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Sample records for achieve higher resolution

  1. Korean Experience and Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the transition of Korean education reform and to weigh Korean experience and achievement in contemporary higher education. The paper first of all illustrates a historical perspective on higher education in light of educational reform. Secondly, this study reviews the achievements of Korean higher education…

  2. Using Records of Achievement in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assiter, Alison, Ed.; Shaw, Eileen, Ed.

    This collection of 22 essays examines the use of records of achievement (student profiles or portfolios) in higher and vocational education in the United Kingdom. They include: (1) "Records of Achievement: Background, Definitions, and Uses" (Alison Assiter and Eileen Shaw); (2) "Profiling in Higher Education" (Alison Assiter and Angela Fenwick);…

  3. Coherent diffractive imaging: towards achieving atomic resolution.

    PubMed

    Dietze, S H; Shpyrko, O G

    2015-11-01

    The next generation of X-ray sources will feature highly brilliant X-ray beams that will enable the imaging of local nanoscale structures with unprecedented resolution. A general formalism to predict the achievable spatial resolution in coherent diffractive imaging, based solely on diffracted intensities, is provided. The coherent dose necessary to reach atomic resolution depends significantly on the atomic scale structure, where disordered or amorphous materials require roughly three orders of magnitude lower dose compared with the expected scaling of uniform density materials. Additionally, dose reduction for crystalline materials are predicted at certain resolutions based only on their unit-cell dimensions and structure factors. PMID:26524315

  4. Higher Education Is Key To Achieving MDGs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Imagine trying to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) without higher education. As key institutions of civil society, universities are uniquely positioned between the communities they serve and the governments they advise. Through the CIDA-funded University Partnerships in Cooperation and Development program, Canadian universities have…

  5. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  6. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  7. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  8. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  9. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results, 2011. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report, issued by the Connecticut Department of Higher Education, reports on trends in higher education for the year 2011. Six goals are presented, each with at least two indicators. Each indicator is broken down into the following subsections: About This Indicator; Highlights; and In the Future. Most indicators also include statistical…

  10. Achieving Quality Learning in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nightingale, Peggy; O'Neil, Mike

    This volume on quality learning in higher education discusses issues of good practice particularly action learning and Total Quality Management (TQM)-type strategies and illustrates them with seven case studies in Australia and the United Kingdom. Chapter 1 discusses issues and problems in defining quality in higher education. Chapter 2 looks at…

  11. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results, 2008. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…

  12. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the principle vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with…

  13. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…

  14. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…

  15. Towards Higher Resolution Global Mantle Waveform Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulgin, A. A.; Romanowicz, B.

    2005-12-01

    Over the last 10 years, we have developed several generations of three-dimensional elastic and anelastic models of the earth's mantle, based on the inversion of surface and body waveforms using an asymptotic normal mode coupling approach (NACT, Li and Romanowicz, 1996). Until now, the shortest period of analysis of the body waveforms was 32 sec, and we have assumed standard scaling relations between compressional and shear velocities to obtain isotropic and radially anisotropic models of the whole mantle. We have found, surprisingly, that our waveforms have some - albeit weak - ability to resolve the topography of major mantle discontinuities. In order to improve the resolution of our models, extract P velocity information, as well as obtain better constraints on discontinuity topography, it is necessary to extend the analysis to shorter periods. This presents some computational challenges, as the number of coupling terms that need to be included increases rapidly with frequency. It also leads us to rethink our data selection strategy, in particular to allow larger time shifts between observed waveforms and synthetic ones. The latter are computed for a reference earth model and used in an automatic pre-selection step. We present progress in the development of a 3D elastic mantle model based on three component body waveforms down to 16 sec and surface waveforms down to 60 sec.

  16. Achieving Equity in Higher Education: The Unfinished Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Alexander W.; Astin, Helen S.

    2015-01-01

    In this retrospective account of their scholarly work over the past 45 years, Alexander and Helen Astin show how the struggle to achieve greater equity in American higher education is intimately connected to issues of character development, leadership, civic responsibility, and spirituality. While shedding some light on a variety of questions…

  17. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  18. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs—Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  19. Achieving Higher Energies via Passively Driven X-band Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipahi, Taylan; Sipahi, Nihan; Milton, Stephen; Biedron, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Due to their higher intrinsic shunt impedance X-band accelerating structures significant gradients with relatively modest input powers, and this can lead to more compact particle accelerators. At the Colorado State University Accelerator Laboratory (CSUAL) we would like to adapt this technology to our 1.3 GHz L-band accelerator system using a passively driven 11.7 GHz traveling wave X-band configuration that capitalizes on the high shunt impedances achievable in X-band accelerating structures in order to increase our overall beam energy in a manner that does not require investment in an expensive, custom, high-power X-band klystron system. Here we provide the design details of the X-band structures that will allow us to achieve our goal of reaching the maximum practical net potential across the X-band accelerating structure while driven solely by the beam from the L-band system.

  20. Wavelength scanning achieves pixel super-resolution in holographic on-chip microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Göröcs, Zoltan; Zhang, Yibo; Feizi, Alborz; Greenbaum, Alon; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-03-01

    Lensfree holographic on-chip imaging is a potent solution for high-resolution and field-portable bright-field imaging over a wide field-of-view. Previous lensfree imaging approaches utilize a pixel super-resolution technique, which relies on sub-pixel lateral displacements between the lensfree diffraction patterns and the image sensor's pixel-array, to achieve sub-micron resolution under unit magnification using state-of-the-art CMOS imager chips, commonly used in e.g., mobile-phones. Here we report, for the first time, a wavelength scanning based pixel super-resolution technique in lensfree holographic imaging. We developed an iterative super-resolution algorithm, which generates high-resolution reconstructions of the specimen from low-resolution (i.e., under-sampled) diffraction patterns recorded at multiple wavelengths within a narrow spectral range (e.g., 10-30 nm). Compared with lateral shift-based pixel super-resolution, this wavelength scanning approach does not require any physical shifts in the imaging setup, and the resolution improvement is uniform in all directions across the sensor-array. Our wavelength scanning super-resolution approach can also be integrated with multi-height and/or multi-angle on-chip imaging techniques to obtain even higher resolution reconstructions. For example, using wavelength scanning together with multi-angle illumination, we achieved a halfpitch resolution of 250 nm, corresponding to a numerical aperture of 1. In addition to pixel super-resolution, the small scanning steps in wavelength also enable us to robustly unwrap phase, revealing the specimen's optical path length in our reconstructed images. We believe that this new wavelength scanning based pixel super-resolution approach can provide competitive microscopy solutions for high-resolution and field-portable imaging needs, potentially impacting tele-pathology applications in resource-limited-settings.

  1. Achieving 50 nm lateral-resolution quantitative EDX SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, G.; Lozano-Perez, S.

    2015-10-01

    Low Voltage Scanning Electron Microscopy (LV-SEM) has become a very promising approach to perform Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) chemical mapping with high- lateral resolution [1]. Using voltages as low as 1.5keV, sub-10nm resolutions can be achieved. In this work, we try to take advantage of the small interaction volume in order to simplify the otherwise more complex SEM quantitative methodology. This way, phenomena such as absorption and fluorescence can be ignored and, effectively treat the quantification as with the Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)-based Cliff-Lorimer method. Experimental k- factors have been obtained from a series of standards and used to quantify complex oxide phases in steels.

  2. Elementary School Counselors and Teachers: Collaborators for Higher Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sink, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article I contend that elementary school teachers need to work more closely with school counselors to enhance student learning and academic performance and to narrow the achievement gap among student groups. Research showing the influence that counselors can exert on the educational process is summarized. Using the American School…

  3. Charting the course for nurses' achievement of higher education levels.

    PubMed

    Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol; Katigbak, Carina; Djukic, Maja; Fatehi, Farida

    2012-01-01

    To improve patient outcomes and meet the challenges of the U.S. health care system, the Institute of Medicine recommends higher educational attainment for the nursing workforce. Characteristics of registered nurses (RNs) who pursue additional education are poorly understood, and this information is critical to planning long-term strategies for U.S. nursing education. To identify factors predicting enrollment and completion of an additional degree among those with an associate or bachelor's as their pre-RN licensure degree, we performed logistic regression analysis on data from an ongoing nationally representative panel study following the career trajectories of newly licensed RNs. For associate degree RNs, predictors of obtaining a bachelor's degree are the following: being Black, living in a rural area, nonnursing work experience, higher positive affectivity, higher work motivation, working in the intensive care unit, and working the day shift. For bachelor's RNs, predictors of completing a master's degree are the following: being Black, nonnursing work experience, holding more than one job, working the day shift, working voluntary overtime, lower intent to stay at current employer, and higher work motivation. Mobilizing the nurse workforce toward higher education requires integrated efforts from policy makers, philanthropists, employers, and educators to mitigate the barriers to continuing education. PMID:23158196

  4. Strategies for Increasing Academic Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Julene; Woods, Amelia Mays

    2014-01-01

    Higher education today faces unique challenges. Decreasing student engagement, increasing diversity, and limited resources all contribute to the issues being faced by students, educators, and administrators alike. The unique characteristics and expectations that students bring to their professional programs require new methods of addressing…

  5. Extended Opacity Tables with Higher Temperature-Density-Frequency Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Mark; Orban, Chris; Delahaye, Franck; Pinsonneault, Marc; Nahar, Sultana; Pradhan, Anil

    2015-05-01

    Theoretical models for plasma opacities underpin our understanding of radiation transport in many different astrophysical objects. These opacity models are also relevant to HEDP experiments such as ignition scale experiments on NIF. We present a significantly expanded set of opacity data from the widely utilized Opacity Project, and make these higher resolution data publicly available through OSU's portal with dropbox.com. This expanded data set is used to assess how accurate the interpolation of opacity data in temperature-density-frequency dimensions must be in order to adequately model the properties of most stellar types. These efforts are the beginning of a larger project to improve the theoretical opacity models in light of experimental results at the Sandia Z-pinch showing that the measured opacity of Iron disagrees strongly with all current models.

  6. The Tate form on steroids: resolution and higher codimension fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, Craig; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura

    2013-04-01

    F-theory on singular elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau four-folds provides a setting to geometrically study four-dimensional {N}=1 supersymmetric gauge theories, includingmatter and Yukawa couplings. The gauge degrees of freedom arise from the codimension 1 singular loci, the matter and Yukawa couplings are generated at enhanced singularities in higher codimension. We construct the resolution of the singular Tate form for an elliptic Calabi-Yau four-fold with an ADE type singularity in codimension 1 and study the structure of the fibers in codimension 2 and 3. We determine the fibers in higher codimension which in general are of Kodaira type along minimal singular loci, and are thus consistent with the low energy gauge-theoretic intuition. Furthermore, we provide a complementary description of the fibers in higher codimension, which will also be applicable to non-minimal singularities. The irreducible components in the fiber in codimension 2 correspond to weights of representations of the ADE gauge group. These can split further in codimension 3 in a way that is consistent with the generation of Yukawa couplings. Applying this reasoning, we then venture out to study non-minimal singularities, which occur for A type along codimension 3, and for D and E also in codimension 2. The fibers in this case are non-Kodaira, however some insight into these singularities can be gained by considering the splitting of fiber components along higher codimension, which are shown to be consistent with matter and Yukawa couplings for the corresponding gauge groups.

  7. Higher Resolution Neutron Velocity Spectrometer Measurements of Enriched Uranium

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Rainwater, L. J.; Havens, W. W. Jr.

    1950-08-09

    The slow neutron transmission of a sample of enriched U containing 3.193 gm/cm2 was investigated with a resolution width of 1 microsec/m. Results of transmission measurements are shown graphically. (B.J.H.)

  8. Stable same-sex friendships with higher achieving partners promote mathematical reasoning in lower achieving primary school children.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate friend influence over mathematical reasoning in a sample of 374 children in 187 same-sex friend dyads (184 girls in 92 friendships; 190 boys in 95 friendships). Participants completed surveys that measured mathematical reasoning in the 3rd grade (approximately 9 years old) and 1 year later in the 4th grade (approximately 10 years old). Analyses designed for dyadic data (i.e., longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model) indicated that higher achieving friends influenced the mathematical reasoning of lower achieving friends, but not the reverse. Specifically, greater initial levels of mathematical reasoning among higher achieving partners in the 3rd grade predicted greater increases in mathematical reasoning from 3rd grade to 4th grade among lower achieving partners. These effects held after controlling for peer acceptance and rejection, task avoidance, interest in mathematics, maternal support for homework, parental education, length of the friendship, and friendship group norms on mathematical reasoning. PMID:26402901

  9. Validity of Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminskiene, Lina; Stasiunaitiene, Egle

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies the validity of assessment of non-formal and informal learning achievements (NILA) as one of the key factors for encouraging further development of the process of assessing and recognising non-formal and informal learning achievements in higher education. The authors analyse why the recognition of non-formal and informal…

  10. Higher throughput high resolution multi-worm tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javer, Avelino; Li, Kezhi; Gyenes, Bertalan; Brown, Andre; Behavioural Genomics Team

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a high throughput imaging system for tracking multiple nematode worms at high resolution. The tracker consists of 6 cameras mounted on a motorized gantry so that up to 48 plates (each with approximately 30 worms) can be imaged without user intervention. To deal with the high data rate of the cameras we use real time processing to find worms and only save the immediately surrounding pixels. The system is also equipped with automatic oxygen and carbon dioxide control for observing stimulus response behaviour. We will describe the design and performance of the new system, some of the challenges of truly high throughput behaviour recording, and report preliminary results on inter-individual variation in behaviour as well as a quantitative analysis of C. elegans response to hypoxia, oxygen reperfusion, and carbon dioxide. Funding provided by the Medical Research Council.

  11. Exploring Opportunities for Conflict Resolution in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippelli-DiManna, Leslie P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to identify methods to improve conflict management skills of administrative staff in higher education. General systems, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, and (c) Burton's human needs theories served as the conceptual frameworks for the study. The lived experiences of 25 community…

  12. Latina/o Student Achievement: A Collaborative Mission of Professional Associations of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arredondo, Patricia; Castillo, Linda G.

    2011-01-01

    Latina/o student achievement is a priority for the American Association of Hispanics in Higher Education (AAHHE). To date, AAHHE has worked deliberately on this agenda. However, well-established higher education associations such as the Association of American Universities (AAU) and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) are…

  13. Relationship between Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul

    2014-01-01

    The present study was probed to find the significant relationship between study habits and academic achievement of higher secondary school students with reference to the background variables. Survey method was employed. Data for the study were collected from 300 students in 13 higher secondary schools using Study Habits Inventory by V.G. Anantha…

  14. Prospects for higher spatial resolution quantitative X-ray analysis using transition element L-lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statham, P.; Holland, J.

    2014-03-01

    Lowering electron beam kV reduces electron scattering and improves spatial resolution of X-ray analysis. However, a previous round robin analysis of steels at 5 - 6 kV using Lα-lines for the first row transition elements gave poor accuracies. Our experiments on SS63 steel using Lα-lines show similar biases in Cr and Ni that cannot be corrected with changes to self-absorption coefficients or carbon coating. The inaccuracy may be caused by different probabilities for emission and anomalous self-absorption for the La-line between specimen and pure element standard. Analysis using Ll(L3-M1)-lines gives more accurate results for SS63 plausibly because the M1-shell is not so vulnerable to the atomic environment as the unfilled M4,5-shell. However, Ll-intensities are very weak and WDS analysis may be impractical for some applications. EDS with large area SDD offers orders of magnitude faster analysis and achieves similar results to WDS analysis with Lα-lines but poorer energy resolution precludes the use of Ll-lines in most situations. EDS analysis of K-lines at low overvoltage is an alternative strategy for improving spatial resolution that could give higher accuracy. The trade-off between low kV versus low overvoltage is explored in terms of sensitivity for element detection for different elements.

  15. Crosstalk Compensation for a Rapid, Higher Resolution Impedance Spectrum Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; John L. Morrison; David M. Rose; William H. Morrison; Chester G. Motloch

    2012-03-01

    Batteries and other energy storage devices are playing larger roles in various industries (e.g., military, automotive, electric utilities, etc.) as the U.S. seeks to reduce its dependence on foreign energy resources. As such, there exists a significant need for accurate, robust state-of-health assessment techniques. Present techniques tend to focus on simple, passive monitoring of voltage and current at a given ambient temperature. However, this approach has the disadvantage of ignoring key elements of health, that is, changes in resistance growth and power fade. Impedance spectroscopy is considered a useful laboratory tool in gauging changes in the resistance and power performance, but it has not been widely considered as an onboard diagnostic tool due to the length of time required to complete the measurement. Cross-Talk Compensation (CTC) is a novel approach that enables rapid, high resolution impedance spectra measurements using a hardware platform that could be designed as an embedded system. This input signal consists of a sum-of-sines excitation current that has a known frequency spread and a duration of one period of the lowest frequency. The voltage response is then captured at a sufficiently fast sample rate. Previously developed rapid impedance spectrum measurement techniques either required a longer excitation signal or a sum-of-sines signal that was separated by harmonic frequencies to reduce or eliminate, respectively, the cross-talk interference in the calculated results. The distinct advantage of CTC, however, is that non-harmonic frequencies can now be included within the excitation signal while still keeping the signal duration at one period of the lowest frequency. Since the frequency spread of the input signal is known, the crosstalk interference between sinusoidal signals within the sum-of-sines at a given frequency of interest can be pre-determined and assigned to an error matrix. Consequently, the real and imaginary components of the

  16. Technology's Effect on Achievement in Higher Education: A Stage I Meta-Analysis of Classroom Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Richard F.; Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Tamim, Rana; Abrami, Philip C.; Wade, C. Anne; Surkes, Michael A.; Lowerison, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Stage I meta-analysis exploring the achievement effects of computer-based technology use in higher education classrooms (non-distance education). An extensive literature search revealed more than 6,000 potentially relevant primary empirical studies. Analysis of a representative sample of 231 studies (k = 310)…

  17. Leveraging Quality Improvement to Achieve Student Learning Assessment Success in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Nancy Gentry

    2009-01-01

    Mounting pressure for transformational change in higher education driven by technology, globalization, competition, funding shortages, and increased emphasis on accountability necessitates that universities implement reforms to demonstrate responsiveness to all stakeholders and to provide evidence of student achievement. In the face of the demand…

  18. An Exploratory Study of the Achievement of the Twenty-First Century Skills in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaith, Ghazi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a survey study of the achievement of twenty-first century skills in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The study employs a quantitative survey design. Findings: The findings indicate that the basic scientific and technological skills of reading critically and writing…

  19. Achieving Higher Levels of Success for A.D.H.D. Students Working in Collaborative Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph S. C.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores a new and innovative strategy for helping students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (A.D.H.D.) achieve higher levels of academic success when working in collaborative groups. Since the research indicates that students with this disorder often have difficulty in maintaining their concentration this strategy is…

  20. The Effects of Learning Strategies on Mathematical Literacy: A Comparison between Lower and Higher Achieving Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen-Nagar, Noga

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to explore the effects of learning strategies on Mathematical Literacy (ML) of students in higher and lower achieving countries. To address this issue, the study utilizes PISA2002 data to conduct a multi-level analysis (HLM) of Hong Kong and Israel students. In PISA2002, Israel was rated 31st in Mathematics,…

  1. An Analysis of Factors Influencing the Achievement of Higher Education by Chief Fire Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditch, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    The leadership of the United States Fire Service (FS) believes that higher education increases the professionalism of FS members. The research problem at the research site, which is a multisite fire department located in southeastern United States, was the lack of research-based findings on the factors influencing the achievement of higher…

  2. Spin-flip resolution achieved with a one-proton self-excited oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guise, Nicholas Damien Sun-Wo

    In a Penning trap with an extremely large magnetic gradient, the axial frequency of a one-proton self-excited oscillator is resolved at the level of the shift from a proton spin flip. This sensitivity opens a possible path towards detection of single-proton spin flips, novel measurements of the proton and antiproton g-factors, and a stringent test of CPT invariance by comparing proton and antiproton magnetic moments at precision likely to be a million times higher than achieved to date. The central challenge of extending similar electron magnetic moment measurements to one proton is overcoming the substantially larger mass and weaker magnetic moment, which conspire to greatly reduce the frequency shift that signals a spin flip. Within a magnetic bottle gradient 50 times larger than used in the recent electron g-factor measurements, the proton spin-flip shift is still only 60 mHz out of a 553 kHz axial frequency. In such a large gradient, standard application of sideband cooling to reduce the magnetron radius changes the axial frequency by an amount greater than this spin-flip shift on average. Proton axial frequency resolution at the 60 mHz level is enabled by feedback techniques realized previously only with one electron. Self-excitation produces a narrow feature with large signal-to-noise, ideal for rapid frequency measurements at high precision. Unwanted effects of the strong magnetic gradient are minimized by axial and radial cooling. Feedback cooling is used to reduce the proton axial motion below the temperature of a damping resistor. Axial-magnetron sideband cooling of the undamped radial motion is then demonstrated to reach a 14 mK theoretical limit.

  3. Utilizing Higher Resolution Land Surface Remote Sensing Data for Assessing Recent Trends over Asia Monsoon Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The slide presentation discusses the integration of 1-kilometer spatial resolution land temperature data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), with 8-day temporal resolution, into the NASA Monsoon-Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) Data Center. The data will be available for analysis and visualization in the Giovanni data system. It discusses the NASA MAIRS Data Center, presents an introduction to the data access tools, and an introduction of Products available from the service, discusses the higher resolution Land Surface Temperature (LST) and presents preliminary results of LST Trends over China.

  4. A novel fast gas chromatography method for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in ambient air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C9-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a 14.5 min analysis time. Moreover, in-situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an 11.7 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to 19.7 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). These analysis times potentially allow for a twofold to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in-situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC (OBVOC) linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest

  5. Do Parents Make a Difference to Children's Academic Achievement? Differences between Parents of Higher and Lower Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Nicky; Harvey, David

    2005-01-01

    Differences in family factors in determining academic achievement were investigated by testing 432 parents in nine independent, coeducational Melbourne schools. Schools were ranked and categorized into three groups (high, medium and low), based on student achievement (ENTER) scores in their final year of secondary school and school improvement…

  6. Psychosocial Maturity and Conflict Resolution Management of Higher Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaseena M.P.M., Fathima; P., Divya

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find out the extent and difference in the mean scores of Psychosocial Maturity and Conflict Resolution Management of Higher secondary school students of Kerala. A survey technique was used for the study. Sample consists of 685 higher secondary students by giving due representation other criteria. Findings revealed that…

  7. Fast time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy: Achieving sub-cycle time resolution.

    PubMed

    Karatay, Durmus U; Harrison, Jeffrey S; Glaz, Micah S; Giridharagopal, Rajiv; Ginger, David S

    2016-05-01

    The ability to measure microsecond- and nanosecond-scale local dynamics below the diffraction limit with widely available atomic force microscopy hardware would enable new scientific studies in fields ranging from biology to semiconductor physics. However, commercially available scanning-probe instruments typically offer the ability to measure dynamics only on time scales of milliseconds to seconds. Here, we describe in detail the implementation of fast time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy using an oscillating cantilever as a means to measure fast local dynamics following a perturbation to a sample. We show how the phase of the oscillating cantilever relative to the perturbation event is critical to achieving reliable sub-cycle time resolution. We explore how noise affects the achievable time resolution and present empirical guidelines for reducing noise and optimizing experimental parameters. Specifically, we show that reducing the noise on the cantilever by using photothermal excitation instead of piezoacoustic excitation further improves time resolution. We demonstrate the discrimination of signal rise times with time constants as fast as 10 ns, and simultaneous data acquisition and analysis for dramatically improved image acquisition times. PMID:27250430

  8. Fast time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy: Achieving sub-cycle time resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatay, Durmus U.; Harrison, Jeffrey S.; Glaz, Micah S.; Giridharagopal, Rajiv; Ginger, David S.

    2016-05-01

    The ability to measure microsecond- and nanosecond-scale local dynamics below the diffraction limit with widely available atomic force microscopy hardware would enable new scientific studies in fields ranging from biology to semiconductor physics. However, commercially available scanning-probe instruments typically offer the ability to measure dynamics only on time scales of milliseconds to seconds. Here, we describe in detail the implementation of fast time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy using an oscillating cantilever as a means to measure fast local dynamics following a perturbation to a sample. We show how the phase of the oscillating cantilever relative to the perturbation event is critical to achieving reliable sub-cycle time resolution. We explore how noise affects the achievable time resolution and present empirical guidelines for reducing noise and optimizing experimental parameters. Specifically, we show that reducing the noise on the cantilever by using photothermal excitation instead of piezoacoustic excitation further improves time resolution. We demonstrate the discrimination of signal rise times with time constants as fast as 10 ns, and simultaneous data acquisition and analysis for dramatically improved image acquisition times.

  9. Achieving selective interrogation and sub-wavelength resolution in thin plates with embedded metamaterial acoustic lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Semperlotti, F. Zhu, H.

    2014-08-07

    In this study, we present an approach to ultrasonic beam-forming and high resolution identification of acoustic sources having critical implications for applications such as structural health monitoring. The proposed concept is based on the design of dynamically tailored structural elements via embedded acoustic metamaterial lenses. This approach provides a completely new alternative to conventional phased-array technology enabling the formation of steerable and collimated (or focused) ultrasonic beams by exploiting a single transducer. Numerical results show that the ultrasonic beam can be steered by simply tuning the frequency of the excitation. Also, the embedded lens can be designed to achieve sub-wavelength resolution to clustered acoustic sources, which is a typical scenario encountered in incipient structural damage.

  10. Achieving λ/10 Resolution CW STED Nanoscopy with a Ti:Sapphire Oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yujia; Ding, Yichen; Alonas, Eric; Zhao, Wenli; Santangelo, Philip J.; Jin, Dayong; Piper, James A.; Teng, Junlin; Ren, Qiushi; Xi, Peng

    2012-01-01

    In this report, a Ti:Sapphire oscillator was utilized to realize synchronization-free stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. With pump power of 4.6 W and sample irradiance of 310 mW, we achieved super-resolution as high as 71 nm. With synchronization-free STED, we imaged 200 nm nanospheres as well as all three cytoskeletal elements (microtubules, intermediate filaments, and actin filaments), clearly demonstrating the resolving power of synchronization-free STED over conventional diffraction limited imaging. It also allowed us to discover that, Dylight 650, exhibits improved performance over ATTO647N, a fluorophore frequently used in STED. Furthermore, we applied synchronization-free STED to image fluorescently-labeled intracellular viral RNA granules, which otherwise cannot be differentiated by confocal microscopy. Thanks to the widely available Ti:Sapphire oscillators in multiphoton imaging system, this work suggests easier access to setup super-resolution microscope via the synchronization-free STED. PMID:22761944

  11. Techniques for mass resolution improvement achieved by typical plasma mass analyzers: Modeling and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaou, Georgios; Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas; Fedorov, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    Mass separation and particularly distinction between atomic ions and molecular ions are essential in understanding a wide range of plasma environments, with each consisted of different species with various properties. In this study we present the optimization results of light-weight (about 2 kg) magnetic mass analyzers with high g-factor for Rosetta (Ion Composition Analyser: ICA) and for Mars Express and Venus Express (Ion Mass Analyser: IMA). For the instrument's optimization we use SIMION, a 3D ion tracing software in which we can trace particle beams of several energies and directions, passing through the instrument's units. We first reproduced ICA and IMA results, which turned out to be different from simple models for low energy (< 100 eV). We then change the mechanical structure of several units of the instrument and we quantify the new mass resolution achieved with each change. Our goal is to find the optimal instrument's structure, which will allow us to achieve a proper mass resolution to distinguish atomic nitrogen from atomic oxygen for the purposes of a future magnetospheric mission.

  12. Achieving accurate simulations of urban impacts on ozone at high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Georgescu, M.; Hyde, P.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.

    2014-11-01

    The effects of urbanization on ozone levels have been widely investigated over cities primarily located in temperate and/or humid regions. In this study, nested WRF-Chem simulations with a finest grid resolution of 1 km are conducted to investigate ozone concentrations [O3] due to urbanization within cities in arid/semi-arid environments. First, a method based on a shape preserving Monotonic Cubic Interpolation (MCI) is developed and used to downscale anthropogenic emissions from the 4 km resolution 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI05) to the finest model resolution of 1 km. Using the rapidly expanding Phoenix metropolitan region as the area of focus, we demonstrate the proposed MCI method achieves ozone simulation results with appreciably improved correspondence to observations relative to the default interpolation method of the WRF-Chem system. Next, two additional sets of experiments are conducted, with the recommended MCI approach, to examine impacts of urbanization on ozone production: (1) the urban land cover is included (i.e., urbanization experiments) and, (2) the urban land cover is replaced with the region’s native shrubland. Impacts due to the presence of the built environment on [O3] are highly heterogeneous across the metropolitan area. Increased near surface [O3] due to urbanization of 10-20 ppb is predominantly a nighttime phenomenon while simulated impacts during daytime are negligible. Urbanization narrows the daily [O3] range (by virtue of increasing nighttime minima), an impact largely due to the region’s urban heat island. Our results demonstrate the importance of the MCI method for accurate representation of the diurnal profile of ozone, and highlight its utility for high-resolution air quality simulations for urban areas.

  13. Higher resolution satellite remote sensing and the impact on image mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, Allen H.; Thormodsgard, June M.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of civil land remote sensing satellite data are presenting new opportunities for image mapping applications. The U.S. Geological Survey's experimental satellite image mapping program is evolving toward larger scale image map products with increased information content as a result of improved image processing techniques and increased resolution. Thematic mapper data are being used to produce experimental image maps at 1:100,000 scale that meet established U.S. and European map accuracy standards. Availability of high quality, cloud-free, 30-meter ground resolution multispectral data from the Landsat thematic mapper sensor, along with 10-meter ground resolution panchromatic and 20-meter ground resolution multispectral data from the recently launched French SPOT satellite, present new cartographic and image processing challenges. The need to fully exploit these higher resolution data increases the complexity of processing the images into large-scale image maps. The removal of radiometric artifacts and noise prior to geometric correction can be accomplished by using a variety of image processing filters and transforms. Sensor modeling and image restoration techniques allow maximum retention of spatial and radiometric information. An optimum combination of spectral information and spatial resolution can be obtained by merging different sensor types. These processing techniques are discussed and examples are presented. 

  14. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  15. Problems and Resolutions in the Practice of Project Teaching in Higher Vocational Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Zhichong; Tan, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been a hot discussion on project teaching theory among many higher vocational schools; however the practice of project teaching is still in the beginning period. Hence, many problems appear in project lead. This paper aims to analyze the existing problems in the practice of project teaching and also raise some resolutions.

  16. Tennessee Higher Education Commission Staff Study. Re: House Resolution No. 107.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, Nashville.

    The Tennessee Higher Education Commission conducted a study of the salaries of teaching staff and faculty in response to Tennessee House Resolution 107 on sexual discrimination. This study is the first known statewide effort to determine academic salaries. A multiple regression analysis model was used. Among the general findings were that: (1)…

  17. Lateral resolution improvement in scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy by measuring super-higher-order nonlinear dielectric constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinone, N.; Yamasue, K.; Hiranaga, Y.; Honda, K.; Cho, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM) can be used to visualize polarization distributions in ferroelectric materials and dopant profiles in semiconductor devices. Without using a special sharp tip, we achieved an improved lateral resolution in SNDM through the measurement of super-higher-order nonlinearity up to the fourth order. We observed a multidomain single crystal congruent LiTaO3 (CLT) sample, and a cross section of a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) field-effect-transistor (FET). The imaged domain boundaries of the CLT were narrower in the super-higher-order images than in the conventional image. Compared to the conventional method, the super-higher-order method resolved the more detailed structure of the MOSFET.

  18. Design and performance of tapered cubic anvil used for achieving higher pressure and larger sample cell.

    PubMed

    Han, Qi-Gang; Yang, Wen-Ke; Zhu, Pin-Wen; Ban, Qing-Chu; Yan, Ni; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-07-01

    In order to increase the maximum cell pressure of the cubic high pressure apparatus, we have developed a new structure of tungsten carbide cubic anvil (tapered cubic anvil), based on the principle of massive support and lateral support. Our results indicated that the tapered cubic anvil has some advantages. First, tapered cubic anvil can push the transfer rate of pressure well into the range above 36.37% compare to the conventional anvil. Second, the rate of failure crack decreases about 11.20% after the modification of the conventional anvil. Third, the limit of static high-pressure in the sample cell can be extended to 13 GPa, which can increase the maximum cell pressure about 73.3% than that of the conventional anvil. Fourth, the volume of sample cell compressed by tapered cubic anvils can be achieved to 14.13 mm(3) (3 mm diameter × 2 mm long), which is three and six orders of magnitude larger than that of double-stage apparatus and diamond anvil cell, respectively. This work represents a relatively simple method for achieving higher pressures and larger sample cell. PMID:23902079

  19. Pyramiding B genes in cotton achieves broader but not always higher resistance to bacterial blight.

    PubMed

    Essenberg, Margaret; Bayles, Melanie B; Pierce, Margaret L; Verhalen, Laval M

    2014-10-01

    Near-isogenic lines of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) carrying single, race-specific genes B4, BIn, and b7 for resistance to bacterial blight were used to develop a pyramid of lines with all possible combinations of two and three genes to learn whether the pyramid could achieve broad and high resistance approaching that of L. A. Brinkerhoff's exceptional line Im216. Isogenic strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum carrying single avirulence (avr) genes were used to identify plants carrying specific resistance (B) genes. Under field conditions in north-central Oklahoma, pyramid lines exhibited broader resistance to individual races and, consequently, higher resistance to a race mixture. It was predicted that lines carrying two or three B genes would also exhibit higher resistance to race 1, which possesses many avr genes. Although some enhancements were observed, they did not approach the level of resistance of Im216. In a growth chamber, bacterial populations attained by race 1 in and on leaves of the pyramid lines decreased significantly with increasing number of B genes in only one of four experiments. The older lines, Im216 and AcHR, exhibited considerably lower bacterial populations than any of the one-, two-, or three-B-gene lines. A spreading collapse of spray-inoculated AcBIn and AcBInb7 leaves appears to be a defense response (conditioned by BIn) that is out of control. PMID:24655289

  20. Case study: Comparison of motivation for achieving higher performance between self-directed and manager-directed aerospace engineering teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlick, Katherine

    "The stereotype of engineers is that they are not people oriented; the stereotype implies that engineers would not work well in teams---that their task emphasis is a solo venture and does not encourage social aspects of collaboration" (Miner & Beyerlein, 1999, p. 16). The problem is determining the best method of providing a motivating environment where design engineers may contribute within a team in order to achieve higher performance in the organization. Theoretically, self-directed work teams perform at higher levels. But, allowing a design engineer to contribute to the team while still maintaining his or her anonymity is the key to success. Therefore, a motivating environment must be established to encourage greater self-actualization in design engineers. The purpose of this study is to determine the favorable motivational environment for design engineers and describe the comparison between two aerospace design-engineering teams: one self-directed and the other manager directed. Following the comparison, this study identified whether self-direction or manager-direction provides the favorable motivational environment for operating as a team in pursuit of achieving higher performance. The methodology used in this research was the case study focusing on the team's levels of job satisfaction and potential for higher performance. The collection of data came from three sources, (a) surveys, (b) researcher observer journal and (c) collection of artifacts. The surveys provided information regarding personal behavior characteristics, potentiality for higher performance and motivational attributes. The researcher journal provided information regarding team dynamics, individual interaction, conflict and conflict resolution. The milestone for performance was based on the collection of artifacts from the two teams. The findings from this study illustrated that whether the team was manager-directed or self-directed does not appear to influence the needs and wants of the

  1. Linking the Weather Generator with Regional Climate Model: Effect of Higher Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, Martin; Huth, Radan; Farda, Ales; Skalak, Petr

    2014-05-01

    This contribution builds on our last year EGU contribution, which followed two aims: (i) validation of the simulations of the present climate made by the ALADIN-Climate Regional Climate Model (RCM) at 25 km resolution, and (ii) presenting a methodology for linking the parametric weather generator (WG) with RCM output (aiming to calibrate a gridded WG capable of producing realistic synthetic multivariate weather series for weather-ungauged locations). Now we have available new higher-resolution (6.25 km) simulations with the same RCM. The main topic of this contribution is an anser to a following question: What is an effect of using a higher spatial resolution on a quality of simulating the surface weather characteristics? In the first part, the high resolution RCM simulation of the present climate will be validated in terms of selected WG parameters, which are derived from the RCM-simulated surface weather series and compared to those derived from weather series observed in 125 Czech meteorological stations. The set of WG parameters will include statistics of the surface temperature and precipitation series. When comparing the WG parameters from the two sources (RCM vs observations), we interpolate the RCM-based parameters into the station locations while accounting for the effect of altitude. In the second part, we will discuss an effect of using the higher resolution: the results of the validation tests will be compared with those obtained with the lower-resolution RCM. Acknowledgements: The present experiment is made within the frame of projects ALARO-Climate (project P209/11/2405 sponsored by the Czech Science Foundation), WG4VALUE (project LD12029 sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of CR) and VALUE (COST ES 1102 action).

  2. Higher-resolution selective metallization on alumina substrate by laser direct writing and electroless plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Ming; Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Suhuan; Ai, Jun; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2016-03-01

    How to fabricate conductive patterns on ceramic boards with higher resolution is a challenge in the past years. The fabrication of copper patterns on alumina substrate by laser direct writing and electroless copper plating is a low cost and high efficiency method. Nevertheless, the lower resolution limits its further industrial applications in many fields. In this report, the mechanisms of laser direct writing and electroless copper plating were studied. The results indicated that as the decomposed products of precursor PdCl2 have different chemical states respectively in laser-irradiated zone (LIZ) and laser-affected zone (LAZ). This phenomenon was utilized and a special chemical cleaning method with aqua regia solution was taken to selectively remove the metallic Pd in LAZ, while kept the PdO in LIZ as the only active seeds. As a result, the resolution of subsequent copper patterns was improved significantly. This technique has a great significance to develop the microelectronics devices.

  3. Apparatus and method to achieve high-resolution microscopy with non-diffracting or refracting radiation

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W.; Bingham, Philip R.; Hawari, Ayman I.

    2012-11-06

    An imaging system employing a coded aperture mask having multiple pinholes is provided. The coded aperture mask is placed at a radiation source to pass the radiation through. The radiation impinges on, and passes through an object, which alters the radiation by absorption and/or scattering. Upon passing through the object, the radiation is detected at a detector plane to form an encoded image, which includes information on the absorption and/or scattering caused by the material and structural attributes of the object. The encoded image is decoded to provide a reconstructed image of the object. Because the coded aperture mask includes multiple pinholes, the radiation intensity is greater than a comparable system employing a single pinhole, thereby enabling a higher resolution. Further, the decoding of the encoded image can be performed to generate multiple images of the object at different distances from the detector plane. Methods and programs for operating the imaging system are also disclosed.

  4. Effects of Traditional, Blended and E-Learning on Students' Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qahtani, Awadh A. Y.; Higgins, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the effect of e-learning, blended learning and classroom learning on students' achievement. Two experimental groups together with a control group from Umm Al-Qura University in Saudi Arabia were identified randomly. To assess students' achievement in the different groups, pre- and post-achievement tests were used. The…

  5. Inclusion and Achievement: Student Achievement in Secondary Schools with Higher and Lower Proportions of Pupils Designated as Having Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Martyn; Florian, Lani

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a multi-method study that examined the effects of including higher and lower proportions of students designated as having special educational needs on student achievement in secondary schools. It explores some of the issues involved in conducting such research and considers the extent to which newly available national data in…

  6. A NEW ALGORITHM FOR TRABECULAR BONE THICKNESS COMPUTATION AT LOW RESOLUTION ACHIEVED UNDER IN VIVO CONDITION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yinxiao; Jin, Dakai; Saha, Punam K.

    2015-01-01

    Adult bone diseases, especially osteoporosis, lead to increased risk of fracture associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and financial costs. Clinically, osteoporosis is defined by low bone mineral density (BMD); however, increasing evidence suggests that the micro-architectural quality of trabecular bone (TB) is an important determinant of bone strength and fracture risk. Accurate measurement of trabecular thickness and marrow spacing is of significant interest for early diagnosis of osteoporosis or treatment effects. Here, we present a new robust algorithm for computing TB thickness and marrow spacing at a low resolution achievable in vivo. The method uses a star-line tracing technique that effectively deals with partial voluming effects of in vivo imaging where voxel size is comparable to TB thickness. Experimental results on cadaveric ankle specimens have demonstrated the algorithm’s robustness (ICC>0.98) under repeat scans of multi-row detector computed tomography (MD-CT) imaging. It has been observed in experimental results that TB thickness and marrow spacing measures as computed by the new algorithm have strong association (R2 ∈{0.85, 0.87}) with TB’s experimental mechanical strength measures. PMID:27330678

  7. Time-resolved photoemission apparatus achieving sub-20-meV energy resolution and high stability

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Y.; Togashi, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tanaka, M.; Kiss, T.; Otsu, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Shin, S.

    2014-12-15

    The paper describes a time- and angle-resolved photoemission apparatus consisting of a hemispherical analyzer and a pulsed laser source. We demonstrate 1.48-eV pump and 5.92-eV probe measurements at the ⩾10.5-meV and ⩾240-fs resolutions by use of fairly monochromatic 170-fs pulses delivered from a regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire laser system operating typically at 250 kHz. The apparatus is capable to resolve the optically filled superconducting peak in the unoccupied states of a cuprate superconductor, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. A dataset recorded on Bi(111) surface is also presented. Technical descriptions include the followings: A simple procedure to fine-tune the spatio-temporal overlap of the pump-and-probe beams and their diameters; achieving a long-term stability of the system that enables a normalization-free dataset acquisition; changing the repetition rate by utilizing acoustic optical modulator and frequency-division circuit.

  8. Teacher Quality and Educational Equality: Do Teachers with Higher Standards-Based Evaluation Ratings Close Student Achievement Gaps?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Kimball, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Using standards-based evaluation ratings for nearly 400 teachers, and achievement results for over 7,000 students from grades 4-6, this study investigated the distribution and achievement effects of teacher quality in Washoe County, a mid-sized school district serving Reno and Sparks, Nevada. Classrooms with higher concentrations of minority,…

  9. Higher resolution stimulus facilitates depth perception: MT+ plays a significant role in monocular depth perception.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Komine, Kazuteru; Sawahata, Yasuhito; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Today, we human beings are facing with high-quality virtual world of a completely new nature. For example, we have a digital display consisting of a high enough resolution that we cannot distinguish from the real world. However, little is known how such high-quality representation contributes to the sense of realness, especially to depth perception. What is the neural mechanism of processing such fine but virtual representation? Here, we psychophysically and physiologically examined the relationship between stimulus resolution and depth perception, with using luminance-contrast (shading) as a monocular depth cue. As a result, we found that a higher resolution stimulus facilitates depth perception even when the stimulus resolution difference is undetectable. This finding is against the traditional cognitive hierarchy of visual information processing that visual input is processed continuously in a bottom-up cascade of cortical regions that analyze increasingly complex information such as depth information. In addition, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results reveal that the human middle temporal (MT+) plays a significant role in monocular depth perception. These results might provide us with not only the new insight of our neural mechanism of depth perception but also the future progress of our neural system accompanied by state-of- the-art technologies. PMID:25327168

  10. What Is the Best Way to Achieve Broader Reach of Improved Practices in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a common problem in higher education--how to create more widespread use of improved practices, often commonly referred to as innovations. I argue that policy models of scale-up are often advocated in higher education but that they have a dubious history in community development and K-12 education and that higher education…

  11. Achieving planar plasmonic subwavelength resolution using alternately arranged insulator-metal and insulator-insulator-metal composite structures.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo Han; Chang, Kai Jiun; Lan, Yung-Chiang; Tsai, Din Ping

    2015-01-01

    This work develops and analyzes a planar subwavelength device with the ability of one-dimensional resolution at visible frequencies that is based on alternately arranged insulator-metal (IM) and insulator-insulator-metal (IIM) composite structures. The mechanism for the proposed device to accomplish subwavelength resolution is elucidated by analyzing the dispersion relations of the IM-IIM composite structures. Electromagnetic simulations based on the finite element method (FEM) are performed to verify that the design of the device has subwavelength resolution. The ability of subwavelength resolution of the proposed device at various visible frequencies is achieved by slightly varying the constituent materials and geometric parameters. The proposed devices have potential applications in multi-functional material, real-time super-resolution imaging, and high-density photonic components. PMID:25613463

  12. Achieving planar plasmonic subwavelength resolution using alternately arranged insulator-metal and insulator-insulator-metal composite structures

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo Han; Chang, Kai Jiun; Lan, Yung-Chiang; Tsai, Din Ping

    2015-01-01

    This work develops and analyzes a planar subwavelength device with the ability of one-dimensional resolution at visible frequencies that is based on alternately arranged insulator-metal (IM) and insulator-insulator-metal (IIM) composite structures. The mechanism for the proposed device to accomplish subwavelength resolution is elucidated by analyzing the dispersion relations of the IM-IIM composite structures. Electromagnetic simulations based on the finite element method (FEM) are performed to verify that the design of the device has subwavelength resolution. The ability of subwavelength resolution of the proposed device at various visible frequencies is achieved by slightly varying the constituent materials and geometric parameters. The proposed devices have potential applications in multi-functional material, real-time super-resolution imaging, and high-density photonic components. PMID:25613463

  13. Beyond Virtual Equality: Liberatory Consciousness as a Path to Achieve Trans* Inclusion in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, D. Chase J.

    2015-01-01

    Trans* men have not, as yet, received specific research attention in higher education. Based on intensive interviews with 25 trans* men enrolled in colleges or universities in New England, I explore their experiences in higher education. I analyze participants' descriptions of supports and challenges in their collegiate environments, as well as…

  14. Using the Internet To Deliver Higher Education: A Cautionary Tale about Achieving Good Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Steven J.; Rodd, Jillian

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the development and delivery of a higher education course module that was designed to provide remote learners in England with computer-supported solutions to access higher education as part of a technology-assisted distance education program. Highlights include use of a Web site; e-mail; videoconferencing; and student attrition rate.…

  15. Higher Education and the Achievement (and/or Prevention) of Equity and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, John; Naidoo, Rajani

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the theoretical and empirical literature on higher education's role in relation to social equity and related notions of citizenship, social justice, social cohesion and meritocracy. It considers both the education and the research functions of higher education and how these impact upon different sections of society, on who…

  16. Using Regional Cooperation and Technology To Achieve Cost Savings: The Midwestern Higher Education Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David; Williams, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    Describes four successful cost-containment initiatives of the Midwestern Higher Education Commission, which was established to advance higher education in the Midwest through interstate cooperation. Projects include development of Academic Scheduling and Management Software; Internet-based activities; the Virtual Private Network, to reduce…

  17. Colonialism on Campus: A Critique of Mentoring to Achieve Equity in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Roger L.

    In order to reconceptualize the mentoring relationship in higher education, parallels to colonialist strategies of subordination are drawn. The objective is to stimulate renewed thinking and action more consistent with stated policy goals in higher education. One of the primary functions of a mentor or sponsor is to exercise personal power to…

  18. Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions with nanoscale resolution

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, R. K.; Okatan, M. Baris; Rajapaksa, I.; Kim, Y.; Marincel, D.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Jesse, S.; Valanoor, N.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, insight into the nonlinear behavior can be gleaned through exploration of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, measurements of the second harmonic reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of nth order harmonic SPM detection methods in exploring nonlinear phenomena in nanoscale materials. PMID:24045269

  19. The Effects of Higher Education/Military Service on Achievement Levels of Police Academy Cadets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas Allen

    This study compared levels of achievement of three groups of Houston (Texas) police academy cadets: those with no military service but with 60 or more college credit hours, those with military service and 0 hours of college credit, and those with military service and 1 to 59 hours of college credit. Prior to 1991, police cadets in Houston were…

  20. Postponement in the Completion of the Final Dissertation: An Underexplored Dimension of Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Serge; Meert, Gaëlle; Galand, Benoît; Nils, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Research on academic achievement at a university has mainly focused on success and persistence among first year students. Very few studies have looked at delay or failure in the completion of a final dissertation. However, this phenomenon could affect a substantial proportion of students and has considerable costs. The purpose of the present study…

  1. Gender Segregation in Higher Education: Effects of Aspirations, Mathematics Achievement, and Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kenneth L; Boldizar, Janet P.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the relationships among mathematics achievement levels, income potential, high school aspirations, and the gender segregation of bachelor's degrees. Investigates how gender segregation changed between 1973 and 1983. Concludes that gender segregation is present at the high school and bachelor's levels. Maintains that psychological barriers…

  2. The Relationship between Epistemological Beliefs, Learning Strategies and Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Beth, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    This study provides important insights into the relationship between the epistemological beliefs of community college students, the selection of learning strategies, and academic achievement. This study employed a quantitative survey design. Data were collected by surveying students at a community college during the spring semester of 2010. The…

  3. Success in Higher Education: The Challenge to Achieve Academic Standing and Social Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Life, James

    2015-01-01

    When students look at their classmates in the classroom, consciously or unconsciously, they see competitors both for academic recognition and social success. How do they fit in relation to others and how do they succeed in achieving both? Traditional views on the drive to succeed and the fear of failure are well known as motivators for achieving…

  4. Correlation of Conditional Admittance and Student Achievement in an Undergraduate Higher Education Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores several research questions that identify differences between conditionally admitted students and regularly admitted students in terms of achievement results at one institution. The research provides specific variables as well as relationships including historical and comparative aggregate data from 2009 and 2010 that indicate…

  5. The Little District that Could: Literacy Reform Leads to Higher Achievement in California District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia R.; Budicin-Senters, Antoinette; King, L. McLean

    2005-01-01

    This article describes educational reform developed over a 10-year period in California's Lemon Grove School District, which resulted in a steady and remarkable upward shift in achievement for the students of this multicultural district just outside San Diego. Six elements of literacy reform emerged as the most significant factors affecting…

  6. Important Learning Dimensions Influencing Undergraduate Students' Learning and Academic Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usun, Salih

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the opinions of the undergraduate students and faculty members on factors that affect student learning and academic achievement. The sub aims of this study were to: (1) Develop a mean rank ordering of the 23 dimensions affecting learning, for both the students and faculty, and determine the similarities…

  7. Gender Disparity Analysis in Academic Achievement at Higher Education Preparatory Schools: Case of South Wollo, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshetu, Amogne Asfaw

    2015-01-01

    Gender is among the determinant factors affecting students' academic achievement. This paper tried to investigate the impact of gender on academic performance of preparatory secondary school students based on 2014 EHEECE result. Ex post facto research design was used. To that end, data were collected from 3243 students from eight purposively…

  8. Increasing Access to Higher Education among Low-Income Students: The Washington State Achievers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carrie B.; Brown, Doreen E.; Pavel, D. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how a comprehensive precollege intervention and developmental program among low-income high school students contributed to college enrollment outcomes measured in 2006. Our focus was on the Fifth Cohort of the Washington State Achievers (WSA) Program, which provides financial, academic, and college…

  9. WISC-III and CAS: Which Correlates Higher with Achievement for a Clinical Sample?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naglieri, Jack A.; De Lauder, Brianna Y.; Goldstein, Sam; Schwebech, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The relationships between Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) and the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) with the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement (WJ-III) were examined for a sample of 119 children (87 males and 32 females) ages 6 to 16. The sample was comprised of children who were referred to a specialty clinic…

  10. Progress and opportunities in direct numerical simulations at the next higher resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, P. K.; Sreenivasan, K. R.

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, many researchers in the turbulence community have been able to exploit the steady advancement of computing power to advance our understanding of turbulence, including new parameter ranges and the effects of coupling with other physical processes. However it is remarkable that, the ``record'' grid resolution of 40963, first achieved just over 10 years ago (Kaneda et al., Phys. Fluids 2003) still stands in the literature of the field. In this talk, we will present preliminary results from an 81923 simulation of turbulence on a periodic domain, carried out using 262144 CPU cores on the Blue Waters supercomputer under the NSF Track 1 Petascale Resource Allocations program. Since a simulation at this magnitude is still extremely expensive, and the resources required are not easily secured, very careful planning and very aggressive efforts at algorithmic enhancement are necessary (which we will also briefly discuss). This new simulation is expected to allow us to probe deeply into fundamental questions such as intermittency at the highest Reynolds numbers and the best possible resolution of the small scales at the current limit of computing power available. Supported by NSF Grant ACI-1036170.

  11. Demographic Inertia Revisited: An Immodest Proposal to Achieve Equitable Gender Representation among Faculty in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschke, Robyn; Laursen, Sandra; Nielsen, Joyce McCarl; Rankin, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Progress toward equitable gender representation among faculty in higher education has been "glacial" since the early 1970s (Glazer-Raymo, 1999; Lomperis, 1990; Trower & Chait, 2002). Women, who now make up a majority of undergraduate degree earners and approximately 46% of Ph.D. earners nationwide (National Center for Education Statistics [NCES],…

  12. Achieving Canadian Excellence in and for the World: Leveraging Canada's Higher Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2004

    2004-01-01

    As Canada's opportunities to claim international leadership are assessed, the best prospects lie in a combination of our impressive higher education and research commitments, civic and institutional values, and quality of life. This paper concludes that as an exporting country, the benefits will come in economic growth. As citizens of the world,…

  13. Linking Emotional Intelligence to Achieve Technology Enhanced Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Janette; Blignaut, A. Seugnet

    2013-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) increasingly use technology-enhanced learning (TEL) environments (e.g. blended learning and e-learning) to improve student throughput and retention rates. As the demand for TEL courses increases, expectations rise for faculty to meet the challenge of using TEL effectively. The promises that TEL holds have not…

  14. Goals, Strategies, and Achievements in the Internationalization of Higher Education in Japan and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsuan-Fu; Lin, Ming-Huang; Yang, Cheng-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    International knowledge and skills are essential for success in today's highly competitive global marketplace. As one of the key providers of such knowledge and skills, universities have become a key focus of the internationalization strategies of governments throughout the world. While the internationalization of higher education clearly has…

  15. Investigation on electro-optic optical comb generation with higher spectral resolution and bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Takahide; Morohashi, Isao

    2016-03-01

    With a use of electro-optic modulator based comb generator, ultra-wideband optical comb is stably and flexibly synthesized from a continuous-wave light. Larger modulation depth at a higher repetition rate would proportionally enhance bandwidth of the generated comb. Practically, however, achievable modulation depth is limited by available output power of microwave amplifiers. In addition, the repetition rate, i.e. comb spacing, is determined by system-side requirements. For example, frequency spacing of the generated comb should fit to the wavelength grid of optical fiber networks. Narrower frequency spacing is requested for photonic measurements assisted by advanced electrical signal processing based on low-speed electronics. In this paper, through numerical analysis, we propose and discuss configurations of serially cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulator-based flat comb generators, aiming for optical comb generation satisfying both higher bandwidth and narrower frequency spacing.

  16. Teachers, Technology and Training: A New Year's Resolution for 2006: Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlevy, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Recognizing the glaring discrepancies in outcomes for many poor and minority children, the New York State Regents hosted an Education Summit in November 2005 with the theme of Closing the Achievement Gap. Leaders in business, government and education were in attendance and rallied to more thoroughly understand the achievement gap and produce…

  17. Moving to higher ground: Closing the high school science achievement gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebane, Joyce Graham

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of West High School constituents (students, parents, teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors) about the readiness and interest of African American students at West High School to take Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) science courses as a strategy for closing the achievement gap. This case study utilized individual interviews and questionnaires for data collection. The participants were selected biology students and their parents, teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors at West High School. The results of the study indicated that just over half the students and teachers, most parents, and all guidance counselors thought African American students were prepared to take AP science courses. Only one of the three administrators thought the students were prepared to take AP science courses. Between one-half and two-thirds of the students, parents, teachers, and administrators thought students were interested in taking an AP science course. Only two of the guidance counselors thought there was interest among the African American students in taking AP science courses. The general consensus among the constituents about the readiness and interest of African American students at West High School to take IB science courses was that it is too early in the process to really make definitive statements. West is a prospective IB school and the program is new and not yet in place. Educators at the West High School community must find reasons to expect each student to succeed. Lower expectations often translate into lower academic demands and less rigor in courses. Lower academic demands and less rigor in courses translate into less than adequate performance by students. When teachers and administrators maintain high expectations, they encourage students to aim high rather than slide by with mediocre effort (Lumsden, 1997). As a result of the study, the following suggestions should

  18. Accreditation Matters: Achieving Academic Recognition and Renewal. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report. Volume 30, Issue 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alstete, Jeffrey W.

    2004-01-01

    This book focuses on contemporary accreditation, why it matters, and how it can be done effectively. The author covers historical background, getting started, strategies for achieving accreditation, and visions for future academic success, with examples and case studies. Accreditation is the primary way of ensuring the quality of higher education…

  19. Differences in General Cognitive Abilities and Domain-Specific Skills of Higher-and Lower-Achieving Students in Stoichiometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Eilks, Ingo; Bowman, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a comparison of a group of higher-and lower-achieving undergraduate chemistry students, 17 in total, as separated on their ability in stoichiometry. This exploratory study of 17 students investigated parallels and differences in the students' general and domain-specific cognitive abilities. Performance, strategies, and…

  20. What Educational Initiatives Contribute to Higher than Expected Achievement in Student Performance for Public Schools in the State of Indiana?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Thomas Allen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the areas of teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school structure, school-community partnerships or school leadership were significantly embedded in practice and acted as a change agent among school systems that achieve higher than expected results on their state standardized testing…

  1. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from…

  2. Parental Level of Education: Associations with Psychological Well-Being, Academic Achievement and Reasons for Pursuing Higher Education in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechter, Melissa; Milevsky, Avidan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the interconnection between parental level of education, psychological well-being, academic achievement and reasons for pursuing higher education in adolescents. Participants included 439 college freshmen from a mid-size state university in the northeastern USA. A survey, including indices of…

  3. Dual-Source Computed Tomographic Temporal Resolution Provides Higher Image Quality Than 64-Detector Temporal Resolution at Low Heart Rates

    PubMed Central

    Araoz, Philip A.; Kirsch, Jacobo; Primak, Andrew N.; Braun, Natalie N.; Saba, Osama; Williamson, Eric E.; Harmsen, W. Scott; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare coronary image quality at temporal resolutions associated with dual-source computed tomography (DSCT; 83 milliseconds) and 64–detector row scanning (165 milliseconds). Methods In 30 patients with a heart rate of less than 70 beats per minute, DSCT coronary angiograms were reconstructed at 83- and 165-millisecond temporal resolutions over different cardiac phases. A blinded observer graded coronary quality. Results The typical DSCT temporal resolution (83 milliseconds) showed a significantly greater quality at end-systole for all coronary vessels and at end-diastole for the right coronary and left anterior descending coronary arteries. For all vessels, the end-diastole produced the highest quality for both temporal resolutions. Conclusions Imaging at 83 milliseconds creates superior quality at end-systole for all coronary vessels and at end-diastole for the right coronary and left anterior descending coronary arteries. At low heart rates, end-diastole produces the highest quality at both temporal resolutions. PMID:20118724

  4. Non Local Spatial and Angular Matching: Enabling higher spatial resolution diffusion MRI datasets through adaptive denoising.

    PubMed

    St-Jean, Samuel; Coupé, Pierrick; Descoteaux, Maxime

    2016-08-01

    work paves the way for higher spatial resolution acquisition of diffusion MRI datasets, which could in turn reveal new anatomical details that are not discernible at the spatial resolution currently used by the diffusion MRI community. PMID:27082655

  5. Achieving Higher Diagnostic Results in Stereotactic Brain Biopsy by Simple and Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    Gulsen, Salih

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurosurgeons have preferred to perform the stereotactic biopsy for pathologic diagnosis when the intracranial pathology located eloquent areas and deep sites of the brain. AIM: To get a higher ratio of definite pathologic diagnosis during stereotactic biopsy and develop practical method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We determined at least two different target points and two different trajectories to take brain biopsy during stereotactic biopsy. It is a different way from the conventional stereotactic biopsy method in which one point has been selected to take a biopsy. We separated our patients into two groups, group 1 (N=10), and group 2 (N= 19). We chose one target to take a biopsy in group 1, and two different targets and two different trajectories in group 2. In group 2, one patient underwent craniotomy due to hemorrhage at the site of the biopsy during tissue biting. However, none of the patients in both groups suffered any neurological complication related biopsy procedure. RESULTS: In group 1, two of 10 cases, and, in group 2, fourteen of 19 cases had positive biopsy harvesting. These results showed statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 2 (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Regarding these results, choosing more than one trajectories and taking at least six specimens from each target provides higher diagnostic rate in stereotaxic biopsy taking method.

  6. Making the Library Management Systems Acquisition: Achieving Resolution of a Tough Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Steven J.; Cronin-Kardon, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    Offers exploratory research on the automation decision process for library administrators who are considering a new library management system (LMS) and those factors that lead to decision difficulty. Using the Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice as a theoretical framework for LMS, this study uses decision resolution as a criterion of…

  7. Application and Refinement of a Method to Achieve Uniform Convective Response on Variable-Resolution Meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walko, R. L.; Medvigy, D.; Avissar, R.

    2013-12-01

    Variable-resolution computational grids can substantially improve the benefit-to-cost ratio in many environmental modeling applications, but they can also introduce unwanted and unrealistic numerical anomalies if not properly utilized. For example, we showed in previous studies that resolved (non-parameterized) atmospheric convection develops more quickly as resolution increases. Furthermore, on variable grids that transition from resolved to parameterized convection, timing and intensity of the convection in both regimes is generally disparate unless special care is taken to tune the parameterization. In both cases, the convection that develops first (due to purely numerical reasons) tends to suppress convection elsewhere by inducing subsidence in the surrounding environment. This highly nonlinear competition, while desirable when induced by natural causes such as surface inhomogeneity, is highly undesirable when it is a numerical artifact of variable grid resolution and/or selective application of convective parameterization. Our current research is aimed at leveling the playing field for convection across a variable resolution grid so that the above problems are avoided. The underlying idea is to apply the same or very similar 'convective machinery' to all areas of the grid. For convection-resolving regions of the grid, this machinery is simply the model grid itself, along with explicit representation of dynamics and a bulk microphysics parameterization. For coarser regions of the grid, the local environment is sampled from one or more grid columns (depending on local resolution) and fed to a separate 'convective processor', which determines the convective response to that environment and feeds the result back to the host grid. The convective processor chooses to either (1) explicitly resolve convective activity in the given environment on a separate (independent) limited-area 3D computational grid of comparable resolution to the convection-resolving part of the

  8. Comparing Cattell-Horn-Carroll factor models: differences between bifactor and higher order factor models in predicting language achievement.

    PubMed

    Beaujean, A Alexander; Parkin, Jason; Parker, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    Previous research using the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities has shown a relationship between cognitive ability and academic achievement. Most of this research, however, has been done using the Woodcock-Johnson family of instruments with a higher order factor model. For CHC theory to grow, research should be done with other assessment instruments and tested with other factor models. This study examined the relationship between different factor models of CHC theory and the factors' relationships with language-based academic achievement (i.e., reading and writing). Using the co-norming sample for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--4th Edition and the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test--2nd Edition, we found that bifactor and higher order models of the subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th Edition produced a different set of Stratum II factors, which, in turn, have very different relationships with the language achievement variables of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test--2nd Edition. We conclude that the factor model used to represent CHC theory makes little difference when general intelligence is of major interest, but it makes a large difference when the Stratum II factors are of primary concern, especially when they are used to predict other variables. PMID:24840178

  9. Achieving atomic resolution magnetic dichroism by controlling the phase symmetry of an electron probe

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rusz, Jan; Idrobo, Juan -Carlos; Bhowmick, Somnath

    2014-09-30

    The calculations presented here reveal that an electron probe carrying orbital angular momentum is just a particular case of a wider class of electron beams that can be used to measure electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD) with atomic resolution. It is possible to obtain an EMCD signal with atomic resolution by simply breaking the symmetry of the electron probe phase front using the aberration-corrected optics of a scanning transmission electron microscope. The probe’s required phase distribution depends on the sample’s magnetic symmetry and crystal structure. The calculations indicate that EMCD signals that use the electron probe’s phase are as strongmore » as those obtained by nanodiffraction methods.« less

  10. Achieving atomic resolution magnetic dichroism by controlling the phase symmetry of an electron probe

    SciTech Connect

    Rusz, Jan; Idrobo, Juan -Carlos; Bhowmick, Somnath

    2014-09-30

    The calculations presented here reveal that an electron probe carrying orbital angular momentum is just a particular case of a wider class of electron beams that can be used to measure electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD) with atomic resolution. It is possible to obtain an EMCD signal with atomic resolution by simply breaking the symmetry of the electron probe phase front using the aberration-corrected optics of a scanning transmission electron microscope. The probe’s required phase distribution depends on the sample’s magnetic symmetry and crystal structure. The calculations indicate that EMCD signals that use the electron probe’s phase are as strong as those obtained by nanodiffraction methods.

  11. A novel Fast Gas Chromatography based technique for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C10-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a ~ 14 min analysis time. Moreover, in situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an ~ 11 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to ~ 19 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). This corresponds to a two- to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest ~ 30 km west of central Tokyo, Japan, the

  12. The design of an animal PET: flexible geometry for achieving optimal spatial resolution or high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Weber, S; Terstegge, A; Herzog, H; Reinartz, R; Reinhart, P; Rongen, F; Müller-Gärtner, H W; Halling, H

    1997-10-01

    We present the design of a positron emission tomograph (PET) with flexible geometry dedicated to in vivo studies of small animals (TierPET). The scanner uses two pairs of detectors. Each detector consists of 400 small individual yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) scintillator crystals of dimensions 2 x 2 x 15 mm3, optically isolated and glued together, which are coupled to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT's). The detector modules can be moved in a radial direction so that the detector-to-detector spacing can be varied. Special hardware has been built for coincidence detection, position detection, and real-time data acquisition, which is performed by a PC. The single-event data are transferred to workstations where the radioactivity distribution is reconstructed. The dimensions of the crystals and the detector layout are the result of extensive simulations which are described in this report, taking into account sensitivity, spatial resolution and additional parameters like parallax error or scatter effects. For the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction a genuine 3-D expectation-maximization (EM)-algorithm which can include the characteristics of the detector system has been implemented. The reconstruction software is flexible and matches the different detector configurations. The main advantage of the proposed animal PET scanner is its high flexibility, allowing the realization of various detector-system configurations. By changing the detector-to-detector spacing, the system is capable of either providing good spatial resolution or high sensitivity for dynamic studies of pharmacokinetics. PMID:9368124

  13. In vivo sub-femtoliter resolution photoacoustic microscopy with higher frame rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Szu-Yu; Lai, Yu-Hung; Huang, Kai-Chih; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Tseng, Tzu-Fang; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-10-01

    Microscopy based on non-fluorescent absorption dye staining is widely used in various fields of biomedicine for 400 years. Unlike its fluorescent counterpart, non-fluorescent absorption microscopy lacks proper methodologies to realize its in vivo applications with a sub-femtoliter 3D resolution. Regardless of the most advanced high-resolution photoacoustic microscopy, sub-femtoliter spatial resolution is still unattainable, and the imaging speed is relatively slow. In this paper, based on the two-photon photoacoustic mechanism, we demonstrated a in vivo label free laser-scanning photoacoustic imaging modality featuring high frame rates and sub-femtoliter 3D resolution simultaneously, which stands as a perfect solution to 3D high resolution non-fluorescent absorption microscopy. Furthermore, we first demonstrated in vivo label-free two-photon acoustic microscopy on the observation of non-fluorescent melanin distribution within mouse skin.

  14. In vivo sub-femtoliter resolution photoacoustic microscopy with higher frame rates

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Szu-Yu; Lai, Yu-Hung; Huang, Kai-Chih; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Tseng, Tzu-Fang; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Microscopy based on non-fluorescent absorption dye staining is widely used in various fields of biomedicine for 400 years. Unlike its fluorescent counterpart, non-fluorescent absorption microscopy lacks proper methodologies to realize its in vivo applications with a sub-femtoliter 3D resolution. Regardless of the most advanced high-resolution photoacoustic microscopy, sub-femtoliter spatial resolution is still unattainable, and the imaging speed is relatively slow. In this paper, based on the two-photon photoacoustic mechanism, we demonstrated a in vivo label free laser-scanning photoacoustic imaging modality featuring high frame rates and sub-femtoliter 3D resolution simultaneously, which stands as a perfect solution to 3D high resolution non-fluorescent absorption microscopy. Furthermore, we first demonstrated in vivo label-free two-photon acoustic microscopy on the observation of non-fluorescent melanin distribution within mouse skin. PMID:26487363

  15. Interpreting 16S metagenomic data without clustering to achieve sub-OTU resolution.

    PubMed

    Tikhonov, Mikhail; Leach, Robert W; Wingreen, Ned S

    2015-01-01

    The standard approach to analyzing 16S tag sequence data, which relies on clustering reads by sequence similarity into Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), underexploits the accuracy of modern sequencing technology. We present a clustering-free approach to multi-sample Illumina data sets that can identify independent bacterial subpopulations regardless of the similarity of their 16S tag sequences. Using published data from a longitudinal time-series study of human tongue microbiota, we are able to resolve within standard 97% similarity OTUs up to 20 distinct subpopulations, all ecologically distinct but with 16S tags differing by as little as one nucleotide (99.2% similarity). A comparative analysis of oral communities of two cohabiting individuals reveals that most such subpopulations are shared between the two communities at 100% sequence identity, and that dynamical similarity between subpopulations in one host is strongly predictive of dynamical similarity between the same subpopulations in the other host. Our method can also be applied to samples collected in cross-sectional studies and can be used with the 454 sequencing platform. We discuss how the sub-OTU resolution of our approach can provide new insight into factors shaping community assembly. PMID:25012900

  16. High resolution anoscopy may be useful in achieving reductions in anal cancer local disease failure rates.

    PubMed

    Goon, P; Morrison, V; Fearnhead, N; Davies, J; Wilson, C; Jephcott, C; Sterling, J; Crawford, R

    2015-05-01

    Anal cancer is uncommon, with an incidence rate of 0.5-1.0 per 100,000 of the population but incidence rates have been steadily increasing over the last 3 decades. Biological and epidemiological evidence have been mounting and demonstrate that anal cancer has many similarities to cervical cancer, especially in regard to its aetiology. High-resolution anoscopy (HRA) of the anal region – analogous to colposcopy of the cervix, is a technique that is not well-known in the medical and surgical fraternity. Evidence to support the use of HRA for detection and treatment in the surveillance of AIN exists and strongly suggests that it is beneficial, resulting in reduced rates of cancer progression. Pilot data from our study showed a local disease failure rate of 1.73 per 1000 patient-months compared with a published rate of 9.89 per 1000 patient-months. This demonstrates a 5.72-fold reduction in local disease failure rates of patients with T1-T3 tumours; the data therefore suggests that use of HRA for detection and treatment in surveillance of anal cancer patients will help prevent local regional relapse at the anal site. There is an urgent need for a large, randomised controlled clinical trial to definitively test this hypothesis. PMID:24373061

  17. High Resolution Higher Energy X-ray Microscope for Mesoscopic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.

    2013-10-01

    We developed a novel X-ray microscopy technique to study mesoscopically structured materials, employing compound refractive lenses. The easily seen advantage of lens-based methodology is the possibility to retrieve high resolution diffraction pattern and real-space images in the same experimental setup. Methodologically the proposed approach is similar to the studies of crystals by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The proposed microscope was applied for studying of mesoscopic materials such as natural and synthetic opals, inverted photonic crystals.

  18. A comparative study of the energy resolution achievable with digital signal processors in x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, A.; Zambusi, M.; Ripamonti, G.

    1996-04-01

    Interest for digital processing of signals from radiation detectors is subject to a growing attention due to its intrinsic adaptivity, easiness of calibration, etc. This work compares two digital processing methods: a multiple-delay-line (DL){sup N} filter and a least-mean-squares (LMS) adaptive filter for applications in high resolution X-ray spectroscopy. The signal pulse, as appears at the output of a proper analog conditioning circuit, is digitized; the samples undergo a digital filtering procedure. Both digital filters take advantage of the possibility of synthesizing the best possible weighting function with respect to the actual noise conditions. A noticeable improvement of more than 10% in energy resolution has been achieved with both systems with respect to state-of-the-art systems based on analog circuitry. In particular, the two digital processors are shown to be the best choice respectively; for on-line use with critical ballistic deficit conditions and for very-high-resolution spectroscopy systems, ultimately limited by 1/f noise.

  19. Leadership and culture of data governance for the achievement of higher education goals (Case study: Indonesia University of Education)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putro, Budi Laksono; Surendro, Kridanto; Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Data is a vital asset in a business enterprise in achieving organizational goals. Data and information affect the decision-making process on the various activities of an organization. Data problems include validity, quality, duplication, control over data, and the difficulty of data availability. Data Governance is the way the company / institution manages its data assets. Data Governance covers the rules, policies, procedures, roles and responsibilities, and performance indicators that direct the overall management of data assets. Studies on governance data or information aplenty recommend the importance of cultural factors in the governance of research data. Among the organization's leadership culture has a very close relationship, and there are two concepts turn, namely: Culture created by leaders, leaders created by culture. Based on the above, this study exposure to the theme "Leadership and Culture Of Data Governance For The Achievement Of Higher Education Goals (Case Study: Indonesia University Of Education)". Culture and Leadership Model Development of on Higher Education in Indonesia would be made by comparing several models of data governance, organizational culture, and organizational leadership on previous studies based on the advantages and disadvantages of each model to the existing organizational business. Results of data governance model development is shown in the organizational culture FPMIPA Indonesia University Of Education today is the cultural market and desired culture is a culture of clan. Organizational leadership today is Individualism Index (IDV) (83.72%), and situational leadership on selling position.

  20. The Inevitability of Conflict and the Importance of Its Resolution in Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Leslie Sturdivant

    2008-01-01

    Among Christian adherents, the subject of conflict and its proper resolution has been a source of misunderstanding and angst for centuries. New Testament admonitions concerning the proper Christian life have traditionally focused on passivism and have been interpreted broadly by Christendom to require avoidance of all conflict as a virtue. The…

  1. Real-time visual sensing system achieving high-speed 3D particle tracking with nanometer resolution.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Peng; Jhiang, Sissy M; Menq, Chia-Hsiang

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a real-time visual sensing system, which is created to achieve high-speed three-dimensional (3D) motion tracking of microscopic spherical particles in aqueous solutions with nanometer resolution. The system comprises a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera, a field programmable gate array (FPGA), and real-time image processing programs. The CMOS camera has high photosensitivity and superior SNR. It acquires images of 128×120 pixels at a frame rate of up to 10,000 frames per second (fps) under the white light illumination from a standard 100 W halogen lamp. The real-time image stream is downloaded from the camera directly to the FPGA, wherein a 3D particle-tracking algorithm is implemented to calculate the 3D positions of the target particle in real time. Two important objectives, i.e., real-time estimation of the 3D position matches the maximum frame rate of the camera and the timing of the output data stream of the system is precisely controlled, are achieved. Two sets of experiments were conducted to demonstrate the performance of the system. First, the visual sensing system was used to track the motion of a 2 μm polystyrene bead, whose motion was controlled by a three-axis piezo motion stage. The ability to track long-range motion with nanometer resolution in all three axes is demonstrated. Second, it was used to measure the Brownian motion of the 2 μm polystyrene bead, which was stabilized in aqueous solution by a laser trapping system. PMID:24216655

  2. Higher-Resolution Data-Dependent Selective External ION Accumulation for Capillary LC-FTICR

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, Mikhail E.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2002-07-15

    Data-dependent selective external ion ejection with improved resolution is demonstrated with a 3.5 tesla FTICR instrument employing DREAMS (Dynamic Range Enhancement Applied to Mass Spectrometry) technology. To correct for the fringing rf-field aberrations each rod of the selection quadrupole has been segmented into three sections, so that ion excitation and ejection was performed by applying auxiliary rf-only waveforms in the region of the middle segments. Two different modes of external ion trapping and ejection were studied with the mixtures of model peptides and a tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin. A mass resolution of about 100 had been attained for rf-only dipolar ejection in a quadrupole operating at a Mathieu parameter q of ~0.45. LC-ESI-DREAMS-FTICR analysis of a 0.1 mg/mL solution of bovine serum albumin digest resulted in detection of 82 unique tryptic peptides with mass measurement errors lower than 5 ppm, providing 100 % sequence coverage of the protein.

  3. Higher-Resolution Data-Dependent Selective External Ion Accumulation for Capillary LC-FTICR.

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, Mikhail E. ); Anderson, Gordon A. ); Smith, Richard D. )

    2002-07-15

    Data-dependent selective external ion ejection with improved resolution is demonstrated with a 3.5 tesla FTICR instrument employing DREAMS (Dynamic Range Enhancement Applied to Mass Spectrometry) technology. To correct for the fringing rf-field aberrations each rod of the selection quadrupole has been segmented into three sections, so that ion excitation and ejection was performed by applying auxiliary rf-only waveforms in the region of the middle segments. Two different modes of external ion trapping and ejection were studied with the mixtures of model peptides and a tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin. A mass resolution of about 100 has been attained for rf-only dipolar ejection in a quadrupole operating at a Mathieu parameter q of{approx} 0.45. LC-ESI-DREAMS-FTICR analysis of a 0.1 mg/mL solution of bovine serum albumin digest resulted in detection of 82 unique tryptic peptides with mass measurement errors lower than 5 ppm, providing 100% sequence coverage of the protein.

  4. Flexible hydrological modeling - Disaggregation from lumped catchment scale to higher spatial resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Quoc Quan; Willems, Patrick; Pannemans, Bart; Blanckaert, Joris; Pereira, Fernando; Nossent, Jiri; Cauwenberghs, Kris; Vansteenkiste, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Based on an international literature review on model structures of existing rainfall-runoff and hydrological models, a generalized model structure is proposed. It consists of different types of meteorological components, storage components, splitting components and routing components. They can be spatially organized in a lumped way, or on a grid, spatially interlinked by source-to-sink or grid-to-grid (cell-to-cell) routing. The grid size of the model can be chosen depending on the application. The user can select/change the spatial resolution depending on the needs and/or the evaluation of the accuracy of the model results, or use different spatial resolutions in parallel for different applications. Major research questions addressed during the study are: How can we assure consistent results of the model at any spatial detail? How can we avoid strong or sudden changes in model parameters and corresponding simulation results, when one moves from one level of spatial detail to another? How can we limit the problem of overparameterization/equifinality when we move from the lumped model to the spatially distributed model? The proposed approach is a step-wise one, where first the lumped conceptual model is calibrated using a systematic, data-based approach, followed by a disaggregation step where the lumped parameters are disaggregated based on spatial catchment characteristics (topography, land use, soil characteristics). In this way, disaggregation can be done down to any spatial scale, and consistently among scales. Only few additional calibration parameters are introduced to scale the absolute spatial differences in model parameters, but keeping the relative differences as obtained from the spatial catchment characteristics. After calibration of the spatial model, the accuracies of the lumped and spatial models were compared for peak, low and cumulative runoff total and sub-flows (at downstream and internal gauging stations). For the distributed models, additional

  5. Towards a resolution of the cosmological singularity in non-local higher derivative theories of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Tirthabir; Koivisto, Tomi; Mazumdar, Anupam E-mail: T.S.Koivisto@uu.nl

    2010-11-01

    One of the greatest problems of standard cosmology is the Big Bang singularity. Previously it has been shown that non-local ghostfree higher-derivative modifications of Einstein gravity in the ultra-violet regime can admit non-singular bouncing solutions. In this paper we study in more details the dynamical properties of the equations of motion for these theories of gravity in presence of positive and negative cosmological constants and radiation. We find stable inflationary attractor solutions in the presence of a positive cosmological constant which renders inflation geodesically complete, while in the presence of a negative cosmological constant a cyclic universe emerges. We also provide an algorithm for tracking the super-Hubble perturbations during the bounce and show that the bouncing solutions are free from any perturbative instability.

  6. Aptitude Tests Versus School Exams as Selection Tools for Higher Education and the Case for Assessing Educational Achievement in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Advocates of using a US-style SAT for university selection claim that it is fairer to applicants from disadvantaged backgrounds than achievement tests because it assesses potential, not achievement, and that it allows finer discrimination between top applicants than GCEs. The pros and cons of aptitude tests in principle are discussed, focusing on…

  7. Study of the Relationship between Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Students: A Case of Spicer Higher Secondary School, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siahi, Evans Atsiaya; Maiyo, Julius K.

    2015-01-01

    The studies on the correlation of academic achievement have paved way for control and manipulation of related variables for quality results in schools. In spite of the facts that schools impart uniform classroom instructions to all students, wide range of difference is observed in their academic achievement. The study sought to determine the…

  8. A Study to Assess the Achievement Motivation of Higher Secondary Students in Relation to Their Noise Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latha, Prema

    2014-01-01

    Disturbing sounds are often referred to as noise, and if extreme enough in degree, intensity or frequency, it is referred to as noise pollution. Achievement refers to a change in study behavior in relation to their noise sensitivity and learning in the educational sense by achieving results in changed responses to certain types of stimuli like…

  9. EMODNet Hydrography - Seabed Mapping - Developing a higher resolution digital bathymetry for the European seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Moussat, Eric

    2013-04-01

    In December 2007 the European Parliament and Council adopted the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) which aims to achieve environmentally healthy marine waters by 2020. This Directive includes an initiative for an overarching European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet). The EMODNet Hydrography - Seabed Mapping projects made good progress in developing the EMODNet Hydrography portal to provide overview and access to available bathymetric survey datasets and to generate an harmonised digital bathymetry for Europe's sea basins. Up till end 2012 more than 8400 bathymetric survey datasets, managed by 14 data centres from 9 countries and originated from 118 institutes, have been gathered and populated in the EMODNet Hydrography Data Discovery and Access service, adopting SeaDataNet standards. These datasets have been used as input for analysing and generating the EMODNet digital terrain model (DTM), so far for the following sea basins: • the Greater North Sea, including the Kattegat • the English Channel and Celtic Seas • Western and Central Mediterranean Sea and Ionian Sea • Bay of Biscay, Iberian coast and North-East Atlantic • Adriatic Sea • Aegean - Levantine Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). • Azores - Madeira EEZ The Hydrography Viewing service gives users wide functionality for viewing and downloading the EMODNet digital bathymetry: • water depth in gridded form on a DTM grid of a quarter a minute of longitude and latitude • option to view QC parameters of individual DTM cells and references to source data • option to download DTM tiles in different formats: ESRI ASCII, XYZ, CSV, NetCDF (CF), GeoTiff and SD for Fledermaus 3 D viewer software • option for users to create their Personal Layer and to upload multibeam survey ASCII datasets for automatic processing into personal DTMs following the EMODNet standards The NetCDF (CF) DTM files are fit for use in a special 3D Viewer software package which is based on the existing open

  10. American Indian and Alaska Native Higher Education: Toward a New Century of Academic Achievement and Cultural Integrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Bobby

    This paper reviews the history of higher education for Native Americans and proposes change strategies. Assimilation was the primary goal of higher education from early colonial times to the 20th century. Tribal response ranged from resistance to support of higher education. When the Federal Government began to dominate Native education in the…

  11. Preparing for a Global Community. Achieving an International Perspective in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 2, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickert, Sarah M.

    This report discusses the response of colleges and universities in the United States to the need of graduate students to become equipped to make personal and public policy decisions as citizens of an international society. Curriculum changes are showing a tightening of foreign language standards in schools of higher education and, throughout the…

  12. Boosting K-12 Student Achievement: How Corporate America and Higher Ed Can Help. Forum Focus. Fall 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Jenifer, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Forum Focus" was a semi-annual magazine of the Business-Higher Education Forum (BHEF) that featured articles on the role of business and higher education on significant issues affecting the P-16 education system. The magazine typically focused on themes featured at the most recently held semi-annual Forum meeting at the time of publication.…

  13. Retrospective Understandings: Individual-Collective Influences on High Achieving Black Students at a Predominantly White Institution of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Candice Elaine

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of an exploratory qualitative study that examined the influences of individual and collective sociocultural identities on the community involvements and high academic achievement of 10 Black alumni who attended a predominantly White institution between 1985 and 2008. Syntagmatic narrative analysis and…

  14. Using Valid and Invalid Experimental Designs to Teach the Control of Variables Strategy in Higher and Lower Achieving Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Robert F., Jr.; Lorch, Elizabeth P.; Freer, Benjamin Dunham; Dunlap, Emily E.; Hodell, Emily C.; Calderhead, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Students (n = 1,069) from 60 4th-grade classrooms were taught the control of variables strategy (CVS) for designing experiments. Half of the classrooms were in schools that performed well on a state-mandated test of science achievement, and half were in schools that performed relatively poorly. Three teaching interventions were compared: an…

  15. Ubiquitous Laptop Usage in Higher Education: Effects on Student Achievement, Student Satisfaction, and Constructivist Measures in Honors and Traditional Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurst, Christian; Smarkola, Claudia; Gaffney, Mary Anne

    2008-01-01

    Three years of graduating business honors cohorts in a large urban university were sampled to determine whether the introduction of ubiquitous laptop computers into the honors program contributed to student achievement, student satisfaction and constructivist teaching activities. The first year cohort consisted of honors students who did not have…

  16. Higher temporal resolution is necessary for continuous-wave near -infrared spectrophotometric monitors in both cerebral and muscular tissue oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, Eiichi; Shiga, Toshikazu; Tanabe, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Yoshifumi

    1997-12-01

    Conventional near infrared spectrophotometric monitors have temporal resolution of less than about 1 Hz. However, physiological Hb signals such as pulsation and muscle contraction have higher frequency than 1 Hz. Insufficient sampling rates inevitably lead aliasing of the recorded signals in tissue oximetry for both brain and muscle. Cerebral Hb signals (57 y.o. female artificially ventilated under general anesthesia) and thigh muscle (22 y.o. male with 20 W - 240 W exercise at 1 Hz cycling in semirecumbent ergometer) were measured with NIRS monitor with temporal resolution of 10 Hz (OMRON Co. Ltd., Japan). The detail of physiological fluctuations such as pulsation, ventilation, and muscle pumping was clearly recognized with a 10 Hz sampling. The comparison with recalculated waveforms at slower sampling rate (0.5 Hz, 1 Hz, 2 Hz) revealed that with slower sampling than 1 Hz cerebral respiratory waves were deformed by pulsation, and that magnitudes of muscle pumping could not be properly evaluated in dynamic exercise. In both pulsatile and muscle contractile cycle a phase delay between oxygenated component and deoxygenated one was also detected, which has been overlooked by conventional NIRS monitoring.

  17. Higher temporal resolution is necessary for continuous-wave near -infrared spectrophotometric monitors in both cerebral and muscular tissue oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, Eiichi; Shiga, Toshikazu; Tanabe, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Yoshifumi

    1998-01-01

    Conventional near infrared spectrophotometric monitors have temporal resolution of less than about 1 Hz. However, physiological Hb signals such as pulsation and muscle contraction have higher frequency than 1 Hz. Insufficient sampling rates inevitably lead aliasing of the recorded signals in tissue oximetry for both brain and muscle. Cerebral Hb signals (57 y.o. female artificially ventilated under general anesthesia) and thigh muscle (22 y.o. male with 20 W - 240 W exercise at 1 Hz cycling in semirecumbent ergometer) were measured with NIRS monitor with temporal resolution of 10 Hz (OMRON Co. Ltd., Japan). The detail of physiological fluctuations such as pulsation, ventilation, and muscle pumping was clearly recognized with a 10 Hz sampling. The comparison with recalculated waveforms at slower sampling rate (0.5 Hz, 1 Hz, 2 Hz) revealed that with slower sampling than 1 Hz cerebral respiratory waves were deformed by pulsation, and that magnitudes of muscle pumping could not be properly evaluated in dynamic exercise. In both pulsatile and muscle contractile cycle a phase delay between oxygenated component and deoxygenated one was also detected, which has been overlooked by conventional NIRS monitoring.

  18. Causal Attribution: Actor-Observer Bias in Academic Achievement among Students at an Institution of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudhovozi, P.; Gumani, M.; Maunganidze, L.; Sodi, T.

    2010-01-01

    The study explores the attribution styles of in-group and out-group members. Eighty-four (42 female and 42 male) undergraduate students were randomly selected from the Faculty of Education at an institution of higher learning in Zimbabwe. A questionnaire was used to capture the opinions of the participants. The data was analysed using the…

  19. Going Green: A Comparative Case Study of How Three Higher Education Institutions Achieved Progressive Measures of Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    Leal Filho, MacDermot, and Padgam (1996) contended that post-secondary institutions are well suited to take on leadership responsibilities for society's environmental protection. Higher education has the unique academic freedom to engage in critical thinking and bold experimentation in environmental sustainability (Cortese, 2003). Although…

  20. Building Coalitions for Minority Success: A Report of the SHEEO Project on Minority Achievement in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingle, James R., Ed.; Rodriguez, Esther M., Ed.

    This report describes initiatives of higher education boards to provide equal educational opportunities for minority students in the following states: (1) Arizona; (2) Colorado; (3) Illinois; (4) Massachusetts; (5) Montana; (6) New York; (7) Ohio; and (8) Tennessee. Evidence of school completion, academic preparation, college participation rates,…

  1. Achievements and Consequences of Two Decades of Quality Assurance in Higher Education: A Personal View from the Edge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Don

    2010-01-01

    While the past two decades have seen significant expansion and harmonisation of quality assurance mechanisms in higher education, there is limited evidence of positive effects on the quality of core processes of teaching and learning. The paradox of the separation of assurance from improvement is explored. A shift in focus from surveillance to…

  2. A Fresh Perspective on Progress Files--A Way of Representing Complex Learning and Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Norman; Ward, Rob

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the challenge of developing new conceptual knowledge to help us make better sense of the way that higher education is approaching the "problem" of representing (documenting, certifying and communicating by other means) students' learning for the super-complex world described by Barnett (2000b). The current UK solution to…

  3. Unraveling the sequence information in COI barcode to achieve higher taxon assignment based on Indian freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Mohua; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Efficacy of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) DNA barcode in higher taxon assignment is still under debate in spite of several attempts, using the conventional DNA barcoding methods, to assign higher taxa. Here we try to understand whether nucleotide and amino acid sequence in COI gene carry sufficient information to assign species to their higher taxonomic rank, using 160 species of Indian freshwater fishes. Our results reveal that with increase in the taxonomic rank, sequence conservation decreases for both nucleotides and amino acids. Order level exhibits lowest conservation with 50% of the nucleotides and amino acids being conserved. Among the variable sites, 30-50% were found to carry high information content within an order, while it was 70-80% within a family and 80-99% within a genus. High information content shows sites with almost conserved sequence but varying at one or two locations, which can be due to variations at species or population level. Thus, the potential of COI gene in higher taxon assignment is revealed with validation of ample inherent signals latent in the gene. PMID:24409929

  4. Higher Achievement and Improvement Through Instruction with Computers and Scholarly Transition and Resource Systems Program (Project HAITI STARS), 1989-90. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    A final evaluation was conducted in the 1989-90 school year of New York City (New York) Board of Education's project, Higher Achievement and Improvement Through Instruction with Computers and Scholarly Transition and Resource Systems (HAITI STARS). The project served 524 limited-English-proficient Spanish-speaking students at Far Rockaway High…

  5. Higher Achievement and Improvement Through Instruction with Computers and Scholarly Transition And Resource Systems Program (Project HAITI STARS). Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OER Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustin, Marc A.

    The Higher Achievement and Improvement Through Instruction with Computers and Scholarly Transition And Resource Systems program (Project HAITI STARS), a federally-funded bilingual education program, served 425 students of limited English proficiency at three high schools in New York City during its fifth contract year. Students received…

  6. How endogenous plant cell-wall degradation mechanisms can help achieve higher efficiency in saccharification of biomass.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Eveline Q P; De Souza, Amanda P; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-07-01

    Cell-wall recalcitrance to hydrolysis still represents one of the major bottlenecks for second-generation bioethanol production. This occurs despite the development of pre-treatments, the prospect of new enzymes, and the production of transgenic plants with less-recalcitrant cell walls. Recalcitrance, which is the intrinsic resistance to breakdown imposed by polymer assembly, is the result of inherent limitations in its three domains. These consist of: (i) porosity, associated with a pectin matrix impairing trafficking through the wall; (ii) the glycomic code, which refers to the fine-structural emergent complexity of cell-wall polymers that are unique to cells, tissues, and species; and (iii) cellulose crystallinity, which refers to the organization in micro- and/or macrofibrils. One way to circumvent recalcitrance could be by following cell-wall hydrolysis strategies underlying plant endogenous mechanisms that are optimized to precisely modify cell walls in planta. Thus, the cell-wall degradation that occurs during fruit ripening, abscission, storage cell-wall mobilization, and aerenchyma formation are reviewed in order to highlight how plants deal with recalcitrance and which are the routes to couple prospective enzymes and cocktail designs with cell-wall features. The manipulation of key enzyme levels in planta can help achieving biologically pre-treated walls (i.e. less recalcitrant) before plants are harvested for bioethanol production. This may be helpful in decreasing the costs associated with producing bioethanol from biomass. PMID:25922489

  7. Examining the integrity of measurement of cognitive abilities in the prediction of achievement: Comparisons and contrasts across variables from higher-order and bifactor models.

    PubMed

    Benson, Nicholas F; Kranzler, John H; Floyd, Randy G

    2016-10-01

    Prior research examining cognitive ability and academic achievement relations have been based on different theoretical models, have employed both latent variables as well as observed variables, and have used a variety of analytic methods. Not surprisingly, results have been inconsistent across studies. The aims of this study were to (a) examine how relations between psychometric g, Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad abilities, and academic achievement differ across higher-order and bifactor models; (b) examine how well various types of observed scores corresponded with latent variables; and (c) compare two types of observed scores (i.e., refined and non-refined factor scores) as predictors of academic achievement. Results suggest that cognitive-achievement relations vary across theoretical models and that both types of factor scores tend to correspond well with the models on which they are based. However, orthogonal refined factor scores (derived from a bifactor model) have the advantage of controlling for multicollinearity arising from the measurement of psychometric g across all measures of cognitive abilities. Results indicate that the refined factor scores provide more precise representations of their targeted constructs than non-refined factor scores and maintain close correspondence with the cognitive-achievement relations observed for latent variables. Thus, we argue that orthogonal refined factor scores provide more accurate representations of the relations between CHC broad abilities and achievement outcomes than non-refined scores do. Further, the use of refined factor scores addresses calls for the application of scores based on latent variable models. PMID:27586067

  8. Resolution study of higher-order-mode-based beam position diagnostics using custom-built electronics in strongly coupled 3.9-GHz multi-cavity accelerating module

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, P.; Baboi, N.; Jones, R.M.; Eddy, N.

    2012-11-01

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOMs) can provide remote diagnostics information of the beam position and cavity misalignment. In this paper we report on recent studies on the resolution with specially selected series of modes with custom-built electronics. This constitutes the first report of measurements of these cavities in which we obtained a resolution of 20 micron in beam offset. Details of the setup of the electronics and HOM measurements are provided.

  9. Testing the limits of Paleozoic chronostratigraphic correlation via high-resolution (13Ccarb) biochemostratigraphy across the Llandovery–Wenlock (Silurian) boundary: Is a unified Phanerozoic time scale achievable?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, Bradley D.; Loydell, David K.; Samtleben, Christian; Munnecke, Axel; Kaljo, Dimitri; Mannik, Peep; Martma, Tonu; Jeppsson, Lennart; Kleffner, Mark A.; Barrick, James E.; Johnson, Craig A.; Emsbo, Poul; Joachimski, Michael M.; Bickert, Torsten; Saltzman, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    The resolution and fidelity of global chronostratigraphic correlation are direct functions of the time period under consideration. By virtue of deep-ocean cores and astrochronology, the Cenozoic and Mesozoic time scales carry error bars of a few thousand years (k.y.) to a few hundred k.y. In contrast, most of the Paleozoic time scale carries error bars of plus or minus a few million years (m.y.), and chronostratigraphic control better than ??1 m.y. is considered "high resolution." The general lack of Paleozoic abyssal sediments and paucity of orbitally tuned Paleozoic data series combined with the relative incompleteness of the Paleozoic stratigraphic record have proven historically to be such an obstacle to intercontinental chronostratigraphic correlation that resolving the Paleozoic time scale to the level achieved during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic was viewed as impractical, impossible, or both. Here, we utilize integrated graptolite, conodont, and carbonate carbon isotope (??13Ccarb) data from three paleocontinents (Baltica, Avalonia, and Laurentia) to demonstrate chronostratigraphic control for upper Llando very through middle Wenlock (Telychian-Sheinwoodian, ~436-426 Ma) strata with a resolution of a few hundred k.y. The interval surrounding the base of the Wenlock Series can now be correlated globally with precision approaching 100 k.y., but some intervals (e.g., uppermost Telychian and upper Shein-woodian) are either yet to be studied in sufficient detail or do not show sufficient biologic speciation and/or extinction or carbon isotopic features to delineate such small time slices. Although producing such resolution during the Paleozoic presents an array of challenges unique to the era, we have begun to demonstrate that erecting a Paleozoic time scale comparable to that of younger eras is achievable. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  10. SU-E-J-126: Respiratory Gating Quality Assurance: A Simple Method to Achieve Millisecond Temporal Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, B; Wiersma, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Low temporal latency between a gating on/off signal and a linac beam on/off during respiratory gating is critical for patient safety. Although, a measurement of temporal lag is recommended by AAPM Task Group 142 for commissioning and annual quality assurance, there currently exists no published method. Here we describe a simple, inexpensive, and reliable method to precisely measure gating lag at millisecond resolutions. Methods: A Varian Real-time Position Management™ (RPM) gating simulator with rotating disk was modified with a resistive flex sensor (Spectra Symbol) attached to the gating box platform. A photon diode was placed at machine isocenter. Output signals of the flex sensor and diode were monitored with a multichannel oscilloscope (Tektronix™ DPO3014). Qualitative inspection of the gating window/beam on synchronicity were made by setting the linac to beam on/off at end-expiration, and the oscilloscope's temporal window to 100 ms to visually examine if the on/off timing was within the recommended 100-ms tolerance. Quantitative measurements were made by saving the signal traces and analyzing in MatLab™. The on and off of the beam signal were located and compared to the expected gating window (e.g. 40% to 60%). Four gating cycles were measured and compared. Results: On a Varian TrueBeam™ STx linac with RPM gating software, the average difference in synchronicity at beam on and off for four cycles was 14 ms (3 to 30 ms) and 11 ms (2 to 32 ms), respectively. For a Varian Clinac™ 21EX the average difference at beam on and off was 127 ms (122 to 133 ms) and 46 ms (42 to 49 ms), respectively. The uncertainty in the synchrony difference was estimated at ±6 ms. Conclusion: This new gating QA method is easy to implement and allows for fast qualitative inspection and quantitative measurements for commissioning and TG-142 annual QA measurements.

  11. Higher-Resolution Structure of the Human Insulin Receptor Ectodomain: Multi-Modal Inclusion of the Insert Domain.

    PubMed

    Croll, Tristan I; Smith, Brian J; Margetts, Mai B; Whittaker, Jonathan; Weiss, Michael A; Ward, Colin W; Lawrence, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    Insulin receptor (IR) signaling is critical to controlling nutrient uptake and metabolism. However, only a low-resolution (3.8 Å) structure currently exists for the IR ectodomain, with some segments ill-defined or unmodeled due to disorder. Here, we revise this structure using new diffraction data to 3.3 Å resolution that allow improved modeling of the N-linked glycans, the first and third fibronectin type III domains, and the insert domain. A novel haptic interactive molecular dynamics strategy was used to aid fitting to low-resolution electron density maps. The resulting model provides a foundation for investigation of structural transitions in IR upon ligand binding. PMID:26853939

  12. WWC Review of the Report "Staying on Track: Testing Higher Achievement's Long-Term Impact on Academic Outcomes and High School Choice." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This study of 952 fifth and sixth graders in Washington, DC, and Alexandria, Virginia, found that students who were offered the "Higher Achievement" program had higher test scores in mathematical problem solving and were more likely to be admitted to and attend private competitive high schools. "Higher Achievement" is a…

  13. Torsional resonance mode magnetic force microscopy: enabling higher lateral resolution magnetic imaging without topography-related effects.

    PubMed

    Kaidatzis, A; García-Martín, J M

    2013-04-26

    We present experimental work that reveals the benefits of performing magnetic force microscopy measurements employing the torsional resonance mode of cantilever oscillation. This approach provides two clear advantages: the ability of performing magnetic imaging without topography-related interference and the significant lateral resolution improvement (approximately 15%). We believe that this work demonstrates a significant improvement to a versatile magnetic imaging technique widely used in academia and in industry. PMID:23535607

  14. Experimental study of the maximum resolution and packing density achievable in sintered and non-sintered binder-jet 3D printed steel microchannels

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Amy M; Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub; Benedict, Michael; Kiggans Jr, James O

    2015-01-01

    Developing high resolution 3D printed metallic microchannels is a challenge especially when there is an essential need for high packing density of the primary material. While high packing density could be achieved by heating the structure to the sintering temperature, some heat sensitive applications require other strategies to improve the packing density of primary materials. In this study the goal is to develop high green or pack densities microchannels on the scale of 2-300 microns which have a robust mechanical structure. Binder-jet 3D printing is an additive manufacturing process in which droplets of binder are deposited via inkjet into a bed of powder. By repeatedly spreading thin layers of powder and depositing binder into the appropriate 2D profiles, complex 3D objects can be created one layer at time. Microchannels with features on the order of 500 microns were fabricated via binder jetting of steel powder and then sintered and/or infiltrated with a secondary material. The average particle size of the steel powder was varied along with the droplet volume of the inkjet-deposited binder. The resolution of the process, packing density of the primary material, the subsequent features sizes of the microchannels, and the overall microchannel quality were characterized as a function of particle size distribution, droplet sizes and heat treatment temperatures.

  15. Inhibition of breathing after surfactant depletion is achieved at a higher arterial PCO2 during ventilation with liquid than with gas

    PubMed Central

    Rieger-Fackeldey, Esther; Sindelar, Richard; Jonzon, Anders; Schulze, Andreas; Sedin, Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    Background Inhibition of phrenic nerve activity (PNA) can be achieved when alveolar ventilation is adequate and when stretching of lung tissue stimulates mechanoreceptors to inhibit inspiratory activity. During mechanical ventilation under different lung conditions, inhibition of PNA can provide a physiological setting at which ventilatory parameters can be compared and related to arterial blood gases and pH. Objective To study lung mechanics and gas exchange at inhibition of PNA during controlled gas ventilation (GV) and during partial liquid ventilation (PLV) before and after lung lavage. Methods Nine anaesthetised, mechanically ventilated young cats (age 3.8 ± 0.5 months, weight 2.3 ± 0.1 kg) (mean ± SD) were studied with stepwise increases in peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) until total inhibition of PNA was attained before lavage (with GV) and after lavage (GV and PLV). Tidal volume (Vt), PIP, oesophageal pressure and arterial blood gases were measured at inhibition of PNA. One way repeated measures analysis of variance and Student Newman Keuls-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results During GV, inhibition of PNA occurred at lower PIP, transpulmonary pressure (Ptp) and Vt before than after lung lavage. After lavage, inhibition of inspiratory activity was achieved at the same PIP, Ptp and Vt during GV and PLV, but occurred at a higher PaCO2 during PLV. After lavage compliance at inhibition was almost the same during GV and PLV and resistance was lower during GV than during PLV. Conclusion Inhibition of inspiratory activity occurs at a higher PaCO2 during PLV than during GV in cats with surfactant-depleted lungs. This could indicate that PLV induces better recruitment of mechanoreceptors than GV. PMID:15748281

  16. Intrinsic Linear Heterogeneity of Amyloid β Protein Fibrils Revealed by Higher Resolution Mass-per-length Determinations*

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Hiroaki; Feingold-Link, Elana; Sharp, Kim A.; Rastogi, Tanvi; Axelsen, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    Amyloid β proteins spontaneously form fibrils in vitro that vary in their thermodynamic stability and in morphological characteristics such as length, width, shape, longitudinal twist, and the number of component filaments. It is vitally important to determine which variant best represents the type of fibril that accumulates in Alzheimer disease. In the present study, the nature of morphological variation was examined by dark-field and transmission electron microscopy in a preparation of seeded amyloid β protein fibrils that formed at relatively low protein concentrations and exhibited remarkably high thermodynamic stability. The number of filaments comprising these fibrils changed frequently from two to six along their length, and these changes only became apparent when mass-per-length (MPL) determinations are made with sufficient resolution. The MPL results could be reproduced by a simple stochastic model with a single adjustable parameter. The presence of more than two primary filaments could not be discerned by transmission electron microscopy, and they had no apparent relationship to the longitudinal twist of the fibrils. However, the pitch of the twist was strongly affected by the pH of the negative stain. We conclude that highly stable amyloid fibrils may form in which a surprising amount of intrinsic linear heterogeneity may be obscured by MPL measurements of insufficient resolution, and by the negative stains used for imaging fibrils by electron microscopy. PMID:20940298

  17. Modeling the Nucleus Laminaris of the Barn Owl: Achieving 20 ps Resolution on a 85-MHz-Clocked Digital Device.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Ralf; Heinrich, Enrico; Joost, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The nucleus laminaris of the barn owl auditory system is quite impressive, since its underlying time estimation is much better than the processing speed of the involved neurons. Since precise localization is also very important in many technical applications, this paper explores to what extent the main principles of the nucleus laminaris can be implemented in digital hardware. The first prototypical implementation yields a time resolution of about 20 ps, even though the chosen standard, low-cost device is clocked at only 85 MHz, which leads to an internal duty cycle of approximately 12 ns. In addition, this paper also explores the utility of an advanced sampling scheme, known as unfolding-in-time. It turns out that with this sampling method, the prototype can easily process input signals of up to 300 MHz, which is almost four times higher than the sampling rate. PMID:22347179

  18. Modeling the Nucleus Laminaris of the Barn Owl: Achieving 20 ps Resolution on a 85-MHz-Clocked Digital Device

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Ralf; Heinrich, Enrico; Joost, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The nucleus laminaris of the barn owl auditory system is quite impressive, since its underlying time estimation is much better than the processing speed of the involved neurons. Since precise localization is also very important in many technical applications, this paper explores to what extent the main principles of the nucleus laminaris can be implemented in digital hardware. The first prototypical implementation yields a time resolution of about 20 ps, even though the chosen standard, low-cost device is clocked at only 85 MHz, which leads to an internal duty cycle of approximately 12 ns. In addition, this paper also explores the utility of an advanced sampling scheme, known as unfolding-in-time. It turns out that with this sampling method, the prototype can easily process input signals of up to 300 MHz, which is almost four times higher than the sampling rate. PMID:22347179

  19. Toward faster and higher resolution LA-ICPMS imaging: on the co-evolution of LA cell design and ICPMS instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Gundlach-Graham, Alexander; Günther, Detlef

    2016-04-01

    We describe trends in fast, high resolution elemental imaging by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Recently developed low dispersion LA cells deliver quantitative transport of ablated aerosols within 10 ms and also provide enhanced sensitivity compared to conventional LA cells because the analyte ion signal becomes less diluted during aerosol transport. When connected to simultaneous ICPMS instruments, these low dispersion LA cells offer a platform for high speed and high lateral resolution shot-resolved LA-ICPMS imaging. Here, we examine the current paradigms of LA-ICPMS imaging and discuss how newly developed LA cell technology combined with simultaneous ICPMS instrumentation is poised to overcome current instrumental limitations to deliver faster, higher resolution elemental imaging. Graphical Abstract On means for obtaining high-speed, high-resolution, multielemental images is to combine new lowdispersion laser-ablation cell technology with an inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ICP-TOFMS). Here, we show three selected-isotope LA-ICP-TOFMS images of a hetereogeneous Opalinus clay sample. PMID:26753979

  20. Acute Response of Well-Trained Sprinters to a 100-m Race: Higher Sprinting Velocity Achieved With Increased Step Rate Compared With Speed Training.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Mitsuo; Kawahara, Taisuke; Isaka, Tadao

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the contribution of differences in step length and step rate to sprinting velocity in an athletic race compared with speed training. Nineteen well-trained male and female sprinters volunteered to participate in this study. Sprinting motions were recorded for each sprinter during both 100-m races and speed training (60-, 80-, and 100-m dash from a block start) for 14 days before the race. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance was used to compare the step characteristics and sprinting velocity between race and speed training, adjusted for covariates including race-training differences in the coefficients of restitution of the all-weather track, wind speed, air temperature, and sex. The average sprinting velocity to the 50-m mark was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (8.26 ± 0.22 m·s vs. 8.00 ± 0.70 m·s, p < 0.01). Although no significant difference was seen in the average step length to the 50-m mark between the race and speed training (1.81 ± 0.09 m vs. 1.80 ± 0.09 m, p = 0.065), the average step rate was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (4.56 ± 0.17 Hz vs. 4.46 ± 0.13 Hz, p < 0.01). These findings suggest that sprinters achieve higher sprinting velocity and can run with higher exercise intensity and more rapid motion during a race than during speed training, even if speed training was performed at perceived high intensity. PMID:26907837

  1. Effect of the energy-environment simulator on achievement, attitudes, and behavior relative to energy-education concepts systematically replicated in higher education

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    This study was a systematic replication of a study by Stagliano (1981). Additional hypotheses concerning pretest, student major, and student section variance were tested. Achievement in energy knowledge and conservation attitudes attained by (a) lecture-discussion enriched with the Energy-Environment Simulator and (b) lecture-discussion methods of instruction were measured. Energy knowledge was measured on the Energy Knowledge Assessment Test (EKAT), and attitudes were measured on the Youth Energy Survey (YES), the Lecture-discussion simulation (LDS) used a two hour out-of-class activity in debriefing. The population consisted of 142 college student volunteers randomly selected, and assigned to one of two groups of 71 students for each treatment. Stagliano used three groups (n = 35), one group receiving an energy-game treatment. Both studies used the pretest-posttest true experimental design. The present study included 28 hypotheses, eight of which were found to be significant. Stagliano used 12 hypotheses, all of which were rejected. The present study hypothesized that students who received the LDS treatment would obtain significantly higher scores on the EKAT and the YES instruments. Results showed that significance was found (alpha level .05) on the EKAT and also found on the YES total subscale when covaried for effects of pretest, student major, and student section. When covarying the effects of pretest scores only, significance was found on the EKAT. All YES hypotheses were rejected.

  2. If I Read Better, Will I Score Higher ?: The Relationship between Oral Reading Fluency Instruction and Standardized Reading Achievement Test Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Chad H.

    2008-01-01

    The research study examined whether a difference existed between the reading achievement scores of an experimental group and a control group in standardized reading achievement. This difference measured the effect of systematic oral reading fluency instruction with repeated readings. Data from the 4Sight Pennsylvania Benchmark Reading Assessments…

  3. Taking qPCR to a higher level: Analysis of CNV reveals the power of high throughput qPCR to enhance quantitative resolution.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Suzanne; Dube, Simant; Mir, Alain; Qin, Jian; Sun, Gang; Ramakrishnan, Ramesh; Jones, Robert C; Livak, Kenneth J

    2010-04-01

    This paper assesses the quantitative resolution of qPCR using copy number variation (CNV) as a paradigm. An error model is developed for real-time qPCR data showing how the precision of CNV determination varies with the number of replicates. Using samples with varying numbers of X chromosomes, experimental data demonstrates that real-time qPCR can readily distinguish four copes from five copies, which corresponds to a 1.25-fold difference in relative quantity. Digital PCR is considered as an alternative form of qPCR. For digital PCR, an error model is shown that relates the precision of CNV determination to the number of reaction chambers. The quantitative capability of digital PCR is illustrated with an experiment distinguishing four and five copies of the human gene MRGPRX1. For either real-time qPCR or digital PCR, practical application of these models to achieve enhanced quantitative resolution requires use of a high throughput PCR platform that can simultaneously perform thousands of reactions. Comparing the two methods, real-time qPCR has the advantage of throughput and digital PCR has the advantage of simplicity in terms of the assumptions made for data analysis. PMID:20079846

  4. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08. Part 1: Is the Emphasis on "Proficiency" Shortchanging Higher- and Lower-Achieving Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This report is the first in a series of reports describing results from the Center on Education Policy's (CEP's) third annual analysis of state testing data. The report provides an update on student performance at the proficient level of achievement, and for the first time, includes data about student performance at the advanced and basic levels.…

  5. Education Reform in the Trenches: Increased Academic Course Taking in High Schools with Lower Achieving Students in States with Higher Graduation Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clune, William H.; White, Paula A.

    1992-01-01

    Transcript data were analyzed to determine changes in course taking among graduates of high schools including mostly lower achieving students in California, Florida, Missouri, and Pennsylvania, which adopted high graduation requirements in the 1980s. Average credits per student increased in all academic subjects, as did the courses' difficulty…

  6. Studies of Several New Modifications of Aggressive Packet Combining to Achieve Higher Throughput, Based on Correction Capability of Disjoint Error Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Swarnendu Kumar; Goswami, Rajat Subhra; Bhunia, Chandan Tilak; Bhunia, Abhinandan

    2016-06-01

    Aggressive packet combining (APC) scheme is well-established in literature. Several modifications were studied earlier for improving throughput. In this paper, three new modifications of APC are proposed. The performance of proposed modified APC is studied by simulation and is reported here. A hybrid scheme is proposed here for getting higher throughput and also the disjoint factor is compared among conventional APC with proposed schemes for getting higher throughput.

  7. Missing in Action: Writing Process-Based Instructional Practices and Measures of Higher-Order Literacy Achievement in Predominantly Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briddell, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This study of 1,974 fifth grade students investigated potential relationships between writing process-based instruction practices and higher-order thinking measured by a standardized literacy assessment. Writing process is defined as a highly complex, socio-cognitive process that includes: planning, text production, review, metacognition, writing…

  8. The Elephant in the Hall: Motivating the Study of Student Motivation and Self-Regulation in Studies of Academic Achievement and Persistence in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    This essay proposes that much of what constitutes the quality of an institution of higher education is the quality of the students attending the institution. This quality, however, is conceptualized to extend beyond that of academic ability. Specifically, three propositions are considered. First, it is proposed that a core construct of student…

  9. A resolution commending the achievements and recognizing the importance of the Alliance to Save Energy on the 35th anniversary of the incorporation of the Alliance.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Warner, Mark R. [D-VA

    2012-03-26

    04/18/2012 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (text: CR S2517) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution

    DOEpatents

    Terwilliger, Steve

    2012-06-05

    Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

  11. Achieving quasi-adiabatic thermal environment to maximize resolution power in very high-pressure liquid chromatography: Theory, models, and experiments.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; Gilar, Martin; Jarrell, Joseph A

    2016-04-29

    A cylindrical vacuum chamber (inner diameter 5 cm) housing a narrow-bore 2.1 mm×100 mm column packed with 1.8 μm HSS-T3 fully porous particles was built in order to isolate thermally the chromatographic column from the external air environment. Consistent with statistical physics and the mean free path of air molecules, the experimental results show that natural air convection and conduction are fully eliminated for housing air pressures smaller than 10(-4) Torr. Heat radiation is minimized by wrapping up the column with low-emissivity aluminum-tape (emissivity coefficient ϵ=0.03 vs. 0.28 for polished stainless steel 316). Overall, the heat flux at the column wall is reduced by 96% with respect to standard still-air ovens. From a practical viewpoint, the efficiency of the column run at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min at a constant 13,000 psi pressure drop (the viscous heat power is around 9 W/m) is improved by up to 35% irrespective of the analyte retention. Models of heat and mass transfer reveal that (1) the amplitude of the radial temperature gradient is significantly reduced from 0.30 to 0.01 K and (2) the observed improvement in resolution power stems from a more uniform distribution of the flow velocity across the column diameter. The eddy dispersion term in the van Deemter equation is reduced by 0.8±0.1 reduced plate height unit, a significant gain in column performance. PMID:27040511

  12. A novel super-resolution camera model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Yi; Xu, Jie; Wang, Lin; Liu, Fei; Luo, Qiuhua; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Xiangli

    2015-05-01

    Aiming to realize super resolution(SR) to single image and video reconstruction, a super resolution camera model is proposed for the problem that the resolution of the images obtained by traditional cameras behave comparatively low. To achieve this function we put a certain driving device such as piezoelectric ceramics in the camera. By controlling the driving device, a set of continuous low resolution(LR) images can be obtained and stored instantaneity, which reflect the randomness of the displacements and the real-time performance of the storage very well. The low resolution image sequences have different redundant information and some particular priori information, thus it is possible to restore super resolution image factually and effectively. The sample method is used to derive the reconstruction principle of super resolution, which analyzes the possible improvement degree of the resolution in theory. The super resolution algorithm based on learning is used to reconstruct single image and the variational Bayesian algorithm is simulated to reconstruct the low resolution images with random displacements, which models the unknown high resolution image, motion parameters and unknown model parameters in one hierarchical Bayesian framework. Utilizing sub-pixel registration method, a super resolution image of the scene can be reconstructed. The results of 16 images reconstruction show that this camera model can increase the image resolution to 2 times, obtaining images with higher resolution in currently available hardware levels.

  13. Capturing and displaying microscopic images used in medical diagnostics and forensic science using 4K video resolution - an application in higher education.

    PubMed

    Maier, Hans; de Heer, Gert; Ortac, Ajda; Kuijten, Jan

    2015-11-01

    To analyze, interpret and evaluate microscopic images, used in medical diagnostics and forensic science, video images for educational purposes were made with a very high resolution of 4096 × 2160 pixels (4K), which is four times as many pixels as High-Definition Video (1920 × 1080 pixels). The unprecedented high resolution makes it possible to see details that remain invisible to any other video format. The images of the specimens (blood cells, tissue sections, hair, fibre, etc.) are recorded using a 4K video camera which is attached to a light microscope. After processing, this resulted in very sharp and highly detailed images. This material was then used in education for classroom discussion. Spoken explanation by experts in the field of medical diagnostics and forensic science was also added to the high-resolution video images to make it suitable for self-study. PMID:26250075

  14. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  15. The Effect of Higher Resolution and Improved Formulation of Surface Fluxes, Cloudiness, and Other Physical Parameters on a Simple Simulated Monsoon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Lie-Shieu

    1985-12-01

    Many general circulation modelers have identified the key factors influencing the Indian southwest monsoon. Although the land-sea distribution and moist adiabatic processes are diagnosed as being the key factors in generating the monsoon, the interrelationship of these processes was not properly clarified so far by the existing models. In the following study the simple Webster and Chou model was employed to diagnose important monsoon events or disturbances such as the shock (suddenness of the monsoon burst), onset vortex, organized precipitation cells etc. and to resolve the near equatorial disturbances that develop on the Southern Equatorial Trough (SET). A two degree resolution in stead of the original four degree resolution was adopted in this study. A noteworthy result of the HR (High Resolution) experiment is the generation of a shock signalling the onset of monsoon. The results of CS (climatologically derived surface winds) case show a weakening of the shock but a stronger development of westerlies at 750 mb agreeing better with observation. The precipitation in association with the onset in CS is less compared to HR but is prolonged. The CA (climatologically derived albedos) experiment affected the timing of the monsoon onset, reduced the intensity of the shock and developed less rainfall than HR. A combination of the CS and CA experiments eliminated the shock, advanced the monsoon onset and increased the rainfall over the land area. The SET experiment demonstrates that SET can influence the monsoon activity by decreasing rainfall particularly north of 25(DEGREES)N. This means that SET can initiate break conditions over northern India. The land-sea boundary experiments dealing with the movement of the land-sea boundary from 10(DEGREES)N to 30(DEGREES)N show that the timing of the monsoon onset is thus dependent on the land-sea distribution while the vigor is dependent on the air-sea exchange.

  16. Computational considerations for collecting and using data in the equidistant cylindrical map projection and the bounds of sampling geographic data at progressively higher resolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    The Equidistant Cylindrical Map projection is popular with digital modelers and others for storing and processing worldwide data sets because of the simple association of latitude and longitude to cell values or pixels in the resulting grid. This projection does not accurately display area, and the diminished geographic area represented by cells at high latitudes is not often carefully considered. A simple mathematical analysis quantifies the discrepancy in area sampled by cells at different latitudes. The presence of this discrepancy indicates that the use of this projection can induce bias in data sets when both sampling and reporting data. It is demonstrated that as the resolution requirements of input data for models increase, the necessity of providing data to accurately describe smaller cells, particularly at high latitude, will be a challenge.

  17. High Resolution Surface Backscatter Measurements with the SeaWinds Scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, M. W.; Wu, C.; Long, D. G.

    1998-01-01

    A technique employed to extract higher resolution backscatter measurements from the SeaWinds pencil-beam scatterometer system is described. The unique methodology necessary to achieve very high radiometric accuracy for such measurements is discussed.

  18. High Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy Using Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    During the past 13 years high resolution X ray spectrometers have been developed that use cryogenically cooled microcalorimeters. These devices have inherently high signal-to-noise by operating at temperatures below 0.1 K and can achieve an energy resolution of < 10 eV over the 0.1-10 keV band. Existing devices use doped semiconductor thermometers and typically employ HgTe absorbers. The energy resolution depends on achieving a low heat capacity for the device. For soft X ray applications a relatively thin absorber (approximately 1 micrometer) may be used and an energy resolution of approximately 7 eV has been achieved. For applications up to approximately 10 keV an absorber thickness of approximately 10 micrometer is required and the energy resolution is typically approximately 12 eV. Improvements to the energy resolution in this energy band could be achieved if the problems of thermalizing X rays in low heat capacity superconductors can be overcome. The recent work on transition edge thermometers by Irwin et nl. looks particularly promising because of the higher sensitivity achievable from a sharp superconducting transition. The relatively low impedance of such a device permits the use of a low noise SQUID amplifier for readout. This would also significantly reduce the cryogen heat load compared with JFETs required by higher impedance semiconductor thermometers.

  19. High-resolution studies of atmospheric IR emission spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, F. H.; Goldman, A.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Murcray, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric emission spectra obtained with two different spectrometer systems are presented. The first system (the BOMEM Michelson interferometer) is designed for emission work. Spectra were obtained under adverse conditions in the Antarctic, and are still of good absolute accuracy. The second system (a modified Bruker Instruments IFS120 very high spectral resolution interferometer) demonstrates the sensitivity that can be achieved even at higher spectral resolution. This system shows that mid-IR atmospheric emission spectra can be obtained with a good SNR in a reasonable length of time at a relatively high resolution. A properly designed high resolution system should achieve high accuracy, sensitivity, and resolution, thereby permitting measurements of many atmospheric constituents when solar spectra cannot be obtained.

  20. Memory bandwidth efficient two-layer reduced-resolution decoding of high-definition video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer, Mary L.

    2000-12-01

    This paper addresses the problem of efficiently decoding high- definition (HD) video for display at a reduced resolution. The decoder presented in this paper is intended for applications that are constrained not only in memory size, but also in peak memory bandwidth. This is the case, for example, during decoding of a high-definition television (HDTV) channel for picture-in-picture (PIP) display, if the reduced resolution PIP-channel decoder is sharing memory with the full-resolution main-channel decoder. The most significant source of video quality degradation in a reduced-resolution decoder is prediction drift, which is caused by the mismatch between the full-resolution reference frames used by the encoder and the subsampled reference frames used by the decoder. to mitigate the visually annoying effects of prediction drift, the decoder described in this paper operates at two different resolutions -- a lower resolution for B pictures, which do not contribute to prediction drift and a higher resolution for I and P pictures. This means that the motion-compensation unit (MCU) essentially operates at the higher resolution, but the peak memory bandwidth is the same as that required to decode at the lower resolution. Storage of additional data, representing the higher resolution for I and P pictures, requires a relatively small amount of additional memory as compared to decoding at the lower resolution. Experimental results will demonstrate the improvement in video quality achieved by the addition of the higher-resolution data in forming predictions for P pictures.

  1. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  2. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  3. USGS aerial resolution targets.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salamonowicz, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    It is necessary to measure the achievable resolution of any airborne sensor that is to be used for metric purposes. Laboratory calibration facilities may be inadequate or inappropriate for determining the resolution of non-photographic sensors such as optical-mechanical scanners, television imaging tubes, and linear arrays. However, large target arrays imaged in the field can be used in testing such systems. The USGS has constructed an array of resolution targets in order to permit field testing of a variety of airborne sensing systems. The target array permits any interested organization with an airborne sensing system to accurately determine the operational resolution of its system. -from Author

  4. EB resolution capability with CP exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, Masaki; Isobe, Hideaki; Abe, Kenji; Oae, Yoshihisa; Yamada, Akio; Narukawa, Shogo; Ishikawa, Mikio; Fujita, Hiroshi; Hoga, Morihisa; Hayashi, Naoya

    2011-05-01

    We are evaluating the resolution capability of character projection (CP) exposure method using a Multi Colum Cell Proof of Concept (MCC-POC) tool. Resolving of 14nm half pitch (HP) 1:1 line and space (LS) patterns are confirmed with fine openings of a DNP fabricated CP mask for 10:1 de-magnification ratio. CP exposure has been proven to exhibit high resolution capabilities even under the most challenging optimization conditions that are required for throughput enhancement. As a result of evaluating the resolution capability of CP technology, it became apparent that the CP technology has strong potentials to meet future challenges in two areas. One is where an increased number of CP with variable illumination technology gives a higher throughput which has been the main objective behind the development of this technology, and the other is to achieve higher resolution capability that is one of the strengths of CP exposure method. We also evaluated the resolution on Quartz mask blanks instead of Si wafers and obtained 18nm HP 1:1 resolution with CP exposure.

  5. [Deregulation and Higher Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The extent to which the Reagan Administration has achieved its deregulation goals in the area of higher education is addressed in three articles: "Deregulation and Higher Education: The View a Year Later" (Sheldon Elliot Steinbach); "Student Financial Aid Deregulation: Rhetoric or Reality?" (Robin E. Jenkins); and "Administration Reform of Civil…

  6. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  7. Defining Electron Backscatter Diffraction Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    El-Dasher, B S; Rollett, A D

    2005-02-07

    }{sub center} value is used to describe the overall system resolution, as it effectively quantifies the deviation of all orientations in the scan relative to the diffraction pattern least affected by distortions. The second is {omega}{sub max}, the largest misorientation angle possible between any pair of points in the dataset, and describes the worst possible case. Fig. 1 shows the effects of scan size and captured pattern resolution (bin size) on both angular values, illustrating that smaller scan and bin sizes have the effect of increasing angular resolution. However, it can be observed that the benefits of utilizing smaller bin sizes (and consequently slower data collection) diminish with scan size. Fig. 2 shows the effect of the number of pixels used in the Hough transform (defined as the ratio of pixels used to maximum possible pixels) on the angular values. It can be seen that the best angular resolutions are achieved at a pixel ratio of 0.80, again illustrating that the use of higher resolutions is not always beneficial. As evidenced by the results, the use of {omega}{sub center} and {omega}{sub max} not only permits the characterization of the angular resolution of an EBSD system, but they allow for a more efficient utilization of the system by identifying appropriate settings depending on the desired angular resolution [6].

  8. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  9. Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography Using Femtosecond Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, J. G.; Aguirre, A. D.; Chen, Y.; Herz, P. R.; Hsiung, P.-L.; Ko, T. H.; Nishizawa, N.; Kärtner, F. X.

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging optical imaging modality for biomedical research and clinical medicine. OCT can perform high resolution, cross-sectional tomographic imaging in materials and biological systems by measuring the echo time delay and magnitude of backreflected or backscattered light [1]. In medical applications, OCT has the advantage that imaging can be performed in situ and in real time, without the need to remove and process specimens as in conventional excisional biopsy and histopathology. OCT can achieve axial image resolutions of 1 to 15 μm; one to two orders of magnitude higher than standard ultrasound imaging. The image resolution in OCT is determined by the coherence length of the light source and is inversely proportional to its bandwidth. Femtosecond lasers can generate extremely broad bandwidths and have enabled major advances in ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging. This chapter provides an overview of OCT technology and ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging using femtosecond lasers.

  10. Resolution limits of ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy.

    PubMed

    Desailly, Yann; Pierre, Juliette; Couture, Olivier; Tanter, Mickael

    2015-11-21

    As in other imaging methods based on waves, the resolution of ultrasound imaging is limited by the wavelength. However, the diffraction-limit can be overcome by super-localizing single events from isolated sources. In recent years, we developed plane-wave ultrasound allowing frame rates up to 20,000 fps. Ultrafast processes such as rapid movement or disruption of ultrasound contrast agents (UCA) can thus be monitored, providing us with distinct punctual sources that could be localized beyond the diffraction limit. We previously showed experimentally that resolutions beyond λ/10 can be reached in ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy (uULM) using a 128 transducer matrix in reception. Higher resolutions are theoretically achievable and the aim of this study is to predict the maximum resolution in uULM with respect to acquisition parameters (frequency, transducer geometry, sampling electronics). The accuracy of uULM is the error on the localization of a bubble, considered a point-source in a homogeneous medium. The proposed model consists in two steps: determining the timing accuracy of the microbubble echo in radiofrequency data, then transferring this time accuracy into spatial accuracy. The simplified model predicts a maximum resolution of 40 μm for a 1.75 MHz transducer matrix composed of two rows of 64 elements. Experimental confirmation of the model was performed by flowing microbubbles within a 60 μm microfluidic channel and localizing their blinking under ultrafast imaging (500 Hz frame rate). The experimental resolution, determined as the standard deviation in the positioning of the microbubbles, was predicted within 6 μm (13%) of the theoretical values and followed the analytical relationship with respect to the number of elements and depth. Understanding the underlying physical principles determining the resolution of superlocalization will allow the optimization of the imaging setup for each organ. Ultimately, accuracies better than the size of

  11. Measuring and Recording Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Measuring and Recording Student Achievement Scoping Group was established by Universities UK and the Standing Conference of Principals (SCOP), with the support of the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) in October 2003 to review the recommendations from the UK Government White Paper "The Future of Higher Education" relating…

  12. High resolution drift chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 ..mu..m resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. [Dispute Resolutions].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Claudia L.; Cooks, Leda M.

    1994-01-01

    Focusing on the teaching of alternative dispute resolutions at universities, Claudia L. Hale and Leda M. Cooks argue that mediation should be taught primarily as a communication process that involves the joint efforts of mediator and disputants. Teachers of mediation should begin by distinguishing mediation from other forms of dispute resolution,…

  14. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  15. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  16. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

  17. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    Litigation in 1987 was very brisk with an increase in the number of higher education cases reviewed. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under four major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining and denial of employee benefits; (3)…

  18. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

  19. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This eighth chapter of "The Yearbook of School Law, 1986" summarizes and analyzes over 330 state and federal court cases litigated in 1985 in which institutions of higher education were involved. Among the topics examined were relationships between postsecondary institutions and various governmental agencies; discrimination in the employment of…

  20. Achieving Communicative Competence: The Role of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatt, James Poon Teng

    1991-01-01

    A study investigated the communicative competencies required in English as a Second Language (ESL) by 200 business and accounting students at Nanyang Technological Institute (Singapore) and explored a communicatively based ESL curriculum design. Student attitudes about the current linguistically based ESL program were also examined. Results are…

  1. Time Management and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyril, A. Vences

    2015-01-01

    The only thing, which can't be changed by man, is time. One cannot get back time lost or gone Nothing can be substituted for time. Time management is actually self management. The skills that people need to manage others are the same skills that are required to manage themselves. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relation between…

  2. Higher Order Thinking Skills: Challenging All Students to Achieve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, R. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Explicit instruction in thinking skills must be a priority goal of all teachers. In this book, the author presents a framework of the five Rs: Relevancy, Richness, Relatedness, Rigor, and Recursiveness. The framework serves to illuminate instruction in critical and creative thinking skills for K-12 teachers across content areas. Each chapter…

  3. Middle Grades: Quality Teaching Equals Higher Student Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene; Hertl, Jordan; Mollette, Melinda; Patterson, Lenora

    2014-01-01

    The middles grades are critical to public school systems and our nation's economy. It's the make-or-break point in students' futures. Studies repeatedly show when students are not engaged and lose interest in the middle grades, they are likely to fall behind in ninth grade and later drop out of school. When this happens, the workforce suffers, and…

  4. Super-resolution spectroscopic microscopy via photon localization.

    PubMed

    Dong, Biqin; Almassalha, Luay; Urban, Ben E; Nguyen, The-Quyen; Khuon, Satya; Chew, Teng-Leong; Backman, Vadim; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F

    2016-01-01

    Traditional photon localization microscopy analyses only the spatial distributions of photons emitted by individual molecules to reconstruct super-resolution optical images. Unfortunately, however, the highly valuable spectroscopic information from these photons have been overlooked. Here we report a spectroscopic photon localization microscopy that is capable of capturing the inherent spectroscopic signatures of photons from individual stochastic radiation events. Spectroscopic photon localization microscopy achieved higher spatial resolution than traditional photon localization microscopy through spectral discrimination to identify the photons emitted from individual molecules. As a result, we resolved two fluorescent molecules, which were 15 nm apart, with the corresponding spatial resolution of 10 nm-a four-fold improvement over photon localization microscopy. Using spectroscopic photon localization microscopy, we further demonstrated simultaneous multi-colour super-resolution imaging of microtubules and mitochondria in COS-7 cells and showed that background autofluorescence can be identified through its distinct emission spectra. PMID:27452975

  5. Super-resolution spectroscopic microscopy via photon localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Biqin; Almassalha, Luay; Urban, Ben E.; Nguyen, The-Quyen; Khuon, Satya; Chew, Teng-Leong; Backman, Vadim; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-07-01

    Traditional photon localization microscopy analyses only the spatial distributions of photons emitted by individual molecules to reconstruct super-resolution optical images. Unfortunately, however, the highly valuable spectroscopic information from these photons have been overlooked. Here we report a spectroscopic photon localization microscopy that is capable of capturing the inherent spectroscopic signatures of photons from individual stochastic radiation events. Spectroscopic photon localization microscopy achieved higher spatial resolution than traditional photon localization microscopy through spectral discrimination to identify the photons emitted from individual molecules. As a result, we resolved two fluorescent molecules, which were 15 nm apart, with the corresponding spatial resolution of 10 nm--a four-fold improvement over photon localization microscopy. Using spectroscopic photon localization microscopy, we further demonstrated simultaneous multi-colour super-resolution imaging of microtubules and mitochondria in COS-7 cells and showed that background autofluorescence can be identified through its distinct emission spectra.

  6. Super-resolution spectroscopic microscopy via photon localization

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Biqin; Almassalha, Luay; Urban, Ben E.; Nguyen, The-Quyen; Khuon, Satya; Chew, Teng-Leong; Backman, Vadim; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional photon localization microscopy analyses only the spatial distributions of photons emitted by individual molecules to reconstruct super-resolution optical images. Unfortunately, however, the highly valuable spectroscopic information from these photons have been overlooked. Here we report a spectroscopic photon localization microscopy that is capable of capturing the inherent spectroscopic signatures of photons from individual stochastic radiation events. Spectroscopic photon localization microscopy achieved higher spatial resolution than traditional photon localization microscopy through spectral discrimination to identify the photons emitted from individual molecules. As a result, we resolved two fluorescent molecules, which were 15 nm apart, with the corresponding spatial resolution of 10 nm—a four-fold improvement over photon localization microscopy. Using spectroscopic photon localization microscopy, we further demonstrated simultaneous multi-colour super-resolution imaging of microtubules and mitochondria in COS-7 cells and showed that background autofluorescence can be identified through its distinct emission spectra. PMID:27452975

  7. Improving Nano-MRI Spatial Resolution with Phase Multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, Brad; Eichler, Alex; Degen, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) is a scanning probe technique that allows measuring nuclear spin densities with resolution better than 10nm. Detecting such small volumes of spins (less than (10nm)3 corresponds to approximately 20,000 spins) requires long averaging of signals from statistically polarized nuclei. For instance, previous work demonstrated that imaging a single isotope (1H) of a Tobacco Mosaic Virus required averaging for 2 weeks, and therefore the chemical contrast abilities of MRFM had to be forfeited to enable higher spatial resolution. In order to reconcile the chemical selectivity of MRFM along with the proven high spatial resolution, we have developed a phase multiplexing technique capable of simultaneously acquiring spin signals from multiple isotopes and from up to six spatial locations. We have demonstrated this method using a nanowire test sample, and have achieved one-dimensional imaging resolution of less than 5 nm and subnanometer positional accuracy.

  8. High resolution time interval meter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  9. Tele-AAC Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kate; Boisvert, Michelle K.; Doneski-Nicol, Janis; Gutmann, Michelle L.; Hall, Nerissa C.; Morelock, Cynthia; Steele, Richard; Cohn, Ellen R.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 1.3% of all people, or about 4 million Americans, cannot rely on their natural speech to meet their daily communication needs. Telepractice offers a potentially cost-effective service delivery mechanism to provide clinical AAC services at a distance to the benefit of underserved populations in the United States and worldwide. Tele-AAC is a unique cross-disciplinary clinical service delivery model that requires expertise in both telepractice and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems. The Tele-AAC Working Group of the 2012 ISAAC Research Symposium therefore drafted a resolution underscoring the importance of identifying and characterizing the unique opportunities and constraints of Tele-AAC in all aspects of service delivery. These include, but are not limited to: needs assessments; implementation planning; device/system procurement, set-up and training; quality assurance, client progress monitoring, and follow-up service delivery. Tele-AAC, like other telepractice applications, requires adherence to the ASHA Code of Ethics and other policy documents, and state, federal, and international laws, as well as a competent technological infrastructure. The Working Group recommends that institutions of higher education and professional organizations provide training in Tele-AAC service provision. In addition, research and development are needed to create validity measures across Tele-AAC practices (i.e., assessment, implementation, and consultation); determine the communication competence levels achieved by Tele-AAC users; discern stakeholders’ perceptions of Tele-AAC services (e.g., acceptability and viability); maximize Tele-AAC’s capacity to engage multiple team members in AAC assessment and ongoing service; identify the limitations and barriers of Tele-AAC provision; and develop potential solutions. PMID:25945206

  10. Hidden Components in Aqueous "Gold-144" Fractionated by PAGE: High-Resolution Orbitrap ESI-MS Identifies the Gold-102 and Higher All-Aromatic Au-pMBA Cluster Compounds.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Marcos M; Chen, Jenny; Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Black, David M; Griffith, Wendell P; Garzón, Ignacio L; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Demeler, Borries; Whetten, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    Experimental and theoretical evidence reveals the resilience and stability of the larger aqueous gold clusters protected with p-mercaptobenzoic acid ligands (pMBA) of composition Aun(pMBA)p or (n, p). The Au144(pMBA)60, (144, 60), or gold-144 aqueous gold cluster is considered special because of its high symmetry, abundance, and icosahedral structure as well as its many potential uses in material and biological sciences. Yet, to this date, direct confirmation of its precise composition and total structure remains elusive. Results presented here from characterization via high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry on an Orbitrap instrument confirm Au102(pMBA)44 at isotopic resolution. Further, what usually appears as a single band for (144, 60) in electrophoresis (PAGE) is shown to also contain the (130, 50), recently determined to have a truncated-decahedral structure, and a (137, 56) component in addition to the dominant (144, 60) compound of chiral-icosahedral structure. This finding is significant in that it reveals the existence of structures never before observed in all-aromatic water-soluble species while pointing out the path toward elucidation of the thermodynamic control of protected gold nanocrystal formation. PMID:27275518

  11. Super-resolution images fusion via compressed sensing and low-rank matrix decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Kan; Xu, Fuyuan

    2015-01-01

    Most of available image fusion approaches cannot achieve higher spatial resolution than the multisource images. In this paper we propose a novel simultaneous images super-resolution and fusion approach via the recently developed compressed sensing and multiscale dictionaries learning technology. Under the sparse prior of image patches and the framework of compressed sensing, multisource images fusion is reduced to a task of signal recovery from the compressive measurements. Then a set of multiscale dictionaries are learned from some groups of example high-resolution (HR) image patches via a nonlinear optimization algorithm. Moreover, a linear weights fusion rule is advanced to obtain the fused high-resolution image at each scale. Finally the high-resolution image is derived by performing a low-rank decomposition on the recovered high-resolution images at multiple scales. Some experiments are taken to investigate the performance of our proposed method, and the results prove its superiority to the counterparts.

  12. High resolution MR microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, Luisa

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microscopy [1] has the potential to bring the full capabilities of NMR to arbitrarily specified localized positions within small samples. The most interesting target of study is the living biological cell, with typical dimensions ˜100 mum, but with substructures that are much smaller, such as the cell nucleus (typically ˜10 mu m) and mitochondria (1--10 mum). One anticipates that the development of MR microscopy with resolution at the level of these substructures or better and with a wide, three dimensional field-of-view could open a new avenue of investigation into the biology of the living cell. Although the first MR image of a single biological cell was reported in 1987 [2], the cell imaged had quite large (˜1 mm diameter) spatial dimensions and the resolution obtained (on the order of 10 mu m) was not adequate for meaningful imaging of more typically sized cells. The quest for higher resolution has continued. In 1989 Zhou et al. [3] obtained fully three dimensional images with spatial resolution of (6.37 mum)3, or 260 femtoliters. While better "in-plane" resolutions (i.e., the resolution in 2 of the 3 spatial dimensions) have since been obtained, [4, 5] this volume resolution was not exceeded until quite recently by Lee et al., [6] who report 2D images having volume resolution of 75 mum 3 and in-plane resolution of 1 mum. In parallel with these advances in raw resolution several investigators [7, 8, 9] have focused on localized spectroscopy and/or chemical shift imaging. The key obstacles to overcome in MR microscopy are (1) the loss of signal to noise that occurs when observing small volumes and (2) molecular diffusion during the measurement or encoding. To date the problem of sensitivity has typically been addressed by employing small micro-coil receivers. [10] The problem of molecular diffusion can only be defeated with strong magnetic field gradients that can encode spatial information quickly. We report MR microscopy

  13. A resolution honoring the lifetime achievements of E. Thom Rumberger.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Nelson, Bill [D-FL

    2011-09-13

    09/13/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S5584-5585; text as passed Senate: CR S5585; text of measure as introduced: CR S5583) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. A resolution honoring the achievements of E. Thom Rumberger.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Nelson, Bill [D-FL

    2011-08-01

    08/01/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5196) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai Shah, M.S.

    2007-03-06

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated.

  16. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  17. High resolution hyperspectral imaging with a high throughput virtual slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooding, Edward A.; Gunn, Thomas; Cenko, Andrew T.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) device users often require both high spectral resolution, on the order of 1 nm, and high light-gathering power. A wide entrance slit assures reasonable étendue but degrades spectral resolution. Spectrometers built using High Throughput Virtual Slit™ (HTVS) technology optimize both parameters simultaneously. Two remote sensing use cases that require high spectral resolution are discussed. First, detection of atmospheric gases with intrinsically narrow absorption lines, such as hydrocarbon vapors or combustion exhaust gases such as NOx and CO2. Detecting exhaust gas species with high precision has become increasingly important in the light of recent events in the automobile industry. Second, distinguishing reflected daylight from emission spectra in the visible and NIR (VNIR) regions is most easily accomplished using the Fraunhofer absorption lines in solar spectra. While ground reflectance spectral features in the VNIR are generally quite broad, the Fraunhofer lines are narrow and provide a signature of intrinsic vs. extrinsic illumination. The High Throughput Virtual Slit enables higher spectral resolution than is achievable with conventional spectrometers by manipulating the beam profile in pupil space. By reshaping the instrument pupil with reflective optics, HTVS-equipped instruments create a tall, narrow image profile at the exit focal plane, typically delivering 5X or better the spectral resolution achievable with a conventional design.

  18. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  19. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  20. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  1. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  2. Strategic Planning for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

    1981-01-01

    The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

  3. High-resolution microchannel plate image tube results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. Bruce; Patton, Stanley B.; Bender, E.

    1992-07-01

    The present 18-mm active diameter proximity-focused microchannel plate (MCP) image tube design has been modified to produce significantly higher limiting spatial resolution. A glass input window of the `bulls-eye' design with the blackened glass border, reduced cathode-to-MCP spacing, reduced channel center-to-center distance, reduced MCP-to-phosphor screen spacing, a brushed P20 phosphor screen, and a fiber optic output window were used to achieve a limiting resolution in excess of 50 lp/mm. Test results, showing limiting resolution versus applied potentials, are correlated with a simple physical model of performance. The low-light-level white-light sine-wave modulation transfer function, T(f), has been measured to be T(f) equals exp[-(f/21.5)1.46], where f is the spatial frequency in cycles per millimeter.

  4. Tuning and scanning control system for high resolution alexandrite lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James C.; Schwemmer, Geary K.

    1988-01-01

    An alexandrite laser is spectrally narrowed and tuned by the use of three optical elements. Each element provides a successively higher degree of spectral resolution. The digitally controlled tuning and scanning control servo system simultaneously positions all three optical elements to provide continuous high resolution laser spectral tuning. The user may select manual, single, or continuous modes of automated scanning of ranges up to 3.00/cm and at scan rates up to 3.85/cm/min. Scanning over an extended range of up to 9.999/cm may be achieved if the highest resolution optic is removed from the system. The control system is also capable of being remotely operated by another computer or controller via standard RS-232 serial data link.

  5. Influence of gel dimensions on resolution and sample throughput on two-dimensional gels.

    PubMed

    Lee, KiBeom; Pi, KyungBae; Lee, Hong-Gu

    2008-04-01

    To achieve high throughput and economical format of 2-D PAGE, comparison between gel size and resolution was conducted on human breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7/AZ) proteins. SDS gel length showed a weaker influence of separation length on resolution in the second dimension, and there was little benefit of separation distances greater than 15 to 19 cm. IPG strip separation distances were very important with dramatic increase in resolution of longer gels compared with smaller gels, and maximal resolution was obtained using 18- and 24-cm IPG strips. Loading optimal amount of proteins on 2-D gels can also increase the number of detected spots. Therefore, taken together, compromise 2-D gels are crucial for higher capacity and higher throughput. PMID:18457572

  6. Impact of spatial resolution of ocean models in depicting climate change patterns of the North Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Nikesh; Klein, Birgit; Mathis, Moritz; Klein, Holger; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The impact of enhanced spatial resolution of models in simulating large scale climate change has been of interest for the modeling community for quite some time. It has been noticed in previous studies that the pattern of Sea Surface Temperature anomalies are better captured by higher resolution models. Significant changes in simulating sea-ice loss associated with global warming was also noticed when the spatial resolution of climate models were enhanced. Spatial resolution is a particular important issue in climate change scenarios of shelf seas such as the North Sea. The North Sea is strongly influenced by its water mass exchanges with North Atlantic to the west and north and Baltic Sea to east. Furthermore, local forcing and changes in advected water masses significantly affect the thermodynamics and stratification patterns in the North Sea, making it a challenging area to study. Under the newly started RACE2 project we are looking at global simulations of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 at lower and higher resolutions, performed using the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPIESM). The model resolution is non uniform and achieves the highest resolution over the European Seas by shifting the model poles over Chicago and Central Europe. In the high resolution run, the grid reaches up to a spatial resolution of up to 4 km in part of the German Bight and close to 20 km in the Northern part of North Sea. The placement of model poles at specific locations enables the global model to obtain higher resolution at regional scales (North Sea), without the inherent complications of open boundary conditions. High and low resolution simulations will be compared to determine differences in spatial and temporal pattern of temperature anomalies, fresh water intrusion from the Baltic Sea to North Sea etc. Also taken into consideration will be the changes in simulating local sea level change and response to basin scale oscillations like NAO.

  7. School Community Relations and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, John E., Jr.

    This research examined the relationship between effective school-community relations and student achievement. The purpose of the study was to determine how the five variables of access, communication, involvement, participation, and resolution interact with a measure of effective school-community relations, how the five variables related to…

  8. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  9. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  10. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  11. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  12. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  13. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  7. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  8. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  9. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  12. Cognitive Style, Operativity, and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, James J.; Flexer, Barbara K.

    1984-01-01

    This developmental study was designed to examine the effects of field dependence-independence and level of operational development on the reading achievement of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. Field dependence-independence had no significant effect on reading achievement, but high-operational students scored significantly higher than…

  13. Mathematics Coursework Regulates Growth in Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), we examined the extent to which students' mathematics coursework regulates (influences) the rate of growth in mathematics achievement during middle and high school. Graphical analysis showed that students who started middle school with higher achievement took individual mathematics…

  14. Schooling and Achievement in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, William H.; And Others

    This book is an outgrowth of an interdisciplinary seminar on achievement processes. The 15 chapters of this book are distributed into three substantive sections. Part One includes a series of chapters dealing in one way or another with achievement in the life cycle. One chapter discusses the causes and consequences of higher education and…

  15. Maryland's Achievements in Public Education, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents Maryland's achievements in public education for 2011. Maryland's achievements include: (1) Maryland's public schools again ranked #1 in the nation in Education Week's 2011 Quality Counts annual report; (2) Maryland ranked 1st nationwide for a 3rd year in a row in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on…

  16. High resolution telescope

    DOEpatents

    Massie, Norbert A.; Oster, Yale

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  17. High resolution telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, N.A.; Oster, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. High resolution telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, N.A.; Oster, Y.

    1990-12-31

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  20. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  1. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  2. An adapted multi-resolution representation of regional VTEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Wenjing; Dettmering, Denise; Schmidt, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The resolution of ionosphere models is mainly limited by inhomogenously distributed input data. The International GNSS Service (IGS) provides global ionosphere maps (GIMs) of vertical total electron content (VTEC) values with a spatial resolution of 2.5° in latitude and 5° in longitude. In order to provide local ionospheric structures and support high precise GPS positioning, different high-resolution regional ionosphere models have been developed by using dense observation networks. However, there is no model available with a spatial resolution adapted to the data distribution. In this study we present a regional multi-resolution VTEC model which adapts the model resolution to the data distribution. In our approach, VTEC consists of a given background model such as the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) and an unknown correction part modeled as a series expansion in terms of B-spline scaling functions. The resolution level of the B-spline functions has to be determined by the distribution of the input data. With a sufficient number of observations, a higher level can be chosen, i.e., finer structures of VTEC can be modeled. The input data are heterogeneously distributed; specifically, the observations are dense over the continent whereas large data gaps exist over the oceans. Furthermore, the GPS stations are unevenly distributed over the continent. A data adapted VTEC model is achieved by combining a regional VTEC part with some local densification areas, each represented by a B-spline expansion. The unknown scaling coefficients of all these parts are then estimated by parameter estimation. In this contribution, our model approach is introduced, including the method of multi-resolution representation (MRR) and of combining the regional and local model parts. Furthermore, we show an example based on GNSS observations from selected permanent stations in South America.

  3. Integrated optical- and acoustic-resolution photoacoustic microscopy based on an optical fiber bundle

    PubMed Central

    Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM), whose spatial resolution and maximum imaging depth are both scalable, has made great progress in recent years. However, each PAM system currently achieves only one resolution with an associated maximum imaging depth. Here, we present an integrated optical-resolution (OR) and acoustic-resolution (AR) PAM system implemented by delivering light via an optical fiber bundle. A single fiber core is used to deliver light for OR illumination in order to achieve a small spot size and hence high lateral resolution, whereas all the fiber cores are used to deliver more energy for AR illumination. Most other components are shared by the OR and AR imaging. The lateral resolution can be seamlessly switched between 2.2 μm and 40 μm as the maximum imaging depth is switched between 1.3 mm and 3.0 mm. The system enables automatically co-registered higher-resolution OR and deeper AR photoacoustic imaging. PMID:23282835

  4. Optical resolution of rotenoids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abidi, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Optical resolution of selected rotenoids containing 1-3 asymmetric centers in dihydrobenzopyranofuroben-zopyranone and dihydrobisbenzopyranopyranone series has been achieved on two chiral high-performance liquid chromatographic (hplc) stationary phases. In most cases, the absolute stereochemistry at the cis-B/C ring junction of the rotenoidal antipodes can be related to their elution order. Generally, the 6aα,12aα-enantiomers were more strongly retained by the chiral substrate than their corresponding optical antipodes. The elution-configuration relationship provides potential utility for predicting the absolute configuration of related rotenoidal compounds. Chiral phase hplc on amino-acid-bonded-silica yielded results explicable in terms of Pirkle's bonding schemes for chiral recognition. Resolution data for 12a-hydroxy-, 12a-methoxy-, and 12-hydroxyiminorotenoids further corroborate the mechanistic rationale, and demonstrate that nonpolar π-π interactions appeared to be important for enantiomeric separation on helic poly-triphenylmethylacryl-ate-silica (CPOT). In the latter system, steric effects and conformational factors in association with the modification of E-ring structures might play significant roles in the chiral separation process in view of the reversal to the elution order observed for all methoxylated rotenoids and elliptone derivatives including the parent deguelin. The unique separability (α = 1.44) of 12a-hydroxyelliptone on CPOT was suggestive of structural effects of the 5-side chain on the resolution of the rotenoids having a five-membered-E-ring. The results obtained with two different types of chiral phases are complementary and useful for optical resolution of a wide variety of natural and synthetic rotenoidal compounds.

  5. Estuarine modeling: Does a higher grid resolution improve model performance?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological models are useful tools to explore cause effect relationships, test hypothesis and perform management scenarios. A mathematical model, the Gulf of Mexico Dissolved Oxygen Model (GoMDOM), has been developed and applied to the Louisiana continental shelf of the northern ...

  6. Cognitive Style, Operativity, and Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, James J.; Flexer, Barbara K.

    1983-01-01

    This study examined the effects of field dependence/independence and the level of operational development on the mathematics achievement of 450 students in grades 6-8. Field-independent students scored significantly higher on total mathematics, concepts, and problem-solving tests. High-operational students scored significantly higher on all tests.…

  7. Compact and high resolution virtual mouse using lens array and light sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zong; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Su, Yu-Jie; Huang, Yi-Pai; Shieh, Han-Ping David

    2016-06-01

    Virtual mouse based on IR source, lens array and light sensor was designed and implemented. Optical architecture including lens amount, lens pitch, baseline length, sensor length, lens-sensor gap, focal length etc. was carefully designed to achieve low detective error, high resolution, and simultaneously, compact system volume. System volume is 3.1mm (thickness) × 4.5mm (length) × 2, which is much smaller than that of camera-based device. Relative detective error of 0.41mm and minimum resolution of 26ppi were verified in experiments, so that it can replace conventional touchpad/touchscreen. If system thickness is eased to 20mm, resolution higher than 200ppi can be achieved to replace real mouse.

  8. Improving PET spatial resolution and detectability for prostate cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, H.; Guerin, L.; Casey, M. E.; Conti, M.; Eriksson, L.; Michel, C.; Fanti, S.; Pettinato, C.; Adler, S.; Choyke, P.

    2014-08-01

    Prostate cancer, one of the most common forms of cancer among men, can benefit from recent improvements in positron emission tomography (PET) technology. In particular, better spatial resolution, lower noise and higher detectability of small lesions could be greatly beneficial for early diagnosis and could provide a strong support for guiding biopsy and surgery. In this article, the impact of improved PET instrumentation with superior spatial resolution and high sensitivity are discussed, together with the latest development in PET technology: resolution recovery and time-of-flight reconstruction. Using simulated cancer lesions, inserted in clinical PET images obtained with conventional protocols, we show that visual identification of the lesions and detectability via numerical observers can already be improved using state of the art PET reconstruction methods. This was achieved using both resolution recovery and time-of-flight reconstruction, and a high resolution image with 2 mm pixel size. Channelized Hotelling numerical observers showed an increase in the area under the LROC curve from 0.52 to 0.58. In addition, a relationship between the simulated input activity and the area under the LROC curve showed that the minimum detectable activity was reduced by more than 23%.

  9. Testosterone and Occupational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbs, James M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Archival data on 4,462 military veterans linked higher levels of serum testosterone to lower-status occupations. A structural equation model was supported in which higher testosterone, mediated through lower intellectual ability, greater antisocial behavior, and lower education, leads away from white-collar occupations. Contains 49 references.…

  10. High-Resolution Variable-Density 3D Cones Coronary MRA

    PubMed Central

    Addy, Nii Okai; Ingle, R. Reeve; Wu, Holden H.; Hu, Bob S.; Nishimura, Dwight G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To improve the spatial/temporal resolution of whole-heart coronary MR angiography (CMRA) by developing a variable-density (VD) 3D cones acquisition suitable for image reconstruction with parallel imaging and compressed sensing techniques. Methods A VD 3D cones trajectory design incorporates both radial and spiral trajectory undersampling techniques to achieve higher resolution. This design is used to generate a VD cones trajectory with 0.8 mm/66 ms isotropic spatial/temporal resolution, using a similar number of readouts as our previous fully sampled cones trajectory (1.2 mm/100 ms). Scans of volunteers and patients are performed to evaluate the performance of the VD trajectory, using non-Cartesian L1-ESPIRiT for high-resolution image reconstruction. Results With gridding reconstruction, the high-resolution scans experience an expected drop in signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios, but with L1-ESPIRiT, the apparent noise is substantially reduced. Compared to 1.2 mm images, in each volunteer, the L1-ESPIRiT 0.8 mm images exhibit higher vessel sharpness values in the right and left anterior descending arteries. Conclusion CMRA with isotropic sub-millimeter spatial resolution and high temporal resolution can be performed with VD 3D cones to improve the depiction of coronary arteries. PMID:26172829

  11. 2011 Higher Education Sustainability Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Margo, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Looking through the lens of AASHE Bulletin stories in 2011, this year's review reveals an increased focus on higher education access, affordability, and success; more green building efforts than ever before; and growing campus-community engagement on food security, among many other achievements. Contributors include James Applegate (Lumina…

  12. Efficient Compression of High Resolution Climate Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Schuchardt, K. L.

    2011-12-01

    resolution climate data can be massive. Those data can consume a huge amount of disk space for storage, incur significant overhead for outputting data during simulation, introduce high latency for visualization and analysis, and may even make interactive visualization and analysis impossible given the limit of the data that a conventional cluster can handle. These problems can be alleviated by with effective and efficient data compression techniques. Even though HDF5 format supports compression, previous work has mainly focused on employ traditional general purpose compression schemes such as dictionary coder and block sorting based compression scheme. Those compression schemes mainly focus on encoding repeated byte sequences efficiently and are not well suitable for compressing climate data consist mainly of distinguished float point numbers. We plan to select and customize our compression schemes according to the characteristics of high-resolution climate data. One observation on high resolution climate data is that as the resolution become higher, values of various climate variables such as temperature and pressure, become closer in nearby cells. This provides excellent opportunities for predication-based compression schemes. We have performed a preliminary estimation of compression ratios of a very simple minded predication-based compression ratio in which we compute the difference between current float point number with previous float point number and then encoding the exponent and significance part of the float point number with entropy-based compression scheme. Our results show that we can achieve higher compression ratios between 2 and 3 in lossless compression, which is significantly higher than traditional compression algorithms. We have also developed lossy compression with our techniques. We can achive orders of magnitude data reduction while ensure error bounds. Moreover, our compression scheme is much more efficient and introduces much less overhead

  13. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  14. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  15. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  16. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  17. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  18. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  19. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  20. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  1. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  2. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  3. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  4. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  5. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  6. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  7. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  8. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  9. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  10. High-Angular-Resolution Microbeam X-Ray Diffraction with CCD Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Shigeru; Sakaia, Akira; Sakata, Osami

    2010-04-06

    We have introduced a CCD-type two-dimensional X-ray detector for a microbeam X-ray diffraction system using synchrotron radiation, so that we can measure local reciprocal space maps (RSM) of samples rapidly. A local RSM of a strain-relaxed SiGe 004 grown on a Si (001) substrate was measured in higher-angular-resolution and faster than a conventional way. The measurement was achieved in 1 h 40 min. with the 2theta resolution of 80 murad and the spatial resolution of 1.4(h)x0.5(v) {mu}m{sup 2}. The introduction of the CCD enabled us to measure RSMs at many points in a sample, that is, the distribution of strain fields and lattice tilts can be revealed in high-angular- and high-spatial-resolution.

  11. Tradeoff between picture resolution and quantization precision in video coding for embedded systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yu; Feng, David; Zhong, Yuzhuo

    2004-01-01

    In embedded multimedia applications, improving video quality under constraints of bandwidth and storage is an important problem. In this paper, we discuss the relationship among picture resolution, quantization precision and subjective quality in video coding for embedded systems. Then we propose a principle of tradeoff between picture resolution and quantization precision. Video coding based on the tradeoff principle can achieve higher subjective quality at low bitrates, and significantly reduce the burden of decoders. Experimental results on both MPEG-2 codec and H.264 codec prove that the tradeoff principle is valuable and feasible for embedded systems.

  12. Hybrid optical and acoustic resolution optoacoustic endoscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Hailong; Wissmeyer, Georg; Ovsepian, Saak V; Buehler, Andreas; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-06-15

    We propose the implementation of hybrid optical and acoustic resolution optoacoustic endoscopy. Laser light is transmitted to tissue by two types of illumination for achieving optical and acoustic resolution imaging. A 20 MHz ultrasound detector is used for recording optoacoustic signals. The endoscopy probe attains a 3.6 mm diameter and is fully encapsulated into a catheter system. We validate the imaging performance of the hybrid endoscope on phantoms and ex vivo, and discuss the necessity for the extended resolution and depth range of endoscopy achieved. PMID:27304269

  13. The High Resolution Hurricane Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripoli, G. J.

    2009-09-01

    It has been suggested that an answer to the hurricane intensity forecast problem is to use very high cloud-resolving resolution in operational forecast models. In consideration of this hypothesis, the United States National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration commissioned a major study to take place over the past 1.5 years whereby the hypothesis would be tested with 6 different hurricane models featuring different dynamics cores and different physics. These models included the GFDL hurricane, Navy COAMPS, the WRF-ARW, WRF-AHW, WRF-NMM, and the UW-NMS. The experiment design was to choose and optimal mix of historic hurricanes where good observations of intensity at land fall existed and run 5 day model forecasts with 3 different resolutions of about 9-12 km (low resolution), 3-4 km (medium resolution) and 1-1.5 km (high resolution) and document how much the forecast improved in each case. The project focused on 10 storms over 2-12, 1-5 day forecast periods, for a total of 67 simulations. Not all groups completed all 67 simulations, but there were sufficient results to reach a stunning conclusion. The results of these tests suggested that little or no improvement in intensity prediction was achieved with high resolution.

  14. Resolution in Electromagnetic Prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Schramm, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Low-frequency electromagnetic (EM) signals are commonly used in geophysical exploration of the shallow subsurface. Sensitivity to conductivity implies they are particularly useful for inferring fluid content of porous media. However, low-frequency EM wavefields are diffusive, and have significantly larger wavelengths compared to seismic signals of equal frequency. The wavelength of a 30 Hz sinusoid propagating with seismic velocity 3000 m/s is 100 m, whereas an analogous EM signal diffusing through a conductive body of 0.1 S/m (clayey shale) has wavelength 1825 m. The larger wavelength has implications for resolution of the EM prospecting method. We are investigating resolving power of the EM method via theoretical and numerical experiments. Normal incidence plane wave reflection/transmission by a thin geologic bed is amenable to analytic solution. Responses are calculated for beds that are conductive or resistive relative to the host rock. Preliminary results indicate the classic seismic resolution/detection limit of bed thickness ~1/8 wavelength is not achieved. EM responses for point or line current sources recorded by general acquisition geometries are calculated with a 3D finite-difference algorithm. These exhibit greater variability which may allow inference of bed thickness. We also examine composite responses of two point scatterers with separation when illuminated by an incident EM field. This is analogous to the Rayleigh resolution problem of estimating angular separation between two light sources. The First Born Approximation implies that perturbations in permittivity, permeability, and conductivity have different scattering patterns, which may be indicators of EM medium properties. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. Analysis of Complex Steel Microstructures by High-Resolution EBSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isasti, Nerea; Jorge-Badiola, Denis; Alkorta, Jon; Uranga, Pello

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution electron backscattered diffraction (HR-EBSD) is a powerful tool to describe microstructures at the sub-micrometric scale that achieves a higher degree of angular accuracy compared with conventional EBSD. However, such an EBSD technique is time-consuming and requires data-intensive computing to save and postprocess the results obtained after each scan. In the current work, a simple strategy to transform conventional results into high-resolution results is put forward in an averaging statistical layout. This makes it possible to measure the misorientations more precisely and, subsequently, the geometrically necessary dislocations by lowering the typical noise generated from Hough transformation-based conventional EBSD. Different steel microstructures are analyzed in light of this strategy. The calculated dislocation densities for those microstructures are used as input values for evaluating the initial dislocation density contribution to the yield strength in a newly developed mechanical model.

  16. Advances in coincidence time resolution for PET.

    PubMed

    Cates, Joshua W; Levin, Craig S

    2016-03-21

    Coincidence time resolution (CTR), an important parameter for time-of-flight (TOF) PET performance, is determined mainly by properties of the scintillation crystal and photodetector used. Stable production techniques for LGSO:Ce (Lu1.8Gd0.2SiO5:Ce) with decay times varying from ∼ 30-40 ns have been established over the past decade, and the decay time can be accurately controlled with varying cerium concentration (0.025-0.075 mol%). This material is promising for TOF-PET, as it has similar light output and equivalent stopping power for 511 keV annihilation photons compared to industry standard LSO:Ce and LYSO:Ce, and the decay time is improved by more than 30% with proper Ce concentration. This work investigates the achievable CTR with LGSO:Ce (0.025 mol%) when coupled to new silicon photomultipliers. Crystal element dimension is another important parameter for achieving fast timing. 20 mm length crystal elements achieve higher 511 keV photon detection efficiency, but also introduce higher scintillation photon transit time variance. 3 mm length crystals are not practical for PET, but have reduced scintillation transit time spread. The CTR between pairs of 2.9 × 2.9 × 3 mm(3) and 2.9 × 2.9 × 20 mm(3) LGSO:Ce crystals was measured to be 80 ± 4 and 122 ± 4 ps FWHM, respectively. Measurements of light yield and intrinsic decay time are also presented for a thorough investigation into the timing performance with LGSO:Ce (0.025 mol%). PMID:26914187

  17. Resolution limits in imaging LADAR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, Jed; Woods, Charles L.; Lorenzo, Joseph P.; Kierstead, John; Pyburn, Dana; Sengupta, S. K.

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new design concept of laser radar systems that combines both phase comparison and time-of-flight methods. We show from signal to noise ration considerations that there is a fundamental limit to the overall resolution in 3-D imaging range laser radar (LADAR). We introduce a new metric, volume of resolution (VOR), and we show from quantum noise considerations, that there is a maximum resolution volume, that can be achieved, for a given set of system parameters. Consequently, there is a direct tradeoff between range resolution and spatial resolution. Thus in a LADAR system, range resolution may be maximized at the expense of spatial image resolution and vice versa. We introduce resolution efficiency, ηr, as a new figure of merit for LADAR, that describes system resolution under the constraints of a specific design, compared to its optimal resolution performance derived from quantum noise considerations. We analyze how the resolution efficiency could be utilized to improve the resolution performance of a LADAR system. Our analysis could be extended to all LADAR systems, regardless of whether they are flash imaging or scanning laser systems.

  18. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  19. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  20. The Relationship between Birth Order and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Earl J.

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews some selected literature that reports higher academic achievement for first-borns and findings that large enough age gaps between siblings can offset first-born advantages in achievement. (Editor/SJL)

  1. High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak.

    PubMed

    Truong, D D; Austin, M E

    2014-11-01

    The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of Te(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83-130 GHz. The frequency spacing of the radiometer's channels results in a spatial resolution of ∼1-3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6-0.8 cm) resolution Te measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels' IF bands and consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2-4 GHz range. Higher spatial resolution is achieved through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters' center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83-130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a "zoomed-in" analysis of a ∼2-4 cm radial region. Expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial Te measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, are presented. PMID:25430227

  2. High resolution optical DNA mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baday, Murat

    Many types of diseases including cancer and autism are associated with copy-number variations in the genome. Most of these variations could not be identified with existing sequencing and optical DNA mapping methods. We have developed Multi-color Super-resolution technique, with potential for high throughput and low cost, which can allow us to recognize more of these variations. Our technique has made 10--fold improvement in the resolution of optical DNA mapping. Using a 180 kb BAC clone as a model system, we resolved dense patterns from 108 fluorescent labels of two different colors representing two different sequence-motifs. Overall, a detailed DNA map with 100 bp resolution was achieved, which has the potential to reveal detailed information about genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis of genetic disease.

  3. KINOFORM LENSES - TOWARD NANOMETER RESOLUTION.

    SciTech Connect

    STEIN, A.; EVANS-LUTTERODT, K.; TAYLOR, A.

    2004-10-23

    While hard x-rays have wavelengths in the nanometer and sub-nanometer range, the ability to focus them is limited by the quality of sources and optics, and not by the wavelength. A few options, including reflective (mirrors), diffractive (zone plates) and refractive (CRL's) are available, each with their own limitations. Here we present our work with kinoform lenses which are refractive lenses with all material causing redundant 2{pi} phase shifts removed to reduce the absorption problems inherently limiting the resolution of refractive lenses. By stacking kinoform lenses together, the effective numerical aperture, and thus the focusing resolution, can be increased. The present status of kinoform lens fabrication and testing at Brookhaven is presented as well as future plans toward achieving nanometer resolution.

  4. High-Resolution Underwater Mapping Using Side-Scan Sonar

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to generate high-resolution sea floor maps using a Side-Scan Sonar(SSS). This is achieved by explicitly taking into account the SSS operation as follows. First, the raw sensor data is corrected by means of a physics-based SSS model. Second, the data is projected to the sea-floor. The errors involved in this projection are thoroughfully analysed. Third, a probabilistic SSS model is defined and used to estimate the probability of each sea-floor region to be observed. This probabilistic information is then used to weight the contribution of each SSS measurement to the map. Because of these models, arbitrary map resolutions can be achieved, even beyond the sensor resolution. Finally, a geometric map building method is presented and combined with the probabilistic approach. The resulting map is composed of two layers. The echo intensity layer holds the most likely echo intensities at each point in the sea-floor. The probabilistic layer contains information about how confident can the user or the higher control layers be about the echo intensity layer data. Experimental results have been conducted in a large subsea region. PMID:26821379

  5. Requirements for a Moderate-Resolution Infrared Imaging Sounder (MIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gerber, Andrew J.; Kuai, Le; Gontijo, I.; DeLeon, Berta; Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena; Bajpai, Shyam

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of imaging and sounding from space warrants exploration of new methods for obtaining the required information, including changing the spectral band sets, employing new technologies and merging instruments. In some cases we must consider relaxation of the current capability. In others, we expect higher performance. In general our goal is to meet the VIIRS and CrIS requirements while providing the enhanced next generation capabilities: 1) Hyperspectral Imaging in the Vis/NIR bands, 2) High Spatial Resolution Sounding in the Infrared bands. The former will improve the accuracy of ocean color products, aerosols and water vapor, surface vegetation and geology. The latter will enable the high-impact achieved by the current suite of hyperspectral infrared sounders to be achieved by the next generation high resolution forecast models. We examine the spectral, spatial and radiometric requirements for a next generation system and technologies that can be applied from the available inventory within government and industry. A two-band grating spectrometer instrument called the Moderate-resolution Infrared Imaging Sounder (MIRIS) is conceived that, when used with the planned NASA PACE Ocean Color Instrument (OCI) will meet the vast majority of CrIS and VIIRS requirements in the all bands and provide the next generation capabilities desired. MIRIS resource requirements are modest and the Technology Readiness Level is high leading to the expectation that the cost and risk of MIRIS will be reasonable.

  6. High-Resolution Underwater Mapping Using Side-Scan Sonar.

    PubMed

    Burguera, Antoni; Oliver, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to generate high-resolution sea floor maps using a Side-Scan Sonar(SSS). This is achieved by explicitly taking into account the SSS operation as follows. First, the raw sensor data is corrected by means of a physics-based SSS model. Second, the data is projected to the sea-floor. The errors involved in this projection are thoroughfully analysed. Third, a probabilistic SSS model is defined and used to estimate the probability of each sea-floor region to be observed. This probabilistic information is then used to weight the contribution of each SSS measurement to the map. Because of these models, arbitrary map resolutions can be achieved, even beyond the sensor resolution. Finally, a geometric map building method is presented and combined with the probabilistic approach. The resulting map is composed of two layers. The echo intensity layer holds the most likely echo intensities at each point in the sea-floor. The probabilistic layer contains information about how confident can the user or the higher control layers be about the echo intensity layer data. Experimental results have been conducted in a large subsea region. PMID:26821379

  7. Requirements for a Moderate-resolution Infrared Imaging Sounder (MIRIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gerber, Andrew J.; Kuai, Le; Gontijo, I.; DeLeon, Berta; Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena; Bajpai, Shyam

    2013-09-01

    The high cost of imaging and sounding from space warrants exploration of new methods for obtaining the required information, including changing the spectral band sets, employing new technologies and merging instruments. In some cases we must consider relaxation of the current capability. In others, we expect higher performance. In general our goal is to meet the VIIRS and CrIS requirements while providing the enhanced next generation capabilities: 1) Hyperspectral Imaging in the Vis/NIR bands, 2) High Spatial Resolution Sounding in the Infrared bands. The former will improve the accuracy of ocean color products, aerosols and water vapor, surface vegetation and geology. The latter will enable the high-impact achieved by the current suite of hyperspectral infrared sounders to be achieved by the next generation high resolution forecast models. We examine the spectral, spatial and radiometric requirements for a next generation system and technologies that can be applied from the available inventory within government and industry. A two-band grating spectrometer instrument called the Moderate-resolution Infrared Imaging Sounder (MIRIS) is conceived that, when used with the planned NASA PACE Ocean Color Instrument (OCI) will meet the vast majority of CrIS and VIIRS requirements in the all bands and provide the next generation capabilities desired. MIRIS resource requirements are modest and the Technology Readiness Level is high leading to the expectation that the cost and risk of MIRIS will be reasonable.

  8. Barriers to Occupational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurman, Ernest B.

    The under-representation of women in prestigious occupations and the lower average pay women earn has been of concern for many years. This study investigated two alternative explanations for this under-representation of females in prestigious and higher paying occupations. The first explanation was external barriers such as discrimination, and the…

  9. High spatial resolution restoration of IRAS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasdalen, Gary L.; Inguva, R.; Dyck, H. Melvin; Canterna, R.; Hackwell, John A.

    1990-01-01

    A general technique to improve the spatial resolution of the IRAS AO data was developed at The Aerospace Corporation using the Maximum Entropy algorithm of Skilling and Gull. The technique has been applied to a variety of fields and several individual AO MACROS. With this general technique, resolutions of 15 arcsec were achieved in 12 and 25 micron images and 30 arcsec in 60 and 100 micron images. Results on galactic plane fields show that both photometric and positional accuracy achieved in the general IRAS survey are also achieved in the reconstructed images.

  10. Achieving Magnet status.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beckie; Gates, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Magnet has become the gold standard for nursing excellence. It is the symbol of effective and safe patient care. It evaluates components that inspire safe care, including employee satisfaction and retention, professional education, and effective interdisciplinary collaboration. In an organization whose mission focuses on excellent patient care, Banner Thunderbird Medical Center found that pursuing Magnet status was clearly the next step. In this article, we will discuss committee selection, education, team building, planning, and the discovery process that define the Magnet journey. The road to obtaining Magnet status has permitted many opportunities to celebrate our achievements. PMID:16056158

  11. Leadership, self-efficacy, and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Kristin

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the Leadership Behavior Description Question (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969), the Science Efficacy and Belief Expectations for Science Teaching (SEBEST) by Ritter, Boone, and Rubba (2001, January). Students' scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) measured fifth-grade science achievement. At the teacher level of analysis multiple regressions showed the following relationships between teachers' science self-efficacy and teacher classroom leadership behaviors and the various teacher and school demographic variables. Predictors of teacher self efficacy beliefs included teacher's level of education, gender, and leadership initiating structure. The only significant predictor of teacher self-efficacy outcome expectancy was gender. Higher teacher self-efficacy beliefs predicted higher leadership initiating structure. At the school level of analysis, higher school levels of percentage of students from low socio-economic backgrounds and higher percentage of limited English proficient students predicted lower school student mean science achievement. These findings suggest a need for continued research to clarify relationships between teacher classroom leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement especially at the teacher level of analysis. Findings also indicate the importance of developing instructional methods to address student demographics and their needs so that all students, despite their backgrounds, will achieve in science.

  12. Spatial resolution limits for synchrotron-based infrared spectromicroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, Erika; Lerch, Philippe; Martin, Michael C.

    2007-10-15

    Detailed spatial resolution tests were performed on beamline 1.4.4 at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron facility in Berkeley, CA. The high-brightness synchrotron source is coupled at this beamline to a Thermo-Electron Continumum XL infrared microscope. Two types of resolution tests in both the mid-IR (using a KBr beamsplitter and an MCT-A* detector) and in the near-IR (using a CaF2 beamsplitter and an InGaAS detector) were performed and compared to a simple diffraction-limited spot size model. At the shorter wavelengths in the near-IR the experimental results begin to deviate from only diffraction-limited. The entire data set is fit using a combined diffraction-limit and demagnified electron beam source size model. This description experimentally verifies how the physical electron beam size of the synchrotron source demagnified to the sample stage on the endstation begins to dominate the focussed spot size and therefore spatial resolution at higher energies. We discuss how different facilities, beamlines, and microscopes will affect the achievable spatial resolution.

  13. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  14. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  15. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  16. Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution

    PubMed Central

    Bishara, Waheb; Su, Ting-Wei; Coskun, Ahmet F.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate lensfree holographic microscopy on a chip to achieve ~0.6 µm spatial resolution corresponding to a numerical aperture of ~0.5 over a large field-of-view of ~24 mm2. By using partially coherent illumination from a large aperture (~50 µm), we acquire lower resolution lensfree in-line holograms of the objects with unit fringe magnification. For each lensfree hologram, the pixel size at the sensor chip limits the spatial resolution of the reconstructed image. To circumvent this limitation, we implement a sub-pixel shifting based super-resolution algorithm to effectively recover much higher resolution digital holograms of the objects, permitting sub-micron spatial resolution to be achieved across the entire sensor chip active area, which is also equivalent to the imaging field-of-view (24 mm2) due to unit magnification. We demonstrate the success of this pixel super-resolution approach by imaging patterned transparent substrates, blood smear samples, as well as Caenoharbditis Elegans. PMID:20588977

  17. Projecting global datasets to achieve equal areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E.L.; Finn, M.P.; Cox, J.D.; Beard, T.; Ruhl, S.; Bearden, M.

    2003-01-01

    Scientists routinely accomplish global modeling in the raster domain, but recent research has indicated that the transformation of large areas through map projection equations leads to errors. This research attempts to gauge the extent of map projection and resampling effects on the tabulation of categorical areas by comparing the results of three datasets for seven common projections. The datasets, Global Land Cover, Holdridge Life Zones, and Global Vegetation, were compiled at resolutions of 30 arc-second, 1/2 degree, and 1 degree, respectively. These datasets were projected globally from spherical coordinates to plane representations. Results indicate significant problems in the implementation of global projection transformations in commercial software, as well as differences in areal accuracy across projections. The level of raster resolution directly affects the accuracy of areal tabulations, with higher resolution yielding higher accuracy. If the raster resolution is high enough for individual pixels to approximate points, the areal error tends to zero. The 30-arc-second cells appear to approximate this condition.

  18. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  19. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  20. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefitted greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  1. Super-resolution for flash LADAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shuowen; Young, S. Susan; Hong, Tsai; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Krapels, Keith; Miller, Brian; Thomas, Jim; Nguyen, Oanh

    2009-05-01

    Flash laser detection and ranging (LADAR) systems are increasingly used in robotics applications for autonomous navigation and obstacle avoidance. Their compact size, high frame rate, wide field of view, and low cost are key advantages over traditional scanning LADAR devices. However, these benefits are achieved at the cost of spatial resolution. Super-resolution enhancement can be applied to improve the resolution of flash LADAR devices, making them ideal for small robotics applications. Previous work by Rosenbush et al. applied the super-resolution algorithm of Vandewalle et al. to flash LADAR data, and observed quantitative improvement in image quality in terms of number of edges detected. This study uses the super-resolution algorithm of Young et al. to enhance the resolution of range data acquired with a SwissRanger SR-3000 flash LADAR camera. To improve the accuracy of sub-pixel shift estimation, a wavelet preprocessing stage was developed and applied to flash LADAR imagery. The authors used the triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) methodology for a subjective evaluation of the performance improvement (measured in terms of probability of target discrimination and subject response times) achieved with super-resolution. Super-resolution of flash LADAR imagery resulted in superior probabilities of target discrimination at the all investigated ranges while reducing subject response times.

  2. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  3. Handbook of Research on Improving Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawelti, Gordon, Ed.

    This handbook is designed to identify classroom practices that research has shown to result in higher student achievement. The fundamental idea behind this book is that in order to succeed, efforts to improve instruction must foucs on the existing knowledge base about effective teaching and learning. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction" (Gordon…

  4. Achievement in Boys' Schools 2010-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Cathy; Berg, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This report explores the achievement of school leavers from state and state-integrated boys' schools. The analysis from 2010 to 2012 shows school leavers from state boys' schools had higher qualifications than their male counterparts who attended state co-educational schools. The research was carried out for the Association of Boys' Schools of New…

  5. Academic Freedom, Achievement Standards and Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, D. Royce

    2011-01-01

    The tension between the freedom of academics to grade the achievements of their students without interference or coercion and the prerogative of higher education institutions to control grading standards is often deliberated by weighing up the authority and rights of the two parties. An alternative approach is to start with an analysis of the…

  6. The Achiever. Volume 6, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "The Achiever" is a monthly publication designed expressly for parents and community leaders. Each issue contains news and information about school improvement in the United States. Highlights of this issue include: (1) Spellings Convenes National Summit on Higher Education; (2) Noble Street: Chicago Charter High School Creates a Culture of …

  7. Is achievement in Australian chemistry gender based?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, John; Fogliani, Charles; Owens, Chris; Wilson, Audrey

    1993-12-01

    This paper compares the performances of female and male secondary students in the 1991 and 1992 Australian National Chemistry Quizzes. Male students consistently achieved a higher mean score in all Year groups (7 to 12), even though the numbers of female and male entrants were approximately equal. Implications for class tests and assessment tasks are addressed.

  8. Communication Studies in Australia: Achievements and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harry

    The introduction of communications studies in Australian higher education and problems and achievements of the past decade are discussed. Attention is directed to: the development of formal college coursework; staff training and retraining schemes to support development; academic and professional associations; journals in the field; and research,…

  9. A Human Achievement: Mathematics without Boundaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzioglu, Tosun

    This paper describes three fundamental principles, dictated by Wilhelm von Humboldt, that were widely adapted as the basic philosophy of higher education in the United States, and proposes to revise the unfulfilled dream of von Humboldt to make it come true. This paper stresses the achievements of humanity not only in technology, health, or the…

  10. Improving Student Achievement through Alternative Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durning, Jermaine; Matyasec, Maryann

    An attempt was made to improve students' academic grades and students' opinions of themselves as learners through the use of alternative assessments. The format of mastery learning using the direct instruction practice model was combined with performance-based assessment to increase achievement, self-esteem, and higher level thinking skills.…

  11. Data resolution versus forestry classification and modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, E. P.; Ball, D. L.; Basu, J. P.; Smelser, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper examines the effects on timber stand computer classification accuracies caused by changes in the resolution of remotely sensed multispectral data. This investigation is valuable, especially for determining optimal sensor and platform designs. Theoretical justification and experimental verification support the finding that classification accuracies for low resolution data could be better than the accuracies for data with higher resolution. The increase in accuracy is constructed as due to the reduction of scene inhomogeneity at lower resolution. The computer classification scheme was a maximum likelihood classifier.

  12. STEM-in-SEM high resolution imaging of gold nanoparticles and bivalve tissues in bioaccumulation experiments.

    PubMed

    García-Negrete, C A; Jiménez de Haro, M C; Blasco, J; Soto, M; Fernández, A

    2015-05-01

    The methodology termed scanning transmission electron microscopy in scanning electron microscopy (STEM-in-SEM) has been used in this work to study the uptake of citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) (average particle sizes of 23.5 ± 4.0 nm) into tissue samples upon in vitro exposure of the dissected gills of the Ruditapes philippinarum marine bivalve to the nanoparticle suspensions. The STEM-in-SEM methodology has been optimized for achieving optimum resolution under SEM low voltage operating conditions (20-30 kV). Based on scanning microscope assessments and resolution testing (SMART), resolutions well below 10 nm were appropriately achieved by working at magnifications over 100k×, with experimental sample thickness between 300 and 200 nm. These relatively thick slices appear to be stable under the beam and help avoid NP displacement during cutting. We herein show that both localizing of the internalized nanoparticles and imaging of ultrastructural disturbances in gill tissues are strongly accessible due to the improved resolution, even at sample thicknesses higher than those normally employed in standard TEM techniques at higher voltages. Ultrastructural imaging of bio-nano features in bioaccumulation experiments have been demonstrated in this study. PMID:25685960

  13. The Economic Value of Higher Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    Most analyses of teacher quality end without any assessment of the economic value of altered teacher quality. This paper combines information about teacher effectiveness with the economic impact of higher achievement. It begins with an overview of what is known about the relationship between teacher quality and student achievement. This provides…

  14. Angled Layers in Super Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Researchers used a special imaging technique with the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity to get as detailed a look as possible at a target region near eastern foot of 'Burns Cliff.' The intervening terrain was too difficult for driving the rover closer. The target is the boundary between two sections of layered rock. The layers in lower section (left) run at a marked angle to the layers in next higher section (right).

    This view is the product of a technique called super resolution. It was generated from data acquired on sol 288 of Opportunity's mission (Nov. 14, 2004) from a position along the southeast wall of 'Endurance Crater.' Resolution slightly higher than normal for the panoramic camera was synthesized for this view by combining 17 separate images of this scene, each one 'dithered' or pointed slightly differently from the previous one. Computer manipulation of the individual images was then used to generate a new synthetic view of the scene in a process known mathematically as iterative deconvolution, but referred to informally as super resolution. Similar methods have been used to enhance the resolution of images from the Mars Pathfinder mission and the Hubble Space Telescope.

  15. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  16. Higher Education Exchange, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that not only does higher education not see the public; when the public, in turn, looks at higher education, it sees mostly malaise, inefficiencies, expense, and unfulfilled promises. Yet, the contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" tell of bright spots in higher education where experiments in working…

  17. Higher Education Exchange, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  18. Higher Education Exchange, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  19. Higher Education Exchange, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  20. Higher Education Exchange, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  1. High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xingde; Martin, Scott; Pitris, Costas; Ghanta, Ravi; Stamper, Debra L; Harman, Michelle; Fujimoto, James G; Brezinski, Mark E

    2005-01-01

    This study demonstrates the first real-time imaging in vivo of human cartilage in normal and osteoarthritic knee joints at a resolution of micrometers, using optical coherence tomography (OCT). This recently developed high-resolution imaging technology is analogous to B-mode ultrasound except that it uses infrared light rather than sound. Real-time imaging with 11-μm resolution at four frames per second was performed on six patients using a portable OCT system with a handheld imaging probe during open knee surgery. Tissue registration was achieved by marking sites before imaging, and then histologic processing was performed. Structural changes including cartilage thinning, fissures, and fibrillations were observed at a resolution substantially higher than is achieved with any current clinical imaging technology. The structural features detected with OCT were evident in the corresponding histology. In addition to changes in architectural morphology, changes in the birefringent or the polarization properties of the articular cartilage were observed with OCT, suggesting collagen disorganization, an early indicator of osteoarthritis. Furthermore, this study supports the hypothesis that polarization-sensitive OCT may allow osteoarthritis to be diagnosed before cartilage thinning. This study illustrates that OCT, which can eventually be developed for use in offices or through an arthroscope, has considerable potential for assessing early osteoarthritic cartilage and monitoring therapeutic effects for cartilage repair with resolution in real time on a scale of micrometers. PMID:15743479

  2. Facial identification in very low-resolution images simulating prosthetic vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Shin, J. H.; Park, K. S.

    2012-08-01

    Familiar facial identification is important to blind or visually impaired patients and can be achieved using a retinal prosthesis. Nevertheless, there are limitations in delivering the facial images with a resolution sufficient to distinguish facial features, such as eyes and nose, through multichannel electrode arrays used in current visual prostheses. This study verifies the feasibility of familiar facial identification under low-resolution prosthetic vision and proposes an edge-enhancement method to deliver more visual information that is of higher quality. We first generated a contrast-enhanced image and an edge image by applying the Sobel edge detector and blocked each of them by averaging. Then, we subtracted the blocked edge image from the blocked contrast-enhanced image and produced a pixelized image imitating an array of phosphenes. Before subtraction, every gray value of the edge images was weighted as 50% (mode 2), 75% (mode 3) and 100% (mode 4). In mode 1, the facial image was blocked and pixelized with no further processing. The most successful identification was achieved with mode 3 at every resolution in terms of identification index, which covers both accuracy and correct response time. We also found that the subjects recognized a distinctive face especially more accurately and faster than the other given facial images even under low-resolution prosthetic vision. Every subject could identify familiar faces even in very low-resolution images. And the proposed edge-enhancement method seemed to contribute to intermediate-stage visual prostheses.

  3. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  4. A Novel Azimuth Super-Resolution Method by Synthesizing Azimuth Bandwidth of Multiple Tracks of Airborne Stripmap SAR Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jingwen; Sun, Bing; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Azimuth resolution of airborne stripmap synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is restricted by the azimuth antenna size. Conventionally, a higher azimuth resolution should be achieved by employing alternate modes that steer the beam in azimuth to enlarge the synthetic antenna aperture. However, if a data set of a certain region, consisting of multiple tracks of airborne stripmap SAR data, is available, the azimuth resolution of specific small region of interest (ROI) can be conveniently improved by a novel azimuth super-resolution method as introduced by this paper. The proposed azimuth super-resolution method synthesize the azimuth bandwidth of the data selected from multiple discontinuous tracks and contributes to a magnifier-like function with which the ROI can be further zoomed in with a higher azimuth resolution than that of the original stripmap images. Detailed derivation of the azimuth super-resolution method, including the steps of two-dimensional dechirping, residual video phase (RVP) removal, data stitching and data correction, is provided. The restrictions of the proposed method are also discussed. Lastly, the presented approach is evaluated via both the single- and multi-target computer simulations. PMID:27304959

  5. A Novel Azimuth Super-Resolution Method by Synthesizing Azimuth Bandwidth of Multiple Tracks of Airborne Stripmap SAR Data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jingwen; Sun, Bing; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Azimuth resolution of airborne stripmap synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is restricted by the azimuth antenna size. Conventionally, a higher azimuth resolution should be achieved by employing alternate modes that steer the beam in azimuth to enlarge the synthetic antenna aperture. However, if a data set of a certain region, consisting of multiple tracks of airborne stripmap SAR data, is available, the azimuth resolution of specific small region of interest (ROI) can be conveniently improved by a novel azimuth super-resolution method as introduced by this paper. The proposed azimuth super-resolution method synthesize the azimuth bandwidth of the data selected from multiple discontinuous tracks and contributes to a magnifier-like function with which the ROI can be further zoomed in with a higher azimuth resolution than that of the original stripmap images. Detailed derivation of the azimuth super-resolution method, including the steps of two-dimensional dechirping, residual video phase (RVP) removal, data stitching and data correction, is provided. The restrictions of the proposed method are also discussed. Lastly, the presented approach is evaluated via both the single- and multi-target computer simulations. PMID:27304959

  6. Photothermal excitation and laser Doppler velocimetry of higher cantilever vibration modes for dynamic atomic force microscopy in liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, Shuhei; Kobayashi, Dai; Sakurada, Takeo; Nakazawa, Tomonori; Hoshi, Yasuo; Kawakatsu, Hideki

    2008-12-15

    The authors present an optically based method combining photothermal excitation and laser Doppler velocimetry of higher cantilever vibration modes for dynamic atomic force microscopy in liquid. The frequency spectrum of a silicon cantilever measured in water over frequencies ranging up to 10 MHz shows that the method allows us to excite and detect higher modes, from fundamental to fifth flexural, without enhancing spurious resonances. By reducing the tip oscillation amplitude using higher modes, the average tip-sample force gradient due to chemical bonds is effectively increased to achieve high-spatial-resolution imaging in liquid. The method's performance is demonstrated by atomic resolution imaging of a mica surface in water obtained using the second flexural mode with a small tip amplitude of 99 pm; individual atoms on the surface with small height differences of up to 60 pm are clearly resolved.

  7. Conflict Resolution Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Melinda G.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that, due to escalating violence in contemporary society, community colleges should offer certificate or degree programs in conflict resolution. Describes a conflict resolution communication program, which teaches communication skills, mediation processes, and coping strategies to prospective mediators. (NB)

  8. Target detection using multi-resolution forward-looking SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innocenti, Roberto; Ranney, Kenneth; Nguyen, Lam

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the present investigation is to use radar data to detect targets situated on or under a road surface, and, at the same time, minimize the number of false alarms. The data used here have been collected by the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Synchronous Impulse Reconstruction (SIRE) Radar. These data have been processed at different ranges from the radar, at different depression angles, and with different resolution. This has been achieved by integrating the data collected during the forward motion of the radar along the road. As a result, it has been possible to produce a series of images of the road in front of the radar at progressively better resolution. We show how the exploitation of the different behavior of clutter and targets at different resolution allows higher rates of target detection at lower false alarm rate than otherwise possible.

  9. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  10. Atomic resolution holography.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kouichi

    2014-11-01

    Atomic resolution holography, such as X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH)[1] and photoelectron holography (PH), has the attention of researcher as an informative local structure analysis, because it provides three dimensional atomic images around specific elements within a range of a few nanometers. It can determine atomic arrangements around a specific element without any prior knowledge of structures. It is considered that the atomic resolution holographic is a third method of structural analysis at the atomic level after X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). As known by many researchers, XRD and XAFS are established methods that are widespread use in various fields. XRD and XAFS provide information on long-range translational periodicities and very local environments, respectively, whereas the atomic resolution holography gives 3D information on the local order and can visualize surrounding atoms with a large range of coordination shells. We call this feature "3D medium-range local structure observation".In addition to this feature, the atomic resolution holography is very sensitive to the displacement of atoms from their ideal positions, and one can obtain quantitative information about local lattice distortions by analyzing reconstructed atomic images[2] When dopants with different atomic radii from the matrix elements are present, the lattices around the dopants are distorted. However, using the conventional methods of structural analysis, one cannot determine the extent to which the local lattice distortions are preserved from the dopants. XFH is a good tool for solving this problem.Figure 1 shows a recent achievement on a relaxor ferroelectric of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) using XFH. The structural studies of relaxor ferroelectrics have been carried out by X-ray or neutron diffractions, which suggested rhombohedral distortions of their lattices. However, their true pictures have not been obtained, yet. The Nb Kα holograms showed

  11. A resolution expressing the gratitude and appreciation of the Senate for the acts of heroism and military achievement by the members of the United States Armed Forces who participated in the June 6, 1944, amphibious landing at Normandy, France, and commending them for leadership and valor in an operation that helped bring an end to World War II.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Boozman, John [R-AR

    2014-04-10

    05/21/2014 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S3243) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Higher Education Planning. A Bibliographic Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, D. Kent, Ed.

    The first edition of a bibliography focusing on state and national level planning in higher education is presented. For purposes of this publication, planning is defined as a process of study and foresight that generates action to achieve desired outcomes in the higher education sector. The bibliography is organized into topic areas that include:…

  13. The Centrality of Engagement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Bruns, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.; Furco, Andrew; Swanson, Louis

    2012-01-01

    The centrality of engagement is critical to the success of higher education in the future. Engagement is essential to most effectively achieving the overall purpose of the university, which is focused on the knowledge enterprise. Today's engagement is scholarly, is an aspect of learning and discovery, and enhances society and higher education.…

  14. The Centrality of Engagement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Bruns, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.; Furco, Andrew; Swanson, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The centrality of engagement is critical to the success of higher education in the future. Engagement is essential to most effectively achieving the overall purpose of the university, which is focused on the knowledge enterprise. Today's engagement is scholarly, is an aspect of learning and discovery, and enhances society and higher education.…

  15. Higher Education and the State in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    How and why the expansion and reorientation in Cuban higher education has taken place is noted, and continuing problems and emerging trends are assessed. Few developing countries can match Cuban achievements in higher education, which has advanced to levels characteristic of developed societies. Ideological orientations of historical trends are…

  16. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  17. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  18. Predicting Mathematics Achievement: The Influence of Prior Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Grootenboer, Peter; Kay, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Achievement in mathematics is inextricably linked to future career opportunities, and therefore, understanding those factors that influence achievement is important. This study sought to examine the relationships among attitude towards mathematics, ability and mathematical achievement. This examination was also supported by a focus on gender…

  19. Energy resolution enhancement of mercuric iodide detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, M.; Prince, T. A.; Padgett, L.; Prickett, B.; Schnepple, W.

    1984-01-01

    A pulse processing technique has been developed which improves the gamma-ray energy resolution of mercuric iodide detectors. The technique employs a fast (100 ns) and a slow (6.4 microsec) pulse height analysis to correct for signal variations due to variations in charge trapping. The capabilities of the technique for energy resolution enhancement are discussed as well as the utility of the technique for examining the trapping characteristics of individual detectors. An energy resolution of 2.6 percent FWHM at 662 keV was achieved with an acceptance efficiency of 100 percent from a mercuric iodide detector which gives 8.3 percent FWHM using standard techniques.

  20. Special Higher Education Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Meyer

    1982-01-01

    Cites works relevant to the higher education of Blacks and minority group members. Lists references alphabetically under the following headings: (1) financial aid on the campus; (2) Chicanos in higher education; and (3) race and equality on California campuses. (GC)

  1. Spotlight on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Donna; Iwanowski, Jay

    1997-01-01

    A number of current issues and initiatives in higher education are highlighted, including impending reauthorization of the Higher Education Act, the need for advocacy of higher education in public policy arenas, a University of Florida program combining accountability and institutional autonomy, and institutional compliance with nonresident alien…

  2. Higher Education Exchange, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" discuss the concept of growing public scholars; each contribution incorporates a student component. Articles include: (1) "Foreword"…

  3. The Higher Education Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottinger, Cecilia A.

    1991-01-01

    Higher education not only contributes to the development of the human resources and intellectual betterment of the nation but is also a major economic enterprise. This research brief reviews and highlights data on the size and growth of higher education and illustrates how higher education institutions are preparing the future labor force. It…

  4. GNSS tropospheric gradients with high temporal resolution and their effect on precise positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cuixian; Li, Xingxing; Li, Zhenhong; Heinkelmann, Robert; Nilsson, Tobias; Dick, Galina; Ge, Maorong; Schuh, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The tropospheric horizontal gradients with high spatiotemporal resolutions provide important information to describe the azimuthally asymmetric delays and significantly increase the ability of ground-based GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) within the field of meteorological studies, like the nowcasting of severe rainfall events. The recent rapid development of multi-GNSS constellations has potential to provide such high-resolution gradients with a significant degree of accuracy. In this study, we develop a multi-GNSS process for the precise retrieval of high-resolution tropospheric gradients. The tropospheric gradients with different temporal resolutions, retrieved from both single-system and multi-GNSS solutions, are validated using independent numerical weather models (NWM) data and water vapor radiometer (WVR) observations. The benefits of multi-GNSS processing for the retrieval of tropospheric gradients, as well as for the improvement of precise positioning, are demonstrated. The multi-GNSS high-resolution gradients agree well with those derived from the NWM and WVR, especially for the fast-changing peaks, which are mostly associated with synoptic fronts. The multi-GNSS gradients behave in a much more stable manner than the single-system estimates, especially in cases of high temporal resolution, benefiting from the increased number of observed satellites and improved observation geometry. The high-resolution multi-GNSS gradients show higher correlation with the NWM and WVR gradients than the low-resolution gradients. Furthermore, the precision of station positions can also be noticeably improved by multi-GNSS fusion, and enhanced results can be achieved if the high-resolution gradient estimation is performed, instead of the commonly used daily gradient estimation in the multi-GNSS data processing.

  5. [Research Reports on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latts, Sander; And Others

    1969-01-01

    Four counselors studied the relation between achievement and choice of major, achievement and motivation, counseling and motivation, and achievement and employment. To see if those with definite majors or career choices in mind did better than those without, 300 students were tested according to the certainty of their choice. No significant…

  6. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  7. High-resolution Geophysical Mapping of Submarine Glacial Landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, M.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Canals, M.; Todd, B. J.; Dowdeswell, E. K.; Hogan, K. A.; Mayer, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacial landforms are generated from the activity of glaciers and display spatial dimensions ranging from below one meter up to tens of kilometers. Glacial landforms are used as diagnostic features of past activity of ice sheets and glaciers; they are specifically important in the field of palaeoglaciology. Mapping of submarine glacial landforms is largely dependent on geophysical survey methods capable of imaging the seafloor and sub-bottom through the water column. Full "global" seafloor mapping coverage, equivalent to what exists for land elevation, is to-date only achieved by the powerful method of deriving bathymetry from altimeters on satellites like GEOSAT and ERS-1. The lateral resolution of satellite derived bathymetry is, however, limited by the footprint of the satellite and the need to average out local wave and wind effects resulting in values of around 15 km. Consequently, mapping submarine glacial landforms requires for the most part higher resolution than is achievable by satellite derived bathymetry. The most widely-used methods for mapping submarine glacial landforms are based on echo-sounding principles. This presentation shows how the evolution of marine geophysical mapping techniques, in particular the advent of side-scan and multibeam bathymetric sonars, has made it possible to study submarine glacial landforms in unprecedented detail. Examples are shown from the Atlas of Submarine Glacial Landforms: Modern, Quaternary and Ancient, which will be published in late 2015 in the Memoir Series of the Geological Society of London.

  8. Fourier ring correlation as a resolution criterion for super-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Banterle, Niccolò; Bui, Khanh Huy; Lemke, Edward A; Beck, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Optical nanoscopy techniques using localization based image reconstruction, also termed super-resolution microscopy (SRM), have become a standard tool to bypass the diffraction limit in fluorescence light microscopy. The localization precision measured for the detected fluorophores is commonly used to describe the maximal attainable resolution. However, this measure takes not all experimental factors, which impact onto the finally achieved resolution, into account. Several other methods to measure the resolution of super-resolved images were previously suggested, typically relying on intrinsic standards, such as molecular rulers, or on a priori knowledge about the specimen, e.g. its spatial frequency content. Here we show that Fourier ring correlation provides an easy-to-use, laboratory consistent standard for measuring the resolution of SRM images. We provide a freely available software tool that combines resolution measurement with image reconstruction. PMID:23684965

  9. Extraction and labeling high-resolution images from PDF documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chachra, Suchet K.; Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2013-12-01

    Accuracy of content-based image retrieval is affected by image resolution among other factors. Higher resolution images enable extraction of image features that more accurately represent the image content. In order to improve the relevance of search results for our biomedical image search engine, Open-I, we have developed techniques to extract and label high-resolution versions of figures from biomedical articles supplied in the PDF format. Open-I uses the open-access subset of biomedical articles from the PubMed Central repository hosted by the National Library of Medicine. Articles are available in XML and in publisher supplied PDF formats. As these PDF documents contain little or no meta-data to identify the embedded images, the task includes labeling images according to their figure number in the article after they have been successfully extracted. For this purpose we use the labeled small size images provided with the XML web version of the article. This paper describes the image extraction process and two alternative approaches to perform image labeling that measure the similarity between two images based upon the image intensity projection on the coordinate axes and similarity based upon the normalized cross-correlation between the intensities of two images. Using image identification based on image intensity projection, we were able to achieve a precision of 92.84% and a recall of 82.18% in labeling of the extracted images.

  10. Efficiency in nonenzymatic kinetic resolution.

    PubMed

    Vedejs, Edwin; Jure, Mara

    2005-06-27

    The Walden memorial at the Technical University in Riga is pictured in the frontispiece to mark the recent centennial of the Walden inversion. This is a rare public monument to key events from the first era of exploration in stereocontrolled synthesis, and may be the only such monument to use the language of organic chemistry expressed at the molecular level. The reaction of racemic substrates with chiral nucleophiles is one of many methods currently known to achieve kinetic resolution, a phenomenon that ranks as the oldest and most general approach for the synthesis of highly enantioenriched substances. The first nonenzymatic kinetic resolutions as well as the original forms of the Walden inversion were studied in the 1890s. All of these investigations were conducted within the first generation following the demonstration that carbon is tetrahedral, and provided abundant evidence that the principles and importance of enantiocontrolled syntheses were understood. However, a reliable, rapid technique to quantify results and guide the optimization process was still lacking. Many decades passed before this problem was solved by the advent of HPLC and GLPC assays on chiral supports, which stimulated explosive growth in the synthesis of nonracemic substances by kinetic resolution. The Walden monument is accessible to passers-by for hands-on inspection as well as for contemplation and learning. In a similar way, kinetic resolution is experimentally accessible and can be thought-provoking at several levels. We follow the story of kinetic resolution from the early discoveries through fascinating historical milestones and conceptual developments, and close with a focus on modern techniques that maximize efficiency. PMID:15942973

  11. High Spatial Resolution Commercial Satellite Imaging Product Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Blonski, Slawomir; Ross, Kenton W.; Stnaley, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center's Remote Sensing group has been characterizing privately owned high spatial resolution multispectral imaging systems, such as IKONOS, QuickBird, and OrbView-3. Natural and man made targets were used for spatial resolution, radiometric, and geopositional characterizations. Higher spatial resolution also presents significant adjacency effects for accurate reliable radiometry.

  12. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  13. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  14. Mirror-enhanced super-resolution microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xusan; Xie, Hao; Alonas, Eric; Liu, Yujia; Chen, Xuanze; Santangelo, Philip J; Ren, Qiushi; Xi, Peng; Jin, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Axial excitation confinement beyond the diffraction limit is crucial to the development of next-generation, super-resolution microscopy. STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) nanoscopy offers lateral super-resolution using a donut-beam depletion, but its axial resolution is still over 500 nm. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy is widely used for single-molecule localization, but its ability to detect molecules is limited to within the evanescent field of ~ 100 nm from the cell attachment surface. We find here that the axial thickness of the point spread function (PSF) during confocal excitation can be easily improved to 110 nm by replacing the microscopy slide with a mirror. The interference of the local electromagnetic field confined the confocal PSF to a 110-nm spot axially, which enables axial super-resolution with all laser-scanning microscopes. Axial sectioning can be obtained with wavelength modulation or by controlling the spacer between the mirror and the specimen. With no additional complexity, the mirror-assisted excitation confinement enhanced the axial resolution six-fold and the lateral resolution two-fold for STED, which together achieved 19-nm resolution to resolve the inner rim of a nuclear pore complex and to discriminate the contents of 120 nm viral filaments. The ability to increase the lateral resolution and decrease the thickness of an axial section using mirror-enhanced STED without increasing the laser power is of great importance for imaging biological specimens, which cannot tolerate high laser power. PMID:27398242

  15. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  16. High-resolution laser spectroscopy with the Collinear Resonance Ionisation Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at CERN-ISOLDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocolios, T. E.; de Groote, R. P.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M. L.; Budinčević, I.; Day Goodacre, T.; Farooq-Smith, G. J.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Gins, W.; Heylen, H.; Kron, T.; Li, R.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Neyens, G.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Smith, A. J.; Stroke, H. H.; Wendt, K. D. A.; Wilkins, S. G.; Yang, X.

    2016-06-01

    The Collinear Resonance Ionisation Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at CERN has achieved high-resolution resonance ionisation laser spectroscopy with a full width at half maximum linewidth of 20(1) MHz for 219,221 Fr, and has measured isotopes as short lived as 5 ms with 214 Fr. This development allows for greater precision in the study of hyperfine structures and isotope shifts, as well as a higher selectivity of single-isotope, even single-isomer, beams. These achievements are linked with the development of a new laser laboratory and new data-acquisition systems.

  17. 21 CFR 314.103 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... first attempt to resolve the matter with the division responsible for reviewing the application or abbreviated application, beginning with the consumer safety officer assigned to the application or abbreviated application. If resolution is not achieved, the applicant may raise the matter with the person designated...

  18. 21 CFR 314.103 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... first attempt to resolve the matter with the division responsible for reviewing the application or abbreviated application, beginning with the consumer safety officer assigned to the application or abbreviated application. If resolution is not achieved, the applicant may raise the matter with the person designated...

  19. Resolution of a target-tracking optical novelty filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Duncan T. H.; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1991-01-01

    The resolution of a target-tracking optical novelty filter is discussed in terms of the response time of the nonlinear medium, the speed of the target, and the resolution of the input device. Optical novelty filters using a faster nonlinear medium may have a higher output resolution. This is particularly true in the case of tracking high-speed targets. The potential of implementing high-resolution optical novelty filters using photorefractive GaAs is investigated experimentally.

  20. Multi-resolution model-based traffic sign detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinas, Javier; Salgado, Luis; Camplani, Massimo

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative approach to tackle the problem of traffic sign detection using a computer vision algorithm and taking into account real-time operation constraints, trying to establish intelligent strategies to simplify as much as possible the algorithm complexity and to speed up the process. Firstly, a set of candidates is generated according to a color segmentation stage, followed by a region analysis strategy, where spatial characteristic of previously detected objects are taken into account. Finally, temporal coherence is introduced by means of a tracking scheme, performed using a Kalman filter for each potential candidate. Taking into consideration time constraints, efficiency is achieved two-fold: on the one side, a multi-resolution strategy is adopted for segmentation, where global operation will be applied only to low-resolution images, increasing the resolution to the maximum only when a potential road sign is being tracked. On the other side, we take advantage of the expected spacing between traffic signs. Namely, the tracking of objects of interest allows to generate inhibition areas, which are those ones where no new traffic signs are expected to appear due to the existence of a TS in the neighborhood. The proposed solution has been tested with real sequences in both urban areas and highways, and proved to achieve higher computational efficiency, especially as a result of the multi-resolution approach.

  1. Reinventing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions are in the battle of a lifetime as they are coping with political and economic uncertainties, threats to federal aid, declining state support, higher tuition rates and increased competition from for-profit institutions. Amid all these challenges, these institutions are pressed to keep up with technological demands,…

  2. Higher Education in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    This report presents information about higher education in Arkansas. Arkansas is 49th in the United States in the number of citizens over the age of 25 with a baccalaureate or higher degree. Arkansas faces shortages of qualified teachers and nurses in regions of the state at a time when the number of graduates in these professions is declining…

  3. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don M. Blandin);…

  4. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  5. Quality in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

    This volume contains 21 new and classic papers and readings on quality philosophies and concepts, first, as they have been applied in business and industry but primarily as they relate to and can be applied in higher education. The introduction is titled "The Quality Approach in Higher Education: Context and Concepts for Change" by Brent D. Ruben.…

  6. Higher Education Exchange 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Contributors to this issue of the Higher Education Exchange debate the issues around knowledge production, discuss the acquisition of deliberative skills for democracy, and examine how higher education prepares, or does not prepare, students for citizenship roles. Articles include: (1) "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (2) "Knowledge, Judgment and…

  7. UNIVERSAL HIGHER EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGRATH, EARL J.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A REPORT ON A GROUP INQUIRY INTO THE SUBSTANCE AND IMPLICATIONS OF UNIVERSAL HIGHER EDUCATION. ELEVEN CHAPTERS ARE PAPERS PRESENTED AT A CONFERENCE HELD UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION, TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, IN PUERTO RICO, NOVEMBER 15-21, 1964, FORECASTING THE FORM AND MISSION OF AMERICAN…

  8. Reinventing Continuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshok, Mary Lindenstein

    2012-01-01

    Re-inventing continuing higher education is about finding ways to be a more central player in a region's civic, cultural, and economic life as well as in the education of individuals for work and citizenship. Continuing higher education will require data gathering, analytical tools, convening authority, interpretive skills, new models of delivery,…

  9. Gender and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  10. Consumerism in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Mark

    1973-01-01

    In considering consumerism in higher education, the student becomes the consumer,'' the university the corporation,'' and higher education the education industry.'' Other members of the education fraternity become investors, management, workers, direct consumers, and indirect consumers. This article proposes that it behooves the student to…

  11. Higher Education Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological conundrum of "knowledge produced…

  12. Higher Education Exchange, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Kettering's president David Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological…

  13. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  14. Unmet Promise: Raising Minority Achievement. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert C.; Viadero, Debra

    2000-01-01

    This first in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps persist discusses how to raise minority achievement. It explains how earlier progress in closing the gap has stalled, while at the same time, the greater diversity of student populations and the rapid growth of the Hispanic population and of other ethnic groups have reshaped the…

  15. To Achieve or Not to Achieve: The Question of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Beatrice

    Questionnaire and projective data from 323 women aged 18 to 50 were analyzed in order to study the relationships of need achievement and motive to avoid success to age, sex role ideology, and stage in the family cycle. Family background and educational variables were also considered. Level of need achievement was found to be significantly related…

  16. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  17. Enhanced spectral resolution via externally dispersed interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelstein, Jerry; Erskine, David; Sirk, Martin; Vanderburg, Andrew; Wishnow, Edward H.

    2012-09-01

    Externally dispersed interferometry (EDI) uses a hybrid spectrometer that combines a Michelson interferometer in series with a grating spectrometer. EDI provides a means of deriving spectral information at a resolution substantially higher than that provided by the grating spectrograph alone. Near IR observations have been conducted using the Triplespec spectrometer mounted on the 5m Hale telescope. Spectra have been reconstructed at a resolution of ~27000 where the resolution of Triplespec is ~2700. Progress in the development of the EDI technique is reported herein emphasizing studies related to the accuracy of the reconstructed spectra.

  18. Spatial resolution limits for synchrotron-based spectromicroscopy in the mid- and near-infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, Erika; Lerch, Philippe; Martin, Michael C.

    2008-01-12

    Spatial resolution tests were performed on beamline 1.4.4 at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, CA, USA, a third-generation synchrotron light source. This beamline couples the high-brightness synchrotron source to a Thermo-Electron Continumum XL infrared microscope. Two types of resolution tests were performed in both the mid-IR and near-IR. The results are compared with a diffraction-limited spot size theory. At shorter near-IR wavelengths the experimental results begin to deviate from diffraction-limited so a combined diffraction-limit and electron-beam-source-size model is employed. This description shows how the physical electron beam size of the synchrotron source begins to dominate the focused spot size at higher energies. The transition from diffraction-limited to electron-beam-size-limited performance is a function of storage-ring parameters and the optical demagnification within the beamline and microscope optics. The discussion includes how different facilities, beamlines and microscopes will affect the achievable spatial resolution. As synchrotron light sources and other next-generation accelerators such as energy-recovery LINACs and free-electron lasers achieve smaller beam emittances, beta-functions and/or energy spreads, diffraction-limited performance can continue to higher-energy beams, perhaps ultimately into the extreme ultraviolet.

  19. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  20. High-resolution high-efficiency multilayer Fresnel zone plates for soft and hard x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanli, Umut T.; Keskinbora, Kahraman; Gregorczyk, Keith; Leister, Jonas; Teeny, Nicolas; Grévent, Corinne; Knez, Mato; Schütz, Gisela

    2015-09-01

    X-ray microscopy enables high spatial resolutions, high penetration depths and characterization of a broad range of materials. Calculations show that nanometer range resolution is achievable in the hard X-ray regime by using Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) if certain conditions are satisfied. However, this requires, among other things, aspect ratios of several thousands. The multilayer (ML) type FZPs, having virtually unlimited aspect ratios, are strong candidates to achieve single nanometer resolutions. Our research is focused on the fabrication of ML-FZPs which encompasses deposition of multilayers over a glass fiber via the atomic layer deposition (ALD), which is subsequently sliced in the optimum thickness for the X-ray energy by a focused ion beam (FIB). We recently achieved aberration free imaging by resolving 21 nm features with an efficiency of up to 12.5 %, the highest imaging resolution achieved by an ML-FZP. We also showed efficient focusing of 7.9 keV X-rays down to 30 nm focal spot size (FWHM). For resolutions below ~10 nm, efficiencies would decrease significantly due to wave coupling effects. To compensate this effect high efficiency, low stress materials have to be researched, as lower intrinsic stresses will allow fabrication of larger FZPs with higher number of zones, leading to high light intensity at the focus. As a first step we fabricated an ML-FZP with a diameter of 62 μm, an outermost zone width of 12 nm and 452 active zones. Further strategies for fabrication of high resolution high efficiency multilayer FZPs will also be discussed.

  1. Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

    1987-01-01

    Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

  2. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  3. Ultra-high resolution HLA genotyping and allele discovery by highly multiplexed cDNA amplicon pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High-resolution HLA genotyping is a critical diagnostic and research assay. Current methods rarely achieve unambiguous high-resolution typing without making population-specific frequency inferences due to a lack of locus coverage and difficulty in exon-phase matching. Achieving high-resolution typing is also becoming more challenging with traditional methods as the database of known HLA alleles increases. Results We designed a cDNA amplicon-based pyrosequencing method to capture 94% of the HLA class I open-reading-frame with only two amplicons per sample, and an analogous method for class II HLA genes, with a primary focus on sequencing the DRB loci. We present a novel Galaxy server-based analysis workflow for determining genotype. During assay validation, we performed two GS Junior sequencing runs to determine the accuracy of the HLA class I amplicons and DRB amplicon at different levels of multiplexing. When 116 amplicons were multiplexed, we unambiguously resolved 99%of class I alleles to four- or six-digit resolution, as well as 100% unambiguous DRB calls. The second experiment, with 271 multiplexed amplicons, missed some alleles, but generated high-resolution, concordant typing for 93% of class I alleles, and 96% for DRB1 alleles. In a third, preliminary experiment we attempted to sequence novel amplicons for other class II loci with mixed success. Conclusions The presented assay is higher-throughput and higher-resolution than existing HLA genotyping methods, and suitable for allele discovery or large cohort sampling. The validated class I and DRB primers successfully generated unambiguously high-resolution genotypes, while further work is needed to validate additional class II genotyping amplicons. PMID:22866951

  4. Label-free optical-resolution photoacoustic endomicroscopy in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Rao, Bin; Yao, Junjie; Yeh, Cheng-Hung; Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. K.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    Intravital microscopy techniques have become increasingly important in biomedical research because they can provide unique microscopic views of various biological or disease developmental processes in situ. Here we present an optical-resolution photoacoustic endomicroscopy (OR-PAEM) system that visualizes internal organs with a much finer resolution than conventional acoustic-resolution photoacoustic endoscopy systems. By combining gradient index (GRIN) lens-based optical focusing and ultrasonic ring transducer-based acoustic focusing, we achieved a transverse resolution as fine as ~10 μm at an optical working distance of 6.5 mm. The OR-PAEM system's high-resolution intravital imaging capability is demonstrated through animal experiments.

  5. Holographic projection with higher image quality.

    PubMed

    Qu, Weidong; Gu, Huarong; Tan, Qiaofeng

    2016-08-22

    The spatial resolution limited by the size of the spatial light modulator (SLM) in the holographic projection can hardly be increased, and speckle noise always appears to induce the degradation of image quality. In this paper, the holographic projection with higher image quality is presented. The spatial resolution of the reconstructed image is 2 times of that of the existing holographic projection, and speckles are suppressed well at the same time. Finally, the effectiveness of the holographic projection is verified in experiments. PMID:27557197

  6. High-resolution pulsed-field ionization photoelectron spectroscopy using multi-bunch synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.W.; Evans, M.; Ng, C.Y.; Heimann, P.

    1997-04-01

    BL9.0.2.2 is the newly constructed experimental End Station 2 at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS). It is dedicated to the high resolution photoionization study of molecules of interest to atmospheric and combustion chemistry. This End Station is equipped with a high resolution scanning monochromator, which has been demonstrated to have a world record resolution of E/{delta}E=70,000. Taking the advantage of the high resolution ALS light, the authors have improved the energy resolution in threshold photoelectron spectroscopy (TPES) to 0.8 meV. The TPES is a popular technique for photoionization experiments at all synchrotron radiation facilities due to its high energy resolution as compared to that of traditional photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). TPES achieves higher energy resolution by preferentially detecting near zero kinetic energy photoelectrons resulting from threshold photoionization. However, the spectra obtained from the TPES technique generally are complicated by the simultaneous detection of electrons with nonzero kinetic energy, which are not fully discriminated against. On the other hand, the spectra obtained from pulsed field ionization photoelectron spectroscopy (PFI-PES) are completely free of the contamination from kinetic electrons. The PFI-PE technique basically involves the detection of the photoelectrons from field ionization of the very high-n Rydberg states, a few cm{sup {minus}1} below the ionization energy (IE), by applying a delayed pulsed electric field. Within a delay of a few microseconds, all the prompt electrons formed from direct ionization will escape from the photoionization region and will not be collected. The authors have recently overcome problems with energy resolution of an electron time-of-flight technique, and incorporated the PFI-PE technique with multi-bunch VUV synchrotron radiation.

  7. Axial resolution of laser opto-acoustic imaging: influence of acoustic attenuation and diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Alma, Herve; Tittel, Frank K.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    1998-05-01

    Laser optoacoustic imaging can be applied for characterization of layered and heterogeneous tissue structures in vivo. Accurate tissue characterization may provide: (1) means for medical diagnoses, and (2) pretreatment tissue properties important for therapeutic laser procedures. Axial resolution of the optoacoustic imaging is higher than that of optical imaging. However, the resolution may degrade due to either attenuation of high-frequency ultrasonic waves in tissue, or/and diffraction of low-frequency acoustic waves. The goal of this study was to determine the axial resolution as a function of acoustic attenuation and diffraction upon propagation of laser-induced pressure waves in water with absorbing layer, in breast phantoms, and in biological tissues. Acoustic pressure measurements were performed in absolute values using piezoelectric transducers. A layer or a small sphere of absorbing medium was placed within a medium with lower optical absorption. The distance between the acoustic transducer and the absorbing object was varied, so that the effects of acoustic attenuation and diffraction could be observed. The location of layers or spheres was measured from recorded optoacoustic pressure profiles and compared with real values measured with a micrometer. The experimental results were analyzed using theoretical models for spherical and planar acoustic waves. Our studies demonstrated that despite strong acoustic attenuation of high-frequency ultrasonic waves, the axial resolution of laser optoacoustic imaging may be as high as 20 micrometers for tissue layers located at a 5-mm depth. An axial resolution of 10 micrometers to 20 micrometers was demonstrated for an absorbing layer at a distance of 5 cm in water, when the resolution is affected only by diffraction. Acoustic transducers employed in optoacoustic imaging can have either high sensitivity or fast temporal response. Therefore, a high resolution may not be achieved with sensitive transducers utilized in

  8. High Resolution X-Ray Astronomy in the Far Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Perhaps the best resolution that grazing incidence optics can achieve is 100 marcsec. Further improvement may be obtainable with a technology based on diffractive-refractive transmitting optics. The telescope would be light weight and inexpensive. However, the focal length is ~1000 km so mission operations are challenging. The optics and detector are aboard separate S/C. Aligning the two S/C and changing targets require propulsion engines. A low thrust engine, ~50 microN can neutralize gravity gradients to maintain the telescope-detector alignment. A higher thrust engine, ~50 miliN is needed to change targets within a time of 100,000 seconds. The large focal plane scale limits the field of view in practice to less than an arc second.

  9. Invariant high resolution optical skin imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, Supraja; Rolland, Jannick

    2007-02-01

    Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) is a bio-medical low coherence interferometric imaging technique that has become a topic of active research because of its ability to provide accurate, non-invasive cross-sectional images of biological tissue with much greater resolution than the current common technique ultrasound. OCM is a derivative of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) that enables greater resolution imposed by the implementation of an optical confocal design involving high numerical aperture (NA) focusing in the sample. The primary setback of OCM, however is the depth dependence of the lateral resolution obtained that arises from the smaller depth of focus of the high NA beam. We propose to overcome this limitation using a dynamic focusing lens design that can achieve quasi-invariant lateral resolution up to 1.5mm depth of skin tissue.

  10. High resolution solar X-ray studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Two high resolution solar X-ray payloads and their launches on Aerobee rockets with pointing system are described. The payloads included 5 to 25A X-ray spectrometers, multiaperture X-ray cameras, and command box attitude control inflight by means of a television image radioed to ground. Spatial resolution ranged from five arc minutes to ten arc seconds and spectral resolution ranged from 500 to 3000. Several laboratory tasks were completed in order to achieve the desired resolution. These included (1) development of techniques to align grid collimators, (2) studies of the spectrometric properties of crystals, (3) measurements of the absorption coefficients of various materials used in X-ray spectrometers, (4) evaluation of the performance of multiaperture cameras, and (5) development of facilities.

  11. Automated conflict resolution issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  12. Conflict Resolution Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnofsky, Norene M., Comp.

    Various theories and approaches to conflict resolution and peace education are presented in the 31 resources listed in this annotated bibliography. It is divided into two sections. Section 1 contains materials designed to help adults become more effective role models for the peaceful resolution of conflict. Topics include parent/child conflicts,…

  13. Effects of spatial resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the effects of spatial resolution on extraction of geologic information are woefully lacking but spatial resolution effects can be examined as they influence two general categories: detection of spatial features per se; and the effects of IFOV on the definition of spectral signatures and on general mapping abilities.

  14. Holladay halftoning using super resolution encoded templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElvain, Jon S.; Hains, Charles M.

    2007-01-01

    A new method for halftoning using high resolution pattern templates is described, that expands the low level rendering capabilities for engines that support this feature. This approach, denoted super resolution encoded halftoning (SREH) is an extension of the Holladay concept, and provides a compact way to specify high resolution dot growth patterns using a lower resolution Holladay brick. Fundamentally, this new halftoning method involves using the SRE patterns as building blocks for constructing clustered dot growth assemblies. Like the traditional Holladay dot description, the SRE halftone is characterized by a size, height, and shift, all of which are specified at the lower resolution. Each low resolution pixel position in the SRE halftone brick contains a pair of lists. The first of these is a list of digital thresholds at which a transition in SRE patterns occurs for that pixel position, and the second is the corresponding list of SRE codes. For normal cluster dot growth sequences, this provides a simple and compact mechanism for specifying higher resolution halftones. Techniques for emulating traditional high resolution Holladay dots using SREH are discussed, including mechanisms for choosing substitutions for patterns that do not exist among the available SRE patterns.

  15. Sustainability and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, David

    2008-01-01

    People face four fundamental dilemmas, which are essentially moral choices: (1) alleviating poverty; (2) removing the gap between rich and poor; (3) controlling the use of violence for political ends; and (4) changing the patterns of production and consumption and achieving the transition to sustainability. The world in which future generations…

  16. General Achievement Trends: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. The Process of Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos; Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the science achievement of 8th grade students in Cyprus by using a structural equation model with three exogenous constructs--family's educational background, reinforcements, and school climate, and three endogenous constructs--teaching, student attitudes, and achievement. Proposes a model for the effects of family, school, student…

  18. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  19. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  20. Motivational Factors in School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    A summary is presented of the literature on motivation relating to achievement in the classroom. Special attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns may serve to enhance motivation to achieve in the classroom. In considering what determines motivation and personal investment in educational pursuits, the following…

  1. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  4. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  5. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  6. Achievement in Writing Geometry Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senk, Sharon L.

    In 1981 a nationwide assessment of achievement in writing geometry proofs was conducted by the Cognitive Development and Achievement in Secondary School Geometry project. Over 1,500 students in 11 schools in 5 states participated. This paper describes the sample, instruments, grading procedures, and selected results. Results include: (1) at the…

  7. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  8. Predicting Achievement in Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mary Elizabeth

    A review of research is inconclusive concerning the relationship between intelligence and language proficiency. A study of 10th grade students (n=35) examined scores on a high school entrance exam and achievement in foreign language after 1 year of study. Both math and reading showed a significant correlation with foreign language achievement; the…

  9. Superintendent Tenure and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A correlational research design was used to examine the influence of superintendent tenure on student achievement in rural Appalachian Kentucky school districts. Superintendent tenure was compared to aggregated student achievement scores for 2011 and to changes in students' learning outcomes over the course of the superintendents' tenure. The…

  10. Compact high-resolution VIS/NIR hyperspectral sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyvärinen, Timo; Herrala, Esko; Procino, Wes; Weatherbee, Oliver

    2011-06-01

    Current hyperspectral imagers are either bulky with good performance, or compact with only moderate performance. This paper presents a new hyperspectral technology which overcomes this drawback, and makes it possible to integrate extremely compact and high performance push-broom hyperspectral imagers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and other demanding applications. Hyperspectral imagers in VIS/NIR, SWIR, MWIR and LWIR spectral ranges have been implemented. This paper presents the measured performance attributes for a VIS/NIR imager which covers 350 to 1000 nm with spectral resolution of 3 nm. The key innovation is a new imaging spectrograph design which employs both transmissive and reflective optics in order to achieve high light throughput and large spatial image size in an extremely compact format. High light throughput is created by numerical aperture of F/2.4 and high diffraction efficiency. Image distortions are negligible, keystone being <2 um and smile 0.13 nm across the full focal plane image size of 24 mm (spatially) x 6 m (spectrally). The spectrograph is integrated with an advanced camera which provides 1300 spatial pixels and image rate of 160 Hz. A higher resolution version with 2000 spatial pixels will produce up to 100 images/s. The camera achieves, with spectral binning, an outstanding signal-to-noise ratio of 800:1, orders of magnitude higher than any current compact VIS/NIR imager. The imager weighs only 1.4 kg, including fore optics, imaging spectrograph with shutter and camera, in a format optimized for installation in small payload compartments and gimbals. In addition to laboratory characterization, results from a flight test mission are presented.

  11. On higher structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baas, Nils A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss various philosophical aspects of the hyperstructure concept extending networks and higher categories. By this discussion, we hope to pave the way for applications and further developments of the mathematical theory of hyperstructures.

  12. Forecasting Higher Education's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, Don; Buck, Tina S.; Kollie, Ellen; Przyborowski, Danielle; Rondinelli, Joseph A.; Hunter, Jeff; Hanna, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Offers predictions on trends in higher education to accommodate changing needs, lower budgets, and increased enrollment. They involve campus construction, security, administration, technology, interior design, athletics, and transportation. (EV)

  13. Marketing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brian, Edward J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the 4 basic areas in which institutional marketing can be put to use in higher educational institutions: educational services offered, pricing (tuition), promotion to prospective students, and distribution (extension courses and courses that go to the student). (PG)

  14. Improved reduced-resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, James; Milstein, Jaime

    1995-01-01

    The resolution of satellite imagery is often traded-off to satisfy transmission time and bandwidth, memory, and display limitations. Although there are many ways to achieve the same reduction in resolution, algorithms vary in their ability to preserve the visual quality of the original imagery. These issues are investigated in the context of the Landsat browse system, which permits the user to preview a reduced resolution version of a Landsat image. Wavelets-based techniques for resolution reduction are proposed as alternatives to subsampling used in the current system. Experts judged imagery generated by the wavelets-based methods visually superior, confirming initial quantitative results. In particular, compared to subsampling, the wavelets-based techniques were much less likely to obscure roads, transmission lines, and other linear features present in the original image, introduce artifacts and noise, and otherwise reduce the usefulness of the image. The wavelets-based techniques afford multiple levels of resolution reduction and computational speed. This study is applicable to a wide range of reduced resolution applications in satellite imaging systems, including low resolution display, spaceborne browse, emergency image transmission, and real-time video downlinking.

  15. High Spectral Resolution, High Cadence, Imaging X-Ray Microcalorimeters for Solar Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandler, Simon R.; Bailey, Catherine N.; Bookbinder, Jay A.; DeLuca, Edward E.; Chervenak, Jay A.; Eckart, Megan E.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Daniel P.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Sadleir, Jack E.; Smith, Stephen J.; Smith, Randall K.

    2010-01-01

    High spectral resolution, high cadence, imaging x-ray spectroscopy has the potential to revolutionize the study of the solar corona. To that end we have been developing transition-edge-sensor (TES) based x-ray micro calorimeter arrays for future solar physics missions where imaging and high energy resolution spectroscopy will enable previously impossible studies of the dynamics and energetics of the solar corona. The characteristics of these x-ray microcalorimeters are significantly different from conventional micro calorimeters developed for astrophysics because they need to accommodate much higher count rates (300-1000 cps) while maintaining high energy resolution of less than 4 eV FWHM in the X-ray energy band of 0.2-10 keV. The other main difference is a smaller pixel size (less than 75 x 75 square microns) than is typical for x-ray micro calorimeters in order to provide angular resolution less than 1 arcsecond. We have achieved at energy resolution of 2.15 eV at 6 keV in a pixel with a 12 x 12 square micron TES sensor and 34 x 34 x 9.1 micron gold absorber, and a resolution of 2.30 eV at 6 keV in a pixel with a 35 x 35 micron TES and a 57 x 57 x 9.1 micron gold absorber. This performance has been achieved in pixels that are fabricated directly onto solid substrates, ie. they are not supported by silicon nitride membranes. We present the results from these detectors, the expected performance at high count-rates, and prospects for the use of this technology for future Solar missions.

  16. High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Truong, D. D.; Austin, M. E.

    2014-11-15

    The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of T{sub e}(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83–130 GHz. The frequency spacing of the radiometer's channels results in a spatial resolution of ∼1–3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6–0.8 cm) resolution T{sub e} measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels’ IF bands and consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2–4 GHz range. Higher spatial resolution is achieved through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters’ center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83–130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a “zoomed-in” analysis of a ∼2–4 cm radial region. Expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial T{sub e} measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, are presented.

  17. Mapping atomic motions with ultrabright electrons: towards fundamental limits in space-time resolution.

    PubMed

    Manz, Stephanie; Casandruc, Albert; Zhang, Dongfang; Zhong, Yinpeng; Loch, Rolf A; Marx, Alexander; Hasegawa, Taisuke; Liu, Lai Chung; Bayesteh, Shima; Delsim-Hashemi, Hossein; Hoffmann, Matthias; Felber, Matthias; Hachmann, Max; Mayet, Frank; Hirscht, Julian; Keskin, Sercan; Hada, Masaki; Epp, Sascha W; Flöttmann, Klaus; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2015-01-01

    The long held objective of directly observing atomic motions during the defining moments of chemistry has been achieved based on ultrabright electron sources that have given rise to a new field of atomically resolved structural dynamics. This class of experiments requires not only simultaneous sub-atomic spatial resolution with temporal resolution on the 100 femtosecond time scale but also has brightness requirements approaching single shot atomic resolution conditions. The brightness condition is in recognition that chemistry leads generally to irreversible changes in structure during the experimental conditions and that the nanoscale thin samples needed for electron structural probes pose upper limits to the available sample or "film" for atomic movies. Even in the case of reversible systems, the degree of excitation and thermal effects require the brightest sources possible for a given space-time resolution to observe the structural changes above background. Further progress in the field, particularly to the study of biological systems and solution reaction chemistry, requires increased brightness and spatial coherence, as well as an ability to tune the electron scattering cross-section to meet sample constraints. The electron bunch density or intensity depends directly on the magnitude of the extraction field for photoemitted electron sources and electron energy distribution in the transverse and longitudinal planes of electron propagation. This work examines the fundamental limits to optimizing these parameters based on relativistic electron sources using re-bunching cavity concepts that are now capable of achieving 10 femtosecond time scale resolution to capture the fastest nuclear motions. This analysis is given for both diffraction and real space imaging of structural dynamics in which there are several orders of magnitude higher space-time resolution with diffraction methods. The first experimental results from the Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic

  18. A high-resolution time-to-digital converter using a three-level resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, Asma; Saneei, Mohsen; Mahani, Ali

    2016-08-01

    In this article, a three-level resolution Vernier delay line time-to-digital converter (TDC) was proposed. The proposed TDC core was based on the pseudo-differential digital architecture that made it insensitive to nMOS and pMOS transistor mismatches. It also employed a Vernier delay line (VDL) in conjunction with an asynchronous read-out circuitry. The time interval resolution was equal to the difference of delay between buffers of upper and lower chains. Then, via the extra chain included in the lower delay line, resolution was controlled and power consumption was reduced. This method led to high resolution and low power consumption. The measurement results of TDC showed a resolution of 4.5 ps, 12-bit output dynamic range, and integral nonlinearity of 1.5 least significant bits. This TDC achieved the consumption of 68.43 µW from 1.1-V supply.

  19. Improved Imaging Resolution in Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2008-01-01

    Imaging resolution of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was investigated using printed patterns on paper and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate surfaces. Resolution approaching 40 m was achieved with a typical DESI-MS setup, which is approximately 5 times better than the best resolution reported previously. This improvement was accomplished with careful control of operational parameters (particularly spray tip-to-surface distance, solvent flow rate, and spacing of lane scans). Also, an appropriately strong analyte/surface interaction and uniform surface texture on the size scale no larger that the desired imaging resolution were required to achieve this resolution. Overall, conditions providing the smallest possible effective desorption/ionization area in the DESI impact plume region and minimizing the analyte redistribution on the surface during analysis led to the improved DESI-MS imaging resolution.

  20. EDITORIAL: Deeper, broader, higher, better?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-07-01

    Honorary Editor The standard of educational achievement in England and Wales is frequently criticized, and it seems to be an axiom of government that schools and teachers need to be shaken up, kept on a tight rein, copiously inspected, shamed and blamed as required: in general, subjected to the good old approach of: ' Find out what Johnny is doing and tell him to stop.' About the only exception to this somewhat severe attitude is at A-level, where the standard is simply golden. Often, comparisons are made between the performance of, say, English children and that of their coevals in other countries, with different customs, systems, aims and languages. But there has been a recent comparison of standards at A-level with a non-A-level system of pre-university education, in an English-speaking country that both sends students to English universities and accepts theirs into its own, and is, indeed, represented in the UK government at well above the level expected from its ethnical weighting in the population. This semi-foreign country is Scotland. The conclusions of the study are interesting. Scotland has had its own educational system, with `traditional breadth', and managed to escape much of the centralized authoritarianism that we have been through south of the border. It is interesting to note that, while for the past dozen years or so the trend in A-level Physics entries has been downwards, there has been an increase in the take-up of Scottish `Highers'. Highers is a one-year course. Is its popularity due to its being easier than A-level? Scottish students keen enough to do more can move on to the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies, and will shortly be able to upgrade a Higher Level into an Advanced Higher Level. A comparability study [ Comparability Study of Scottish Qualifications and GCE Advanced Levels: Report on Physics January 1998 (free from SQA)] was carried out by the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) with the aim (amongst others) of helping

  1. Bayesian Deconvolution for Angular Super-Resolution in Forward-Looking Scanning Radar

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Yuebo; Huang, Yulin; Sun, Zhichao; Wang, Yue; Yang, Jianyu

    2015-01-01

    Scanning radar is of notable importance for ground surveillance, terrain mapping and disaster rescue. However, the angular resolution of a scanning radar image is poor compared to the achievable range resolution. This paper presents a deconvolution algorithm for angular super-resolution in scanning radar based on Bayesian theory, which states that the angular super-resolution can be realized by solving the corresponding deconvolution problem with the maximum a posteriori (MAP) criterion. The algorithm considers that the noise is composed of two mutually independent parts, i.e., a Gaussian signal-independent component and a Poisson signal-dependent component. In addition, the Laplace distribution is used to represent the prior information about the targets under the assumption that the radar image of interest can be represented by the dominant scatters in the scene. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed deconvolution algorithm has higher precision for angular super-resolution compared with the conventional algorithms, such as the Tikhonov regularization algorithm, the Wiener filter and the Richardson–Lucy algorithm. PMID:25806871

  2. Hyperspectral imagery super-resolution by compressive sensing inspired dictionary learning and spatial-spectral regularization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Hongyi; Wei, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Due to the instrumental and imaging optics limitations, it is difficult to acquire high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery (HSI). Super-resolution (SR) imagery aims at inferring high quality images of a given scene from degraded versions of the same scene. This paper proposes a novel hyperspectral imagery super-resolution (HSI-SR) method via dictionary learning and spatial-spectral regularization. The main contributions of this paper are twofold. First, inspired by the compressive sensing (CS) framework, for learning the high resolution dictionary, we encourage stronger sparsity on image patches and promote smaller coherence between the learned dictionary and sensing matrix. Thus, a sparsity and incoherence restricted dictionary learning method is proposed to achieve higher efficiency sparse representation. Second, a variational regularization model combing a spatial sparsity regularization term and a new local spectral similarity preserving term is proposed to integrate the spectral and spatial-contextual information of the HSI. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively recover spatial information and better preserve spectral information. The high spatial resolution HSI reconstructed by the proposed method outperforms reconstructed results by other well-known methods in terms of both objective measurements and visual evaluation. PMID:25608212

  3. Three-dimensional super-resolution protein localization correlated with vitrified cellular context

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bei; Xue, Yanhong; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Yan; Fan, Chunyan; Gu, Lusheng; Zhang, Yongdeng; Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Lei; Huang, Xiaojun; Ding, Wei; Sun, Fei; Ji, Wei; Xu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of cryogenic super-resolution correlative light and electron microscopy (csCLEM) to precisely determine the spatial relationship between proteins and their native cellular structures. Several fluorescent proteins (FPs) were found to be photoswitchable and emitted far more photons under our cryogenic imaging condition, resulting in higher localization precision which is comparable to ambient super-resolution imaging. Vitrified specimens were prepared by high pressure freezing and cryo-sectioning to maintain a near-native state with better fluorescence preservation. A 2-3-fold improvement of resolution over the recent reports was achieved due to the photon budget performance of screening out Dronpa and optimized imaging conditions, even with thin sections which is at a disadvantage when calculate the structure resolution from label density. We extended csCLEM to mammalian cells by introducing cryo-sectioning and observed good correlation of a mitochondrial protein with the mitochondrial outer membrane at nanometer resolution in three dimensions. PMID:26462878

  4. A slanting light-guide analog decoding high resolution detector for positron emission tomography camera

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, W.H.; Jing, M.; Bendriem, B.; Hartz, R.; Mullani, N.; Gould, K.L.; Michel, C.

    1987-02-01

    Current high resolution PET cameras require the scintillation crystals to be much narrower than the smallest available photomultipliers. In addition, the large number of photomultiplier channels constitutes the major component cost in the camera. Recent new designs use the Anger camera type of analog decoding method to obtain higher resolution and lower cost by using the relatively large photomultipliers. An alternative approach to improve the resolution and cost factors has been proposed, with a system of slanting light-guides between the scintillators and the photomultipliers. In the Anger camera schemes, the scintillation light is distributed to several neighboring photomultipliers which then determine the scintillation location. In the slanting light-guide design, the scintillation is metered and channeled to only two photomultipliers for the decision making. This paper presents the feasibility and performance achievable with the slanting light-guide detectors. With a crystal/photomultiplier ratio of 6/1, the intrinsic resolution was found to be 4.0 mm using the first non-optimized prototype light-guides on BGO crystals. The axial resolution will be about 5-6 mm.

  5. Three-dimensional super-resolution protein localization correlated with vitrified cellular context.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bei; Xue, Yanhong; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Yan; Fan, Chunyan; Gu, Lusheng; Zhang, Yongdeng; Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Lei; Huang, Xiaojun; Ding, Wei; Sun, Fei; Ji, Wei; Xu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of cryogenic super-resolution correlative light and electron microscopy (csCLEM) to precisely determine the spatial relationship between proteins and their native cellular structures. Several fluorescent proteins (FPs) were found to be photoswitchable and emitted far more photons under our cryogenic imaging condition, resulting in higher localization precision which is comparable to ambient super-resolution imaging. Vitrified specimens were prepared by high pressure freezing and cryo-sectioning to maintain a near-native state with better fluorescence preservation. A 2-3-fold improvement of resolution over the recent reports was achieved due to the photon budget performance of screening out Dronpa and optimized imaging conditions, even with thin sections which is at a disadvantage when calculate the structure resolution from label density. We extended csCLEM to mammalian cells by introducing cryo-sectioning and observed good correlation of a mitochondrial protein with the mitochondrial outer membrane at nanometer resolution in three dimensions. PMID:26462878

  6. Hyperspectral Imagery Super-Resolution by Compressive Sensing Inspired Dictionary Learning and Spatial-Spectral Regularization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Hongyi; Wei, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Due to the instrumental and imaging optics limitations, it is difficult to acquire high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery (HSI). Super-resolution (SR) imagery aims at inferring high quality images of a given scene from degraded versions of the same scene. This paper proposes a novel hyperspectral imagery super-resolution (HSI-SR) method via dictionary learning and spatial-spectral regularization. The main contributions of this paper are twofold. First, inspired by the compressive sensing (CS) framework, for learning the high resolution dictionary, we encourage stronger sparsity on image patches and promote smaller coherence between the learned dictionary and sensing matrix. Thus, a sparsity and incoherence restricted dictionary learning method is proposed to achieve higher efficiency sparse representation. Second, a variational regularization model combing a spatial sparsity regularization term and a new local spectral similarity preserving term is proposed to integrate the spectral and spatial-contextual information of the HSI. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively recover spatial information and better preserve spectral information. The high spatial resolution HSI reconstructed by the proposed method outperforms reconstructed results by other well-known methods in terms of both objective measurements and visual evaluation. PMID:25608212

  7. Bayesian deconvolution for angular super-resolution in forward-looking scanning radar.

    PubMed

    Zha, Yuebo; Huang, Yulin; Sun, Zhichao; Wang, Yue; Yang, Jianyu

    2015-01-01

    Scanning radar is of notable importance for ground surveillance, terrain mapping and disaster rescue. However, the angular resolution of a scanning radar image is poor compared to the achievable range resolution. This paper presents a deconvolution algorithm for angular super-resolution in scanning radar based on Bayesian theory, which states that the angular super-resolution can be realized by solving the corresponding deconvolution problem with the maximum a posteriori (MAP) criterion. The algorithm considers that the noise is composed of two mutually independent parts, i.e., a Gaussian signal-independent component and a Poisson signal-dependent component. In addition, the Laplace distribution is used to represent the prior information about the targets under the assumption that the radar image of interest can be represented by the dominant scatters in the scene. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed deconvolution algorithm has higher precision for angular super-resolution compared with the conventional algorithms, such as the Tikhonov regularization algorithm, the Wiener filter and the Richardson-Lucy algorithm. PMID:25806871

  8. Triple-frequency GPS precise point positioning with rapid ambiguity resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jianghui; Bock, Yehuda

    2013-05-01

    At present, reliable ambiguity resolution in real-time GPS precise point positioning (PPP) can only be achieved after an initial observation period of a few tens of minutes. In this study, we propose a method where the incoming triple-frequency GPS signals are exploited to enable rapid convergences to ambiguity-fixed solutions in real-time PPP. Specifically, extra-wide-lane ambiguity resolution can be first achieved almost instantaneously with the Melbourne-Wübbena combination observable on L2 and L5. Then the resultant unambiguous extra-wide-lane carrier-phase is combined with the wide-lane carrier-phase on L1 and L2 to form an ionosphere-free observable with a wavelength of about 3.4 m. Although the noise of this observable is around 100 times the raw carrier-phase noise, its wide-lane ambiguity can still be resolved very efficiently, and the resultant ambiguity-fixed observable can assist much better than pseudorange in speeding up succeeding narrow-lane ambiguity resolution. To validate this method, we use an advanced hardware simulator to generate triple-frequency signals and a high-grade receiver to collect 1-Hz data. When the carrier-phase precisions on L1, L2 and L5 are as poor as 1.5, 6.3 and 1.5 mm, respectively, wide-lane ambiguity resolution can still reach a correctness rate of over 99 % within 20 s. As a result, the correctness rate of narrow-lane ambiguity resolution achieves 99 % within 65 s, in contrast to only 64 % within 150 s in dual-frequency PPP. In addition, we also simulate a multipath-contaminated data set and introduce new ambiguities for all satellites every 120 s. We find that when multipath effects are strong, ambiguity-fixed solutions are achieved at 78 % of all epochs in triple-frequency PPP whilst almost no ambiguities are resolved in dual-frequency PPP. Therefore, we demonstrate that triple-frequency PPP has the potential to achieve ambiguity-fixed solutions within a few minutes, or even shorter if raw carrier-phase precisions are

  9. Ethiopian New Public Universities: Achievements, Challenges and Illustrative Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deuren, Rita; Kahsu, Tsegazeab; Mohammed, Seid; Woldie, Wondimu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze and illustrate achievements and challenges of Ethiopian higher education, both at the system level and at the level of new public universities. Design/methodology/approach: Achievements and challenges at the system level are based on literature review and secondary data. Illustrative case studies are based on…

  10. Finishing the Job: Improving the Achievement of Vocational Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene; Presson, Alice

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB)-State Vocational Education Consortium's commitment to higher standards for and greater achievement of vocational students has brought substantial gains in student performance. SREB's High Schools That Work (HSTW), a school improvement initiative, documents achievement gains by vocational students. Data…

  11. Flipping College Algebra: Effects on Student Engagement and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ichinose, Cherie; Clinkenbeard, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study compared student engagement and achievement levels between students enrolled in a traditional college algebra lecture course and students enrolled in a "flipped" course. Results showed that students in the flipped class had consistently higher levels of achievement throughout the course than did students in the traditional…

  12. Teachers Developing Assessment for Learning: Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan; Lee, Clare; Harrison, Christine; Black, Paul

    2004-01-01

    While it is generally acknowledged that increased use of formative assessment (or assessment for learning) leads to higher quality learning, it is often claimed that the pressure in schools to improve the results achieved by students in externally-set tests and examinations precludes its use. This paper reports on the achievement of secondary…

  13. Long-Term Learning, Achievement Tests, and Learner Centered Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Moises F.; Kane-Johnson, Sarah E.; Vasil-Miller, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of achievement tests to measure long-term learning at the higher education level in traditional verses learner-centered classrooms. Volunteer instructors who use comprehensive achievement tests as an important component of their grading system were asked to complete an instrument that…

  14. A Domain-level Approach to Describing Growth in Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, E. Matthew; Lee, Won-Chan; Mullen, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Descriptions of growth in educational achievement often rely on the notion that higher-level students can do whatever lower-level students can do, plus at least one more thing. This article presents a method of supporting such descriptions using the data of a subject-area achievement test. Multiple content domains with an expected order of…

  15. Localization of tissues in high-resolution digital anatomic pathology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomari, Raja S.; Allen, Ron; Sabata, Bikash; Chaudhary, Vipin

    2009-02-01

    High resolution digital pathology images have a wide range of variability in color, shape, size, number, appearance, location, and texture. The segmentation problem is challenging in this environment. We introduce a hybrid method that combines parametric machine learning with heuristic methods for feature extraction as well as pre- and post-processing steps for localizing diverse tissues in slide images. The method uses features such as color, intensity, texture, and spatial distribution. We use principal component analysis for feature reduction and train a two layer back propagation neural network (with one hidden layer). We perform image labeling at pixel-level and achieve higher than 96% automatic localization accuracy on 294 test images.

  16. Image reconstructions from super-sampled data sets with resolution modeling in PET imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yusheng; Matej, Samuel; Metzler, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Spatial resolution in positron emission tomography (PET) is still a limiting factor in many imaging applications. To improve the spatial resolution for an existing scanner with fixed crystal sizes, mechanical movements such as scanner wobbling and object shifting have been considered for PET systems. Multiple acquisitions from different positions can provide complementary information and increased spatial sampling. The objective of this paper is to explore an efficient and useful reconstruction framework to reconstruct super-resolution images from super-sampled low-resolution data sets. Methods: The authors introduce a super-sampling data acquisition model based on the physical processes with tomographic, downsampling, and shifting matrices as its building blocks. Based on the model, we extend the MLEM and Landweber algorithms to reconstruct images from super-sampled data sets. The authors also derive a backprojection-filtration-like (BPF-like) method for the super-sampling reconstruction. Furthermore, they explore variant methods for super-sampling reconstructions: the separate super-sampling resolution-modeling reconstruction and the reconstruction without downsampling to further improve image quality at the cost of more computation. The authors use simulated reconstruction of a resolution phantom to evaluate the three types of algorithms with different super-samplings at different count levels. Results: Contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) versus background variability, as an image-quality metric, is calculated at each iteration for all reconstructions. The authors observe that all three algorithms can significantly and consistently achieve increased CRCs at fixed background variability and reduce background artifacts with super-sampled data sets at the same count levels. For the same super-sampled data sets, the MLEM method achieves better image quality than the Landweber method, which in turn achieves better image quality than the BPF-like method. The

  17. Australian Higher Education Reforms--Unification or Diversification?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The higher education policy of the previous Australian government aimed to achieve an internationally competitive higher education sector while expanding access opportunities to all Australians. This policy agenda closely reflects global trends that focus on achieving both quality and equity objectives. In this paper, the formulation and…

  18. Global high resolution climate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert-Frisius, Martina; Feser, Frauke; Zahn, Matthias; von Storch, Hans; Rast, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Long-term reanalysis products represent an important data source for numerous climate studies. However, their coarse spatial resolution for data sets spanning the last more than 50 years and well known inhomogeneities in space and time make it difficult to derive changes in meteorological variables over time. We therefore use spectral nudging technique to down-scale the global reanalysis data to a finer resolution with a general global circulation model. With this technique the new calculated higher resolved global model fields are attracted to the large-scale state of the coarse resolution reanalysis. Besides the conservation of large-scale atmospheric information and the resulting finer topography, a surplus in contents of information in meteorological phenomena of small spatial extensions is expected. Following this strategy a simulation with the global high-resolution atmospheric model ECHAM6 (T255L95), developed by MPI-M Hamburg, will be started by spectrally nudging NCEP1 reanalysis for the time period from 1948 until 2013. Selected wavelengths of more than 1000 km of vorticity, divergence, temperature and the logarithm of the surface pressure will be imposed onto the simulated GCM counterparts at levels above 750 hPa. SST and sea ice distribution are taken from the NCEP1 data set. These simulations enable the investigation of long-term changes in meteorological phenomena; the focus is put here on intense storms. Various horizontal wavelength selections and associated vertical profiles in the strength of nudging were tested. The temporarily best configuration resulted in large time correlations for 2m-temperature and 10m wind speed at several selected locations in Germany in comparison to observations. Correlations were highest for extra-tropical regions, while over the western part of the Pacific and Indian Ocean relative low time correlations were found. In a continuing study meteorological quantities at different levels and the influences of the nudging

  19. Higher dimensional Hadamard matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlichta, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper defines higher dimensional Hadamard matrices and enumerates on some of the simplest three-, four-, and five-dimensional cases and procedures for generating them. Special emphasis is given to proper matrices that have a dimensional hierarchy of orthogonalities. It is determined that this property lends itself primarily to the application of higher dimensional Hadamard matrices to error-correcting codes. A list of derived statements for n-dimensional Hadamard matrices are given, as well as a definition of Hadamard matrix families, such as minimal, Petrie polygon, antipodal (n-2)-dimensional sections, and double proximity shells.

  20. Higher Spin Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi-Ming

    This dissertation splits into two distinct halves. The first half is devoted to the study of the holography of higher spin gauge theory in AdS 3. We present a conjecture that the holographic dual of W N minimal model in a 't Hooft-like large N limit is an unusual "semi-local" higher spin gauge theory on AdS3 x 1. At each point on the S1 lives a copy of three-dimensional Vasiliev theory, that contains an infinite tower of higher spin gauge fields coupled to a single massive complex scalar propagating in AdS3. The Vasiliev theories at different points on the S1 are correlated only through the AdS3 boundary conditions on the massive scalars. All but one single tower of higher spin symmetries are broken by the boundary conditions. This conjecture is checked by comparing tree-level two- and three-point functions, and also one-loop partition functions on both side of the duality. The second half focuses on the holography of higher spin gauge theory in AdS 4. We demonstrate that a supersymmetric and parity violating version of Vasiliev's higher spin gauge theory in AdS4 admits boundary conditions that preserve N = 0,1,2,3,4 or 6 supersymmetries. In particular, we argue that the Vasiliev theory with U( M) Chan-Paton and N = 6 boundary condition is holographically dual to the 2+1 dimensional U(N) k x U(M) -k ABJ theory in the limit of large N, k and finite M. In this system all bulk higher spin fields transform in the adjoint of the U(M) gauge group, whose bulk t'Hooft coupling is M/N. Our picture suggests that the supersymmetric Vasiliev theory can be obtained as a limit of type IIA string theory in AdS4 x CP3, and that the non-Abelian Vasiliev theory at strong bulk 't Hooft coupling smoothly turn into a string field theory. The fundamental string is a singlet bound state of Vasiliev's higher spin particles held together by U(M) gauge interactions.

  1. Higher spin cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash; Roy, Shubho; Thakur, Somyadip

    2014-02-01

    We construct cosmological solutions of higher spin gravity in 2+1 dimensional de Sitter space. We show that a consistent thermodynamics can be obtained for their horizons by demanding appropriate holonomy conditions. This is equivalent to demanding the integrability of the Euclidean boundary conformal field theory partition function, and it reduces to Gibbons-Hawking thermodynamics in the spin-2 case. By using the prescription of Maldacena, we relate the thermodynamics of these solutions to those of higher spin black holes in AdS3.

  2. High resolution river routing in the Community Climate System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson III, David J; Drake, John B

    2009-12-01

    The current version of the Community Climate System Model CCSM uses half degree resolution river routing within the land component of CCSM. We present a scaling approach and status on a project to produce a much higher resolution data set for river routing to go along with higher resolution land cover data sets for the Community Land Model CLM in order to take advantage of the increasing computational power now available. The new higher resolution data set is based on the Hydrosheds and Hydro1K datasets from USGS. The flow directions are used to generate basins so that the computational load can be distributed among processors by basins to minimize the parallel communication necessary. The code modifications will make the river component more scalable and efficient. The higher resolution models enable detailed study of climatic effects from human induced land cover/land use changes such as the deployment of biofuel crops for energy production.

  3. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  4. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  5. Lincoln's Spot Resolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

    1988-01-01

    Examines the events leading to and immediately following the declaration of war on Mexico in 1846. Includes the second and third pages of Abraham Lincoln's "Spot Resolutions" and presents teaching suggestions for interpreting the document and assessing public opinion. (GEA)

  6. Shower counter resolution scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, T.B.W.

    1991-10-14

    The EM shower counter for the SDC detector has a resolution expression containing two stochastic terms plus a constant term. Recent measurements clarifying the sources of these terms are presented here. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Ethics and Higher Education. American Council on Education/Macmillan Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, William W., Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to provide a basic resource that defines the ethical issues in higher education and to offer a starting point for means of resolution or policy development in regard to them. Part 1 establishes an interpretive framework for the book in the following papers: "Institutional Culture and Ethics" (David Smith and Charles…

  8. A Comparison of Formal Features of Written Language of Learning Disabled, Low-Achieving and Achieving Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Mary Ross

    The written language characteristics of 26 learning disabled (LD), 26 low achieving (LA), and 26 achieving (ACH) students in grades 7 through 10 were measured using paragraph writing and topic sentence tasks. Tests of differences between LD and LA Ss revealed that spelling was the only formal feature which was significantly higher in the LA group.…

  9. High Resolution Sapphire Bragg Backscattering Monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, P. van der; Wille, H.-C.; Shvyd'ko, Yu. V.

    2007-01-19

    We present a temperature stabilised high resolution sapphire backscattering monochromator. The device consists of a sapphire crystal inside a cold nitrogen gas cooled, temperature stabilised chamber with a passively temperature stabilised screen. The achieved temperature stability of {+-}2mK allows for an energy resolution of {delta}E/E {<=} 10-7 at energies in the range of 30-70 keV. The device was developed for nuclear resonant scattering above 30 keV, where appropriate solutions did not exist until now.

  10. Ultra high resolution tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  11. High-Resolution Autoradiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towe, George C; Gomberg, Henry J; Freemen, J W

    1955-01-01

    This investigation was made to adapt wet-process autoradiography to metallurgical samples to obtain high resolution of segregated radioactive elements in microstructures. Results are confined to development of the technique, which was perfected to a resolution of less than 10 microns. The radioactive samples included carbon-14 carburized iron and steel, nickel-63 electroplated samples, a powder product containing nickel-63, and tungsten-185 in N-155 alloy.

  12. High-Resolution Intravital Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Volker; Pollok, Karolin; Rinnenthal, Jan-Leo; Oehme, Laura; Günther, Robert; Spiecker, Heinrich; Radbruch, Helena; Gerhard, Jenny; Sporbert, Anje; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy - the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning) while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs) of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and developmental biology

  13. Interdisciplinarity in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanisch, Thor Einar; Vollmann, Wolfgang, Ed.

    The advantages of an interdisciplinary approach to college instruction and research are examined, based in part on a 1983 symposium of the European Centre for Higher Education. Six case studies are also presented. It is noted that interdisciplinarity opens up possibilities of exchange between individual disciplines and encourages the development…

  14. Higher Education's Strange Paradox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Harold, II

    The university which has had the temerity to change the world has not had the nerve to change itself to live in that world. The result is that the university's grading system, curriculum, teaching methods, and philosophies are in conflict with the world beyond the campus gates, and higher education does not meet the intellectual and social needs…

  15. Entrepreneurship and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Jonathan, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. This book examines the role that higher education institutions are currently playing through teaching entrepreneurship and transferring knowledge and innovation to enterprises and…

  16. California's Future: Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  17. Corporatizing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Gerda

    2008-01-01

    The process of changing U.S. higher education institutions along a corporate model has been going on for several decades. It consists of changes, some open, some obscured, on various fronts: the erosion of tenure by attrition; the simultaneous increase in the use of contingent faculty; the rise in tuition; the dramatic decrease in federal and…

  18. Marketing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockenberger, Susan J.

    Educational institutions must seek new approaches to institutional planning because of such factors as shrinking traditional college age populations, eroding grants, governmental and judicial incursion, the tightening economic belt, and concern over the relevance of education to modern day needs. The concept of marketing higher education is…

  19. Liberty and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dennis F.

    1989-01-01

    John Stuart Mill's principle of liberty is discussed with the view that it needs to be revised to guide moral judgments in higher education. Three key elements need to be modified: the action that is constrained; the constraint on the action; and the agent whose action is constrained. (MLW)

  20. Higher Education Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clery, Sue; Lee, John

    1999-01-01

    This report reviews changes in higher education staff by occupation between 1993 and 1997. Specific attention is paid to staffing patterns in states with right to work laws compared to those without it. When a state enacts a right to work law, it can be assumed it is not supportive of public unions. This analysis is based on data from the National…

  1. Curriculum in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, A. I., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Four articles on higher education curriculum are presented. In "The Articulate Curriculum" an approach to curriculum description is presented that is designed to have minimal ambiguity concerning the intention, content, and processes of the curriculum and that will lead to questioning several discrete factors in the curriculum planning process. It…

  2. Networks for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interuniversity Communications Council (EDUCOM), Princeton, NJ.

    EDUCOM, the Inter University Communications Council, Inc., planned its 1972 spring conference as a forum for presentations, discussions, and informal meetings to review the present state and the future possibilities of computer networks for higher education. Speeches presented were specifically related to: (1) the current status and future plans…

  3. Evaluation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bognar, Branko; Bungic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    One of the means of transforming classroom experience is by conducting action research with students. This paper reports about the action research with university students. It has been carried out within a semester of the course "Methods of Upbringing". Its goal has been to improve evaluation of higher education teaching. Different forms…

  4. Marketing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalili, Farid

    The use of marketing activities by educational institutions and the transfer of marketing activities from business to higher education are considered. Market analysis helps colleges and universities determine what programs, scheduling, or services are strong and to which student market the institution should appeal. It is suggested that the…

  5. Understanding Higher Education Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Public discussion of higher education costs frequently confuses price with expenditure. This article examines factors associated with increases in the sticker price of a college education and the expenditures incurred by institutions in delivering that education. The discussion suggests that while growth in college tuition is real, access to…

  6. Higher Education Exchange, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The Kettering Foundation's research has been focused on putting the public back into the public's business for more than thirty years. Some questions that have recently been useful to Kettering researchers as the foundation focuses on its work with institutional actors--especially higher education and its relationship with the public--have…

  7. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifer, Alan

    Women have traditionally been discriminated against in higher education in both the attainment of degrees and in employment after earning degrees. It has been felt that women are not as capable, reliable, or effective as men in administrative and classroom situations. Statistics show that even at the present time women are underemployed and…

  8. Benchmarking for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson and Helen…

  9. Online Higher Education Commodity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chau, Paule

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the current trend towards online education. It examines some of the reasons for the trend and the ramifications it may have on students, faculty and institutions of higher learning. The success and profitability of online programs and institutions such as the University of Phoenix has helped to make the move towards online…

  10. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Sheryl, Ed.; Shaver, Barbara, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Articles on women's studies and females in higher education are presented in this publication. A University of North Dakota project that sought to promote the integration of new research and scholarship results into the curriculum is described in "Women's Equity Committee Offers a Model Project," (Leola Furman, Robert Young). Historical…

  11. Creativity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaspar, Drazena; Mabic, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research related to perception of creativity in higher education made by the authors at the University of Mostar from Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research was based on a survey conducted among teachers and students at the University. The authors developed two types of questionnaires, one for teachers and the other…

  12. Black at Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadi-Hanifi, Karima

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory paper, drawing on the author's experiences as well as those of three other black lecturers in Higher Education (HE). Three interviews were carried out, asking the same five questions around themes of concern to the author. These are about the learning and teaching approaches used by these lecturers; their experiences of…

  13. Higher Education Exchange 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.

    Nine articles discuss the relationship between the higher education community and the public. The articles are: (1) "On a Certain Blindness in Teaching" by Michael S. Roth, who stresses the necessity of political citizenship education for a healthy democracy; (2) "Monocultural Perspectives and Campus Diversity" by Jane Fried, who explores the…

  14. Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

  15. NEXUS: Digitizing Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Camille

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of digital technology in the context of higher education planning considers how these technologies change teaching; the digital divide; the costs of information technology; hard wiring the campus; material consequences of information technology; digitally enabled crimes and misdemeanors; and libraries and scholarly publishing. Concludes…

  16. Valuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes…

  17. Developing Higher Level Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbach, Barbara; Waugh, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies an interdisciplinary, five-step process, built upon existing theory and best practices in cognitive development, effective learning environments, and outcomes-based assessment. The "Process for the Development of Higher Level Thinking Skills" provides teachers with an easy to implement method of moving toward a more…

  18. Free Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jr., Adolph; Szymanski, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    The crisis of affordability in higher education is intensifying. Illustrations of its resonance abound: from the frequent news articles describing and amplifying the crisis and its sources to legislators' and candidates' proposed responses. Republicans' responses tend to be mainly punitive toward institutions; Democrats' proposals are more…

  19. Shell Higher Olefins Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

  20. Comparative Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    The comparative higher education course offered at the State University of New York at Buffalo is briefly described, and a course schedule is presented, including required and recommended readings for each topic. The course is intended to provide a broad cross-cultural perspective and considers the growth and development of universities in Europe,…