMID:26961901

  6. Stable topological insulators achieved using high energy electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lukas; Konczykowski, Marcin; Deng, Haiming; Korzhovska, Inna; Begliarbekov, Milan; Chen, Zhiyi; Papalazarou, Evangelos; Marsi, Marino; Perfetti, Luca; Hruban, Andrzej; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia

    2016-03-01

    Topological insulators are potentially transformative quantum solids with metallic surface states which have Dirac band structure and are immune to disorder. Ubiquitous charged bulk defects, however, pull the Fermi energy into the bulk bands, denying access to surface charge transport. Here we demonstrate that irradiation with swift (~2.5 MeV energy) electron beams allows to compensate these defects, bring the Fermi level back into the bulk gap and reach the charge neutrality point (CNP). Controlling the beam fluence, we tune bulk conductivity from p- (hole-like) to n-type (electron-like), crossing the Dirac point and back, while preserving the Dirac energy dispersion. The CNP conductance has a two-dimensional character on the order of ten conductance quanta and reveals, both in Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3, the presence of only two quantum channels corresponding to two topological surfaces. The intrinsic quantum transport of the topological states is accessible disregarding the bulk size.

  7. Stable topological insulators achieved using high energy electron beams.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lukas; Konczykowski, Marcin; Deng, Haiming; Korzhovska, Inna; Begliarbekov, Milan; Chen, Zhiyi; Papalazarou, Evangelos; Marsi, Marino; Perfetti, Luca; Hruban, Andrzej; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators are potentially transformative quantum solids with metallic surface states which have Dirac band structure and are immune to disorder. Ubiquitous charged bulk defects, however, pull the Fermi energy into the bulk bands, denying access to surface charge transport. Here we demonstrate that irradiation with swift (∼2.5 MeV energy) electron beams allows to compensate these defects, bring the Fermi level back into the bulk gap and reach the charge neutrality point (CNP). Controlling the beam fluence, we tune bulk conductivity from p- (hole-like) to n-type (electron-like), crossing the Dirac point and back, while preserving the Dirac energy dispersion. The CNP conductance has a two-dimensional character on the order of ten conductance quanta and reveals, both in Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3, the presence of only two quantum channels corresponding to two topological surfaces. The intrinsic quantum transport of the topological states is accessible disregarding the bulk size. PMID:26961901

  8. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in Office Buildings, Advanced Energy Design Guides: Office Buildings (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing new office buildings that result in 50% less energy use than conventional designs meeting minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use office buildings with gross floor areas up to 100,000 ft2 (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller office buildings with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of office buildings.

  9. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in New Schools, Advanced Energy Design Guides: K-12 Schools (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing elementary, middle, and high school buildings that will result in 50% less energy use than conventional new schools built to minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use school buildings (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller schools with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of schools.

  10. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  11. Aptitude Tests Versus School Exams as Selection Tools for Higher Education and the Case for Assessing Educational Achievement in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Advocates of using a US-style SAT for university selection claim that it is fairer to applicants from disadvantaged backgrounds than achievement tests because it assesses potential, not achievement, and that it allows finer discrimination between top applicants than GCEs. The pros and cons of aptitude tests in principle are discussed, focusing on…

  12. Study of the Relationship between Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Students: A Case of Spicer Higher Secondary School, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siahi, Evans Atsiaya; Maiyo, Julius K.

    2015-01-01

    The studies on the correlation of academic achievement have paved way for control and manipulation of related variables for quality results in schools. In spite of the facts that schools impart uniform classroom instructions to all students, wide range of difference is observed in their academic achievement. The study sought to determine the…

  13. A Study to Assess the Achievement Motivation of Higher Secondary Students in Relation to Their Noise Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latha, Prema

    2014-01-01

    Disturbing sounds are often referred to as noise, and if extreme enough in degree, intensity or frequency, it is referred to as noise pollution. Achievement refers to a change in study behavior in relation to their noise sensitivity and learning in the educational sense by achieving results in changed responses to certain types of stimuli like…

  14. Dependence of seismic energy on higher wavenumber components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, S.; Yagi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic Energy ESE_S gives a minimum of strain energy drop defined as an inner product of spacial distribution of coseismic slip and stress change on a fault surface (Andrews 1978 JGR). Traditionally, ESE_S has been obtained by multiplying mean stress drop and seismic moment divided by the rigidity by assuming the distribution of stress drop is constant in space, which yields an elliptic slip distribution. It has, however, been pointed out that slip distributions are approximated not as the elliptic distribution but as the kk-squared model (Herrero & Bernard 1994 BSSA), so that the product of mean stress drop and seismic moment does not give proper estimation of ESE_S. For the case of heterogeneous stress drop, the inner product requires shorter wavelength components of slip distribution (Andrews 1980 JGR). Mai & Beroza (2002 JGR) revealed that observed slip distributions in the wavenumber domain are well modeled with the von Karman power spectrum density parameterized by a corner wavenumber kck_c and the Hurst exponent HH, and quantified these two parameters for some inversion results. Although they discussed a condition of convergence of the inner product, they did not consider dependence of ESE_S on kck_c, HH, and a maximum wavenumber kmaxk_{max}. In this study, we analytically obtain the dependence and suggest how we should consider higher wavenumber components of slip distribution for estimation of ESE_S. We show that the relationship ES∝C(kmax/kc,H)μP2k3cE_S propto C(k_{max}/k_c, H) mu P^2 k_c^3 holds, where μmu is the rigidity, and PP is the seismic potency. An analytical solution of C(kmax/kc,H)C(k_{max}/k_c, H) tells us that even components of kmax/kc˜10k_{max}/k_c sim 10 or 100100 are not negligible for ESE_S under kk-squared model while such components do not contribute to ESE_S for the elliptic slip distribution. We discuss this feature quantitatively and show some examples of estimation of ESE_S based on results of slip inversions.

  15. American Indian and Alaska Native Higher Education: Toward a New Century of Academic Achievement and Cultural Integrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Bobby

    This paper reviews the history of higher education for Native Americans and proposes change strategies. Assimilation was the primary goal of higher education from early colonial times to the 20th century. Tribal response ranged from resistance to support of higher education. When the Federal Government began to dominate Native education in the…

  16. Preparing for a Global Community. Achieving an International Perspective in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 2, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickert, Sarah M.

    This report discusses the response of colleges and universities in the United States to the need of graduate students to become equipped to make personal and public policy decisions as citizens of an international society. Curriculum changes are showing a tightening of foreign language standards in schools of higher education and, throughout the…

  17. Boosting K-12 Student Achievement: How Corporate America and Higher Ed Can Help. Forum Focus. Fall 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Jenifer, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Forum Focus" was a semi-annual magazine of the Business-Higher Education Forum (BHEF) that featured articles on the role of business and higher education on significant issues affecting the P-16 education system. The magazine typically focused on themes featured at the most recently held semi-annual Forum meeting at the time of publication.…

  18. Retrospective Understandings: Individual-Collective Influences on High Achieving Black Students at a Predominantly White Institution of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Candice Elaine

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of an exploratory qualitative study that examined the influences of individual and collective sociocultural identities on the community involvements and high academic achievement of 10 Black alumni who attended a predominantly White institution between 1985 and 2008. Syntagmatic narrative analysis and…

  19. Using Valid and Invalid Experimental Designs to Teach the Control of Variables Strategy in Higher and Lower Achieving Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Robert F., Jr.; Lorch, Elizabeth P.; Freer, Benjamin Dunham; Dunlap, Emily E.; Hodell, Emily C.; Calderhead, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Students (n = 1,069) from 60 4th-grade classrooms were taught the control of variables strategy (CVS) for designing experiments. Half of the classrooms were in schools that performed well on a state-mandated test of science achievement, and half were in schools that performed relatively poorly. Three teaching interventions were compared: an…

  20. Ubiquitous Laptop Usage in Higher Education: Effects on Student Achievement, Student Satisfaction, and Constructivist Measures in Honors and Traditional Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurst, Christian; Smarkola, Claudia; Gaffney, Mary Anne

    2008-01-01

    Three years of graduating business honors cohorts in a large urban university were sampled to determine whether the introduction of ubiquitous laptop computers into the honors program contributed to student achievement, student satisfaction and constructivist teaching activities. The first year cohort consisted of honors students who did not have…

  1. Higher Education Pushes for Energy Education: GVSU Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-03-01

    Grand Valley State University (GVSU) partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build new, low-energy buildings that are at least 50% below Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP).

  2. Causal Attribution: Actor-Observer Bias in Academic Achievement among Students at an Institution of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudhovozi, P.; Gumani, M.; Maunganidze, L.; Sodi, T.

    2010-01-01

    The study explores the attribution styles of in-group and out-group members. Eighty-four (42 female and 42 male) undergraduate students were randomly selected from the Faculty of Education at an institution of higher learning in Zimbabwe. A questionnaire was used to capture the opinions of the participants. The data was analysed using the…

  3. Going Green: A Comparative Case Study of How Three Higher Education Institutions Achieved Progressive Measures of Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    Leal Filho, MacDermot, and Padgam (1996) contended that post-secondary institutions are well suited to take on leadership responsibilities for society's environmental protection. Higher education has the unique academic freedom to engage in critical thinking and bold experimentation in environmental sustainability (Cortese, 2003). Although…

  4. Building Coalitions for Minority Success: A Report of the SHEEO Project on Minority Achievement in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingle, James R., Ed.; Rodriguez, Esther M., Ed.

    This report describes initiatives of higher education boards to provide equal educational opportunities for minority students in the following states: (1) Arizona; (2) Colorado; (3) Illinois; (4) Massachusetts; (5) Montana; (6) New York; (7) Ohio; and (8) Tennessee. Evidence of school completion, academic preparation, college participation rates,…

  5. Achievements and Consequences of Two Decades of Quality Assurance in Higher Education: A Personal View from the Edge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Don

    2010-01-01

    While the past two decades have seen significant expansion and harmonisation of quality assurance mechanisms in higher education, there is limited evidence of positive effects on the quality of core processes of teaching and learning. The paradox of the separation of assurance from improvement is explored. A shift in focus from surveillance to…

  6. A Fresh Perspective on Progress Files--A Way of Representing Complex Learning and Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Norman; Ward, Rob

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the challenge of developing new conceptual knowledge to help us make better sense of the way that higher education is approaching the "problem" of representing (documenting, certifying and communicating by other means) students' learning for the super-complex world described by Barnett (2000b). The current UK solution to…

  7. Unraveling the sequence information in COI barcode to achieve higher taxon assignment based on Indian freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Mohua; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Efficacy of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) DNA barcode in higher taxon assignment is still under debate in spite of several attempts, using the conventional DNA barcoding methods, to assign higher taxa. Here we try to understand whether nucleotide and amino acid sequence in COI gene carry sufficient information to assign species to their higher taxonomic rank, using 160 species of Indian freshwater fishes. Our results reveal that with increase in the taxonomic rank, sequence conservation decreases for both nucleotides and amino acids. Order level exhibits lowest conservation with 50% of the nucleotides and amino acids being conserved. Among the variable sites, 30-50% were found to carry high information content within an order, while it was 70-80% within a family and 80-99% within a genus. High information content shows sites with almost conserved sequence but varying at one or two locations, which can be due to variations at species or population level. Thus, the potential of COI gene in higher taxon assignment is revealed with validation of ample inherent signals latent in the gene. PMID:24409929

  8. Measurement of the pion form factor at higher energies

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, D.J.

    1994-04-01

    One of the strongest arguments for increasing the nominal CEBAF beam energy to equal or exceed 6 GeV is that one would be able to make quality high Q{sup 2} measurements of the charged pion form factor.

  9. Higher Achievement and Improvement Through Instruction with Computers and Scholarly Transition and Resource Systems Program (Project HAITI STARS), 1989-90. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    A final evaluation was conducted in the 1989-90 school year of New York City (New York) Board of Education's project, Higher Achievement and Improvement Through Instruction with Computers and Scholarly Transition and Resource Systems (HAITI STARS). The project served 524 limited-English-proficient Spanish-speaking students at Far Rockaway High…

  10. Higher Achievement and Improvement Through Instruction with Computers and Scholarly Transition And Resource Systems Program (Project HAITI STARS). Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OER Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustin, Marc A.

    The Higher Achievement and Improvement Through Instruction with Computers and Scholarly Transition And Resource Systems program (Project HAITI STARS), a federally-funded bilingual education program, served 425 students of limited English proficiency at three high schools in New York City during its fifth contract year. Students received…

  11. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes. National Laboratory White Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Marcus V.A.

    2011-07-01

    This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified by researchers from four national laboratories (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes.

  12. Achievable rate maximization for decode-and-forward MIMO-OFDM networks with an energy harvesting relay.

    PubMed

    Du, Guanyao; Yu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the system achievable rate for the multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system with an energy harvesting (EH) relay. Firstly we propose two protocols, time switching-based decode-and-forward relaying (TSDFR) and a flexible power splitting-based DF relaying (PSDFR) protocol by considering two practical receiver architectures, to enable the simultaneous information processing and energy harvesting at the relay. In PSDFR protocol, we introduce a temporal parameter to describe the time division pattern between the two phases which makes the protocol more flexible and general. In order to explore the system performance limit, we discuss the system achievable rate theoretically and formulate two optimization problems for the proposed protocols to maximize the system achievable rate. Since the problems are non-convex and difficult to solve, we first analyze them theoretically and get some explicit results, then design an augmented Lagrangian penalty function (ALPF) based algorithm for them. Numerical results are provided to validate the accuracy of our analytical results and the effectiveness of the proposed ALPF algorithm. It is shown that, PSDFR outperforms TSDFR to achieve higher achievable rate in such a MIMO-OFDM relaying system. Besides, we also investigate the impacts of the relay location, the number of antennas and the number of subcarriers on the system performance. Specifically, it is shown that, the relay position greatly affects the system performance of both protocols, and relatively worse achievable rate is achieved when the relay is placed in the middle of the source and the destination. This is different from the MIMO-OFDM DF relaying system without EH. Moreover, the optimal factor which indicates the time division pattern between the two phases in the PSDFR protocol is always above 0.8, which means that, the common division of the total transmission time into two equal phases in

  13. How endogenous plant cell-wall degradation mechanisms can help achieve higher efficiency in saccharification of biomass.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Eveline Q P; De Souza, Amanda P; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-07-01

    Cell-wall recalcitrance to hydrolysis still represents one of the major bottlenecks for second-generation bioethanol production. This occurs despite the development of pre-treatments, the prospect of new enzymes, and the production of transgenic plants with less-recalcitrant cell walls. Recalcitrance, which is the intrinsic resistance to breakdown imposed by polymer assembly, is the result of inherent limitations in its three domains. These consist of: (i) porosity, associated with a pectin matrix impairing trafficking through the wall; (ii) the glycomic code, which refers to the fine-structural emergent complexity of cell-wall polymers that are unique to cells, tissues, and species; and (iii) cellulose crystallinity, which refers to the organization in micro- and/or macrofibrils. One way to circumvent recalcitrance could be by following cell-wall hydrolysis strategies underlying plant endogenous mechanisms that are optimized to precisely modify cell walls in planta. Thus, the cell-wall degradation that occurs during fruit ripening, abscission, storage cell-wall mobilization, and aerenchyma formation are reviewed in order to highlight how plants deal with recalcitrance and which are the routes to couple prospective enzymes and cocktail designs with cell-wall features. The manipulation of key enzyme levels in planta can help achieving biologically pre-treated walls (i.e. less recalcitrant) before plants are harvested for bioethanol production. This may be helpful in decreasing the costs associated with producing bioethanol from biomass. PMID:25922489

  14. Stalking Higher Energy Conformers on the Potential Energy Surface of Charged Species.

    PubMed

    Brites, Vincent; Cimas, Alvaro; Spezia, Riccardo; Sieffert, Nicolas; Lisy, James M; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2015-03-10

    Combined theoretical DFT-MD and RRKM methodologies and experimental spectroscopic infrared predissociation (IRPD) strategies to map potential energy surfaces (PES) of complex ionic clusters are presented, providing lowest and high energy conformers, thresholds to isomerization, and cluster formation pathways. We believe this association not only represents a significant advance in the field of mapping minima and transition states on the PES but also directly measures dynamical pathways for the formation of structural conformers and isomers. Pathways are unraveled over picosecond (DFT-MD) and microsecond (RRKM) time scales while changing the amount of internal energy is experimentally achieved by changing the loss channel for the IRPD measurements, thus directly probing different kinetic and isomerization pathways. Demonstration is provided for Li(+)(H2O)3,4 ionic clusters. Nonstatistical formation of these ionic clusters by both direct and cascade processes, involving isomerization processes that can lead to trapping of high energy conformers along the paths due to evaporative cooling, has been unraveled. PMID:26579741

  15. Achieving competitive excellence in nuclear energy: The threat of proliferation; the challenge of inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear energy will have an expanding role in meeting the twenty-first-century challenges of population and economic growth, energy demand, and global warming. These great challenges are non-linearly coupled and incompletely understood. In the complex global system, achieving competitive excellence for nuclear energy is a multi-dimensional challenge. The growth of nuclear energy will be driven by its margin of economic advantage, as well as by threats to energy security and by growing evidence of global warming. At the same time, the deployment of nuclear energy will be inhibited by concerns about nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear waste and nuclear reactor safety. These drivers and inhibitors are coupled: for example, in the foreseeable future, proliferation in the Middle East may undermine energy security and increase demand for nuclear energy. The Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons laboratories are addressing many of these challenges, including nuclear weapons builddown and nonproliferation, nuclear waste storage and burnup, reactor safety and fuel enrichment, global warming, and the long-range development of fusion energy. Today I will focus on two major program areas at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the development of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) energy.

  16. Achieving Realistic Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in U.S. Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackhurst, Michael F.

    2011-12-01

    In recognizing that energy markets and greenhouse gas emissions are significantly influences by local factors, this research examines opportunities for achieving realistic energy greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. cities through provisions of more sustainable infrastructure. Greenhouse gas reduction opportunities are examined through the lens of a public program administrator charged with reducing emissions given realistic financial constraints and authority over emissions reductions and energy use. Opportunities are evaluated with respect to traditional public policy metrics, such as benefit-cost analysis, net benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. Section 2 summarizes current practices used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from communities. I identify improved and alternative emissions inventory techniques such as disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions mitigation. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. Finally, I highlight the need to integrate growth (population and economic) and business as usual implications (such as changes to electricity supply grids) into climate action planning. I demonstrate how these techniques could improve decision making when planning reductions, help communities set meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring. Section 3 evaluates the costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach explicitly evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings

  17. Examining the integrity of measurement of cognitive abilities in the prediction of achievement: Comparisons and contrasts across variables from higher-order and bifactor models.

    PubMed

    Benson, Nicholas F; Kranzler, John H; Floyd, Randy G

    2016-10-01

    Prior research examining cognitive ability and academic achievement relations have been based on different theoretical models, have employed both latent variables as well as observed variables, and have used a variety of analytic methods. Not surprisingly, results have been inconsistent across studies. The aims of this study were to (a) examine how relations between psychometric g, Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad abilities, and academic achievement differ across higher-order and bifactor models; (b) examine how well various types of observed scores corresponded with latent variables; and (c) compare two types of observed scores (i.e., refined and non-refined factor scores) as predictors of academic achievement. Results suggest that cognitive-achievement relations vary across theoretical models and that both types of factor scores tend to correspond well with the models on which they are based. However, orthogonal refined factor scores (derived from a bifactor model) have the advantage of controlling for multicollinearity arising from the measurement of psychometric g across all measures of cognitive abilities. Results indicate that the refined factor scores provide more precise representations of their targeted constructs than non-refined factor scores and maintain close correspondence with the cognitive-achievement relations observed for latent variables. Thus, we argue that orthogonal refined factor scores provide more accurate representations of the relations between CHC broad abilities and achievement outcomes than non-refined scores do. Further, the use of refined factor scores addresses calls for the application of scores based on latent variable models. PMID:27586067

  18. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  19. Ferrite-damped higher-order mode study in the Brookhaven energy-recovery linac cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, H.; Choi, E. M.; Hammons, L.

    2009-02-01

    A superconducting energy-recovery linac (ERL) is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to serve as a test bed for an application to upgrades of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The damping of higher-order modes in the superconducting five-cell cavity is of paramount importance and represents the topic of this paper. Achieving the damping by the exclusive use of two ferrite absorbers and the adoption of a space-saving step instead of the conventional taper are part of the exploratory study. Absorber properties which are portable to simulation programs for the ERL cavity have been obtained by measuring the absorber as a ferrite-loaded pill-box cavity. Measured and simulated results for the lowest dipole modes in the prototype copper cavity with one absorber are discussed. First room-temperature measurements of the fully assembled niobium cavity string are presented which confirm the effective damping of higher-order modes by the ferrite absorbers, and which give credibility to the simulated R over Q’s in the ERL.

  20. Identification of Energy Efficiency Opportunities through Building Data Analysis and Achieving Energy Savings through Improved Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Koran, Bill

    2014-09-04

    This chapter will highlight analysis techniques to identify energy efficiency opportunities to improve operations and controls. A free tool, Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM), will be used to assist in the analysis of whole-building, sub-metered, and/or data from the building automation system (BAS). Appendix A describes the features of ECAM in more depth, and also provide instructions for downloading ECAM and all resources pertaining to using ECAM.

  1. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes: National Laboratory White Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, M. V. A.

    2011-07-01

    In 2010, researchers from four of the national laboratories involved in residential research (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) were asked to prepare papers focusing on the key longer term research challenges, market barriers, and technology gaps that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes. This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified in the national laboratory white papers.

  2. Achieving Realistic Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in U.S. Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackhurst, Michael F.

    2011-12-01

    In recognizing that energy markets and greenhouse gas emissions are significantly influences by local factors, this research examines opportunities for achieving realistic energy greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. cities through provisions of more sustainable infrastructure. Greenhouse gas reduction opportunities are examined through the lens of a public program administrator charged with reducing emissions given realistic financial constraints and authority over emissions reductions and energy use. Opportunities are evaluated with respect to traditional public policy metrics, such as benefit-cost analysis, net benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. Section 2 summarizes current practices used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from communities. I identify improved and alternative emissions inventory techniques such as disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions mitigation. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. Finally, I highlight the need to integrate growth (population and economic) and business as usual implications (such as changes to electricity supply grids) into climate action planning. I demonstrate how these techniques could improve decision making when planning reductions, help communities set meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring. Section 3 evaluates the costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach explicitly evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings

  3. How America can look within to achieve energy security and reduce global warming.

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, B.; Goldston, D.; Crabtree, G.; Glicksman, L.; Goldstein, D.; Greene, D.; Kammen, D.; Levin, M.; Lubell, M.; Savitz, M.; Sperling, D.; Schlachter, F.; Scofield, J.; Dawson, J.

    2008-12-01

    Making major gains in energy efficiency is one of the most economical and effective ways our nation can wean itself off its dependence on foreign oil and reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases. Transportation and buildings, which account for two thirds of American energy usage, consume far more than they need to, but even though there are many affordable energy efficient technologies that can save consumers money, market imperfections inhibit their adoption. To overcome the barriers, the federal government must adopt policies that will transform the investments into economic and societal benefit. And the federal government must invest in research and development programs that target energy efficiency. Energy efficiency is one of America's great hidden energy reserves. We should begin tapping it now. Whether you want the United States to achieve greater energy security by weaning itself off foreign oil, sustain strong economic growth in the face of worldwide competition or reduce global warming by decreasing carbon emissions, energy efficiency is where you need to start. Thirty-five years ago the U.S. adopted national strategies, implemented policies and developed technologies that significantly improved energy efficiency. More than three decades have passed since then, and science and technology have progressed considerably, but U.S. energy policy has not. It is time to revisit the issue. In this report we examine the scientific and technological opportunities and policy actions that can make the United States more energy efficient, increase its security and reduce its impact on global warming. We believe the findings and recommendations will help Congress and the next administration to realize these goals. Our focus is on the transportation and buildings sectors of the economy. The opportunities are huge and the costs are small.

  4. Holographic Dark Energy in Higher Derivative Gravity with Varying Gravitational Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Bharat; Ansari, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the holographic dark energy scenario in higher derivative gravity with a varying gravitational constant. We introduce a kind of energy density from higher derivative gravity which has role of the same as holographic dark energy. We obtain the exact differential equation , which determine the evolution of the dark energy density based on varying gravitational constant G. We also find out a cosmological application of our work by evaluating a relation for the equation of state of dark energy for low redshifts containing varying G correction.

  5. Management Strategies for Sustainability Education, Planning, Design, Energy Conservation in California Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petratos, Panagiotis; Damaskou, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the effects of campus sustainability planning to annual campus energy inflows and outflows in California higher education. The paper also offers a preliminary statistical analysis for the evaluation of impact factors on energy outflows and a link between energy outflows and building…

  6. Used energy-related laboratory equipment grant program for institutions of higher learning. Eligible equipment catalog

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This is a listing of energy related equipment available through the Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment Grant Program which grants used equipment to institutions of higher education for energy-related research. Information included is an overview of the program, how to apply for a grant of equipment, eligibility requirements, types of equipment available, and the costs for the institution.

  7. The quality transformation: A catalyst for achieving energy`s strategic vision

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes the initial six corporate quality goals for DOE. It also includes accompanying performance measures which will help DOE determine progress towards meeting these goals. The six goals are: (1) There is effective use of performance measurement based on regular assessment of Energy operations using the Presidential Award for Quality, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, or equivalent criteria. (2) All managers champion continuous quality improvement training for all employees through planning, attendance, and active application. (3) The Department leadership has provided the environment in which employees are enabled to satisfy customer requirements and realize their full potential. (4) The Department management practices foster employee involvement, development and recognition. (5) The Department continuously improves customer service and satisfaction, and internal and external customers recognize Energy as an excellent service provider. (6) The Department has a system which aligns strategic and operational planning with strategic intent, ensures this planning drives resource allocation, provides for regular evaluation of results, and provides feedback.

  8. Pathways to achieve universal household access to modern energy by 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; van Ruijven, Bas J.; Nagai, Yu; Riahi, Keywan; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Brew-Hammond, Abeeku; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

    2013-06-01

    A lack of access to modern energy impacts health and welfare and impedes development for billions of people. Growing concern about these impacts has mobilized the international community to set new targets for universal modern energy access. However, analyses exploring pathways to achieve these targets and quantifying the potential costs and benefits are limited. Here, we use two modelling frameworks to analyse investments and consequences of achieving total rural electrification and universal access to clean-combusting cooking fuels and stoves by 2030. Our analysis indicates that these targets can be achieved with additional investment of US200565-86 billion per year until 2030 combined with dedicated policies. Only a combination of policies that lowers costs for modern cooking fuels and stoves, along with more rapid electrification, can enable the realization of these goals. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of accounting for varying demands and affordability across heterogeneous household groups in both analysis and policy setting. While the investments required are significant, improved access to modern cooking fuels alone can avert between 0.6 and 1.8 million premature deaths annually in 2030 and enhance wellbeing substantially.

  9. Energy Management Needs; A Project to Develop Solutions for Higher Education's Energy Problems in the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldren, Sharon L.; Mitchell, Cecilia

    Current patterns of energy management within higher education institutions and energy-related information and services that are needed by senior administrators and others to develop and improve energy management and planning on campus were studied. The findings and recommendations will be used to help develop a new research and action program for…

  10. Excitation energy transfer in vitro between phycobiliproteins and thylakoid photosystem II of higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaonan; Tseng, C. K.

    1992-12-01

    The excitation energy transfer from phycobiliproteins to thylakoid PSII of higher plants was investigated. When incubated with spinach thylakoids, phycobiliproteins isolated from red and blue-green algae transferred light energy absorbed to spinach PSII. The efficiency of energy transfer was dependent on the kind of phycobiliproteins used. If spinach thylakoids were replaced by the thylakoids of Brassica chinensis, R-phycoerythin or C-phycocyanin did not transfer their excitation energy to PSII of Brassica chinensis unless allophycocyanin was present.

  11. WWC Review of the Report "Staying on Track: Testing Higher Achievement's Long-Term Impact on Academic Outcomes and High School Choice." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This study of 952 fifth and sixth graders in Washington, DC, and Alexandria, Virginia, found that students who were offered the "Higher Achievement" program had higher test scores in mathematical problem solving and were more likely to be admitted to and attend private competitive high schools. "Higher Achievement" is a…

  12. Energy efficiency enhancements for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software achieved in cool silicon cluster project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinger, Frank; Mikolajick, Thomas; Fettweis, Gerhard; Hentschel, Dieter; Kolodinski, Sabine; Warnecke, Helmut; Reppe, Thomas; Tzschoppe, Christoph; Dohl, Jan; Carta, Corrado; Fritsche, David; Tretter, Gregor; Wiatr, Maciej; Detlef Kronholz, Stefan; Mikalo, Ricardo Pablo; Heinrich, Harald; Paulo, Robert; Wolf, Robert; Hübner, Johannes; Waltsgott, Johannes; Meißner, Klaus; Richter, Robert; Michler, Oliver; Bausinger, Markus; Mehlich, Heiko; Hahmann, Martin; Möller, Henning; Wiemer, Maik; Holland, Hans-Jürgen; Gärtner, Roberto; Schubert, Stefan; Richter, Alexander; Strobel, Axel; Fehske, Albrecht; Cech, Sebastian; Aßmann, Uwe; Pawlak, Andreas; Schröter, Michael; Finger, Wolfgang; Schumann, Stefan; Höppner, Sebastian; Walter, Dennis; Eisenreich, Holger; Schüffny, René

    2013-07-01

    An overview about the German cluster project Cool Silicon aiming at increasing the energy efficiency for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software is presented. Examples for achievements are: 1000 times reduced gate leakage in transistors using high-fc (HKMG) materials compared to conventional poly-gate (SiON) devices at the same technology node; 700 V transistors integrated in standard 0.35 μm CMOS; solar cell efficiencies above 19% at < 200 W/m2 irradiation; 0.99 power factor, 87% efficiency and 0.088 distortion factor for dc supplies; 1 ns synchronization resolution via Ethernet; database accelerators allowing 85% energy savings for servers; adaptive software yielding energy reduction of 73% for e-Commerce applications; processors and corresponding data links with 40% and 70% energy savings, respectively, by adaption of clock frequency and supply voltage in less than 20 ns; clock generator chip with tunable frequency from 83-666 MHz and 0.62-1.6 mW dc power; 90 Gb/s on-chip link over 6 mm and efficiency of 174 fJ/mm; dynamic biasing system doubling efficiency in power amplifiers; 60 GHz BiCMOS frontends with dc power to bandwidth ratio of 0.17 mW/MHz; driver assistance systems reducing energy consumption by 10% in cars Contribution to the Topical Issue “International Semiconductor Conference Dresden-Grenoble - ISCDG 2012”, Edited by Gérard Ghibaudo, Francis Balestra and Simon Deleonibus.

  13. Attitudes toward nuclear energy: One potential path for achieving scientific literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulski, Richard E.; Dulski, Rosalie E.; Raven, Ronald J.

    The widespread problem of the scientific literacy of the general public has been previously acknowledged. However, an uninformed populace can jeapordize the future direction of major science-related public policy issues, such as nuclear energy, by basing their support on generally emotional or nonfactual grounds. As part of a larger study aimed at concurrently identifying the attitudes of secondary school students toward several science-related topical areas (i.e., nuclear energy, environmental issues, energy concepts, science concepts, space exploration, and metrication), a nine-item Nuclear Attitude Instrument (NA!) was developed. This scale was subsequently validated and administered to a sample of grade 9 and 10 students (N = 172) of average achievement and ability, at a predominantly middle-class suburban high school in New York State. Yielding a coefficient alpha of O.87 and a corrected itemtotal correlation mean of O.61, the NAI responses displayed statistically significant topical area correlations (p < 0.01) with environmental issues (inverse), energy concepts (inverse) and space exploration (direct). Presented in the format of a factor analytic path model, nuclear energy Was also found to be incorporated in a distal rather than a proximal attitudinal structure among the respondents. These relationships bear educators' consideration during both course content material selection and curriculum design, for the purpose of positively enhancing students' attitudinal development toward science-related topical areas.

  14. Achieving the 30% Goal: Energy and Cost Savings Analysis of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Richman, Eric E.; Wang, Weimin; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Cho, Heejin; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Liu, Bing

    2011-05-24

    This Technical Support Document presents the energy and cost savings analysis that PNNL conducted to measure the potential energy savings of 90.1-2010 relative to 90.1-2004. PNNL conducted this analysis with inputs from many other contributors and source of information. In particular, guidance and direction was provided by the Simulation Working Group under the auspices of the SSPC90.1. This report documents the approach and methodologies that PNNL developed to evaluate the energy saving achieved from use of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010. Specifically, this report provides PNNL’s Progress Indicator process and methodology, EnergyPlus simulation framework, prototype model descriptions. This report covers the combined upgrades from 90.1-2004 to 90.1-2010, resulting in a total of 153 addenda. PNNL has reviewed and considered all 153 addenda for quantitative analysis in the Progress Indicator process. 53 of those are included in the quantitative analysis. This report provides information on the categorization of all of the addenda, a summary of the content, and deeper explanation of the impact and modeling of 53 identified addenda with quantitative savings.

  15. Solutions of the Dirac equation with the Morse potential energy model in higher spatial dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Long, Hui-Cheng; Jia, Chun-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Analytical solutions of the Dirac equation with the Morse potential energy model in higher spatial dimensions have been explored. We present the bound-state energy equation and the corresponding upper and lower radial wave functions. We find that the behavior of the higher-dimensional relativistic vibrational energies remains similar to that of the three-dimensional molecular system for the X^2sum^+ state of the CP molecule. This symmetry phenomenon will break at the critical point through which the system undergoes a phase transition from a stable to an unstable state.

  16. Achieving Land, Energy, and Environmental Compatibility: Utility-Scale Solar Energy Potential and Land-Use in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffacker, M. K.; Hernandez, R. R.; Field, C. B.

    2013-12-01

    Solar energy is an archetype renewable energy technology with great potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when substituted for carbon-intensive energy. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE; i.e., > 1 MW) necessitates large quantities of space making the efficient use of land for USSE development critical to realizing its full potential. However, studies elucidating the interaction between land-use and utility-scale solar energy (USSE) are limited. In this study, we assessed 1) the theoretical and technical potential of terrestrial-based USSE systems, and 2) land-use and land-cover change impacts from actual USSE installations (> 20 MW; planned, under construction, operating), using California as a case study due to its early adoption of renewable energy systems, unique constraints on land availability, immense energy demand, and vast natural resources. We used topo-climatic (e.g., slope, irradiance), infrastructural (e.g., proximity to transmission lines), and ecological constraints (e.g., threatened and endangered species) to determine highly favorable, favorable, and unfavorable locations for USSE and to assess its technical potential. We found that the theoretical potential of photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) in California is 26,097 and 29,422 kWh/m2/day, respectively. We identified over 150 planned, under construction, and operating USSE installations in California, ranging in size from 20 to 1,000 MW. Currently, 29% are located on shrub- and scrublands, 23% on cultivated crop land, 13% on pasture/hay areas, 11% on grassland/herbaceous and developed open space, and 7% in the built environment. Understanding current land-use decisions of USSE systems and assessing its future potential can be instructive for achieving land, energy, and environmental compatibility, especially for other global regions that share similar resource demands and limitations.

  17. Inhibition of breathing after surfactant depletion is achieved at a higher arterial PCO2 during ventilation with liquid than with gas

    PubMed Central

    Rieger-Fackeldey, Esther; Sindelar, Richard; Jonzon, Anders; Schulze, Andreas; Sedin, Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    Background Inhibition of phrenic nerve activity (PNA) can be achieved when alveolar ventilation is adequate and when stretching of lung tissue stimulates mechanoreceptors to inhibit inspiratory activity. During mechanical ventilation under different lung conditions, inhibition of PNA can provide a physiological setting at which ventilatory parameters can be compared and related to arterial blood gases and pH. Objective To study lung mechanics and gas exchange at inhibition of PNA during controlled gas ventilation (GV) and during partial liquid ventilation (PLV) before and after lung lavage. Methods Nine anaesthetised, mechanically ventilated young cats (age 3.8 ± 0.5 months, weight 2.3 ± 0.1 kg) (mean ± SD) were studied with stepwise increases in peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) until total inhibition of PNA was attained before lavage (with GV) and after lavage (GV and PLV). Tidal volume (Vt), PIP, oesophageal pressure and arterial blood gases were measured at inhibition of PNA. One way repeated measures analysis of variance and Student Newman Keuls-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results During GV, inhibition of PNA occurred at lower PIP, transpulmonary pressure (Ptp) and Vt before than after lung lavage. After lavage, inhibition of inspiratory activity was achieved at the same PIP, Ptp and Vt during GV and PLV, but occurred at a higher PaCO2 during PLV. After lavage compliance at inhibition was almost the same during GV and PLV and resistance was lower during GV than during PLV. Conclusion Inhibition of inspiratory activity occurs at a higher PaCO2 during PLV than during GV in cats with surfactant-depleted lungs. This could indicate that PLV induces better recruitment of mechanoreceptors than GV. PMID:15748281

  18. Design guidelines to achieve minimum energy operation for ultra low voltage tunneling FET logic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuketa, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Kazuaki; Fukuda, Koichi; Mori, Takahiro; Ota, Hiroyuki; Takamiya, Makoto; Sakurai, Takayasu

    2015-04-01

    A tunneling field effect transistor (TFET) attracts attention, because TFET circuits can achieve better energy efficiency than conventional MOSFET circuits. Although design issues in ultra low voltage logic circuits, such as the minimum operatable voltage (VDDmin), have been investigated for MOSFET’s, VDDmin for TFET’s have not been discussed. In this paper, VDDmin of TFET logic circuits is evaluated for the first time and a closed-form expression of VDDmin is derived, which indicates that the within-die threshold voltage variation (σVT) strongly affects VDDmin. In addition, since it is not clear how much the energy of the logic circuits is quantitatively reduced when both the subthreshold swing (S) and the power supply voltage are reduced, an analytical equation of the minimum energy of TFET logic circuits is also derived. From the derived equations, the design guideline is presented for the device engineers of TFET’s that σVT should be reduced as S decreases.

  19. Radiation from particles with arbitrary energy falling into higher-dimensional black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Kipapa, Barnabas

    2011-04-15

    We consider point particles with arbitrary energy per unit mass E that fall radially into a higher-dimensional, nonrotating, asymptotically flat black hole. We compute the energy and linear momentum radiated in this process as functions of E and of the spacetime dimensionality D=n+2 for n=2,...,9 (in some cases we go up to 11). We find that the total energy radiated increases with n for particles falling from rest (E=1). For fixed particle energies 1higher particle energies. The present point-particle calculation breaks down when n=11, because then the radiated energy becomes larger than the particle mass. Quite interestingly, for n=11 the radiated energy predicted by our calculation would also violate Hawking's area bound. This hints at a qualitative change in gravitational radiation emission for n > or approx. 11. Our results are in very good agreement with numerical simulations of low-energy, unequal-mass black hole collisions in D=5 (that will be reported elsewhere) and they are a useful benchmark for future nonlinear evolutions of the higher-dimensional Einstein equations.

  20. Furnace veneering systems of special design help achieve energy reduction goals at Armco

    SciTech Connect

    Caspersen, L.J.

    1982-12-01

    A steel company conserves energy by veneering reheat furnaces with a ceramic fiber modular system. The furnace lining system incorporates several grades of veneering materials (modules, cements, coatings) whose application is matched to the exact conditions in the furnace. Zoned linings utilize a combination of grades of alumina-silica modules to achieve thermally efficient yet durable performance. High temperature cements exhibit good tackiness, easy module penetration and high strength retention after firing. A protective coating is sprayed in a thin layer over the modules and can be easily reapplied at a later date should it be necessary. Benefits include greater thermal control (temperature responsiveness and heating uniformity), less over-firing, less fuel use, and less heat loss. Fuel efficiency is increased by 20 to 50%.

  1. Exploring the energy landscapes of flexible molecular loops using higher-dimensional continuation.

    PubMed

    Porta, Josep M; Jaillet, Léonard

    2013-01-30

    The conformational space of a flexible molecular loop includes the set of conformations fulfilling the geometric loop-closure constraints and its energy landscape can be seen as a scalar field defined on this implicit set. Higher-dimensional continuation tools, recently developed in dynamical systems and also applied to robotics, provide efficient algorithms to trace out implicitly defined sets. This article describes these tools and applies them to obtain full descriptions of the energy landscapes of short molecular loops that, otherwise, can only be partially explored, mainly via sampling. Moreover, to deal with larger loops, this article exploits the higher-dimensional continuation tools to find local minima and minimum energy transition paths between them, without deviating from the loop-closure constraints. The proposed techniques are applied to previously studied molecules revealing the intricate structure of their energy landscapes. PMID:23015474

  2. Self-energy of a scalar charge near higher-dimensional black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Zelnikov, Andrei

    2012-06-01

    We study the problem of self-energy of charges in higher-dimensional static spacetimes. Application of regularization methods of quantum field theory to calculation of the classical self-energy of charges leads to model-independent results. The correction to the self-energy of a scalar charge due to the gravitational field of black holes of the higher-dimensional Majumdar-Papapetrou spacetime is calculated exactly. It proves to be zero in even dimensions, but it acquires nonzero value in odd-dimensional spacetimes. The origin of the self-energy correction in odd dimensions is similar to the origin of the conformal anomalies in quantum field theory in even-dimensional spacetimes.

  3. The free energy of higher representation sources in lattice gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damgaard, P. H.

    1987-07-01

    Deconfinement of higher representation sources in SU(2) lattice gauge theory is studied by a Monte Carlo simulation on an 83×2 lattice. Results for the free energy are compared with expectations from the effective theory of thermal Polyakov loops, and critical exponents for the magnetization of different representations in SU(2) are computed. We also compare the predictions for higher representations in SU(3) lattice gauge theory with some recent Monte Carlo data. Finally, possible phenomenological consequences of the deconfinement associated with higher representation sources are discussed. I would like to thank Urs Heller and Alan Luther for helpful discussions.

  4. Acute Response of Well-Trained Sprinters to a 100-m Race: Higher Sprinting Velocity Achieved With Increased Step Rate Compared With Speed Training.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Mitsuo; Kawahara, Taisuke; Isaka, Tadao

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the contribution of differences in step length and step rate to sprinting velocity in an athletic race compared with speed training. Nineteen well-trained male and female sprinters volunteered to participate in this study. Sprinting motions were recorded for each sprinter during both 100-m races and speed training (60-, 80-, and 100-m dash from a block start) for 14 days before the race. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance was used to compare the step characteristics and sprinting velocity between race and speed training, adjusted for covariates including race-training differences in the coefficients of restitution of the all-weather track, wind speed, air temperature, and sex. The average sprinting velocity to the 50-m mark was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (8.26 ± 0.22 m·s vs. 8.00 ± 0.70 m·s, p < 0.01). Although no significant difference was seen in the average step length to the 50-m mark between the race and speed training (1.81 ± 0.09 m vs. 1.80 ± 0.09 m, p = 0.065), the average step rate was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (4.56 ± 0.17 Hz vs. 4.46 ± 0.13 Hz, p < 0.01). These findings suggest that sprinters achieve higher sprinting velocity and can run with higher exercise intensity and more rapid motion during a race than during speed training, even if speed training was performed at perceived high intensity. PMID:26907837

  5. Measurement of p({gamma}, p){pi}{sup 0} at higher energies

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, R. |; Holt, R.J. |; Rutt, P. |

    1994-04-01

    The applicability of QCD inspired reaction models vs. nuclear reaction models for exclusive reactions at high beam energy is a topic of current interest. Polarization measurements provide a sensitive test of the reaction dynamics, but no polarization measurements exist for photoreactions in the scaling regime, where pQCD might be applicable. With higher energy beam at CEBAF, it will become possible to extend the range of measurements in pion photoproduction well into the scaling regime and to better determine the underlying reaction mechanism. A set of measurements for existing equipment at CEBAF with 6-8 GeV beam is described, as well as desirable equipment modifications for improving these measurements at the higher energies.

  6. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-01

    The U. S. Steel Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, MN, achieved annual savings of $760,000 and 95,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  7. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    This case study describes how the U. S. Steel Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, Minnesota, achieved annual savings of $760,000 and 95,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  8. A Work Force for Environment and Energy. A Master Plan for Environmental/Energy Higher Education in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Inst. for Environmental Quality, Chicago.

    This master plan for environmental and energy higher education in Illinois is a direct result of a mandate from the Illinois General Assembly. To prepare students to confront our nation's environmental problems, each university will submit a management and development plan, designed to preserve existing environmental values and provide…

  9. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-06-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920 °C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400-800 °C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO + H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*105 tons of standard coal and 1.74*106 tons of CO2, respectively.

  10. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920 °C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400-800 °C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO + H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*10(5) tons of standard coal and 1.74*10(6) tons of CO2, respectively. PMID:26074060

  11. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920 °C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400–800 °C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO + H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*105 tons of standard coal and 1.74*106 tons of CO2, respectively. PMID:26074060

  12. Sustainable energy for all. Technical report of task force 1 in support of the objective to achieve universal access to modern energy services by 2030

    SciTech Connect

    Birol, Fatih

    2012-04-15

    The UN Secretary General established the Sustainable Energy for All initiative in order to guide and support efforts to achieve universal access to modern energy, rapidly increase energy efficiency, and expand the use of renewable energies. Task forces were formed involving prominent energy leaders and experts from business, government, academia and civil society worldwide. The goal of the Task Forces is to inform the implementation of the initiative by identifying challenges and opportunities for achieving its objectives. This report contains the findings of Task Force One which is dedicated to the objective of achieving universal access to modern energy services by 2030. The report shows that universal energy access can be realized by 2030 with strong, focused actions set within a coordinated framework.

  13. Folding paper-based lithium-ion batteries for higher areal energy densities.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qian; Song, Zeming; Ma, Teng; Smith, Bethany B; Tang, Rui; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing; Chan, Candace K

    2013-10-01

    Paper folding techniques are used in order to compact a Li-ion battery and increase its energy per footprint area. Full cells were prepared using Li4Ti5O12 and LiCoO2 powders deposited onto current collectors consisting of paper coated with carbon nanotubes. Folded cells showed higher areal capacities compared to the planar versions with a 5 × 5 cell folded using the Miura-ori pattern displaying a ~14× increase in areal energy density. PMID:24059538

  14. If I Read Better, Will I Score Higher ?: The Relationship between Oral Reading Fluency Instruction and Standardized Reading Achievement Test Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Chad H.

    2008-01-01

    The research study examined whether a difference existed between the reading achievement scores of an experimental group and a control group in standardized reading achievement. This difference measured the effect of systematic oral reading fluency instruction with repeated readings. Data from the 4Sight Pennsylvania Benchmark Reading Assessments…

  15. Obesity-Related Eating Behaviors Are Associated with Higher Food Energy Density and Higher Consumption of Sugary and Alcoholic Beverages: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Pareja, Maritza; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Mesas, Arthur E.; López-García, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Obesity-related eating behaviors (OREB) are associated with higher energy intake. Total energy intake can be decomposed into the following constituents: food portion size, food energy density, the number of eating occasions, and the energy intake from energy-rich beverages. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the association between the OREB and these energy components. Methods Data were taken from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008–2010 among 11,546 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged ≥18 years. Information was obtained on the following 8 self-reported OREB: not planning how much to eat before sitting down, eating precooked/canned food or snacks bought at vending machines or at fast-food restaurants, not choosing low-energy foods, not removing visible fat from meat or skin from chicken, and eating while watching TV. Usual diet was assessed with a validated diet history. Analyses were performed with linear regression with adjustment for main confounders. Results Compared to individuals with ≤1 OREB, those with ≥5 OREB had a higher food energy density (β 0.10; 95% CI 0.08, 0.12 kcal/g/day; p-trend<0.001) and a higher consumption of sugary drinks (β 7; 95% CI −7, 20 ml/day; p-trend<0.05) and of alcoholic beverages (β 24; 95% CI 10, 38 ml/day; p-trend<0.001). Specifically, a higher number of OREB was associated with higher intake of dairy products and red meat, and with lower consumption of fresh fruit, oily fish and white meat. No association was found between the number of OREB and food portion size or the number of eating occasions. Conclusions OREB were associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages. Avoiding OREB may prove difficult because they are firmly socially rooted, but these results may nevertheless serve to palliate the undesirable effects of OREB by reducing the associated energy intake. PMID:24204756

  16. Assessment of the Technical Potential for Achieving Net Zero-Energy Buildings in the Commercial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2007-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings from research conducted at NREL to assess the technical potential for zero-energy building technologies and practices to reduce the impact of commercial buildings on the U.S. energy system. Commercial buildings currently account for 18% of annual U.S. energy consumption, and energy use is growing along with overall floor area. Reducing the energy use of this sector will require aggressive research goals and rapid implementation of the research results.

  17. Nuclear energy acceptance and potential role to meet future energy demand. Which technical/scientific achievements are needed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenkel, Roland

    2012-06-01

    recently been proposed for energy production, is critically reviewed. There are major challenges remaining that are shortly outlined. Scientific/technical achievements that are required in the light of the Fukushima accident are highlighted.

  18. Nuclear energy acceptance and potential role to meet future energy demand. Which technical/scientific achievements are needed?

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, Roland

    2012-06-19

    have recently been proposed for energy production, is critically reviewed. There are major challenges remaining that are shortly outlined. Scientific/technical achievements that are required in the light of the Fukushima accident are highlighted.

  19. Is the Consumption of Energy Drinks Associated With Academic Achievement Among College Students?

    PubMed

    Champlin, Sara E; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-08-01

    Despite widely reported side effects, use of energy drinks has increased among college students, who report that they consume energy drinks to help them complete schoolwork. However, little is known about the association between energy drink use and academic performance. We explored the relationship between energy drink consumption and current academic grade point average (GPA) among first-year undergraduate students. Participants included 844 first-year undergraduates (58.1 % female; 50.7 % White). Students reported their health behaviors via an online survey. We measured energy drink consumption with two measures: past month consumption by number of drinks usually consumed in 1 month and number consumed during the last occasion of consumption. We used multiple linear regression modeling with energy drink consumption and current GPA, controlling for gender, race, weekend and weekday sleep duration, perceived stress, perceived stress management, media use, and past month alcohol use. We found that past month energy drink consumption quantity by frequency (p < 0.001), and energy drinks consumed during the last occasion (p < 0.001), were associated with a lower GPA. Energy drinks consumed during the last occasion of consumption (p = 0.01) remained significantly associated with a lower GPA when controlling for alcohol use. While students report using energy drinks for school-related reasons, our findings suggest that greater energy drink consumption is associated with a lower GPA, even after controlling for potential confounding variables. Longitudinal research is needed that addresses whether GPA declines after continued use of energy drinks or if students struggling academically turn to energy drinks to manage their schoolwork. PMID:27236788

  20. Energy Spectra of Higher Reynolds Number Turbulence by the DNS with up to 122883 Grid Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Takashi; Kaneda, Yukio; Morishita, Koji; Yokokawa, Mitsuo; Uno, Atsuya

    2014-11-01

    Large-scale direct numerical simulations (DNS) of forced incompressible turbulence in a periodic box with up to 122883 grid points have been performed using K computer. The maximum Taylor-microscale Reynolds number Rλ, and the maximum Reynolds number Re based on the integral length scale are over 2000 and 105, respectively. Our previous DNS with Rλ up to 1100 showed that the energy spectrum has a slope steeper than - 5 / 3 (the Kolmogorov scaling law) by factor 0 . 1 at the wavenumber range (kη < 0 . 03). Here η is the Kolmogorov length scale. Our present DNS at higher resolutions show that the energy spectra with different Reynolds numbers (Rλ > 1000) are well normalized not by the integral length-scale but by the Kolmogorov length scale, at the wavenumber range of the steeper slope. This result indicates that the steeper slope is not inherent character in the inertial subrange, and is affected by viscosity.

  1. How America Can Look Within to Achieve Energy Security and Reduce Global Warming

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Burton; Savitz, Maxine; Schlachter, Fred; Dawson, James; Crabtree, George; Greene, David L; Levine, Mark; Sperling, Daniel; Scofield, John; Glicksman, Leon; Goldstein, David; Goldston, David

    2008-01-01

    Making major gains in energy efficiency is one of the most economical and effective ways our nation can wean itself off its dependence on foreign oil and reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases. Transportation and buildings, which account for two thirds of American energy usage, consume far more than they need to, but even though there are many affordable energy efficient technologies that can save consumers money, market imperfections inhibit their adoption. To overcome the barriers, the federal government must adopt policies that will transform the investments into economic and societal benefit. And the federal government must invest in research and development programs that target energy efficiency. Energy efficiency is one of America s great hidden energy reserves. We should begin tapping it now.

  2. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Institutional Carbon Goals. A Review of Current Practices and Considerations.

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Sumner, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    With organizations and individuals increasingly interested in accounting for their carbon emissions, greater attention is being placed on how to account for the benefits of various carbon mitigation actions available to consumers and businesses. Generally, organizations can address their own carbon emissions through energy efficiency, fuel switching, on-site renewable energy systems, renewable energy purchased from utilities or in the form of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and carbon offsets. This paper explores the role of green power and carbon offsets in carbon "footprinting" and the distinctions between the two products. It reviews how leading greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting programs treat green power purchases and discusses key issues regarding how to account for the carbon benefits of renewable energy. It also discusses potential double counting if renewable energy generation is used in multiple markets.

  3. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Institutional Carbon Goals: A Review of Current Practices and Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Sumner, J.

    2011-01-01

    With organizations and individuals increasingly interested in accounting for their carbon emissions, greater attention is being placed on how to account for the benefits of various carbon mitigation actions available to consumers and businesses. Generally, organizations can address their own carbon emissions through energy efficiency, fuel switching, on-site renewable energy systems, renewable energy purchased from utilities or in the form of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and carbon offsets. This paper explores the role of green power and carbon offsets in carbon footprinting and the distinctions between the two products. It reviews how leading greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting programs treat green power purchases and discusses key issues regarding how to account for the carbon benefits of renewable energy. It also discusses potential double counting if renewable energy generation is used in multiple markets.

  4. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Institutional Carbon Goals. A Review of Current Practices and Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Sumner, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    With organizations and individuals increasingly interested in accounting for their carbon emissions, greater attention is being placed on how to account for the benefits of various carbon mitigation actions available to consumers and businesses. Generally, organizations can address their own carbon emissions through energy efficiency, fuel switching, on-site renewable energy systems, renewable energy purchased from utilities or in the form of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and carbon offsets. This paper explores the role of green power and carbon offsets in carbon footprinting and the distinctions between the two products. It reviews how leading greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting programs treat green power purchases and discusses key issues regarding how to account for the carbon benefits of renewable energy. It also discusses potential double counting if renewable energy generation is used in multiple markets.

  5. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08. Part 1: Is the Emphasis on "Proficiency" Shortchanging Higher- and Lower-Achieving Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This report is the first in a series of reports describing results from the Center on Education Policy's (CEP's) third annual analysis of state testing data. The report provides an update on student performance at the proficient level of achievement, and for the first time, includes data about student performance at the advanced and basic levels.…

  6. Education Reform in the Trenches: Increased Academic Course Taking in High Schools with Lower Achieving Students in States with Higher Graduation Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clune, William H.; White, Paula A.

    1992-01-01

    Transcript data were analyzed to determine changes in course taking among graduates of high schools including mostly lower achieving students in California, Florida, Missouri, and Pennsylvania, which adopted high graduation requirements in the 1980s. Average credits per student increased in all academic subjects, as did the courses' difficulty…

  7. Less-energy-dense diets of low-income women in California are associated with higher energy-adjusted diet costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-energy-density diets have been shown to be associated with higher diet quality and with better health outcomes. However, such diets have also been associated with higher diet costs. This study examined the impact of dietary energy density on energy-adjusted diet costs among a sample of low-incom...

  8. Studies of Several New Modifications of Aggressive Packet Combining to Achieve Higher Throughput, Based on Correction Capability of Disjoint Error Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Swarnendu Kumar; Goswami, Rajat Subhra; Bhunia, Chandan Tilak; Bhunia, Abhinandan

    2016-06-01

    Aggressive packet combining (APC) scheme is well-established in literature. Several modifications were studied earlier for improving throughput. In this paper, three new modifications of APC are proposed. The performance of proposed modified APC is studied by simulation and is reported here. A hybrid scheme is proposed here for getting higher throughput and also the disjoint factor is compared among conventional APC with proposed schemes for getting higher throughput.

  9. Attitudes toward Nuclear Energy: One Potential Path for Achieving Scientific Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulski, Richard E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Identifies the attitudes of secondary school students toward several science-related topical areas (i.e., nuclear energy, environmental issues, energy concepts, science concepts, space exploration, and metrication) for the purpose of enhancing students' attitudinal development toward science-related topical areas. Discusses respondents attitude…

  10. Chrysler: Save Energy Now Assessment Enables a Vehicle Assembly Complex to Achieve Significant Natural Gas Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2008-02-01

    This DOE Save Energy Now case study describes how Chrysler LLC saves more than 70,000 MMBtu and $627,000 annually after increasing the steam system energy efficiency of a truck and minivan assembly plant in St. Louis, Missouri.

  11. Achieving a Net Zero Energy Retrofit: Lessons from the University of Hawaii at Manoa

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  12. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  13. Domestic wastewater treatment as a net energy producer--can this be achieved?

    PubMed

    McCarty, Perry L; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2011-09-01

    In seeking greater sustainability in water resources management, wastewater is now being considered more as a resource than as a waste-a resource for water, for plant nutrients, and for energy. Energy, the primary focus of this article, can be obtained from wastewater's organic as well as from its thermal content. Also, using wastewater's nitrogen and P nutrients for plant fertilization, rather than wasting them, helps offset the high energy cost of producing synthetic fertilizers. Microbial fuel cells offer potential for direct biological conversion of wastewater's organic materials into electricity, although significant improvements are needed for this process to be competitive with anaerobic biological conversion of wastewater organics into biogas, a renewable fuel used in electricity generation. Newer membrane processes coupled with complete anaerobic treatment of wastewater offer the potential for wastewater treatment to become a net generator of energy, rather than the large energy consumer that it is today. PMID:21749111

  14. Energy transmission and power sources for mechanical circulatory support devices to achieve total implantability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jake X; Smith, Joshua R; Bonde, Pramod

    2014-04-01

    Left ventricular assist device therapy has radically improved congestive heart failure survival with smaller rotary pumps. The driveline used to power today's left ventricular assist devices, however, continues to be a source of infection, traumatic damage, and rehospitalization. Previous attempts to wirelessly power left ventricular assist devices using transcutaneous energy transfer systems have been limited by restrictions on separation distance and alignment between the transmit and receive coils. Resonant electrical energy transfer allows power delivery at larger distances without compromising safety and efficiency. This review covers the efforts to wirelessly power mechanical circulatory assist devices and the progress made in enhancing their energy sources. PMID:24530103

  15. Achievement of Runaway Electron Energy Dissipation by High-Z Gas Injection in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollmann, E. M.

    2014-10-01

    Disruption runaway electron (RE) formation followed by RE beam-wall strikes is a concern for future tokamaks, motivating the study of mitigation techniques to reduce the RE beam energy in a controlled manner. A promising approach for doing this is the injection of high-Z gas into the RE beam. Massive (100 torr-l) injection of high-Z gas into RE beams in DIII-D is shown to significantly dissipate both RE magnetic and kinetic energy. For example, injection of argon into a typical 300 kA current RE beam is observed to cause a drop in kinetic energy from 50 kJ to 10 kJ in 10 ms, thus rapidly reducing the damage-causing capability of the RE beam. Both the RE kinetic energy and pitch angle are important for determining the resulting wall damage, with high energy, high pitch angle electrons typically considered most dangerous. The RE energy distribution is found to be more skewed toward low energies than predicted by avalanche theory. The pitch angle is not found to be constant, as is frequently assumed, but is shown to drop from sin(θ) ~ 1 for energies less than 1 MeV to sin(θ) ~ 0 . 2 for energies greater than 10 MeV. Injection of high-Z impurities does not appear to change the overall shape of the energy or pitch angle distributions dramatically. The enhanced RE energy dissipation appears to be caused primarily via collisions with the cold plasma leading to line radiation. Synchrotron power loss only becomes significant in the absence of high-Z impurities, while radial transport loss of REs is seen to become dominant if the RE beam moves sufficiently close to the vessel walls. The experiments demonstrate that avalanche theory somewhat underestimates collisional dissipation of REs in the presence of high-Z atoms, even in the absence of radial transport losses, meaning that reducing RE wall damage in large tokamaks should be easier than previously expected. Supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-07ER54917 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  16. Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Beaini, S.; Borgeson, S.; Coffery, B.; Gregory, D.; Konis, K.; Scown, C.; Simjanovic, J.; Stanley, J.; Strogen, B.; Walker, I.

    2009-09-01

    A green building competition, to be known as the Energy Free Home Challenge (EFHC), is scheduled to be opened to teams around the world in 2010. This competition will encourage both design innovation and cost reduction, by requiring design entries to meet 'zero net energy' and 'zero net cost' criteria. For the purposes of this competition, a 'zero net energy' home produces at least as much energy as it purchases over the course of a year, regardless of the time and form of the energy (e.g., electricity, heat, or fuel) consumed or produced. A 'zero net cost' home is no more expensive than a traditional home of comparable size and comfort, when evaluated over the course of a 30-year mortgage. In other words, the 'green premium' must have a payback period less than 30 years, based on the value of energy saved. The overarching goal of the competition is to develop affordable, high-performance homes that can be mass-produced at a large scale, and are able to meet occupant needs in harsh climates (as can be found where the competition will be held in Illinois). This report outlines the goals of the competition, and gauges their feasibility using both modeling results and published data. To ensure that the established rules are challenging, yet reasonable, this report seeks to refine the competition goals after exploring their feasibility through case studies, cost projections, and energy modeling. The authors of this report conducted a survey of the most progressive home energy-efficiency practices expected to appear in competition design submittals. In Appendix A, a summary can be found of recent projects throughout the United States, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden and Japan, where some of the most progressive technologies have been implemented. As with past energy efficient home projects, EFHC competitors will incorporate a multitude of energy efficiency measures into their home designs. The authors believe that the cost of electricity generated by home

  17. Higher-order symmetry energy of nuclear matter and the inner edge of neutron star crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seif, W. M.; Basu, D. N.

    2014-02-01

    The parabolic approximation to the equation of state of the isospin asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM) is widely used in the literature to make predictions for the nuclear structure and the neutron star properties. Based on the realistic M3Y-Paris and M3Y-Reid nucleon-nucleon interactions, we investigate the effects of the higher-order symmetry energy on the proton fraction in neutron stars and the location of the inner edge of their crusts and their core-crust transition density and pressure, thermodynamically. Analytical expressions for different-order symmetry energy coefficients of ANM are derived using the realistic interactions mentioned above. It is found that the higher-order terms of the symmetry-energy coefficients up to its eighth order (Esym8) contributes substantially to the proton fraction in β-stable neutron star matter at different nuclear matter densities, the core-crust transition density and pressure. Even by considering the symmetry-energy coefficients up to Esym8, we obtain a significant change of about 40% in the transition pressure value from the one based on the exact equation of state. The slope parameters of the symmetry energies for the M3Y-Paris (Reid) interaction, at the saturation density, are L =47.51(50.98), L4=-0.47(-1.43), L6=0.58(0.67), and L8=0.126(0.133) MeV. Using equations of state based on both Paris and Reid effective interactions which provide saturation incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter in the range of 220≤K0≤270 MeV, we estimate the ranges 0.090≤ρt≤0.095fm-3 and 0.49≤Pt≤0.59MeVfm-3 for the liquid-core-solid-crust transition density and pressure, respectively. The corresponding range of the proton fraction obtained at this ρt range is 0.029≤xp (t)≤0.032.

  18. The first experimental observation of the higher-energy trans conformer of trifluoroacetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apóstolo, R. F. G.; Bazsó, Gábor; Bento, R. R. F.; Tarczay, G.; Fausto, R.

    2016-12-01

    We report here the first experimental observation of the higher-energy conformer of trifluoroacetic acid (trans-TFA). The new conformer was generated by selective narrowband near-infrared vibrational excitation of the lower-energy cis-TFA conformer isolated in cryogenic matrices (Ar, Kr, N2) and shown to spontaneously decay to this latter form in the various matrix media, by tunneling. The decay rates in the different matrices were measured and compared with those of the trans conformers of other carboxylic acids in similar experimental conditions. The experimental studies received support from quantum chemistry calculations undertaken at various levels of approximation, which allowed a detailed characterization of the relevant regions of the potential energy surface of the molecule and the detailed assignment of the infrared spectra of the two conformers in the various matrices. Noteworthly, in contrast to cis-TFA that has its trifluoromethyl group eclipsed with the Cdbnd O bond of the carboxylic moiety, trans-TFA has the trifluoromethyl group eclipsed with the Csbnd O bond. This unusual structure of trans-TFA results from the fact that the relative orientation of the CF3 and COOH groups in this geometry facilitates the establishment of an intramolecular hydrogen-bond-like interaction between the OH group and the closely located in-plane fluorine atom of the CF3 moiety.

  19. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Jensen, Olaf P; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Vastano, Anthony R; Pothoven, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. PMID:26794728

  20. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  1. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder

    PubMed Central

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. PMID:26794728

  2. Missing in Action: Writing Process-Based Instructional Practices and Measures of Higher-Order Literacy Achievement in Predominantly Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briddell, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This study of 1,974 fifth grade students investigated potential relationships between writing process-based instruction practices and higher-order thinking measured by a standardized literacy assessment. Writing process is defined as a highly complex, socio-cognitive process that includes: planning, text production, review, metacognition, writing…

  3. The Elephant in the Hall: Motivating the Study of Student Motivation and Self-Regulation in Studies of Academic Achievement and Persistence in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    This essay proposes that much of what constitutes the quality of an institution of higher education is the quality of the students attending the institution. This quality, however, is conceptualized to extend beyond that of academic ability. Specifically, three propositions are considered. First, it is proposed that a core construct of student…

  4. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building occupants and

  5. Achieving cheap clean energy for all in the 21^st Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rajan

    2006-11-01

    Energy is essential for modern life and is a critical resource that we take for granted. Unfortunately, we are increasingly confronted by many unsettling questions: Is there enough cheap oil and gas remaining and should we start changing our life styles towards energy efficiency? What will be the price of oil and gas next year and will we face shortages? Are rising prices reflective of greed and manipulation or geopolitics or of real constraints? Will renewable sources provide a significant fraction of our energy needs? Is global warming already happening and is it a result of our ``addiction to oil''? If the answer to these is ``yes'', then what can we, as individuals, do to help ourselves, the nation, and the world? This talk will attempt to answer these questions by examining the global oil, gas and other resources, emerging constraints and opportunities, and geopolitics.

  6. Energy saving achieved by limited filamentous bulking sludge under low dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-Hua; Peng, Yong-Zhen; Peng, Cheng-Yao; Wang, Shu-Ying; Chen, Ying; Huang, Hui-Jun; Sun, Zhi-Rong

    2010-02-01

    Limited filamentous bulking caused by low dissolved oxygen (DO) was proposed to establish a low energy consumption wastewater treatment system. This method for energy saving was derived from two full-scale field observations, which showed pollutants removal would be enhanced and energy consumption could be reduced by at least 10% using limited filamentous bulking. Furthermore, preliminary investigation including the abundance evaluation and the identification of filamentous bacteria demonstrated that the limited filamentous bulking could be repeated steadily in a lab-scale anoxic-oxic reactor fed with domestic wastewater. The sludge loss did not occur in the secondary clarifier, while COD and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were improved by controlling DO for optimal filamentous bacterial population. Suspended solids in effluent were negligible and turbidity was lower than 2 NTU, which were distinctly lower than those under no bulking. Theoretical and experimental results indicated the aeration consumption could be saved by the application of limited filamentous bulking. PMID:19837583

  7. Fast Ignition: Physics Progress in the US Fusion Energy Program and Prospects for Achieving Ignition.

    SciTech Connect

    Key, M H; Andersen, C; Cowan, T; Fisch, N; Freeman, R; Hatchett, S; Hill, J; King, J; Koch, J; Lasinski, B; Langdon, B; MacKinnon, A; Parks, P; Rosenbluth, M; Ruhl, H; Snavely, R; Stephens, R; Tabak, M; Town, R

    2002-10-16

    Fast ignition (FI) has significant potential advantages for inertial fusion energy and it is therefore being studied as an exploratory concept in the US fusion energy program. FI is based on short pulse isochoric heating of pre-compressed DT by intense beams of laser accelerated MeV electrons or protons. Recent experimental progress in the study of these two heating processes is discussed. The goal is to benchmark new models in order to predict accurately the requirements for full-scale fast ignition. An overview is presented of the design and experimental testing of a cone target implosion concept for fast ignition. Future prospects and conceptual designs for larger scale FI experiments using planned high energy petawatt upgrades of major lasers in the US are outlined. A long-term roadmap for FI is defined.

  8. Excited baryon form-factors at high momentum transfer at CEBAF at higher energies

    SciTech Connect

    Stoler, P.

    1994-04-01

    The possibilities of measuring the properties of excited nucleons at high Q{sup 2} by means of exclusive single meson production at CEBAF with an electron energy of 8 GeV is considered. The motivation is to access short range phenomena in baryon structure, and to investigate the transition from the low Q{sup 2} non-perturbative QCD regime, where constituent quark models are valid, to higher Q{sup 2} where it is believed perturbative QCD plays an increasingly important role. It is found that high quality baryon decay angular distributions can be obtained for the most prominent states up to Q{sup 2} {approximately} 12 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} using a set of moderate resolution, large solid angle magnetic spectrometers.

  9. Higher-order mode analysis at the BNL Energy Recovery Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.C.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.; Xu, W.

    2011-08-03

    Understanding the prevalence and structure of higher-order modes (HOMs) in accelerator cavities is critical because their excitation can result in problematic single bunch and multi-bunch effects. Particularly hazardous are dipole modes, which are more easily excited due to their linear field nature near the beam center. During a recent superconducting test on the energy recovery linac (ERL) cavity at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), 8 of the highest-Q HOMs were measured for the first time. In conjunction with analysis of CST Microwave Studio simulation results for the ERL model, one of these modes was further studied in the copper prototype ERL cavity. A method of identifying HOMs utilizing existing holes drilled in copper cavity cells was developed and used to conclude that the observed high-Q mode was a quadrupole.

  10. Characterization of intact N- and O-linked glycopeptides using higher energy collisional dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Li; Tolic, Nikola; Qu, Yi; Meng, Da; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Qibin; Moore, Ronald J.; Zink, Erika M.; Lipton, Mary S.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Wu, Si

    2014-01-15

    Simultaneous elucidation of the glycan structure and the glycosylation site are needed to reveal the biological function of protein glycosylation. In this study, we employed a recent type of fragmentation termed higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD) to examine fragmentation patterns of intact glycopeptides generated from a mixture of standard glycosylated proteins. The normalized collisional energy (NCE) value for HCD was varied from 30% to 60% to evaluate the optimal conditions for the fragmentation of peptide backbones and glycoconjugates. Our results indicated that HCD with lower NCE valuespreferentially fragmented the sugar chains attached to the peptides to generate a ladder of neutral loss of monosaccharides, thus enabling the putative glycan structure characterization. Also, detection of the oxonium ions enabled unambiguous differentiation of glycopeptides from non-glycopeptides. On the contrary, HCD with higher NCE values preferentially fragmented the peptide backbone and thus provided information needed for confident peptide identification. We evaluated the HCD approach with alternating NCE parameters for confident characterization of intact N-linked and O-linked glycopeptides in a single liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. In addition, we applied a novel data analysis pipeline, so-called GlycoFinder, to form a basis for automated data analysis. Overall, 38 unique intact glycopeptides corresponding to eight glycosylation sites (including six N-linked and two O-linked sites) were confidently identified from a standard protein mixture. This approach provided concurrent characterization of both, the peptide and the glycan, thus enabling comprehensive structural characterization of glycoproteins in a single LC-MS/MS analysis.

  11. How America can look within to achieve energy security and reduce global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Burton; Goldston, David; Crabtree, George; Glicksman, Leon; Goldstein, David; Greene, David; Kammen, Dan; Levine, Mark; Lubell, Michael; Savitz, Maxine; Sperling, Daniel; Schlachter, Fred; Scofield, John; Dawson, James

    2008-10-01

    The American Physical Society regularly produces reports on issues of public import that require technical understanding and for which an objective and authoritative analysis would be of particular use to the public and policy makers. This report, entitled Energy Future: Think Efficiency, is the latest in the series and appears here as a special supplement issue of Reviews of Modern Physics, as have other such reports. It is hard to imagine a more timely study topic, given the urgent environmental, geopolitical, and economic incentives for improving energy efficiency at this juncture. Energy Future: Think Efficiency provides a valuable and broadly applicable guide to effective approaches, many of which employ existing technologies and, surprisingly, need not be difficult or expensive. In order to have the most immediate impact, an earlier version of Energy Future: Think Efficiency was issued at a press release in Washington, D.C. in September of 2008 in hard copy and online. Prior to its release a distinguished review panel examined the report and its conclusions. Thus the study has been rigorously refereed although this was outside of the usual review process employed by RMP. Except for adjustments in pagination, this version is unchanged from the earlier version. The report introduction contains full information on the study personnel, review panel members, and other acknowledgments, so these are not repeated here. What is repeated is an expression of deep appreciation to all those involved in the preparation of a revelatory report on a topic of critical importance.

  12. The Impact of a Geospatial Technology-Supported Energy Curriculum on Middle School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulo, Violet; Bodzin, Alec

    2013-01-01

    Geospatial technologies are increasingly being integrated in science classrooms to foster learning. This study examined whether a Web-enhanced science inquiry curriculum supported by geospatial technologies promoted urban middle school students' understanding of energy concepts. The participants included one science teacher and 108 eighth-grade…

  13. Improved Student Achievement Using Personalized Online Homework for a Course in Material and Energy Balances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberatore, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Personalized, online homework was used to supplement textbook homework, quizzes, and exams for one section of a course in material and energy balances. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that students using personalized, online homework earned better grades in the course. The online homework system asks the same questions of…

  14. The Impact of a Geospatial Technology-Supported Energy Curriculum on Middle School Students' Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulo, Violet; Bodzin, Alec

    2013-02-01

    Geospatial technologies are increasingly being integrated in science classrooms to foster learning. This study examined whether a Web-enhanced science inquiry curriculum supported by geospatial technologies promoted urban middle school students' understanding of energy concepts. The participants included one science teacher and 108 eighth-grade students classified in three ability level tracks. Data were gathered through pre/posttest content knowledge assessments, daily classroom observations, and daily reflective meetings with the teacher. Findings indicated a significant increase in the energy content knowledge for all the students. Effect sizes were large for all three ability level tracks, with the middle and low track classes having larger effect sizes than the upper track class. Learners in all three tracks were highly engaged with the curriculum. Curriculum effectiveness and practical issues involved with using geospatial technologies to support science learning are discussed.

  15. On the maximum energy achievable in the first order Fermi acceleration at shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozny, I.; Diamond, P.; Malkov, M.

    2002-11-01

    Astrophysical shocks are considered as the sites of cosmic ray (CR) production. The primary mechanism is the diffusive shock (Fermi) acceleration which operates via multiple shock recrossing by a particle. Its efficiency, the rate of energy gain, and the maximum energy are thus determined by the transport mechanisms (confinement to the shock) of these particles in a turbulent shock environment. The turbulence is believed to be generated by accelerated particles themselves. Moreover, in the most interesting case of efficient acceleration the entire MHD shock structure is dominated by their pressure. This makes this problem one of the challenging strongly nonlinear problems of astrophysics. We suggest a physical model that describes particle acceleration, shock structure and the CR driven turbulence on an equal footing. The key new element in this scheme is nonlinear cascading of the MHD turbulence on self-excited (via modulational and Drury instability) sound-like perturbations which gives rise to a significant enrichment of the long wave part of the MHD spectrum. This is critical for the calculation of the maximum energy.

  16. Coupling Emitters and Silver Nanowires to Achieve Long-Range Plasmon-Mediated Fluorescence Energy Transfer.

    PubMed

    de Torres, Juan; Ferrand, Patrick; Colas des Francs, Gérard; Wenger, Jérôme

    2016-04-26

    The development of quantum plasmonic circuitry requires efficient coupling between quantum emitters and plasmonic waveguides. A major experimental challenge is to simultaneously maximize the surface plasmon propagation length, the coupling efficiency into the plasmonic mode, and the Purcell factor. Addressing this challenge is also the key to enabling long-range energy transfer between quantum nanoemitters. Here, we use a dual-beam scanning confocal microscope to carefully investigate the interactions between fluorescent nanoparticles and surface plasmons on single-crystalline silver nanowires. By exciting the fluorescent nanoparticles via nanowire surface plasmons, we maximize the light-matter interactions and reach coupling efficiencies up to 44% together with 24× lifetime reduction and 4.1 μm propagation lengths. This improved optical performance enables the demonstration of long-range plasmon-mediated fluorescence energy transfer between two nanoparticles separated by micrometer distance. Our results provide guidelines toward practical realizations of efficient long-range fluorescence energy transfer for integrated plasmonics and quantum nano-optics. PMID:27019008

  17. Detector for imaging of explosions: present status and future prospects with higher energy x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulchenko, V. M.; Evdokov, O. V.; Shekhtman, L. I.; Ten, K. A.; Tolochko, B. P.; Zhogin, I. L.; Zhulanov, V. V.

    2008-05-01

    The described detector for imaging of explosions (DIMEX) has been in operation on the synchrotron radiation (SR) beam-line on the VEPP-3 electron ring at Budker INP since 2002. DIMEX is based on a one-coordinate gas ionization chamber filled with a Xe-CO2(3:1) mixture at 7atm and active Frisch-grid made of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). The detector has a spatial resolution of 0.2mm and dynamic range of ~100, which allows one to achieve a signal measurement precision of a few percent. The frame rate can be tuned up to 8 MHz (125 ns per image) and as many as 32 images can be stored in one shot. At present DIMEX is used with the X-ray beam from a 2T wiggler with an average energy of 20 keV. The future possibility to install a similar detector on the SR beam-line on the VEPP-4 electron ring is discussed.

  18. Higher temperature reactor materials workshop sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology (NE) and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES).

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.; Bruemmer, S.; Kassner, M.; Odette, R.; Stoller, R.; Was, G.; Wolfer, W.; Zinkle, S.; Elmer, J.; Motta, A.

    2002-08-12

    On March 18-21, 2002, the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology (NE) and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) sponsored a workshop to identify needs and opportunities for materials research aimed at performance improvements of structural materials in higher temperature reactors. The workshop focused discussion around the reactor concepts proposed as part of the Generation IV Nuclear Energy System Roadmap. The goal of the Generation IV initiative is to make revolutionary improvements in nuclear energy system design in the areas of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability. The Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Roadmap working groups have identified operation at higher temperature as an important step in improving economic performance and providing a means for nuclear energy to support thermochemical production of hydrogen. However, the move to higher operating temperatures will require the development and qualification of advanced materials to perform in the more challenging environment. As part of the process of developing advanced materials for these reactor concepts, a fundamental understanding of materials behavior must be established and the data-base defining critical performance limitations of these materials under irradiation must be developed. This workshop reviewed potential reactor designs and operating regimes, potential materials for application in high-temperature reactor environments, anticipated degradation mechanisms, and research necessary to understand and develop reactor materials capable of satisfactory performance while subject to irradiation damage at high temperature. The workshop brought together experts from the reactor materials and fundamental materials science communities to identify research and development needs and opportunities to provide optimum high temperature nuclear energy system structural materials.

  19. The Role of Occupant Behavior in Achieving Net Zero Energy: A Demonstration Project at Fort Carson

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Zalesny, Mary D.; Fernandez, Nicholas

    2013-09-30

    This study, sponsored by the U.S. General Services Administration’s Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, aimed to understand the potential for institutional and behavioral change to enhance the performance of buildings, through a demonstration project with the Department of Defense in five green buildings on the Fort Carson, Colorado, Army base. To approach this study, the research team identified specific occupant behaviors that had the potential to save energy in each building, defined strategies that might effectively support behavior change, and implemented a coordinated set of actions during a three-month intervention.

  20. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting. PMID:27231732

  1. Time-resolved photoemission apparatus achieving sub-20-meV energy resolution and high stability

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Y.; Togashi, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tanaka, M.; Kiss, T.; Otsu, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Shin, S.

    2014-12-15

    The paper describes a time- and angle-resolved photoemission apparatus consisting of a hemispherical analyzer and a pulsed laser source. We demonstrate 1.48-eV pump and 5.92-eV probe measurements at the ⩾10.5-meV and ⩾240-fs resolutions by use of fairly monochromatic 170-fs pulses delivered from a regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire laser system operating typically at 250 kHz. The apparatus is capable to resolve the optically filled superconducting peak in the unoccupied states of a cuprate superconductor, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. A dataset recorded on Bi(111) surface is also presented. Technical descriptions include the followings: A simple procedure to fine-tune the spatio-temporal overlap of the pump-and-probe beams and their diameters; achieving a long-term stability of the system that enables a normalization-free dataset acquisition; changing the repetition rate by utilizing acoustic optical modulator and frequency-division circuit.

  2. Carrots and Sticks: A Comprehensive Business Model for the Successful Achievement of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards Environmental Energy Technologies DivisionMarch 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Satchwell, Andrew; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2011-03-22

    Energy efficiency resource standards (EERS) are a prominent strategy to potentially achieve rapid and aggressive energy savings goals in the U.S. As of December 2010, twenty-six U.S. states had some form of an EERS with savings goals applicable to energy efficiency (EE) programs paid for by utility customers. The European Union has initiated a similar type of savings goal, the Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive, where it is being implemented in some countries through direct partnership with regulated electric utilities. U.S. utilities face significant financial disincentives under traditional regulation which affects the interest of shareholders and managers in aggressively pursuing cost-effective energy efficiency. Regulators are considering some combination of mandated goals ('sticks') and alternative utility business model components ('carrots' such as performance incentives) to align the utility's business and financial interests with state and federal energy efficiency public policy goals. European countries that have directed their utilities to administer EE programs have generally relied on non-binding mandates and targets; in the U.S., most state regulators have increasingly viewed 'carrots' as a necessary condition for successful achievement of energy efficiency goals and targets. In this paper, we analyze the financial impacts of an EERS on a large electric utility in the State of Arizona using a pro-forma utility financial model, including impacts on utility earnings, customer bills and rates. We demonstrate how a viable business model can be designed to improve the business case while retaining sizable ratepayer benefits. Quantifying these concerns and identifying ways they can be addressed are crucial steps in gaining the support of major stakeholder groups - lessons that can apply to other countries looking to significantly increase savings targets that can be achieved from their own utility-administered EE programs.

  3. Detection and Characterization of Low Abundance Glycopeptides Via Higher-Energy C-Trap Dissociation and Orbitrap Mass Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart-Smith, Gene; Raftery, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Broad-scale mass spectrometric analyses of glycopeptides are constrained by the considerable complexity inherent to glycoproteomics, and techniques are still being actively developed to address the associated analytical difficulties. Here we apply Orbitrap mass analysis and higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) to facilitate detailed insights into the compositions and heterogeneity of complex mixtures of low abundance glycopeptides. By generating diagnostic oxonium product ions at mass measurement errors of <5 ppm, highly selective glycopeptide precursor ion detections are made at sub-fmol limits of detection: analyses of proteolytic digests of a hen egg glycoprotein mixture detect 88 previously uncharacterized glycopeptides from 666 precursor ions selected for MS/MS, with only one false positive due to co-fragmentation of a non-glycosylated peptide with a glycopeptide. We also demonstrate that by (1) identifying multiple series of glycoforms using high mass accuracy single stage MS spectra, and (2) performing product ion scans at optimized HCD collision energies, the identification of peptide + N-acetylhexosamine (HexNAc) ions (Y1 ions) can be readily achieved at <5 ppm mass measurement errors. These data allow base peptide sequences and glycan compositional information to be attained with high confidence, even for glycopeptides that produce weak precursor ion signals and/or low quality MS/MS spectra. The glycopeptides characterized from low fmol abundances using these methods allow two previously unreported glycosylation sites on the Gallus gallus protein ovoglycoprotein (amino acids 82 and 90) to be confirmed; considerable glycan heterogeneities at amino acid 90 of ovoglycoprotein, and amino acids 34 and 77 of Gallus gallus ovomucoid are also revealed.

  4. Achieving sub-nanometre particle mapping with energy-filtered TEM.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Perez, S; de Castro Bernal, V; Nicholls, R J

    2009-09-01

    A combination of state-of-the-art instrumentation and optimized data processing has enabled for the first time the chemical mapping of sub-nanometre particles using energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM). Multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) generated reconstructed datasets where the signal from particles smaller than 1 nm in diameter was successfully isolated from the original noisy background. The technique has been applied to the characterization of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) reduced activation FeCr alloys, due to their relevance as structural materials for future fusion reactors. Results revealed that most nanometer-sized particles had a core-shell structure, with an Yttrium-Chromium-Oxygen-rich core and a nano-scaled Chromium-Oxygen-rich shell. This segregation to the nanoparticles caused a decrease of the Chromium dissolved in the matrix, compromising the corrosion resistance of the alloy. PMID:19505762

  5. Energy Costs and Energy Conservation Programs in Colleges and Universities: 1972-73, 1974-75. Higher Education Panel Reports, Number 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atelsek, Frank J.; Gomberg, Irene L.

    A survey was initiated at the request of the U.S. Office of Education and the Energy Task Force to: (1) measure the increase in energy expenditures since the OPEC oil embargo of 1973-74; (2) assess changes in energy consumption over a two-year period; and (3) examine some of the specific conservation practices of higher education institutions.…

  6. Dark Energy, Black Holes and Exploding Stars: NASA's Chandra Observatory Marks Five Years of Scientific Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    On Aug. 12, 1999, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory opened its sunshade doors for the first time, allowing celestial X-ray light to reach the observatory's mirrors. This one small step for the observatory proved to be a giant leap for science as Chandra began its mission to shed new light on a violent, mysterious universe invisible to the human eye. The Marshall Center manages the Chandra program. On August 12, 1999, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory opened its sunshade doors for the first time, allowing celestial X-ray light to reach the observatory's mirrors. This one small step for the observatory proved to be a giant leap for science as Chandra began its mission to shed new light on a violent, mysterious universe invisible to the human eye. "Humans cannot see X-rays, but Chandra can," said Chandra project scientist Dr. Martin C. Weisskopf of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "And what the observatory has revealed in five short years has been nothing short of amazing. Thanks to Chandra, we've gleaned new information on dark energy, black holes, exploding stars and all other categories of astronomical objects." "Chandra's resolving power is equivalent to the ability to read a newspaper headline a half-mile away," said Chandra Program Manager Keith Hefner of the Marshall Center. "It's an engineering marvel that has performed nearly flawlessly and provided major science discoveries over the past five years." A Chandra timeline reveals some of its most noteworthy discoveries: * Chandra finds a ring around the Crab Nebula. After only two months in space, the observatory reveals a brilliant ring around the heart of the Crab Pulsar in the Crab Nebula - the remains of a stellar explosion - providing clues about how the nebula is energized by a pulsing neutron, or collapsed, star. (Sept. 28, 1999) * Chandra reveals a possible black hole in the Milky Way. Culminating 25 years of searching by astronomers, researchers say that a faint X-ray source, newly

  7. The use of ECDIS equipment to achieve an optimum value for energy efficiency operation index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acomi, N.; Acomi, O. C.; Stanca, C.

    2015-11-01

    To reduce air pollution produced by ships, the International Maritime Organization has developed a set of technical, operational and management measures. The subject of our research addresses the operational measures for minimizing CO2 air emissions and the way how the emission value could be influenced by external factors regardless of ship-owners’ will. This study aims to analyse the air emissions for a loaded voyage leg performed by an oil tanker. The formula that allows us to calculate the predicted Energy Efficiency Operational Index involves the estimation of distance and fuel consumption, while the quantity of cargo is known. The electronic chart display and information system, ECDIS Simulation Software, will be used for adjusting the passage plan in real time, given the predicted severe environmental conditions. The distance will be determined using ECDIS, while the prediction of the fuel consumption will consider the sea trial and the vessel experience records. That way it will be possible to compare the estimated EEOI value in the case of great circle navigation in adverse weather condition with the estimated EEOI value for weather navigation.

  8. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): −0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. PMID:26193310

  9. Attenuation of 10 MeV electron beam energy to achieve low doses does not affect Salmonella spp. inactivation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieke, Anne-Sophie Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of attenuating the energy of a 10 MeV electron beam on Salmonella inactivation kinetics was investigated. No statistically significant differences were observed between the D10 values of either Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- or a Salmonella cocktail (S. 4,[5],12:i:-, Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Newport, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella) when irradiated with either a non-attenuated 10 MeV eBeam or an attenuated 10 MeV eBeam (~2.9±0.22 MeV). The results show that attenuating the energy of a 10 MeV eBeam to achieve low doses does not affect the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. when compared to direct 10 MeV eBeam irradiation.

  10. Energy extraction and achievement of the saturation limit in a discharge pumped table-top soft x-ray amplifier.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca, J. J.; Clark, D. P.; Chilla, J. L. A.; Shlyaptsev, V. N.; Marconi, M. C.

    1996-11-01

    There is significant interest in the demonstration of compact soft x-ray amplifiers capable of generating pulses of substantial energy for applications. This motivates the demonstration of gain media generated by compact devices, that can be successfully scaled in length to reach gain saturation. To date, gain saturation had only been achieved in a few soft x-ray laser lines in plasmas generated by some of the world's largest laser facilities.(B. J. MacGowan et al.), Phys. Fluids B 4, 2326 (1992); A. Carillon et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 68, 2917 (1992);B. Rus et al., in AIP Conf. Proc. 332, X-ray lasers 1994, p. 152; S. Wang et al., ibid., p. 293. Previosly we reported large amplification at 46.9 nm in Ne-like argon in a plasma column generated by a fast capillary discharge.(J. J. Rocca et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2192 (1994). Herein we report the generation of laser pulse energies up to 30 μJ at 46.9 nm in such discharge and the first clear evidence of gain saturation of a table-top soft x-ray amplifier. Single pass amplification experiments yielded laser pulse energies up to 6 μJ and double pass amplification using an iridium mirror yielded 30 μJ. The observed saturation of the gain and laser pulse energy are in good agreement with the results of radiation transport calculations. Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  11. Body size, body composition, and metabolic profile explain higher energy expenditure in overweight children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lower relative rates of energy expenditure (EE), increased energetic efficiency, and altered fuel utilization purportedly associated with obesity have not been demonstrated indisputably in overweight children. We hypothesized that differences in energy metabolism between nonoverweight and overweight...

  12. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  13. Efficacy of a liquid low-energy formula diet in achieving preoperative target weight loss before bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lone V; Nielsen, Mette S; Schmidt, Julie B; Pedersen, Sue D; Sjödin, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A preoperative weight loss of 8 % is a prerequisite to undergo bariatric surgery (BS) in Denmark. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 7- or an 11-week low-energy diet (LCD) for achieving preoperative target weight before BS. A total of thirty obese patients (BMI 46·0 (sd 4·4) kg/m(2)) followed an LCD (Cambridge Weight Plan(®), 4184 kJ/d (1000 kcal/d)) for 7 or 11 weeks as preparation for BS. Anthropometric measurements including body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), blood parameters and blood pressure were assessed at weeks 0, 7 and 11. At week 7, the majority of patients (77 %) had reached their target weight, and this was achieved after 5·4 (sem 0·3) weeks. Mean weight loss was 9·3 (sem 0·5) % (P < 0·01) and consisted of 41·6 % fat-free mass (FFM) and 58·4 % fat mass. The weight loss was accompanied by a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (7·1 (sem 2·3) and 7·3 (sem 1·8) mmHg, respectively, all P < 0·01) as well as an improved metabolic profile (8·2 (sem 1·8) % decrease in fasting glucose (P < 0·01), 28·6 (sem 6·4) % decrease in fasting insulin (P < 0·01), 23·1 (sem 2·2) % decrease in LDL (P < 0·01), and 9·7 (sem 4·7) % decrease in TAG (P < 0·05)). Weight, FFM and fat mass continued to decrease from week 7 to 11 (all P < 0·01), whereas no additional improvements was observed in the metabolic parameters. Severely obese patients can safely achieve preoperative target weight on an LCD within 7 weeks as part of preparation for BS. However, the considerable reduction in FFM in severely obese subjects needs further investigation. PMID:27293559

  14. Instruction and information on used energy-related laboratory equipment grants for educational institutions of higher learning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    The USDOE, in accordance with its responsibility to encourage research and development in the energy area, awards grants of used energy-related laboratory equipment to universities and colleges and other nonprofit educational institutions of higher learning in the US for use in energy-oriented educational programs in the life, physical, and environmental sciences and engineering. This booklet gives information on eligibility and procedure, typical equipment, and institutional costs, along with a proposal guide and terms and conditions of a grant. Appendixes give addresses as to where to review equipment lists and where to mail proposals for used equipment grants. (RWR)

  15. Accretion of dark energy onto higher dimensional charged BTZ black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, Ujjal

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we have studied the accretion of the (n+2)-dimensional charged BTZ black hole (BH). The critical point and square speed of sound have been obtained. The mass of the BTZ BH has been calculated and we have observed that the mass of the BTZ BH is related with the square root of the energy density of the dark energy which accretes onto the BH in our accelerating FRW universe. We have assumed modified Chaplygin gas (MCG) as a candidate of dark energy which accretes onto the BH and we have found the expression of BTZ BH mass. Since in our solution of MCG, this model generates only quintessence dark energy (not phantom) and so BTZ BH mass increases during the whole evolution of the accelerating universe. Next we have assumed five kinds of parametrizations of well-known dark-energy models. These models generate both quintessence and phantom scenarios i.e., phantom crossing models. So if these dark energies accrete onto the BTZ BH, then in the quintessence stage, the BH mass increases up to a certain value (finite value) and then decreases to a certain finite value for the phantom stage during the whole evolution of the universe. We have shown these results graphically.

  16. Including higher energy data in the R-matrix extrapolation of 12C(α , γ) 16O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deboer, R.; Uberseder, E.; Azuma, R. E.; Best, A.; Brune, C.; Goerres, J.; Sayre, D.; Smith, K.; Wiescher, M.

    2015-10-01

    The phenomenological R-matrix technique has proved to be very successful in describing the cross sections of interest to nuclear astrophysics. One of the key reactions is 12C(α , γ) 16O, which has frequently been analyzed using R-matrix but usually over a limited energy range. This talk will present an analysis that, for the first time, extends above the proton and α1 separation energies taking advantage of a large amount of additional data. The analysis uses the new publicly released JINA R-matrix code AZURE2. The traditional reaction channels of 12C(α , γ) 16O, 12C(α ,α0) 12, and 16N(βα) 12C are included but are now accompanied by the higher energy reactions. By explicitly including higher energy levels, the uncertainty in the extrapolation of the cross section is significantly reduced. This is accomplished by more stringent constraints on interference combination and background poles by the additional higher energy data and by considering new information about subthresold states from transfer reactions. The result is the most comprehensive R-matrix analysis of the 12C(α , γ) 16O reaction to date. This research was supported in part by the ND CRC and funded by the NSF through Grant No. Phys-0758100, and JINA through Grant No. Phys-0822648.

  17. CEBAF at higher energies: Working group report on hadron spectroscopy and production

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T. |; Napolitano, J.

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes topics in hadron spectroscopy and production which could be addressed at CEBAF with an energy upgrade to E{sub {gamma}} = 8 GeV and beyond. The topics discussed include conventional meson and baryon spectrocopy, spectroscopy of exotica (especially molecules and hybrids), CP and CPT tests using {phi} mesons, and new detector and accelerator options.

  18. Two-atom energy spectrum in a harmonic trap near a Feshbach resonance at higher partial waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Akira; Liang, Yi; Bhaduri, Rajat K.

    2009-09-01

    Two atoms in an optical lattice may be made to interact strongly at higher partial waves near a Feshbach resonance. These atoms, under appropriate constraints, could be bosonic or fermionic. The universal l=2 energy spectrum for such a system, with a caveat, is presented in this paper and checked with the spectrum obtained by direct numerical integration of the Schrödinger equation. The results reported here extend those of Yip for p -wave resonance [S.-K. Yip, Phys. Rev. A 78, 013612 (2008)], while exploring the limitations of a universal expression for the spectrum for the higher partial waves.

  19. Accurate prediction of higher-level electronic structure energies for large databases using neural networks, Hartree-Fock energies, and small subsets of the database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malshe, M.; Pukrittayakamee, A.; Raff, L. M.; Hagan, M.; Bukkapatnam, S.; Komanduri, R.

    2009-09-01

    A novel method is presented that significantly reduces the computational bottleneck of executing high-level, electronic structure calculations of the energies and their gradients for a large database that adequately samples the configuration space of importance for systems containing more than four atoms that are undergoing multiple, simultaneous reactions in several energetically open channels. The basis of the method is the high-degree of correlation that generally exists between the Hartree-Fock (HF) and higher-level electronic structure energies. It is shown that if the input vector to a neural network (NN) includes both the configuration coordinates and the HF energies of a small subset of the database, MP4(SDQ) energies with the same basis set can be predicted for the entire database using only the HF and MP4(SDQ) energies for the small subset and the HF energies for the remainder of the database. The predictive error is shown to be less than or equal to the NN fitting error if a NN is fitted to the entire database of higher-level electronic structure energies. The general method is applied to the computation of MP4(SDQ) energies of 68 308 configurations that comprise the database for the simultaneous, unimolecular decomposition of vinyl bromide into six different reaction channels. The predictive accuracy of the method is investigated by employing successively smaller subsets of the database to train the NN to predict the MP4(SDQ) energies of the remaining configurations of the database. The results indicate that for this system, the subset can be as small as 8% of the total number of configurations in the database without loss of accuracy beyond that expected if a NN is employed to fit the higher-level energies for the entire database. The utilization of this procedure is shown to save about 78% of the total computational time required for the execution of the MP4(SDQ) calculations. The sampling error involved with selection of the subset is shown to be

  20. FRACTIONAL AMPLITUDE OF KILOHERTZ QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATION FROM 4U 1728-34: EVIDENCE OF DECLINE AT HIGHER ENERGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Arunava; Bhattacharyya, Sudip E-mail: sudip@tifr.res.in

    2012-09-01

    A kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillation (kHz QPO) is an observationally robust high-frequency timing feature detected from neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). This feature can be very useful to probe the superdense core matter of neutron stars and the strong gravity regime. Although many models exist in the literature, the physical origin of kHz QPO is not known, and hence this feature cannot be used as a tool yet. The energy dependence of kHz QPO fractional rms amplitude is an important piece of the jigsaw puzzle to understand the physical origin of this timing feature. It is known that the fractional rms amplitude increases with energy at lower energies. At higher energies, the amplitude is usually believed to saturate, although this is not established. We combine tens of lower kHz QPOs from a neutron star LMXB 4U 1728-34 in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Consequently, we, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, find a significant and systematic decrease of the fractional rms amplitude with energy at higher photon energies. Assuming an energy spectrum model, blackbody+powerlaw, we explore if the sinusoidal variation of a single spectral parameter can reproduce the above-mentioned fractional rms amplitude behavior. Our analysis suggests that the oscillation of any single blackbody parameter is favored over the oscillation of any single power-law parameter, in order to explain the measured amplitude behavior. We also find that the quality factor of a lower kHz QPO does not plausibly depend on photon energy.

  1. ZnO thin film piezoelectric MEMS vibration energy harvesters with two piezoelectric elements for higher output performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peihong; Du, Hejun

    2015-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based vibration energy harvesters with two different designs are presented. These harvesters consist of a silicon cantilever, a silicon proof mass, and a ZnO piezoelectric layer. Design I has a large ZnO piezoelectric element and Design II has two smaller and equally sized ZnO piezoelectric elements; however, the total area of ZnO thin film in two designs is equal. The ZnO thin film is deposited by means of radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method and is characterized by means of XRD and SEM techniques. These ZnO energy harvesters are fabricated by using MEMS micromachining. The natural frequencies of the fabricated ZnO energy harvesters are simulated and tested. The test results show that these two energy harvesters with different designs have almost the same natural frequency. Then, the output performance of different ZnO energy harvesters is tested in detail. The effects of series connection and parallel connection of two ZnO elements on the load voltage and power are also analyzed. The experimental results show that the energy harvester with two ZnO piezoelectric elements in parallel connection in Design II has higher load voltage and higher load power than the fabricated energy harvesters with other designs. Its load voltage is 2.06 V under load resistance of 1 MΩ and its maximal load power is 1.25 μW under load resistance of 0.6 MΩ, when it is excited by an external vibration with frequency of 1300.1 Hz and acceleration of 10 m/s(2). By contrast, the load voltage of the energy harvester of Design I is 1.77 V under 1 MΩ resistance and its maximal load power is 0.98 μW under 0.38 MΩ load resistance when it is excited by the same vibration. PMID:26233403

  2. ZnO thin film piezoelectric MEMS vibration energy harvesters with two piezoelectric elements for higher output performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peihong; Du, Hejun

    2015-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based vibration energy harvesters with two different designs are presented. These harvesters consist of a silicon cantilever, a silicon proof mass, and a ZnO piezoelectric layer. Design I has a large ZnO piezoelectric element and Design II has two smaller and equally sized ZnO piezoelectric elements; however, the total area of ZnO thin film in two designs is equal. The ZnO thin film is deposited by means of radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method and is characterized by means of XRD and SEM techniques. These ZnO energy harvesters are fabricated by using MEMS micromachining. The natural frequencies of the fabricated ZnO energy harvesters are simulated and tested. The test results show that these two energy harvesters with different designs have almost the same natural frequency. Then, the output performance of different ZnO energy harvesters is tested in detail. The effects of series connection and parallel connection of two ZnO elements on the load voltage and power are also analyzed. The experimental results show that the energy harvester with two ZnO piezoelectric elements in parallel connection in Design II has higher load voltage and higher load power than the fabricated energy harvesters with other designs. Its load voltage is 2.06 V under load resistance of 1 MΩ and its maximal load power is 1.25 μW under load resistance of 0.6 MΩ, when it is excited by an external vibration with frequency of 1300.1 Hz and acceleration of 10 m/s2. By contrast, the load voltage of the energy harvester of Design I is 1.77 V under 1 MΩ resistance and its maximal load power is 0.98 μW under 0.38 MΩ load resistance when it is excited by the same vibration.

  3. A comparative study of the energy resolution achievable with digital signal processors in x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, A.; Zambusi, M.; Ripamonti, G.

    1996-04-01

    Interest for digital processing of signals from radiation detectors is subject to a growing attention due to its intrinsic adaptivity, easiness of calibration, etc. This work compares two digital processing methods: a multiple-delay-line (DL){sup N} filter and a least-mean-squares (LMS) adaptive filter for applications in high resolution X-ray spectroscopy. The signal pulse, as appears at the output of a proper analog conditioning circuit, is digitized; the samples undergo a digital filtering procedure. Both digital filters take advantage of the possibility of synthesizing the best possible weighting function with respect to the actual noise conditions. A noticeable improvement of more than 10% in energy resolution has been achieved with both systems with respect to state-of-the-art systems based on analog circuitry. In particular, the two digital processors are shown to be the best choice respectively; for on-line use with critical ballistic deficit conditions and for very-high-resolution spectroscopy systems, ultimately limited by 1/f noise.

  4. Functional determinants and Casimir energy in higher dimensional spherically symmetric background potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucci, Guglielmo; Kirsten, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we analyze the spectral zeta function associated with a Laplace operator acting on scalar functions on an N-dimensional Euclidean space in the presence of a spherically symmetric background potential. The obtained analytic continuation of the spectral zeta function is then used to derive very simple results for the functional determinant of the operator and the Casimir energy of the scalar field.

  5. Increased energy expenditure by a seabird in response to higher food abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Turco, K.R.; Brown, E.D.; Thedinga, J.F.; Visser, G.H.

    2006-01-01

    Variability in forage fish abundance strongly affects seabird behavior and reproductive success, although details of this relationship are unclear. During 1997 and 1998, we measured (1) daily energy expenditure (DEE) of 80 parent black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla at 2 colonies in Prince William Sound, Alaska (North Icy Bay and Shoup Bay), (2) abundance of surface-schooling forage fishes within the foraging range of each colony, and (3) diet composition, energy delivery rates to nestlings, and reproductive success of kittiwakes at these same colonies. Female DEE was highest at North Icy Bay in 1998, while male DEE did not differ by colony year. Abundances of Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus were highest near North Icy Bay in 1998 and nearly egual in density, although Age 1+ herring comprised the majority of the diet there. Energy delivery rates to nestlings, nestling growth rates, and productivity were also highest at North Icy Bay in 1998. We suggest that female kittiwakes responded to the increased abundance of Age 1+ herring near North Icy Bay in 1998 by increasing their DEE, which in turn positively affected reproductive success. Given that adult kittiwakes have been shown to suffer decreased survival as a response to increased energy expenditure during brood rearing, the positive correlation we observed between increased abundance of a high quality food source, parental effort, and productivity is consistent with maximizing lifetime reproductive success. The lack of a response in male DEE suggests that brood-rearing roles in kittiwakes differ between genders. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  6. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Qiao; Zhang, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Li, Rui; Chen, Guo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70-0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants' energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76-228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability. PMID:27322302

  7. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Qiao; Zhang, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Li, Rui; Chen, Guo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70–0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants’ energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76–228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability. PMID:27322302

  8. Signature of a continuous quantum phase transition in non-equilibrium energy absorption: Footprints of criticality on higher excited states

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sirshendu; Dasgupta, Subinay; Das, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    Understanding phase transitions in quantum matters constitutes a significant part of present day condensed matter physics. Quantum phase transitions concern ground state properties of many-body systems, and hence their signatures are expected to be pronounced in low-energy states. Here we report signature of a quantum critical point manifested in strongly out-of-equilibrium states with finite energy density with respect to the ground state and extensive (subsystem) entanglement entropy, generated by an external pulse. These non-equilibrium states are evidently completely disordered (e.g., paramagnetic in case of a magnetic ordering transition). The pulse is applied by switching a coupling of the Hamiltonian from an initial value (λI) to a final value (λF) for sufficiently long time and back again. The signature appears as non-analyticities (kinks) in the energy absorbed by the system from the pulse as a function of λF at critical-points (i.e., at values of λF corresponding to static critical-points of the system). As one excites higher and higher eigenstates of the final Hamiltonian H(λF) by increasing the pulse height , the non-analyticity grows stronger monotonically with it. This implies adding contributions from higher eigenstates help magnifying the non-analyticity, indicating strong imprint of the critical-point on them. Our findings are grounded on exact analytical results derived for Ising and XY chains in transverse field. PMID:26568306

  9. Observation of warm, higher energy electrons transiting a double layer in a helicon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Yung-Ta Li, Yan; Scharer, John E.

    2015-03-15

    Measurements of an inductive RF helicon argon plasma double layer with two temperature electron distributions including a fast (>80 eV) tail are observed at 0.17 mTorr Ar pressure. The fast, untrapped electrons observed downstream of the double layer have a higher temperature (13 eV) than the trapped (T{sub e} = 4 eV) electrons. The reduction of plasma potential and density observed in the double layer region would require an upstream temperature ten times the measured 4 eV if occurring via Boltzmann ambipolar expansion. The experimental observation in Madison helicon experiment indicates that fast electrons with substantial density fractions can be created at low helicon operating pressures.

  10. Photoprotection and triplet energy transfer in higher plants: the role of electronic and nuclear fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Cupellini, Lorenzo; Jurinovich, Sandro; Prandi, Ingrid G; Caprasecca, Stefano; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2016-04-20

    Photosynthetic organisms employ several photoprotection strategies to avoid damage due to the excess energy in high light conditions. Among these, quenching of triplet chlorophylls by neighboring carotenoids (Cars) is fundamental in preventing the formation of singlet oxygen. Cars are able to accept the triplets from chlorophylls by triplet energy transfer (TET). We have here studied TET rates in CP29, a minor light-harvesting complex (LHC) of the Photosystem II in plants. A fully atomistic strategy combining classical molecular dynamics of the LHC in its natural environment with a hybrid time-dependent density functional theory/polarizable MM description of the TET is used. We find that the structural fluctuations of the pigment-protein complex can largely enhance the transfer rates with respect to those predicted using the crystal structure, reducing the triplet quenching times in the subnanosecond scale. These findings add a new perspective for the interpretation of the photoprotection function and its relation with structural motions of the LHC. PMID:27052105

  11. Retrofitting the Williams Energy Services Ignacio Plant for higher throughput and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J.T.; Pitman, R.N.

    1999-07-01

    The Ignacio Plant located near Durango, Colorado was originally designed to process 346 MMscfd of feed gas and to recover approximately 82% of the contained ethane. Based on increasing volumes of available feed gas, Williams Energy Services (WES) undertook a study to investigate alternatives for increasing plant capacity and ethane recovery. This study led to the selection of Ortloff's Recycle Split-Vapor (RSV) process for retrofitting the existing facility because it offered several very important advantages: maximum utilization of existing equipment, a 30% increase in plant feed handling capacity and an increase in average ethane recovery to 94% without adding residue compressors. This paper presents the comparative case analysis that led to the selection of the RSV design. It also describes the modifications required for the retrofit, all of which can be accomplished with minimum plant down time. The modified Ignacio Plant is scheduled for startup in March 1999.

  12. Measurements of heavy solar wind and higher energy solar particles during the Apollo 17 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.; Zinner, E.; Maurette, M.

    1973-01-01

    The lunar surface cosmic ray experiment, consisting of sets of mica, glass, plastic, and metal foil detectors, was successfully deployed on the Apollo 17 mission. One set of detectors was exposed directly to sunlight and another set was placed in shade. Preliminary scanning of the mica detectors shows the expected registration of heavy solar wind ions in the sample exposed directly to the sun. The initial results indicate a depletion of very-heavy solar wind ions. The effect is probably not real but is caused by scanning inefficiencies. Despite the lack of any pronounced solar activity, energetic heavy particles with energies extending to 1 MeV/nucleon were observed. Equal track densities of approximately 6000 tracks/cm sq 0.5 microns in length were measured in mica samples exposed in both sunlight and shade.

  13. Electrostatic Energy Harvester Utilizing High Density of Electrode for Higher Output Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, K.; Miwatani, N.; Kanda, K.; Fujita, T.; Maenaka, K.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we report an improvement of output power from an electret type vibration energy harvester. Typical crossing-area change harvester has a stripe-shaped electret and counter electrode for making the capacitance change. In order to improve space efficiency, the counter electrodes are divided and arraignment with the same pitch of the electret. We investigate that adjoining the counter electrodes, the fringing effect is decreased and the capacitance change between the electrodes is larger than the conventional design from FEM analysis. The output power of 2.5 μW and 5.3 μW are obtained in each kind of counter electrode with the applied acceleration of 3 G at 350 Hz, which is about 2 or 4 times as high as our previous work.

  14. Exclusive reactions at high Q{sup 2} with CEBAF at higher energies

    SciTech Connect

    Stoler, P.; Petratos, G.G.

    1994-04-01

    Our earliest and most successful understanding of meson and baryon structure has been based on a model of constituent quarks moving in a phenomenological mean field which is supposed to represent the effects of complicated, but as yet uncalculated, gluonic interactions. Refinements to such models in terms of residual interactions such as color hyperfine interactions improve agreement with experimental spectroscopy. As momentum transfers increase this type of simple model becomes inadequate and one must search for additional degrees of freedom to account for the observed data. However, since these models are not fundamental, the pursuit to apply it to regions of ever increasing momentum transfer becomes fruitless. The constituent quarks themselves are the manifestations of a complexity of interacting valence quarks, sea quarks and gluons in the non-perturbative domain, and it is in terms of these fundamental entities which one must learn to describe mesons and baryons. The situation is analogous to that of the nucleus. A great deal of theoretical effort has gone into models involving constituent protons and neutrons, with interactions modeled in terms of meson fields. Thus, many of the low energy properties of nuclear matter are well described in terms of a mean field shell model, with residual perturbative nucleon-nucleon interactions. However, with increasing momentum transfer (resolution) the model becomes more complicated and eventually, as in the case of the baryon, less useful. A more fundamental approach requires the description of nuclear matter in terms of the variables of QCD in the non-perturbative domain. The fact that this may prove to be a very difficult task does not in any way diminish its importance.

  15. Implementation of a compressive sampling scheme for wireless sensors to achieve energy efficiency in a structural health monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Sean M.; Lynch, Jerome P.; Gilbert, Anna C.

    2013-04-01

    Wireless sensors have emerged to offer low-cost sensors with impressive functionality (e.g., data acquisition, computing, and communication) and modular installations. Such advantages enable higher nodal densities than tethered systems resulting in increased spatial resolution of the monitoring system. However, high nodal density comes at a cost as huge amounts of data are generated, weighing heavy on power sources, transmission bandwidth, and data management requirements, often making data compression necessary. The traditional compression paradigm consists of high rate (>Nyquist) uniform sampling and storage of the entire target signal followed by some desired compression scheme prior to transmission. The recently proposed compressed sensing (CS) framework combines the acquisition and compression stage together, thus removing the need for storage and operation of the full target signal prior to transmission. The effectiveness of the CS approach hinges on the presence of a sparse representation of the target signal in a known basis, similarly exploited by several traditional compressive sensing applications today (e.g., imaging, MRI). Field implementations of CS schemes in wireless SHM systems have been challenging due to the lack of commercially available sensing units capable of sampling methods (e.g., random) consistent with the compressed sensing framework, often moving evaluation of CS techniques to simulation and post-processing. The research presented here describes implementation of a CS sampling scheme to the Narada wireless sensing node and the energy efficiencies observed in the deployed sensors. Of interest in this study is the compressibility of acceleration response signals collected from a multi-girder steel-concrete composite bridge. The study shows the benefit of CS in reducing data requirements while ensuring data analysis on compressed data remain accurate.

  16. Low-cost and no-cost practice to achieve energy efficiency of government office buildings: A case study in federal territory of Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Ibrahim, Amlus

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the findings of a case study to achieve energy-efficient performance of conventional office buildings in Malaysia. Two multi-storey office buildings in Federal Territory of Malaysia have been selected. The aim is to study building energy saving potential then to highlight the appropriate measures that can be implemented. Data was collected using benchmarking method by comparing the measured consumption to other similar office buildings and a series of preliminary audit which involves interviews, a brief review of utility and operating data as well as a walkthrough in the buildings. Additionally, in order to get a better understanding of major energy consumption in the selected buildings, general audit have been conducted to collect more detailed information about building operation. In the end, this study emphasized low-cost and no-cost practice to achieve energy efficiency with significant results in some cases.

  17. Oxygen sensors and energy sensors act synergistically to achieve a graded alteration in gene expression: consequences for assessing the level of neuroprotection in response to stressors.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Gillian M C; Warburton, Joshua; Girjes, Adeeb

    2004-01-01

    Changes in gene expression are associated with switching to an autoprotected phenotype in response to environmental and physiological stress. Ubiquitous molecular chaperones from the heat shock protein (HSP) superfamily confer neuronal protection that can be blocked by antibodies. Recent research has focused on the interactions between the molecular sensors that affect the increased expression of neuroprotective HSPs above constitutive levels. An examination of the conditions under which the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was up regulated in a hypoxia and anoxia tolerant tropical species, the epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum), revealed that up-regulation was dependent on exceeding a stimulus threshold for an oxidative stressor. While hypoxic-preconditioning confers neuroprotective changes, there was no increase in the level of Hsp70 indicating that its increased expression was not associated with achieving a neuroprotected state in response to hypoxia in the epaulette shark. Conversely, there was a significant increase in Hsp70 in response to anoxic-preconditioning, highlighting the presence of a stimulus threshold barrier and raising the possibility that, in this species, Hsp70 contributes to the neuroprotective response to extreme crises, such as oxidative stress. Interestingly, there was a synergistic effect of coincident stressors on Hsp70 expression, which was revealed when metabolic stress was superimposed upon oxidative stress. Brain energy charge was significantly lower when adenosine receptor blockade, provided by treatment with aminophylline, was present prior to the final anoxic episode, under these circumstances, the level of Hsp70 induced was significantly higher than in the pair-matched saline treated controls. An understanding of the molecular and metabolic basis for neuroprotective switches, which result in an up-regulation of neuroprotective Hsp70 expression in the brain, is needed so that intervention strategies can be devised

  18. Higher Daily Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient, Rather Than Fat-Free Mass, Independently Determine Greater ad Libitum Overeating

    PubMed Central

    Thearle, Marie S.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Body fat-free mass (FFM), energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ) are known predictors of daily food intake. Because FFM largely determines EE, it is unclear whether body composition per se or the underlying metabolism drives dietary intake. Objective: The objective of the study was to test whether 24-hour measures of EE and RQ and their components influence ad libitum food intake independently of FFM. Design and Participants: One hundred seven healthy individuals (62 males/45 females, 84 Native Americans/23 whites; age 33 ± 8 y; body mass index 33 ± 8 kg/m2; body fat 31% ± 8%) had 24-hour measures of EE in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance, followed by 3 days of ad libitum food intake using computerized vending machine systems. Body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Main Outcome Measures: FFM, 24-hour EE, RQ, spontaneous physical activity, sleeping EE (sleeping metabolic rate), awake and fed thermogenesis, and ad libitum food intake (INTAKE) were measured. Results: Higher 24-hour RQ (P < .001, partial R2 = 16%) and EE (P = .01, partial R2 = 7%), but not FFM (P = .65), were independent predictors of INTAKE. Mediation analysis demonstrated that 24-hour EE is responsible for 80% of the FFM effect on INTAKE (44.5 ± 16.9 kcal ingested per kilogram of FFM, P= .01), whereas the unique effect due to solely FFM was negligible (10.6 ± 23.2, P = .65). Spontaneous physical activity (r = 0.33, P = .001), but not sleeping metabolic rate (P = .71), positively predicted INTAKE, whereas higher awake and fed thermogenesis determined greater INTAKE only in subjects with a body mass index of 29 kg/m2 or less (r = 0.44, P = .01). Conclusions: EE and RQ, rather than FFM, independently determine INTAKE, suggesting that competitive energy-sensing mechanisms driven by the preferential macronutrient oxidation and total energy demands may regulate food intake. PMID:26086330

  19. Optical spectroscopy and imaging of the higher energy excitons and bandgap of monolayer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borys, Nicholas; Bao, Wei; Barnard, Edward; Ko, Changhyun; Tongay, Sefaatin; Wu, Junqiao; Yang, Li; Schuck, P. James

    Monolayer MoS2 (ML-MoS2) exhibits a rich manifold of excitons that dictate optoelectronic performance and functionality. Disentangling these states, which include the quasi-particle bandgap, is critical for developing 2D optoelectronic devices that operate beyond the optical bandgap. Whereas photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy only probes the lowest-energy radiative state and absorption spectroscopy fails to discriminate energetically degenerate states, photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy selectively probes only the excited states that thermalize to the emissive ground state exciton. Using PLE spectroscopy of ML-MoS2, we identify the Rydberg series of the exciton A and exciton B states as well as signatures of the quasi-particle bandgap and coupling between the indirect C exciton and the lowest-energy A exciton, which have eluded previous PLE studies. The assignment of these states is confirmed with density functional theory. Mapping the PLE spectrum reveals spatial variations of the higher-energy exciton manifold and quasi-particle bandgap which mirror the heterogeneity in the PL but also indicate variations in local exciton thermalization processes and chemical potentials.

  20. Zion National Park Visitor Center: Significant Energy Savings Achieved through a Whole-Building Design Process: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Hayter, S.

    2002-07-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) applied a whole-building design process developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to create a building that performs more than 70% better than a comparable code-compliant building at no additional construction cost. This whole-building design process involves a committed design team, including the energy consultant, in the earliest conceptual design phase and continues through building commissioning. The design team for this project included the architect, engineer, energy consultant, landscape architect, owner, operator, and others who could influence the building design and operation. Extensive whole-building energy and lighting computer simulations were conducted throughout the process, which included the integration of energy efficient and renewable energy technologies into the building. The design team, inspired by natural cooling within the canyon, developed simple solutions to create an extremely energy efficient building. The se strategies included natural ventilation cooling, cooltowers for evaporative cooling without distribution fans, daylighting, massive building materials, Trombe walls and direct solar gains for heating, engineered window overhangs for solar load control, a building automation system to maintain comfort and control the energy-efficient lighting system, and a roof-mounted photovoltaic system to offset building electrical loads and ensure a power supply during the frequent utility grid outages.

  1. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  2. Many small consumers, one growing problem: Achieving energy savings for electronic equipment operating in low power modes

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher T.; Meier, Alan K.

    2004-08-24

    An increasing amount of electricity is used by equipment that is neither fully ''on'' nor fully ''off.'' We call these equipment states low power modes, or ''lopomos.'' ''Standby'' and ''sleep'' are the most familiar lopomos, but some new products already have many modes. Lopomos are becoming common in household appliances, safety equipment, and miscellaneous products. Ross and Meier (2000) reports that several international studies have found standby power to be as much as 10 percent of residential energy consumption. Lopomo energy consumption is likely to continue growing rapidly as products with lopomos that use significant amounts of energy penetrate the market. Other sectors such as commercial buildings and industry also have lopomo energy use, perhaps totaling more in aggregate than that of households, but no comprehensive measurements have been made. In this paper, we propose a research agenda for study of lopomo energy consumption. This agenda has been developed with input from over 200 interested parties. Overall, there is consensus that lopomo energy consumption is an important area for research. Many see this as a critical time for addressing lopomo issues. As equipment designs move from the binary ''on/off'' paradigm to one that encompasses multiple power modes, there is a unique opportunity to address the issue of low power mode energy consumption while technology development paths are still flexible.

  3. Dosimetric prerequisites for routine clinical use of photon emitting brachytherapy sources with average energy higher than 50 kev

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zuofeng; Das, Rupak K.; De Werd, Larry A.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Meigooni, Ali S.; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Rivard, Mark J.; Sloboda, Ronald S.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2007-01-15

    This paper presents the recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) on the dosimetric parameters to be characterized, and dosimetric studies to be performed to obtain them, for brachytherapy sources with average energy higher than 50 keV that are intended for routine clinical use. In addition, this document makes recommendations on procedures to be used to maintain vendor source strength calibration accuracy. These recommendations reflect the guidance of the AAPM and the ESTRO for its members, and may also be used as guidance to vendors and regulatory agencies in developing good manufacturing practices for sources used in routine clinical treatments.

  4. Resting energy expenditure and carbohydrate oxidation are higher in elderly patients with COPD: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) usually have a compromised nutritional status which is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. To know the Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) and the substrate oxidation measurement is essential to prevent these complications. This study aimed to compare the REE, respiratory quotient (RQ) and body composition between patients with and without COPD. Methods This case–control study assessed 20 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attending a pulmonary rehabilitation program. The group of subjects without COPD (control group) consisted of 20 elderly patients attending a university gym, patients of a private service and a public healthy care. Consumption of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) was determined by indirect calorimetry and used for calculating the resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were also measured. Percentage of body fat (%BF), lean mass (kg) and muscle mass (kg) were determined by bioimpedance. The fat free mass index (FFMI) and muscle mass index (MMI) were then calculated. Results The COPD group had lower BMI than control (p = 0.02). However, WC, % BF, FFMI and MM-I did not differ between the groups. The COPD group had greater RQ (p = 0.01), REE (p = 0.009) and carbohydrate oxidation (p = 0.002). Conclusions Elderly patients with COPD had higher REE, RQ and carbohydrate oxidation than controls. PMID:22672689

  5. Compressed sensing embedded in an operational wireless sensor network to achieve energy efficiency in long-term monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, S. M.; Lynch, J. P.; Gilbert, A. C.

    2014-08-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) is a powerful new data acquisition paradigm that seeks to accurately reconstruct unknown sparse signals from very few (relative to the target signal dimension) random projections. The specific objective of this study is to save wireless sensor energy by using CS to simultaneously reduce data sampling rates, on-board storage requirements, and communication data payloads. For field-deployed low power wireless sensors that are often operated with limited energy sources, reduced communication translates directly into reduced power consumption and improved operational reliability. In this study, acceleration data from a multi-girder steel-concrete deck composite bridge are processed for the extraction of mode shapes. A wireless sensor node previously designed to perform traditional uniform, Nyquist rate sampling is modified to perform asynchronous, effectively sub-Nyquist rate sampling. The sub-Nyquist data are transmitted off-site to a computational server for reconstruction using the CoSaMP matching pursuit recovery algorithm and further processed for extraction of the structure’s mode shapes. The mode shape metric used for reconstruction quality is the modal assurance criterion (MAC), an indicator of the consistency between CS and traditional Nyquist acquired mode shapes. A comprehensive investigation of modal accuracy from a dense set of acceleration response data reveals that MAC values above 0.90 are obtained for the first four modes of a bridge structure when at least 20% of the original signal is sampled using the CS framework. Reduced data collection, storage and communication requirements are found to lead to substantial reductions in the energy requirements of wireless sensor networks at the expense of modal accuracy. Specifically, total energy reductions of 10-60% can be obtained for a sensor network with 10-100 sensor nodes, respectively. The reduced energy requirements of the CS sensor nodes are shown to directly result in

  6. A Study of Higher-Order Mode Damping in the Superconducting Energy Recovery LINAC at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammons, Lee Reginald, III

    An energy recovery LINAC (ERL) is being constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory that will involve a superconducting LINAC along with a superconducting electron gun, all operating at 703.75 MHz. The ERL will serve as a testbed for the concepts and technologies required to implement future upgrades in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Because of the high current and high charge requirements of the ERL, effective higher-order mode (HOM) damping is an essential component of the ERL research and development program. This thesis focuses on three areas of HOM characterization and damping development: damping of HOMs in the five-cell LINAC, use of the electron gun fundamental power couplers (FPCs) to damp HOMs, and the development of a ceramic/ferrite damper for the electron gun. The five-cell LINAC uses an HOM load lined with ferrite and attached to the beampipe on either side of the cavity. These studies characterized the frequency-dependent nature of the ferrite absorbing material and derived a set of "portable" ferrite parameters that simplified simulation work. Using these "portable" parameters, it was determined that the ferrite absorber is effective in damping the HOMs of the five-cell cavity over a range of frequencies. In addition, higher-order mode damping in the electron gun was studied using the fundamental power couplers. The gun cavity is a superconducting half-cell structure designed to accelerate electrons to an energy of 2.5 MeV and features dual fundamental power couplers. The HOMs of the gun cavity were studied along with the damping capabilities of the FPCs. Simulation studies determined that the FPCs couple strongly to many of the HOMs studied. However, the transition between the coaxial FPCs and the waveguide that feeds power to the FPCs is a "doorknob" type transition, and it was found that this component shows the best transmission qualities between 1 and 2 GHz, thus limiting the damping capabilities of the FPCs to this bandwidth. It

  7. Comment on "Ribosome utilizes the minimum free energy changes to achieve the highest decoding rate and fidelity"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savir, Yonatan; Tlusty, Tsvi

    2016-05-01

    We examined [Y. Savir and T. Tlusty, Cell 153, 471 (2013), 10.1016/j.cell.2013.03.032] the decoding performance of tRNA by the ribosome. For this purpose, we specified the kinetics of tRNA decoding and the corresponding energy landscape, from which we calculated the steady-state decoding rate RC. Following our work, Xie reexamined [P. Xie, Phys. Rev. E 92, 022716 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.022716] the energy landscape of tRNA decoding. His analysis relies on an alternative expression for RC, while claiming that the expression we use is missing some terms. In this Comment we rederive in detail our expression for the steady-state decoding rate RC, show they hold, explain why the alternative expression for RC is inaccurate, and discuss the underlying intuition.

  8. Interactive Video Game Cycling Leads to Higher Energy Expenditure and Is More Enjoyable than Conventional Exercise in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Monedero, Javier; Lyons, Elizabeth J.; O’Gorman, Donal J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the widely accepted health benefits of regular physical activity, only a small percentage of the population meets the current recommendations. The reasons include a wide use of technology and a lack of enjoyment while exercising. The purpose of this study was to compare the physiological, perceptual and enjoyment responses between a single bout of (I) conventional cycling and (II) interactive cycling video game at a matched workload. Methods A cross-sectional study in 34 healthy participants was performed. Initially, participants completed an incremental maximal cycling test to measure peak oxygen uptake and to determine ventilatory threshold. In random order, participants carried out a 30 min interactive cycling trial and a 30 min conventional cycling trial at 55% of peak power output. During the trials, oxygen uptake and energy expenditure were measured by open-circuit spirometry and heart rate was measured by radiotelemetry. RPE and enjoyment were measured every 10 minutes with Borg scale and a modified PACES scale. Results Interactive cycling resulted in a significantly greater %V̇O2Reserve (68.2% ± 9.2% vs 64.7% ± 8.1%), rate of energy expenditure (505.8±75.2 vs 487.4±81.2 j·kg-1·min-1), and enjoyment (63.4% ± 17 vs 42% ± 13.6), P<0.05. Participants were working at a higher intensity in relation to the individual’s ventilatory threshold during the interactive cycling video game trial (M = 11.86, SE = 3.08) than during the Conventional cycling trial (M = 7.55, SE = 3.16, t(33) = -2.69, P<0.05, r = .42). No significant differences were found for heart rate reserve (72.5 ± 10.4 vs 71.4±10.1%) and RPE (13.1 ± 1.8 vs 13.2 ± 1.7). Conclusion Interactive cycling games can be a valid alternative to conventional exercise as they result in a higher exercise intensity than conventional cycling and a distraction from aversive cognitive and physiological states at and above the ventilatory threshold. PMID:25738290

  9. Donor-acceptor interchange tunneling in HDO-DOH and the higher energy HDO-HOD isotopomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyakin, E. N.; Fraser, G. T.; Lovas, F. J.; Suenram, R. D.; Fujitake, M.

    1995-01-01

    The microwave and submillimeter spectra of the a-type K=0←0 and K=1←1, c-type K=1←0, and isotopically allowed b-type K=1←0 bands of the O-D bonded HDO-DOH water dimer isotopomer and the higher energy O-H bonded HDO-HOD isotopomer have been measured using molecular-beam electric resonance optothermal and pulsed-nozzle Fourier-transform microwave spectrometers. The present results obtained in He and He/Ne seeded molecular beams give the first evidence for the presence of the higher energy O-H bonded mixed protonated-deuterated water dimers. These species were not reported previously in studies using seeded Ar molecular beams. The donor-acceptor interchange tunneling splittings are found to be 1322.1019(43) and 5004.059(20) MHz for the HDO-DOH and the metastable HDO-HOD dimers, respectively. For both isotopomers, the donor-accepter interchange tunneling-state selections rules for the b- and c-type bands are consistent with tunneling pathways corresponding to geared partial internal rotation of the two subunits in double-minima potentials. The larger tunneling splitting in HDO-HOD is primarily the consequence of the smaller effective reduced mass for tunneling in this system compared to that in HDO-DOH. The presence of both b- and c-type K=1←0 bands allows the direct measurement of the largest tunneling splitting, that associated with the internal rotation about the O-H-O or O-D-O bond of the nonbonded proton/deuteron on the proton donating unit. For the K=0 state of HDO-DOH this splitting is 214 208.38(23) MHz, while for the K=0 state of HDO-HOD it is 117 440.97(17) MHz. A strong b-type Coriolis interaction is observed between the upper K=0 and lower K=1 states in HDO-DOH, similar to that observed previously in (H2O)2.

  10. Variants in the LEPR gene are nominally associated with higher BMI and lower 24 hour energy expenditure in Pima Indians

    PubMed Central

    Traurig, Michael; Perez, Jessica; Ma, Lijun; Bian, Li; Kobes, Sayuko; Hanson, Robert L.; Knowler, William C.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Bogardus, Clifton; Baier, Leslie J.

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been used to search for susceptibility genes for type 2 diabetes and obesity in the Pima Indians, a population with high a prevalence of both diseases. In these studies, a variant (rs2025804) in the LEPR gene was nominally associated with BMI in 1082 subjects (P=0.03 adjusted for age, sex, birth year, and family membership). Therefore the LEPR and leptin overlapping transcript (LEPROT) genes were selected for further sequencing and genotyping in larger population-based samples for association analyses with obesity-related phenotypes. Selected variants (n=80) spanning these genes were genotyped in a sample of full-heritage Pima Indians (n=2842) and several common variants including rs2025804 were nominally associated with BMI (P=0.05-0.003 adjusted for age, sex, birth year, and family membership). Four common tag variants associated with BMI in the full-heritage Pima Indian sample were genotyped in a second sample of mixed-heritage Native Americans (n=2969) and 3 of the variants showed nominal replication (P=0.03-0.006 adjusted as above and additionally for Indian heritage). Combining both samples provided the strongest evidence for association (adjusted P=0.0003-0.0001). A subset of these individuals (n=403) had been metabolically characterized for predictors of obesity and the BMI risk alleles for the variants tagged by rs2025804 were also associated with lower 24 hour energy expenditure as assessed in a human respiratory chamber (P=0.0007 adjusted for age, sex, fat mass, fat free mass, activity, and family membership). We conclude that common non-coding variation in the LEPR gene is associated with higher BMI and lower energy expenditure in Native Americans. PMID:22810975

  11. NOx emissions retrofit at Reliant Energy, W.A. Parish Generating Station, Unit 7: Achieving 0.15 lb/MBtu

    SciTech Connect

    Gessner, T.M.; Hoh, R.H.; Ray, B.; Dorazio, T.; Jennings, P.; Sikorski, K.

    1999-07-01

    The current Clean Air Act (CAA), Title 1 regulations require States to develop implementation plans (SIPs) which address NO{sub x} emissions as part of the ozone non-attainment requirements. The EPA has recommended NO{sub x} limits of 0.15 lb/MBtu for utility boilers. In this paper, Reliant Energy and ABB C-E Services, Inc. will discuss a project where 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/MBtu can be achieved with the TFS 2000{trademark} R firing system and highly reactive Powder River Basin (PRB) fuels. Reliant Energy will retrofit their W.A. Parish Unit 7 with this system in the first quarter of 1999. This is part of Reliant Energy's drive to lower NO{sub x} emissions and meet future air quality requirements at the W.Q. Parish station.

  12. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  13. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  14. Rapid development of tissue bank achieved by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Tissue Banking Programme in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Min; Wang, Jian-Ru; Zhang, Nai-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Mo; Ma, Shao-Ying; Yang, Ting; Li, Bao-Xing

    2014-09-01

    Before 1986, the development of tissue banking in China has been slow and relatively uncoordinated. Under the support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Tissue Banking in China experienced rapid development. In this period, China Institute for Radiation Protection tissue bank mastered systematic and modern tissue banking technique by IAEA training course and gradually developed the first regional tissue bank (Shanxi Provincial Tissue Bank, SPTB) to provide tissue allograft. Benefit from training course, SPTB promoted the development of tissue transplantation by ways of training, brochure, advertisement and meeting. Tissue allograft transplantation acquired recognition from clinic and supervision and administration from government. Quality system gradually is developing and perfecting. Tissue allograft transplantation and tissue bank are developing rapidly and healthy. PMID:23959505

  15. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-01-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  16. Assessment of the Potential to Achieve very Low Energy Use in Public Buildings in China with Advanced Window and Shading Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor; Pang, Xiufeng; McNeil, Andrew; Hoffmann, Sabine; Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Li, Zhengrong; Ding, Yong

    2015-05-29

    As rapid growth in the construction industry continues to occur in China, the increased demand for a higher standard living is driving significant growth in energy use and demand across the country. Building codes and standards have been implemented to head off this trend, tightening prescriptive requirements for fenestration component measures using methods similar to the U.S. model energy code American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1. The objective of this study is to (a) provide an overview of applicable code requirements and current efforts within China to enable characterization and comparison of window and shading products, and (b) quantify the load reduction and energy savings potential of several key advanced window and shading systems, given the divergent views on how space conditioning requirements will be met in the future. System-level heating and cooling loads and energy use performance were evaluated for a code-compliant large office building using the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program. Commercially-available, highly-insulating, low-emittance windows were found to produce 24%–66% lower perimeter zone HVAC electricity use compared to the mandated energy-efficiency standard in force (GB 50189-2005) in cold climates like Beijing. Low-e windows with operable exterior shading produced up to 30%–80% reductions in perimeter zone HVAC electricity use in Beijing and 18%–38% reductions in Shanghai compared to the standard. The economic context of China is unique since the cost of labor and materials for the building industry is so low. Broad deployment of these commercially available technologies with the proper supporting infrastructure for design, specification, and verification in the field would enable significant reductions in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the near term.

  17. Assessment of the Potential to Achieve very Low Energy Use in Public Buildings in China with Advanced Window and Shading Systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lee, Eleanor; Pang, Xiufeng; McNeil, Andrew; Hoffmann, Sabine; Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Li, Zhengrong; Ding, Yong

    2015-05-29

    As rapid growth in the construction industry continues to occur in China, the increased demand for a higher standard living is driving significant growth in energy use and demand across the country. Building codes and standards have been implemented to head off this trend, tightening prescriptive requirements for fenestration component measures using methods similar to the U.S. model energy code American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1. The objective of this study is to (a) provide an overview of applicable code requirements and current efforts within China to enable characterization and comparison of window and shading products,more » and (b) quantify the load reduction and energy savings potential of several key advanced window and shading systems, given the divergent views on how space conditioning requirements will be met in the future. System-level heating and cooling loads and energy use performance were evaluated for a code-compliant large office building using the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program. Commercially-available, highly-insulating, low-emittance windows were found to produce 24%–66% lower perimeter zone HVAC electricity use compared to the mandated energy-efficiency standard in force (GB 50189-2005) in cold climates like Beijing. Low-e windows with operable exterior shading produced up to 30%–80% reductions in perimeter zone HVAC electricity use in Beijing and 18%–38% reductions in Shanghai compared to the standard. The economic context of China is unique since the cost of labor and materials for the building industry is so low. Broad deployment of these commercially available technologies with the proper supporting infrastructure for design, specification, and verification in the field would enable significant reductions in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the near term.« less

  18. Poor Sleep Quality and Sleep Apnea Are Associated with Higher Resting Energy Expenditure in Obese Individuals with Short Sleep Duration

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Lilian; Zhao, Xiongce; Mattingly, Megan S.; Zuber, Samuel M.; Piaggi, Paolo; Csako, Gyorgy

    2012-01-01

    Context: Epidemiological studies reported an inverse or U-shaped relationship between sleep duration and weight. The relationship between sleep and resting energy expenditure (REE) has not been well characterized. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between sleep, REE, and stress hormones. Design and Setting: We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation of a prospective cohort study at a tertiary referral research clinical center. Subjects: Subjects included 126 obese individuals (30 males, 96 females; age, 40.5 ± 6.9 yr; body mass index, 38.6 ± 6.5 kg/m2; sleep duration, 360 ± 50 min/night; and sleep efficiency, 79.5 ± 7.5%). Main Outcome Measure(s): REE and respiratory quotient (RQ) were assessed by indirect calorimetry. Sleep duration and sleep efficiency were assessed by actigraphy. Sleep quality was estimated by questionnaires, and sleep apnea was evaluated by respiratory disturbance index (RDI). Morning plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, and 24-h urinary free cortisol and catecholamines were also measured. Results: RDI was positively correlated with REE adjusted by fat-free mass (r = 0.307; P = 0.003) and RQ (r = 0.377; P < 0.001). Sleep efficiency was inversely correlated with RQ (r = −0.200; P = 0.033). The relationship of RDI score and REE was stronger in men than women (P = 0.03). In women, serum cortisol was positively correlated (r = 0.407; P < 0.001), and Epworth sleepiness score tended to be inversely (r = −0.190; P = 0.086) correlated with adjusted REE. The RQ was positively related to RDI in women, whereas subjective sleep time was related to RQ in men. In a multiple regression model, RDI, serum cortisol, and urinary norepinephrine were directly related to REE, whereas serum cortisol also directly related to adjusted REE. Conclusion: Poor sleep quality was associated with increased REE, a higher RQ indicating a shift from fat toward carbohydrate oxidation, and activation of the stress system. PMID:22689694

  19. [Deregulation and Higher Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The extent to which the Reagan Administration has achieved its deregulation goals in the area of higher education is addressed in three articles: "Deregulation and Higher Education: The View a Year Later" (Sheldon Elliot Steinbach); "Student Financial Aid Deregulation: Rhetoric or Reality?" (Robin E. Jenkins); and "Administration Reform of Civil…

  20. Prospects for measuring G{sub M{sub N}} in CLAS with higher CEBAF beam energies

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, W.

    1994-04-01

    The possibility exists for extending a planned measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor to higher values of momentum transfer. The theoretical interest and the experimental method are described. Problems associated with higher Q{sup 2} measurements are discussed. It is concluded that measurements of moderate precision may be possible up to a Q{sup 2} of 8-9.5 GeV{sup 2}, more than doubling the range of the data currently available.

  1. Overview of Commercial Building Partnerships in Higher Education

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, Glenn

    2013-03-01

    Higher education uses less energy per square foot than most commercial building sectors. However, higher education campuses house energy-intensive laboratories and data centers that may spend more than this average; laboratories, in particular, are disproportionately represented in the higher education sector. The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP), a public/private, cost-shared program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, its national laboratories, and private-sector technical experts. These teams explored energy-saving measures across building systems–including some considered too costly or technologically challenging–and used advanced energy modeling to achieve peak whole-building performance. Modeling results were then included in new construction or retrofit designs to achieve significant energy reductions.

  2. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  3. Segmentation of a Vibro-Shock Cantilever-Type Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Operating in Higher Transverse Vibration Modes

    PubMed Central

    Zizys, Darius; Gaidys, Rimvydas; Dauksevicius, Rolanas; Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Daniulaitis, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    The piezoelectric transduction mechanism is a common vibration-to-electric energy harvesting approach. Piezoelectric energy harvesters are typically mounted on a vibrating host structure, whereby alternating voltage output is generated by a dynamic strain field. A design target in this case is to match the natural frequency of the harvester to the ambient excitation frequency for the device to operate in resonance mode, thus significantly increasing vibration amplitudes and, as a result, energy output. Other fundamental vibration modes have strain nodes, where the dynamic strain field changes sign in the direction of the cantilever length. The paper reports on a dimensionless numerical transient analysis of a cantilever of a constant cross-section and an optimally-shaped cantilever with the objective to accurately predict the position of a strain node. Total effective strain produced by both cantilevers segmented at the strain node is calculated via transient analysis and compared to the strain output produced by the cantilevers segmented at strain nodes obtained from modal analysis, demonstrating a 7% increase in energy output. Theoretical results were experimentally verified by using open-circuit voltage values measured for the cantilevers segmented at optimal and suboptimal segmentation lines. PMID:26703623

  4. Dose calculation for photon-emitting brachytherapy sources with average energy higher than 50 keV: Report of the AAPM and ESTRO

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Ballester, Facundo; Das, Rupak K.; DeWerd, Larry A.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Meigooni, Ali S.; Ouhib, Zoubir; Rivard, Mark J.; Sloboda, Ron S.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO) on dose calculations for high-energy (average energy higher than 50 keV) photon-emitting brachytherapy sources are presented, including the physical characteristics of specific {sup 192}Ir, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 60}Co source models. Methods: This report has been prepared by the High Energy Brachytherapy Source Dosimetry (HEBD) Working Group. This report includes considerations in the application of the TG-43U1 formalism to high-energy photon-emitting sources with particular attention to phantom size effects, interpolation accuracy dependence on dose calculation grid size, and dosimetry parameter dependence on source active length. Results: Consensus datasets for commercially available high-energy photon sources are provided, along with recommended methods for evaluating these datasets. Recommendations on dosimetry characterization methods, mainly using experimental procedures and Monte Carlo, are established and discussed. Also included are methodological recommendations on detector choice, detector energy response characterization and phantom materials, and measurement specification methodology. Uncertainty analyses are discussed and recommendations for high-energy sources without consensus datasets are given. Conclusions: Recommended consensus datasets for high-energy sources have been derived for sources that were commercially available as of January 2010. Data are presented according to the AAPM TG-43U1 formalism, with modified interpolation and extrapolation techniques of the AAPM TG-43U1S1 report for the 2D anisotropy function and radial dose function.

  5. Statistical performance evaluation and comparison of a Compton medical imaging system and a collimated Anger camera for higher energy photon imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Li; Rogers, W. Leslie; Huh, Sam S.; Clinthorne, Neal

    2008-12-01

    In radionuclide treatment, tumor cells are primarily destroyed by charged particles emitted by the compound while associated higher energy photons are used to image the tumor in order to determine radiation dose and monitor shrinkage. However, the higher energy photons are difficult to image with conventional collimated Anger cameras, since a tradeoff exists between resolution and sensitivity, and the collimator septal penetration and scattering is increased due to the high energy photons. This research compares imaging performance of the conventional Anger camera to a Compton imaging system that can have improved spatial resolution and sensitivity for high energy photons because this tradeoff is decoupled, and the effect of Doppler broadening at higher gamma energies is decreased. System performance is analyzed by the modified uniform Cramer-Rao bound (M-UCRB) algorithms based on the developed system modeling. The bound shows that the effect of Doppler broadening is the limiting factor for Compton camera performance for imaging 364.4 keV photons emitted from 131I. According to the bound, the Compton camera outperforms the collimated system for an equal number of detected events when the desired spatial resolution for a 26 cm diameter uniform disk object is better than 12 mm FWHM. For a 3D cylindrical phantom, the lower bound on variance for the collimated camera is greater than for the Compton imaginer over the resolution range from 0.5 to 2 cm FWHM. Furthermore, the detection sensitivity of the proposed Compton imaging system is about 15-20 times higher than that of the collimated Anger camera.

  6. Evaluation of higher distribution and/or utilization voltages. Third interim report (October 1979): analysis of individual component cost and/or energy efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    This interim report provides documentation on the third task, Analysis of Individual Component Cost and/or Energy Efficiencies, of DOE Contract No. ET-78-C-01-2866, Evaluation of Higher Distribution and/or Utilization Voltages. The work performed under this task includes the development of both cost and energy loss models for the distribution and customer utilization system elements as well as the analysis of critical performance variables for the types of motors in end use elements, as a function of voltage level. The purpose of this task is to provide individual component cost and energy models which will be incorporated in the global system optimization program under Task 4. A major output of this task is a mathematical model for each component's cost and/or energy losses and a graphical representation of each model.

  7. Calculated properties of some oxoborons R-B≡) and their higher energy isomers R-O=B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Minh Tho; Groarke, Peter J.; Ha, Tae-Kyu

    Ab initio molecular orbital calculations have been employed to study four simple oxoboron molecules, XBO (X = H, F, Cl and CH3) and their isomers XOB. Several properties of oxoborons including the geometries, rotational constants, vibrational wavenumbers, thermochemical parameters and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants have been calculated and thereby predicted using appropriate correction schemes based on available experimental data. Energy barriers for the 1,2-shifts obtained at the MP4/DZP level using MP2/DZP-geometries suggest that, while HOB and CH3OB are relatively stable with respect to unimolecular rearrangement (energy barrier of about 25 kcal mol-1), FOB and ClOB are unstable in this regard. The former have bent equilibrium structures and their energy is quite high relative to their oxoboron isomers (≥ 50 kcal mol-1). An analysis based on the Boys' localized orbitals and molecular electrostatic potentials discloses that during the 1,2-shifts, the migrating group (H or CH3) behaves essentially as a cationic species moving between two electron pairs.

  8. Measuring and Recording Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Measuring and Recording Student Achievement Scoping Group was established by Universities UK and the Standing Conference of Principals (SCOP), with the support of the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) in October 2003 to review the recommendations from the UK Government White Paper "The Future of Higher Education" relating…

  9. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  10. Overexpression of HER-2 in MDA-MB-435/LCC6 Tumours is Associated with Higher Metabolic Activity and Lower Energy Stress.

    PubMed

    Dragowska, Wieslawa H; Ginj, Mihaela; Kozlowski, Piotr; Yung, Andrew; Ruth, Thomas J; Adam, Michael J; Sossi, Vesna; Bally, Marcel B; Yapp, Donald T T

    2016-01-01

    Overexpresssion of HER-2 in the MDA-MB-435/LCC6 (LCC6(HER-2)) tumour model is associated with significantly increased hypoxia and reduced necrosis compared to isogenic control tumours (LCC6(Vector)); this difference was not related to tumour size or changes in vascular architecture. To further evaluate factors responsible for HER-2-associated changes in the tumour microenvironment, small animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) were used to measure tumour tissue perfusion and metabolism, respectively. The imaging data was further corroborated by analysis of molecular markers pertaining to energy homeostasis, and measurements of hypoxia and glucose consumption. The results showed a strong trend towards higher perfusion rates (~58% greater, p = 0.14), and significantly higher glucose uptake in LCC6(HER-2) (~2-fold greater; p = 0.025), relative to control tumours. The expression of proteins related to energy stress (P-AMPK, P-ACC) and glucose transporters (GLUT1) were lower in LCC6(HER-2) tumours (~2- and ~4-fold, respectively). The in vitro analysis showed that LCC6(HER-2) cells become more hypoxic in 1% oxygen and utilise significantly more glucose in normoxia compared to LCC6(Vector)cells (p < 0.005). Amalgamation of all the data points suggests a novel metabolic adaptation driven by HER-2 overexpression where higher oxygen and glucose metabolic rates produce rich energy supply but also a more hypoxic tumour mass. PMID:26727049

  11. Microwave Spectrum for a Second Higher Energy Conformer of Cyclopropanecarboxylic Acid and Determination of the Gas Phase Structure of the Ground State.

    PubMed

    Pejlovas, Aaron M; Lin, Wei; Kukolich, Stephen G

    2015-10-01

    Microwave spectra for a higher-energy conformer of cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (CPCA) were measured using a Flygare-Balle-type pulsed-beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. The rotational constants (in megahertz) and centrifugal distortion constants (in kilohertz) for this higher-energy conformer are A = 7452.3132(57), B = 2789.8602(43), C = 2415.0725(40), DJ = 0.29(53), and DJK = 2.5(12). Differences between rotational constants for this excited-state conformation and the ground state are primarily due to the acidic OH bond moving from a position cis relative to the cyclopropyl group about the C1-C9 bond to the more stable trans conformation. Calculations indicate that the relative abundance of the higher-energy state should be 15% to 17% at room temperature, but the observed relative abundance for the supersonic expansion conditions is about 1%. The measurements of rotational transitions for the trans form of CPCA were extended to include all of the unique (13)C singly substituted positions. These measurements, along with previously measured transitions of the parent and -OD isotopologues, were used to determine a best-fit gas-phase structure. PMID:26359681

  12. Prize for a Faculty Member for Research in and Undergraduate Institution: Higher order corrections to positronium energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, Gregory

    2016-03-01

    Positronium spectroscopy is of continuing interest as a high-precision test of our understanding of binding in QED. Positronium-the electron-positron bound state-represents the purest example of binding in QFT as the constituents are structureless and their interactions are dominated by QED with only negligible contributions from strong or weak effects. Positronium differs from other Coulombic bound systems such as hydrogen or muonium in having maximal recoil (the constituent mass ratio m / M is one) and being subject to real and virtual annihilation into photons. Positronium spectroscopy (n = 1 hyperfine splitting, n = 2 fine structure, and the 2 S - 1 S interval) has reached a precision of order 1MHz , and ongoing experimental efforts may lead to improved results. Theoretical calculations of positronium energies at order mα6 ~ 18 . 7MHz are complete, but only partial results are known at order mα7 ~ 0 . 14MHz . I will report on the status of the positronium energy calculations and present new results for order mα7 contributions. Support provided by the NSF through Grant No. PHY-1404268.

  13. Fuel and vehicle technology choices for passenger vehicles in achieving stringent CO2 targets: connections between transportation and other energy sectors.

    PubMed

    Grahn, M; Azar, C; Williander, M I; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Wallington, T J

    2009-05-01

    The regionalized Global Energy Transition (GET-R 6.0) model has been modified to include a detailed description of light-duty vehicle options and used to investigate the potential impact of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and concentrating solar power (CSP) on cost-effective fuel/vehicle technologies in a carbon-constrained world. Total CO2 emissions were constrained to achieve stabilization at 400-550 ppm, by 2100, at lowesttotal system cost The dominantfuel/vehicle technologies varied significantly depending on CO2 constraint future cost of vehicle technologies, and availability of CCS and CSP. For many cases, no one technology dominated on a global scale. CCS provides relatively inexpensive low-CO2 electricity and heatwhich prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs. CSP displaces fossil fuel derived electricity, prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs, and promotes electrification of passenger vehicles. In all cases considered, CCS and CSP availability had a major impact on the lowest cost fuel/vehicle technologies, and alternative fuels are needed in response to expected dwindling oil and natural gas supply potential by the end of the century. PMID:19534159

  14. CAN AN ENERGY-COMPENSATED SOLID-STATE X-RAY DETECTOR BE USED FOR RADIATION PROTECTION APPLICATIONS AT HIGHER PHOTON ENERGIES?

    PubMed

    Ören, Ünal; Herrnsdorf, Lars; Gunnarsson, Mikael; Mattsson, Sören; Rääf, Christopher L

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of a solid-state detector commonly available at hospitals for parallel use as a real-time personal radiation monitor following radiation emergency situations. A solid-state detector probe with an inherent filtration (R100, RTI Electronics AB, Mölndal, Sweden) was chosen for evaluation. The energy dependence and the linearity in signal response with kerma in air were examined, and the detector was exposed to both X-ray beams using a conventional X-ray unit with effective photon energies ranging between 28.5 and 48.9 keV and to gamma rays 1.17 and 1.33 MeV from (60)Co. The R100 exhibited ∼1.7 times over-response at the lowest X-ray energy relative to the (60)Co source. The detector demonstrated a linear response (R(2) = 1) when irradiated with (60)Co to air kerma values in the range of 20-200 mGy. The conclusion is that high-energy photons such as those from (60)Co can be detected by the R100 with an energy response within a factor of <2 over the energy range examined and that the detector can provide real-time dose measurements following nuclear or radiological events. PMID:26622043

  15. Changes in cellular energy allocation in Enchytraeus crypticus exposed to copper and silver--linkage to effects at higher level (reproduction).

    PubMed

    Gomes, Susana I L; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Amorim, Mónica J B

    2015-09-01

    Under stressful conditions, organisms often try to detoxify by mobilizing certain energy sources with costs to various functions, e.g. growth or reproduction. Cellular energy allocation (CEA) is a commonly used methodology to evaluate the energetic status of an organism. In the present study, the effects of copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) were evaluated on the total energy budget of Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta) over periods of exposure (0-2, 2-4 and 4-8 days). The parameters measured were the total energy reserves available (protein, carbohydrate and lipid budgets) and the energy consumption (based on electron transport system activity) being further integrated to obtain the CEA. Results showed that Enchytraeids responded differently to Ag and Cu, mobilizing lipids and proteins in response to Ag and carbohydrates and proteins in response to Cu. Overall, it was possible to distinguish between effect concentrations (reproduction effect concentrations-EC10 and EC50), with EC10 causing an increase in energy consumption (Ec); while for the EC50, the increase in Ec is followed by a steep decrease in Ec, with a corresponding decrease in CEA in the longer exposure periods. These results could be linked with effects at higher levels of biological organization (effects on reproduction) providing evidences that CEA can be used as faster and sensitive endpoints towards metal exposure in E. crypticus. PMID:25971807

  16. Energy-momentum conserving higher-order time integration of nonlinear dynamics of finite elastic fiber-reinforced continua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Norbert; Groß, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Since many years the relevance of fibre-reinforced polymers is steadily increasing in fields of engineering, especially in aircraft and automotive industry. Due to the high strength in fibre direction, but the possibility of lightweight construction, these composites replace more and more traditional materials as metals. Fibre-reinforced polymers are often manufactured from glass or carbon fibres as attachment parts or from steel or nylon cord as force transmission parts. Attachment parts are mostly subjected to small strains, but force transmission parts usually suffer large deformations in at least one direction. Here, a geometrically nonlinear formulation is necessary. Typical examples are helicopter rotor blades, where the fibres have the function to stabilize the structure in order to counteract large centrifugal forces. For long-run analyses of rotor blade deformations, we have to apply numerically stable time integrators for anisotropic materials. This paper presents higher-order accurate and numerically stable time stepping schemes for nonlinear elastic fibre-reinforced continua with anisotropic stress behaviour.

  17. Baseline study for higher moments of net-charge distributions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Nihar R.; De, Sudipan; Nayak, Tapan K.

    2013-04-01

    Lattice QCD models predict the presence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram where the first-order phase transition from a system of quark-gluon plasma to hadron gas ceases to exist. Higher moments of conserved quantities, such as net-charge, net-baryon number, and net-strangeness, are proposed to be sensitive probes for locating the critical point. The moments of net-charge distributions have been studied as a function of centrality for Au+Au collisions at sNN=7.7 to 200 GeV using three event generators, viz., UrQMD, HIJING, and THERMINATOR-2. The effect of centrality selection, resonance production, as well as contributions from particle species to the net-charge moments and their products have been studied. It is observed that mean of the net-charge distributions are dominated by net-protons, whereas standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis closely follow net-pion distributions. These results, along with the predictions from the hadron resonance gas model, are presented.

  18. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  19. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  20. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

  1. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    Litigation in 1987 was very brisk with an increase in the number of higher education cases reviewed. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under four major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining and denial of employee benefits; (3)…

  2. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

  3. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This eighth chapter of "The Yearbook of School Law, 1986" summarizes and analyzes over 330 state and federal court cases litigated in 1985 in which institutions of higher education were involved. Among the topics examined were relationships between postsecondary institutions and various governmental agencies; discrimination in the employment of…

  4. Organic Acids: The Pools of Fixed Carbon Involved in Redox Regulation and Energy Balance in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Igamberdiev, Abir U.; Eprintsev, Alexander T.

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids are synthesized in plants as a result of the incomplete oxidation of photosynthetic products and represent the stored pools of fixed carbon accumulated due to different transient times of conversion of carbon compounds in metabolic pathways. When redox level in the cell increases, e.g., in conditions of active photosynthesis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in mitochondria is transformed to a partial cycle supplying citrate for the synthesis of 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate (citrate valve), while malate is accumulated and participates in the redox balance in different cell compartments (via malate valve). This results in malate and citrate frequently being the most accumulated acids in plants. However, the intensity of reactions linked to the conversion of these compounds can cause preferential accumulation of other organic acids, e.g., fumarate or isocitrate, in higher concentrations than malate and citrate. The secondary reactions, associated with the central metabolic pathways, in particularly with the TCA cycle, result in accumulation of other organic acids that are derived from the intermediates of the cycle. They form the additional pools of fixed carbon and stabilize the TCA cycle. Trans-aconitate is formed from citrate or cis-aconitate, accumulation of hydroxycitrate can be linked to metabolism of 2-oxoglutarate, while 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate can be formed from pyruvate and glyoxylate. Glyoxylate, a product of either glycolate oxidase or isocitrate lyase, can be converted to oxalate. Malonate is accumulated at high concentrations in legume plants. Organic acids play a role in plants in providing redox equilibrium, supporting ionic gradients on membranes, and acidification of the extracellular medium. PMID:27471516

  5. Organic Acids: The Pools of Fixed Carbon Involved in Redox Regulation and Energy Balance in Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Igamberdiev, Abir U; Eprintsev, Alexander T

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids are synthesized in plants as a result of the incomplete oxidation of photosynthetic products and represent the stored pools of fixed carbon accumulated due to different transient times of conversion of carbon compounds in metabolic pathways. When redox level in the cell increases, e.g., in conditions of active photosynthesis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in mitochondria is transformed to a partial cycle supplying citrate for the synthesis of 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate (citrate valve), while malate is accumulated and participates in the redox balance in different cell compartments (via malate valve). This results in malate and citrate frequently being the most accumulated acids in plants. However, the intensity of reactions linked to the conversion of these compounds can cause preferential accumulation of other organic acids, e.g., fumarate or isocitrate, in higher concentrations than malate and citrate. The secondary reactions, associated with the central metabolic pathways, in particularly with the TCA cycle, result in accumulation of other organic acids that are derived from the intermediates of the cycle. They form the additional pools of fixed carbon and stabilize the TCA cycle. Trans-aconitate is formed from citrate or cis-aconitate, accumulation of hydroxycitrate can be linked to metabolism of 2-oxoglutarate, while 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate can be formed from pyruvate and glyoxylate. Glyoxylate, a product of either glycolate oxidase or isocitrate lyase, can be converted to oxalate. Malonate is accumulated at high concentrations in legume plants. Organic acids play a role in plants in providing redox equilibrium, supporting ionic gradients on membranes, and acidification of the extracellular medium. PMID:27471516

  6. Achieving Communicative Competence: The Role of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatt, James Poon Teng

    1991-01-01

    A study investigated the communicative competencies required in English as a Second Language (ESL) by 200 business and accounting students at Nanyang Technological Institute (Singapore) and explored a communicatively based ESL curriculum design. Student attitudes about the current linguistically based ESL program were also examined. Results are…

  7. Time Management and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyril, A. Vences

    2015-01-01

    The only thing, which can't be changed by man, is time. One cannot get back time lost or gone Nothing can be substituted for time. Time management is actually self management. The skills that people need to manage others are the same skills that are required to manage themselves. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relation between…

  8. Higher Order Thinking Skills: Challenging All Students to Achieve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, R. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Explicit instruction in thinking skills must be a priority goal of all teachers. In this book, the author presents a framework of the five Rs: Relevancy, Richness, Relatedness, Rigor, and Recursiveness. The framework serves to illuminate instruction in critical and creative thinking skills for K-12 teachers across content areas. Each chapter…

  9. Middle Grades: Quality Teaching Equals Higher Student Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene; Hertl, Jordan; Mollette, Melinda; Patterson, Lenora

    2014-01-01

    The middles grades are critical to public school systems and our nation's economy. It's the make-or-break point in students' futures. Studies repeatedly show when students are not engaged and lose interest in the middle grades, they are likely to fall behind in ninth grade and later drop out of school. When this happens, the workforce suffers, and…

  10. Higher-order electric multipole contributions to retarded non-additive three-body dispersion interaction energies between atoms: Equilateral triangle and collinear configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Salam, A.

    2013-12-28

    The theory of molecular quantum electrodynamics (QED) is used to calculate higher electric multipole contributions to the dispersion energy shift between three atoms or molecules arranged in a straight line or in an equilateral triangle configuration. As in two-body potentials, three-body dispersion interactions are viewed in the QED formalism to arise from exchange of virtual photons between coupled pairs of particles. By employing an interaction Hamiltonian that is quadratic in the electric displacement field means that third-order perturbation theory can be used to yield the energy shift for a particular combination of electric multipole polarizable species, with only six time-ordered diagrams needing to be summed over. Specific potentials evaluated include dipole-dipole-quadrupole (DDQ), dipole-quadrupole-quadrupole (DQQ), and dipole-dipole-octupole (DDO) terms. For the geometries of interest, near-zone limiting forms are found to exhibit an R{sup −11} dependence on separation distance for the DDQ interaction, and an R{sup −13} behaviour for DQQ and DDO shifts, agreeing with an earlier semi-classical computation. Retardation weakens the potential in each case by R{sup −1} in the far-zone. It is found that by decomposing the octupole moment into its irreducible components of weights-1 and -3 that the former contribution to the DDO potential may be taken to be a higher-order correction to the leading triple dipole energy shift.

  11. Evaluation of higher distribution and/or utilization voltages. Second interim report (March 1979): identification of components and parameters for cost and energy-efficiency analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    This interim report provides documentation on the second task, Identification of Components and Parameters for Cost and Energy-Efficiency Analysis, of DOE Contract No. ET-78-C-01-2866, Evaluation of Higher Distribution and/or Utilization Voltages. The work performed under this task includes an identification of the elements of the distribution/utilization system, a characterization of the distribution elements and a characterization of end use elements. The purpose of this task is to identify the distribution and utilization system elements which will be subjected to a detailed analysis and computer modeling in later tasks. The elements identified are characterized in terms of their interface with other elements in the system and with respect to their energy consumption, efficiency, and costs. A major output of this task is a list of elements to be modeled under Task 3 and a set of specifications for the computer model to be developed under that task.

  12. Higher-order processes of excitation energy transfer in supramolecular complexes: Liouville space analysis of bridge molecule mediated transfer and direct photon exchange.

    PubMed

    May, Volkhard

    2008-09-21

    Long-range electronic excitation energy transfer is studied in the framework of a generalized master equation approach, which offers a systematic account for higher-order processes. Bridge molecule mediated transfer is confronted with the direct excitation energy exchange via photon emission and absorption. It is the central aim of this paper to present a systematic study of fourth-order rates, which describe both types of transfer processes characterized by the presence of intermediate states. While such a Liouville space formulation of rates is known from bridge mediated transfer, it is new for the case of photon mediated processes. In the former case, however, a novel approach to account for intermediate state relaxation is introduced. Finally and for illustration, some estimates are offered for the length dependence of the various discussed transfer rates. PMID:19044952

  13. Achieving high power efficiency and low roll-off OLEDs based on energy transfer from thermally activated delayed excitons to fluorescent dopants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shipan; Zhang, Yuewei; Chen, Weiping; Wei, Jinbei; Liu, Yu; Wang, Yue

    2015-08-01

    Achieving high power efficiencies at high-brightness levels is still an important issue for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on the thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism. Herein, enhanced electroluminescence efficiencies were achieved in fluorescent OLEDs using a TADF molecule, (4s,6s)-2,4,5,6-tetra(9H-carbazol-9-yl)isophthalonitrile (4CzIPN), as a host and quinacridone derivatives (QA) as fluorescent dopants. PMID:26120606

  14. Metaldyne. Plant-Wide Assessment at Royal Oak Finds Opportunities to Improve Manufacturing Effciency, Reduce Energy Use, and Achieve Sigificant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-05-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Metaldyne, Inc., forging plant in Royal Oak, Michigan. The assessment focused on reducing the plant's operating costs, inventory, and energy use. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings for electricity would be about 11.5 million kWh and annual cost savings would be $12.6 million.

  15. Metaldyne: Plant-Wide Assessment at Royal Oak Finds Opportunities to Improve Manufacturing Efficiency, Reduce Energy Use, and Achieve Significant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-05-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Metaldyne, Inc., forging plant in Royal Oak, Michigan. The assessment focused on reducing the plant's operating costs, inventory, and energy use. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings for electricity would be about 11.5 million kWh and annual cost savings would be $12.6 million.

  16. Identification of c-Type Heme-Containing Peptides Using Non-Activated Immobilized Metal Affinity Cchromatography Resin Enrichment and Higher-Energy Collisional Dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haizhen; Yang, Feng; Qian, Weijun; Brown, Roslyn N.; Wang, Yuexi; Merkley, Eric D.; Park, Jea H.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Moore, Ronald J.; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2011-10-01

    c-type cytochromes play essential roles in many biological activities of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including electron transfer, enzyme catalysis and induction of apoptosis. We report a novel enrichment strategy for identifying c-type heme-containing peptides that uses non-activated IMAC resin. The strategy demonstrated at least seven-fold enrichment for heme-containing peptides digested from a cytochrome c protein standard, and quantitative linear performance was also assessed for heme-containing peptide enrichment. Heme-containing peptides extracted from the periplasmic fraction of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were further identified using higher-energy collisional dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated the applicability of this enrichment strategy to identify c-type heme-containing peptides from a highly complex biological sample, and at the same time, confirmed the periplasmic localization of heme-containing proteins during suboxic respiration activities of S. oneidensis MR-1.

  17. Building Eco-Informatics: Examining the Dynamics of Eco-Feedback Design and Peer Networks to Achieve Sustainable Reductions in Energy Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Rishee K.

    2013-01-01

    The built environment accounts for a substantial portion of energy consumption in the United States and in many parts of the world. Due to concerns over rising energy costs and climate change, researchers and practitioners have started exploring the area of eco-informatics to link information from the human, natural and built environments.…

  18. Building America Residential System Research Results. Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Building America research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  19. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-12-01

    This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  20. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  1. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  2. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  3. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  4. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  5. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project No. 02 103 Innovative Low Cost Approaches to Automating QA/QC of Fuel Particle Production Using On Line Nondestructive Methods for Higher Reliability Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Salahuddin; Batishko, Charles R.; Flake, Matthew; Good, Morris S.; Mathews, Royce; Morra, Marino; Panetta, Paul D.; Pardini, Allan F.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Tucker, Brian J.; Weier, Dennis R.; Hockey, Ronald L.; Gray, Joseph N.; Saurwein, John J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Lowden, Richard A.; Miller, James H.

    2006-02-28

    This Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project was tasked with exploring, adapting, developing and demonstrating innovative nondestructive test methods to automate nuclear coated particle fuel inspection so as to provide the United States (US) with necessary improved and economical Quality Assurance and Control (QA/QC) that is needed for the fuels for several reactor concepts being proposed for both near term deployment [DOE NE & NERAC, 2001] and Generation IV nuclear systems. Replacing present day QA/QC methods, done manually and in many cases destructively, with higher speed automated nondestructive methods will make fuel production for advanced reactors economically feasible. For successful deployment of next generation reactors that employ particle fuels, or fuels in the form of pebbles based on particles, extremely large numbers of fuel particles will require inspection at throughput rates that do not significantly impact the proposed manufacturing processes. The focus of the project is nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies that can be automated for production speeds and make either: (I) On Process Measurements or (II) In Line Measurements. The inspection technologies selected will enable particle “quality” qualification as a particle or group of particles passes a sensor. A multiple attribute dependent signature will be measured and used for qualification or process control decisions. A primary task for achieving this objective is to establish standard signatures for both good/acceptable particles and the most problematic types of defects using several nondestructive methods.

  6. Strategic Planning for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

    1981-01-01

    The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

  7. Achieving Very High Efficiency and Net Zero Energy in an Existing Home in a Hot-Humid Climate: Long-Term Utility and Monitoring Data (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.; Sherwin, J.

    2012-10-01

    This study summarizes the first six months of detailed data collected on a single family home that experienced a series of retrofits targeting reductions in energy use. The project was designed to develop data on how envelope modifications and renewable measures can result in considerable energy reductions and potentially net zero energy for an existing home. Originally published in February 2012, this revised version of the report contains further research conducted on the Parker residence. Key updates include one full year of additional data, an analysis of cooling performance of the mini-split heat pump, an evaluation of room-to-room temperature distribution, and an evaluation of plug-in automobile charging performance, electricity consumption, and load shape.

  8. Achieving a Net Zero Energy Retrofit – in a humid, temperate climate – lessons from the University of Hawai’i at Mānoa

    SciTech Connect

    Regnier, Cindy; Harding, Ari; Robinson, Alastair

    2015-07-01

    The University of Hawai’i at Mānoa (UHM) partnered with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Hawai`i Clean Energy Initiative to develop and implement solutions to retrofit exiting buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program1. Kuykendall Hall, located on the UHM campus in Honolulu, was the focus of a CBP analysis and design collaboration among the University of Hawai’i, their consultants, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Kuykendall Hall consists of two 1960s-era wings – a four-story wing containing classrooms, and a seven-story tower containing offices – with a total floor area of approximately 76,000 square feet (ft²).

  9. Achieving Very High Efficiency and Net Zero Energy in an Existing Home in a Hot-Humid Climate. Long-Term Utility and Monitoring Data

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.

    2012-10-01

    This study summarizes the first six months of detailed data collected on a single family home that experienced a series of retrofits targeting reductions in energy use. The project was designed to develop data on how envelope modifications and renewable measures can result in considerable energy reductions and potentially net zero energy for an existing home. Originally published in February 2012, this revised version of the report contains further research conducted on the Parker residence. Key updates include one full year of additional data, an analysis of cooling performance of the mini-split heat pump, an evaluation of room-to-room temperature distribution, and an evaluation of plug-in automobile charging performance, electricity consumption, and load shape.

  10. Operation of higher harmonic oscillations in free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Sei, N; Ogawa, H; Yamada, K

    2012-01-01

    We report for the first time the experimental achievement of a seventh-harmonic free-electron laser (FEL) oscillation. The measured FEL gains and average FEL powers for higher harmonics were identical to those calculated by a one-dimensional FEL theory. The measured linewidths of the higher-harmonic FELs were narrower than that of the fundamental FEL owing to the narrower spectral widths of the spontaneous emissions. By applying the higher-harmonic FEL oscillation to a resonator-type FEL with an advanced accelerator, an x-ray FEL oscillator can be realized at lower electron-beam energy. PMID:22274354

  11. Regional, but not total, body composition changes in overweight and obese adults consuming a higher protein, energy-restricted diet are sex specific.

    PubMed

    Tang, Minghua; Leidy, Heather J; Campbell, Wayne W

    2013-08-01

    Secondary analyses of data from 2 studies were used to assess the effects of protein intake and sex on diet-induced changes in body composition. The primary hypothesis was that the changes of body composition via energy restriction (ie, lean body mass [LBM], fat mass [FM], and bone) would be sex and diet specific. For 12 weeks, 43 male (study 1) and 45 female (study 2) overweight and obese adults consumed an energy-deficit diet (750 kcal/d less than energy needs) containing either 0.8 (normal protein [NP], 21 men and 23 women) or 1.4 g protein∙kg(-1)∙d(-1) (high protein [HP], 22 men and 22 women). Body composition measurements were performed at preintervention and postintervention. Over time, all research participants lost weight, LBM, and FM. Independent of protein intake, the men lost more LBM in the trunk (-0.9 vs -0.5 kg) and less in the legs (-1.5 vs -1.1 kg) compared with the women (P < .05). Independent of sex, the HP group lost less LBM in the trunk and legs than the NP group. These sex and protein intake responses resulted in the NP men losing the most LBM in the legs and the NP women losing the most LBM in the trunk. Over time, men lost more FM (-5.0 vs -3.9 kg) from the trunk and less from legs (-1.7 vs -2.1 kg) than women (P < .05), which resulted in a greater decrease of the android-to-gynoid fat ratio for the men. Protein intake did not influence these sex-specific responses or have any independent effects on changes in FM. In addition, protein intake did not influence bone mineral density responses over time; bone mineral density was reduced in women, but not in men. These findings indicate that higher protein intake during weight loss promotes the retention of LBM in both the trunk and legs despite the sex-specific changes in these body regions. PMID:23890352

  12. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  13. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  14. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  15. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  16. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  17. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  11. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  12. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  13. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  16. Quantum dots arrangement and energy transfer control via charge-transfer complex achieved on poly(phenylene ethynylene)/schizophyllan nanowires.

    PubMed

    Shiraki, Tomohiro; Haraguchi, Shuichi; Tsuchiya, Youichi; Shinkai, Seiji

    2009-09-01

    Assemblies of organic and inorganic compounds in the nanoscale region have contributed to the development of novel functional materials toward future applications, including sensors and opto-electronics. We succeed in fabricating hybrid nanowires composed of a conjugated polymer and semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) by a supramolecular assembly technique. The 1-D fashion of the nanowire structure is obtained by the polymer wrapping of cationic poly(phenylene ethynylene) (PPE) with helix-forming polysaccharide schizophyllan (SPG). The electrostatic interaction between cationic PPE and anionic QDs affords the nanowires decorated with QDs. Upon addition of an acceptor molecule, tetranitrofluorenone (TNF), the charge-transfer (CT) complex between PPE and TNF is formed, resulting in energy transfer from the QDs to PPE arising from the induced spectral overlap. Furthermore, the employment of the conjugated polymer allows highly sensitive quenching of the QD's emission by raising the transmission efficiency to the CT complexed electron deficient sites along the polymer backbone. PMID:19629958

  17. Cognitive Style, Operativity, and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, James J.; Flexer, Barbara K.

    1984-01-01

    This developmental study was designed to examine the effects of field dependence-independence and level of operational development on the reading achievement of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. Field dependence-independence had no significant effect on reading achievement, but high-operational students scored significantly higher than…

  18. Mathematics Coursework Regulates Growth in Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), we examined the extent to which students' mathematics coursework regulates (influences) the rate of growth in mathematics achievement during middle and high school. Graphical analysis showed that students who started middle school with higher achievement took individual mathematics…

  19. Schooling and Achievement in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, William H.; And Others

    This book is an outgrowth of an interdisciplinary seminar on achievement processes. The 15 chapters of this book are distributed into three substantive sections. Part One includes a series of chapters dealing in one way or another with achievement in the life cycle. One chapter discusses the causes and consequences of higher education and…

  20. Maryland's Achievements in Public Education, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents Maryland's achievements in public education for 2011. Maryland's achievements include: (1) Maryland's public schools again ranked #1 in the nation in Education Week's 2011 Quality Counts annual report; (2) Maryland ranked 1st nationwide for a 3rd year in a row in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on…

  1. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  2. Studies on design of 351  nm focal plane diagnostic system prototype and focusing characteristic of SGII-upgraded facility at half achievable energy performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chong; Ji, Lailin; Yang, Lin; Zhao, Dongfeng; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Dong; Zhu, Baoqiang; Lin, Zunqi

    2016-04-01

    In order to obtain the intensity distribution of a 351 nm focal spot and smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) focal plane profile of a SGII-upgraded facility, a type of off-axis imaging system with three spherical mirrors, suitable for a finite distance source point to be imaged near the diffraction limit has been designed. The quality factor of the image system is 1.6 times of the diffraction limit tested by a 1053 nm point source. Because of the absence of a 351 nm point source, we can use a Collins diffraction imaging integral with respect to λ=351  nm, corresponding to a quality factor that is 3.8 times the diffraction limit at 351 nm. The calibration results show that at least the range of ±10  mrad of view field angle and ±50  mm along the axial direction around the optimum object distance can be satisfied with near diffraction limited image that is consistent with the design value. Using this image system, the No. 2 beam of the SGII-upgraded facility has been tested. The test result of the focal spot of final optics assembly (FOA) at 351 nm indicates that about 80% of energy is encompassed in 14.1 times the diffraction limit, while the output energy of the No. 2 beam is 908 J at 1053 nm. According to convolution theorem, the true value of a 351 nm focal spot of FOA is about 12 times the diffraction limit because of the influence of the quality factor. Further experimental studies indicate that the RMS value along the smoothing direction is less than 15.98% in the SSD spot test experiment. Computer simulations show that the quality factor of the image system used in the experiment has almost no effect on the SSD focal spot test. The image system can remarkably distort the SSD focal spot distribution under the circumstance of the quality factor 15 times worse than the diffraction limit. The distorted image shows a steep slope in the contour of the SSD focal spot along the smoothing direction that otherwise has a relatively flat top region

  3. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  4. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  5. Cognitive Style, Operativity, and Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, James J.; Flexer, Barbara K.

    1983-01-01

    This study examined the effects of field dependence/independence and the level of operational development on the mathematics achievement of 450 students in grades 6-8. Field-independent students scored significantly higher on total mathematics, concepts, and problem-solving tests. High-operational students scored significantly higher on all tests.…

  6. Commercial Buildings Partnerships - Overview of Higher Education Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, Kristen; Robinson, Alastair; Regnier, Cindy

    2013-02-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP), a public/private, cost-shared program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, its national laboratories, and private-sector technical experts. These teams explored energy-saving measures across building systems – including some considered too costly or technologically challenging – and used advanced energy modeling to achieve peak whole-building performance. Modeling results were then included in new construction or retrofit designs to achieve significant energy reductions. CBP design goals aimed to achieve 50 percent energy savings compared to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2004 for new construction, while retrofits are designed to consume at least 30 percent less energy than either Standard 90.1-2004 or current consumption. After construction and commissioning of the project, laboratory staff continued to work with partners to collect and analyze data for verification of the actual energy reduction. CBP projects represent diverse building types in commercial real estate, including lodging, grocery, retail, higher education, office, and warehouse/storage facilities. Partners also commit to replicating low-energy technologies and strategies from their CBP projects throughout their building portfolios. As a result of CBP projects, five sector overviews (Lodging, Food Sales, General Merchandise, Higher Education, Offices) were created to capture successful strategies and recommended energy efficiency measures that could broadly be applied across these sectors. These overviews are supplemented with individual case studies providing specific details on the decision criteria, modeling results, and lessons learned on specific projects. Sector overviews and CBP case studies will also be updated to reflect verified data and replication strategies as they become available.

  7. Testosterone and Occupational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbs, James M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Archival data on 4,462 military veterans linked higher levels of serum testosterone to lower-status occupations. A structural equation model was supported in which higher testosterone, mediated through lower intellectual ability, greater antisocial behavior, and lower education, leads away from white-collar occupations. Contains 49 references.…

  8. 2011 Higher Education Sustainability Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Margo, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Looking through the lens of AASHE Bulletin stories in 2011, this year's review reveals an increased focus on higher education access, affordability, and success; more green building efforts than ever before; and growing campus-community engagement on food security, among many other achievements. Contributors include James Applegate (Lumina…

  9. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  10. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  11. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  12. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  13. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  14. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  15. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  16. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  17. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  18. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  19. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  20. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  1. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  2. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  3. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  4. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  5. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  6. Manual for ERLE (Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment). Instructions and information for institutions of higher learning concerning used energy-related laboratory equipment grants; Manual para ERLE [Equipo de Laboratorio Relacionado con la Energia]. Instrucciones e informacion para instituciones de educacion superior sobre subvenciones de equipo de laboratorio usado relacionado con la energia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This is a listing of energy related equipment available through the Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment Grant Program which grants used equipment to institutions of higher education for energy-related research. Information included is an overview of the program, how to apply for a grant of equipment, eligibility requirements, types of equipment available, and the costs for the institution.

  7. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  8. The Relationship between Birth Order and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Earl J.

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews some selected literature that reports higher academic achievement for first-borns and findings that large enough age gaps between siblings can offset first-born advantages in achievement. (Editor/SJL)

  9. ENGINEERING/ECONOMIC ANALYSES OF COAL PREPARATION WITH SO2 CLEANUP PROCESSES FOR KEEPING HIGHER SULFUR COALS IN THE ENERGY MARKET

    EPA Science Inventory

    For purposes of this study, higher sulfur coals from the Northern Appalachian and Eastern Interior Regions were selected since they have been shown to have reasonable physical cleaning potential. Then, possible users of these coals in the electric power generating industry were e...

  10. Barriers to Occupational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurman, Ernest B.

    The under-representation of women in prestigious occupations and the lower average pay women earn has been of concern for many years. This study investigated two alternative explanations for this under-representation of females in prestigious and higher paying occupations. The first explanation was external barriers such as discrimination, and the…

  11. Achieving Magnet status.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beckie; Gates, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Magnet has become the gold standard for nursing excellence. It is the symbol of effective and safe patient care. It evaluates components that inspire safe care, including employee satisfaction and retention, professional education, and effective interdisciplinary collaboration. In an organization whose mission focuses on excellent patient care, Banner Thunderbird Medical Center found that pursuing Magnet status was clearly the next step. In this article, we will discuss committee selection, education, team building, planning, and the discovery process that define the Magnet journey. The road to obtaining Magnet status has permitted many opportunities to celebrate our achievements. PMID:16056158

  12. Leadership, self-efficacy, and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Kristin

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the Leadership Behavior Description Question (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969), the Science Efficacy and Belief Expectations for Science Teaching (SEBEST) by Ritter, Boone, and Rubba (2001, January). Students' scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) measured fifth-grade science achievement. At the teacher level of analysis multiple regressions showed the following relationships between teachers' science self-efficacy and teacher classroom leadership behaviors and the various teacher and school demographic variables. Predictors of teacher self efficacy beliefs included teacher's level of education, gender, and leadership initiating structure. The only significant predictor of teacher self-efficacy outcome expectancy was gender. Higher teacher self-efficacy beliefs predicted higher leadership initiating structure. At the school level of analysis, higher school levels of percentage of students from low socio-economic backgrounds and higher percentage of limited English proficient students predicted lower school student mean science achievement. These findings suggest a need for continued research to clarify relationships between teacher classroom leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement especially at the teacher level of analysis. Findings also indicate the importance of developing instructional methods to address student demographics and their needs so that all students, despite their backgrounds, will achieve in science.

  13. Playing with Heutagogy: Exploring Strategies to Empower Mature Learners in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    Mature learners often invest a great deal of emotional energy in starting a higher education qualification. They have complex needs which are often less to do with their ability to learn and more to do with aspects of confidence and levels of self-belief about achieving or feeling "good enough" to participate. This article explores the…

  14. RHIC PLANS TOWARDS HIGHER LUMINOSITY

    SciTech Connect

    FEDOTOV,A.

    2007-06-25

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is designed to provide luminosity over a wide range of beam energies and species, including heavy ions, polarized protons, and tric beam collisions. In the first seven years of operation there has been a rapid increase in the achieved peak and average luminosity, substantially exceeding design values. Work is presently underway to achieve the Enhanced Design parameters. Planned major upgrades include the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), RHIC-11, and construction of an electron-ion collider (eRHIC). We review the expected RHIC upgrade performance. Electron cooling and its impact on the luminosity both for heavy ions and protons are discussed in detail.

  15. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  16. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  17. Achieving Symmetry with Polar Direct Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasheninnikova, N.; Murphy, T.; Cobble, J.; Tregillis, I.; Bradley, P.; Hakel, P.; Hsu, S.; Kyrala, G.; Obrey, K.; Schmitt, M.; Kanzleiter, R.; Baumgaertel, J.; Batha, S.

    2014-10-01

    Direct Drive, widely used on Omega, provides high coupling energy and core temperatures per drive. NIF's much higher power offers a prospect for attaining hotter, larger cores enabling higher fidelity burn experiments. To use Omega's knowledge on NIF involves understanding the differences between PDD and SDD. Achieving symmetric implosions in PDD is essential for attaining high temperatures and neutron yields. LANL team tested laser cone-power tuning designs done with rad-hydro code HYDRA utilizing a flux-limited heat conduction (FLHC) model on NIF and Omega. Both campaigns produced symmetric implosions in PDD configuration. Omega campaign confirmed P2 tunability that was in agreement with the simulations, while in experiments on NIF |P2| < 3% was sustained for 100's ps at NBT (similar to indirect drive and SDD). However, we need to recognize the role of LPI effects which are often left out in simulations. We found that when I > 1015W/cm2 on NIF, FLHC model in HYDRA was insufficient to accurately predict symmetry, bright equatorial self-emission band, and enhanced hot electron population. We were able to account for these effects by including CBET and non-local heat transfer models. Here we present out analysis of PDD symmetry data. We report on hot electron and CBET effects and assess our ability to model them with rad-hydro codes. We will also discuss laser intensity limits in PDD. Work performed by LANL under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396 for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the USDoE.

  18. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  19. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  20. Self repair of impacts, higher energy impacts, and earthquake damage in critical targets such as infrastructure components made of polymers and concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2007-04-01

    The goal of our research has been to develop self-repairing matrices with unique toughness and strength for infrastructure and vehicles. Our revolutionary approach involves the autonomous release of repair chemicals from within the matrix itself. The repair agents are contained in hollow, structural fibers or beads that are embedded within the matrix. Under stress, the matrix senses external environmental factors and reacts by releasing the repair agents from within the hollow vessels. This autonomous response occurs wherever and whenever cracking, debonding or other matrix damage transpires. Superior performance over the life of the matrix is achieved through this self-repairing mechanism. The advantages are safely executed trips, fewer repairs and eventually lighter bridges and vehicles. Research to assess and clarify the impact of the various factors involved in self-repair of matrix materials has been the focus of our work for several years. Our research has addressed the issues by correlating the impact of the various factors, such as 1) delivery vessel, shape/size, coating, chemicals released, release trigger and efficacy and impact on matrix properties 2) influence of end use such as the importance of speed and force of release (airplane skin repair) 3) impact of processing methods that involve heat and pressure on the repair vessels. Our self repairing system can: be processed at temperatures of 350F, repairs in less than 30 seconds, and does not damage the matrix by repair fiber insertion. Unique toughness and strength is developed at damaged areas and material interfaces. Findings are based on testing in compression after impact, compression, fatigue, flexural toughness and flexure modes. The presentation will focus on highlighting the issues that were resolved in creating autonomous, self-repairing structures and vehicles.

  1. Handbook of Research on Improving Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawelti, Gordon, Ed.

    This handbook is designed to identify classroom practices that research has shown to result in higher student achievement. The fundamental idea behind this book is that in order to succeed, efforts to improve instruction must foucs on the existing knowledge base about effective teaching and learning. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction" (Gordon…

  2. Achievement in Boys' Schools 2010-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Cathy; Berg, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This report explores the achievement of school leavers from state and state-integrated boys' schools. The analysis from 2010 to 2012 shows school leavers from state boys' schools had higher qualifications than their male counterparts who attended state co-educational schools. The research was carried out for the Association of Boys' Schools of New…

  3. Academic Freedom, Achievement Standards and Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, D. Royce

    2011-01-01

    The tension between the freedom of academics to grade the achievements of their students without interference or coercion and the prerogative of higher education institutions to control grading standards is often deliberated by weighing up the authority and rights of the two parties. An alternative approach is to start with an analysis of the…

  4. The Achiever. Volume 6, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "The Achiever" is a monthly publication designed expressly for parents and community leaders. Each issue contains news and information about school improvement in the United States. Highlights of this issue include: (1) Spellings Convenes National Summit on Higher Education; (2) Noble Street: Chicago Charter High School Creates a Culture of …

  5. Is achievement in Australian chemistry gender based?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, John; Fogliani, Charles; Owens, Chris; Wilson, Audrey

    1993-12-01

    This paper compares the performances of female and male secondary students in the 1991 and 1992 Australian National Chemistry Quizzes. Male students consistently achieved a higher mean score in all Year groups (7 to 12), even though the numbers of female and male entrants were approximately equal. Implications for class tests and assessment tasks are addressed.

  6. Communication Studies in Australia: Achievements and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harry

    The introduction of communications studies in Australian higher education and problems and achievements of the past decade are discussed. Attention is directed to: the development of formal college coursework; staff training and retraining schemes to support development; academic and professional associations; journals in the field; and research,…

  7. A Human Achievement: Mathematics without Boundaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzioglu, Tosun

    This paper describes three fundamental principles, dictated by Wilhelm von Humboldt, that were widely adapted as the basic philosophy of higher education in the United States, and proposes to revise the unfulfilled dream of von Humboldt to make it come true. This paper stresses the achievements of humanity not only in technology, health, or the…

  8. Improving Student Achievement through Alternative Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durning, Jermaine; Matyasec, Maryann

    An attempt was made to improve students' academic grades and students' opinions of themselves as learners through the use of alternative assessments. The format of mastery learning using the direct instruction practice model was combined with performance-based assessment to increase achievement, self-esteem, and higher level thinking skills.…

  9. Higher Energy Plasma Ions found near the Termination Shock: Analyses of Voyager 2 Data in the Heliosheath and in the Outer Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, Devrie S.; Intriligator, James; Miller, W. David; Webber, William R.; Decker, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    We have found in the Voyager 2 (V2) plasma science data in the heliosheath (HS) near the termination shock (TS) high-energy ions (HEIs) in addition to the bulk plasma convective flow ions. The HEI detections temporally coincide with increased V2 plasma wave subsystem (PWS) activity in "event A"h of Gurnett and Kurth. Maxwellian fits to HEI detections indicate the HEIs are moving radially anti -Sunward with a proton speed of 600 km/s, a density of 10(exp -4) (exp -3), and a thermal speed of 10 km/s. The heliosheath bulk convective protons have a speed of 204 km/s, a density of 0.0029 cm(exp -3), and a thermal speed of 26.7 km/s. The HEI flux and ram pressure are approximately 10% and 30% of those of the bulk HS flow. Since the HEI speed is both close to twice the solar wind speed and independent of the heliosheath bulk plasma speed, the HEIs may be detections of pickup protons formed in the solar wind and convected through the TS. The HEIs also are reminiscent of the pickup protons upstream of the Mars bow shock where their energy also was independent of the bulk plasma speed and attributed to multiple reflections off the Mars bow shock. Gurnett and Kurth 's (2008) event A enhanced PWS activity may be generated by a two ]stream instability from the interaction of these HEIs with the heliosheath bulk plasma ions. We present our findings, discuss their implications, and also present alternative interpretations.

  10. Photophysical behavior and assignment of the low-energy chlorophyll states in the CP43 proximal antenna protein of higher plant photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Joseph L; Picorel, Rafael; Seibert, Michael; Krausz, Elmars

    2006-10-10

    We have employed absorption, circular dichroism (CD), and persistent spectral hole-burning measurements at 1.7 K to study the photoconversion properties and exciton coupling of low-energy chlorophylls (Chls) in the CP43 proximal antenna light-harvesting subunit of photosystem II (PSII) isolated from spinach. These approximately 683 nm states act as traps for excitation energy in isolated CP43. They "bleach" at 683 nm upon illumination and photoconvert to a form absorbing in the range approximately 660-680 nm. We present new data that show the changes in the CD spectrum due to the photoconversion process. These changes occur in parallel with those in absorption, providing evidence that the feature undergoing the apparent bleach is a component of a weakly exciton-coupled system. From our photoconversion difference spectra, we assign four states in the Chl long-wavelength region of CP43, two of which are the known trap states and are both highly localized on single Chls. The other two states are associated with weak exciton coupling (maximally approximately 50 cm(-)(1)) to one of these traps. We propose a mechanism for photoconversion that involves Chl-protein hydrogen bonding. New hole-burning data are presented that indicate this mechanism is distinct to that for narrow-band spectral hole burning in CP43. We discuss the photophysical behavior of the Chl trap states in isolated CP43 compared to their behavior in intact PSII preparations. The latter represent a more intact, physiological complex, and we find no clear evidence that they exhibit the photoconversion process reported here. PMID:17014087

  11. The Economic Value of Higher Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    Most analyses of teacher quality end without any assessment of the economic value of altered teacher quality. This paper combines information about teacher effectiveness with the economic impact of higher achievement. It begins with an overview of what is known about the relationship between teacher quality and student achievement. This provides…

  12. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  13. Higher Education Exchange, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that not only does higher education not see the public; when the public, in turn, looks at higher education, it sees mostly malaise, inefficiencies, expense, and unfulfilled promises. Yet, the contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" tell of bright spots in higher education where experiments in working…

  14. Higher Education Exchange, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  15. Higher Education Exchange, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  16. Higher Education Exchange, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  17. Higher Education Exchange, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  18. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  19. Fiscal Issues in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigolot, Carol, Ed.

    Forty colleges and life insurance presidents met to discuss key historical and contemporary factors influencing fiscal management in higher education, including inflation, salaries, diminishing enrollment figures, energy costs, federal regulations and the increasing cost of research. Differences and similarities between business and academia were…

  20. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  1. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Annual Report-Innovative Approaches to Automating QA/QC of Fuel Particle Production Using On-Line Nondestructive Methods for Higher Reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Hockey, Ronald L.; Bond, Leonard J.; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Sandness, Gerald A.; Gray, Joseph N.; Batishko, Charles R.; Flake, Matthew; Panetta, Paul D.; Saurwein, John J.; Lowden, Richard A.; Good, Morris S.

    2004-04-20

    This document summarizes the activities performed and progress made in FY-03. Various approaches for automating the particle fuel production QC process using on-line nondestructive methods for higher reliability were evaluated. In this first-year of a three-year project, surrogate fuel particles made available for testing included leftovers from initial coater development runs. These particles had a high defect fraction and the particle properties spanned a wide range, providing the opportunity to examine worst-case conditions before refining the inspection methods to detect more subtle coating features. Particles specifically designed to evaluate the NDE methods being investigated under this project will be specified and fabricated at ORNL early next reporting period. The literature was reviewed for existing inspection technology and to identify many of the fuel particle conditions thought to degrade its performance. A modeling study, including the electromagnetic and techniques, showed that the in-line electromagnetic methods should provide measurable responses to missing layers, kernel diameter, and changes in coating layer thickness, with reasonable assumptions made for material conductivities. The modeling study for the ultrasonic methods provided the resonant frequencies that should be measured using the resonant ultrasound technique, and the results from these calculations were published in the proceedings for two conferences. The notion of a particle quality index to relate coating properties to fabrication process parameters was explored. Progress was made in understanding the fabrication process. GA identified key literature in this area and Saurwein (2003a) provided a literature review/summary. This literature has been reviewed. An approach previously applied to flexible manufacturing was adopted and the modification and development of the concepts to meet TRISO particle fuel manufacturing and QA/QC needs initiated. This approach establishes

  2. Higher Education Planning. A Bibliographic Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, D. Kent, Ed.

    The first edition of a bibliography focusing on state and national level planning in higher education is presented. For purposes of this publication, planning is defined as a process of study and foresight that generates action to achieve desired outcomes in the higher education sector. The bibliography is organized into topic areas that include:…

  3. The Centrality of Engagement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Bruns, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.; Furco, Andrew; Swanson, Louis

    2012-01-01

    The centrality of engagement is critical to the success of higher education in the future. Engagement is essential to most effectively achieving the overall purpose of the university, which is focused on the knowledge enterprise. Today's engagement is scholarly, is an aspect of learning and discovery, and enhances society and higher education.…

  4. The Centrality of Engagement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Bruns, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.; Furco, Andrew; Swanson, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The centrality of engagement is critical to the success of higher education in the future. Engagement is essential to most effectively achieving the overall purpose of the university, which is focused on the knowledge enterprise. Today's engagement is scholarly, is an aspect of learning and discovery, and enhances society and higher education.…

  5. Higher Education and the State in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    How and why the expansion and reorientation in Cuban higher education has taken place is noted, and continuing problems and emerging trends are assessed. Few developing countries can match Cuban achievements in higher education, which has advanced to levels characteristic of developed societies. Ideological orientations of historical trends are…

  6. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  7. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  8. Predicting Mathematics Achievement: The Influence of Prior Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Grootenboer, Peter; Kay, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Achievement in mathematics is inextricably linked to future career opportunities, and therefore, understanding those factors that influence achievement is important. This study sought to examine the relationships among attitude towards mathematics, ability and mathematical achievement. This examination was also supported by a focus on gender…

  9. Special Higher Education Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Meyer

    1982-01-01

    Cites works relevant to the higher education of Blacks and minority group members. Lists references alphabetically under the following headings: (1) financial aid on the campus; (2) Chicanos in higher education; and (3) race and equality on California campuses. (GC)

  10. Spotlight on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Donna; Iwanowski, Jay

    1997-01-01

    A number of current issues and initiatives in higher education are highlighted, including impending reauthorization of the Higher Education Act, the need for advocacy of higher education in public policy arenas, a University of Florida program combining accountability and institutional autonomy, and institutional compliance with nonresident alien…

  11. Higher Education Exchange, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" discuss the concept of growing public scholars; each contribution incorporates a student component. Articles include: (1) "Foreword"…

  12. The Higher Education Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottinger, Cecilia A.

    1991-01-01

    Higher education not only contributes to the development of the human resources and intellectual betterment of the nation but is also a major economic enterprise. This research brief reviews and highlights data on the size and growth of higher education and illustrates how higher education institutions are preparing the future labor force. It…

  13. Achievements and Lessons from Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    For almost a quarter of a century, the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider was the centerpiece of the world's high energy physics program - beginning operation in December of 1985 until it was overtaken by LHC in 2011. The aim of the this unique scientific instrument was to explore the elementary particle physics reactions with center of mass collision energies of up to 1.96 TeV. The initial design luminosity of the Tevatron was 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, however as a result of two decades of upgrades, the accelerator has been able to deliver 430 times higher luminosities to each of two high luminosity experiments, CDF and D0. Tevatron will be shut off September 30, 2011. The collider was arguably one of the most complex research instruments ever to reach the operation stage and is widely recognized for many technological breakthroughs and numerous physics discoveries. Below we briefly present the history of the Tevatron, major advances in accelerator physics, and technology implemented during the long quest for better and better performance. We also discuss some lessons learned from our experience.

  14. 44 CFR 321.4 - Achieving production readiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Achieving production..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.4 Achieving production readiness. (a) In order to achieve a capability for maximum production of “urgent” items during the initial phase of war,...

  15. [Research Reports on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latts, Sander; And Others

    1969-01-01

    Four counselors studied the relation between achievement and choice of major, achievement and motivation, counseling and motivation, and achievement and employment. To see if those with definite majors or career choices in mind did better than those without, 300 students were tested according to the certainty of their choice. No significant…

  16. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  17. Controlling the energy transfer via multi luminescent centers to achieve white light/tunable emissions in a single-phased X2-type Y2SiO5:Eu(3+),Bi(3+) phosphor for ultraviolet converted LEDs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Fengwen; Zhang, Yi; Peng, Mingying

    2015-02-16

    So far, more than 1000 UV converted phosphors have been reported for potential application in white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs), but most of them (e.g., Y2O2S:Eu, YAG:Ce or CaAlSiN3:Eu) suffer from intrinsic problems such as thermal instability, color aging or re-absorption by commixed phosphors in the coating of the devices. In this case, it becomes significant to search a single-phased phosphor, which can efficiently convert UV light to white lights. Herein, we report a promising candidate of a white light emitting X2-type Y2SiO5:Eu(3+),Bi(3+) phosphor, which can be excitable by UV light and address the problems mentioned above. Single Bi(3+)-doped X2-type Y2SiO5 exhibits three discernible emission peaks at ∼355, ∼408, and ∼504 nm, respectively, upon UV excitation due to three types of bismuth emission centers, and their relative intensity depends tightly on the incident excitation wavelength. In this regard, proper selection of excitation wavelength can lead to tunable emissions of Y2SiO5:Bi(3+) between blue and green, which is partially due to the energy transfer among the Bi centers. As a red emission center Eu(3+) is codoped into Y2SiO5:Bi(3+), energy transfer has been confirmed happening from Bi(3+) to Eu(3+) via an electric dipole-dipole (d-d) interaction. Our experiments reveal that it is easily realizable to create the white or tunable emissions by adjusting the Eu(3+) content and the excitation schemes. Moreover, a single-phased white light emission phosphor, X2-type Y1.998SiO5:0.01Eu(3+),0.01 Bi(3+), has been achieved with excellent resistance against thermal quenching and a QE of 78%. At 200 °C, it preserves >90% emission intensity of that at 25 °C. Consequent three time yoyo experiments of heating-cooling prove no occurrence of thermal degradation. A WLED lamp has been successfully fabricated with a CIE chromaticity coordinate (0.3702, 0.2933), color temperature 4756 K, and color rendering index of 65 by applying the phosphor onto a UV LED

  18. Method for converting one form of energy into another form of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Anno, J.N.; Fawcett, S.L.

    1983-05-31

    Method for converting one form of energy into another form of energy by isobarically heating a gas, adiabatically expanding the gas while converting the heat energy of the gas into the kinetic energy of a moving body, converting the kinetic energy of the moving body into another form of energy, and approximately isothermally compressing the gas to a higher pressure. Improved efficiency is achieved by virtue of the fact that this system employs approximately isothermal compression, which is preferably achieved by injecting liquid into an adiabatically-expanded gas, thereby effecting a thermodynamic cycle which more closely approximates the efficiency of a carnot cycle.

  19. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  20. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  1. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  2. Reinventing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions are in the battle of a lifetime as they are coping with political and economic uncertainties, threats to federal aid, declining state support, higher tuition rates and increased competition from for-profit institutions. Amid all these challenges, these institutions are pressed to keep up with technological demands,…

  3. Higher Education in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    This report presents information about higher education in Arkansas. Arkansas is 49th in the United States in the number of citizens over the age of 25 with a baccalaureate or higher degree. Arkansas faces shortages of qualified teachers and nurses in regions of the state at a time when the number of graduates in these professions is declining…

  4. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don M. Blandin);…

  5. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  6. Quality in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

    This volume contains 21 new and classic papers and readings on quality philosophies and concepts, first, as they have been applied in business and industry but primarily as they relate to and can be applied in higher education. The introduction is titled "The Quality Approach in Higher Education: Context and Concepts for Change" by Brent D. Ruben.…

  7. Higher Education Exchange 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Contributors to this issue of the Higher Education Exchange debate the issues around knowledge production, discuss the acquisition of deliberative skills for democracy, and examine how higher education prepares, or does not prepare, students for citizenship roles. Articles include: (1) "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (2) "Knowledge, Judgment and…

  8. UNIVERSAL HIGHER EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGRATH, EARL J.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A REPORT ON A GROUP INQUIRY INTO THE SUBSTANCE AND IMPLICATIONS OF UNIVERSAL HIGHER EDUCATION. ELEVEN CHAPTERS ARE PAPERS PRESENTED AT A CONFERENCE HELD UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION, TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, IN PUERTO RICO, NOVEMBER 15-21, 1964, FORECASTING THE FORM AND MISSION OF AMERICAN…

  9. Reinventing Continuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshok, Mary Lindenstein

    2012-01-01

    Re-inventing continuing higher education is about finding ways to be a more central player in a region's civic, cultural, and economic life as well as in the education of individuals for work and citizenship. Continuing higher education will require data gathering, analytical tools, convening authority, interpretive skills, new models of delivery,…

  10. Gender and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  11. Consumerism in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Mark

    1973-01-01

    In considering consumerism in higher education, the student becomes the consumer,'' the university the corporation,'' and higher education the education industry.'' Other members of the education fraternity become investors, management, workers, direct consumers, and indirect consumers. This article proposes that it behooves the student to…

  12. Higher Education Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological conundrum of "knowledge produced…

  13. Higher Education Exchange, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Kettering's president David Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological…

  14. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  15. Unmet Promise: Raising Minority Achievement. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert C.; Viadero, Debra

    2000-01-01

    This first in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps persist discusses how to raise minority achievement. It explains how earlier progress in closing the gap has stalled, while at the same time, the greater diversity of student populations and the rapid growth of the Hispanic population and of other ethnic groups have reshaped the…

  16. To Achieve or Not to Achieve: The Question of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Beatrice

    Questionnaire and projective data from 323 women aged 18 to 50 were analyzed in order to study the relationships of need achievement and motive to avoid success to age, sex role ideology, and stage in the family cycle. Family background and educational variables were also considered. Level of need achievement was found to be significantly related…

  17. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  18. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and natural…

  19. Sustainable weight loss among overweight and obese lactating women is achieved with an energy-reduced diet in line with dietary recommendations: results from the LEVA randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bertz, Fredrik; Winkvist, Anna; Brekke, Hilde K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary changes during and after a dietary treatment shown to result in significant and sustained weight loss among lactating overweight and obese women. This is crucial before clinical implementation. Data were collected from the LEVA (in Swedish: Livsstil för Effektiv Viktminskning under Amning [Lifestyle for Effective Weight Loss During Lactation]) randomized controlled factorial trial with a 12-week intervention and a 1-year follow up. At 10 to 14 weeks postpartum, 68 lactating Swedish women with a prepregnancy body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) of 25 to 35 were randomized to structured dietary treatment, physical exercise treatment, combined treatment, or usual care (controls) for a 12-week intervention, with a 1-year follow-up. Dietary intake was assessed with 4-day weighed dietary records. Recruitment took place between 2007 and 2010. The main outcome measures were changes in macro- and micronutrient intake from baseline to 12 weeks and 1 year. Main and interaction effects of the treatments were analyzed by a 2×2 factorial approach using a General Linear Model adjusted for relevant covariates (baseline intake and estimated underreporting). It was found that at baseline, the women had an intake of fat and sucrose above, and an intake of total carbohydrates and fiber below, recommended levels. At 12 weeks and 1 year, the dietary treatment led to reduced intake of energy (P<0.001 and P=0.005, respectively), fat (both P values <0.001), and sucrose (P<0.001 and P=0.050). At 12 weeks, total carbohydrates were reduced (P<0.001). A majority of women in all groups reported low intakes of vitamin D, folate, and/or iron. In conclusion, a novel dietary treatment led to reduced intake of fat and carbohydrates. Diet composition changed to decreased proportions of fat and sucrose, and increased proportions of complex carbohydrates, protein and fiber. Weight loss through dietary treatment was achieved with a diet in line with

  20. Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

    1987-01-01

    Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

  1. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  2. Achievement of Bevalac rapid mode switching

    SciTech Connect

    Lothrop, F.; Stevenson, R.; Miller, R.; Alonso, J.

    1985-05-01

    Rapid changes of ion, intensity, beam line, and output energy between two modes have been achieved. The techniques for switching among the Bevalac's several injectors are described. Energy level limits at the output (for q/A = 1/2) are 470 to 2100 MeV/n (high power) or 50 to 1050 MeV/n (low power). Depending on specific field value differences, the total time required for a mode change is less than one minute. This mode of operation greatly improves program efficiency in interleaving medical and nuclear science programs at the Bevalac.

  3. Sustainability and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, David

    2008-01-01

    People face four fundamental dilemmas, which are essentially moral choices: (1) alleviating poverty; (2) removing the gap between rich and poor; (3) controlling the use of violence for political ends; and (4) changing the patterns of production and consumption and achieving the transition to sustainability. The world in which future generations…

  4. General Achievement Trends: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. The Process of Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos; Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the science achievement of 8th grade students in Cyprus by using a structural equation model with three exogenous constructs--family's educational background, reinforcements, and school climate, and three endogenous constructs--teaching, student attitudes, and achievement. Proposes a model for the effects of family, school, student…

  6. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  7. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  8. Motivational Factors in School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    A summary is presented of the literature on motivation relating to achievement in the classroom. Special attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns may serve to enhance motivation to achieve in the classroom. In considering what determines motivation and personal investment in educational pursuits, the following…

  9. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  12. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  13. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  14. Achievement in Writing Geometry Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senk, Sharon L.

    In 1981 a nationwide assessment of achievement in writing geometry proofs was conducted by the Cognitive Development and Achievement in Secondary School Geometry project. Over 1,500 students in 11 schools in 5 states participated. This paper describes the sample, instruments, grading procedures, and selected results. Results include: (1) at the…

  15. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  16. Predicting Achievement in Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mary Elizabeth

    A review of research is inconclusive concerning the relationship between intelligence and language proficiency. A study of 10th grade students (n=35) examined scores on a high school entrance exam and achievement in foreign language after 1 year of study. Both math and reading showed a significant correlation with foreign language achievement; the…

  17. Superintendent Tenure and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A correlational research design was used to examine the influence of superintendent tenure on student achievement in rural Appalachian Kentucky school districts. Superintendent tenure was compared to aggregated student achievement scores for 2011 and to changes in students' learning outcomes over the course of the superintendents' tenure. The…

  18. On higher structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baas, Nils A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss various philosophical aspects of the hyperstructure concept extending networks and higher categories. By this discussion, we hope to pave the way for applications and further developments of the mathematical theory of hyperstructures.

  19. Forecasting Higher Education's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, Don; Buck, Tina S.; Kollie, Ellen; Przyborowski, Danielle; Rondinelli, Joseph A.; Hunter, Jeff; Hanna, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Offers predictions on trends in higher education to accommodate changing needs, lower budgets, and increased enrollment. They involve campus construction, security, administration, technology, interior design, athletics, and transportation. (EV)

  20. Marketing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brian, Edward J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the 4 basic areas in which institutional marketing can be put to use in higher educational institutions: educational services offered, pricing (tuition), promotion to prospective students, and distribution (extension courses and courses that go to the student). (PG)

  1. EDITORIAL: Deeper, broader, higher, better?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-07-01

    Honorary Editor The standard of educational achievement in England and Wales is frequently criticized, and it seems to be an axiom of government that schools and teachers need to be shaken up, kept on a tight rein, copiously inspected, shamed and blamed as required: in general, subjected to the good old approach of: ' Find out what Johnny is doing and tell him to stop.' About the only exception to this somewhat severe attitude is at A-level, where the standard is simply golden. Often, comparisons are made between the performance of, say, English children and that of their coevals in other countries, with different customs, systems, aims and languages. But there has been a recent comparison of standards at A-level with a non-A-level system of pre-university education, in an English-speaking country that both sends students to English universities and accepts theirs into its own, and is, indeed, represented in the UK government at well above the level expected from its ethnical weighting in the population. This semi-foreign country is Scotland. The conclusions of the study are interesting. Scotland has had its own educational system, with `traditional breadth', and managed to escape much of the centralized authoritarianism that we have been through south of the border. It is interesting to note that, while for the past dozen years or so the trend in A-level Physics entries has been downwards, there has been an increase in the take-up of Scottish `Highers'. Highers is a one-year course. Is its popularity due to its being easier than A-level? Scottish students keen enough to do more can move on to the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies, and will shortly be able to upgrade a Higher Level into an Advanced Higher Level. A comparability study [ Comparability Study of Scottish Qualifications and GCE Advanced Levels: Report on Physics January 1998 (free from SQA)] was carried out by the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) with the aim (amongst others) of helping

  2. Ethiopian New Public Universities: Achievements, Challenges and Illustrative Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deuren, Rita; Kahsu, Tsegazeab; Mohammed, Seid; Woldie, Wondimu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze and illustrate achievements and challenges of Ethiopian higher education, both at the system level and at the level of new public universities. Design/methodology/approach: Achievements and challenges at the system level are based on literature review and secondary data. Illustrative case studies are based on…

  3. Finishing the Job: Improving the Achievement of Vocational Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene; Presson, Alice

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB)-State Vocational Education Consortium's commitment to higher standards for and greater achievement of vocational students has brought substantial gains in student performance. SREB's High Schools That Work (HSTW), a school improvement initiative, documents achievement gains by vocational students. Data…

  4. Flipping College Algebra: Effects on Student Engagement and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ichinose, Cherie; Clinkenbeard, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study compared student engagement and achievement levels between students enrolled in a traditional college algebra lecture course and students enrolled in a "flipped" course. Results showed that students in the flipped class had consistently higher levels of achievement throughout the course than did students in the traditional…

  5. Teachers Developing Assessment for Learning: Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan; Lee, Clare; Harrison, Christine; Black, Paul

    2004-01-01

    While it is generally acknowledged that increased use of formative assessment (or assessment for learning) leads to higher quality learning, it is often claimed that the pressure in schools to improve the results achieved by students in externally-set tests and examinations precludes its use. This paper reports on the achievement of secondary…

  6. Long-Term Learning, Achievement Tests, and Learner Centered Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Moises F.; Kane-Johnson, Sarah E.; Vasil-Miller, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of achievement tests to measure long-term learning at the higher education level in traditional verses learner-centered classrooms. Volunteer instructors who use comprehensive achievement tests as an important component of their grading system were asked to complete an instrument that…

  7. A Domain-level Approach to Describing Growth in Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, E. Matthew; Lee, Won-Chan; Mullen, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Descriptions of growth in educational achievement often rely on the notion that higher-level students can do whatever lower-level students can do, plus at least one more thing. This article presents a method of supporting such descriptions using the data of a subject-area achievement test. Multiple content domains with an expected order of…

  8. High energy collision of particles in the vicinity of extremal black holes in higher dimensions: Bañados-Silk-West process as linear instability of extremal black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Naoki; Kimura, Masashi; Harada, Tomohiro

    2014-01-01

    We study high energy particle collisions around higher dimensional black holes. It is shown that the center of mass energy can be arbitrarily large in the vicinity of the event horizon like the Bañados, Silk and West (BSW) process in four dimensions if the following two conditions are satisfied: (i) the horizon is extremal and (ii) the parameters of either of the two colliding particles are fine-tuned, which is called a critical particle condition. We also show that a test particle which satisfies the critical particle condition can reach the event horizon from a distant region for a simple case. Finally, we discuss the relation between the BSW process and the linear instability of test fields around extremal black holes, the latter of which has been recently found by Aretakis [Commun. Math. Phys. 307, 17 (2011); Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré 12, 1491 (2011); J. Funct. Anal. 263, 2770 (2012); arXiv:1206.6598; Classical Quantum Gravity 30, 095010 (2013); Phys. Rev. D 87, 084052 (2013)].

  9. Australian Higher Education Reforms--Unification or Diversification?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The higher education policy of the previous Australian government aimed to achieve an internationally competitive higher education sector while expanding access opportunities to all Australians. This policy agenda closely reflects global trends that focus on achieving both quality and equity objectives. In this paper, the formulation and…

  10. Higher dimensional Hadamard matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlichta, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper defines higher dimensional Hadamard matrices and enumerates on some of the simplest three-, four-, and five-dimensional cases and procedures for generating them. Special emphasis is given to proper matrices that have a dimensional hierarchy of orthogonalities. It is determined that this property lends itself primarily to the application of higher dimensional Hadamard matrices to error-correcting codes. A list of derived statements for n-dimensional Hadamard matrices are given, as well as a definition of Hadamard matrix families, such as minimal, Petrie polygon, antipodal (n-2)-dimensional sections, and double proximity shells.

  11. Higher Spin Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi-Ming

    This dissertation splits into two distinct halves. The first half is devoted to the study of the holography of higher spin gauge theory in AdS 3. We present a conjecture that the holographic dual of W N minimal model in a 't Hooft-like large N limit is an unusual "semi-local" higher spin gauge theory on AdS3 x 1. At each point on the S1 lives a copy of three-dimensional Vasiliev theory, that contains an infinite tower of higher spin gauge fields coupled to a single massive complex scalar propagating in AdS3. The Vasiliev theories at different points on the S1 are correlated only through the AdS3 boundary conditions on the massive scalars. All but one single tower of higher spin symmetries are broken by the boundary conditions. This conjecture is checked by comparing tree-level two- and three-point functions, and also one-loop partition functions on both side of the duality. The second half focuses on the holography of higher spin gauge theory in AdS 4. We demonstrate that a supersymmetric and parity violating version of Vasiliev's higher spin gauge theory in AdS4 admits boundary conditions that preserve N = 0,1,2,3,4 or 6 supersymmetries. In particular, we argue that the Vasiliev theory with U( M) Chan-Paton and N = 6 boundary condition is holographically dual to the 2+1 dimensional U(N) k x U(M) -k ABJ theory in the limit of large N, k and finite M. In this system all bulk higher spin fields transform in the adjoint of the U(M) gauge group, whose bulk t'Hooft coupling is M/N. Our picture suggests that the supersymmetric Vasiliev theory can be obtained as a limit of type IIA string theory in AdS4 x CP3, and that the non-Abelian Vasiliev theory at strong bulk 't Hooft coupling smoothly turn into a string field theory. The fundamental string is a singlet bound state of Vasiliev's higher spin particles held together by U(M) gauge interactions.

  12. Higher spin cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash; Roy, Shubho; Thakur, Somyadip

    2014-02-01

    We construct cosmological solutions of higher spin gravity in 2+1 dimensional de Sitter space. We show that a consistent thermodynamics can be obtained for their horizons by demanding appropriate holonomy conditions. This is equivalent to demanding the integrability of the Euclidean boundary conformal field theory partition function, and it reduces to Gibbons-Hawking thermodynamics in the spin-2 case. By using the prescription of Maldacena, we relate the thermodynamics of these solutions to those of higher spin black holes in AdS3.

  13. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  14. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  15. A Comparison of Formal Features of Written Language of Learning Disabled, Low-Achieving and Achieving Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Mary Ross

    The written language characteristics of 26 learning disabled (LD), 26 low achieving (LA), and 26 achieving (ACH) students in grades 7 through 10 were measured using paragraph writing and topic sentence tasks. Tests of differences between LD and LA Ss revealed that spelling was the only formal feature which was significantly higher in the LA group.…

  16. Interdisciplinarity in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanisch, Thor Einar; Vollmann, Wolfgang, Ed.

    The advantages of an interdisciplinary approach to college instruction and research are examined, based in part on a 1983 symposium of the European Centre for Higher Education. Six case studies are also presented. It is noted that interdisciplinarity opens up possibilities of exchange between individual disciplines and encourages the development…

  17. Higher Education's Strange Paradox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Harold, II

    The university which has had the temerity to change the world has not had the nerve to change itself to live in that world. The result is that the university's grading system, curriculum, teaching methods, and philosophies are in conflict with the world beyond the campus gates, and higher education does not meet the intellectual and social needs…

  18. Entrepreneurship and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Jonathan, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. This book examines the role that higher education institutions are currently playing through teaching entrepreneurship and transferring knowledge and innovation to enterprises and…

  19. California's Future: Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  20. Corporatizing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Gerda

    2008-01-01

    The process of changing U.S. higher education institutions along a corporate model has been going on for several decades. It consists of changes, some open, some obscured, on various fronts: the erosion of tenure by attrition; the simultaneous increase in the use of contingent faculty; the rise in tuition; the dramatic decrease in federal and…