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Sample records for achieve higher resolution

  1. Using Records of Achievement in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assiter, Alison, Ed.; Shaw, Eileen, Ed.

    This collection of 22 essays examines the use of records of achievement (student profiles or portfolios) in higher and vocational education in the United Kingdom. They include: (1) "Records of Achievement: Background, Definitions, and Uses" (Alison Assiter and Eileen Shaw); (2) "Profiling in Higher Education" (Alison Assiter…

  2. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  3. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  4. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  5. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  6. Achieving Quality Learning in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nightingale, Peggy; O'Neil, Mike

    This volume on quality learning in higher education discusses issues of good practice particularly action learning and Total Quality Management (TQM)-type strategies and illustrates them with seven case studies in Australia and the United Kingdom. Chapter 1 discusses issues and problems in defining quality in higher education. Chapter 2 looks at…

  7. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results, 2011. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report, issued by the Connecticut Department of Higher Education, reports on trends in higher education for the year 2011. Six goals are presented, each with at least two indicators. Each indicator is broken down into the following subsections: About This Indicator; Highlights; and In the Future. Most indicators also include statistical…

  8. Achieving higher-value obstetrical care.

    PubMed

    Woo, Victoria G; Lundeen, Tifanny; Matula, Sierra; Milstein, Arnold

    2017-03-01

    Obstetrical care in the United States is unnecessarily costly. Birth is 1 of the most common reasons for healthcare use in the United States and 1 of the top expenditures for payers every year. However, compared with other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, the United States spends substantially more money per birth without better outcomes. Our team at the Clinical Excellence Research Center, a center that is focused on improving value in healthcare, spent a year studying ways in which obstetrical care in the United States can deliver better outcomes at a lower cost. After a thoughtful discovery process, we identified ways that obstetrical care could be delivered with higher value. In this article, we recommend 3 redesign steps that foster the delivery of higher-value maternity care: (1) to provide long-acting reversible contraception immediately after birth, (2) to tailor prenatal care according to women's unique medical and psychosocial needs by offering more efficient models such as fewer in-person visits or group care, and (3) to create hospital-affiliated integrated outpatient birth centers as the planned place of birth for low-risk women. For each step, we discuss the redesign concept, current barriers and implementation solutions, and our estimation of potential cost-savings to the United States at scale. We estimate that, if this model were adopted nationally, annual US healthcare spending on obstetrical care would decline by as much as 28%.

  9. Higher Resolution for Water Resources Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumenil-Gates, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth system science community is providing an increasing range of science results for the benefit of achieving the Millennium Development Goals. In addressing questions such as reducing poverty and hunger, achieving sustainable global development, or by defining adaptation strategies for climate change, one of the key issues will be the quantitative description and understanding of the global water cycle, which will allow useful projections of available future water resources for several decades ahead. The quantities of global water cycle elements that we observe today - and deal with in hydrologic and atmospheric modeling - are already very different from the natural flows as human influence on the water cycle by storage, consumption and edifice has been going on for millennia, and climate change is expected to add more uncertainty. In this case Tony Blair’s comment that perhaps the most worrying problem is climate change does not cover the full story. We shall also have to quantify how the human demand for water resources and alterations of the various elements of the water cycle may proceed in the future: will there be enough of the precious water resource to sustain current and future demands by the various sectors involved? The topics that stakeholders and decision makers concerned with managing water resources are interested in cover a variety of human uses such as agriculture, energy production, ecological flow requirements to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services, or human cultural aspects, recreation and human well-being - all typically most relevant at the regional or local scales, this being quite different from the relatively large-scale that the IPCC assessment addresses. Halfway through the Millennium process, the knowledge base of the global water cycle is still limited. The sustainability of regional water resources is best assessed through a research program that combines high-resolution climate and hydrologic models for expected

  10. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results, 2008. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with…

  11. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with…

  12. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the principle vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with…

  13. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with…

  14. Improving Student Achievement: A Study of High-Poverty Schools with Higher Student Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the education system at high-poverty schools that had significantly higher student achievement levels as compared to similar schools with lower student achievement levels. A multischool qualitative case study was conducted of the educational systems where there was a significant difference in the scores achieved on the…

  15. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs—Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  16. Achieving Equity in Higher Education: The Unfinished Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Alexander W.; Astin, Helen S.

    2015-01-01

    In this retrospective account of their scholarly work over the past 45 years, Alexander and Helen Astin show how the struggle to achieve greater equity in American higher education is intimately connected to issues of character development, leadership, civic responsibility, and spirituality. While shedding some light on a variety of questions…

  17. Wavelength scanning achieves pixel super-resolution in holographic on-chip microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Göröcs, Zoltan; Zhang, Yibo; Feizi, Alborz; Greenbaum, Alon; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-03-01

    Lensfree holographic on-chip imaging is a potent solution for high-resolution and field-portable bright-field imaging over a wide field-of-view. Previous lensfree imaging approaches utilize a pixel super-resolution technique, which relies on sub-pixel lateral displacements between the lensfree diffraction patterns and the image sensor's pixel-array, to achieve sub-micron resolution under unit magnification using state-of-the-art CMOS imager chips, commonly used in e.g., mobile-phones. Here we report, for the first time, a wavelength scanning based pixel super-resolution technique in lensfree holographic imaging. We developed an iterative super-resolution algorithm, which generates high-resolution reconstructions of the specimen from low-resolution (i.e., under-sampled) diffraction patterns recorded at multiple wavelengths within a narrow spectral range (e.g., 10-30 nm). Compared with lateral shift-based pixel super-resolution, this wavelength scanning approach does not require any physical shifts in the imaging setup, and the resolution improvement is uniform in all directions across the sensor-array. Our wavelength scanning super-resolution approach can also be integrated with multi-height and/or multi-angle on-chip imaging techniques to obtain even higher resolution reconstructions. For example, using wavelength scanning together with multi-angle illumination, we achieved a halfpitch resolution of 250 nm, corresponding to a numerical aperture of 1. In addition to pixel super-resolution, the small scanning steps in wavelength also enable us to robustly unwrap phase, revealing the specimen's optical path length in our reconstructed images. We believe that this new wavelength scanning based pixel super-resolution approach can provide competitive microscopy solutions for high-resolution and field-portable imaging needs, potentially impacting tele-pathology applications in resource-limited-settings.

  18. Achieving Higher Energies via Passively Driven X-band Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipahi, Taylan; Sipahi, Nihan; Milton, Stephen; Biedron, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Due to their higher intrinsic shunt impedance X-band accelerating structures significant gradients with relatively modest input powers, and this can lead to more compact particle accelerators. At the Colorado State University Accelerator Laboratory (CSUAL) we would like to adapt this technology to our 1.3 GHz L-band accelerator system using a passively driven 11.7 GHz traveling wave X-band configuration that capitalizes on the high shunt impedances achievable in X-band accelerating structures in order to increase our overall beam energy in a manner that does not require investment in an expensive, custom, high-power X-band klystron system. Here we provide the design details of the X-band structures that will allow us to achieve our goal of reaching the maximum practical net potential across the X-band accelerating structure while driven solely by the beam from the L-band system.

  19. Higher Education Quality Assessment Model: Towards Achieving Educational Quality Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noaman, Amin Y.; Ragab, Abdul Hamid M.; Madbouly, Ayman I.; Khedra, Ahmed M.; Fayoumi, Ayman G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a developed higher education quality assessment model (HEQAM) that can be applied for enhancement of university services. This is because there is no universal unified quality standard model that can be used to assess the quality criteria of higher education institutes. The analytical hierarchy process is used to identify the…

  20. Charting the course for nurses' achievement of higher education levels.

    PubMed

    Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol; Katigbak, Carina; Djukic, Maja; Fatehi, Farida

    2012-01-01

    To improve patient outcomes and meet the challenges of the U.S. health care system, the Institute of Medicine recommends higher educational attainment for the nursing workforce. Characteristics of registered nurses (RNs) who pursue additional education are poorly understood, and this information is critical to planning long-term strategies for U.S. nursing education. To identify factors predicting enrollment and completion of an additional degree among those with an associate or bachelor's as their pre-RN licensure degree, we performed logistic regression analysis on data from an ongoing nationally representative panel study following the career trajectories of newly licensed RNs. For associate degree RNs, predictors of obtaining a bachelor's degree are the following: being Black, living in a rural area, nonnursing work experience, higher positive affectivity, higher work motivation, working in the intensive care unit, and working the day shift. For bachelor's RNs, predictors of completing a master's degree are the following: being Black, nonnursing work experience, holding more than one job, working the day shift, working voluntary overtime, lower intent to stay at current employer, and higher work motivation. Mobilizing the nurse workforce toward higher education requires integrated efforts from policy makers, philanthropists, employers, and educators to mitigate the barriers to continuing education.

  1. Strategies for Increasing Academic Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Julene; Woods, Amelia Mays

    2014-01-01

    Higher education today faces unique challenges. Decreasing student engagement, increasing diversity, and limited resources all contribute to the issues being faced by students, educators, and administrators alike. The unique characteristics and expectations that students bring to their professional programs require new methods of addressing…

  2. Can Atomic Force Microscopy Achieve Atomic Resolution in Contact Mode?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, M. R.; Pérez, Rubén; Payne, M. C.

    2001-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy operating in the contact mode is studied using total-energy pseudopotential calculations. It is shown that, in the case of a diamond tip and a diamond surface, it is possible for a tip terminated by a single atom to sustain forces in excess of 30 nN. It is also shown that imaging at atomic resolution may be limited by blunting of the tip during lateral scanning.

  3. Instrument for Achieving High Angular Resolution on the Infrared Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Donald N. B.

    1998-01-01

    Aberrations in stellar images caused by the atmosphere sets a significant limit on angular resolution in ground based astronomy. The largest of these aberrations is the image motion or wavefront tilt. Since the image motion is random it causes a blurring of the image, and this causes a blurring of the image from 0.3 arcseconds to about 0.7 arcseconds. The purpose of the tip-tilt project was to devise a system for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility that would measure the image movement and correct it by rapidly tilting a mirror in two axes (tip and tilt). The system would involve building a CCD sensor package to measure the image motion, a new top end for the telescope to hold the tip-tilt mirror, a control system, and software. The system was designed to correct images for the facility camera, NSFCAM, and for the facility spectrometer, SPEX. Both of these instruments are equipped with a cold beamsplitter to feed the sensor package.

  4. The Tate form on steroids: resolution and higher codimension fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, Craig; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura

    2013-04-01

    F-theory on singular elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau four-folds provides a setting to geometrically study four-dimensional {N}=1 supersymmetric gauge theories, includingmatter and Yukawa couplings. The gauge degrees of freedom arise from the codimension 1 singular loci, the matter and Yukawa couplings are generated at enhanced singularities in higher codimension. We construct the resolution of the singular Tate form for an elliptic Calabi-Yau four-fold with an ADE type singularity in codimension 1 and study the structure of the fibers in codimension 2 and 3. We determine the fibers in higher codimension which in general are of Kodaira type along minimal singular loci, and are thus consistent with the low energy gauge-theoretic intuition. Furthermore, we provide a complementary description of the fibers in higher codimension, which will also be applicable to non-minimal singularities. The irreducible components in the fiber in codimension 2 correspond to weights of representations of the ADE gauge group. These can split further in codimension 3 in a way that is consistent with the generation of Yukawa couplings. Applying this reasoning, we then venture out to study non-minimal singularities, which occur for A type along codimension 3, and for D and E also in codimension 2. The fibers in this case are non-Kodaira, however some insight into these singularities can be gained by considering the splitting of fiber components along higher codimension, which are shown to be consistent with matter and Yukawa couplings for the corresponding gauge groups.

  5. Stable Same-Sex Friendships with Higher Achieving Partners Promote Mathematical Reasoning in Lower Achieving Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study is designed to investigate friend influence over mathematical reasoning in a sample of 374 children in 187 same-sex friend dyads (184 girls in 92 friendships; 190 boys in 95 friendships). Participants completed surveys that measured mathematical reasoning in the 3rd grade (approximately 9 years old) and one year later in the 4th grade (approximately 10 years old). Analyses designed for dyadic data (i.e., longitudinal Actor-Partner Interdependence Models) indicated that higher achieving friends influenced the mathematical reasoning of lower achieving friends, but not the reverse. Specifically, greater initial levels of mathematical reasoning among higher achieving partners in the 3rd grade predicted greater increases in mathematical reasoning from 3rd grade to 4th grade among lower achieving partners. These effects held after controlling for peer acceptance and rejection, task avoidance, interest in mathematics, maternal support for homework, parental education, length of the friendship, and friendship group norms on mathematical reasoning. PMID:26402901

  6. Achieving High Spatial Resolution Surface Plasmon Resonance Microscopy with Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Shan, Xiaonan; Wang, Shaopeng; Tao, Nongjian

    2017-03-07

    Surface plasmon resonance microscopy (SPRM) is a powerful platform for biomedical imaging and molecular binding kinetics analysis. However, the spatial resolution of SPRM along the plasmon propagation direction (longitudinal) is determined by the decaying length of the plasmonic wave, which can be as large as tens of microns. Different methods have been proposed to improve the spatial resolution, but each at the expense of decreased sensitivity or temporal resolution. Here we present a method to achieve high spatial resolution SPRM based on deconvolution of complex field. The method does not require additional optical setup and improves the spatial resolution in the longitudinal direction. We applied the method to image nanoparticles and achieved close-to-diffraction limit resolution in both longitudinal and transverse directions.

  7. Higher Resolution Neutron Velocity Spectrometer Measurements of Enriched Uranium

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Rainwater, L. J.; Havens, W. W. Jr.

    1950-08-09

    The slow neutron transmission of a sample of enriched U containing 3.193 gm/cm2 was investigated with a resolution width of 1 microsec/m. Results of transmission measurements are shown graphically. (B.J.H.)

  8. Stable same-sex friendships with higher achieving partners promote mathematical reasoning in lower achieving primary school children.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate friend influence over mathematical reasoning in a sample of 374 children in 187 same-sex friend dyads (184 girls in 92 friendships; 190 boys in 95 friendships). Participants completed surveys that measured mathematical reasoning in the 3rd grade (approximately 9 years old) and 1 year later in the 4th grade (approximately 10 years old). Analyses designed for dyadic data (i.e., longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model) indicated that higher achieving friends influenced the mathematical reasoning of lower achieving friends, but not the reverse. Specifically, greater initial levels of mathematical reasoning among higher achieving partners in the 3rd grade predicted greater increases in mathematical reasoning from 3rd grade to 4th grade among lower achieving partners. These effects held after controlling for peer acceptance and rejection, task avoidance, interest in mathematics, maternal support for homework, parental education, length of the friendship, and friendship group norms on mathematical reasoning.

  9. Validity of Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminskiene, Lina; Stasiunaitiene, Egle

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies the validity of assessment of non-formal and informal learning achievements (NILA) as one of the key factors for encouraging further development of the process of assessing and recognising non-formal and informal learning achievements in higher education. The authors analyse why the recognition of non-formal and informal…

  10. Exploring Opportunities for Conflict Resolution in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippelli-DiManna, Leslie P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to identify methods to improve conflict management skills of administrative staff in higher education. General systems, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, and (c) Burton's human needs theories served as the conceptual frameworks for the study. The lived experiences of 25 community…

  11. Prospects for higher spatial resolution quantitative X-ray analysis using transition element L-lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statham, P.; Holland, J.

    2014-03-01

    Lowering electron beam kV reduces electron scattering and improves spatial resolution of X-ray analysis. However, a previous round robin analysis of steels at 5 - 6 kV using Lα-lines for the first row transition elements gave poor accuracies. Our experiments on SS63 steel using Lα-lines show similar biases in Cr and Ni that cannot be corrected with changes to self-absorption coefficients or carbon coating. The inaccuracy may be caused by different probabilities for emission and anomalous self-absorption for the La-line between specimen and pure element standard. Analysis using Ll(L3-M1)-lines gives more accurate results for SS63 plausibly because the M1-shell is not so vulnerable to the atomic environment as the unfilled M4,5-shell. However, Ll-intensities are very weak and WDS analysis may be impractical for some applications. EDS with large area SDD offers orders of magnitude faster analysis and achieves similar results to WDS analysis with Lα-lines but poorer energy resolution precludes the use of Ll-lines in most situations. EDS analysis of K-lines at low overvoltage is an alternative strategy for improving spatial resolution that could give higher accuracy. The trade-off between low kV versus low overvoltage is explored in terms of sensitivity for element detection for different elements.

  12. Soy Mujer!: A Case Study for Understanding Latina Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Latinas are one of fastest growing segments of the population in the United States, which clearly shows a need to better understand and support education for Latinas within higher education. This study sought to understand the process for and experience of Latinas' academic achievement within higher education. The study focused particularly on the…

  13. Comparing Episodes of Mathematics Teaching for Higher Achievers in England and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Peter; Kotthoff, Hans-Georg

    2016-01-01

    To illustrate similarities and differences in lower secondary level mathematics teaching with higher achievers and thereby explore privileging processes, we contrast a teaching episode in Baden-Württemberg, Germany with one in South West England. These have been selected from a larger study as typical within each region for higher achieving…

  14. Latina/o Student Achievement: A Collaborative Mission of Professional Associations of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arredondo, Patricia; Castillo, Linda G.

    2011-01-01

    Latina/o student achievement is a priority for the American Association of Hispanics in Higher Education (AAHHE). To date, AAHHE has worked deliberately on this agenda. However, well-established higher education associations such as the Association of American Universities (AAU) and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) are…

  15. Crosstalk Compensation for a Rapid, Higher Resolution Impedance Spectrum Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; John L. Morrison; David M. Rose; William H. Morrison; Chester G. Motloch

    2012-03-01

    Batteries and other energy storage devices are playing larger roles in various industries (e.g., military, automotive, electric utilities, etc.) as the U.S. seeks to reduce its dependence on foreign energy resources. As such, there exists a significant need for accurate, robust state-of-health assessment techniques. Present techniques tend to focus on simple, passive monitoring of voltage and current at a given ambient temperature. However, this approach has the disadvantage of ignoring key elements of health, that is, changes in resistance growth and power fade. Impedance spectroscopy is considered a useful laboratory tool in gauging changes in the resistance and power performance, but it has not been widely considered as an onboard diagnostic tool due to the length of time required to complete the measurement. Cross-Talk Compensation (CTC) is a novel approach that enables rapid, high resolution impedance spectra measurements using a hardware platform that could be designed as an embedded system. This input signal consists of a sum-of-sines excitation current that has a known frequency spread and a duration of one period of the lowest frequency. The voltage response is then captured at a sufficiently fast sample rate. Previously developed rapid impedance spectrum measurement techniques either required a longer excitation signal or a sum-of-sines signal that was separated by harmonic frequencies to reduce or eliminate, respectively, the cross-talk interference in the calculated results. The distinct advantage of CTC, however, is that non-harmonic frequencies can now be included within the excitation signal while still keeping the signal duration at one period of the lowest frequency. Since the frequency spread of the input signal is known, the crosstalk interference between sinusoidal signals within the sum-of-sines at a given frequency of interest can be pre-determined and assigned to an error matrix. Consequently, the real and imaginary components of the

  16. Variables Associated With Achievement in Higher Education: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Michael; Preckel, Franzis

    2017-03-23

    The last 2 decades witnessed a surge in empirical studies on the variables associated with achievement in higher education. A number of meta-analyses synthesized these findings. In our systematic literature review, we included 38 meta-analyses investigating 105 correlates of achievement, based on 3,330 effect sizes from almost 2 million students. We provide a list of the 105 variables, ordered by the effect size, and summary statistics for central research topics. The results highlight the close relation between social interaction in courses and achievement. Achievement is also strongly associated with the stimulation of meaningful learning by presenting information in a clear way, relating it to the students, and using conceptually demanding learning tasks. Instruction and communication technology has comparably weak effect sizes, which did not increase over time. Strong moderator effects are found for almost all instructional methods, indicating that how a method is implemented in detail strongly affects achievement. Teachers with high-achieving students invest time and effort in designing the microstructure of their courses, establish clear learning goals, and employ feedback practices. This emphasizes the importance of teacher training in higher education. Students with high achievement are characterized by high self-efficacy, high prior achievement and intelligence, conscientiousness, and the goal-directed use of learning strategies. Barring the paucity of controlled experiments and the lack of meta-analyses on recent educational innovations, the variables associated with achievement in higher education are generally well investigated and well understood. By using these findings, teachers, university administrators, and policymakers can increase the effectivity of higher education. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Achieving the resolution of the spectrograph of the 6m large Azimuthal telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazonenko, Dmitrii; Kukushkin, Dmitrii; Bakholdin, Alexey; Valyavin, Gennady

    2016-08-01

    Special Astrophysical Observatory of Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS) creates a spectrograph with high spectral resolution for the 6-meter telescope. The spectrograph consists of a mobile unit located at the focus of the telescope's main mirror, a stationary part located under the telescope and optical fibers which transmit light from the mobile part to the stationary one. The spectral resolution of the stationary part should be R=100000. To achieve such a value, the scheme has two spectral elements, with cross-dispersion. The main spectral element is an echelle grating. The second spectral element is a prism with a diffraction grating on one facet.

  18. Implementation of parallel transmit beamforming using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing--achievable resolution and interbeam interference.

    PubMed

    Demi, Libertario; Viti, Jacopo; Kusters, Lieneke; Guidi, Francesco; Tortoli, Piero; Mischi, Massimo

    2013-11-01

    The speed of sound in the human body limits the achievable data acquisition rate of pulsed ultrasound scanners. To overcome this limitation, parallel beamforming techniques are used in ultrasound 2-D and 3-D imaging systems. Different parallel beamforming approaches have been proposed. They may be grouped into two major categories: parallel beamforming in reception and parallel beamforming in transmission. The first category is not optimal for harmonic imaging; the second category may be more easily applied to harmonic imaging. However, inter-beam interference represents an issue. To overcome these shortcomings and exploit the benefit of combining harmonic imaging and high data acquisition rate, a new approach has been recently presented which relies on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) to perform parallel beamforming in transmission. In this paper, parallel transmit beamforming using OFDM is implemented for the first time on an ultrasound scanner. An advanced open platform for ultrasound research is used to investigate the axial resolution and interbeam interference achievable with parallel transmit beamforming using OFDM. Both fundamental and second-harmonic imaging modalities have been considered. Results show that, for fundamental imaging, axial resolution in the order of 2 mm can be achieved in combination with interbeam interference in the order of -30 dB. For second-harmonic imaging, axial resolution in the order of 1 mm can be achieved in combination with interbeam interference in the order of -35 dB.

  19. Spin-flip resolution achieved with a one-proton self-excited oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guise, Nicholas Damien Sun-Wo

    In a Penning trap with an extremely large magnetic gradient, the axial frequency of a one-proton self-excited oscillator is resolved at the level of the shift from a proton spin flip. This sensitivity opens a possible path towards detection of single-proton spin flips, novel measurements of the proton and antiproton g-factors, and a stringent test of CPT invariance by comparing proton and antiproton magnetic moments at precision likely to be a million times higher than achieved to date. The central challenge of extending similar electron magnetic moment measurements to one proton is overcoming the substantially larger mass and weaker magnetic moment, which conspire to greatly reduce the frequency shift that signals a spin flip. Within a magnetic bottle gradient 50 times larger than used in the recent electron g-factor measurements, the proton spin-flip shift is still only 60 mHz out of a 553 kHz axial frequency. In such a large gradient, standard application of sideband cooling to reduce the magnetron radius changes the axial frequency by an amount greater than this spin-flip shift on average. Proton axial frequency resolution at the 60 mHz level is enabled by feedback techniques realized previously only with one electron. Self-excitation produces a narrow feature with large signal-to-noise, ideal for rapid frequency measurements at high precision. Unwanted effects of the strong magnetic gradient are minimized by axial and radial cooling. Feedback cooling is used to reduce the proton axial motion below the temperature of a damping resistor. Axial-magnetron sideband cooling of the undamped radial motion is then demonstrated to reach a 14 mK theoretical limit.

  20. Storytelling in the digital world: achieving higher-level learning objectives.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Melissa R

    2012-01-01

    Nursing students are not passive media consumers but instead live in a technology ecosystem where digital is the language they speak. To prepare the next generation of nurses, educators must incorporate multiple technologies to improve higher-order learning. The author discusses the evolution and use of storytelling as part of the digital world and how digital stories can be aligned with Bloom's Taxonomy so that students achieve higher-level learning objectives.

  1. Technology's Effect on Achievement in Higher Education: A Stage I Meta-Analysis of Classroom Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Richard F.; Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Tamim, Rana; Abrami, Philip C.; Wade, C. Anne; Surkes, Michael A.; Lowerison, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Stage I meta-analysis exploring the achievement effects of computer-based technology use in higher education classrooms (non-distance education). An extensive literature search revealed more than 6,000 potentially relevant primary empirical studies. Analysis of a representative sample of 231 studies (k = 310)…

  2. An Analysis of Factors Influencing the Achievement of Higher Education by Chief Fire Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditch, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    The leadership of the United States Fire Service (FS) believes that higher education increases the professionalism of FS members. The research problem at the research site, which is a multisite fire department located in southeastern United States, was the lack of research-based findings on the factors influencing the achievement of higher…

  3. Predictors of Retention and Achievement of Higher Education Students within a Further Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Cathy; Dismore, Harriet

    2010-01-01

    Following recent developments within higher education where provision of foundation degree courses at further education colleges has been extended, it seemed appropriate to investigate the extent to which the system is working. This should not necessarily be measured by the number of students enrolling, but rather by how many are achieving their…

  4. Teaching Processes To Improve Both Higher As Well As Lower Mental Process Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soled, Suzanne Wegener

    A major purpose of this research was to measure the effect of four different teaching processes on lower and higher mental process achievement. Two separate studies, one in science and one in mathematics, involved approximately 100 seventh grade students in four classrooms in a public junior high school in a middle-income neighborhood, and 85…

  5. Achieving "Transparency, Consistency and Fairness" in English Higher Education Admissions: Progress since Schwartz?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adnett, Nick; McCaig, Colin; Slack, Kim; Bowers-Brown, Tamsin

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 the Schwartz Review advised English higher education institutions that their admissions systems should: be transparent; select students who are able to complete their courses based upon achievements and potential; use assessment methods that are reliable and valid; minimise barriers to applicants; be professional; and be underpinned by…

  6. Leveraging Quality Improvement to Achieve Student Learning Assessment Success in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Nancy Gentry

    2009-01-01

    Mounting pressure for transformational change in higher education driven by technology, globalization, competition, funding shortages, and increased emphasis on accountability necessitates that universities implement reforms to demonstrate responsiveness to all stakeholders and to provide evidence of student achievement. In the face of the demand…

  7. The Effects of Learning Strategies on Mathematical Literacy: A Comparison between Lower and Higher Achieving Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen-Nagar, Noga

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to explore the effects of learning strategies on Mathematical Literacy (ML) of students in higher and lower achieving countries. To address this issue, the study utilizes PISA2002 data to conduct a multi-level analysis (HLM) of Hong Kong and Israel students. In PISA2002, Israel was rated 31st in Mathematics,…

  8. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from three…

  9. Achieving Higher Levels of Success for A.D.H.D. Students Working in Collaborative Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph S. C.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores a new and innovative strategy for helping students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (A.D.H.D.) achieve higher levels of academic success when working in collaborative groups. Since the research indicates that students with this disorder often have difficulty in maintaining their concentration this strategy is…

  10. Fast time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy: Achieving sub-cycle time resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatay, Durmus U.; Harrison, Jeffrey S.; Glaz, Micah S.; Giridharagopal, Rajiv; Ginger, David S.

    2016-05-01

    The ability to measure microsecond- and nanosecond-scale local dynamics below the diffraction limit with widely available atomic force microscopy hardware would enable new scientific studies in fields ranging from biology to semiconductor physics. However, commercially available scanning-probe instruments typically offer the ability to measure dynamics only on time scales of milliseconds to seconds. Here, we describe in detail the implementation of fast time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy using an oscillating cantilever as a means to measure fast local dynamics following a perturbation to a sample. We show how the phase of the oscillating cantilever relative to the perturbation event is critical to achieving reliable sub-cycle time resolution. We explore how noise affects the achievable time resolution and present empirical guidelines for reducing noise and optimizing experimental parameters. Specifically, we show that reducing the noise on the cantilever by using photothermal excitation instead of piezoacoustic excitation further improves time resolution. We demonstrate the discrimination of signal rise times with time constants as fast as 10 ns, and simultaneous data acquisition and analysis for dramatically improved image acquisition times.

  11. Utilizing Higher Resolution Land Surface Remote Sensing Data for Assessing Recent Trends over Asia Monsoon Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The slide presentation discusses the integration of 1-kilometer spatial resolution land temperature data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), with 8-day temporal resolution, into the NASA Monsoon-Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) Data Center. The data will be available for analysis and visualization in the Giovanni data system. It discusses the NASA MAIRS Data Center, presents an introduction to the data access tools, and an introduction of Products available from the service, discusses the higher resolution Land Surface Temperature (LST) and presents preliminary results of LST Trends over China.

  12. Achieving selective interrogation and sub-wavelength resolution in thin plates with embedded metamaterial acoustic lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Semperlotti, F. Zhu, H.

    2014-08-07

    In this study, we present an approach to ultrasonic beam-forming and high resolution identification of acoustic sources having critical implications for applications such as structural health monitoring. The proposed concept is based on the design of dynamically tailored structural elements via embedded acoustic metamaterial lenses. This approach provides a completely new alternative to conventional phased-array technology enabling the formation of steerable and collimated (or focused) ultrasonic beams by exploiting a single transducer. Numerical results show that the ultrasonic beam can be steered by simply tuning the frequency of the excitation. Also, the embedded lens can be designed to achieve sub-wavelength resolution to clustered acoustic sources, which is a typical scenario encountered in incipient structural damage.

  13. A novel fast gas chromatography method for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in ambient air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C9-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a 14.5 min analysis time. Moreover, in-situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an 11.7 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to 19.7 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). These analysis times potentially allow for a twofold to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in-situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC (OBVOC) linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest

  14. Techniques for mass resolution improvement achieved by typical plasma mass analyzers: Modeling and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaou, Georgios; Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas; Fedorov, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    Mass separation and particularly distinction between atomic ions and molecular ions are essential in understanding a wide range of plasma environments, with each consisted of different species with various properties. In this study we present the optimization results of light-weight (about 2 kg) magnetic mass analyzers with high g-factor for Rosetta (Ion Composition Analyser: ICA) and for Mars Express and Venus Express (Ion Mass Analyser: IMA). For the instrument's optimization we use SIMION, a 3D ion tracing software in which we can trace particle beams of several energies and directions, passing through the instrument's units. We first reproduced ICA and IMA results, which turned out to be different from simple models for low energy (< 100 eV). We then change the mechanical structure of several units of the instrument and we quantify the new mass resolution achieved with each change. Our goal is to find the optimal instrument's structure, which will allow us to achieve a proper mass resolution to distinguish atomic nitrogen from atomic oxygen for the purposes of a future magnetospheric mission.

  15. Psychosocial Maturity and Conflict Resolution Management of Higher Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaseena M.P.M., Fathima; P., Divya

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find out the extent and difference in the mean scores of Psychosocial Maturity and Conflict Resolution Management of Higher secondary school students of Kerala. A survey technique was used for the study. Sample consists of 685 higher secondary students by giving due representation other criteria. Findings revealed that…

  16. Ewe lambs with higher breeding values for growth achieve higher reproductive performance when mated at age 8 months.

    PubMed

    Nieto, C A Rosales; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Wood, D A; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2013-09-15

    We studied the relationships among growth, body composition and reproductive performance in ewe lambs with known phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post-weaning live weight (PWT) and depth of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). To detect estrus, vasectomized rams were placed with 190 Merino ewe lambs when on average they were 157 days old. The vasectomized rams were replaced with entire rams when the ewe lambs were, on average, 226 days old. Lambs were weighed every week and blood was sampled on four occasions for assay of ghrelin, leptin and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Almost 90% of the lambs attained puberty during the experiment, at an average live weight of 41.4 kg and average age of 197 days. Ewe lambs with higher values for EMD (P < 0.001), FAT (P < 0.01), PWT (P < 0.001), PEMD (P < 0.05) and PFAT (P < 0.05) were more likely to achieve puberty by 251 days of age. Thirty-six percent of the lambs conceived and, at the estimated date of conception, the average live weight was 46.9 ± 0.6 kg and average age was 273 days. Fertility, fecundity and reproductive rate were positively related to PWT (P < 0.05) and thus live weight at the start of mating (P < 0.001). Reproductive performance was not correlated with blood concentrations of ghrelin, leptin or ß-hydroxybutyrate. Many ewe lambs attained puberty, as detected by vasectomized rams, but then failed to become pregnant after mating with entire rams. Nevertheless, we can conclude that in ewe lambs mated at 8 months of age, higher breeding values for growth, muscle and fat are positively correlated with reproductive performance, although the effects of breeding values and responses to live weight are highly variable.

  17. Achieving behavioral control with millisecond resolution in a high-level programming environment.

    PubMed

    Asaad, Wael F; Eskandar, Emad N

    2008-08-30

    The creation of psychophysical tasks for the behavioral neurosciences has generally relied upon low-level software running on a limited range of hardware. Despite the availability of software that allows the coding of behavioral tasks in high-level programming environments, many researchers are still reluctant to trust the temporal accuracy and resolution of programs running in such environments, especially when they run atop non-real-time operating systems. Thus, the creation of behavioral paradigms has been slowed by the intricacy of the coding required and their dissemination across labs has been hampered by the various types of hardware needed. However, we demonstrate here that, when proper measures are taken to handle the various sources of temporal error, accuracy can be achieved at the 1 ms time-scale that is relevant for the alignment of behavioral and neural events.

  18. Discrepancies between academic achievement and intellectual ability in higher-functioning school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Estes, Annette; Rivera, Vanessa; Bryan, Matthew; Cali, Philip; Dawson, Geraldine

    2011-08-01

    Academic achievement patterns and their relationships with intellectual ability, social abilities, and problem behavior are described in a sample of 30 higher-functioning, 9-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both social abilities and problem behavior have been found to be predictive of academic achievement in typically developing children but this has not been well studied in children with ASD. Participants were tested for academic achievement and intellectual ability at age 9. Problem behaviors were assessed through parent report and social functioning through teacher report at age 6 and 9. Significant discrepancies between children's actual academic achievement and their expected achievement based on their intellectual ability were found in 27 of 30 (90%) children. Both lower than expected and higher than expected achievement was observed. Children with improved social skills at age 6 demonstrated higher levels of academic achievement, specifically word reading, at age 9. No relationship was found between children's level of problem behavior and level of academic achievement. These results suggest that the large majority of higher-functioning children with ASD show discrepancies between actual achievement levels and levels predicted by their intellectual ability. In some cases, children are achieving higher than expected, whereas in others, they are achieving lower than expected. Improved social abilities may contribute to academic achievement. Future studies should further explore factors that can promote strong academic achievement, including studies that examine whether intervention to improve social functioning can support academic achievement in children with ASD.

  19. Higher resolution satellite remote sensing and the impact on image mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, Allen H.; Thormodsgard, June M.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of civil land remote sensing satellite data are presenting new opportunities for image mapping applications. The U.S. Geological Survey's experimental satellite image mapping program is evolving toward larger scale image map products with increased information content as a result of improved image processing techniques and increased resolution. Thematic mapper data are being used to produce experimental image maps at 1:100,000 scale that meet established U.S. and European map accuracy standards. Availability of high quality, cloud-free, 30-meter ground resolution multispectral data from the Landsat thematic mapper sensor, along with 10-meter ground resolution panchromatic and 20-meter ground resolution multispectral data from the recently launched French SPOT satellite, present new cartographic and image processing challenges. The need to fully exploit these higher resolution data increases the complexity of processing the images into large-scale image maps. The removal of radiometric artifacts and noise prior to geometric correction can be accomplished by using a variety of image processing filters and transforms. Sensor modeling and image restoration techniques allow maximum retention of spatial and radiometric information. An optimum combination of spectral information and spatial resolution can be obtained by merging different sensor types. These processing techniques are discussed and examples are presented. 

  20. Problems and Resolutions in the Practice of Project Teaching in Higher Vocational Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Zhichong; Tan, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been a hot discussion on project teaching theory among many higher vocational schools; however the practice of project teaching is still in the beginning period. Hence, many problems appear in project lead. This paper aims to analyze the existing problems in the practice of project teaching and also raise some resolutions.

  1. Photonic subsampling analog-to-digital conversion of microwave signals at 40-GHz with higher than 7-ENOB resolution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungwon; Park, Matthew J; Perrott, Michael H; Kärtner, Franz X

    2008-10-13

    Conversion of analog signals into digital signals is one of the most important functionalities in modern signal processing systems. As the signal frequency increases beyond 10 GHz, the timing jitter from electronic clocks, currently limited at approximately 100 fs, compromises the achievable resolution of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). Owing to their ultralow timing jitter, the use of optical pulse trains from passively mode-locked lasers has been considered to be a promising way for sampling electronic signals. In this paper, based on sub-10 fs jitter optical sampling pulse trains, we demonstrate a photonic subsampling ADC that downconverts and digitizes a narrowband microwave signal at 40 GHz carrier frequency with higher than 7 effective-number-of-bit (ENOB) resolution.

  2. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  3. Apparatus and method to achieve high-resolution microscopy with non-diffracting or refracting radiation

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W.; Bingham, Philip R.; Hawari, Ayman I.

    2012-11-06

    An imaging system employing a coded aperture mask having multiple pinholes is provided. The coded aperture mask is placed at a radiation source to pass the radiation through. The radiation impinges on, and passes through an object, which alters the radiation by absorption and/or scattering. Upon passing through the object, the radiation is detected at a detector plane to form an encoded image, which includes information on the absorption and/or scattering caused by the material and structural attributes of the object. The encoded image is decoded to provide a reconstructed image of the object. Because the coded aperture mask includes multiple pinholes, the radiation intensity is greater than a comparable system employing a single pinhole, thereby enabling a higher resolution. Further, the decoding of the encoded image can be performed to generate multiple images of the object at different distances from the detector plane. Methods and programs for operating the imaging system are also disclosed.

  4. Linking the Weather Generator with Regional Climate Model: Effect of Higher Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, Martin; Huth, Radan; Farda, Ales; Skalak, Petr

    2014-05-01

    This contribution builds on our last year EGU contribution, which followed two aims: (i) validation of the simulations of the present climate made by the ALADIN-Climate Regional Climate Model (RCM) at 25 km resolution, and (ii) presenting a methodology for linking the parametric weather generator (WG) with RCM output (aiming to calibrate a gridded WG capable of producing realistic synthetic multivariate weather series for weather-ungauged locations). Now we have available new higher-resolution (6.25 km) simulations with the same RCM. The main topic of this contribution is an anser to a following question: What is an effect of using a higher spatial resolution on a quality of simulating the surface weather characteristics? In the first part, the high resolution RCM simulation of the present climate will be validated in terms of selected WG parameters, which are derived from the RCM-simulated surface weather series and compared to those derived from weather series observed in 125 Czech meteorological stations. The set of WG parameters will include statistics of the surface temperature and precipitation series. When comparing the WG parameters from the two sources (RCM vs observations), we interpolate the RCM-based parameters into the station locations while accounting for the effect of altitude. In the second part, we will discuss an effect of using the higher resolution: the results of the validation tests will be compared with those obtained with the lower-resolution RCM. Acknowledgements: The present experiment is made within the frame of projects ALARO-Climate (project P209/11/2405 sponsored by the Czech Science Foundation), WG4VALUE (project LD12029 sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of CR) and VALUE (COST ES 1102 action).

  5. Strategic administration of enrofloxacin in poultry to achieve higher maximal serum concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sumano, L H; Gutierrez, O L; Zamora, Q M

    2003-03-01

    To achieve a higher maximal serum concentration (Cs(max)) of enrofloxacin after oral administration of 10mg/kg/day of three commercial preparations of enrofloxacin to chickens, two concentrations of the drug were tested (0.1 and 0.2%), under controlled laboratory conditions. A single oral bolus dose was delivered directly into the proventriculus of each of 240 chickens, which were equally divided into six groups: three received the customary concentration (0.1%), and three received the higher concentration. A quantitative/qualitative microbiological analytical method to determine serum concentrations of enrofloxacin and a software program to obtain pharmacokinetic variables, revealed that time vs. concentration relationships best fitted double peak shape curves, Cs(max1) and Cs(max2). Statistically significant (P>0.01) increments were obtained when 0.2% enrofloxacin oral solutions from the three different commercial preparations were administered. The increments ranged from 175% to 338% for Cs(max1) and 69% to 342% for Cs(max2). Optimal bactericidal concentrations of enrofloxacin are usually twice the value of their minimal inhibitory concentration. Although clinical trials are now required, it would appear that increments in the serum concentration of enrofloxacin may reduce to the rate at which bacterial resistance occurs and so increase clinical efficacy without affecting the cost per treatment.

  6. Pyramiding B genes in cotton achieves broader but not always higher resistance to bacterial blight.

    PubMed

    Essenberg, Margaret; Bayles, Melanie B; Pierce, Margaret L; Verhalen, Laval M

    2014-10-01

    Near-isogenic lines of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) carrying single, race-specific genes B4, BIn, and b7 for resistance to bacterial blight were used to develop a pyramid of lines with all possible combinations of two and three genes to learn whether the pyramid could achieve broad and high resistance approaching that of L. A. Brinkerhoff's exceptional line Im216. Isogenic strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum carrying single avirulence (avr) genes were used to identify plants carrying specific resistance (B) genes. Under field conditions in north-central Oklahoma, pyramid lines exhibited broader resistance to individual races and, consequently, higher resistance to a race mixture. It was predicted that lines carrying two or three B genes would also exhibit higher resistance to race 1, which possesses many avr genes. Although some enhancements were observed, they did not approach the level of resistance of Im216. In a growth chamber, bacterial populations attained by race 1 in and on leaves of the pyramid lines decreased significantly with increasing number of B genes in only one of four experiments. The older lines, Im216 and AcHR, exhibited considerably lower bacterial populations than any of the one-, two-, or three-B-gene lines. A spreading collapse of spray-inoculated AcBIn and AcBInb7 leaves appears to be a defense response (conditioned by BIn) that is out of control.

  7. Case study: Comparison of motivation for achieving higher performance between self-directed and manager-directed aerospace engineering teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlick, Katherine

    "The stereotype of engineers is that they are not people oriented; the stereotype implies that engineers would not work well in teams---that their task emphasis is a solo venture and does not encourage social aspects of collaboration" (Miner & Beyerlein, 1999, p. 16). The problem is determining the best method of providing a motivating environment where design engineers may contribute within a team in order to achieve higher performance in the organization. Theoretically, self-directed work teams perform at higher levels. But, allowing a design engineer to contribute to the team while still maintaining his or her anonymity is the key to success. Therefore, a motivating environment must be established to encourage greater self-actualization in design engineers. The purpose of this study is to determine the favorable motivational environment for design engineers and describe the comparison between two aerospace design-engineering teams: one self-directed and the other manager directed. Following the comparison, this study identified whether self-direction or manager-direction provides the favorable motivational environment for operating as a team in pursuit of achieving higher performance. The methodology used in this research was the case study focusing on the team's levels of job satisfaction and potential for higher performance. The collection of data came from three sources, (a) surveys, (b) researcher observer journal and (c) collection of artifacts. The surveys provided information regarding personal behavior characteristics, potentiality for higher performance and motivational attributes. The researcher journal provided information regarding team dynamics, individual interaction, conflict and conflict resolution. The milestone for performance was based on the collection of artifacts from the two teams. The findings from this study illustrated that whether the team was manager-directed or self-directed does not appear to influence the needs and wants of the

  8. Time-resolved photoemission apparatus achieving sub-20-meV energy resolution and high stability

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Y.; Togashi, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tanaka, M.; Kiss, T.; Otsu, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Shin, S.

    2014-12-15

    The paper describes a time- and angle-resolved photoemission apparatus consisting of a hemispherical analyzer and a pulsed laser source. We demonstrate 1.48-eV pump and 5.92-eV probe measurements at the ⩾10.5-meV and ⩾240-fs resolutions by use of fairly monochromatic 170-fs pulses delivered from a regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire laser system operating typically at 250 kHz. The apparatus is capable to resolve the optically filled superconducting peak in the unoccupied states of a cuprate superconductor, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. A dataset recorded on Bi(111) surface is also presented. Technical descriptions include the followings: A simple procedure to fine-tune the spatio-temporal overlap of the pump-and-probe beams and their diameters; achieving a long-term stability of the system that enables a normalization-free dataset acquisition; changing the repetition rate by utilizing acoustic optical modulator and frequency-division circuit.

  9. Fast super-resolution imaging with ultra-high labeling density achieved by joint tagging super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhiping; Chen, Xuanze; Wang, Hening; Huang, Ning; Shan, Chunyan; Zhang, Hao; Teng, Junlin; Xi, Peng

    2015-02-10

    Previous stochastic localization-based super-resolution techniques are largely limited by the labeling density and the fidelity to the morphology of specimen. We report on an optical super-resolution imaging scheme implementing joint tagging using multiple fluorescent blinking dyes associated with super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (JT-SOFI), achieving ultra-high labeling density super-resolution imaging. To demonstrate the feasibility of JT-SOFI, quantum dots with different emission spectra were jointly labeled to the tubulin in COS7 cells, creating ultra-high density labeling. After analyzing and combining the fluorescence intermittency images emanating from spectrally resolved quantum dots, the microtubule networks are capable of being investigated with high fidelity and remarkably enhanced contrast at sub-diffraction resolution. The spectral separation also significantly decreased the frame number required for SOFI, enabling fast super-resolution microscopy through simultaneous data acquisition. As the joint-tagging scheme can decrease the labeling density in each spectral channel, thereby bring it closer to single-molecule state, we can faithfully reconstruct the continuous microtubule structure with high resolution through collection of only 100 frames per channel. The improved continuity of the microtubule structure is quantitatively validated with image skeletonization, thus demonstrating the advantage of JT-SOFI over other localization-based super-resolution methods.

  10. Is Equal Access to Higher Education in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa Achievable by 2030?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilie, Sonia; Rose, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is back in the spotlight, with post-2015 sustainable development goals emphasising equality of access. In this paper, we highlight the long distance still to travel to achieve the goal of equal access to higher education for all, with a focus on poorer countries which tend to have lower levels of enrolment in higher education.…

  11. Higher resolution stimulus facilitates depth perception: MT+ plays a significant role in monocular depth perception.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Komine, Kazuteru; Sawahata, Yasuhito; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    2014-10-20

    Today, we human beings are facing with high-quality virtual world of a completely new nature. For example, we have a digital display consisting of a high enough resolution that we cannot distinguish from the real world. However, little is known how such high-quality representation contributes to the sense of realness, especially to depth perception. What is the neural mechanism of processing such fine but virtual representation? Here, we psychophysically and physiologically examined the relationship between stimulus resolution and depth perception, with using luminance-contrast (shading) as a monocular depth cue. As a result, we found that a higher resolution stimulus facilitates depth perception even when the stimulus resolution difference is undetectable. This finding is against the traditional cognitive hierarchy of visual information processing that visual input is processed continuously in a bottom-up cascade of cortical regions that analyze increasingly complex information such as depth information. In addition, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results reveal that the human middle temporal (MT+) plays a significant role in monocular depth perception. These results might provide us with not only the new insight of our neural mechanism of depth perception but also the future progress of our neural system accompanied by state-of- the-art technologies.

  12. Sub-10 nm lateral spatial resolution in scanning capacitance microscopy achieved with solid platinum probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, E.; Williams, C. C.

    2004-02-01

    Sub-10 nm resolution can be obtained in scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) if the probe tip is approximately of the same size. Such resolution is observed, although infrequently, with present commercially available probes. To acquire routine sub-10 nm resolution, a solid Pt metal probe has been developed with a sub-10 nm tip radius. The probe is demonstrated by SCM imaging on a cross-sectioned 70 nm gatelength field-effect transistor (FET), a shallow implant (n+/p, 24 nm junction depth), and an epitaxial staircase (p, ˜75 nm steps). Sub-10 nm resolution is demonstrated on the FET device over the abrupt meeting between a silicon-on-insulator oxide layer and a neighboring Si region. Comparable resolution is observed on the implant structure, and quantitative SCM dopant profiling is performed on it with sub-10 nm accuracy. Finally, the epitaxial staircase structure is quantitatively profiled demonstrating the accuracy obtained in quantitative profiling with the tips.

  13. Discrepancies between Academic Achievement and Intellectual Ability in Higher-Functioning School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Annette; Rivera, Vanessa; Bryan, Matthew; Cali, Philip; Dawson, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Academic achievement patterns and their relationships with intellectual ability, social abilities, and problem behavior are described in a sample of 30 higher-functioning, 9-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both social abilities and problem behavior have been found to be predictive of academic achievement in typically…

  14. Lateral resolution enhancement of laser scanning microscopy by a higher-order radially polarized mode beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Yuichi; Hibi, Terumasa; Sato, Aya; Horanai, Hibiki; Kurihara, Makoto; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Tomomi; Sato, Shunichi

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate that the lateral resolution of confocal laser scanning microscopy is dramatically improved by a higher-order radially polarized (HRP) beam with six concentric rings. This beam was generated simply by inserting liquid crystal devices in front of an objective lens. An HRP beam visualized aggregated 0.17 μm beads individually and is also applicable to biological imaging. This method can extend the capability of conventional laser scanning microscopes without modification of the system, with the exception of the addition of the liquid crystal devices in the optical path.

  15. Meeting Report – Visualizing signaling nanoplatforms at a higher spatiotemporal resolution

    PubMed Central

    Cambi, Alessandra; Lakadamyali, Melike; Lidke, Diane S.; Garcia-Parajo, Maria F.

    2013-01-01

    The International Symposium entitled ‘Visualizing signaling nanoplatforms at a higher spatiotemporal resolution’ sponsored by the Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) was held on 29–31 May 2013 at the ICFO-Institute of Photonic Sciences, in Barcelona, Spain. The meeting brought together a multidisciplinary group of international leaders in the fields of super-resolution imaging (nanoscopy) and cell membrane biology, and served as a forum to further our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that govern nanostructures and protein–function relationships at the cell membrane. PMID:23995382

  16. Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions with nanoscale resolution.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, R K; Okatan, M Baris; Rajapaksa, I; Kim, Y; Marincel, D; Trolier-McKinstry, S; Jesse, S; Valanoor, N; Kalinin, S V

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, insight into the nonlinear behavior can be gleaned through exploration of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a Pb(Zr(1-x)Ti(x))O₃ (PZT) ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, measurements of the second harmonic reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of n(th) order harmonic SPM detection methods in exploring nonlinear phenomena in nanoscale materials.

  17. Higher sensitivity secondary ion mass spectrometry of biological molecules for high resolution, chemically specific imaging.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Liam A; Heeren, Ron M A; de Lange, Robert P J; Fletcher, Ian W

    2006-09-01

    To expand the role of high spatial resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in biological studies, numerous developments have been reported in recent years for enhancing the molecular ion yield of high mass molecules. These include both surface modification, including matrix-enhanced SIMS and metal-assisted SIMS, and polyatomic primary ions. Using rat brain tissue sections and a bismuth primary ion gun able to produce atomic and polyatomic primary ions, we report here how the sensitivity enhancements provided by these developments are additive. Combined surface modification and polyatomic primary ions provided approximately 15.8 times more signal than using atomic primary ions on the raw sample, whereas surface modification and polyatomic primary ions yield approximately 3.8 and approximately 8.4 times more signal. This higher sensitivity is used to generate chemically specific images of higher mass biomolecules using a single molecular ion peak.

  18. Does higher quality early child care promote low-income children's math and reading achievement in middle childhood?

    PubMed

    Dearing, Eric; McCartney, Kathleen; Taylor, Beck A

    2009-01-01

    Higher quality child care during infancy and early childhood (6-54 months of age) was examined as a moderator of associations between family economic status and children's (N = 1,364) math and reading achievement in middle childhood (4.5-11 years of age). Low income was less strongly predictive of underachievement for children who had been in higher quality care than for those who had not. Consistent with a cognitive advantage hypothesis, higher quality care appeared to promote achievement indirectly via early school readiness skills. Family characteristics associated with selection into child care also appeared to promote the achievement of low-income children, but the moderating effect of higher quality care per se remained evident when controlling for selection using covariates and propensity scores.

  19. Beyond Virtual Equality: Liberatory Consciousness as a Path to Achieve Trans* Inclusion in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, D. Chase J.

    2015-01-01

    Trans* men have not, as yet, received specific research attention in higher education. Based on intensive interviews with 25 trans* men enrolled in colleges or universities in New England, I explore their experiences in higher education. I analyze participants' descriptions of supports and challenges in their collegiate environments, as well as…

  20. Teachers, Technology and Training: A New Year's Resolution for 2006: Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlevy, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Recognizing the glaring discrepancies in outcomes for many poor and minority children, the New York State Regents hosted an Education Summit in November 2005 with the theme of Closing the Achievement Gap. Leaders in business, government and education were in attendance and rallied to more thoroughly understand the achievement gap and produce…

  1. Examining the Link between Adult Attachment Style, Employment and Academic Achievement in First Semester Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Guy; Martineau, Marc; Gagnon, André

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research indicates that both employment and adult attachment style have an influence on academic achievement, the interaction of these two factors has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating effect of adult attachment style on the relationship between employment status and first semester…

  2. Success in Higher Education: The Challenge to Achieve Academic Standing and Social Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Life, James

    2015-01-01

    When students look at their classmates in the classroom, consciously or unconsciously, they see competitors both for academic recognition and social success. How do they fit in relation to others and how do they succeed in achieving both? Traditional views on the drive to succeed and the fear of failure are well known as motivators for achieving…

  3. The Relationship between Epistemological Beliefs, Learning Strategies and Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Beth, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    This study provides important insights into the relationship between the epistemological beliefs of community college students, the selection of learning strategies, and academic achievement. This study employed a quantitative survey design. Data were collected by surveying students at a community college during the spring semester of 2010. The…

  4. Gender Disparity Analysis in Academic Achievement at Higher Education Preparatory Schools: Case of South Wollo, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshetu, Amogne Asfaw

    2015-01-01

    Gender is among the determinant factors affecting students' academic achievement. This paper tried to investigate the impact of gender on academic performance of preparatory secondary school students based on 2014 EHEECE result. Ex post facto research design was used. To that end, data were collected from 3243 students from eight purposively…

  5. Aiming Higher: Meeting the Challenges of Education Reform in Texas. Achieve's Benchmarking Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Texas has spent nearly 2 decades in a slow, steady push for educational reform, and it has successfully adjusted its school improvement initiatives when initial attempts proved off the mark. The Texas record in terms of student achievement has been the subject of some scholarly, and much political, debate over the last 2 years, but this evaluation…

  6. Exploring Individual Differences as Determining Factors in Student Academic Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the association and relative influence of cognitive/motivational and demographic factors on final degree grade point average (GPA) in a single undergraduate cohort. Although academic self-efficacy, approaches to learning, prior achievement and age all produced significant correlations with GPA, regression analysis identified…

  7. The Little District that Could: Literacy Reform Leads to Higher Achievement in California District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia R.; Budicin-Senters, Antoinette; King, L. McLean

    2005-01-01

    This article describes educational reform developed over a 10-year period in California's Lemon Grove School District, which resulted in a steady and remarkable upward shift in achievement for the students of this multicultural district just outside San Diego. Six elements of literacy reform emerged as the most significant factors affecting…

  8. Circuit modification in electrical field flow fractionation systems generating higher resolution separation of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tasci, Tonguc O; Johnson, William P; Fernandez, Diego P; Manangon, Eliana; Gale, Bruce K

    2014-10-24

    Compared to other sub-techniques of field flow fractionation (FFF), cyclical electrical field flow fractionation (CyElFFF) is a relatively new method with many opportunities remaining for improvement. One of the most important limitations of this method is the separation of particles smaller than 100nm. For such small particles, the diffusion rate becomes very high, resulting in severe reductions in the CyElFFF separation efficiency. To address this limitation, we modified the electrical circuitry of the ElFFF system. In all earlier ElFFF reports, electrical power sources have been directly connected to the ElFFF channel electrodes, and no alteration has been made in the electrical circuitry of the system. In this work, by using discrete electrical components, such as resistors and diodes, we improved the effective electric field in the system to allow high resolution separations. By modifying the electrical circuitry of the ElFFF system, high resolution separations of 15 and 40nm gold nanoparticles were achieved. The effects of applying different frequencies, amplitudes and voltage shapes have been investigated and analyzed through experiments.

  9. Progress and opportunities in direct numerical simulations at the next higher resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, P. K.; Sreenivasan, K. R.

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, many researchers in the turbulence community have been able to exploit the steady advancement of computing power to advance our understanding of turbulence, including new parameter ranges and the effects of coupling with other physical processes. However it is remarkable that, the ``record'' grid resolution of 40963, first achieved just over 10 years ago (Kaneda et al., Phys. Fluids 2003) still stands in the literature of the field. In this talk, we will present preliminary results from an 81923 simulation of turbulence on a periodic domain, carried out using 262144 CPU cores on the Blue Waters supercomputer under the NSF Track 1 Petascale Resource Allocations program. Since a simulation at this magnitude is still extremely expensive, and the resources required are not easily secured, very careful planning and very aggressive efforts at algorithmic enhancement are necessary (which we will also briefly discuss). This new simulation is expected to allow us to probe deeply into fundamental questions such as intermittency at the highest Reynolds numbers and the best possible resolution of the small scales at the current limit of computing power available. Supported by NSF Grant ACI-1036170.

  10. Achieving atomic resolution magnetic dichroism by controlling the phase symmetry of an electron probe

    DOE PAGES

    Rusz, Jan; Idrobo, Juan -Carlos; Bhowmick, Somnath

    2014-09-30

    The calculations presented here reveal that an electron probe carrying orbital angular momentum is just a particular case of a wider class of electron beams that can be used to measure electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD) with atomic resolution. It is possible to obtain an EMCD signal with atomic resolution by simply breaking the symmetry of the electron probe phase front using the aberration-corrected optics of a scanning transmission electron microscope. The probe’s required phase distribution depends on the sample’s magnetic symmetry and crystal structure. The calculations indicate that EMCD signals that use the electron probe’s phase are as strongmore » as those obtained by nanodiffraction methods.« less

  11. Achieving atomic resolution magnetic dichroism by controlling the phase symmetry of an electron probe

    SciTech Connect

    Rusz, Jan; Idrobo, Juan -Carlos; Bhowmick, Somnath

    2014-09-30

    The calculations presented here reveal that an electron probe carrying orbital angular momentum is just a particular case of a wider class of electron beams that can be used to measure electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD) with atomic resolution. It is possible to obtain an EMCD signal with atomic resolution by simply breaking the symmetry of the electron probe phase front using the aberration-corrected optics of a scanning transmission electron microscope. The probe’s required phase distribution depends on the sample’s magnetic symmetry and crystal structure. The calculations indicate that EMCD signals that use the electron probe’s phase are as strong as those obtained by nanodiffraction methods.

  12. Maryland Higher Education Commission Data Book 2016. Creating a State of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Higher Education Commission, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This document presents statistics about higher education in Maryland for 2016. The tables in this document are presented according to the following categories: (1) Students; (2) Retention and Graduation; (3) Degrees; (4) Faculty; (5) Revenues & Expenditures; (6) Tuition and Fees; (7) Financial Aid, and (8) Private Career Schools. [For…

  13. Maryland Higher Education Commission Data Book 2015. Creating a State of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Higher Education Commission, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This document presents statistics about higher education in Maryland for 2015. The tables in this document are presented according to the following categories: (1) Students; (2) Retention and Graduation; (3) Degrees; (4) Faculty; (5) Revenues & Expenditures; (6) Tuition and Fees; (7) Financial Aid, (8) Private Career Schools, and (9) Distance…

  14. Research Considerations and Theoretical Application for Best Practices in Higher Education: Latina/os Achieving Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Jeanett; Gloria, Alberta M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the authors take a critical look at what general measures of success do and do not disclose about the Latina/o experience in higher education and use that assessment to set forth a reconceptualization of the elements of success within a psychosociocultural (PSC) framework. Using "dichos," or widely used sayings of wisdom…

  15. Achieving Canadian Excellence in and for the World: Leveraging Canada's Higher Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2004

    2004-01-01

    As Canada's opportunities to claim international leadership are assessed, the best prospects lie in a combination of our impressive higher education and research commitments, civic and institutional values, and quality of life. This paper concludes that as an exporting country, the benefits will come in economic growth. As citizens of the world,…

  16. Linking Emotional Intelligence to Achieve Technology Enhanced Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Janette; Blignaut, A. Seugnet

    2013-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) increasingly use technology-enhanced learning (TEL) environments (e.g. blended learning and e-learning) to improve student throughput and retention rates. As the demand for TEL courses increases, expectations rise for faculty to meet the challenge of using TEL effectively. The promises that TEL holds have not…

  17. Maryland Higher Education Commission Data Book 2011. Creating a State of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Higher Education Commission, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This document presents statistics about higher education in Maryland for 2011. The tables in this document are presented according to the following categories: (1) Students; (2) Retention and Graduation; (3) Degrees; (4) Faculty; (5) Revenues and Expenditures; (6) Tuition and Fees; (7) Financial Aid; (8) Private Career Schools; and (9) Distance…

  18. Maryland Higher Education Commission Data Book 2010. Creating a State of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Higher Education Commission, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This document presents statistics about the higher education in Maryland for 2010. The tables in this document are presented according to the following categories: (1) Students; (2) Retention and Graduation; (3) Degrees; (4) Faculty; (5) Revenues and Expenditures; (6) Tuition and Fees; (7) Financial Aid; (8) Private Career Schools; and (9)…

  19. Achieving High Resolution Ion Mobility Separations Using Traveling Waves in Compact Multiturn Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Deng, Liulin; Zheng, Xueyun; Webb, Ian K.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Prost, Spencer A.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Baker, Erin S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    We report on ion mobility (IM) separations achievable using traveling waves (TW) in a Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) module having a 44 cm path length and 16 90° turns. The performance of the TW-SLIM module was evaluated for ion transmission and IM separations with different RF, TW parameters, and SLIM surface gaps in conjunction with mass spectrometry. In this work, TWs were created by the transient and dynamic application of DC potentials. The module demonstrated highly robust performance and, even with 16 closely spaced turns, achieving IM resolution performance and ion transmission comparable to a similar straight path module. We found an IM peak capacity of ~31 and peak generation rate of 780 s−1 for TW speeds of ~80 m/s using the current multi-turn TW-SLIM module. The separations achieved for isomers of peptides and tetrasaccharides were found to be comparable to those from a ~0.9-m drift tube-based IM-MS platform operated at the same pressure (4 Torr). The combined attributes of flexible design, low voltage requirements and lossless ion transmission through multiple turns for the present TW-SLIM module provides a basis for SLIM devices capable of achieving much greater IM resolution via greatly extended ion path lengths and using compact serpentine designs. PMID:27479234

  20. Achieving High Resolution Ion Mobility Separations Using Traveling Waves in Compact Multiturn Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid, Ahmed M.; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Deng, Liulin; Zheng, Xueyun; Webb, Ian K.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Prost, Spencer A.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Baker, Erin S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-09-20

    We report on ion mobility separations (IMS) achievable using traveling waves in a Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (TW-SLIM) module having a 44-cm path length and sixteen 90º turns. The performance of the TW-SLIM module was evaluated for ion transmission, and ion mobility separations with different RF, TW parameters and SLIM surface gaps in conjunction with mass spectrometry. In this work TWs were created by the transient and dynamic application of DC potentials. The TW-SLIM module demonstrated highly robust performance and the ion mobility resolution achieved even with sixteen close spaced turns was comparable to a similar straight path TW-SLIM module. We found an ion mobility peak capacity of ~ 31 and peak generation rate of 780 s-1 for TW speeds of <210 m/s using the current multi-turn TW-SLIM module. The separations achieved for isomers of peptides and tetrasaccharides were found to be comparable to those from a ~ 0.9-m drift tube-based IMS-MS platform operated at the same pressure (4 torr). The combined attributes of flexible design, low voltage requirements and lossless ion transmission through multiple turns for the present TW-SLIM module provides a basis for SLIM devices capable of achieving much greater ion mobility resolutions via greatly extended ion path lengths and compact serpentine designs that do not significantly impact the instrumentation profile, a direction described in a companion manuscript.

  1. Differences in General Cognitive Abilities and Domain-Specific Skills of Higher-and Lower-Achieving Students in Stoichiometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Eilks, Ingo; Bowman, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a comparison of a group of higher-and lower-achieving undergraduate chemistry students, 17 in total, as separated on their ability in stoichiometry. This exploratory study of 17 students investigated parallels and differences in the students' general and domain-specific cognitive abilities. Performance, strategies, and mistakes…

  2. What Educational Initiatives Contribute to Higher than Expected Achievement in Student Performance for Public Schools in the State of Indiana?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Thomas Allen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the areas of teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school structure, school-community partnerships or school leadership were significantly embedded in practice and acted as a change agent among school systems that achieve higher than expected results on their state standardized testing…

  3. Statistical Summary of Missouri Higher Education 1989-1990 with FY 1989 Missouri Student Achievement Study Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Coordinating Board for Higher Education, Jefferson City.

    The statistical summary for 1989-90 higher education in Missouri presents data in the form of 120 tables for 7 categories: (1) the Missouri Student Achievement Study (fiscal year 1989); (2) preparation; (3) enrolled freshmen; (4) access; (5) participation; (6) resources; and (7) completions. Sample tables provide the following information: mean…

  4. Achievement and Expectations of Immigrant, Second Generation, and Non-Immigrant Black Students in U.S. Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Research on academic achievement contrasting Black immigrant, second generation, and non-immigrant students as distinct groups is surprisingly sparse in the higher education literature. This study examined Black immigrant and second generation undergraduates from Africa and the Caribbean and non-immigrant Black American undergraduates, using the…

  5. The Effects of Social Identification and Organizational Identification on Student Commitment, Achievement and Satisfaction in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Stephen; Butt, Muhammad Mohsin; Kratochvil, Daniel; Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of social and organizational identifications on student commitment, achievement and satisfaction in higher education. The sample comprised 437 students enrolled in an undergraduate or postgraduate programme in business or management. A model was developed and tested using structural…

  6. The design of an animal PET: flexible geometry for achieving optimal spatial resolution or high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Weber, S; Terstegge, A; Herzog, H; Reinartz, R; Reinhart, P; Rongen, F; Müller-Gärtner, H W; Halling, H

    1997-10-01

    We present the design of a positron emission tomograph (PET) with flexible geometry dedicated to in vivo studies of small animals (TierPET). The scanner uses two pairs of detectors. Each detector consists of 400 small individual yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) scintillator crystals of dimensions 2 x 2 x 15 mm3, optically isolated and glued together, which are coupled to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT's). The detector modules can be moved in a radial direction so that the detector-to-detector spacing can be varied. Special hardware has been built for coincidence detection, position detection, and real-time data acquisition, which is performed by a PC. The single-event data are transferred to workstations where the radioactivity distribution is reconstructed. The dimensions of the crystals and the detector layout are the result of extensive simulations which are described in this report, taking into account sensitivity, spatial resolution and additional parameters like parallax error or scatter effects. For the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction a genuine 3-D expectation-maximization (EM)-algorithm which can include the characteristics of the detector system has been implemented. The reconstruction software is flexible and matches the different detector configurations. The main advantage of the proposed animal PET scanner is its high flexibility, allowing the realization of various detector-system configurations. By changing the detector-to-detector spacing, the system is capable of either providing good spatial resolution or high sensitivity for dynamic studies of pharmacokinetics.

  7. Fluorescent microthermal imaging-theory and methodology for achieving high thermal resolution images

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, D.L.; Tangyunyong, P.

    1995-09-01

    The fluorescent microthermal imaging technique (FMI) involves coating a sample surface with an inorganic-based thin film that, upon exposure to UV light, emits temperature-dependent fluorescence. FMI offers the ability to create thermal maps of integrated circuits with a thermal resolution theoretically limited to 1 m{degrees}C and a spatial resolution which is diffraction-limited to 0.3 {mu}m. Even though the fluorescent microthermal imaging (FMI) technique has been around for more than a decade, many factors that can significantly affect the thermal image quality have not been systematically studied and characterized. After a brief review of FMI theory, we will present our recent results demonstrating for the first time three important factors that have a dramatic impact on the thermal quality and sensitivity of FMI. First, the limitations imparted by photon shot noise and improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio realized through signal averaging will be discussed. Second, ultraviolet bleaching, an unavoidable problem with FMI as it currently is performed, will be characterized to identify ways to minimize its effect. Finally, the impact of film dilution on thermal sensitivity will be discussed.

  8. Achieving high-resolution in flat-panel imagers for digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, Jeffrey T.; Lemmi, Francesco; Lu, Jeng-Ping; Mei, Ping; Street, Robert A.; Ready, Steve E.; Ho, Jackson; Apte, Raj B.; Van Schuylenbergh, Koenraad; Lau, Rachel; Weisfield, Richard L.; Lujan, Rene; Boyce, James B.

    1999-10-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) matrix-addressed imager sensors are the leading new technology for digital medical x-ray imaging. Large-area systems are now commercially available with good resolution and large dynamic range. These systems image x-rays either by detecting light emission from a phosphor screen onto an a-Si:H photodiode, or by collecting ionization charge in a thick x-ray absorbing photoconductor with as selenium, and both approaches have been widely discussed in the literature. While these systems meet the performance needs for general radiographic imaging, further improvements in sensitivity, noise and resolution are needed to fully satisfy the requirements for fluoroscopy and mammography. The approach taken for this paper uses indirect detection, with a phosphor layer for x-ray conversion. The thin a-Si:H photodiode layer for detects the scintillation light. In contrast with the present generation of devices, which have a mesa-isolated sensor at each pixel, these imagers use a continuous sensor covering the entire front surface of the array. The p+ and i layers of a-Si:H are continuous, while the n+ contact has been patterned to isolate adjacent pixels. The continuous photodiode layer maximizes light absorption from the phosphor and provides high x-ray conversion efficiency.

  9. Focal plane actuation to achieve ultra-high resolution on suborbital balloon payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scowen, Paul A.; Miller, Alex; Challa, Priya; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Chris; Mauskopf, Phil

    2014-07-01

    Over the past few years there has been remarkable success flying imaging telescope systems suspended from suborbital balloon payload systems. These imaging systems have covered optical, ultraviolet, sub-­-millimeter and infrared passbands (i.e. BLAST, STO, SBI, Fireball and others). In recognition of these advances NASA is now considering ambitious programs to promote planetary imaging from high altitude at a fraction of the cost of similar fully orbital systems. The challenge with imaging from a balloon payload is delivering the full diffraction-­-limited resolution of the system from a moving payload. Good progress has been made with damping mechanisms and oscillation control to remove most macroscopic movement in the departures of the imaging focal plane from a static configuration, however a jitter component remains that is difficult to remove using external corrections. This paper reports on work to demonstrate in the laboratory the utility and performance of actuating a detector focal plane (of whatever type) to remove the final jitter terms using an agile hexapod design. The input to this demonstration is the jitter signal generated by the pointing system of a previously flown balloon mission (the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory, STO). Our group has a mature jitter compensation system that thermally isolates the control head from the focal plane itself. This allows the hexapod to remain at ambient temperature in a vacuum environment with the focal plane cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Our lab design mounts the focal plane on the hexapod in a custom cryostat and delivers an active optical stimulus together with the corresponding jitter signal, using the actuation of the hexapod to correct for the departures from a static, stable configuration. We believe this demonstration will make the case for inclusion of this technological solution in future balloon-­-borne imaging systems requiring ultra-­-high resolution.

  10. Administration of ciprofloxacin and capsaicin in rats to achieve higher maximal serum concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sumano-López, Héctor; Gutiérrez-Olvera, Lilia; Aguilera-Jiménez, Rita; Gutiérrez-Olvera, Carlos; Jiménez-Gómez, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    To test if capsaicin could improve the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin (1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid, CAS 85721-33-1, Bay q 3939) in rats, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1% capsaicin ((E)-N-[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-8-methyl-6-nonenamide, trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide, CAS 404-86-4) dissolved in ethanol and mixed with 20 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin were orally administered to groups of 10 rats each. Control groups were dosed with capsaicin-free, ethanol-containing or ethanol-free ciprofloxacin. Reference intravenous pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin was also established. The results revealed that capsaicin increased ciprofloxacin bioavailability by approximately 70% in groups receiving preparations containing capsaicin at a rate of 0.01, 0.1 and 0.5%. Higher concentrations failed to further increase bioavailability. However, capsaicin appears to have little or no impact on the rate of absorption or clearance of ciprofloxacin. Considering that 0.01% or 0.1% capsaicin are unlikely to upset the gastrointestinal tract, it may be worth attempting to study if a similar effect occurs in man, and to evaluate if the addition of capsaicin can be used as a method to increase the area under the curve/minimum inhibitory concentration rate, a key variable to improve clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin.

  11. A novel Fast Gas Chromatography based technique for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C10-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a ~ 14 min analysis time. Moreover, in situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an ~ 11 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to ~ 19 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). This corresponds to a two- to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest ~ 30 km west of central Tokyo, Japan, the

  12. Interpreting 16S metagenomic data without clustering to achieve sub-OTU resolution

    PubMed Central

    Tikhonov, Mikhail; Leach, Robert W; Wingreen, Ned S

    2015-01-01

    The standard approach to analyzing 16S tag sequence data, which relies on clustering reads by sequence similarity into Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), underexploits the accuracy of modern sequencing technology. We present a clustering-free approach to multi-sample Illumina data sets that can identify independent bacterial subpopulations regardless of the similarity of their 16S tag sequences. Using published data from a longitudinal time-series study of human tongue microbiota, we are able to resolve within standard 97% similarity OTUs up to 20 distinct subpopulations, all ecologically distinct but with 16S tags differing by as little as one nucleotide (99.2% similarity). A comparative analysis of oral communities of two cohabiting individuals reveals that most such subpopulations are shared between the two communities at 100% sequence identity, and that dynamical similarity between subpopulations in one host is strongly predictive of dynamical similarity between the same subpopulations in the other host. Our method can also be applied to samples collected in cross-sectional studies and can be used with the 454 sequencing platform. We discuss how the sub-OTU resolution of our approach can provide new insight into factors shaping community assembly. PMID:25012900

  13. In vivo sub-femtoliter resolution photoacoustic microscopy with higher frame rates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Szu-Yu; Lai, Yu-Hung; Huang, Kai-Chih; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Tseng, Tzu-Fang; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-10-21

    Microscopy based on non-fluorescent absorption dye staining is widely used in various fields of biomedicine for 400 years. Unlike its fluorescent counterpart, non-fluorescent absorption microscopy lacks proper methodologies to realize its in vivo applications with a sub-femtoliter 3D resolution. Regardless of the most advanced high-resolution photoacoustic microscopy, sub-femtoliter spatial resolution is still unattainable, and the imaging speed is relatively slow. In this paper, based on the two-photon photoacoustic mechanism, we demonstrated a in vivo label free laser-scanning photoacoustic imaging modality featuring high frame rates and sub-femtoliter 3D resolution simultaneously, which stands as a perfect solution to 3D high resolution non-fluorescent absorption microscopy. Furthermore, we first demonstrated in vivo label-free two-photon acoustic microscopy on the observation of non-fluorescent melanin distribution within mouse skin.

  14. In vivo sub-femtoliter resolution photoacoustic microscopy with higher frame rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Szu-Yu; Lai, Yu-Hung; Huang, Kai-Chih; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Tseng, Tzu-Fang; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-10-01

    Microscopy based on non-fluorescent absorption dye staining is widely used in various fields of biomedicine for 400 years. Unlike its fluorescent counterpart, non-fluorescent absorption microscopy lacks proper methodologies to realize its in vivo applications with a sub-femtoliter 3D resolution. Regardless of the most advanced high-resolution photoacoustic microscopy, sub-femtoliter spatial resolution is still unattainable, and the imaging speed is relatively slow. In this paper, based on the two-photon photoacoustic mechanism, we demonstrated a in vivo label free laser-scanning photoacoustic imaging modality featuring high frame rates and sub-femtoliter 3D resolution simultaneously, which stands as a perfect solution to 3D high resolution non-fluorescent absorption microscopy. Furthermore, we first demonstrated in vivo label-free two-photon acoustic microscopy on the observation of non-fluorescent melanin distribution within mouse skin.

  15. Higher-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Elastography in Meningiomas to Determine Intratumoral Consistency

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Joshua D.; Fattahi, Nikoo; Van Gompel, J.; Arani, Arvin; Meyer, Fredric; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Link, Michael J.; Ehman, Richard; Huston, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) analyzes shear waves’ movement thorough tissue to determine stiffness. In a prior study, measurements using first-generation brain MRE techniques correlated with intraoperative observations regarding overall meningioma stiffness. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a higher-resolution MRE technique to preoperatively detect intratumoral variations as compared to surgeon assessment. Methods Fifteen meningiomas in fourteen patients underwent MRE. Tumors with regions of distinctly different stiffness were considered heterogenous. Intratumoral portions were considered hard if there was a significant area ≥ 6 kiloPascals. A 5-point scale graded intraoperative consistency. A durometer semi-quantitatively measured surgical specimen hardness. Statistics included Chi-squared, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicative values (PPV and NPV), and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Results Between MRE and surgery respectively, 9(60%) vs 7(47%) tumors were homogenous; 6(40%) vs 8(53%) tumors were heterogenous; 6(40%) vs 10(67%) tumors had hard portions; and 14(93%) vs 12(80%) tumors had soft portions. MRE sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were: for heterogeneity, 75%, 100%, 100%, and 87%; for hardness, 60%, 100%, 100%, and 56%; and for softness, 100%, 33%, 86%, and 100%. Overall, 10(67%) tumors matched well with MRE and intraoperative consistency and correlated between intraoperative observations (p=0.018) and durometer readings (p=0.046). Tumor size ≤3.5 cm or vascular tumors were more likely to be inconsistent (p<0.05). Conclusions MRE was excellent at ruling-in heterogeneity with hard portions, but less effective in ruling-out heterogeneity and hard portions, particularly in tumors more vascular or <3.5 cm. MRE is the first technology capable of prospectively evaluating intratumoral stiffness and, with further refinement, will likely prove useful in preoperative planning. PMID:26197204

  16. High Resolution Higher Energy X-ray Microscope for Mesoscopic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.

    2013-10-01

    We developed a novel X-ray microscopy technique to study mesoscopically structured materials, employing compound refractive lenses. The easily seen advantage of lens-based methodology is the possibility to retrieve high resolution diffraction pattern and real-space images in the same experimental setup. Methodologically the proposed approach is similar to the studies of crystals by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The proposed microscope was applied for studying of mesoscopic materials such as natural and synthetic opals, inverted photonic crystals.

  17. WWC Review of the Report "Staying on Track: Testing Higher Achievement's Long-Term Impact on Academic Outcomes and High School Choice." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This study of 952 fifth and sixth graders in Washington, DC, and Alexandria, Virginia, found that students who were offered the "Higher Achievement" program had higher test scores in mathematical problem solving and were more likely to be admitted to and attend private competitive high schools. "Higher Achievement" is a…

  18. Leadership and culture of data governance for the achievement of higher education goals (Case study: Indonesia University of Education)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putro, Budi Laksono; Surendro, Kridanto; Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Data is a vital asset in a business enterprise in achieving organizational goals. Data and information affect the decision-making process on the various activities of an organization. Data problems include validity, quality, duplication, control over data, and the difficulty of data availability. Data Governance is the way the company / institution manages its data assets. Data Governance covers the rules, policies, procedures, roles and responsibilities, and performance indicators that direct the overall management of data assets. Studies on governance data or information aplenty recommend the importance of cultural factors in the governance of research data. Among the organization's leadership culture has a very close relationship, and there are two concepts turn, namely: Culture created by leaders, leaders created by culture. Based on the above, this study exposure to the theme "Leadership and Culture Of Data Governance For The Achievement Of Higher Education Goals (Case Study: Indonesia University Of Education)". Culture and Leadership Model Development of on Higher Education in Indonesia would be made by comparing several models of data governance, organizational culture, and organizational leadership on previous studies based on the advantages and disadvantages of each model to the existing organizational business. Results of data governance model development is shown in the organizational culture FPMIPA Indonesia University Of Education today is the cultural market and desired culture is a culture of clan. Organizational leadership today is Individualism Index (IDV) (83.72%), and situational leadership on selling position.

  19. Sustained availability of trimethoprim in drinking water to achieve higher plasma sulphonamide-trimethoprim antibacterial activity in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sumano, H; Hernandez, L; Gutierrez, L; Bernad-Bernad, M J

    2005-02-01

    (1) In order to make trimethoprim (TMP) available to broilers throughout the day, a sustained release formulation (SRF) of the drug in the form of granules was added to the water tank that supplies drinking water. (2) Broilers were initially dosed with sulphachloropiridazine-TMP (SCP-TMP 5:1) and then further medicated throughout the day, achieving in the end a dose of 30 mg/kg each of SCP and TMP (group A). Group B received a preparation with the same dose of SCP and TMP (1:1) as group A, but administered as a single dose without the SRF of TMP. Group C received the customary SCP-TMP 5:1 preparation (30 and 6 mg/kg, respectively). Water tanks were completely consumed in 3 to 4 h. (3) Broilers were bled at different times and concentration of antibacterial activity in serum determined by correlating the composite antibacterial activity of SCP and TMP with actual concentrations of these drugs by means of a microbiological agar diffusion assay. (4) Time vs serum concentrations of activity were higher in group B; the increments in the maximum serum concentration for group B over groups A and C being 39 and 67%, respectively. (5) However, the sustained concentration of activity over time, measured as the area under the cu)rve, was highest in group A. Group B had higher values for area under the curve than group C. (6) An additional dose of TMP to achieve 30 mg/kg of both SCP and TMP improves the serum concentration of this combination over the customary 5:1 proportion. The best values for sustaining antibacterial activity were obtained using a 1:1 ratio as in group A. The use of a SRF as in group A may translate into better clinical results.

  20. Higher-Resolution Data-Dependent Selective External ION Accumulation for Capillary LC-FTICR

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, Mikhail E.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2002-07-15

    Data-dependent selective external ion ejection with improved resolution is demonstrated with a 3.5 tesla FTICR instrument employing DREAMS (Dynamic Range Enhancement Applied to Mass Spectrometry) technology. To correct for the fringing rf-field aberrations each rod of the selection quadrupole has been segmented into three sections, so that ion excitation and ejection was performed by applying auxiliary rf-only waveforms in the region of the middle segments. Two different modes of external ion trapping and ejection were studied with the mixtures of model peptides and a tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin. A mass resolution of about 100 had been attained for rf-only dipolar ejection in a quadrupole operating at a Mathieu parameter q of ~0.45. LC-ESI-DREAMS-FTICR analysis of a 0.1 mg/mL solution of bovine serum albumin digest resulted in detection of 82 unique tryptic peptides with mass measurement errors lower than 5 ppm, providing 100 % sequence coverage of the protein.

  1. Higher-Resolution Data-Dependent Selective External Ion Accumulation for Capillary LC-FTICR.

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, Mikhail E. ); Anderson, Gordon A. ); Smith, Richard D. )

    2002-07-15

    Data-dependent selective external ion ejection with improved resolution is demonstrated with a 3.5 tesla FTICR instrument employing DREAMS (Dynamic Range Enhancement Applied to Mass Spectrometry) technology. To correct for the fringing rf-field aberrations each rod of the selection quadrupole has been segmented into three sections, so that ion excitation and ejection was performed by applying auxiliary rf-only waveforms in the region of the middle segments. Two different modes of external ion trapping and ejection were studied with the mixtures of model peptides and a tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin. A mass resolution of about 100 has been attained for rf-only dipolar ejection in a quadrupole operating at a Mathieu parameter q of{approx} 0.45. LC-ESI-DREAMS-FTICR analysis of a 0.1 mg/mL solution of bovine serum albumin digest resulted in detection of 82 unique tryptic peptides with mass measurement errors lower than 5 ppm, providing 100% sequence coverage of the protein.

  2. Modeling the QBO—Improvements resulting from higher-model vertical resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Shindell, D.; Ruedy, R.; Aleinov, I.; Nazarenko, L.; Tausnev, N. L.; Kelley, M.; Sun, S.; Cheng, Y.; Field, R. D.; Faluvegi, G.

    2016-09-01

    Using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model, it is shown that with proper choice of the gravity wave momentum flux entering the stratosphere and relatively fine vertical layering of at least 500 m in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS), a realistic stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is modeled with the proper period, amplitude, and structure down to tropopause levels. It is furthermore shown that the specified gravity wave momentum flux controls the QBO period whereas the width of the gravity wave momentum flux phase speed spectrum controls the QBO amplitude. Fine vertical layering is required for the proper downward extension to tropopause levels as this permits wave-mean flow interactions in the UTLS region to be resolved in the model. When vertical resolution is increased from 1000 to 500 m, the modeled QBO modulation of the tropical tropopause temperatures increasingly approach that from observations, and the "tape recorder" of stratospheric water vapor also approaches the observed. The transport characteristics of our GISS models are assessed using age-of-air and N2O diagnostics, and it is shown that some of the deficiencies in model transport that have been noted in previous GISS models are greatly improved for all of our tested model vertical resolutions. More realistic tropical-extratropical transport isolation, commonly referred to as the "tropical pipe," results from the finer vertical model layering required to generate a realistic QBO.

  3. Modeling the QBO-Improvements resulting from higher-model vertical resolution.

    PubMed

    Geller, Marvin A; Zhou, Tiehan; Shindell, D; Ruedy, R; Aleinov, I; Nazarenko, L; Tausnev, N L; Kelley, M; Sun, S; Cheng, Y; Field, R D; Faluvegi, G

    2016-09-01

    Using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model, it is shown that with proper choice of the gravity wave momentum flux entering the stratosphere and relatively fine vertical layering of at least 500 m in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS), a realistic stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is modeled with the proper period, amplitude, and structure down to tropopause levels. It is furthermore shown that the specified gravity wave momentum flux controls the QBO period whereas the width of the gravity wave momentum flux phase speed spectrum controls the QBO amplitude. Fine vertical layering is required for the proper downward extension to tropopause levels as this permits wave-mean flow interactions in the UTLS region to be resolved in the model. When vertical resolution is increased from 1000 to 500 m, the modeled QBO modulation of the tropical tropopause temperatures increasingly approach that from observations, and the "tape recorder" of stratospheric water vapor also approaches the observed. The transport characteristics of our GISS models are assessed using age-of-air and N2O diagnostics, and it is shown that some of the deficiencies in model transport that have been noted in previous GISS models are greatly improved for all of our tested model vertical resolutions. More realistic tropical-extratropical transport isolation, commonly referred to as the "tropical pipe," results from the finer vertical model layering required to generate a realistic QBO.

  4. Experiments and Monte Carlo modeling of a higher resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride detector for safeguards applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borella, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre is engaged in R&D activity in the field of Non Destructive Analysis on nuclear materials, with focus on spent fuel characterization. A 500 mm3 Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) with enhanced resolution was recently purchased. With a full width at half maximum of 1.3% at 662 keV, the detector is very promising in view of its use for applications such as determination of uranium enrichment and plutonium isotopic composition, as well as measurement on spent fuel. In this paper, I report about the work done with such a detector in terms of its characterization. The detector energy calibration, peak shape and efficiency were determined from experimental data. The data included measurements with calibrated sources, both in a bare and in a shielded environment. In addition, Monte Carlo calculations with the MCNPX code were carried out and benchmarked with experiments.

  5. OMI tropospheric NO2 over Switzerland with higher resolution Alpine topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yipin; Brunner, Dominik; Boersma, Folkert; Dirksen, Ruud

    The small pixel size and daily global coverage of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite make it especially suitable for air quality monitoring and modeling [1]. A comparison study is done between the monthly mean NO2 VTC distribution over Switzerland from OMI and the corresponding mean from SCIAMACHY illustrating much better spatial and temporal coverage of OMI, and its capability to resolve regional scale pollution features. However, tropospheric retrieval methods have uncertainties related to the satellite instrument and the a priori parameters, and these retrieval uncertainties are dominated by the uncertainty in the estimate of the tropospheric air mass factor [2]. In current retrieval schemes, forward model parameters, including a priori profile shapes, surface albedo, and surface pressures, are currently obtained from databases with spatial resolutions much coarser than the actual resolution of the satellite pixels. This may lead to significant retrieval errors and this problem is expected to be of increasing importance with regard to the decreasing pixel sizes of new instruments from GOME (320 x 40 km2) to SCIAMACHY(60 x 30 km2) to OMI (up to 13 x 24 km2). In a previous study [3], we investigated the impact of the complex Alpine topography on tropospheric NO2 retrievals from GOME and SCIAMACHY based on sensitivity studies with assumed a-priori NO2 profiles. It was concluded that inaccurate surface pressures can lead to large systematic errors in the vicinity of mountains, and that future retrievals need to use surface pressure fields at a resolution compatible with the satellite observations. In this study, we address the topography issue in a more quantitative way by reprocessing selected periods with accurate pixel-average surface pressures obtained by scaling the coarse pressure field of the current retrieval to the high-resolution topography data set GTOPO30. The differences between original and enhanced retrieval are analyzed for

  6. Achieving higher pathological complete response rates in HER-2-positive patients with induction chemotherapy without trastuzumab in operable breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Abrial, Catherine; Mouret-Reynier, Marie-Ange; Raoelfils, Inès; Durando, Xavier; Leheurteur, Marianne; Gimbergues, Pierre; Tortochaux, Jacques; Curé, Hervé; Chollet, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    Recent trials of induction chemotherapy in bulky operable breast cancer have shown much higher pathological complete response (pCR) rates with trastuzumab-driven combinations. However, it is useful to take into account the specific chemosensitivity of HER-2-positive tumors. The aim of this study was to assess the pCR rate according to HER-2 status in response to chemotherapy, without an anti-HER-2 specific biological agent, in 710 operable breast cancer patients. Since 1982, these patients have been treated with several different neoadjuvant chemotherapy combinations. During this period, HER-2 overexpression was most often not assessed. Subsequently, we assessed HER-2 expression using archival paraffin-embedded tissue. A technically usable specimen was available for 413 of the 710 patients. Before treatment, 51 patients were HER-2 positive, 287 patients were HER-2 negative, and the results were inconclusive for 75 patients. Of these patients, a pCR in breast and nodes was obtained in 94 patients (14.3%), but this event was threefold more frequent for HER-2-positive patients (23.5%) than for HER-2-negative patients (7%). The overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates at 10 years were 66.6% and 57.4%, respectively. The DFS rate was, as expected, better for HER-2-negative patients, with HER-2 status assessed before as well as after chemotherapy. A significant difference was found for OS in favor of HER-2-negative patients only with postchemotherapy assessment of HER-2, a fact similar to our previous findings. Finally, there was a tendency toward a higher DFS rate for HER-2-positive patients who achieved a pCR compared with HER-2-positive patients who did not.

  7. Ombudsing in higher education: a contingent model for mediation in university dispute resolution processes.

    PubMed

    Alcover, Carlos-María

    2009-05-01

    University and academia are, due to its nature, its structure and its inside relationships, a perfect breeding ground for the conflicts, disputes, problems, and grievances. In these settings, mediation is one of the dispute resolution mechanisms most used by University Ombudsperson. However, the special characteristics of university contexts make it necessary to consider and evaluate elements that may have a bearing on the effectiveness of the process and outcomes of the mediation. In this paper a model of contingent intervention in mediation processes articulated in three dimensions is put forward: a) level of balance or symmetry of power between the parties involved; b) the foreseeable temporal perspective of the relationship between them; and c) level of formalization of the mediation process. Based on the interaction between the three dimensions, a series of proposals will be formulated in order to design different strategies of intervention for mediation processes in university settings. Practical implications of this contingent model and future research on this topic are discussed.

  8. Flexible hydrological modeling - Disaggregation from lumped catchment scale to higher spatial resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Quoc Quan; Willems, Patrick; Pannemans, Bart; Blanckaert, Joris; Pereira, Fernando; Nossent, Jiri; Cauwenberghs, Kris; Vansteenkiste, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Based on an international literature review on model structures of existing rainfall-runoff and hydrological models, a generalized model structure is proposed. It consists of different types of meteorological components, storage components, splitting components and routing components. They can be spatially organized in a lumped way, or on a grid, spatially interlinked by source-to-sink or grid-to-grid (cell-to-cell) routing. The grid size of the model can be chosen depending on the application. The user can select/change the spatial resolution depending on the needs and/or the evaluation of the accuracy of the model results, or use different spatial resolutions in parallel for different applications. Major research questions addressed during the study are: How can we assure consistent results of the model at any spatial detail? How can we avoid strong or sudden changes in model parameters and corresponding simulation results, when one moves from one level of spatial detail to another? How can we limit the problem of overparameterization/equifinality when we move from the lumped model to the spatially distributed model? The proposed approach is a step-wise one, where first the lumped conceptual model is calibrated using a systematic, data-based approach, followed by a disaggregation step where the lumped parameters are disaggregated based on spatial catchment characteristics (topography, land use, soil characteristics). In this way, disaggregation can be done down to any spatial scale, and consistently among scales. Only few additional calibration parameters are introduced to scale the absolute spatial differences in model parameters, but keeping the relative differences as obtained from the spatial catchment characteristics. After calibration of the spatial model, the accuracies of the lumped and spatial models were compared for peak, low and cumulative runoff total and sub-flows (at downstream and internal gauging stations). For the distributed models, additional

  9. Effects of the Higher Order Thinking Skills Program on At-Risk Young Adolescents' Self-Concept, Reading Achievement, and Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenman, Gordon; Payne, Beverly D.

    1997-01-01

    Contrasted effects of Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) program to those of Chapter 1 programs on fourth and fifth graders' reading achievement, self-concept, and higher-order thinking skills. Found that HOTS is more effective in raising self-concept and some higher-order thinking skills in fifth grade and after two years of treatment, with…

  10. Higher resolution helium measuring system for deuterium plasma on EAST tokamak via normal Penning gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houyin, Wang; Jiansheng, Hu; Yaowei, Yu; Bin, Cao; Jinhua, Wu; Guoqing, Shen; Zhao, Wan; EAST, Contributors

    2017-01-01

    Although the deuterium and helium have almost the same mass, a Penning Optical Gas Analyzer (POGA) system on the basis of the spectroscopic method and Penning discharging has been designed on EAST, since 2014. The POGA system was developed successfully in 2015, it was the first time that EAST could detect helium partial pressure in deuterium plasma (wall conditioning and plasma operation scenario). With dedicated calibration and proper adjustment of the parameters, the minimum concentration of helium in deuterium gas can be measured as about 0.5% instead of 1% on the other tokamak devices. Moreover, the He and D2 partial pressures are measured simultaneously. At present, the measurable range of deuterium partial pressure is 1 × 10-7 mbar to 1 × 10-5 mbar, meanwhile the range of helium is 1 × 10-8 mbar to 1 × 10-5 mbar. The measurable range can be modified by means of the adjustment of POGA system’s parameters. It is possible to detect the interesting part of the gas with a time resolution of less than 5 ms (the 200 ms because of conductance of transfer pipe at present). The POGA system was routinely employed to wall conditioning and helium enrichment investigation in 2015. Last but not the least, the low temperature plasma of POGA is generated by normal penning gauge Pfeiffer IKR gauge instead of Alcatel CF2P, which has been suspended for a few years and was used for almost all the POGA systems in the world.

  11. A Study to Assess the Achievement Motivation of Higher Secondary Students in Relation to Their Noise Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latha, Prema

    2014-01-01

    Disturbing sounds are often referred to as noise, and if extreme enough in degree, intensity or frequency, it is referred to as noise pollution. Achievement refers to a change in study behavior in relation to their noise sensitivity and learning in the educational sense by achieving results in changed responses to certain types of stimuli like…

  12. Study of the Relationship between Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Students: A Case of Spicer Higher Secondary School, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siahi, Evans Atsiaya; Maiyo, Julius K.

    2015-01-01

    The studies on the correlation of academic achievement have paved way for control and manipulation of related variables for quality results in schools. In spite of the facts that schools impart uniform classroom instructions to all students, wide range of difference is observed in their academic achievement. The study sought to determine the…

  13. Aptitude Tests Versus School Exams as Selection Tools for Higher Education and the Case for Assessing Educational Achievement in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Advocates of using a US-style SAT for university selection claim that it is fairer to applicants from disadvantaged backgrounds than achievement tests because it assesses potential, not achievement, and that it allows finer discrimination between top applicants than GCEs. The pros and cons of aptitude tests in principle are discussed, focusing on…

  14. EMODNet Hydrography - Seabed Mapping - Developing a higher resolution digital bathymetry for the European seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Moussat, Eric

    2013-04-01

    In December 2007 the European Parliament and Council adopted the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) which aims to achieve environmentally healthy marine waters by 2020. This Directive includes an initiative for an overarching European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet). The EMODNet Hydrography - Seabed Mapping projects made good progress in developing the EMODNet Hydrography portal to provide overview and access to available bathymetric survey datasets and to generate an harmonised digital bathymetry for Europe's sea basins. Up till end 2012 more than 8400 bathymetric survey datasets, managed by 14 data centres from 9 countries and originated from 118 institutes, have been gathered and populated in the EMODNet Hydrography Data Discovery and Access service, adopting SeaDataNet standards. These datasets have been used as input for analysing and generating the EMODNet digital terrain model (DTM), so far for the following sea basins: • the Greater North Sea, including the Kattegat • the English Channel and Celtic Seas • Western and Central Mediterranean Sea and Ionian Sea • Bay of Biscay, Iberian coast and North-East Atlantic • Adriatic Sea • Aegean - Levantine Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). • Azores - Madeira EEZ The Hydrography Viewing service gives users wide functionality for viewing and downloading the EMODNet digital bathymetry: • water depth in gridded form on a DTM grid of a quarter a minute of longitude and latitude • option to view QC parameters of individual DTM cells and references to source data • option to download DTM tiles in different formats: ESRI ASCII, XYZ, CSV, NetCDF (CF), GeoTiff and SD for Fledermaus 3 D viewer software • option for users to create their Personal Layer and to upload multibeam survey ASCII datasets for automatic processing into personal DTMs following the EMODNet standards The NetCDF (CF) DTM files are fit for use in a special 3D Viewer software package which is based on the existing open

  15. Minority Student Participation and Achievement in Graduate and First-Professional Degree Programs in Illinois Higher Education. Item #10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    In Illinois, as in other states, minorities, Blacks and Hispanics in particular, are under-represented in higher education. The historically low rates of Black and Hispanic participation in higher education raise equity and labor supply issues. This report supplements the annual report of the Illinois Board of Higher Education and provides further…

  16. Preparing for a Global Community. Achieving an International Perspective in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 2, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickert, Sarah M.

    This report discusses the response of colleges and universities in the United States to the need of graduate students to become equipped to make personal and public policy decisions as citizens of an international society. Curriculum changes are showing a tightening of foreign language standards in schools of higher education and, throughout the…

  17. Boosting K-12 Student Achievement: How Corporate America and Higher Ed Can Help. Forum Focus. Fall 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Jenifer, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Forum Focus" was a semi-annual magazine of the Business-Higher Education Forum (BHEF) that featured articles on the role of business and higher education on significant issues affecting the P-16 education system. The magazine typically focused on themes featured at the most recently held semi-annual Forum meeting at the time of…

  18. Retrospective Understandings: Individual-Collective Influences on High Achieving Black Students at a Predominantly White Institution of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Candice Elaine

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of an exploratory qualitative study that examined the influences of individual and collective sociocultural identities on the community involvements and high academic achievement of 10 Black alumni who attended a predominantly White institution between 1985 and 2008. Syntagmatic narrative analysis and…

  19. Ubiquitous Laptop Usage in Higher Education: Effects on Student Achievement, Student Satisfaction, and Constructivist Measures in Honors and Traditional Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurst, Christian; Smarkola, Claudia; Gaffney, Mary Anne

    2008-01-01

    Three years of graduating business honors cohorts in a large urban university were sampled to determine whether the introduction of ubiquitous laptop computers into the honors program contributed to student achievement, student satisfaction and constructivist teaching activities. The first year cohort consisted of honors students who did not have…

  20. The Impact of Higher Expectations in Math on the Perception of Achievement of High School Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przybylinski, Vincent S., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    There exists a dearth of research on strategies that will help students with disabilities gain greater access to standards-based mathematics and close the mathematics achievement gap between general education students and students with disabilities (Browder et al., 2012; Jitendra, 2013; van Garderen, Scheuermann, Jackson, & Hampton, 2009).…

  1. The Effects of School Climate on Student Achievement in Lower and Higher Performing Public and Charter Elementary Schools in Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Aszure Emond

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the number of charter schools that exist has occurred due, in part, to expectations that are aimed toward producing better results through student achievement, as compared to traditional public schools. An abundance of professional literature has supported the concept that school climate is important in the effort to improve student…

  2. Higher temporal resolution is necessary for continuous-wave near -infrared spectrophotometric monitors in both cerebral and muscular tissue oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, Eiichi; Shiga, Toshikazu; Tanabe, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Yoshifumi

    1998-01-01

    Conventional near infrared spectrophotometric monitors have temporal resolution of less than about 1 Hz. However, physiological Hb signals such as pulsation and muscle contraction have higher frequency than 1 Hz. Insufficient sampling rates inevitably lead aliasing of the recorded signals in tissue oximetry for both brain and muscle. Cerebral Hb signals (57 y.o. female artificially ventilated under general anesthesia) and thigh muscle (22 y.o. male with 20 W - 240 W exercise at 1 Hz cycling in semirecumbent ergometer) were measured with NIRS monitor with temporal resolution of 10 Hz (OMRON Co. Ltd., Japan). The detail of physiological fluctuations such as pulsation, ventilation, and muscle pumping was clearly recognized with a 10 Hz sampling. The comparison with recalculated waveforms at slower sampling rate (0.5 Hz, 1 Hz, 2 Hz) revealed that with slower sampling than 1 Hz cerebral respiratory waves were deformed by pulsation, and that magnitudes of muscle pumping could not be properly evaluated in dynamic exercise. In both pulsatile and muscle contractile cycle a phase delay between oxygenated component and deoxygenated one was also detected, which has been overlooked by conventional NIRS monitoring.

  3. Higher temporal resolution is necessary for continuous-wave near -infrared spectrophotometric monitors in both cerebral and muscular tissue oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, Eiichi; Shiga, Toshikazu; Tanabe, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Yoshifumi

    1997-12-01

    Conventional near infrared spectrophotometric monitors have temporal resolution of less than about 1 Hz. However, physiological Hb signals such as pulsation and muscle contraction have higher frequency than 1 Hz. Insufficient sampling rates inevitably lead aliasing of the recorded signals in tissue oximetry for both brain and muscle. Cerebral Hb signals (57 y.o. female artificially ventilated under general anesthesia) and thigh muscle (22 y.o. male with 20 W - 240 W exercise at 1 Hz cycling in semirecumbent ergometer) were measured with NIRS monitor with temporal resolution of 10 Hz (OMRON Co. Ltd., Japan). The detail of physiological fluctuations such as pulsation, ventilation, and muscle pumping was clearly recognized with a 10 Hz sampling. The comparison with recalculated waveforms at slower sampling rate (0.5 Hz, 1 Hz, 2 Hz) revealed that with slower sampling than 1 Hz cerebral respiratory waves were deformed by pulsation, and that magnitudes of muscle pumping could not be properly evaluated in dynamic exercise. In both pulsatile and muscle contractile cycle a phase delay between oxygenated component and deoxygenated one was also detected, which has been overlooked by conventional NIRS monitoring.

  4. High-resolution surface charge image achieved by a multiforce sensor based on a quartz tuning fork in electrostatic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-yong; Bao, Jian-bin; Zhang, Hong-hai; Guo, Wen-ming

    2002-08-01

    A multiforce sensor was fabricated by attaching a tiny tungsten tip to a tuning fork. By operating an ac modulation bias on the minitip of the needle sensor, we have achieved a dynamic noncontact mode electrostatic force microscope with high spatial resolution. It can utilize the van der Waals force and electrostatic force signals between the microtip and the sample, respectively, to obtain the images of topography and quantitative surface charge density of an open-gate field effect transistor simultaneously.

  5. Achieving Superior Tropical Cyclone Intensity Forecasts by Improving the Assimilation of High-Resolution Satellite Data into Mesoscale Prediction Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    intensity analyses/predictions is being assessed. The main science focus is on investigating and understanding how the assimilation of the satellite...the impact of the enhanced AMV observations at high model resolution (i.e. ɜkm spacing). It involves sampling an ensemble of bogus vortices from...specifically for implementation as a hybrid data assimilation system using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Among many other advantages

  6. A method for achieving an order-of-magnitude increase in the temporal resolution of a standard CRT computer monitor.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, Matthew P; Eagleman, David M

    2008-09-15

    As the frequency of a flickering light is increased, the perception of flicker is replaced by the perception of steady light at what is known as the critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT). This threshold provides a useful measure of the brain's information processing speed, and has been used in medicine for over a century both for diagnostic and drug efficacy studies. However, the hardware for presenting the stimulus has not advanced to take advantage of computers, largely because the refresh rates of typical monitors are too slow to provide fine-grained changes in the alternation rate of a visual stimulus. For example, a cathode ray tube (CRT) computer monitor running at 100Hz will render a new frame every 10 ms, thus restricting the period of a flickering stimulus to multiples of 20 ms. These multiples provide a temporal resolution far too low to make precise threshold measurements, since typical CFFT values are in the neighborhood of 35 ms. We describe here a simple and novel technique to enable alternating images at several closely-spaced periods on a standard monitor. The key to our technique is to programmatically control the video card to dynamically reset the refresh rate of the monitor. Different refresh rates allow slightly different frame durations; this can be leveraged to vastly increase the resolution of stimulus presentation times. This simple technique opens new inroads for experiments on computers that require more finely-spaced temporal resolution than a monitor at a single, fixed refresh rate can allow.

  7. Going Green: A Comparative Case Study of How Three Higher Education Institutions Achieved Progressive Measures of Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    Leal Filho, MacDermot, and Padgam (1996) contended that post-secondary institutions are well suited to take on leadership responsibilities for society's environmental protection. Higher education has the unique academic freedom to engage in critical thinking and bold experimentation in environmental sustainability (Cortese, 2003). Although…

  8. Achievements and Consequences of Two Decades of Quality Assurance in Higher Education: A Personal View from the Edge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Don

    2010-01-01

    While the past two decades have seen significant expansion and harmonisation of quality assurance mechanisms in higher education, there is limited evidence of positive effects on the quality of core processes of teaching and learning. The paradox of the separation of assurance from improvement is explored. A shift in focus from surveillance to…

  9. A Fresh Perspective on Progress Files--A Way of Representing Complex Learning and Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Norman; Ward, Rob

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the challenge of developing new conceptual knowledge to help us make better sense of the way that higher education is approaching the "problem" of representing (documenting, certifying and communicating by other means) students' learning for the super-complex world described by Barnett (2000b). The current UK…

  10. Unraveling the sequence information in COI barcode to achieve higher taxon assignment based on Indian freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Mohua; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Efficacy of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) DNA barcode in higher taxon assignment is still under debate in spite of several attempts, using the conventional DNA barcoding methods, to assign higher taxa. Here we try to understand whether nucleotide and amino acid sequence in COI gene carry sufficient information to assign species to their higher taxonomic rank, using 160 species of Indian freshwater fishes. Our results reveal that with increase in the taxonomic rank, sequence conservation decreases for both nucleotides and amino acids. Order level exhibits lowest conservation with 50% of the nucleotides and amino acids being conserved. Among the variable sites, 30-50% were found to carry high information content within an order, while it was 70-80% within a family and 80-99% within a genus. High information content shows sites with almost conserved sequence but varying at one or two locations, which can be due to variations at species or population level. Thus, the potential of COI gene in higher taxon assignment is revealed with validation of ample inherent signals latent in the gene.

  11. Women in Leadership: Factors That Affect the Achievement of Women in Higher Education Administration at Four-Year Public and Private Universities in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Dawn Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the factors that affect women administrators in higher education at four-year public and private universities in Texas. By comparing private and public universities, the research provided an assessment of similarities and differences of the factors impacting achievement of women in higher…

  12. How endogenous plant cell-wall degradation mechanisms can help achieve higher efficiency in saccharification of biomass.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Eveline Q P; De Souza, Amanda P; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-07-01

    Cell-wall recalcitrance to hydrolysis still represents one of the major bottlenecks for second-generation bioethanol production. This occurs despite the development of pre-treatments, the prospect of new enzymes, and the production of transgenic plants with less-recalcitrant cell walls. Recalcitrance, which is the intrinsic resistance to breakdown imposed by polymer assembly, is the result of inherent limitations in its three domains. These consist of: (i) porosity, associated with a pectin matrix impairing trafficking through the wall; (ii) the glycomic code, which refers to the fine-structural emergent complexity of cell-wall polymers that are unique to cells, tissues, and species; and (iii) cellulose crystallinity, which refers to the organization in micro- and/or macrofibrils. One way to circumvent recalcitrance could be by following cell-wall hydrolysis strategies underlying plant endogenous mechanisms that are optimized to precisely modify cell walls in planta. Thus, the cell-wall degradation that occurs during fruit ripening, abscission, storage cell-wall mobilization, and aerenchyma formation are reviewed in order to highlight how plants deal with recalcitrance and which are the routes to couple prospective enzymes and cocktail designs with cell-wall features. The manipulation of key enzyme levels in planta can help achieving biologically pre-treated walls (i.e. less recalcitrant) before plants are harvested for bioethanol production. This may be helpful in decreasing the costs associated with producing bioethanol from biomass.

  13. Selected factors associated with achievement of biology preparatory students and their follow-up to higher level biology courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, Carol A.; Sarinsky, Gary B.

    This study was undertaken to determine whether a biology preparatory course given at an urban community college was helping students to develop the proper skills and background necessary for them to successfully complete follow-up courses in biology. A group of students who enrolled in a biology preparatory course, and subsequently, a follow-up anatomy and physiology or general biology course (experimental group) was compared to a group of students who should have registered for the preparatory course, but who enrolled directly into the anatomy and physiology or general biology course (control group). It was shown that there was no significant difference in their anatomy and physiology or general biology grades. Furthermore, only 16% of the initial group of preparatory students enrolled in and passed a follow-up biology course. Examination of the preparatory group using discriminant analysis ascertained that mathematics score was the principle discriminator between pass/fail groups. A stepwise multiple regression analysis of the variables explaining the preparatory grade showed that mathematics score, reading score, and type of high school degree explained 33% of the variance. Of the students who did pass the preparatory course and enrolled in a follow-up biology class, their preparatory grade was a good predictor of their achievement (measured by follow-up course grade), as determined by multiple regression.

  14. [Perception of the teaching-learning process and academic achievement in diverse instructional contexts of Higher Education].

    PubMed

    de la Fuente Arias, Jesús; Martínez Vicente, José Manuel; Peralta Sánchez, Francisco Javier; García Berbén, Ana Belén

    2010-11-01

    In Higher Education, performance and Teaching-Learning (T-L) contexts are highly current concerns. Based on the DEDEPRO model, interdependence can be established between instructional contexts and levels of performance as they relate to the T-L process. Partitipants were 2020 pupils from two Spanish universities. Measurements of both variables were used in a quasi-experimental and correlational design. The univariate and causal analyses showed the effect of context on the T-L process and on performance; thus, the interdependent relationships between the latter and perception of the T-L process. Partial interaction effects also appeared, as well as a causal model of academic performance. Results are discussed and implications for the ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) are analyzed.

  15. Effects of tactual and kinesthetic instructional resources on simple recall and higher-level cognitive science achievement and attitudes toward science of third-grade suburban students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searson, Robert Francis

    This researcher investigated the effects of tactual and kinesthetic instructional resources on the simple recall and higher-level cognitive science achievement and attitudes toward science of third-grade suburban students in a northern New Jersey school district. The Learning Style Inventory (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1996) was administered to ascertain the identity of the learning-style perceptual preferences of all 59 third-graders who completed the three science units. Each of the three classes was presented two science units using learning-style instructional resources; one science unit was taught using traditional methods. All three science units were completed in a six-week period. Students were administered a pretest and posttest for each science unit and the Semantic Differential Scale (Pizzo, 1981) at the conclusion of each science unit. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) assessed the effects of treatments and attitudes toward science. The statistical analysis of this study revealed a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between students' simple recall science achievement posttest scores when taught tactually and/or kinesthetically compared to when they were taught science traditionally. Furthermore, the Contingency Table analysis, using Fisher's Exact Test indicated a significant difference (p = 0.00008) between the higher-level cognitive science achievement posttest scores when students are taught science tactually and/or kinesthetically compared to when they are taught science traditionally. The findings of this study supported the view when tactual and/or kinesthetic methods were employed, higher achievement gains were realized for simple recall and higher-level cognitive science achievement. Further recommendations called for a reexamination of science instructional methods employed in our elementary classroom.

  16. Testing the limits of Paleozoic chronostratigraphic correlation via high-resolution (13Ccarb) biochemostratigraphy across the Llandovery–Wenlock (Silurian) boundary: Is a unified Phanerozoic time scale achievable?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, Bradley D.; Loydell, David K.; Samtleben, Christian; Munnecke, Axel; Kaljo, Dimitri; Mannik, Peep; Martma, Tonu; Jeppsson, Lennart; Kleffner, Mark A.; Barrick, James E.; Johnson, Craig A.; Emsbo, Poul; Joachimski, Michael M.; Bickert, Torsten; Saltzman, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    The resolution and fidelity of global chronostratigraphic correlation are direct functions of the time period under consideration. By virtue of deep-ocean cores and astrochronology, the Cenozoic and Mesozoic time scales carry error bars of a few thousand years (k.y.) to a few hundred k.y. In contrast, most of the Paleozoic time scale carries error bars of plus or minus a few million years (m.y.), and chronostratigraphic control better than ??1 m.y. is considered "high resolution." The general lack of Paleozoic abyssal sediments and paucity of orbitally tuned Paleozoic data series combined with the relative incompleteness of the Paleozoic stratigraphic record have proven historically to be such an obstacle to intercontinental chronostratigraphic correlation that resolving the Paleozoic time scale to the level achieved during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic was viewed as impractical, impossible, or both. Here, we utilize integrated graptolite, conodont, and carbonate carbon isotope (??13Ccarb) data from three paleocontinents (Baltica, Avalonia, and Laurentia) to demonstrate chronostratigraphic control for upper Llando very through middle Wenlock (Telychian-Sheinwoodian, ~436-426 Ma) strata with a resolution of a few hundred k.y. The interval surrounding the base of the Wenlock Series can now be correlated globally with precision approaching 100 k.y., but some intervals (e.g., uppermost Telychian and upper Shein-woodian) are either yet to be studied in sufficient detail or do not show sufficient biologic speciation and/or extinction or carbon isotopic features to delineate such small time slices. Although producing such resolution during the Paleozoic presents an array of challenges unique to the era, we have begun to demonstrate that erecting a Paleozoic time scale comparable to that of younger eras is achievable. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  17. SU-E-J-126: Respiratory Gating Quality Assurance: A Simple Method to Achieve Millisecond Temporal Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, B; Wiersma, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Low temporal latency between a gating on/off signal and a linac beam on/off during respiratory gating is critical for patient safety. Although, a measurement of temporal lag is recommended by AAPM Task Group 142 for commissioning and annual quality assurance, there currently exists no published method. Here we describe a simple, inexpensive, and reliable method to precisely measure gating lag at millisecond resolutions. Methods: A Varian Real-time Position Management™ (RPM) gating simulator with rotating disk was modified with a resistive flex sensor (Spectra Symbol) attached to the gating box platform. A photon diode was placed at machine isocenter. Output signals of the flex sensor and diode were monitored with a multichannel oscilloscope (Tektronix™ DPO3014). Qualitative inspection of the gating window/beam on synchronicity were made by setting the linac to beam on/off at end-expiration, and the oscilloscope's temporal window to 100 ms to visually examine if the on/off timing was within the recommended 100-ms tolerance. Quantitative measurements were made by saving the signal traces and analyzing in MatLab™. The on and off of the beam signal were located and compared to the expected gating window (e.g. 40% to 60%). Four gating cycles were measured and compared. Results: On a Varian TrueBeam™ STx linac with RPM gating software, the average difference in synchronicity at beam on and off for four cycles was 14 ms (3 to 30 ms) and 11 ms (2 to 32 ms), respectively. For a Varian Clinac™ 21EX the average difference at beam on and off was 127 ms (122 to 133 ms) and 46 ms (42 to 49 ms), respectively. The uncertainty in the synchrony difference was estimated at ±6 ms. Conclusion: This new gating QA method is easy to implement and allows for fast qualitative inspection and quantitative measurements for commissioning and TG-142 annual QA measurements.

  18. Resolution study of higher-order-mode-based beam position diagnostics using custom-built electronics in strongly coupled 3.9-GHz multi-cavity accelerating module

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, P.; Baboi, N.; Jones, R.M.; Eddy, N.

    2012-11-01

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOMs) can provide remote diagnostics information of the beam position and cavity misalignment. In this paper we report on recent studies on the resolution with specially selected series of modes with custom-built electronics. This constitutes the first report of measurements of these cavities in which we obtained a resolution of 20 micron in beam offset. Details of the setup of the electronics and HOM measurements are provided.

  19. Estimating the gas transfer velocity: a prerequisite for more accurate and higher resolution GHG fluxes (lower Aare River, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollberger, S.; Perez, K.; Schubert, C. J.; Eugster, W.; Wehrli, B.; Del Sontro, T.

    2013-12-01

    Currently, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from lakes, reservoirs and rivers are readily investigated due to the global warming potential of those gases and the role these inland waters play in the carbon cycle. However, there is a lack of high spatiotemporally-resolved emission estimates, and how to accurately assess the gas transfer velocity (K) remains controversial. In anthropogenically-impacted systems where run-of-river reservoirs disrupt the flow of sediments by increasing the erosion and load accumulation patterns, the resulting production of carbonic greenhouse gases (GH-C) is likely to be enhanced. The GH-C flux is thus counteracting the terrestrial carbon sink in these environments that act as net carbon emitters. The aim of this project was to determine the GH-C emissions from a medium-sized river heavily impacted by several impoundments and channelization through a densely-populated region of Switzerland. Estimating gas emission from rivers is not trivial and recently several models have been put forth to do so; therefore a second goal of this project was to compare the river emission models available with direct measurements. Finally, we further validated the modeled fluxes by using a combined approach with water sampling, chamber measurements, and highly temporal GH-C monitoring using an equilibrator. We conducted monthly surveys along the 120 km of the lower Aare River where we sampled for dissolved CH4 (';manual' sampling) at a 5-km sampling resolution, and measured gas emissions directly with chambers over a 35 km section. We calculated fluxes (F) via the boundary layer equation (F=K×(Cw-Ceq)) that uses the water-air GH-C concentration (C) gradient (Cw-Ceq) and K, which is the most sensitive parameter. K was estimated using 11 different models found in the literature with varying dependencies on: river hydrology (n=7), wind (2), heat exchange (1), and river width (1). We found that chamber fluxes were always higher than boundary

  20. Higher-Resolution Structure of the Human Insulin Receptor Ectodomain: Multi-Modal Inclusion of the Insert Domain.

    PubMed

    Croll, Tristan I; Smith, Brian J; Margetts, Mai B; Whittaker, Jonathan; Weiss, Michael A; Ward, Colin W; Lawrence, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    Insulin receptor (IR) signaling is critical to controlling nutrient uptake and metabolism. However, only a low-resolution (3.8 Å) structure currently exists for the IR ectodomain, with some segments ill-defined or unmodeled due to disorder. Here, we revise this structure using new diffraction data to 3.3 Å resolution that allow improved modeling of the N-linked glycans, the first and third fibronectin type III domains, and the insert domain. A novel haptic interactive molecular dynamics strategy was used to aid fitting to low-resolution electron density maps. The resulting model provides a foundation for investigation of structural transitions in IR upon ligand binding.

  1. The effects of higher-order questioning strategies on nonscience majors' achievement in an introductory environmental science course and their attitudes toward the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eason, Grace Teresa

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the effect a higher-order questioning strategy (Bloom, 1956) had on undergraduate non-science majors' attitudes toward the environment and their achievement in an introductory environmental science course, EDS 1032, "Survey of Science 2: Life Science," which was offered during the Spring 2000 term. Students from both treatment and control groups (N = 63), which were determined using intact classes, participated in eight cooperative group activities based on the Biological Sciences Curriculum Studies (BSCS) 5E model (Bybee, 1993). The treatment group received a higher-order questioning method combined with the BSCS 5E model. The control group received a lower-order questioning method, combined with the BSCS 5E model. Two instruments were used to measure students' attitude and achievement changes. The Ecology Issue Attitude (EIA) survey (Schindler, 1995) and a comprehensive environmental science final exam. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (KLSI, 1985) was used to measure students' learning style type. After a 15-week treatment period, results were analyzed using MANCOVA. The overall MANCOVA model used to test the statistical difference between the collective influences of the independent variables on the three dependent variables simultaneously was found to be not significant at alpha = .05. This differs from findings of previous studies in which higher-order questioning techniques had a significant effect on student achievement (King 1989 & 1992; Blosser, 1991; Redfield and Rousseau, 1981; Gall 1970). At the risk of inflated Type I and Type II error rates, separate univariate analyses were performed. However, none of the research factors, when examined collectively or separately, made any significant contribution to explaining the variability in EIA attitude, EIA achievement, and comprehensive environmental science final examination scores. Nevertheless, anecdotal evidence from student's self

  2. Three-dimensional inversion recovery manganese-enhanced MRI of mouse brain using super-resolution reconstruction to visualize nuclei involved in higher brain function.

    PubMed

    Poole, Dana S; Plenge, Esben; Poot, Dirk H J; Lakke, Egbert A J F; Niessen, Wiro J; Meijering, Erik; van der Weerd, Louise

    2014-07-01

    The visualization of activity in mouse brain using inversion recovery spin echo (IR-SE) manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) provides unique contrast, but suffers from poor resolution in the slice-encoding direction. Super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) is a resolution-enhancing post-processing technique in which multiple low-resolution slice stacks are combined into a single volume of high isotropic resolution using computational methods. In this study, we investigated, first, whether SRR can improve the three-dimensional resolution of IR-SE MEMRI in the slice selection direction, whilst maintaining or improving the contrast-to-noise ratio of the two-dimensional slice stacks. Second, the contrast-to-noise ratio of SRR IR-SE MEMRI was compared with a conventional three-dimensional gradient echo (GE) acquisition. Quantitative experiments were performed on a phantom containing compartments of various manganese concentrations. The results showed that, with comparable scan times, the signal-to-noise ratio of three-dimensional GE acquisition is higher than that of SRR IR-SE MEMRI. However, the contrast-to-noise ratio between different compartments can be superior with SRR IR-SE MEMRI, depending on the chosen inversion time. In vivo experiments were performed in mice receiving manganese using an implanted osmotic pump. The results showed that SRR works well as a resolution-enhancing technique in IR-SE MEMRI experiments. In addition, the SRR image also shows a number of brain structures that are more clearly discernible from the surrounding tissues than in three-dimensional GE acquisition, including a number of nuclei with specific higher brain functions, such as memory, stress, anxiety and reward behavior.

  3. Experimental study of the maximum resolution and packing density achievable in sintered and non-sintered binder-jet 3D printed steel microchannels

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Amy M; Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub; Benedict, Michael; Kiggans Jr, James O

    2015-01-01

    Developing high resolution 3D printed metallic microchannels is a challenge especially when there is an essential need for high packing density of the primary material. While high packing density could be achieved by heating the structure to the sintering temperature, some heat sensitive applications require other strategies to improve the packing density of primary materials. In this study the goal is to develop high green or pack densities microchannels on the scale of 2-300 microns which have a robust mechanical structure. Binder-jet 3D printing is an additive manufacturing process in which droplets of binder are deposited via inkjet into a bed of powder. By repeatedly spreading thin layers of powder and depositing binder into the appropriate 2D profiles, complex 3D objects can be created one layer at time. Microchannels with features on the order of 500 microns were fabricated via binder jetting of steel powder and then sintered and/or infiltrated with a secondary material. The average particle size of the steel powder was varied along with the droplet volume of the inkjet-deposited binder. The resolution of the process, packing density of the primary material, the subsequent features sizes of the microchannels, and the overall microchannel quality were characterized as a function of particle size distribution, droplet sizes and heat treatment temperatures.

  4. Torsional resonance mode magnetic force microscopy: enabling higher lateral resolution magnetic imaging without topography-related effects.

    PubMed

    Kaidatzis, A; García-Martín, J M

    2013-04-26

    We present experimental work that reveals the benefits of performing magnetic force microscopy measurements employing the torsional resonance mode of cantilever oscillation. This approach provides two clear advantages: the ability of performing magnetic imaging without topography-related interference and the significant lateral resolution improvement (approximately 15%). We believe that this work demonstrates a significant improvement to a versatile magnetic imaging technique widely used in academia and in industry.

  5. Toward faster and higher resolution LA-ICPMS imaging: on the co-evolution of LA cell design and ICPMS instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Gundlach-Graham, Alexander; Günther, Detlef

    2016-04-01

    We describe trends in fast, high resolution elemental imaging by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Recently developed low dispersion LA cells deliver quantitative transport of ablated aerosols within 10 ms and also provide enhanced sensitivity compared to conventional LA cells because the analyte ion signal becomes less diluted during aerosol transport. When connected to simultaneous ICPMS instruments, these low dispersion LA cells offer a platform for high speed and high lateral resolution shot-resolved LA-ICPMS imaging. Here, we examine the current paradigms of LA-ICPMS imaging and discuss how newly developed LA cell technology combined with simultaneous ICPMS instrumentation is poised to overcome current instrumental limitations to deliver faster, higher resolution elemental imaging.

  6. Modeling the Nucleus Laminaris of the Barn Owl: Achieving 20 ps Resolution on a 85-MHz-Clocked Digital Device

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Ralf; Heinrich, Enrico; Joost, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The nucleus laminaris of the barn owl auditory system is quite impressive, since its underlying time estimation is much better than the processing speed of the involved neurons. Since precise localization is also very important in many technical applications, this paper explores to what extent the main principles of the nucleus laminaris can be implemented in digital hardware. The first prototypical implementation yields a time resolution of about 20 ps, even though the chosen standard, low-cost device is clocked at only 85 MHz, which leads to an internal duty cycle of approximately 12 ns. In addition, this paper also explores the utility of an advanced sampling scheme, known as unfolding-in-time. It turns out that with this sampling method, the prototype can easily process input signals of up to 300 MHz, which is almost four times higher than the sampling rate. PMID:22347179

  7. In patients with extensive subcutaneous emphysema, which technique achieves maximal clinical resolution: infraclavicular incisions, subcutaneous drain insertion or suction on in situ chest drain?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Charles H N; Lang, Sommer A; Bilal, Haris; Rammohan, Kandadai S

    2014-06-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: 'In patients with extensive subcutaneous emphysema, which technique achieves maximal clinical resolution: infraclavicular incisions, subcutaneous drain insertion or suction on in situ chest drain?'. Altogether more than 200 papers were found using the reported search, of which 14 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Subcutaneous emphysema is usually a benign, self-limiting condition only requiring conservative management. Interventions are useful in the context of severe patient discomfort, respiratory distress or persistent air leak. In the absence of any comparative study, it is not possible to choose definitively between infraclavicular incisions, drain insertion and increasing suction on an in situ drain as the best method for managing severe subcutaneous emphysema. All the three techniques described have been shown to provide effective relief. Increasing suction on a chest tube already in situ provided rapid relief in patients developing SE following pulmonary resection. A retrospective study showed resolution in 66%, increasing to 98% in those who underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery with identification and closure of the leak. Insertion of a drain into the subcutaneous tissue also provided rapid sustained relief. Several studies aided drainage by using regular compressive massage. Infraclavicular incisions were also shown to provide rapid relief, but were noted to be more invasive and carried the potential for cosmetic defect. No major complications were illustrated.

  8. High resolution imaging in cross-section of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor using super-higher-order nonlinear dielectric microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinone, N.; Yamasue, K.; Honda, K.; Cho, Y.

    2013-11-01

    Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM) can evaluate carrier or charge distribution in semiconductor devices. High sensitivity to capacitance variation enables SNDM to measure the super-high-order (higher than 3rd) derivative of local capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics directly under the tip (dnC/dVn,n = 3, 4, ...). We demonstrate improvement of carrier density resolution by measurement of dnC/dVn,n = 1, 2, 3, 4 (super-higher-order method) in the cross-sectional observation of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor.

  9. Acute Response of Well-Trained Sprinters to a 100-m Race: Higher Sprinting Velocity Achieved With Increased Step Rate Compared With Speed Training.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Mitsuo; Kawahara, Taisuke; Isaka, Tadao

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the contribution of differences in step length and step rate to sprinting velocity in an athletic race compared with speed training. Nineteen well-trained male and female sprinters volunteered to participate in this study. Sprinting motions were recorded for each sprinter during both 100-m races and speed training (60-, 80-, and 100-m dash from a block start) for 14 days before the race. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance was used to compare the step characteristics and sprinting velocity between race and speed training, adjusted for covariates including race-training differences in the coefficients of restitution of the all-weather track, wind speed, air temperature, and sex. The average sprinting velocity to the 50-m mark was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (8.26 ± 0.22 m·s vs. 8.00 ± 0.70 m·s, p < 0.01). Although no significant difference was seen in the average step length to the 50-m mark between the race and speed training (1.81 ± 0.09 m vs. 1.80 ± 0.09 m, p = 0.065), the average step rate was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (4.56 ± 0.17 Hz vs. 4.46 ± 0.13 Hz, p < 0.01). These findings suggest that sprinters achieve higher sprinting velocity and can run with higher exercise intensity and more rapid motion during a race than during speed training, even if speed training was performed at perceived high intensity.

  10. Achieving high-resolution soft-tissue imaging with cone-beam CT: a two-pronged approach for modulation of x-ray fluence and detector gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, S. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Moseley, D. J.; Keller, H.; Shkumat, N. A.; Jaffray, D. A.

    2005-04-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) presents a highly promising and challenging advanced application of flat-panel detectors (FPDs). The great advantage of this adaptable technology is in the potential for sub-mm 3D spatial resolution in combination with soft-tissue detectability. While the former is achieved naturally by CBCT systems incorporating modern FPD designs (e.g., 200 - 400 um pixel pitch), the latter presents a significant challenge due to limitations in FPD dynamic range, large field of view, and elevated levels of x-ray scatter in typical CBCT configurations. We are investigating a two-pronged strategy to maximizing soft-tissue detectability in CBCT: 1) front-end solutions, including novel beam modulation designs (viz., spatially varying compensators) that alleviate detector dynamic range requirements, reduce x-ray scatter, and better distribute imaging dose in a manner suited to soft-tissue visualization throughout the field of view; and 2) back-end solutions, including implementation of an advanced FPD design (Varian PaxScan 4030CB) that features dual-gain and dynamic gain switching that effectively extends detector dynamic range to 18 bits. These strategies are explored quantitatively on CBCT imaging platforms developed in our laboratory, including a dedicated CBCT bench and a mobile isocentric C-arm (Siemens PowerMobil). Pre-clinical evaluation of improved soft-tissue visibility was carried out in phantom and patient imaging with the C-arm device. Incorporation of these strategies begin to reveal the full potential of CBCT for soft-tissue visualization, an essential step in realizing broad utility of this adaptable technology for diagnostic and image-guided procedures.

  11. Zooming into local active galactic nuclei: The power of combining SDSS-IV MaNGA with higher resolution integral field unit observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Schnorr Müller, Allan; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Greene, Jenny E.; Müller-Sánchez, Francisco; Kelly, Michael; Liu, Guilin; Law, David R.; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Thomas, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Ionised gas outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are ubiquitous in high luminosity AGN with outflow speeds apparently correlated with the total bolometric luminosity of the AGN. This empirical relation and theoretical work suggest that in the range Lbol ˜ 1043 - 45 erg/s there must exist a threshold luminosity above which the AGN becomes powerful enough to launch winds that will be able to escape the galaxy potential. In this paper, we present pilot observations of two AGN in this transitional range that were taken with the Gemini North Multi-Object Spectrograph Integral Field Unit (IFU). Both sources have also previously been observed within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV (SDSS) Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. While the MaNGA IFU maps probe the gas fields on galaxy-wide scales and show that some regions are dominated by AGN ionization, the new Gemini IFU data zoom into the centre with four times better spatial resolution. In the object with the lower Lbol we find evidence of a young or stalled biconical AGN-driven outflow where none was obvious at the MaNGA resolution. In the object with the higher Lbol we trace the large-scale biconical outflow into the nuclear region and connect the outflow from small to large scales. These observations suggest that AGN luminosity and galaxy potential are crucial in shaping wind launching and propagation in low-luminosity AGN. The transition from small and young outflows to galaxy-wide feedback can only be understood by combining large-scale IFU data that trace the galaxy velocity field with higher resolution, small scale IFU maps.

  12. Variations in Mathematics Problem-Solving Support for Lower and Higher Achieving Elementary Students: A Study of the One-on-One Instructional Practices of Teachers Who Use a Reform-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Nancy D.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether and how upper elementary grade teachers who use a reform-based mathematics curriculum adjust instruction for their lower achieving (LA) compared to higher achieving (HA) students during a one-on-one mathematics problem-solving lesson. Little is known about the individualized support teachers provide…

  13. The Agony and the Ecstasy: Current Status of Hispanic Individuals' Achievement in Higher Education and Earnings - With a Glimpse to the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Santos, Gilberto; Asgary, Nader; Nazemzadeh, Asghar; DeShields, Jr., Oscar W.

    2005-01-01

    Some projections about Hispanic individuals point to a rosy picture regarding gains in higher educational enrollment. Other studies lament that these gains are, at best, minimal. Although the so-called higher education pie is undoubtedly expanding, this article concludes that Hispanic adults are losing, rather than gaining, educational attainment…

  14. Think about It: Volume III, Part I. A Collection of Articles on Higher Order Thinking Skills. REACH: Realistic Educational Achievement Can Happen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Twenty-three papers on the use of higher order thinking approaches to improve basic skills education are presented. The key note article is (1) "A Case for Higher Order Thinking" (G. Garcia, Jr.). Under the heading "English Language Arts" are: (2) "Developing an Elementary Writing Program" (K. Contreras); (3)…

  15. A resolution commending the achievements and recognizing the importance of the Alliance to Save Energy on the 35th anniversary of the incorporation of the Alliance.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Warner, Mark R. [D-VA

    2012-03-26

    04/18/2012 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (text: CR S2517) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Is High Temporal Resolution Achievable for Paediatric Cardiac Acquisitions during Several Heart Beats? Illustration with Cardiac Phase Contrast Cine-MRI

    PubMed Central

    Bonnemains, Laurent; Odille, Freddy; Meyer, Christophe; Hossu, Gabriella; Felblinger, Jacques; Vuissoz, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Background During paediatric cardiac Cine-MRI, data acquired during cycles of different lengths must be combined. Most of the time, Feinstein’s model is used to project multiple cardiac cycles of variable lengths into a mean cycle. Objective To assess the effect of Feinstein projection on temporal resolution of Cine-MRI. Methods 1/The temporal errors during Feinstein’s projection were computed in 306 cardiac cycles fully characterized by tissue Doppler imaging with 6-phase analysis (from a population of 7 children and young adults). 2/The effects of these temporal errors on tissue velocities were assessed by simulating typical tissue phase mapping acquisitions and reconstructions. 3/Myocardial velocities curves, extracted from high-resolution phase-contrast cine images, were compared for the 6 volunteers with lowest and highest heart rate variability, within a population of 36 young adults. Results 1/The mean of temporal misalignments was 30 ms over the cardiac cycle but reached 60 ms during early diastole. 2/During phase contrast MRI simulation, early diastole velocity peaks were diminished by 6.1 cm/s leading to virtual disappearance of isovolumic relaxation peaks. 3/The smoothing and erasing of isovolumic relaxation peaks was confirmed on tissue phase mapping velocity curves, between subjects with low and high heart rate variability (p = 0.05). Conclusions Feinstein cardiac model creates temporal misalignments that impair high temporal resolution phase contrast cine imaging when beat-to-beat heart rate is changing. PMID:26599755

  17. A Stronger Nation through Higher Education: How and Why Americans Must Achieve a Big Goal for College Attainment. A Special Report from Lumina Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Lumina Foundation officially adopted its Big Goal that 60 percent of Americans obtain a high-quality postsecondary degree or credential by 2025. That same year, Lumina began reporting on progress toward the Big Goal in a series of reports titled "A Stronger Nation through Higher Education". The core of the reports is Census data…

  18. Missing in Action: Writing Process-Based Instructional Practices and Measures of Higher-Order Literacy Achievement in Predominantly Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briddell, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This study of 1,974 fifth grade students investigated potential relationships between writing process-based instruction practices and higher-order thinking measured by a standardized literacy assessment. Writing process is defined as a highly complex, socio-cognitive process that includes: planning, text production, review, metacognition, writing…

  19. Think about It, Too: Volume III, Part II. A Collection of Articles on Higher Order Thinking Skills. REACH: Realistic Educational Achievement Can Happen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This volume presents 22 papers that discuss thinking in the context of subjects taught in general education, special and vocational education, educational technology, and special programs. The key note article is: (1) "A Case for Higher Order Thinking" (G. Garcia Jr.). Under the heading "Educational Technology" are: (2)…

  20. Energy savings and higher volumetric loading rate achieved in the conventional anoxic-oxic process for sewage treatment by enhancing biomass retention in the secondary clarifier.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueyu; Liu, Fengyuan; Zheng, Shaokui

    2017-06-01

    This is the first study to achieve a short HRT (∼2h for the A/O reactor), high MLSS (∼10gL(-1)), and high volumetric loading (∼3.7kg CODm(-3)d(-1) and ∼0.6kg NH4-Nm(-3)d(-1)) in the A/O process for sewage treatment by enhancing biomass retention in the secondary clarifier (∼4h settling time), which we refer to as the high-performance A/O process (HP-A/O) in this paper. Over 258days of continuous operation, with a decrease in HRT from 12 to 2h, remarkable COD (95±3%), NH4(+)-N (98±2%), TN (79±5%), and TP (74±10%) removals were stably achieved, while the air requirement significantly decreased by 22%. The HP-A/O process offers advantages over the conventional A/O process (6-8h for A/O reactor, 3-5gL(-1)MLSS, and ∼1.0kg CODm(-3)d(-1)) for sewage treatment in terms of its lower energy consumption, smaller footprint and reactor requirements.

  1. High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution

    DOEpatents

    Terwilliger, Steve [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-06-05

    Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

  2. Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Takayoshi; Mino, Takuya; Sakai, Jun; Noguchi, Norimichi; Tsubaki, Kenji; Hirayama, Hideki

    2017-03-01

    Enhancing the light-extraction efficiency is the key issue for realizing highly efficient AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs). We introduced several features to improve the light extraction: a transparent AlGaN:Mg contact layer, a Rh mirror electrode, an AlN template on a patterned sapphire substrate, and encapsulation resin. The combination of the AlGaN:Mg contact layer and the Rh mirror electrode significantly improved the output power and the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of UV-LEDs. By introducing the aforementioned features, a maximum EQE of >20% at an emission wavelength of 275 nm and a 20-mA direct current was achieved.

  3. High-resolution instrumentation radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dydbal, Robert B.; Hurlbut, Keith H.; Mori, Tsutomu T.

    1987-03-01

    An instrumentation radar that uses a chirp waveform to achieve high-range resolution is described. High-range-resolution instrumentation radars evaluate the target response to operational waveforms used in high-performance radars and/or obtain a display of the individual target scattering mechanisms to better understand the scattering process. This particular radar was efficiently constructed from a combination of commercially available components and in-house fabricated circuitry. This instrumentation radar operates at X-band and achieves a 4.9-in-range resolution. A key feature of the radar is the combination of amplitude weighting with a high degree of waveform fidelity to achieve a very good range sidelobe performance. This range sidelobe performance is important to avoid masking lower level target returns in the range sidelobes of higher target returns.

  4. Assessing resolution in super-resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Demmerle, Justin; Wegel, Eva; Schermelleh, Lothar; Dobbie, Ian M

    2015-10-15

    Resolution is a central concept in all imaging fields, and particularly in optical microscopy, but it can be easily misinterpreted. The mathematical definition of optical resolution was codified by Abbe, and practically defined by the Rayleigh Criterion in the late 19th century. The limit of conventional resolution was also achieved in this period, and it was thought that fundamental constraints of physics prevented further increases in resolution. With the recent development of a range of super-resolution techniques, it is necessary to revisit the concept of optical resolution. Fundamental differences in super-resolution modalities mean that resolution is not a directly transferrable metric between techniques. This article considers the issues in resolution raised by these new technologies, and presents approaches for comparing resolution between different super-resolution methods.

  5. Achieving quasi-adiabatic thermal environment to maximize resolution power in very high-pressure liquid chromatography: Theory, models, and experiments.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; Gilar, Martin; Jarrell, Joseph A

    2016-04-29

    A cylindrical vacuum chamber (inner diameter 5 cm) housing a narrow-bore 2.1 mm×100 mm column packed with 1.8 μm HSS-T3 fully porous particles was built in order to isolate thermally the chromatographic column from the external air environment. Consistent with statistical physics and the mean free path of air molecules, the experimental results show that natural air convection and conduction are fully eliminated for housing air pressures smaller than 10(-4) Torr. Heat radiation is minimized by wrapping up the column with low-emissivity aluminum-tape (emissivity coefficient ϵ=0.03 vs. 0.28 for polished stainless steel 316). Overall, the heat flux at the column wall is reduced by 96% with respect to standard still-air ovens. From a practical viewpoint, the efficiency of the column run at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min at a constant 13,000 psi pressure drop (the viscous heat power is around 9 W/m) is improved by up to 35% irrespective of the analyte retention. Models of heat and mass transfer reveal that (1) the amplitude of the radial temperature gradient is significantly reduced from 0.30 to 0.01 K and (2) the observed improvement in resolution power stems from a more uniform distribution of the flow velocity across the column diameter. The eddy dispersion term in the van Deemter equation is reduced by 0.8±0.1 reduced plate height unit, a significant gain in column performance.

  6. Evaluation of Advanced Bionics high resolution mode.

    PubMed

    Buechner, Andreas; Frohne-Buechner, Carolin; Gaertner, Lutz; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke; Battmer, Rolf-Dieter; Lenarz, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the advantages of the Advanced Bionic high resolution mode for speech perception, through a retrospective analysis. Forty-five adult subjects were selected who had a minimum experience of three months' standard mode (mean of 10 months) before switching to high resolution mode. Speech perception was tested in standard mode immediately before fitting with high resolution mode, and again after a maximum of six months high resolution mode usage (mean of two months). A significant improvement was found, between 11 and 17%, depending on the test material. The standard mode preference does not give any indication about the improvement when switching to high resolution. Users who are converted within any study achieve a higher performance improvement than those converted in the clinical routine. This analysis proves the significant benefits of high resolution mode for users, and also indicates the need for guidelines for individual optimization of parameter settings in a high resolution mode program.

  7. Capturing and displaying microscopic images used in medical diagnostics and forensic science using 4K video resolution - an application in higher education.

    PubMed

    Maier, Hans; de Heer, Gert; Ortac, Ajda; Kuijten, Jan

    2015-11-01

    To analyze, interpret and evaluate microscopic images, used in medical diagnostics and forensic science, video images for educational purposes were made with a very high resolution of 4096 × 2160 pixels (4K), which is four times as many pixels as High-Definition Video (1920 × 1080 pixels). The unprecedented high resolution makes it possible to see details that remain invisible to any other video format. The images of the specimens (blood cells, tissue sections, hair, fibre, etc.) are recorded using a 4K video camera which is attached to a light microscope. After processing, this resulted in very sharp and highly detailed images. This material was then used in education for classroom discussion. Spoken explanation by experts in the field of medical diagnostics and forensic science was also added to the high-resolution video images to make it suitable for self-study.

  8. Improved resolution and sensitivity on the ANSTO microprobe and it’s application to μ-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegele, R.; Kachenko, A. G.; Ionescu, M.; Cohen, D. D.

    2009-06-01

    We report on the improved spatial resolution of the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe, achieved through the use of a higher brightness ion source for hydrogen. The improved resolution will be demonstrated for applications of μ-PIXE. With the higher brightness source, a 3 μm resolution was achieved for μ-PIXE elemental analysis. This is illustrated in high resolution images of nickel (Ni)-hyperaccumulating Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus leaf tissues, where individual cells were clearly visible in the acquired elemental images. The higher resolution images illustrated that Ni was localised in epidermal cell walls.

  9. Resolution of sleepiness and fatigue: a comparison of bupropion and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in subjects with major depressive disorder achieving remission at doses approved in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Cooper, James A; Tucker, Vivian L; Papakostas, George I

    2014-02-01

    Unlike selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), bupropion may be classified as a dual noradrenaline and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, a difference with potential implications for the treatment of residual sleepiness and fatigue in major depressive disorder (MDD). Post-hoc analysis of subjects with remitted MDD was performed on data pooled from six double-blind, randomized trials comparing the European Union (EU)-approved dose of ≤300 mg/day bupropion with SSRIs (sertraline, paroxetine or escitalopram) for the resolution of sleepiness and fatigue. Hypersomnia score was defined as the sum of scores of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) items 22, 23, and 24; fatigue score as HDRS item 13 score; and remission as HDRS-17≤7. Similar proportions of bupropion- and SSRI-treated subjects achieved remission at study endpoint (169/343, 49.3% vs 324/656, 49.4%; last observation carried forward (LOCF), p=0.45). Fewer bupropion-treated remitters had residual symptoms of sleepiness (32/169, 18.9% vs 104/324, 32.1%; p<0.01) and fatigue (33/169, 19.5% vs 98/324, 30.2%; p<0.05). Bupropion-treated remitters also showed greater improvement (mean change from baseline) in sleepiness (p<0.05) and fatigue scores (p<0.01) at endpoint: benefits were evident from week 2 for sleepiness (p<0.01) and week 4 for fatigue (p<0.01). Bupropion treatment at the EU-approved dose of ≤300 mg/day may offer advantages over SSRIs in the resolution of sleepiness and fatigue in remitted MDD patients.

  10. Achieving Salary Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Dorothy D.

    1975-01-01

    Three techniques are outlined for use by higher education institutions to achieve salary equity: salary prediction (using various statistical procedures), counterparting (comparing salaries of persons of similar rank), and grievance procedures. (JT)

  11. A Conflict Resolution Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, John; Wood, Christine

    2004-01-01

    The Conflict Resolution Model was formulated by a group of Australian psychologists who set about integrating the literature on achieving mutually beneficial outcomes in a conflict situation in order to create a best-practice prescriptive process for conflict resolution. A number of experimental studies conducted at the University of Tasmania with…

  12. High angular resolution at LBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, A.; Arcidiacono, C.; Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.; Davies, A. G.; Defrere, D.; de Kleer, K.; De Pater, I.; Hinz, P.; Hofmann, K. H.; La Camera, A.; Leisenring, J.; Kürster, M.; Rathbun, J. A.; Schertl, D.; Skemer, A.; Skrutskie, M.; Spencer, J. R.; Veillet, C.; Weigelt, G.; Woodward, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    High angular resolution from ground-based observatories stands as a key technology for advancing planetary science. In the window between the angular resolution achievable with 8-10 meter class telescopes, and the 23-to-40 meter giants of the future, LBT provides a glimpse of what the next generation of instruments providing higher angular resolution will provide. We present first ever resolved images of an Io eruption site taken from the ground, images of Io's Loki Patera taken with Fizeau imaging at the 22.8 meter LBT [Conrad, et al., AJ, 2015]. We will also present preliminary analysis of two data sets acquired during the 2015 opposition: L-band fringes at Kurdalagon and an occultation of Loki and Pele by Europa (see figure). The light curves from this occultation will yield an order of magnitude improvement in spatial resolution along the path of ingress and egress. We will conclude by providing an overview of the overall benefit of recent and future advances in angular resolution for planetary science.

  13. Memory bandwidth efficient two-layer reduced-resolution decoding of high-definition video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer, Mary L.

    2000-12-01

    This paper addresses the problem of efficiently decoding high- definition (HD) video for display at a reduced resolution. The decoder presented in this paper is intended for applications that are constrained not only in memory size, but also in peak memory bandwidth. This is the case, for example, during decoding of a high-definition television (HDTV) channel for picture-in-picture (PIP) display, if the reduced resolution PIP-channel decoder is sharing memory with the full-resolution main-channel decoder. The most significant source of video quality degradation in a reduced-resolution decoder is prediction drift, which is caused by the mismatch between the full-resolution reference frames used by the encoder and the subsampled reference frames used by the decoder. to mitigate the visually annoying effects of prediction drift, the decoder described in this paper operates at two different resolutions -- a lower resolution for B pictures, which do not contribute to prediction drift and a higher resolution for I and P pictures. This means that the motion-compensation unit (MCU) essentially operates at the higher resolution, but the peak memory bandwidth is the same as that required to decode at the lower resolution. Storage of additional data, representing the higher resolution for I and P pictures, requires a relatively small amount of additional memory as compared to decoding at the lower resolution. Experimental results will demonstrate the improvement in video quality achieved by the addition of the higher-resolution data in forming predictions for P pictures.

  14. Video super-resolution using controlled subpixel detector shifts.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ezra, Moshe; Zomet, Assaf; Nayar, Shree K

    2005-06-01

    Video cameras must produce images at a reasonable frame-rate and with a reasonable depth of field. These requirements impose fundamental physical limits on the spatial resolution of the image detector. As a result, current cameras produce videos with a very low resolution. The resolution of videos can be computationally enhanced by moving the camera and applying super-resolution reconstruction algorithms. However, a moving camera introduces motion blur, which limits super-resolution quality. We analyze this effect and derive a theoretical result showing that motion blur has a substantial degrading effect on the performance of super-resolution. The conclusion is that, in order to achieve the highest resolution, motion blur should be avoided. Motion blur can be minimized by sampling the space-time volume of the video in a specific manner. We have developed a novel camera, called the "jitter camera," that achieves this sampling. By applying an adaptive super-resolution algorithm to the video produced by the jitter camera, we show that resolution can be notably enhanced for stationary or slowly moving objects, while it is improved slightly or left unchanged for objects with fast and complex motions. The end result is a video that has a significantly higher resolution than the captured one.

  15. USGS aerial resolution targets.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salamonowicz, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    It is necessary to measure the achievable resolution of any airborne sensor that is to be used for metric purposes. Laboratory calibration facilities may be inadequate or inappropriate for determining the resolution of non-photographic sensors such as optical-mechanical scanners, television imaging tubes, and linear arrays. However, large target arrays imaged in the field can be used in testing such systems. The USGS has constructed an array of resolution targets in order to permit field testing of a variety of airborne sensing systems. The target array permits any interested organization with an airborne sensing system to accurately determine the operational resolution of its system. -from Author

  16. Achievement Motivation of Women: Effects of Achievement and Affiliation Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth Maria Pinheiro

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 139 Brazilian women to neutral, affiliation arousal, and achievement arousal conditions based on their levels of achievement (Ach) and affiliative (Aff) needs. Results of story analyses revealed that achievement arousal increased scores of high Ach subjects and that high Aff subjects obtained higher scores than low Aff subjects. (BL)

  17. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  18. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  19. Video resolution enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Richard R.; Stevenson, Robert L.

    1995-03-01

    With the advent of High Definition Television, it will become desirable to convert existing video sequence data into higher-resolution formats. This conversion process already occurs within the human visual system to some extent, since the perceived spatial resolution of a sequence appears much higher than the actual spatial resolution of an individual frame. This paper addresses how to utilize both the spatial and temporal information present in a sequence in order to generate high-resolution video. A novel observation model based on motion compensated subsampling is proposed for a video sequence. Since the reconstruction problem is ill-posed, Bayesian restoration with a discontinuity-preserving prior image model is used to extract high-resolution image sequences will be shown, with dramatic improvements provided over various single frame interpolation methods.

  20. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  1. Scanning SQUID susceptometers with sub-micron spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirtley, John R.; Paulius, Lisa; Rosenberg, Aaron J.; Palmstrom, Johanna C.; Holland, Connor M.; Spanton, Eric M.; Schiessl, Daniel; Jermain, Colin L.; Gibbons, Jonathan; Fung, Y.-K.-K.; Huber, Martin E.; Ralph, Daniel C.; Ketchen, Mark B.; Gibson, Gerald W.; Moler, Kathryn A.

    2016-09-01

    Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) microscopy has excellent magnetic field sensitivity, but suffers from modest spatial resolution when compared with other scanning probes. This spatial resolution is determined by both the size of the field sensitive area and the spacing between this area and the sample surface. In this paper we describe scanning SQUID susceptometers that achieve sub-micron spatial resolution while retaining a white noise floor flux sensitivity of ≈2μΦ0/Hz1/2. This high spatial resolution is accomplished by deep sub-micron feature sizes, well shielded pickup loops fabricated using a planarized process, and a deep etch step that minimizes the spacing between the sample surface and the SQUID pickup loop. We describe the design, modeling, fabrication, and testing of these sensors. Although sub-micron spatial resolution has been achieved previously in scanning SQUID sensors, our sensors not only achieve high spatial resolution but also have integrated modulation coils for flux feedback, integrated field coils for susceptibility measurements, and batch processing. They are therefore a generally applicable tool for imaging sample magnetization, currents, and susceptibilities with higher spatial resolution than previous susceptometers.

  2. Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography Using Femtosecond Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, J. G.; Aguirre, A. D.; Chen, Y.; Herz, P. R.; Hsiung, P.-L.; Ko, T. H.; Nishizawa, N.; Kärtner, F. X.

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging optical imaging modality for biomedical research and clinical medicine. OCT can perform high resolution, cross-sectional tomographic imaging in materials and biological systems by measuring the echo time delay and magnitude of backreflected or backscattered light [1]. In medical applications, OCT has the advantage that imaging can be performed in situ and in real time, without the need to remove and process specimens as in conventional excisional biopsy and histopathology. OCT can achieve axial image resolutions of 1 to 15 μm; one to two orders of magnitude higher than standard ultrasound imaging. The image resolution in OCT is determined by the coherence length of the light source and is inversely proportional to its bandwidth. Femtosecond lasers can generate extremely broad bandwidths and have enabled major advances in ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging. This chapter provides an overview of OCT technology and ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging using femtosecond lasers.

  3. Resolution limits of ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desailly, Yann; Pierre, Juliette; Couture, Olivier; Tanter, Mickael

    2015-11-01

    As in other imaging methods based on waves, the resolution of ultrasound imaging is limited by the wavelength. However, the diffraction-limit can be overcome by super-localizing single events from isolated sources. In recent years, we developed plane-wave ultrasound allowing frame rates up to 20 000 fps. Ultrafast processes such as rapid movement or disruption of ultrasound contrast agents (UCA) can thus be monitored, providing us with distinct punctual sources that could be localized beyond the diffraction limit. We previously showed experimentally that resolutions beyond λ/10 can be reached in ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy (uULM) using a 128 transducer matrix in reception. Higher resolutions are theoretically achievable and the aim of this study is to predict the maximum resolution in uULM with respect to acquisition parameters (frequency, transducer geometry, sampling electronics). The accuracy of uULM is the error on the localization of a bubble, considered a point-source in a homogeneous medium. The proposed model consists in two steps: determining the timing accuracy of the microbubble echo in radiofrequency data, then transferring this time accuracy into spatial accuracy. The simplified model predicts a maximum resolution of 40 μm for a 1.75 MHz transducer matrix composed of two rows of 64 elements. Experimental confirmation of the model was performed by flowing microbubbles within a 60 μm microfluidic channel and localizing their blinking under ultrafast imaging (500 Hz frame rate). The experimental resolution, determined as the standard deviation in the positioning of the microbubbles, was predicted within 6 μm (13%) of the theoretical values and followed the analytical relationship with respect to the number of elements and depth. Understanding the underlying physical principles determining the resolution of superlocalization will allow the optimization of the imaging setup for each organ. Ultimately, accuracies better than the size

  4. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  5. High resolution drift chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 ..mu..m resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.

  7. Ultrahigh-Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy with Sub-Angstrom-Sized Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, E.; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2005-01-01

    The scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with an annular dark-field (ADF) detector provides atomic-resolution incoherent images, whose resolution is dominated, to a good approximation, by the size of convergent electron beams. Improving a spherical aberration of microscope objective lenses has been successful in converging the beam into sub-angstrom scale, promising a remarkably higher resolution for STEM. Here we describe the performance of aberration-corrected 300kV-STEM-the world-best STEM available today. The results clearly demonstrate that a sub-angstrom resolution has been indeed achieved for not only simple structures but also structurally complex systems (quasicrystals).

  8. Ultrahigh-resolution Scanning Transmission Microscopy with Sub-?ngstrom-Sized Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, E.; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2005-01-01

    The scanning transmission electron microscope(STEM)with an annular dark-field(ADF) detector provides atomic-resolution incoherent images, whose resolution is dominated, to a good approximation, by the size of convergent electron beams. Improving a spherical aberra- tion of microscope objective lenses has been successful in converging the beam into sub- scale, promising a remarkably higher resolution for STEM. Here we describe the performance of aberration-corrected 300kV-STEM - the world-best STEM available today. The results clearly demonstrate that a sub- ngstrom resolution has been indeed achieved for not only simple structures but also structurally complex systems(quasicrystals).

  9. Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI).

    PubMed

    Dertinger, T; Colyer, R; Iyer, G; Weiss, S; Enderlein, J

    2009-12-29

    Super-resolution optical microscopy is a rapidly evolving area of fluorescence microscopy with a tremendous potential for impacting many fields of science. Several super-resolution methods have been developed over the last decade, all capable of overcoming the fundamental diffraction limit of light. We present here an approach for obtaining subdiffraction limit optical resolution in all three dimensions. This method relies on higher-order statistical analysis of temporal fluctuations (caused by fluorescence blinking/intermittency) recorded in a sequence of images (movie). We demonstrate a 5-fold improvement in spatial resolution by using a conventional wide-field microscope. This resolution enhancement is achieved in iterative discrete steps, which in turn allows the evaluation of images at different resolution levels. Even at the lowest level of resolution enhancement, our method features significant background reduction and thus contrast enhancement and is demonstrated on quantum dot-labeled microtubules of fibroblast cells.

  10. High resolution digital holography based on the point source scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minchao; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Wang, Fengpeng; Lin, Qiaowen

    2016-10-01

    Digital holographic microscopy has been widely used for the imaging of micro-objects and biological samples. Lensless in-line digital holographic microscopy is capable of wide field-of-view imaging. However the spatial resolution of the reconstructed images is limited by the pixel size of the detector. The relative position shift between the sample and the detector can effectively improve the resolution in the traditional sub-pixel shifting method, but it requires a high precision of translation stage. To overcome this problem, we propose a method based on the point source scanning to realize sub-pixel shifting. High precision sub-pixel shifting is achieved easily by using the geometric between point source and detector. Through moving the point source, multiple holograms with sub-pixel shifts are captured. These holograms are merged together to obtained a high resolution hologram by a synthesizing algorithm. Then, the high resolution reconstructed image of the object can be obtained by the angular spectrum algorithm. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by simulation and experiments. A USAF resolution test target was used as the object. Compared with the traditional digital holography, a higher resolution reconstructed image is obtained by our method. The proposed method has the advantages of simple recording setup and lower precision requirement of the translation stage. It can achieve the wide field-of-view and high resolution imaging.

  11. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  12. Infrared super-resolution imaging method based on retina micro-motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Xiubao; Gao, Hang; Sun, Yicheng; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guohua

    2013-09-01

    With the wide application of infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA), military, aerospace, public security and other applications have higher and higher requirements on the spatial resolution of infrared images. However, traditional super-resolution imaging methods have increasingly unable to meet this requirement in technology. In this paper, we adopt the achievement that the human retina micro-motion is the important reason why the human has the hyperacuity ability. Based on the achievement, we bring forward an infrared super-resolution imaging method based on retina micro-motion. In the method, we use the piezoelectric ceramic equipment to control the infrared detector moving variably within a plane parallel to the focal plane. The motion direction is toward each other into a direction of 90°. In the four directions of the movement, we get four sub-images and generate a high spatial resolution infrared image by image interpolation method. In the process of the shifting movement of the detector, we set the threshold of the detector response and record the response time difference when adjacent pixel responses are up to the threshold. By the method, we get the object's edges, enhance them in the high resolution infrared image and get the super-resolution infrared image. The experimental results show that our proposed super-resolution imaging methods can improve the spatial resolution of the infrared image effectively. The method will offer a new idea for the super-resolution reconstruction of infrared images.

  13. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  14. High resolution time interval meter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  15. Super-resolution spectroscopic microscopy via photon localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Biqin; Almassalha, Luay; Urban, Ben E.; Nguyen, The-Quyen; Khuon, Satya; Chew, Teng-Leong; Backman, Vadim; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-07-01

    Traditional photon localization microscopy analyses only the spatial distributions of photons emitted by individual molecules to reconstruct super-resolution optical images. Unfortunately, however, the highly valuable spectroscopic information from these photons have been overlooked. Here we report a spectroscopic photon localization microscopy that is capable of capturing the inherent spectroscopic signatures of photons from individual stochastic radiation events. Spectroscopic photon localization microscopy achieved higher spatial resolution than traditional photon localization microscopy through spectral discrimination to identify the photons emitted from individual molecules. As a result, we resolved two fluorescent molecules, which were 15 nm apart, with the corresponding spatial resolution of 10 nm--a four-fold improvement over photon localization microscopy. Using spectroscopic photon localization microscopy, we further demonstrated simultaneous multi-colour super-resolution imaging of microtubules and mitochondria in COS-7 cells and showed that background autofluorescence can be identified through its distinct emission spectra.

  16. Super-resolution spectroscopic microscopy via photon localization.

    PubMed

    Dong, Biqin; Almassalha, Luay; Urban, Ben E; Nguyen, The-Quyen; Khuon, Satya; Chew, Teng-Leong; Backman, Vadim; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F

    2016-07-25

    Traditional photon localization microscopy analyses only the spatial distributions of photons emitted by individual molecules to reconstruct super-resolution optical images. Unfortunately, however, the highly valuable spectroscopic information from these photons have been overlooked. Here we report a spectroscopic photon localization microscopy that is capable of capturing the inherent spectroscopic signatures of photons from individual stochastic radiation events. Spectroscopic photon localization microscopy achieved higher spatial resolution than traditional photon localization microscopy through spectral discrimination to identify the photons emitted from individual molecules. As a result, we resolved two fluorescent molecules, which were 15 nm apart, with the corresponding spatial resolution of 10 nm-a four-fold improvement over photon localization microscopy. Using spectroscopic photon localization microscopy, we further demonstrated simultaneous multi-colour super-resolution imaging of microtubules and mitochondria in COS-7 cells and showed that background autofluorescence can be identified through its distinct emission spectra.

  17. Super-resolution spectroscopic microscopy via photon localization

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Biqin; Almassalha, Luay; Urban, Ben E.; Nguyen, The-Quyen; Khuon, Satya; Chew, Teng-Leong; Backman, Vadim; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional photon localization microscopy analyses only the spatial distributions of photons emitted by individual molecules to reconstruct super-resolution optical images. Unfortunately, however, the highly valuable spectroscopic information from these photons have been overlooked. Here we report a spectroscopic photon localization microscopy that is capable of capturing the inherent spectroscopic signatures of photons from individual stochastic radiation events. Spectroscopic photon localization microscopy achieved higher spatial resolution than traditional photon localization microscopy through spectral discrimination to identify the photons emitted from individual molecules. As a result, we resolved two fluorescent molecules, which were 15 nm apart, with the corresponding spatial resolution of 10 nm—a four-fold improvement over photon localization microscopy. Using spectroscopic photon localization microscopy, we further demonstrated simultaneous multi-colour super-resolution imaging of microtubules and mitochondria in COS-7 cells and showed that background autofluorescence can be identified through its distinct emission spectra. PMID:27452975

  18. Improving Nano-MRI Spatial Resolution with Phase Multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, Brad; Eichler, Alex; Degen, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) is a scanning probe technique that allows measuring nuclear spin densities with resolution better than 10nm. Detecting such small volumes of spins (less than (10nm)3 corresponds to approximately 20,000 spins) requires long averaging of signals from statistically polarized nuclei. For instance, previous work demonstrated that imaging a single isotope (1H) of a Tobacco Mosaic Virus required averaging for 2 weeks, and therefore the chemical contrast abilities of MRFM had to be forfeited to enable higher spatial resolution. In order to reconcile the chemical selectivity of MRFM along with the proven high spatial resolution, we have developed a phase multiplexing technique capable of simultaneously acquiring spin signals from multiple isotopes and from up to six spatial locations. We have demonstrated this method using a nanowire test sample, and have achieved one-dimensional imaging resolution of less than 5 nm and subnanometer positional accuracy.

  19. Statistical Conditional Sampling for Variable-Resolution Video Compression

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Alexander; Shafiee, Mohammad Javad; Azimifar, Zohreh

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate a variable-resolution approach to video compression based on Conditional Random Field and statistical conditional sampling in order to further improve compression rate while maintaining high-quality video. In the proposed approach, representative key-frames within a video shot are identified and stored at full resolution. The remaining frames within the video shot are stored and compressed at a reduced resolution. At the decompression stage, a region-based dictionary is constructed from the key-frames and used to restore the reduced resolution frames to the original resolution via statistical conditional sampling. The sampling approach is based on the conditional probability of the CRF modeling by use of the constructed dictionary. Experimental results show that the proposed variable-resolution approach via statistical conditional sampling has potential for improving compression rates when compared to compressing the video at full resolution, while achieving higher video quality when compared to compressing the video at reduced resolution. PMID:23056188

  20. High-resolution low-dose scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Buban, James P; Ramasse, Quentin; Gipson, Bryant; Browning, Nigel D; Stahlberg, Henning

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades instrumentation in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has pushed toward higher intensity electron probes to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of recorded images. While this is suitable for robust specimens, biological specimens require a much reduced electron dose for high-resolution imaging. We describe here protocols for low-dose STEM image recording with a conventional field-emission gun STEM, while maintaining the high-resolution capability of the instrument. Our findings show that a combination of reduced pixel dwell time and reduced gun current can achieve radiation doses comparable to low-dose TEM.

  1. Space-time super-resolution using graph-cut optimization.

    PubMed

    Mudenagudi, Uma; Banerjee, Subhashis; Kalra, Prem Kumar

    2011-05-01

    We address the problem of super-resolution—obtaining high-resolution images and videos from multiple low-resolution inputs. The increased resolution can be in spatial or temporal dimensions, or even in both. We present a unified framework which uses a generative model of the imaging process and can address spatial super-resolution, space-time super-resolution, image deconvolution, single-image expansion, removal of noise, and image restoration. We model a high-resolution image or video as a Markov random field and use maximum a posteriori estimate as the final solution using graph-cut optimization technique. We derive insights into what super-resolution magnification factors are possible and the conditions necessary for super-resolution. We demonstrate spatial super-resolution reconstruction results with magnifications higher than predicted limits of magnification. We also formulate a scheme for selective super-resolution reconstruction of videos to obtain simultaneous increase of resolutions in both spatial and temporal directions. We show that it is possible to achieve space-time magnification factors beyond what has been suggested in the literature by selectively applying super-resolution constraints. We present results on both synthetic and real input sequences.

  2. Phase stretch transform for super-resolution localization microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ilovitsh, Tali; Jalali, Bahram; Asghari, Mohammad H.; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution localization microscopy has revolutionized the observation of living structures at the cellular scale, by achieving a spatial resolution that is improved by more than an order of magnitude compared to the diffraction limit. These methods localize single events from isolated sources in repeated cycles in order to achieve super-resolution. The requirement for sparse distribution of simultaneously activated sources in the field of view dictates the acquisition of thousands of frames in order to construct the full super-resolution image. As a result, these methods have slow temporal resolution which is a major limitation when investigating live-cell dynamics. In this paper we present the use of a phase stretch transform for high-density super-resolution localization microscopy. This is a nonlinear frequency dependent transform that emulates the propagation of light through a physical medium with a specific warped diffractive property and applies a 2D phase function to the image in the frequency domain. By choosing properly the transform parameters and the phase kernel profile, the point spread function of each emitter can be sharpened and narrowed. This enables the localization of overlapping emitters, thus allowing a higher density of activated emitters as well as shorter data collection acquisition rates. The method is validated by numerical simulations and by experimental data obtained using a microtubule sample. PMID:27867725

  3. Time Management and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyril, A. Vences

    2015-01-01

    The only thing, which can't be changed by man, is time. One cannot get back time lost or gone Nothing can be substituted for time. Time management is actually self management. The skills that people need to manage others are the same skills that are required to manage themselves. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relation between…

  4. Conflict resolution.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roger

    2006-03-01

    The sooner conflict is identified and confronted, the more quickly it can be resolved (and the sooner, the better). When this is accomplished calmly and objectively, many areas of conflict will be eliminated. Addressing conflict as it arises also sends a clear message to the team that the practice seeks resolution, not punishment or negative consequences. In addition, the dentist and the office manager need to lead by example by avoiding gossip and encouraging open communication. The goal is to go from a parent-child relationship with the dental team to an adult-adult relationship using this series of managerial conflict resolution steps.

  5. NCAI Resolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal of the Institute for the Development of Indian Law, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Five Major Policy Resolutions were adopted, without objection, at the 33rd Annual Convention of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) held in Salt Lake City, Utah, in October 1976. The issues involved were: Treaties and Trust Responsibilities, Tribal Government, Jurisdiction, Federal Administration and Structure of Indian Affairs, and…

  6. Spatial resolution and information transfer in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yiping; Oxley, Mark P; Lupini, Andrew R; Chisholm, Matthew F; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2008-02-01

    The relation between image resolution and information transfer is explored. It is shown that the existence of higher frequency transfer in the image is just a necessary but not sufficient condition for the achievement of higher resolution. Adopting a two-point resolution criterion, we suggest that a 10% contrast level between two features in an image should be used as a practical definition of resolution. In the context of scanning transmission electron microscopy, it is shown that the channeling effect does not have a direct connection with image resolution because sharp channeling peaks do not move with the scanning probe. Through a quantitative comparison between experimental image and simulation, a Fourier-space approach is proposed to estimate defocus and sample thickness. The effective atom size in Z-contrast imaging depends on the annular detector's inner angle. Therefore, an optimum angle exists for the highest resolution as a trade-off between reduced atom size and reduced signal with limited information transfer due to noise.

  7. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

  8. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    Litigation in 1987 was very brisk with an increase in the number of higher education cases reviewed. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under four major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining and denial of employee benefits; (3)…

  9. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

  10. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Laurence W.; Wedlock, Eldon D., Jr.

    Courts have been consistently reluctant to interfere with governing boards' powers to control the administration of institutions of higher education. This deference seems to be based on the belief that board expertise makes it significantly more qualified than are the courts to make the necessary administrative decisions. Uncritical deference by…

  11. A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai Shah, M.S.

    2007-03-06

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated.

  12. A resolution honoring the achievements of E. Thom Rumberger.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Nelson, Bill [D-FL

    2011-08-01

    08/01/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5196) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. A resolution honoring the lifetime achievements of E. Thom Rumberger.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Nelson, Bill [D-FL

    2011-09-13

    09/13/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S5584-5585; text as passed Senate: CR S5585; text of measure as introduced: CR S5583) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  15. Institutional Climate and Minority Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C.

    This paper discusses ways that institutions can change the higher education system and environment to accommodate more minority students. The first section, "Institutional Climate and Minority Achievement," presents an overview of the problems facing colleges and universities with respect to recruiting and retaining minority students. In the…

  16. Teacher Dispositions and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Kathleen Adams

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to close the achievement gap between students of minority and majority populations and between students in higher and lower economic circumstances, the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) added instruction and evaluation of teacher dispositions to its requirements for credentialing prospective teachers.…

  17. The Dynamic Range of Ultra-High Resolution Cryogenic Gamma-ray Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S; Terracol, S F; Drury, O B; Friedrich, S

    2005-08-10

    We are developing high-resolution cryogenic gamma-ray spectrometers for nuclear science and non-proliferation applications. The gamma-ray detectors are composed of a bulk superconducting Sn foil absorber attached to multilayer Mo/Cu transition-edge sensors (TES). The energy resolution achieved with a 1 x 1 x 0.25 mm{sup 3} Sn absorber is 50 -90eV for {gamma}-rays up to 100 keV and it decreases for large absorber sizes. We discuss the trade-offs between energy resolution and dynamic range, as well as development of TES arrays for higher count rates and better sensitivity.

  18. High resolution hyperspectral imaging with a high throughput virtual slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooding, Edward A.; Gunn, Thomas; Cenko, Andrew T.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) device users often require both high spectral resolution, on the order of 1 nm, and high light-gathering power. A wide entrance slit assures reasonable étendue but degrades spectral resolution. Spectrometers built using High Throughput Virtual Slit™ (HTVS) technology optimize both parameters simultaneously. Two remote sensing use cases that require high spectral resolution are discussed. First, detection of atmospheric gases with intrinsically narrow absorption lines, such as hydrocarbon vapors or combustion exhaust gases such as NOx and CO2. Detecting exhaust gas species with high precision has become increasingly important in the light of recent events in the automobile industry. Second, distinguishing reflected daylight from emission spectra in the visible and NIR (VNIR) regions is most easily accomplished using the Fraunhofer absorption lines in solar spectra. While ground reflectance spectral features in the VNIR are generally quite broad, the Fraunhofer lines are narrow and provide a signature of intrinsic vs. extrinsic illumination. The High Throughput Virtual Slit enables higher spectral resolution than is achievable with conventional spectrometers by manipulating the beam profile in pupil space. By reshaping the instrument pupil with reflective optics, HTVS-equipped instruments create a tall, narrow image profile at the exit focal plane, typically delivering 5X or better the spectral resolution achievable with a conventional design.

  19. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  20. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  1. Tuning and scanning control system for high resolution alexandrite lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James C.; Schwemmer, Geary K.

    1988-01-01

    An alexandrite laser is spectrally narrowed and tuned by the use of three optical elements. Each element provides a successively higher degree of spectral resolution. The digitally controlled tuning and scanning control servo system simultaneously positions all three optical elements to provide continuous high resolution laser spectral tuning. The user may select manual, single, or continuous modes of automated scanning of ranges up to 3.00/cm and at scan rates up to 3.85/cm/min. Scanning over an extended range of up to 9.999/cm may be achieved if the highest resolution optic is removed from the system. The control system is also capable of being remotely operated by another computer or controller via standard RS-232 serial data link.

  2. Perceptual limit to display resolution of images as per visual acuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaoka, Kenichiro; Niida, Takahiro; Murakami, Miya; Suzuki, Kenji; Sugawara, Masayuki; Nojiri, Yuji

    2008-02-01

    Achieving ultimate visual realness of natural images on a display requires high resolution, so that artifacts due to finite image resolution are undetectable. An image resolution of 30 cycles/degree (cpd) or one pixel/arc-minute is often used as the criterion for viewing conditions when assessing displayed image quality. It is reasoned that if the pixel size is smaller than the separable angle of normal vision (20/20), the pixel structure is invisible and doesn't negatively affect image quality. However, it is not clear whether 30 cpd resolution is adequate to prevent seeing artifacts, especially for observers with better than 20/20 vision. We conducted experiments to find the threshold resolution of natural images and its dependence on visual acuity. Three objects were used; each object was presented 60 times at 5 resolutions (19.5, 26, 39, 52, or 78 cpd) next to the same image at a resolution of 156 cpd. Forty-five observers with visual acuity of 20/20 or better were asked to make a forced-choice distinction between the image pair in regard to resolution. Each observer indicated which image of the pair appeared at a higher resolution. The results show that the mean resolution for 75% correct responses for each of the visual acuity groups increased from more than 30 cpd as visual acuity increased and reached a plateau at 40-50 cpd at -0.3 logMAR.

  3. 3D high resolution pure optical photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhixing; Chen, Sung-Liang; Ling, Tao; Guo, L. Jay; Carson, Paul L.; Wang, Xueding

    2012-02-01

    The concept of pure optical photoacoustic microscopy(POPAM) was proposed based on optical rastering of a focused excitation beam and optically sensing the photoacoustic signal using a microring resonator fabricated by a nanoimprinting technique. After some refinedment of in the resonator structure and mold fabrication, an ultrahigh Q factor of 3.0×105 was achieved which provided high sensitivity with a noise equivalent detectable pressure(NEDP) value of 29Pa. This NEDP is much lower than the hundreds of Pascals achieved with existing optical resonant structures such as etalons, fiber gratings and dielectric multilayer interference filters available for acoustic measurement. The featured high sensitivity allowed the microring resonator to detect the weak photoacoustic signals from micro- or submicroscale objects. The inherent superbroad bandwidth of the optical microring resonator combined with an optically focused scanning beam provided POPAM of high resolution in the axial as well as both lateral directions while the axial resolution of conventional photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) suffers from the limited bandwidth of PZT detectors. Furthermore, the broadband microring resonator showed similar sensitivity to that of our most sensitive PZT detector. The current POPAM system provides a lateral resolution of 5μm and an axial resolution of 8μm, comparable to that achieved by optical microscopy while presenting the unique contrast of optical absorption and functional information complementing other optical modalities. The 3D structure of microvasculature, including capillary networks, and even individual red blood cells have been discerned successfully in the proof-of-concept experiments on mouse bladders ex vivo and mouse ears in vivo. The potential of approximately GHz bandwidth of the microring resonator also might allow much higher resolution than shown here in microscopy of optical absorption and acoustic propagation properties at depths in unfrozen tissue

  4. ROLE OF SPATIAL RESOLUTION AND SPECTRAL CONTENT IN CHANGE DETECTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, Valerie A.

    1984-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. Advancements in remote sensing technology have brought improvements and sophistication to modern remote sensor systems, especially those aboard earth resources satellites. These improvements have considerbly expanded the capabilities of the newer sensor systems, particularly the capability to achieve greatly increased spatial and spectral resolution levels. The debate still lingers, however, over whether future systems should maximize spatial resolution or spectral information, or both. As yet, the high costs and large volumes of data associated with even modest incremental improvements in spatial and spectral content have precluded the design of a single system that attempts to fully optimize both. Thus, the user is faced with having to choose between those systems providing high spatial resolutions but limited spectral information and those which offer a broad range of spectral data but hold spatial resolution to a less than optimum level. In this study, the contribution of both spatial resolution and spectral content to land cover change detection is examined. Ten-meter SPOT simulation imagery is compared with multispectral images acquired by the Thematic Mapper sensor system for use in the visual interpretation and mapping of changes. Several image processing and enhancement techniques are utilized to maximize the spatial and spectral data content offered by each system. Results indicate that when using visual image interpretation techniques to detect change, higher spatial resolutions are generally preferred over increased spectral content.

  5. Conference Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    Since the first IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, March 2002) and the Second Conference (Rio de Janeiro, May 2005), progress has continued in most countries and world regions to attract girls to physics and advance women into leadership roles, and many working groups have formed. The Third Conference (Seoul, October 2008), with 283 attendees from 57 countries, was dedicated to celebrating the physics achievements of women throughout the world, networking toward new international collaborations, building each participant's capacity for career success, and aiding the formation of active regional working groups to advance women in physics. Despite the progress, women remain a small minority of the physics community in most countries.

  6. Impact of spatial resolution of ocean models in depicting climate change patterns of the North Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Nikesh; Klein, Birgit; Mathis, Moritz; Klein, Holger; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The impact of enhanced spatial resolution of models in simulating large scale climate change has been of interest for the modeling community for quite some time. It has been noticed in previous studies that the pattern of Sea Surface Temperature anomalies are better captured by higher resolution models. Significant changes in simulating sea-ice loss associated with global warming was also noticed when the spatial resolution of climate models were enhanced. Spatial resolution is a particular important issue in climate change scenarios of shelf seas such as the North Sea. The North Sea is strongly influenced by its water mass exchanges with North Atlantic to the west and north and Baltic Sea to east. Furthermore, local forcing and changes in advected water masses significantly affect the thermodynamics and stratification patterns in the North Sea, making it a challenging area to study. Under the newly started RACE2 project we are looking at global simulations of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 at lower and higher resolutions, performed using the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPIESM). The model resolution is non uniform and achieves the highest resolution over the European Seas by shifting the model poles over Chicago and Central Europe. In the high resolution run, the grid reaches up to a spatial resolution of up to 4 km in part of the German Bight and close to 20 km in the Northern part of North Sea. The placement of model poles at specific locations enables the global model to obtain higher resolution at regional scales (North Sea), without the inherent complications of open boundary conditions. High and low resolution simulations will be compared to determine differences in spatial and temporal pattern of temperature anomalies, fresh water intrusion from the Baltic Sea to North Sea etc. Also taken into consideration will be the changes in simulating local sea level change and response to basin scale oscillations like NAO.

  7. NRL SSD Research Achievements: 19902000. Volume 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-30

    stratCAT. Projected future increases in computing power offer no prospect of solving this fundamental resolution constraint. Thus novel new...extraordinary ranges of research and results have been achieved. To document significant SSD historical accomplishments, Drs. George Doschek and...Howard ....................... 04 1.0 Historical Perspective

  8. Resolution in Photovoltaic Potential Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, N.; Coors, V.; Zlatanova, S.; Oosterom, P. J. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an analysis of the effect of the various types of resolution involved in photovoltaic potential computation is presented. To calculate solar energy incident on a surface, shadow from surrounding buildings has been considered. The incident energy on a surface has been calculated taking the orientation, tilt and position into consideration. Different sky visibility map has been created for direct and diffuse radiation and only the effect of resolution of the factors has been explored here. The following four resolutions are considered: 1. temporal resolution (1, 10, 60 minutes time interval for calculating visibility of sun), 2. object surface resolution (0.01, 0.1, 0.375, 0.75, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 m2 as maximum triangle size of a surface to be considered), 3. blocking obstacle resolution (number of triangles from LoD1, LoD2, or LoD3 CityGML building models), and 4. sky resolution (ranging from 150 to 600 sky-patches used to divide the sky-dome). Higher resolutions result in general in more precise estimation of the photovoltaic potential, but also the computation time is increasing, especially as realizes that this computation has to be done for every building with its object surface (both roofs and façades). This paper is the first in depth analysis ever of the effect of resolution and will help to configure the proper settings for effective photovoltaic potential computations.

  9. High-resolution instrumentation radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybdal, Robert B.; Hurlbut, Keith H.; Mori, Tsutomu T.

    1986-09-01

    The development of an instrumentation radar that uses a chirp waveform to achieve high range resolution is described. Such range resolution capability is required for two reasons: (1) to evaluate the response of targets to the operational waveforms used in high-performance radars; and (2) to obtain a means of separating the individual mechanisms that comprise the target scattering response to better understand the scattering process. This particular radar was efficiently constructed from a combination of commercially available components and in-house-fabricated circuitry. This instrumentation radar operates at X-band and achieves a 4.9-in. range resolution. A key feature of the radar is its ability to combine amplitude weighting with a high degree of waveform fidelity, with the result being very good range sidelobe performance.

  10. 'No delays achiever'.

    PubMed

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  11. Vicarious Achievement Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others

    This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…

  12. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  13. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  14. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  15. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  16. High resolution telescope

    DOEpatents

    Massie, Norbert A.; Oster, Yale

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  17. Achievability for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.

    2001-02-01

    Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .

  18. Resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Christoph; Masters, Barry R.

    2013-05-01

    We survey the history of resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy and their impact on current research in biomedicine. Often these techniques are labeled superresolution, or enhanced resolution microscopy, or light-optical nanoscopy. First, we introduce the development of diffraction theory in its relation to enhanced resolution; then we explore the foundations of resolution as expounded by the astronomers and the physicists and describe the conditions for which they apply. Then we elucidate Ernst Abbe's theory of optical formation in the microscope, and its experimental verification and dissemination to the world wide microscope communities. Second, we describe and compare the early techniques that can enhance the resolution of the microscope. Third, we present the historical development of various techniques that substantially enhance the optical resolution of the light microscope. These enhanced resolution techniques in their modern form constitute an active area of research with seminal applications in biology and medicine. Our historical survey of the field of resolution enhancement uncovers many examples of reinvention, rediscovery, and independent invention and development of similar proposals, concepts, techniques, and instruments. Attribution of credit is therefore confounded by the fact that for understandable reasons authors stress the achievements from their own research groups and sometimes obfuscate their contributions and the prior art of others. In some cases, attribution of credit is also made more complex by the fact that long term developments are difficult to allocate to a specific individual because of the many mutual connections often existing between sometimes fiercely competing, sometimes strongly collaborating groups. Since applications in biology and medicine have been a major driving force in the development of resolution enhancing approaches, we focus on the contribution of enhanced resolution to these fields.

  19. Optical resolution of rotenoids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abidi, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Optical resolution of selected rotenoids containing 1-3 asymmetric centers in dihydrobenzopyranofuroben-zopyranone and dihydrobisbenzopyranopyranone series has been achieved on two chiral high-performance liquid chromatographic (hplc) stationary phases. In most cases, the absolute stereochemistry at the cis-B/C ring junction of the rotenoidal antipodes can be related to their elution order. Generally, the 6aα,12aα-enantiomers were more strongly retained by the chiral substrate than their corresponding optical antipodes. The elution-configuration relationship provides potential utility for predicting the absolute configuration of related rotenoidal compounds. Chiral phase hplc on amino-acid-bonded-silica yielded results explicable in terms of Pirkle's bonding schemes for chiral recognition. Resolution data for 12a-hydroxy-, 12a-methoxy-, and 12-hydroxyiminorotenoids further corroborate the mechanistic rationale, and demonstrate that nonpolar π-π interactions appeared to be important for enantiomeric separation on helic poly-triphenylmethylacryl-ate-silica (CPOT). In the latter system, steric effects and conformational factors in association with the modification of E-ring structures might play significant roles in the chiral separation process in view of the reversal to the elution order observed for all methoxylated rotenoids and elliptone derivatives including the parent deguelin. The unique separability (α = 1.44) of 12a-hydroxyelliptone on CPOT was suggestive of structural effects of the 5-side chain on the resolution of the rotenoids having a five-membered-E-ring. The results obtained with two different types of chiral phases are complementary and useful for optical resolution of a wide variety of natural and synthetic rotenoidal compounds.

  20. Strategic Planning for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

    1981-01-01

    The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

  1. Legislative Actions Affecting Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Council for Postsecondary Education, Olympia.

    Legislative actions pertaining to Washington public higher education during the last two years are described. The reports list the major resolutions passed, laws enacted, and legislative appropriations. State legislation dealt with: establishment of the Washington library network; retirement systems; bookkeeping transactions; travel expenses; bond…

  2. Neuroanatomical Correlates of the Income Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Allyson P.; Finn, Amy S.; Leonard, Julia A.; Jacoby Senghor, Drew S.; West, Martin R.; Gabrieli, Christopher F.O.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, the difference in academic achievement between higher- and lower-income students (i.e., the income achievement gap) is substantial and growing. Here, we investigated neuroanatomical correlates of this gap in adolescents (n = 58) in whom academic achievement was measured by statewide standardized testing. Cortical gray matter volume was significantly greater in students from higher-income backgrounds (n = 35) compared to students from lower-income backgrounds (n = 23), but cortical white matter volume and total cortical surface area did not differ between groups. Cortical thickness in all lobes of the brain was greater in students from higher-income than lower-income backgrounds. Thicker cortex, particularly in temporal and occipital lobes, was associated with better test performance. These results represent the first evidence that cortical thickness differs across broad swaths of the brain between higher- and lower-income students, and that cortical thickness is related to academic achievement test scores. PMID:25896418

  3. Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1974-01-01

    A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)

  4. Mathematics Coursework Regulates Growth in Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), we examined the extent to which students' mathematics coursework regulates (influences) the rate of growth in mathematics achievement during middle and high school. Graphical analysis showed that students who started middle school with higher achievement took individual mathematics…

  5. Maryland's Achievements in Public Education, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents Maryland's achievements in public education for 2011. Maryland's achievements include: (1) Maryland's public schools again ranked #1 in the nation in Education Week's 2011 Quality Counts annual report; (2) Maryland ranked 1st nationwide for a 3rd year in a row in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on…

  6. Performance Characterization of a Switchable Acoustic Resolution and Optical Resolution Photoacoustic Microscopy System.

    PubMed

    Moothanchery, Mohesh; Pramanik, Manojit

    2017-02-12

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) is a scalable bioimaging modality; one can choose low acoustic resolution with deep penetration depth or high optical resolution with shallow imaging depth. High spatial resolution and deep penetration depth is rather difficult to achieve using a single system. Here we report a switchable acoustic resolution and optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (AR-OR-PAM) system in a single imaging system capable of both high resolution and low resolution on the same sample. Lateral resolution of 4.2 µm (with ~1.4 mm imaging depth) and lateral resolution of 45 μm (with ~7.6 mm imaging depth) was successfully demonstrated using a switchable system. In vivo blood vasculature imaging was also performed for its biological application.

  7. Performance Characterization of a Switchable Acoustic Resolution and Optical Resolution Photoacoustic Microscopy System

    PubMed Central

    Moothanchery, Mohesh; Pramanik, Manojit

    2017-01-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) is a scalable bioimaging modality; one can choose low acoustic resolution with deep penetration depth or high optical resolution with shallow imaging depth. High spatial resolution and deep penetration depth is rather difficult to achieve using a single system. Here we report a switchable acoustic resolution and optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (AR-OR-PAM) system in a single imaging system capable of both high resolution and low resolution on the same sample. Lateral resolution of 4.2 µm (with ~1.4 mm imaging depth) and lateral resolution of 45 μm (with ~7.6 mm imaging depth) was successfully demonstrated using a switchable system. In vivo blood vasculature imaging was also performed for its biological application. PMID:28208676

  8. Improving PET spatial resolution and detectability for prostate cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, H.; Guerin, L.; Casey, M. E.; Conti, M.; Eriksson, L.; Michel, C.; Fanti, S.; Pettinato, C.; Adler, S.; Choyke, P.

    2014-08-01

    Prostate cancer, one of the most common forms of cancer among men, can benefit from recent improvements in positron emission tomography (PET) technology. In particular, better spatial resolution, lower noise and higher detectability of small lesions could be greatly beneficial for early diagnosis and could provide a strong support for guiding biopsy and surgery. In this article, the impact of improved PET instrumentation with superior spatial resolution and high sensitivity are discussed, together with the latest development in PET technology: resolution recovery and time-of-flight reconstruction. Using simulated cancer lesions, inserted in clinical PET images obtained with conventional protocols, we show that visual identification of the lesions and detectability via numerical observers can already be improved using state of the art PET reconstruction methods. This was achieved using both resolution recovery and time-of-flight reconstruction, and a high resolution image with 2 mm pixel size. Channelized Hotelling numerical observers showed an increase in the area under the LROC curve from 0.52 to 0.58. In addition, a relationship between the simulated input activity and the area under the LROC curve showed that the minimum detectable activity was reduced by more than 23%.

  9. The incongruous achiever in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kline, S A; Golombek, H

    1974-06-01

    The authors wished to study some of the internal psychological dynamics of achievement in a nonpatient identified high school population. Questionnaires were administered to the Grade 13 students and their parents in a large high school. A number of students whose achievement and educational plans were not congruous with their general background were selected for interview. The findings suggest that a wide variety of ages and developmental stages can be discerned as critical points in the development of a student's attitude toward higher education. These students have many values in common, and their values appear related to a positive or negative identification with parental values. The students themselves show a wide range of personality integration. They relate in a special way to a wide variety of teachers' personalities.

  10. High-Resolution Variable-Density 3D Cones Coronary MRA

    PubMed Central

    Addy, Nii Okai; Ingle, R. Reeve; Wu, Holden H.; Hu, Bob S.; Nishimura, Dwight G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To improve the spatial/temporal resolution of whole-heart coronary MR angiography (CMRA) by developing a variable-density (VD) 3D cones acquisition suitable for image reconstruction with parallel imaging and compressed sensing techniques. Methods A VD 3D cones trajectory design incorporates both radial and spiral trajectory undersampling techniques to achieve higher resolution. This design is used to generate a VD cones trajectory with 0.8 mm/66 ms isotropic spatial/temporal resolution, using a similar number of readouts as our previous fully sampled cones trajectory (1.2 mm/100 ms). Scans of volunteers and patients are performed to evaluate the performance of the VD trajectory, using non-Cartesian L1-ESPIRiT for high-resolution image reconstruction. Results With gridding reconstruction, the high-resolution scans experience an expected drop in signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios, but with L1-ESPIRiT, the apparent noise is substantially reduced. Compared to 1.2 mm images, in each volunteer, the L1-ESPIRiT 0.8 mm images exhibit higher vessel sharpness values in the right and left anterior descending arteries. Conclusion CMRA with isotropic sub-millimeter spatial resolution and high temporal resolution can be performed with VD 3D cones to improve the depiction of coronary arteries. PMID:26172829

  11. Testosterone and Occupational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbs, James M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Archival data on 4,462 military veterans linked higher levels of serum testosterone to lower-status occupations. A structural equation model was supported in which higher testosterone, mediated through lower intellectual ability, greater antisocial behavior, and lower education, leads away from white-collar occupations. Contains 49 references.…

  12. Estuarine modeling: Does a higher grid resolution improve model performance?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological models are useful tools to explore cause effect relationships, test hypothesis and perform management scenarios. A mathematical model, the Gulf of Mexico Dissolved Oxygen Model (GoMDOM), has been developed and applied to the Louisiana continental shelf of the northern ...

  13. Efficient Compression of High Resolution Climate Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Schuchardt, K. L.

    2011-12-01

    resolution climate data can be massive. Those data can consume a huge amount of disk space for storage, incur significant overhead for outputting data during simulation, introduce high latency for visualization and analysis, and may even make interactive visualization and analysis impossible given the limit of the data that a conventional cluster can handle. These problems can be alleviated by with effective and efficient data compression techniques. Even though HDF5 format supports compression, previous work has mainly focused on employ traditional general purpose compression schemes such as dictionary coder and block sorting based compression scheme. Those compression schemes mainly focus on encoding repeated byte sequences efficiently and are not well suitable for compressing climate data consist mainly of distinguished float point numbers. We plan to select and customize our compression schemes according to the characteristics of high-resolution climate data. One observation on high resolution climate data is that as the resolution become higher, values of various climate variables such as temperature and pressure, become closer in nearby cells. This provides excellent opportunities for predication-based compression schemes. We have performed a preliminary estimation of compression ratios of a very simple minded predication-based compression ratio in which we compute the difference between current float point number with previous float point number and then encoding the exponent and significance part of the float point number with entropy-based compression scheme. Our results show that we can achieve higher compression ratios between 2 and 3 in lossless compression, which is significantly higher than traditional compression algorithms. We have also developed lossy compression with our techniques. We can achive orders of magnitude data reduction while ensure error bounds. Moreover, our compression scheme is much more efficient and introduces much less overhead

  14. Resolution in Electromagnetic Prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Schramm, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Low-frequency electromagnetic (EM) signals are commonly used in geophysical exploration of the shallow subsurface. Sensitivity to conductivity implies they are particularly useful for inferring fluid content of porous media. However, low-frequency EM wavefields are diffusive, and have significantly larger wavelengths compared to seismic signals of equal frequency. The wavelength of a 30 Hz sinusoid propagating with seismic velocity 3000 m/s is 100 m, whereas an analogous EM signal diffusing through a conductive body of 0.1 S/m (clayey shale) has wavelength 1825 m. The larger wavelength has implications for resolution of the EM prospecting method. We are investigating resolving power of the EM method via theoretical and numerical experiments. Normal incidence plane wave reflection/transmission by a thin geologic bed is amenable to analytic solution. Responses are calculated for beds that are conductive or resistive relative to the host rock. Preliminary results indicate the classic seismic resolution/detection limit of bed thickness ~1/8 wavelength is not achieved. EM responses for point or line current sources recorded by general acquisition geometries are calculated with a 3D finite-difference algorithm. These exhibit greater variability which may allow inference of bed thickness. We also examine composite responses of two point scatterers with separation when illuminated by an incident EM field. This is analogous to the Rayleigh resolution problem of estimating angular separation between two light sources. The First Born Approximation implies that perturbations in permittivity, permeability, and conductivity have different scattering patterns, which may be indicators of EM medium properties. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  16. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  17. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  18. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  19. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  20. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  1. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  2. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  3. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  4. Improving Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York University Education Quarterly, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is a slightly abridged version of the report of the National Academy of Education panel, convened at the request of HEW Secretary Joseph Califano and Assistant Secretary for Education Mary F. Berry, to study recent declines in student achievement and methods of educational improvement. (SJL)

  5. The Achievement Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Ibram

    2009-01-01

    When Gabrielle Carpenter became a guidance counselor in Northern Virginia nine years ago, she focused on the academic achievement gap and furiously tried to close it. At first, she was compelled by tremendous professional interest. However, after seeing her son lose his zeal for school, Carpenter joined forces with other parents to form an…

  6. Achievement in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebele, David

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.…

  7. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  8. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  9. Re-scan confocal microscopy (RCM) improves the resolution of confocal microscopy and increases the sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Giulia; Breedijk, Ronald; Hoebe, Ron; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik

    2017-03-01

    Re-scan confocal microscopy (RCM) is a new super-resolution technique based on a standard confocal microscope extended with a re-scan unit in the detection path that projects the emitted light onto a sensitive camera. In this paper the fundamental properties of RCM, lateral resolution, axial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, are characterized and compared with properties of standard confocal microscopy. The results show that the lateral resolution of RCM is ~170 nm compared to ~240 nm of confocal microscopy for 488 nm excitation and 1.49 NA. As the theory predicts, this improved lateral resolution is independent of the pinhole diameter. In standard confocal microscopy, the same lateral resolution can only be achieved with an almost closed pinhole and, consequently, with a major loss of signal. We show that the sectioning capabilities of the standard confocal microscope are preserved in RCM and that the axial resolution of RCM is slightly better (~15%) than the standard confocal microscope. Furthermore, the signal-to-noise ratio in RCM is a factor of 2 higher than in standard confocal microscopy, also due to the use of highly sensitive modern cameras. In case the pinhole of a confocal microscope is adjusted in such way that the lateral resolution is comparable to that of RCM, the signal-to-noise ratio in RCM is 4 times higher than standard confocal microscopy. Therefore, RCM offers a good alternative to standard confocal microscopy for higher lateral resolution with the main advantage of strongly improved sensitivity.

  10. Interactively variable isotropic resolution in computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lapp, Robert M; Kyriakou, Yiannis; Kachelriess, Marc; Wilharm, Sylvia; Kalender, Willi A

    2008-05-21

    An individual balancing between spatial resolution and image noise is necessary to fulfil the diagnostic requirements in medical CT imaging. In order to change influencing parameters, such as reconstruction kernel or effective slice thickness, additional raw-data-dependent image reconstructions have to be performed. Therefore, the noise versus resolution trade-off is time consuming and not interactively applicable. Furthermore, isotropic resolution, expressed by an equivalent point spread function (PSF) in every spatial direction, is important for the undistorted visualization and quantitative evaluation of small structures independent of the viewing plane. Theoretically, isotropic resolution can be obtained by matching the in-plane and through-plane resolution with the aforementioned parameters. Practically, however, the user is not assisted in doing so by current reconstruction systems and therefore isotropic resolution is not commonly achieved, in particular not at the desired resolution level. In this paper, an integrated approach is presented for equalizing the in-plane and through-plane spatial resolution by image filtering. The required filter kernels are calculated from previously measured PSFs in x/y- and z-direction. The concepts derived are combined with a variable resolution filtering technique. Both approaches are independent of CT raw data and operate only on reconstructed images which allows for their application in real time. Thereby, the aim of interactively variable, isotropic resolution is achieved. Results were evaluated quantitatively by measuring PSFs and image noise, and qualitatively by comparing the images to direct reconstructions regarded as the gold standard. Filtered images matched direct reconstructions with arbitrary reconstruction kernels with standard deviations in difference images of typically between 1 and 17 HU. Isotropic resolution was achieved within 5% of the selected resolution level. Processing times of 20-100 ms per frame

  11. Resolution enhancement in tilted coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri Naghadeh, Diako; Keith Morley, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Deconvolution is applied to remove source wavelet effects from seismograms. The results are resolution enhancement that enables detection of thin layers. Following enhancement of resolution, low frequency and high angle reflectors, particularly at great depth, appear as low amplitude and semi-invisible reflectors that are difficult to track and pick. A new approach to enhance resolution is introduced that estimates a derivative using continuous wavelet transform in tilted coordinates. The results are compared with sparse spike deconvolution, curvelet deconvolution and inverse quality filtering in wavelet domain. The positive consequence of the new method is to increase sampling of high dip features by changing the coordinate system from Cartesian to tilted. To compare those methods a complex data set was chosen that includes high angle faults and chaotic mass transport complex. Image enhancement using curvelet deconvolution shows a chaotic system as a non-chaotic one. The results show that sparse spike deconvolution and inverse quality filtering in wavelet domain are able to enhance resolution more than curvelet deconvolution especially at great depth but it is impossible to follow steep dip reflectors after resolution enhancement using these methods, especially when their apparent dips are more than 45°. By estimating derivatives in a continuous wavelet transform from tilted data sets similar resolution enhancement as the other deconvolution methods is achieved but additionally steep dipping reflectors are imaged much better than others. Subtracted results of the enhanced resolution data set using new method and the other introduced methods show that steeply dipping reflectors are highlighted as a particular ability of the new method. The results show that high frequency recovery in Cartesian co-ordinate is accompanied by inability to image steeply dipping reflectors especially at great depths. Conversely recovery of high frequency data and imaging of the data

  12. Fundamental Limits of Spatial Resolution in PET

    PubMed Central

    Moses, William W.

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental limits of spatial resolution in positron emission tomography (PET) have been understood for many years. The physical size of the detector element usually plays the dominant role in determining resolution, but the combined contributions from acollinearity, positron range, penetration into the detector ring, and decoding errors in the detector modules often combine to be of similar size. In addition, the sampling geometry and statistical noise further degrade the effective resolution. This paper describes quantitatively describes these effects, discusses potential methods for reducing the magnitude of these effects, and computes the ultimately achievable spatial resolution for clinical and pre-clinical PET cameras. PMID:21804677

  13. Performance analysis of multiple PRF technique for ambiguity resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. Y.; Curlander, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    For short wavelength spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), ambiguity in Doppler centroid estimation occurs when the azimuth squint angle uncertainty is larger than the azimuth antenna beamwidth. Multiple pulse recurrence frequency (PRF) hopping is a technique developed to resolve the ambiguity by operating the radar in different PRF's in the pre-imaging sequence. Performance analysis results of the multiple PRF technique are presented, given the constraints of the attitude bound, the drift rate uncertainty, and the arbitrary numerical values of PRF's. The algorithm performance is derived in terms of the probability of correct ambiguity resolution. Examples, using the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-SAR parameters, demonstrate that the probability of correct ambiguity resolution obtained by the multiple PRF technique is greater than 95 percent and 80 percent for the SIR-C and X-SAR applications, respectively. The success rate is significantly higher than that achieved by the range cross correlation technique.

  14. Digital tomosynthesis aided by low-resolution exact computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Kai; Yu, Hengyong; Zhao, Shiying; Fajardo, Laurie Lee; Ruth, Christopher; Jing, Zhenxue; Wang, Ge

    2007-01-01

    Tomosynthesis reconstructs 3-dimensional images of an object from a significantly fewer number of projections as compared with that required by computed tomography (CT). A major problem with tomosynthesis is image artifacts associated with the data incompleteness. In this article, we propose a hybrid tomosynthesis approach to achieve higher image quality as compared with competing methods. In this approach, a low-resolution CT scan is followed by a high-resolution tomosynthesis scan. Then, both scans are combined to reconstruct images. To evaluate the image quality of the proposed method, we design a new breast phantom for numerical simulation and physical experiments. The results show that images obtained by our approach are clearly better than those obtained without such a CT scan.

  15. KINOFORM LENSES - TOWARD NANOMETER RESOLUTION.

    SciTech Connect

    STEIN, A.; EVANS-LUTTERODT, K.; TAYLOR, A.

    2004-10-23

    While hard x-rays have wavelengths in the nanometer and sub-nanometer range, the ability to focus them is limited by the quality of sources and optics, and not by the wavelength. A few options, including reflective (mirrors), diffractive (zone plates) and refractive (CRL's) are available, each with their own limitations. Here we present our work with kinoform lenses which are refractive lenses with all material causing redundant 2{pi} phase shifts removed to reduce the absorption problems inherently limiting the resolution of refractive lenses. By stacking kinoform lenses together, the effective numerical aperture, and thus the focusing resolution, can be increased. The present status of kinoform lens fabrication and testing at Brookhaven is presented as well as future plans toward achieving nanometer resolution.

  16. High resolution optical DNA mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baday, Murat

    Many types of diseases including cancer and autism are associated with copy-number variations in the genome. Most of these variations could not be identified with existing sequencing and optical DNA mapping methods. We have developed Multi-color Super-resolution technique, with potential for high throughput and low cost, which can allow us to recognize more of these variations. Our technique has made 10--fold improvement in the resolution of optical DNA mapping. Using a 180 kb BAC clone as a model system, we resolved dense patterns from 108 fluorescent labels of two different colors representing two different sequence-motifs. Overall, a detailed DNA map with 100 bp resolution was achieved, which has the potential to reveal detailed information about genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis of genetic disease.

  17. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  18. Advances in coincidence time resolution for PET.

    PubMed

    Cates, Joshua W; Levin, Craig S

    2016-03-21

    Coincidence time resolution (CTR), an important parameter for time-of-flight (TOF) PET performance, is determined mainly by properties of the scintillation crystal and photodetector used. Stable production techniques for LGSO:Ce (Lu1.8Gd0.2SiO5:Ce) with decay times varying from ∼ 30-40 ns have been established over the past decade, and the decay time can be accurately controlled with varying cerium concentration (0.025-0.075 mol%). This material is promising for TOF-PET, as it has similar light output and equivalent stopping power for 511 keV annihilation photons compared to industry standard LSO:Ce and LYSO:Ce, and the decay time is improved by more than 30% with proper Ce concentration. This work investigates the achievable CTR with LGSO:Ce (0.025 mol%) when coupled to new silicon photomultipliers. Crystal element dimension is another important parameter for achieving fast timing. 20 mm length crystal elements achieve higher 511 keV photon detection efficiency, but also introduce higher scintillation photon transit time variance. 3 mm length crystals are not practical for PET, but have reduced scintillation transit time spread. The CTR between pairs of 2.9 × 2.9 × 3 mm(3) and 2.9 × 2.9 × 20 mm(3) LGSO:Ce crystals was measured to be 80 ± 4 and 122 ± 4 ps FWHM, respectively. Measurements of light yield and intrinsic decay time are also presented for a thorough investigation into the timing performance with LGSO:Ce (0.025 mol%).

  19. High-Resolution Underwater Mapping Using Side-Scan Sonar.

    PubMed

    Burguera, Antoni; Oliver, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to generate high-resolution sea floor maps using a Side-Scan Sonar(SSS). This is achieved by explicitly taking into account the SSS operation as follows. First, the raw sensor data is corrected by means of a physics-based SSS model. Second, the data is projected to the sea-floor. The errors involved in this projection are thoroughfully analysed. Third, a probabilistic SSS model is defined and used to estimate the probability of each sea-floor region to be observed. This probabilistic information is then used to weight the contribution of each SSS measurement to the map. Because of these models, arbitrary map resolutions can be achieved, even beyond the sensor resolution. Finally, a geometric map building method is presented and combined with the probabilistic approach. The resulting map is composed of two layers. The echo intensity layer holds the most likely echo intensities at each point in the sea-floor. The probabilistic layer contains information about how confident can the user or the higher control layers be about the echo intensity layer data. Experimental results have been conducted in a large subsea region.

  20. High-Resolution Underwater Mapping Using Side-Scan Sonar

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to generate high-resolution sea floor maps using a Side-Scan Sonar(SSS). This is achieved by explicitly taking into account the SSS operation as follows. First, the raw sensor data is corrected by means of a physics-based SSS model. Second, the data is projected to the sea-floor. The errors involved in this projection are thoroughfully analysed. Third, a probabilistic SSS model is defined and used to estimate the probability of each sea-floor region to be observed. This probabilistic information is then used to weight the contribution of each SSS measurement to the map. Because of these models, arbitrary map resolutions can be achieved, even beyond the sensor resolution. Finally, a geometric map building method is presented and combined with the probabilistic approach. The resulting map is composed of two layers. The echo intensity layer holds the most likely echo intensities at each point in the sea-floor. The probabilistic layer contains information about how confident can the user or the higher control layers be about the echo intensity layer data. Experimental results have been conducted in a large subsea region. PMID:26821379

  1. Requirements for a Moderate-Resolution Infrared Imaging Sounder (MIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gerber, Andrew J.; Kuai, Le; Gontijo, I.; DeLeon, Berta; Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena; Bajpai, Shyam

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of imaging and sounding from space warrants exploration of new methods for obtaining the required information, including changing the spectral band sets, employing new technologies and merging instruments. In some cases we must consider relaxation of the current capability. In others, we expect higher performance. In general our goal is to meet the VIIRS and CrIS requirements while providing the enhanced next generation capabilities: 1) Hyperspectral Imaging in the Vis/NIR bands, 2) High Spatial Resolution Sounding in the Infrared bands. The former will improve the accuracy of ocean color products, aerosols and water vapor, surface vegetation and geology. The latter will enable the high-impact achieved by the current suite of hyperspectral infrared sounders to be achieved by the next generation high resolution forecast models. We examine the spectral, spatial and radiometric requirements for a next generation system and technologies that can be applied from the available inventory within government and industry. A two-band grating spectrometer instrument called the Moderate-resolution Infrared Imaging Sounder (MIRIS) is conceived that, when used with the planned NASA PACE Ocean Color Instrument (OCI) will meet the vast majority of CrIS and VIIRS requirements in the all bands and provide the next generation capabilities desired. MIRIS resource requirements are modest and the Technology Readiness Level is high leading to the expectation that the cost and risk of MIRIS will be reasonable.

  2. Super-Resolution Imaging at Mid-Infrared Waveband in Graphene-nanocavity formed on meta-surface

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingzhong; Wang, Taisheng; Chen, Zuolong; Hu, Bingliang; Yu, Weixing

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic structured illumination microscopy (PSIM) is one of the promising wide filed optical imaging methods, which takes advantage of the surface plasmons to break the optical diffraction limit and thus to achieve a super-resolution optical image. To further improve the imaging resolution of PSIM, we propose in this work a so called graphene nanocavity on meta-surface structure (GNMS) to excite graphene surface plasmons with a deep sub-wavelength at mid-infrared waveband. It is found that surface plasmonic interference pattern with a period of around 52 nm can be achieved in graphene nanocavity formed on structured meta-surface for a 7 μm wavelength incident light. Moreover, the periodic plasmonic interference pattern can be tuned by simply changing the nanostructures fabricated on meta-surface for different application purposes. At last, the proposed GNMS structure is applied for super-resolution imaging in PSIM and it is found that an imaging resolution of 26 nm can be achieved, which is nearly 100 folds higher than that can be achieved by conventional epi-fluorescence microscopy. In comparison with visible waveband, mid-infrared is more gently and safe to biological cells and thus this work opens the new possibility for optical super-resolution imaging at mid-infrared waveband for biological research field. PMID:27897207

  3. Super-Resolution Imaging at Mid-Infrared Waveband in Graphene-nanocavity formed on meta-surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jingzhong; Wang, Taisheng; Chen, Zuolong; Hu, Bingliang; Yu, Weixing

    2016-11-01

    Plasmonic structured illumination microscopy (PSIM) is one of the promising wide filed optical imaging methods, which takes advantage of the surface plasmons to break the optical diffraction limit and thus to achieve a super-resolution optical image. To further improve the imaging resolution of PSIM, we propose in this work a so called graphene nanocavity on meta-surface structure (GNMS) to excite graphene surface plasmons with a deep sub-wavelength at mid-infrared waveband. It is found that surface plasmonic interference pattern with a period of around 52 nm can be achieved in graphene nanocavity formed on structured meta-surface for a 7 μm wavelength incident light. Moreover, the periodic plasmonic interference pattern can be tuned by simply changing the nanostructures fabricated on meta-surface for different application purposes. At last, the proposed GNMS structure is applied for super-resolution imaging in PSIM and it is found that an imaging resolution of 26 nm can be achieved, which is nearly 100 folds higher than that can be achieved by conventional epi-fluorescence microscopy. In comparison with visible waveband, mid-infrared is more gently and safe to biological cells and thus this work opens the new possibility for optical super-resolution imaging at mid-infrared waveband for biological research field.

  4. Super-Resolution Imaging at Mid-Infrared Waveband in Graphene-nanocavity formed on meta-surface.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingzhong; Wang, Taisheng; Chen, Zuolong; Hu, Bingliang; Yu, Weixing

    2016-11-29

    Plasmonic structured illumination microscopy (PSIM) is one of the promising wide filed optical imaging methods, which takes advantage of the surface plasmons to break the optical diffraction limit and thus to achieve a super-resolution optical image. To further improve the imaging resolution of PSIM, we propose in this work a so called graphene nanocavity on meta-surface structure (GNMS) to excite graphene surface plasmons with a deep sub-wavelength at mid-infrared waveband. It is found that surface plasmonic interference pattern with a period of around 52 nm can be achieved in graphene nanocavity formed on structured meta-surface for a 7 μm wavelength incident light. Moreover, the periodic plasmonic interference pattern can be tuned by simply changing the nanostructures fabricated on meta-surface for different application purposes. At last, the proposed GNMS structure is applied for super-resolution imaging in PSIM and it is found that an imaging resolution of 26 nm can be achieved, which is nearly 100 folds higher than that can be achieved by conventional epi-fluorescence microscopy. In comparison with visible waveband, mid-infrared is more gently and safe to biological cells and thus this work opens the new possibility for optical super-resolution imaging at mid-infrared waveband for biological research field.

  5. High-resolution optical telescope for ultraviolet /UV/ radiation field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karayan, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    Design techniques are discussed for all-reflecting optics from first-order system considerations and applications currently utilized in the field of astronomical optics. The solution of the Dall-Karkham design problem is described, showing the advantage of inexpensive construction as compared with higher order surfaces. The design process reported here is a F/5 collecting system which quickly mates directly with the spectrometer; it is capable of achieving desired high resolution and sensitivity requirements. The theoretical limit of aberration tolerances is achieved with less than 1/8 of a wavelength at final focus (OPD). The design of spectrometer for ultra-violet (UV) radiation and its mechanism is included in this study.

  6. 2011 Higher Education Sustainability Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Margo, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Looking through the lens of AASHE Bulletin stories in 2011, this year's review reveals an increased focus on higher education access, affordability, and success; more green building efforts than ever before; and growing campus-community engagement on food security, among many other achievements. Contributors include James Applegate (Lumina…

  7. Social Justice and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Massification of higher education has not been able to solve societal issues in the UK to the extent originally envisaged. Whilst universities have achieved increased student numbers and widened participation from various societal groups, those coming from socially disadvantaged groups can still often have a very different experience of university…

  8. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  9. Leadership, self-efficacy, and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Kristin

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the Leadership Behavior Description Question (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969), the Science Efficacy and Belief Expectations for Science Teaching (SEBEST) by Ritter, Boone, and Rubba (2001, January). Students' scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) measured fifth-grade science achievement. At the teacher level of analysis multiple regressions showed the following relationships between teachers' science self-efficacy and teacher classroom leadership behaviors and the various teacher and school demographic variables. Predictors of teacher self efficacy beliefs included teacher's level of education, gender, and leadership initiating structure. The only significant predictor of teacher self-efficacy outcome expectancy was gender. Higher teacher self-efficacy beliefs predicted higher leadership initiating structure. At the school level of analysis, higher school levels of percentage of students from low socio-economic backgrounds and higher percentage of limited English proficient students predicted lower school student mean science achievement. These findings suggest a need for continued research to clarify relationships between teacher classroom leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement especially at the teacher level of analysis. Findings also indicate the importance of developing instructional methods to address student demographics and their needs so that all students, despite their backgrounds, will achieve in science.

  10. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  11. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  12. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefitted greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  13. What Happens to the Fish's Achievement in a Little Pond? A Simultaneous Analysis of Class-Average Achievement Effects on Achievement and Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stäbler, Franziska; Dumont, Hanna; Becker, Michael; Baumert, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Empirical studies have demonstrated that students who are taught in a group of students with higher average achievement benefit in terms of their achievement. However, there is also evidence showing that being surrounded by high-achieving students has a negative effect on students' academic self-concept, also known as the big-fish--little-pond…

  14. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  15. Ultra-High Spatial Resolution, Multi-Energy CT using Photon Counting Detector Technology

    PubMed Central

    Leng, S.; Gutjahr, R.; Ferrero, A.; Kappler, S.; Henning, A.; Halaweish, A.; Zhou, W.; Montoya, J.; McCollough, C.

    2017-01-01

    Two ultra-high-resolution (UHR) imaging modes, each with two energy thresholds, were implemented on a research, whole-body photon-counting-detector (PCD) CT scanner, referred to as sharp and UHR, respectively. The UHR mode has a pixel size of 0.25 mm at iso-center for both energy thresholds, with a collimation of 32 × 0.25 mm. The sharp mode has a 0.25 mm pixel for the low-energy threshold and 0.5 mm for the high-energy threshold, with a collimation of 48 × 0.25 mm. Kidney stones with mixed mineral composition and lung nodules with different shapes were scanned using both modes, and with the standard imaging mode, referred to as macro mode (0.5 mm pixel and 32 × 0.5 mm collimation). Evaluation and comparison of the three modes focused on the ability to accurately delineate anatomic structures using the high-spatial resolution capability and the ability to quantify stone composition using the multi-energy capability. The low-energy threshold images of the sharp and UHR modes showed better shape and texture information due to the achieved higher spatial resolution, although noise was also higher. No noticeable benefit was shown in multi-energy analysis using UHR compared to standard resolution (macro mode) when standard doses were used. This was due to excessive noise in the higher resolution images. However, UHR scans at higher dose showed improvement in multi-energy analysis over macro mode with regular dose. To fully take advantage of the higher spatial resolution in multi-energy analysis, either increased radiation dose, or application of noise reduction techniques, is needed. PMID:28392615

  16. Ultra-High Spatial Resolution, Multi-Energy CT using Photon Counting Detector Technology.

    PubMed

    Leng, S; Gutjahr, R; Ferrero, A; Kappler, S; Henning, A; Halaweish, A; Zhou, W; Montoya, J; McCollough, C

    2017-02-11

    Two ultra-high-resolution (UHR) imaging modes, each with two energy thresholds, were implemented on a research, whole-body photon-counting-detector (PCD) CT scanner, referred to as sharp and UHR, respectively. The UHR mode has a pixel size of 0.25 mm at iso-center for both energy thresholds, with a collimation of 32 × 0.25 mm. The sharp mode has a 0.25 mm pixel for the low-energy threshold and 0.5 mm for the high-energy threshold, with a collimation of 48 × 0.25 mm. Kidney stones with mixed mineral composition and lung nodules with different shapes were scanned using both modes, and with the standard imaging mode, referred to as macro mode (0.5 mm pixel and 32 × 0.5 mm collimation). Evaluation and comparison of the three modes focused on the ability to accurately delineate anatomic structures using the high-spatial resolution capability and the ability to quantify stone composition using the multi-energy capability. The low-energy threshold images of the sharp and UHR modes showed better shape and texture information due to the achieved higher spatial resolution, although noise was also higher. No noticeable benefit was shown in multi-energy analysis using UHR compared to standard resolution (macro mode) when standard doses were used. This was due to excessive noise in the higher resolution images. However, UHR scans at higher dose showed improvement in multi-energy analysis over macro mode with regular dose. To fully take advantage of the higher spatial resolution in multi-energy analysis, either increased radiation dose, or application of noise reduction techniques, is needed.

  17. Data resolution versus forestry classification and modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, E. P.; Ball, D. L.; Basu, J. P.; Smelser, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper examines the effects on timber stand computer classification accuracies caused by changes in the resolution of remotely sensed multispectral data. This investigation is valuable, especially for determining optimal sensor and platform designs. Theoretical justification and experimental verification support the finding that classification accuracies for low resolution data could be better than the accuracies for data with higher resolution. The increase in accuracy is constructed as due to the reduction of scene inhomogeneity at lower resolution. The computer classification scheme was a maximum likelihood classifier.

  18. Facial identification in very low-resolution images simulating prosthetic vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Shin, J. H.; Park, K. S.

    2012-08-01

    Familiar facial identification is important to blind or visually impaired patients and can be achieved using a retinal prosthesis. Nevertheless, there are limitations in delivering the facial images with a resolution sufficient to distinguish facial features, such as eyes and nose, through multichannel electrode arrays used in current visual prostheses. This study verifies the feasibility of familiar facial identification under low-resolution prosthetic vision and proposes an edge-enhancement method to deliver more visual information that is of higher quality. We first generated a contrast-enhanced image and an edge image by applying the Sobel edge detector and blocked each of them by averaging. Then, we subtracted the blocked edge image from the blocked contrast-enhanced image and produced a pixelized image imitating an array of phosphenes. Before subtraction, every gray value of the edge images was weighted as 50% (mode 2), 75% (mode 3) and 100% (mode 4). In mode 1, the facial image was blocked and pixelized with no further processing. The most successful identification was achieved with mode 3 at every resolution in terms of identification index, which covers both accuracy and correct response time. We also found that the subjects recognized a distinctive face especially more accurately and faster than the other given facial images even under low-resolution prosthetic vision. Every subject could identify familiar faces even in very low-resolution images. And the proposed edge-enhancement method seemed to contribute to intermediate-stage visual prostheses.

  19. Case Resolution Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Case Resolution Manual (CRM) is intended to provide procedural guidance to ECRCO case managers to ensure EPA’s prompt, effective, and efficient resolution of civil rights cases consistent with science and the civil rights laws.

  20. A Novel Azimuth Super-Resolution Method by Synthesizing Azimuth Bandwidth of Multiple Tracks of Airborne Stripmap SAR Data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jingwen; Sun, Bing; Yang, Jian

    2016-06-13

    Azimuth resolution of airborne stripmap synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is restricted by the azimuth antenna size. Conventionally, a higher azimuth resolution should be achieved by employing alternate modes that steer the beam in azimuth to enlarge the synthetic antenna aperture. However, if a data set of a certain region, consisting of multiple tracks of airborne stripmap SAR data, is available, the azimuth resolution of specific small region of interest (ROI) can be conveniently improved by a novel azimuth super-resolution method as introduced by this paper. The proposed azimuth super-resolution method synthesize the azimuth bandwidth of the data selected from multiple discontinuous tracks and contributes to a magnifier-like function with which the ROI can be further zoomed in with a higher azimuth resolution than that of the original stripmap images. Detailed derivation of the azimuth super-resolution method, including the steps of two-dimensional dechirping, residual video phase (RVP) removal, data stitching and data correction, is provided. The restrictions of the proposed method are also discussed. Lastly, the presented approach is evaluated via both the single- and multi-target computer simulations.

  1. A Novel Azimuth Super-Resolution Method by Synthesizing Azimuth Bandwidth of Multiple Tracks of Airborne Stripmap SAR Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jingwen; Sun, Bing; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Azimuth resolution of airborne stripmap synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is restricted by the azimuth antenna size. Conventionally, a higher azimuth resolution should be achieved by employing alternate modes that steer the beam in azimuth to enlarge the synthetic antenna aperture. However, if a data set of a certain region, consisting of multiple tracks of airborne stripmap SAR data, is available, the azimuth resolution of specific small region of interest (ROI) can be conveniently improved by a novel azimuth super-resolution method as introduced by this paper. The proposed azimuth super-resolution method synthesize the azimuth bandwidth of the data selected from multiple discontinuous tracks and contributes to a magnifier-like function with which the ROI can be further zoomed in with a higher azimuth resolution than that of the original stripmap images. Detailed derivation of the azimuth super-resolution method, including the steps of two-dimensional dechirping, residual video phase (RVP) removal, data stitching and data correction, is provided. The restrictions of the proposed method are also discussed. Lastly, the presented approach is evaluated via both the single- and multi-target computer simulations. PMID:27304959

  2. Resolution with Limited Factoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dafa

    The resolution principle was originally proposed by J.A. Robinson. Resolution with factoring rule is complete for the first-order logic. However, unlimited applications of factoring rule may generate many irrelevant and redundant clauses. Noll presented resolution rule with half-factoring. In this paper, we demonstrate how to eliminate the half-factoring.

  3. Coherence versus interferometric resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Luis, Alfredo

    2010-06-15

    We examine the relation between second-order coherence and resolution in the interferometric detection of phase shifts. While for classical thermal light resolution and second-order coherence are synonymous, we show that for quantum light beams reaching optimum precision second-order coherence and resolution become antithetical.

  4. Atomic resolution holography.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kouichi

    2014-11-01

    Atomic resolution holography, such as X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH)[1] and photoelectron holography (PH), has the attention of researcher as an informative local structure analysis, because it provides three dimensional atomic images around specific elements within a range of a few nanometers. It can determine atomic arrangements around a specific element without any prior knowledge of structures. It is considered that the atomic resolution holographic is a third method of structural analysis at the atomic level after X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). As known by many researchers, XRD and XAFS are established methods that are widespread use in various fields. XRD and XAFS provide information on long-range translational periodicities and very local environments, respectively, whereas the atomic resolution holography gives 3D information on the local order and can visualize surrounding atoms with a large range of coordination shells. We call this feature "3D medium-range local structure observation".In addition to this feature, the atomic resolution holography is very sensitive to the displacement of atoms from their ideal positions, and one can obtain quantitative information about local lattice distortions by analyzing reconstructed atomic images[2] When dopants with different atomic radii from the matrix elements are present, the lattices around the dopants are distorted. However, using the conventional methods of structural analysis, one cannot determine the extent to which the local lattice distortions are preserved from the dopants. XFH is a good tool for solving this problem.Figure 1 shows a recent achievement on a relaxor ferroelectric of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) using XFH. The structural studies of relaxor ferroelectrics have been carried out by X-ray or neutron diffractions, which suggested rhombohedral distortions of their lattices. However, their true pictures have not been obtained, yet. The Nb Kα holograms showed

  5. Tunable resolution terahertz dual frequency comb spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Francisco S; Cruz, Flavio C; Plusquellic, David F; Diddams, Scott A

    2016-12-26

    Terahertz dual frequency comb spectroscopy (THz-DFCS) yields high spectral resolution without compromising bandwidth. Nonetheless, the resolution of THz-DFCS is usually limited by the laser repetition rate, which is typically between 80 MHz and 1 GHz. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method to achieve sub-repetition rate resolution in THz-DFCS by adaptively modifying the effective laser repetition rate using integrated Mach-Zehnder electro-optic modulators (MZ-EOMs). Our results demonstrate that it is possible to improve the 100 MHz resolution of a terahertz frequency comb by at least 20x (down to 5 MHz) across the terahertz spectrum without compromising the average output power, and to a large extent, its bandwidth. Our approach can augment a wide range of existing THz-DFCS systems to provide a significant and easily adaptable resolution improvement.

  6. Research On The Classification Of High Resolution Image Based On Object-oriented And Class Rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. K.; Fang, W.; Dong, X. J.

    2015-06-01

    With the development of remote sensing technology, the spatial resolution, spectral resolution and time resolution of remote sensing data is greatly improved. How to efficiently process and interpret the massive high resolution remote sensing image data for ground objects, which with spatial geometry and texture information, has become the focus and difficulty in the field of remote sensing research. An object oriented and rule of the classification method of remote sensing data has presents in this paper. Through the discovery and mining the rich knowledge of spectrum and spatial characteristics of high-resolution remote sensing image, establish a multi-level network image object segmentation and classification structure of remote sensing image to achieve accurate and fast ground targets classification and accuracy assessment. Based on worldview-2 image data in the Zangnan area as a study object, using the object-oriented image classification method and rules to verify the experiment which is combination of the mean variance method, the maximum area method and the accuracy comparison to analysis, selected three kinds of optimal segmentation scale and established a multi-level image object network hierarchy for image classification experiments. The results show that the objectoriented rules classification method to classify the high resolution images, enabling the high resolution image classification results similar to the visual interpretation of the results and has higher classification accuracy. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of the object-oriented rules classification method were 97.38%, 0.9673; compared with object-oriented SVM method, respectively higher than 6.23%, 0.078; compared with object-oriented KNN method, respectively more than 7.96%, 0.0996. The extraction precision and user accuracy of the building compared with object-oriented SVM method, respectively higher than 18.39%, 3.98%, respectively better than the object-oriented KNN method 21

  7. Energy resolution enhancement of mercuric iodide detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, M.; Prince, T. A.; Padgett, L.; Prickett, B.; Schnepple, W.

    1984-01-01

    A pulse processing technique has been developed which improves the gamma-ray energy resolution of mercuric iodide detectors. The technique employs a fast (100 ns) and a slow (6.4 microsec) pulse height analysis to correct for signal variations due to variations in charge trapping. The capabilities of the technique for energy resolution enhancement are discussed as well as the utility of the technique for examining the trapping characteristics of individual detectors. An energy resolution of 2.6 percent FWHM at 662 keV was achieved with an acceptance efficiency of 100 percent from a mercuric iodide detector which gives 8.3 percent FWHM using standard techniques.

  8. Achieving Small School Success in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Of Washington State's 296 school districts, two-thirds have 2,000 or fewer students. These small school districts provide unique learning opportunities for Washington's children, but also present special challenges to achieving the higher standards called for in the state education reform bill and recent federal legislation. This report provides…

  9. A Human Achievement: Mathematics without Boundaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzioglu, Tosun

    This paper describes three fundamental principles, dictated by Wilhelm von Humboldt, that were widely adapted as the basic philosophy of higher education in the United States, and proposes to revise the unfulfilled dream of von Humboldt to make it come true. This paper stresses the achievements of humanity not only in technology, health, or the…

  10. Achievement in Boys' Schools 2010-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Cathy; Berg, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This report explores the achievement of school leavers from state and state-integrated boys' schools. The analysis from 2010 to 2012 shows school leavers from state boys' schools had higher qualifications than their male counterparts who attended state co-educational schools. The research was carried out for the Association of Boys' Schools of New…

  11. Academic Freedom, Achievement Standards and Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, D. Royce

    2011-01-01

    The tension between the freedom of academics to grade the achievements of their students without interference or coercion and the prerogative of higher education institutions to control grading standards is often deliberated by weighing up the authority and rights of the two parties. An alternative approach is to start with an analysis of the…

  12. A resolution expressing the gratitude and appreciation of the Senate for the acts of heroism and military achievement by the members of the United States Armed Forces who participated in the June 6, 1944, amphibious landing at Normandy, France, and commending them for leadership and valor in an operation that helped bring an end to World War II.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Boozman, John [R-AR

    2014-04-10

    05/21/2014 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S3243) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. The Virginia Plan for Higher Education, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Council of Higher Education, Richmond.

    The Council of Higher Education, in this state-mandated biennial plan, sets four goals for Virginia's state-supported system of higher education to achieve: access, excellence, accountability, and placement among the best systems of higher education in the United States. The plan concentrates on the 84 degree-granting institutions that have been…

  14. Axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendharker, Sarang; Shende, Swapnali; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-12-01

    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a 3D nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography (AxSET) method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscope (TIRF) beyond surface imaging, and achieve tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of three-dimensional fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by 1D (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axial resolution of $\\sim$130 nm. Our method does not require any additional optical components or sample preparation. The proposed method can be combined with focal plane super-resolution techniques like STORM and can also be adapted for THz and microwave near-field tomography.

  15. Axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography.

    PubMed

    Pendharker, Sarang; Shende, Swapnali; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-12-01

    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like the total internal reflection fluorescence microscope beyond surface imaging and achieve a tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of 3D fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by one-dimensional (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axial resolution of ∼130  nm. Our method does not require any additional optical components or sample preparation. The proposed method can be combined with focal plane super-resolution techniques like stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy and can also be adapted for THz and microwave near-field tomography.

  16. High-resolution monochromator for iron nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy of biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoda, Yoshitaka; Okada, Kyoko; Wang, Hongxin; Cramer, Stephen P.; Seto, Makoto

    2016-12-01

    A new high-resolution monochromator for 14.4-keV X-rays has been designed and developed for the Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy of biological samples. In addition to high resolution, higher flux and stability are especially important for measuring biological samples, because of the very weak signals produced due to the low concentrations of Fe-57. A 24% increase in flux while maintaining a high resolution better than 0.9 meV is achieved in the calculation by adopting an asymmetric reflection of Ge, which is used as the first crystal of the three-bounce high-resolution monochromator. A 20% increase of the exit beam size is acceptable to our biological applications. The higher throughput of the new design has been experimentally verified. A fine rotation mechanics that combines a weak-link hinge with a piezoelectric actuator was used for controlling the photon energy of the monochromatic beam. The resulting stability is sufficient to preserve the intrinsic resolution.

  17. Fourier ring correlation as a resolution criterion for super-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Banterle, Niccolò; Bui, Khanh Huy; Lemke, Edward A; Beck, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Optical nanoscopy techniques using localization based image reconstruction, also termed super-resolution microscopy (SRM), have become a standard tool to bypass the diffraction limit in fluorescence light microscopy. The localization precision measured for the detected fluorophores is commonly used to describe the maximal attainable resolution. However, this measure takes not all experimental factors, which impact onto the finally achieved resolution, into account. Several other methods to measure the resolution of super-resolved images were previously suggested, typically relying on intrinsic standards, such as molecular rulers, or on a priori knowledge about the specimen, e.g. its spatial frequency content. Here we show that Fourier ring correlation provides an easy-to-use, laboratory consistent standard for measuring the resolution of SRM images. We provide a freely available software tool that combines resolution measurement with image reconstruction.

  18. Developing terahertz imaging equation and enhancement of the resolution of terahertz images using deconvolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahi, Kiarash; Anwar, Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel reconstruction approach for enhancing the resolution of the terahertz (THz) images. For this purpose the THz imaging equation is derived. According to our best knowledge we are reporting the first THz imaging equation by this paper. This imaging equation is universal for THz far-field imaging systems and can be used for analyzing, describing and modeling of these systems. The geometry and behavior of Gaussian beams in far-field region imply that the FWHM of the THz beams diverge as the frequencies of the beams decrease. Thus, the resolution of the measurement decreases in lower frequencies. On the other hand, the depth of penetration of THz beams decreases as frequency increases. Roughly speaking beams in sub 1.5 THz, are transmitted into integrated circuit (IC) packages and the similar packaged objects. Thus, it is not possible to use the THz pulse with higher frequencies in order to achieve higher resolution inspection of packaged items. In this paper, after developing the 3-D THz point spread function (PSF) of the scanning THz beam and then the THz imaging equation, THz images are enhanced through deconvolution of the THz PSF and THz images. As a result, the resolution has been improved several times beyond the physical limitations of the THz measurement setup in the far-field region and sub-Nyquist images have been achieved. Particularly, MSE and SSIḾ have been increased by 27% and 50% respectively. Details as small as 0.2 mm were made visible in the THz images which originally reveals no details smaller than 2.2 mm. In other words the resolution of the images has been increased by 10 times. The accuracy of the reconstructed images was proved by high resolution X-ray images.

  19. Lifting Minority Achievement: Complex Answers. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This fourth in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist describes the Minority Achievement Committee scholars program at Shaker Heights High School in Cleveland, Ohio, a powerful antidote to the achievement gap between minority and white and Asian American students. It explains the need to break down stereotypes about academic…

  20. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  1. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  2. Interstellar scattering and resolution limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, Brian

    Density irregularities in both the interplanetary medium and the ionized component of the interstellar medium scatter radio waves, resulting in limitations on the achievable resolution. Interplanetary scattering (IPS) is weak for most observational situations, and in principle the resulting phase corruption can be corrected for when observing with sufficiently many array elements. Interstellar scattering (ISS), on the other hand, is usually strong at frequencies below about 8 GHz, in which case intrinsic structure information over a range of angular scales is irretrievably lost. With the earth-space baselines now planned, it will be possible to search directly for interstellar refraction, which is suspected of modulating the fluxes of background sources.

  3. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  4. Resolution improvement for enhancing interference fringes of digital holograms with near infrared illuminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ning; Yang, Chao

    2016-11-01

    A new resolution improving method of enhancing the interference stripes, which can achieve better reconstruction of the recorded object of infrared digital holography has been proposed in this paper. The experiment is conducted under near infrared illuminance. We create poor quality holograms with very low-resolution interference stripes and enhance it with our new method. The processed holograms have much higher-resolution interference stripes. This method is based on interpolation theory, and we make it works fast, stable and easy to apply. Both the forward and backward interpolation of the oriental and portrait direction of the source pixels have been calculated, and have been used to realize the final aim of resolution improvement. During the experiment, since the responsivity of the CCD is not satisfied with the illuminance laser, which is by design, we also give specific analysis on the experimental setup of our work to make sure the object information can be fully recorded by the optical setup but cannot be reconstructed because of the low-resolution and unobvious of the interference stripes. After the resolution improvement process of the original hologram, the object information can then be fully reconstructed, which is very clear in the paper. Figures and dataflow give evidence and demonstrate the good performance of our method.

  5. Super-resolution imaging strategies for cell biologists using a spinning disk microscope.

    PubMed

    Hosny, Neveen A; Song, Mingying; Connelly, John T; Ameer-Beg, Simon; Knight, Martin M; Wheeler, Ann P

    2013-01-01

    In this study we use a spinning disk confocal microscope (SD) to generate super-resolution images of multiple cellular features from any plane in the cell. We obtain super-resolution images by using stochastic intensity fluctuations of biological probes, combining Photoactivation Light-Microscopy (PALM)/Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) methodologies. We compared different image analysis algorithms for processing super-resolution data to identify the most suitable for analysis of particular cell structures. SOFI was chosen for X and Y and was able to achieve a resolution of ca. 80 nm; however higher resolution was possible >30 nm, dependant on the super-resolution image analysis algorithm used. Our method uses low laser power and fluorescent probes which are available either commercially or through the scientific community, and therefore it is gentle enough for biological imaging. Through comparative studies with structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and widefield epifluorescence imaging we identified that our methodology was advantageous for imaging cellular structures which are not immediately at the cell-substrate interface, which include the nuclear architecture and mitochondria. We have shown that it was possible to obtain two coloured images, which highlights the potential this technique has for high-content screening, imaging of multiple epitopes and live cell imaging.

  6. A High Resolution Ammunition Resupply Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Transportation Assets .. . . . . . . . 111 b. Maximization of Shipping Space . . . . . 112 c. Adjustments Due to Priority Requisitions. 112 3. RESUPPLY...planned logistics module was expanded to a full stand-alone, high resolution model. Supplementary objectives were established in order to achieve the...each variable, and replication of the process described by these variables in order to achieve an expected value outcome. Using this technique, the

  7. Complex higher order derivative theories

    SciTech Connect

    Margalli, Carlos A.; Vergara, J. David

    2012-08-24

    In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.

  8. High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Truong, D. D.; Austin, M. E.

    2014-11-01

    The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of Te(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83-130 GHz. Heterodyning divides this frequency range into three 2-18 GHz intermediate frequency (IF) bands. The frequency spacing of the radiometer’s channels results in a spatial resolution of ~1-3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6-0.8 cm) resolution Te measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels’ IF bands and consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2-4 GHz range. We achieved a higher spatial resolution through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters’ center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83-130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a “zoomed-in” analysis of a ~2-4 cm radial region. These high resolution channels will be most useful in the low-field side edge region where modest Te values (1-2 keV) result in a minimum of relativistic broadening. Some expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial Te measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, is presented.

  9. High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak

    DOE PAGES

    Truong, D. D.; Austin, M. E.

    2014-11-01

    The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of Te(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83-130 GHz. Heterodyning divides this frequency range into three 2-18 GHz intermediate frequency (IF) bands. The frequency spacing of the radiometer’s channels results in a spatial resolution of ~1-3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6-0.8 cm) resolution Te measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels’ IF bands andmore » consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2-4 GHz range. We achieved a higher spatial resolution through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters’ center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83-130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a “zoomed-in” analysis of a ~2-4 cm radial region. These high resolution channels will be most useful in the low-field side edge region where modest Te values (1-2 keV) result in a minimum of relativistic broadening. Some expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial Te measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, is presented.« less

  10. Achievements in Stratospheric Ozone Protection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes achievements in protecting the ozone layer, the benefits of these achievements, and strategies involved (e.g., using alternatives to ozone-depleting substances, phasing out harmful substances, and creating partnerships).

  11. Mirror-enhanced super-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xusan; Xie, Hao; Alonas, Eric; Liu, Yujia; Chen, Xuanze; Santangelo, Philip J; Ren, Qiushi; Xi, Peng; Jin, Dayong

    Axial excitation confinement beyond the diffraction limit is crucial to the development of next-generation, super-resolution microscopy. STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) nanoscopy offers lateral super-resolution using a donut-beam depletion, but its axial resolution is still over 500 nm. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy is widely used for single-molecule localization, but its ability to detect molecules is limited to within the evanescent field of ~ 100 nm from the cell attachment surface. We find here that the axial thickness of the point spread function (PSF) during confocal excitation can be easily improved to 110 nm by replacing the microscopy slide with a mirror. The interference of the local electromagnetic field confined the confocal PSF to a 110-nm spot axially, which enables axial super-resolution with all laser-scanning microscopes. Axial sectioning can be obtained with wavelength modulation or by controlling the spacer between the mirror and the specimen. With no additional complexity, the mirror-assisted excitation confinement enhanced the axial resolution six-fold and the lateral resolution two-fold for STED, which together achieved 19-nm resolution to resolve the inner rim of a nuclear pore complex and to discriminate the contents of 120 nm viral filaments. The ability to increase the lateral resolution and decrease the thickness of an axial section using mirror-enhanced STED without increasing the laser power is of great importance for imaging biological specimens, which cannot tolerate high laser power.

  12. Mirror-enhanced super-resolution microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xusan; Xie, Hao; Alonas, Eric; Liu, Yujia; Chen, Xuanze; Santangelo, Philip J; Ren, Qiushi; Xi, Peng; Jin, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Axial excitation confinement beyond the diffraction limit is crucial to the development of next-generation, super-resolution microscopy. STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) nanoscopy offers lateral super-resolution using a donut-beam depletion, but its axial resolution is still over 500 nm. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy is widely used for single-molecule localization, but its ability to detect molecules is limited to within the evanescent field of ~ 100 nm from the cell attachment surface. We find here that the axial thickness of the point spread function (PSF) during confocal excitation can be easily improved to 110 nm by replacing the microscopy slide with a mirror. The interference of the local electromagnetic field confined the confocal PSF to a 110-nm spot axially, which enables axial super-resolution with all laser-scanning microscopes. Axial sectioning can be obtained with wavelength modulation or by controlling the spacer between the mirror and the specimen. With no additional complexity, the mirror-assisted excitation confinement enhanced the axial resolution six-fold and the lateral resolution two-fold for STED, which together achieved 19-nm resolution to resolve the inner rim of a nuclear pore complex and to discriminate the contents of 120 nm viral filaments. The ability to increase the lateral resolution and decrease the thickness of an axial section using mirror-enhanced STED without increasing the laser power is of great importance for imaging biological specimens, which cannot tolerate high laser power. PMID:27398242

  13. High Spatial Resolution Commercial Satellite Imaging Product Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Blonski, Slawomir; Ross, Kenton W.; Stnaley, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center's Remote Sensing group has been characterizing privately owned high spatial resolution multispectral imaging systems, such as IKONOS, QuickBird, and OrbView-3. Natural and man made targets were used for spatial resolution, radiometric, and geopositional characterizations. Higher spatial resolution also presents significant adjacency effects for accurate reliable radiometry.

  14. Ultrathin high-resolution flexographic printing using nanoporous stamps

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanha; Sojoudi, Hossein; Zhao, Hangbo; Mariappan, Dhanushkodi; McKinley, Gareth H.; Gleason, Karen K.; Hart, A. John

    2016-01-01

    Since its invention in ancient times, relief printing, commonly called flexography, has been used to mass-produce artifacts ranging from decorative graphics to printed media. Now, higher-resolution flexography is essential to manufacturing low-cost, large-area printed electronics. However, because of contact-mediated liquid instabilities and spreading, the resolution of flexographic printing using elastomeric stamps is limited to tens of micrometers. We introduce engineered nanoporous microstructures, comprising polymer-coated aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), as a next-generation stamp material. We design and engineer the highly porous microstructures to be wetted by colloidal inks and to transfer a thin layer to a target substrate upon brief contact. We demonstrate printing of diverse micrometer-scale patterns of a variety of functional nanoparticle inks, including Ag, ZnO, WO3, and CdSe/ZnS, onto both rigid and compliant substrates. The printed patterns have highly uniform nanoscale thickness (5 to 50 nm) and match the stamp features with high fidelity (edge roughness, ~0.2 μm). We derive conditions for uniform printing based on nanoscale contact mechanics, characterize printed Ag lines and transparent conductors, and achieve continuous printing at a speed of 0.2 m/s. The latter represents a combination of resolution and throughput that far surpasses industrial printing technologies. PMID:27957542

  15. High-resolution two-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cousin, Samuel F; Charlier, Cyril; Kadeřávek, Pavel; Marquardsen, Thorsten; Tyburn, Jean-Max; Bovier, Pierre-Alain; Ulzega, Simone; Speck, Thomas; Wilhelm, Dirk; Engelke, Frank; Maas, Werner; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Pelupessy, Philippe; Ferrage, Fabien

    2016-12-07

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a ubiquitous branch of spectroscopy that can explore matter at the scale of an atom. Significant improvements in sensitivity and resolution have been driven by a steady increase of static magnetic field strengths. However, some properties of nuclei may be more favourable at low magnetic fields. For example, transverse relaxation due to chemical shift anisotropy increases sharply at higher magnetic fields leading to line-broadening and inefficient coherence transfers. Here, we present a two-field NMR spectrometer that permits the application of rf-pulses and acquisition of NMR signals in two magnetic centres. Our prototype operates at 14.1 T and 0.33 T. The main features of this system are demonstrated by novel NMR experiments, in particular a proof-of-concept correlation between zero-quantum coherences at low magnetic field and single quantum coherences at high magnetic field, so that high resolution can be achieved in both dimensions, despite a ca. 10 ppm inhomogeneity of the low-field centre. Two-field NMR spectroscopy offers the possibility to circumvent the limits of high magnetic fields, while benefiting from their exceptional sensitivity and resolution. This approach opens new avenues for NMR above 1 GHz.

  16. Ultrathin high-resolution flexographic printing using nanoporous stamps.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanha; Sojoudi, Hossein; Zhao, Hangbo; Mariappan, Dhanushkodi; McKinley, Gareth H; Gleason, Karen K; Hart, A John

    2016-12-01

    Since its invention in ancient times, relief printing, commonly called flexography, has been used to mass-produce artifacts ranging from decorative graphics to printed media. Now, higher-resolution flexography is essential to manufacturing low-cost, large-area printed electronics. However, because of contact-mediated liquid instabilities and spreading, the resolution of flexographic printing using elastomeric stamps is limited to tens of micrometers. We introduce engineered nanoporous microstructures, comprising polymer-coated aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), as a next-generation stamp material. We design and engineer the highly porous microstructures to be wetted by colloidal inks and to transfer a thin layer to a target substrate upon brief contact. We demonstrate printing of diverse micrometer-scale patterns of a variety of functional nanoparticle inks, including Ag, ZnO, WO3, and CdSe/ZnS, onto both rigid and compliant substrates. The printed patterns have highly uniform nanoscale thickness (5 to 50 nm) and match the stamp features with high fidelity (edge roughness, ~0.2 μm). We derive conditions for uniform printing based on nanoscale contact mechanics, characterize printed Ag lines and transparent conductors, and achieve continuous printing at a speed of 0.2 m/s. The latter represents a combination of resolution and throughput that far surpasses industrial printing technologies.

  17. High-resolution reconstruction for 3D SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianfang; Wen, Junhai; Lu, Hongbing; Li, Xiang; Liang, Zhengrong

    2003-05-01

    In this work, we have developed a new method for SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) image reconstruction, which has shown the potential to provide higher resolution results than any other conventional methods using the same projection data. Unlike the conventional FBP- (filtered backprojection) and EM- (expectation maximization) type algorithms, we utilize as much system response information as we can during the reconstruction process. This information can be pre-measured during the calibration process and stored in the computer. By selecting different sampling schemes for the point response measurement, different system kernel matrices are obtained. Reconstruction utilizing these kernels generates a set of reconstructed images of the same source. Based on these reconstructed images and their corresponding sampling schemes, we are able to achieve a high resolution final image that best represents the object. Because a uniform attenuation, resolution variation and some other effects are included during the formation of the system kernel matrices, the reconstruction from the acquired projection data also compensates for all these effects correctly.

  18. Extraction and labeling high-resolution images from PDF documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chachra, Suchet K.; Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2013-12-01

    Accuracy of content-based image retrieval is affected by image resolution among other factors. Higher resolution images enable extraction of image features that more accurately represent the image content. In order to improve the relevance of search results for our biomedical image search engine, Open-I, we have developed techniques to extract and label high-resolution versions of figures from biomedical articles supplied in the PDF format. Open-I uses the open-access subset of biomedical articles from the PubMed Central repository hosted by the National Library of Medicine. Articles are available in XML and in publisher supplied PDF formats. As these PDF documents contain little or no meta-data to identify the embedded images, the task includes labeling images according to their figure number in the article after they have been successfully extracted. For this purpose we use the labeled small size images provided with the XML web version of the article. This paper describes the image extraction process and two alternative approaches to perform image labeling that measure the similarity between two images based upon the image intensity projection on the coordinate axes and similarity based upon the normalized cross-correlation between the intensities of two images. Using image identification based on image intensity projection, we were able to achieve a precision of 92.84% and a recall of 82.18% in labeling of the extracted images.

  19. High-resolution Geophysical Mapping of Submarine Glacial Landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, M.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Canals, M.; Todd, B. J.; Dowdeswell, E. K.; Hogan, K. A.; Mayer, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacial landforms are generated from the activity of glaciers and display spatial dimensions ranging from below one meter up to tens of kilometers. Glacial landforms are used as diagnostic features of past activity of ice sheets and glaciers; they are specifically important in the field of palaeoglaciology. Mapping of submarine glacial landforms is largely dependent on geophysical survey methods capable of imaging the seafloor and sub-bottom through the water column. Full "global" seafloor mapping coverage, equivalent to what exists for land elevation, is to-date only achieved by the powerful method of deriving bathymetry from altimeters on satellites like GEOSAT and ERS-1. The lateral resolution of satellite derived bathymetry is, however, limited by the footprint of the satellite and the need to average out local wave and wind effects resulting in values of around 15 km. Consequently, mapping submarine glacial landforms requires for the most part higher resolution than is achievable by satellite derived bathymetry. The most widely-used methods for mapping submarine glacial landforms are based on echo-sounding principles. This presentation shows how the evolution of marine geophysical mapping techniques, in particular the advent of side-scan and multibeam bathymetric sonars, has made it possible to study submarine glacial landforms in unprecedented detail. Examples are shown from the Atlas of Submarine Glacial Landforms: Modern, Quaternary and Ancient, which will be published in late 2015 in the Memoir Series of the Geological Society of London.

  20. Higher-order phase shift reconstruction approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cong Wenxiang; Wang Ge

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: Biological soft tissues encountered in clinical and preclinical imaging mainly consists of atoms of light elements with low atomic numbers and their elemental composition is nearly uniform with little density variation. Hence, x-ray attenuation contrast is relatively poor and cannot achieve satisfactory sensitivity and specificity. In contrast, x-ray phase-contrast provides a new mechanism for soft tissue imaging. The x-ray phase shift of soft tissues is about a thousand times greater than the x-ray absorption over the diagnostic x-ray energy range, yielding a higher signal-to-noise ratio than the attenuation contrast counterpart. Thus, phase-contrast imaging is a promising technique to reveal detailed structural variation in soft tissues, offering a high contrast resolution between healthy and malignant tissues. Here the authors develop a novel phase retrieval method to reconstruct the phase image on the object plane from the intensity measurements. The reconstructed phase image is a projection of the phase shift induced by an object and serves as input to reconstruct the 3D refractive index distribution inside the object using a tomographic reconstruction algorithm. Such x-ray refractive index images can reveal structural features in soft tissues, with excellent resolution differentiating healthy and malignant tissues. Methods: A novel phase retrieval approach is proposed to reconstruct an x-ray phase image of an object based on the paraxial Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory. A primary advantage of the authors' approach is higher-order accuracy over that with the conventional linear approximation models, relaxing the current restriction of slow phase variation. The nonlinear terms in the autocorrelation equation of the Fresnel diffraction pattern are eliminated using intensity images measured at different distances in the Fresnel diffraction region, simplifying the phase reconstruction to a linear inverse problem. Numerical experiments are performed

  1. Achievement motivation and memory: achievement goals differentially influence immediate and delayed remember-know recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Kou; Elliot, Andrew J

    2011-10-01

    Little research has been conducted on achievement motivation and memory and, more specifically, on achievement goals and memory. In the present research, the authors conducted two experiments designed to examine the influence of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals on immediate and delayed remember-know recognition memory. The experiments revealed differential effects for achievement goals over time: Performance-approach goals showed higher correct remember responding on an immediate recognition test, whereas mastery-approach goals showed higher correct remember responding on a delayed recognition test. Achievement goals had no influence on overall recognition memory and no consistent influence on know responding across experiments. These findings indicate that it is important to consider quality, not just quantity, in both motivation and memory, when studying relations between these constructs.

  2. A novel time-multiplexed autostereoscopic multiview full resolution 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Jian-Chiun; Chen, Fu-Hao

    2012-03-01

    Many people believe that in the future, autostereoscopic 3D displays will become a mainstream display type. Achievement of higher quality 3D images requires both higher panel resolution and more viewing zones. Consequently, the transmission bandwidth of the 3D display systems involves enormous amounts of data transfer. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel time-multiplexed autostereoscopic multi-view full resolution 3D display based on the lenticular lens array in association with the control of the active dynamic LED backlight. The lenticular lenses of the lens array optical system receive the light and deflect the light into each viewing zone in a time sequence. The crosstalk under different observation scanning angles is showed, including the cases of 4-views field scanning. The crosstalk of any view zones is about 5% respectively; the results are better than other 3D type.

  3. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  4. The Economic Value of Higher Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    Most analyses of teacher quality end without any assessment of the economic value of altered teacher quality. This paper combines information about teacher effectiveness with the economic impact of higher achievement. It begins with an overview of what is known about the relationship between teacher quality and student achievement. This provides…

  5. Ultra-High Resolution Ion Mobility Separations Utilizing Traveling Waves in a 13 m Serpentine Path Length Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations Module.

    PubMed

    Deng, Liulin; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Hamid, Ahmed M; Garimella, Sandilya V B; Webb, Ian K; Zheng, Xueyun; Prost, Spencer A; Sandoval, Jeremy A; Norheim, Randolph V; Anderson, Gordon A; Tolmachev, Aleksey V; Baker, Erin S; Smith, Richard D

    2016-09-20

    We report the development and initial evaluation of a 13 m path length Structures for Lossless Manipulations (SLIM) module for achieving high resolution separations using traveling waves (TW) with ion mobility (IM) spectrometry. The TW SLIM module was fabricated using two mirror-image printed circuit boards with appropriately configured RF, DC, and TW electrodes and positioned with a 2.75 mm intersurface gap. Ions were effectively confined in field-generated conduits between the surfaces by RF-generated pseudopotential fields and moved losslessly through a serpentine path including 44 "U" turns using TWs. The ion mobility resolution was characterized at different pressures, gaps between the SLIM surfaces, and TW and RF parameters. After initial optimization, the SLIM IM-MS module provided about 5-fold higher resolution separations than present commercially available drift tube or traveling wave IM-MS platforms. Peak capacity and peak generation rates achieved were 246 and 370 s(-1), respectively, at a TW speed of 148 m/s. The high resolution achieved in the TW SLIM IM-MS enabled, e.g., isomeric sugars (lacto-N-fucopentaose I and lacto-N-fucopentaose II) to be baseline resolved, and peptides from an albumin tryptic digest were much better resolved than with existing commercial IM-MS platforms. The present work also provides a foundation for the development of much higher resolution SLIM devices based upon both considerably longer path lengths and multipass designs.

  6. Ultra-High Resolution Ion Mobility Separations Utilizing Traveling Waves in a 13 m Serpentine Path Length Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations Module

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Liulin; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Hamid, Ahmed M.; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Webb, Ian K.; Zheng, Xueyun; Prost, Spencer A.; Sandoval, Jeremy A.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Baker, Erin S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-09-20

    We report the development and initial evaluation of a 13-m path length Structures for Lossless Manipulations (SLIM) module for achieving high resolution separations using traveling waves (TW) with ion mobility (IM) spectrometry. The TW SLIM module was fabricated using two mirror-image printed circuit boards with appropriately configured RF, DC and TW electrodes and positioned with a 2.75-mm inter-surface gap. Ions were effective confined between the surfaces by RF-generated pseudopotential fields and moved losslessly through a serpentine path including 44 “U” turns using TWs. The ion mobility resolution was characterized at different pressures, gaps between the SLIM surfaces, TW and RF parameters. After initial optimization the SLIM IM-MS module provided about 5-fold higher resolution separations than present commercially available drift tube or traveling wave IM-MS platforms. Peak capacity and peak generation rates achieved were 246 and 370 s-1, respectively, at a TW speed of 148 m/s. The high resolution achieved in the TW SLIM IM-MS enabled e.g., isomeric sugars (Lacto-N-fucopentaose I and Lacto-N-fucopentaose II) to be baseline resolved, and peptides from a albumin tryptic digest much better resolved than with existing commercial IM-MS platforms. The present work also provides a foundation for the development of much higher resolution SLIM devices based upon both considerably longer path lengths and multi-pass designs.

  7. Effects on High School Students of Conflict Resolution Training Integrated into English Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevahn, Laurie; Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.; Green, Kathy; Laginski, Anne Marie

    1997-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of a conflict-resolution program in raising the academic achievement of a suburban Canadian high school English class. Argues that the conflict-resolution training raised academic performance at the same time that it taught conflict-resolution techniques. Suggests incorporating conflict-resolution training into core high…

  8. Resolution of a target-tracking optical novelty filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Duncan T. H.; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1991-01-01

    The resolution of a target-tracking optical novelty filter is discussed in terms of the response time of the nonlinear medium, the speed of the target, and the resolution of the input device. Optical novelty filters using a faster nonlinear medium may have a higher output resolution. This is particularly true in the case of tracking high-speed targets. The potential of implementing high-resolution optical novelty filters using photorefractive GaAs is investigated experimentally.

  9. Higher Education Exchange, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  10. Higher Education Exchange, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The Higher Education Exchange is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the Higher Education Exchange publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

  11. Higher Education Exchange, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that not only does higher education not see the public; when the public, in turn, looks at higher education, it sees mostly malaise, inefficiencies, expense, and unfulfilled promises. Yet, the contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" tell of bright spots in higher education where experiments in working…

  12. Higher Education Exchange, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  13. Higher Education Exchange, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  14. Higher Education Exchange, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  15. Super-resolution imaging in live cells.

    PubMed

    Cox, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Over the last twenty years super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has gone from proof-of-concept experiments to commercial systems being available in many labs, improving the resolution achievable by up to a factor of 10 or more. There are three major approaches to super-resolution, stimulated emission depletion microscopy, structured illumination microscopy, and localisation microscopy, which have all produced stunning images of cellular structures. A major current challenge is optimising performance of each technique so that the same sort of data can be routinely taken in live cells. There are several major challenges, particularly phototoxicity and the speed with which images of whole cells, or groups of cells, can be acquired. In this review we discuss the various approaches which can be successfully used in live cells, the tradeoffs in resolution, speed, and ease of implementation which one must make for each approach, and the quality of results that one might expect from each technique.

  16. High resolution in galaxy photometry and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, J.-L.; Lelievre, G.

    Techniques for increasing the resolution of ground-based photometric observations of galaxies are discussed. The theoretical limitations on resolution and their implications for choosing telescope size at a given site considered, with an emphasis on the importance of the Fried (1966) parameter r0. The techniques recommended are shortening exposure time, selection of the highest-resolution images, and a posteriori digital image processing (as opposed to active-mirror image stabilization or the cine-CCD system of Fort et al., 1984). The value of the increased resolution (by a factor of 2) achieved at Pic du Midi observatory for studies of detailed structure in extragalactic objects, for determining the distance to galaxies, and for probing the central cores of galaxies is indicated.

  17. Invariant high resolution optical skin imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, Supraja; Rolland, Jannick

    2007-02-01

    Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) is a bio-medical low coherence interferometric imaging technique that has become a topic of active research because of its ability to provide accurate, non-invasive cross-sectional images of biological tissue with much greater resolution than the current common technique ultrasound. OCM is a derivative of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) that enables greater resolution imposed by the implementation of an optical confocal design involving high numerical aperture (NA) focusing in the sample. The primary setback of OCM, however is the depth dependence of the lateral resolution obtained that arises from the smaller depth of focus of the high NA beam. We propose to overcome this limitation using a dynamic focusing lens design that can achieve quasi-invariant lateral resolution up to 1.5mm depth of skin tissue.

  18. Automated conflict resolution issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  19. High-resolution laser spectroscopy with the Collinear Resonance Ionisation Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at CERN-ISOLDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocolios, T. E.; de Groote, R. P.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M. L.; Budinčević, I.; Day Goodacre, T.; Farooq-Smith, G. J.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Gins, W.; Heylen, H.; Kron, T.; Li, R.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Neyens, G.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Smith, A. J.; Stroke, H. H.; Wendt, K. D. A.; Wilkins, S. G.; Yang, X.

    2016-06-01

    The Collinear Resonance Ionisation Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at CERN has achieved high-resolution resonance ionisation laser spectroscopy with a full width at half maximum linewidth of 20(1) MHz for 219,221 Fr, and has measured isotopes as short lived as 5 ms with 214 Fr. This development allows for greater precision in the study of hyperfine structures and isotope shifts, as well as a higher selectivity of single-isotope, even single-isomer, beams. These achievements are linked with the development of a new laser laboratory and new data-acquisition systems.

  20. High-resolution pulsed-field ionization photoelectron spectroscopy using multi-bunch synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.W.; Evans, M.; Ng, C.Y.; Heimann, P.

    1997-04-01

    BL9.0.2.2 is the newly constructed experimental End Station 2 at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS). It is dedicated to the high resolution photoionization study of molecules of interest to atmospheric and combustion chemistry. This End Station is equipped with a high resolution scanning monochromator, which has been demonstrated to have a world record resolution of E/{delta}E=70,000. Taking the advantage of the high resolution ALS light, the authors have improved the energy resolution in threshold photoelectron spectroscopy (TPES) to 0.8 meV. The TPES is a popular technique for photoionization experiments at all synchrotron radiation facilities due to its high energy resolution as compared to that of traditional photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). TPES achieves higher energy resolution by preferentially detecting near zero kinetic energy photoelectrons resulting from threshold photoionization. However, the spectra obtained from the TPES technique generally are complicated by the simultaneous detection of electrons with nonzero kinetic energy, which are not fully discriminated against. On the other hand, the spectra obtained from pulsed field ionization photoelectron spectroscopy (PFI-PES) are completely free of the contamination from kinetic electrons. The PFI-PE technique basically involves the detection of the photoelectrons from field ionization of the very high-n Rydberg states, a few cm{sup {minus}1} below the ionization energy (IE), by applying a delayed pulsed electric field. Within a delay of a few microseconds, all the prompt electrons formed from direct ionization will escape from the photoionization region and will not be collected. The authors have recently overcome problems with energy resolution of an electron time-of-flight technique, and incorporated the PFI-PE technique with multi-bunch VUV synchrotron radiation.

  1. The Mechanics of Human Achievement.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Ungar, Lyle H

    2015-07-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers.

  2. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  3. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  4. Improved reduced-resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, James; Milstein, Jaime

    1995-01-01

    The resolution of satellite imagery is often traded-off to satisfy transmission time and bandwidth, memory, and display limitations. Although there are many ways to achieve the same reduction in resolution, algorithms vary in their ability to preserve the visual quality of the original imagery. These issues are investigated in the context of the Landsat browse system, which permits the user to preview a reduced resolution version of a Landsat image. Wavelets-based techniques for resolution reduction are proposed as alternatives to subsampling used in the current system. Experts judged imagery generated by the wavelets-based methods visually superior, confirming initial quantitative results. In particular, compared to subsampling, the wavelets-based techniques were much less likely to obscure roads, transmission lines, and other linear features present in the original image, introduce artifacts and noise, and otherwise reduce the usefulness of the image. The wavelets-based techniques afford multiple levels of resolution reduction and computational speed. This study is applicable to a wide range of reduced resolution applications in satellite imaging systems, including low resolution display, spaceborne browse, emergency image transmission, and real-time video downlinking.

  5. A high-resolution time-to-digital converter using a three-level resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, Asma; Saneei, Mohsen; Mahani, Ali

    2016-08-01

    In this article, a three-level resolution Vernier delay line time-to-digital converter (TDC) was proposed. The proposed TDC core was based on the pseudo-differential digital architecture that made it insensitive to nMOS and pMOS transistor mismatches. It also employed a Vernier delay line (VDL) in conjunction with an asynchronous read-out circuitry. The time interval resolution was equal to the difference of delay between buffers of upper and lower chains. Then, via the extra chain included in the lower delay line, resolution was controlled and power consumption was reduced. This method led to high resolution and low power consumption. The measurement results of TDC showed a resolution of 4.5 ps, 12-bit output dynamic range, and integral nonlinearity of 1.5 least significant bits. This TDC achieved the consumption of 68.43 µW from 1.1-V supply.

  6. Improved Imaging Resolution in Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2008-01-01

    Imaging resolution of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was investigated using printed patterns on paper and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate surfaces. Resolution approaching 40 m was achieved with a typical DESI-MS setup, which is approximately 5 times better than the best resolution reported previously. This improvement was accomplished with careful control of operational parameters (particularly spray tip-to-surface distance, solvent flow rate, and spacing of lane scans). Also, an appropriately strong analyte/surface interaction and uniform surface texture on the size scale no larger that the desired imaging resolution were required to achieve this resolution. Overall, conditions providing the smallest possible effective desorption/ionization area in the DESI impact plume region and minimizing the analyte redistribution on the surface during analysis led to the improved DESI-MS imaging resolution.

  7. The Centrality of Engagement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Bruns, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.; Furco, Andrew; Swanson, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The centrality of engagement is critical to the success of higher education in the future. Engagement is essential to most effectively achieving the overall purpose of the university, which is focused on the knowledge enterprise. Today's engagement is scholarly, is an aspect of learning and discovery, and enhances society and higher education.…

  8. The Centrality of Engagement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Bruns, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.; Furco, Andrew; Swanson, Louis

    2012-01-01

    The centrality of engagement is critical to the success of higher education in the future. Engagement is essential to most effectively achieving the overall purpose of the university, which is focused on the knowledge enterprise. Today's engagement is scholarly, is an aspect of learning and discovery, and enhances society and higher education.…

  9. 2016 Nebraska Higher Education Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska's Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Nebraska Higher Education Progress Report is the 12th annual progress report designed to provide the Nebraska Legislature with comparative statistics to monitor and evaluate progress toward achieving three key priorities for Nebraska's postsecondary education system. These priorities were developed by the 2003 LR 174 Higher Education Task…

  10. Higher Education and the State in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    How and why the expansion and reorientation in Cuban higher education has taken place is noted, and continuing problems and emerging trends are assessed. Few developing countries can match Cuban achievements in higher education, which has advanced to levels characteristic of developed societies. Ideological orientations of historical trends are…

  11. High Resolution X-Ray Astronomy in the Far Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Perhaps the best resolution that grazing incidence optics can achieve is 100 marcsec. Further improvement may be obtainable with a technology based on diffractive-refractive transmitting optics. The telescope would be light weight and inexpensive. However, the focal length is ~1000 km so mission operations are challenging. The optics and detector are aboard separate S/C. Aligning the two S/C and changing targets require propulsion engines. A low thrust engine, ~50 microN can neutralize gravity gradients to maintain the telescope-detector alignment. A higher thrust engine, ~50 miliN is needed to change targets within a time of 100,000 seconds. The large focal plane scale limits the field of view in practice to less than an arc second.

  12. High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Truong, D. D.; Austin, M. E.

    2014-11-15

    The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of T{sub e}(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83–130 GHz. The frequency spacing of the radiometer's channels results in a spatial resolution of ∼1–3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6–0.8 cm) resolution T{sub e} measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels’ IF bands and consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2–4 GHz range. Higher spatial resolution is achieved through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters’ center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83–130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a “zoomed-in” analysis of a ∼2–4 cm radial region. Expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial T{sub e} measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, are presented.

  13. High Spectral Resolution, High Cadence, Imaging X-Ray Microcalorimeters for Solar Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandler, Simon R.; Bailey, Catherine N.; Bookbinder, Jay A.; DeLuca, Edward E.; Chervenak, Jay A.; Eckart, Megan E.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Daniel P.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Sadleir, Jack E.; Smith, Stephen J.; Smith, Randall K.

    2010-01-01

    High spectral resolution, high cadence, imaging x-ray spectroscopy has the potential to revolutionize the study of the solar corona. To that end we have been developing transition-edge-sensor (TES) based x-ray micro calorimeter arrays for future solar physics missions where imaging and high energy resolution spectroscopy will enable previously impossible studies of the dynamics and energetics of the solar corona. The characteristics of these x-ray microcalorimeters are significantly different from conventional micro calorimeters developed for astrophysics because they need to accommodate much higher count rates (300-1000 cps) while maintaining high energy resolution of less than 4 eV FWHM in the X-ray energy band of 0.2-10 keV. The other main difference is a smaller pixel size (less than 75 x 75 square microns) than is typical for x-ray micro calorimeters in order to provide angular resolution less than 1 arcsecond. We have achieved at energy resolution of 2.15 eV at 6 keV in a pixel with a 12 x 12 square micron TES sensor and 34 x 34 x 9.1 micron gold absorber, and a resolution of 2.30 eV at 6 keV in a pixel with a 35 x 35 micron TES and a 57 x 57 x 9.1 micron gold absorber. This performance has been achieved in pixels that are fabricated directly onto solid substrates, ie. they are not supported by silicon nitride membranes. We present the results from these detectors, the expected performance at high count-rates, and prospects for the use of this technology for future Solar missions.

  14. Mapping atomic motions with ultrabright electrons: towards fundamental limits in space-time resolution.

    PubMed

    Manz, Stephanie; Casandruc, Albert; Zhang, Dongfang; Zhong, Yinpeng; Loch, Rolf A; Marx, Alexander; Hasegawa, Taisuke; Liu, Lai Chung; Bayesteh, Shima; Delsim-Hashemi, Hossein; Hoffmann, Matthias; Felber, Matthias; Hachmann, Max; Mayet, Frank; Hirscht, Julian; Keskin, Sercan; Hada, Masaki; Epp, Sascha W; Flöttmann, Klaus; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2015-01-01

    The long held objective of directly observing atomic motions during the defining moments of chemistry has been achieved based on ultrabright electron sources that have given rise to a new field of atomically resolved structural dynamics. This class of experiments requires not only simultaneous sub-atomic spatial resolution with temporal resolution on the 100 femtosecond time scale but also has brightness requirements approaching single shot atomic resolution conditions. The brightness condition is in recognition that chemistry leads generally to irreversible changes in structure during the experimental conditions and that the nanoscale thin samples needed for electron structural probes pose upper limits to the available sample or "film" for atomic movies. Even in the case of reversible systems, the degree of excitation and thermal effects require the brightest sources possible for a given space-time resolution to observe the structural changes above background. Further progress in the field, particularly to the study of biological systems and solution reaction chemistry, requires increased brightness and spatial coherence, as well as an ability to tune the electron scattering cross-section to meet sample constraints. The electron bunch density or intensity depends directly on the magnitude of the extraction field for photoemitted electron sources and electron energy distribution in the transverse and longitudinal planes of electron propagation. This work examines the fundamental limits to optimizing these parameters based on relativistic electron sources using re-bunching cavity concepts that are now capable of achieving 10 femtosecond time scale resolution to capture the fastest nuclear motions. This analysis is given for both diffraction and real space imaging of structural dynamics in which there are several orders of magnitude higher space-time resolution with diffraction methods. The first experimental results from the Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic

  15. High-resolution parallel optical coherence tomography in scattering samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubscher, M.; Ducros, Mathieu G.; Karamata, Boris; Bourquin, Stephane; Lasser, Theo

    2001-11-01

    Parallel optical coherence tomography in scattering samples is demonstrated using a 58 by 58 smart-pixel detector array. A femtosecond mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser in combination with a free space Michelson interferometer was employed to achieve 4micrometers longitudinal resolution and 9mm transverse resolution on a 260x260 micrometers 2 field of view. We imaged a resolution target covered by an intralipid solution with different scattering coefficients as well as onion cells.

  16. EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT AND THE NAVAJO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAAS, JOHN; MELVILLE, ROBERT

    A STUDY WAS DEVISED TO APPRAISE THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF NAVAJO STUDENTS LIVING IN DORMITORIES AWAY FROM THE INDIAN RESERVATION. THE FOLLOWING SEVEN FACTORS WERE CHOSEN TO BE INVESTIGATED AS BEING DIRECTLY RELATED TO ACHIEVEMENT--(1) INTELLIGENCE, (2) READING ABILITY, (3) ANXIETY, (4) SELF-CONCEPT, (5) MOTIVATION, (6) VERBAL DEVELOPMENT, (7)…

  17. Sociocultural Origins of Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theoretical review of work on sociocultural influences on achievement, focusing on a critical evaluation of the work of David McClellan. Offers an alternative conception of achievement motivation which stresses the role of contextual and situational factors in addition to personality factors. Available from: Transaction Periodicals…

  18. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do…

  19. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  20. Early Intervention and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hormes, Mridula T.

    2009-01-01

    The United States Department of Education has been rigorous in holding all states accountable with regard to student achievement. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 clearly laid out federal mandates for all schools to follow. K-12 leaders of public schools are very aware of the fact that results in terms of student achievement need to improve…

  1. Asperger Syndrome and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Deborah E.; Barnhill, Gena P.; Myles, Brenda Smith; Hagiwara, Taku; Simpson, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    A study focused on identifying the academic characteristics of 21 children and youth who have Asperger syndrome. Students had an extraordinary range of academic achievement scores, extending from significantly above average to far below grade level. Lowest achievement scores were shown for numerical operations, listening comprehension, and written…

  2. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  3. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  4. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  5. School-Community Relations, Community Support, and Student Achievement: A Summary of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, B. Dean

    Summaries of four studies on school community relations, student achievement and community support are provided in this report. The studies abstracted are: (1) "School-Community Relations, Student Achievement, and Conflict Resolution," by John E. Ingram, Jr.; (2) "School-Community Relations and Student Achievement in Communities of Differing…

  6. Three-dimensional super-resolution protein localization correlated with vitrified cellular context

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bei; Xue, Yanhong; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Yan; Fan, Chunyan; Gu, Lusheng; Zhang, Yongdeng; Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Lei; Huang, Xiaojun; Ding, Wei; Sun, Fei; Ji, Wei; Xu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of cryogenic super-resolution correlative light and electron microscopy (csCLEM) to precisely determine the spatial relationship between proteins and their native cellular structures. Several fluorescent proteins (FPs) were found to be photoswitchable and emitted far more photons under our cryogenic imaging condition, resulting in higher localization precision which is comparable to ambient super-resolution imaging. Vitrified specimens were prepared by high pressure freezing and cryo-sectioning to maintain a near-native state with better fluorescence preservation. A 2-3-fold improvement of resolution over the recent reports was achieved due to the photon budget performance of screening out Dronpa and optimized imaging conditions, even with thin sections which is at a disadvantage when calculate the structure resolution from label density. We extended csCLEM to mammalian cells by introducing cryo-sectioning and observed good correlation of a mitochondrial protein with the mitochondrial outer membrane at nanometer resolution in three dimensions. PMID:26462878

  7. Hyperspectral Imagery Super-Resolution by Compressive Sensing Inspired Dictionary Learning and Spatial-Spectral Regularization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Hongyi; Wei, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Due to the instrumental and imaging optics limitations, it is difficult to acquire high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery (HSI). Super-resolution (SR) imagery aims at inferring high quality images of a given scene from degraded versions of the same scene. This paper proposes a novel hyperspectral imagery super-resolution (HSI-SR) method via dictionary learning and spatial-spectral regularization. The main contributions of this paper are twofold. First, inspired by the compressive sensing (CS) framework, for learning the high resolution dictionary, we encourage stronger sparsity on image patches and promote smaller coherence between the learned dictionary and sensing matrix. Thus, a sparsity and incoherence restricted dictionary learning method is proposed to achieve higher efficiency sparse representation. Second, a variational regularization model combing a spatial sparsity regularization term and a new local spectral similarity preserving term is proposed to integrate the spectral and spatial-contextual information of the HSI. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively recover spatial information and better preserve spectral information. The high spatial resolution HSI reconstructed by the proposed method outperforms reconstructed results by other well-known methods in terms of both objective measurements and visual evaluation. PMID:25608212

  8. Bayesian Deconvolution for Angular Super-Resolution in Forward-Looking Scanning Radar

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Yuebo; Huang, Yulin; Sun, Zhichao; Wang, Yue; Yang, Jianyu

    2015-01-01

    Scanning radar is of notable importance for ground surveillance, terrain mapping and disaster rescue. However, the angular resolution of a scanning radar image is poor compared to the achievable range resolution. This paper presents a deconvolution algorithm for angular super-resolution in scanning radar based on Bayesian theory, which states that the angular super-resolution can be realized by solving the corresponding deconvolution problem with the maximum a posteriori (MAP) criterion. The algorithm considers that the noise is composed of two mutually independent parts, i.e., a Gaussian signal-independent component and a Poisson signal-dependent component. In addition, the Laplace distribution is used to represent the prior information about the targets under the assumption that the radar image of interest can be represented by the dominant scatters in the scene. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed deconvolution algorithm has higher precision for angular super-resolution compared with the conventional algorithms, such as the Tikhonov regularization algorithm, the Wiener filter and the Richardson–Lucy algorithm. PMID:25806871

  9. A method for achieving super-resolved widefield CARS microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hajek, Kim M; Littleton, Brad; Turk, Douglas; McIntyre, Timothy J; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2010-08-30

    We propose a scheme for achieving widefield coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy images with sub-diffraction-limited resolution. This approach adds structured illumination to the widefield CARS configuration [Applied Physics Letters 84, 816 (2004)]. By capturing a number of images at different phases of the standing wave pattern, an image with up to three times the resolution of the original can be constructed. We develop a theoretical treatment of this system and perform numerical simulations for a typical CARS system, which indicate that resolutions around 120 nm are obtainable with the present scheme. As an imaging system, this method combines the advantages of sub-diffraction-limited resolution, endogenous contrast generation, and a wide field of view.

  10. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  11. Disorders in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Clarence C.; Bolman, Frederick deW.

    Conditions affecting the moral and intellectual integrity of American colleges and universities are discussed in a series of papers collected from the 56th American Assembly on "The Integrity of Higher Education." An erosion of public confidence in higher education is noted and it is suggested that the expectations of higher education have not…

  12. Lincoln's Spot Resolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

    1988-01-01

    Examines the events leading to and immediately following the declaration of war on Mexico in 1846. Includes the second and third pages of Abraham Lincoln's "Spot Resolutions" and presents teaching suggestions for interpreting the document and assessing public opinion. (GEA)

  13. High-Resolution Autoradiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towe, George C; Gomberg, Henry J; Freemen, J W

    1955-01-01

    This investigation was made to adapt wet-process autoradiography to metallurgical samples to obtain high resolution of segregated radioactive elements in microstructures. Results are confined to development of the technique, which was perfected to a resolution of less than 10 microns. The radioactive samples included carbon-14 carburized iron and steel, nickel-63 electroplated samples, a powder product containing nickel-63, and tungsten-185 in N-155 alloy.

  14. Ultra high resolution tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  15. High Resolution Computed Tomography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-31

    samples. 14. SUBJECTTERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 38 High Resolution, Microfocus , Characterization, X - Ray , Micrography, Computed Tomography (CT), Failure...high resolutions (50 g.tm feature sensitivity) when a small field of view (50 mm) is used [11]. Specially designed detectors and a microfocus X - ray ...Wright Laboratories. Feldkamp [14] at Ford used a microfocus X - ray source and an X - ray image intensifier to develop a system capable of 20 g.m

  16. Longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on adolescents' academic achievements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun-Shia; Cheng, Ying-Yao; Chen, Yi-Ling; Wu, Yuh-Yih

    2009-01-01

    This study used nationwide data from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS) to examine the longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on the academic achievements of adolescents. The sample included 2,000 Taiwanese secondary school students, each of whom completed three waves of questionnaires and cognitive tests: the first in grade 7 (in 2001), the second in grade 9 (in 2003), and the third in grade 11 (in 2005). Through multilevel longitudinal analysis, the results showed: (1) educational expectations accounted for a moderate amount of the variance in academic achievements; (2) students with high educational expectations and effort attribution exhibited higher growth rates in their academic achievements; and (3) studentswith lower educational expectations and those attributing success to others showed significantly fewer academic achievements and significantly lower growth rates in such achievements. The results demonstrated that adolescents' educational expectations and achievement attributions play crucial roles in the long-term course of academic accomplishments. Implications for educational practice and further studies are also discussed.

  17. Classical imaging theory of a microlens with super-resolution.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yubo; Barbastathis, George; Zhang, Baile

    2013-08-15

    Super-resolution in imaging through a transparent spherical microlens has attracted lots of attention because of recent promising experimental results with remarkable resolution improvement. To provide physical insight for this super-resolution phenomenon, previous studies adopted a phenomenological explanation mainly based on the super-focusing effect of a photonic nanojet, while a direct imaging calculation with classical imaging theory has rarely been studied. Here we theoretically model the imaging process through a microlens with vectorial electromagnetic analysis, and then exclude the previously plausible explanation of super-resolution based on the super-focusing effect. The results showed that, in the context of classical imaging theory subject to the two-point resolution criterion, a microlens with a perfect spherical shape cannot achieve the experimentally verified sub-100 nm resolution. Therefore, there must be some other physical mechanisms that contribute to the reported ultrahigh resolution but have not been revealed in theory.

  18. Super-resolution benefit for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shuowen; Maschal, Robert; Young, S. Susan; Hong, Tsai Hong; Phillips, Jonathon P.

    2011-06-01

    Vast amounts of video footage are being continuously acquired by surveillance systems on private premises, commercial properties, government compounds, and military installations. Facial recognition systems have the potential to identify suspicious individuals on law enforcement watchlists, but accuracy is severely hampered by the low resolution of typical surveillance footage and the far distance of suspects from the cameras. To improve accuracy, super-resolution can enhance suspect details by utilizing a sequence of low resolution frames from the surveillance footage to reconstruct a higher resolution image for input into the facial recognition system. This work measures the improvement of face recognition with super-resolution in a realistic surveillance scenario. Low resolution and super-resolved query sets are generated using a video database at different eye-to-eye distances corresponding to different distances of subjects from the camera. Performance of a face recognition algorithm using the super-resolved and baseline query sets was calculated by matching against galleries consisting of frontal mug shots. The results show that super-resolution improves performance significantly at the examined mid and close ranges.

  19. Super-resolution imaging in remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qiuhua; Shao, Xiaopeng; Peng, Ligen; Wang, Yi; Wang, Lin

    2015-05-01

    A new effective image super resolution (SR) algorithm which is a hybrid of multiple frame Variational Bayesian (VB) reconstruction and single frame Dictionary Learning (DL) reconstruction method is developed to reconstruct a high resolution (HR) satellite image in this article. Firstly, by employing a variational Bayesian analysis, the unknown high resolution image, the acquisition process, the motion parameters and the unknown model parameters are built together in a single mathematical model with a Bayesian formula, and then the distributions of all unknowns are jointly estimated. Without any parameter adjustment, an HR image is adaptively reconstructed from multiple frame low resolution (LR) images. Secondly, by taking the above HR image as input, a higher resolution image can be rebuilt utilizing the statistical correlation between the HR and LR images which is obtained via the DL method. The VB method effectively uses non-redundant information between LR images to recover HR satellite images. Benefit from the dictionary training of magnanimity image, the DL algorithm is able to provide more high-frequency image details, which means this hybrid of VB and DL method combines the above advantages. The experiments show that this proposed algorithm can effectively increase the image resolution of remote sensing images by 0.5times at least comparing with low resolution image.

  20. High-resolution DPP-BOTDA over 50 km LEAF using return-to-zero coded pulses.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hao; Li, Wenhai; Linze, Nicolas; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2010-05-15

    Coded optical probe pulses in return-to-zero/non-return-to-zero (RZ/NRZ) formats are used for long-range distance sensing based on a differential pulse-width pair Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (DPP-BOTDA) in order to enhance the spatial resolution and measurement accuracy. It is found that using the RZ format maintains the Brillouin spectral shape, enhances the sensing range and leads to a higher signal-to-noise ratio compared to a single-pulse Brillouin optical time-domain analysis. With 512 bit RZ-coded pulse pairs of 60/55 ns for the DPP-BOTDA, a spatial resolution of approximately 0.5 m and a strain resolution of 12 microepsilon (which is equivalent to a 0.7 MHz Brillouin frequency shift) have been achieved over a 50 km large effective area fiber.

  1. A Simple Two Aircraft Conflict Resolution Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano B.

    2006-01-01

    Conflict detection and resolution methods are crucial for distributed air-ground traffic management in which the crew in, the cockpit, dispatchers in operation control centers sad and traffic controllers in the ground-based air traffic management facilities share information and participate in the traffic flow and traffic control functions. This paper describes a conflict detection, and a conflict resolution method. The conflict detection method predicts the minimum separation and the time-to-go to the closest point of approach by assuming that both the aircraft will continue to fly at their current speeds along their current headings. The conflict resolution method described here is motivated by the proportional navigation algorithm, which is often used for missile guidance during the terminal phase. It generates speed and heading commands to rotate the line-of-sight either clockwise or counter-clockwise for conflict resolution. Once the aircraft achieve a positive range-rate and no further conflict is predicted, the algorithm generates heading commands to turn back the aircraft to their nominal trajectories. The speed commands are set to the optimal pre-resolution speeds. Six numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the conflict detection, and the conflict resolution methods.

  2. A Simple Two Aircraft Conflict Resolution Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano B.

    1999-01-01

    Conflict detection and resolution methods are crucial for distributed air-ground traffic management in which the crew in the cockpit, dispatchers in operation control centers and air traffic controllers in the ground-based air traffic management facilities share information and participate in the traffic flow and traffic control imctions.This paper describes a conflict detection and a conflict resolution method. The conflict detection method predicts the minimum separation and the time-to-go to the closest point of approach by assuming that both the aircraft will continue to fly at their current speeds along their current headings. The conflict resolution method described here is motivated by the proportional navigation algorithm. It generates speed and heading commands to rotate the line-of-sight either clockwise or counter-clockwise for conflict resolution. Once the aircraft achieve a positive range-rate and no further conflict is predicted, the algorithm generates heading commands to turn back the aircraft to their nominal trajectories. The speed commands are set to the optimal pre-resolution speeds. Six numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the conflict detection and resolution method.

  3. On Bayesian adaptive video super resolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ce; Sun, Deqing

    2014-02-01

    Although multiframe super resolution has been extensively studied in past decades, super resolving real-world video sequences still remains challenging. In existing systems, either the motion models are oversimplified or important factors such as blur kernel and noise level are assumed to be known. Such models cannot capture the intrinsic characteristics that may differ from one sequence to another. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian approach to adaptive video super resolution via simultaneously estimating underlying motion, blur kernel, and noise level while reconstructing the original high-resolution frames. As a result, our system not only produces very promising super resolution results outperforming the state of the art, but also adapts to a variety of noise levels and blur kernels. To further analyze the effect of noise and blur kernel, we perform a two-step analysis using the Cramer-Rao bounds. We study how blur kernel and noise influence motion estimation with aliasing signals, how noise affects super resolution with perfect motion, and finally how blur kernel and noise influence super resolution with unknown motion. Our analysis results confirm empirical observations, in particular that an intermediate size blur kernel achieves the optimal image reconstruction results.

  4. Optical super-resolution microscopy in neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Sigrist, Stephan J; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the highly plastic nature of neurons requires the dynamic visualization of their molecular and cellular organization in a native context. However, due to the limited resolution of standard light microscopy, many of the structural specializations of neurons cannot be resolved. A recent revolution in light microscopy has given rise to several super-resolution light microscopy methods yielding 2-10-fold higher resolution than conventional microscopy. We here describe the principles behind these techniques as well as their application to the analysis of the molecular architecture of the synapse. Furthermore, we discuss the potential for continued development of super-resolution microscopy as necessary for live imaging of neuronal structure and function in the brain.

  5. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  6. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  7. Achieving Efficiencies in Army Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    34" ’■■"■" 1 USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT Achieving Efficiencies in Army Installations by Richard Fliss Col. Richard M. Meinhart Project...government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT ACHIEVING EFFICIENCIES IN ARMY INSTALLATIONS BY RICHARD FLISS DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved...for public release. Distribution is unlimited. DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED & USAWC CLASS OF 1998 U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE, CARLISLE BARRACKS, PA 17013-5050

  8. High resolution time interval counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Victor S.; Davis, Dick D.; Lombardi, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, we have developed two types of high resolution, multi-channel time interval counters. In the NIST two-way time transfer MODEM application, the counter is designed for operating primarily in the interrupt-driven mode, with 3 start channels and 3 stop channels. The intended start and stop signals are 1 PPS, although other frequencies can also be applied to start and stop the count. The time interval counters used in the NIST Frequency Measurement and Analysis System are implemented with 7 start channels and 7 stop channels. Four of the 7 start channels are devoted to the frequencies of 1 MHz, 5 MHz or 10 MHz, while triggering signals to all other start and stop channels can range from 1 PPS to 100 kHz. Time interval interpolation plays a key role in achieving the high resolution time interval measurements for both counters. With a 10 MHz time base, both counters demonstrate a single-shot resolution of better than 40 ps, and a stability of better than 5 x 10(exp -12) (sigma(sub chi)(tau)) after self test of 1000 seconds). The maximum rate of time interval measurements (with no dead time) is 1.0 kHz for the counter used in the MODEM application and is 2.0 kHz for the counter used in the Frequency Measurement and Analysis System. The counters are implemented as plug-in units for an AT-compatible personal computer. This configuration provides an efficient way of using a computer not only to control and operate the counters, but also to store and process measured data.

  9. Super Resolution Algorithm for CCTVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohshi, Seiichi

    2015-03-01

    Recently, security cameras and CCTV systems have become an important part of our daily lives. The rising demand for such systems has created business opportunities in this field, especially in big cities. Analogue CCTV systems are being replaced by digital systems, and HDTV CCTV has become quite common. HDTV CCTV can achieve images with high contrast and decent quality if they are clicked in daylight. However, the quality of an image clicked at night does not always have sufficient contrast and resolution because of poor lighting conditions. CCTV systems depend on infrared light at night to compensate for insufficient lighting conditions, thereby producing monochrome images and videos. However, these images and videos do not have high contrast and are blurred. We propose a nonlinear signal processing technique that significantly improves visual and image qualities (contrast and resolution) of low-contrast infrared images. The proposed method enables the use of infrared cameras for various purposes such as night shot and poor lighting environments under poor lighting conditions.

  10. Predictors of Academic Achievement and Their Possible Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockshin, Jeffrey; Zamkov, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    A significant amount of attention has been given to the predictors of academic achievement in higher education. However, the vast majority of articles have centred on entrance criteria and the learning approaches or personal habits of students. Investigations into how achievement depends on student efforts, being almost invariably based on…

  11. Status Value, Group Learning, and Minority Achievement in College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beilin, Robert; Rabow, Jerome

    1981-01-01

    Tested the relationship between interracial group learning and academic achievement in college. Results indicated White students participating in Learning Through Discussion (LTD) groups scored higher on the final essay. There was no difference in minority achievement. Findings support the proposition that status equalization is an essential…

  12. Social Deprivation, School-Level Achievement and Special Educational Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croll, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Data from interviews with 299 teachers in 46 English primary schools revealed that the correlation between free school meals and achievement and between free school meals and special educational needs may stem from teacher judgments. The very poorest schools with the lowest achievement have substantially higher levels of special needs identified…

  13. Ethiopian New Public Universities: Achievements, Challenges and Illustrative Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deuren, Rita; Kahsu, Tsegazeab; Mohammed, Seid; Woldie, Wondimu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze and illustrate achievements and challenges of Ethiopian higher education, both at the system level and at the level of new public universities. Design/methodology/approach: Achievements and challenges at the system level are based on literature review and secondary data. Illustrative case studies are based on…

  14. Flipping College Algebra: Effects on Student Engagement and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ichinose, Cherie; Clinkenbeard, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study compared student engagement and achievement levels between students enrolled in a traditional college algebra lecture course and students enrolled in a "flipped" course. Results showed that students in the flipped class had consistently higher levels of achievement throughout the course than did students in the traditional…

  15. Promoting Student Academic Achievement through Faculty Development about Inclusive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Megan E.; Gillian-Daniel, Donald L.; Kraemer, Sara; Kueppers, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The achievement gap, disparities in the academic achievement of marginalized students (e.g., underrepresented minority, first generation in their family to attend college, and low socio-economic status undergraduate students) relative to their non-minority peers is a pervasive problem in higher education. It impacts student access to the major and…

  16. Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center is EPA's primary resource for services and expertise in the areas of consensus-building, collaborative problem solving, alternative dispute resolution, and environmental collaboration and conflict resolution.

  17. Assessing the quality of rainfall data when aiming to achieve flood resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, C. T.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-04-01

    A new EU Floods Directive entered into force five years ago. This Directive requires Member States to coordinate adequate measures to reduce flood risk. European flood management systems require reliable rainfall statistics, e.g. the Intensity-duration-Frequency curves for shorter and shorter durations and for a larger and larger range of return periods. Preliminary studies showed that the number of floods was lower when using low time resolution data of high intensity rainfall events, compared to estimates obtained with the help of higher time resolution data. These facts suggest that a particular attention should be paid to the rainfall data quality in order to adequately investigate flood risk aiming to achieve flood resilience. The potential consequences of changes in measuring and recording techniques have been somewhat discussed in the literature with respect to a possible introduction of artificial inhomogeneities in time series. In this paper, we discuss how to detect another artificiality: most of the rainfall time series have a lower recording frequency than that is assumed, furthermore the effective high-frequency limit often depends on the recording year due to algorithm changes. This question is particularly important for operational hydrology, because an error on the effective recording high frequency introduces biases in the corresponding statistics. In this direction, we developed a first version of a SERQUAL procedure to automatically detect the effective time resolution of highly mixed data. Being applied to the 166 rainfall time series in France, the SERQUAL procedure has detected that most of them have an effective hourly resolution, rather than a 5 minutes resolution. Furthermore, series having an overall 5 minute resolution do not have it for all years. These results raise serious concerns on how to benchmark stochastic rainfall models at a sub-hourly resolution, which are particularly desirable for operational hydrology. Therefore, database

  18. The 2015 super-resolution microscopy roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hell, Stefan W.; Sahl, Steffen J.; Bates, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Heintzmann, Rainer; Booth, Martin J.; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Shtengel, Gleb; Hess, Harald; Tinnefeld, Philip; Honigmann, Alf; Jakobs, Stefan; Testa, Ilaria; Cognet, Laurent; Lounis, Brahim; Ewers, Helge; Davis, Simon J.; Eggeling, Christian; Klenerman, David; Willig, Katrin I.; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto; Cordes, Thorben

    2015-11-01

    Far-field optical microscopy using focused light is an important tool in a number of scientific disciplines including chemical, (bio)physical and biomedical research, particularly with respect to the study of living cells and organisms. Unfortunately, the applicability of the optical microscope is limited, since the diffraction of light imposes limitations on the spatial resolution of the image. Consequently the details of, for example, cellular protein distributions, can be visualized only to a certain extent. Fortunately, recent years have witnessed the development of ‘super-resolution’ far-field optical microscopy (nanoscopy) techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED), ground state depletion (GSD), reversible saturated optical (fluorescence) transitions (RESOLFT), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), structured illumination microscopy (SIM) or saturated structured illumination microscopy (SSIM), all in one way or another addressing the problem of the limited spatial resolution of far-field optical microscopy. While SIM achieves a two-fold improvement in spatial resolution compared to conventional optical microscopy, STED, RESOLFT, PALM/STORM, or SSIM have all gone beyond, pushing the limits of optical image resolution to the nanometer scale. Consequently, all super-resolution techniques open new avenues of biomedical research. Because the field is so young, the potential capabilities of different super-resolution microscopy approaches have yet to be fully explored, and uncertainties remain when considering the best choice of methodology. Thus, even for experts, the road to the future is sometimes shrouded in mist. The super-resolution optical microscopy roadmap of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics addresses this need for clarity. It provides guidance to the outstanding questions through a collection of short review articles from experts in the field, giving a thorough

  19. Combination of high spatial resolution and low minimum detection limit using thinned specimens in cutting-edge electron probe microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Yugo; Hamada, Kotaro

    2015-10-01

    The effect of sample thickness on the spatial resolution and minimum detection limit (MDL) has been investigated for field-emission electron probe microanalysis with wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FE-EPMA-WDX). Indium gallium phosphide samples thinned to thicknesses of about 100, 130, 210, 310, and 430 nm provided effective thin-sample FE-EPMA-WDX in the resolution range of 40-350 nm and MDL range of 13,000-600 ppm (mass). A comparison of the FE-EPMA results for thin and bulk samples demonstrated that thin-sample FE-EPMA can achieve both higher sensitivity and better spatial resolution than is possible using bulk samples. Most of the X-rays that determine the MDL are generated in a surface region of the sample with a depth of approximately 300 nm. The spatial resolution and MDL can be tuned by the sample thickness. Furthermore, analysis of small amounts of Cl in SiO2 indicated that thin-sample FE-EPMA can realize a spatial resolution and MDL of 41 nm and 446 ppm at Iprob=50 nA, respectively, whereas bulk-sample FE-EPMA offers a resolution of only 348 nm and MDL of 426 ppm.

  20. PHOENIX. Higher Wage Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bismarck State Coll., ND.

    This document outlines the curriculum plan for the one-semester vocational-technical training component of PHOENIX: A Model Program for Higher-Wage Potential Careers offered by Bismarck State College (North Dakota) which prepares and/or retrains individuals for higher-wage technical careers. The comprehensive model for the program is organized…

  1. Reinventing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions are in the battle of a lifetime as they are coping with political and economic uncertainties, threats to federal aid, declining state support, higher tuition rates and increased competition from for-profit institutions. Amid all these challenges, these institutions are pressed to keep up with technological demands,…

  2. Reinventing Continuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshok, Mary Lindenstein

    2012-01-01

    Re-inventing continuing higher education is about finding ways to be a more central player in a region's civic, cultural, and economic life as well as in the education of individuals for work and citizenship. Continuing higher education will require data gathering, analytical tools, convening authority, interpretive skills, new models of delivery,…

  3. Hypermedia and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Jay L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses changes in higher education that are resulting from the use of hypermedia. Topics addressed include the structure of traditional texts; a distributed model for academic communication; independent learning as a model for higher education; skills for hypermedia literacy; database searching; information retrieval; authoring skills; design…

  4. Chicanos in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Juan M., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This "special theme" journal issue focuses on higher education of Chicanos and Latinos. The journal includes the following articles: (1) "Dilemmas of Chicano and Latino Professors in U.S. Universities" (Hisauro Garza); (2) "Analysis of Tenure Among Hispanic Higher Education Faculty" (Richard R. Verdugo); (3)…

  5. Higher Education in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  6. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  7. Higher Education's Caste System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the history of the present caste system in higher education. He shows how the public's perception of this caste system is based on image and not usually on the quality of teaching and curriculum in colleges and universities. Finally, he discusses a model for accessibility to higher education and how higher…

  8. Comparative Higher Education: Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardozier, V. R.

    This comparative higher education bibliography from the graduate program in Higher Education at University of Texas at Austin provides references with publication dates through 1990 under the following categories: "General and Canada" (85); "Africa (Sub-Sahara)" (23); "Asia" (122); "Australia and New…

  9. Gender and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  10. Higher Education Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological conundrum of "knowledge…

  11. Quality in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

    This volume contains 21 new and classic papers and readings on quality philosophies and concepts, first, as they have been applied in business and industry but primarily as they relate to and can be applied in higher education. The introduction is titled "The Quality Approach in Higher Education: Context and Concepts for Change" by Brent…

  12. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don…

  13. Higher Education Exchange 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Contributors to this issue of the Higher Education Exchange debate the issues around knowledge production, discuss the acquisition of deliberative skills for democracy, and examine how higher education prepares, or does not prepare, students for citizenship roles. Articles include: (1) "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (2) "Knowledge,…

  14. Laser beam filtration for high spatial resolution MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zavalin, Andre; Yang, Junhai; Caprioli, Richard

    2013-07-01

    We describe an easy and inexpensive way to provide a highly defined Gaussian shaped laser spot on target of 5 μm diameter for imaging mass spectrometry using a commercial MALDI TOF instrument that is designed to produce a 20 μm diameter laser beam on target at its lowest setting. A 25 μm pinhole filter on a swivel arm was installed in the laser beam optics outside the vacuum ion source chamber so it is easily flipped into or out of the beam as desired by the operator. The resulting ion images at 5 μm spatial resolution are sharp since the satellite secondary laser beam maxima have been removed by the filter. Ion images are shown to demonstrate the performance and are compared with the method of oversampling to achieve higher spatial resolution when only a larger laser beam spot on target is available.

  15. Laser Beam Filtration for High Spatial Resolution MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zavalin, Andre; Yang, Junhai; Caprioli, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We describe an easy and inexpensive way to provide a highly defined Gaussian shaped laser spot on target of 5 μm diameter for Imaging Mass Spectrometry using a commercial MALDI TOF instrument that is designed to produce a 20 μm diameter laser beam on target at its lowest setting. A 25 μm pinhole filter on a swivel arm was installed in the laser beam optics outside the vacuum ion source chamber so it is easily flipped into or out of the beam as desired by the operator. The resulting ion images at 5 μm spatial resolution are sharp since the satellite secondary laser beam maxima have been removed by the filter. Ion images are shown to demonstrate the performance and are compared to the method of oversampling to achieve higher spatial resolution when only a larger laser beam spot on target is available. PMID:23661425

  16. High order discontinuous Galerkin discretizations with discontinuity resolution within the cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekaterinaris, John; Panourgias, Konstantinos

    2016-11-01

    The nonlinear filter of Yee et al. and used for low dissipative well-balanced high order accurate finite-difference schemes is adapted to the finite element context of discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretizations. The performance of the proposed nonlinear filter for DG discretizations is demonstrated for different orders of expansions for one- and multi-dimensional problems with exact solutions. It is shown that for higher order discretizations discontinuity resolution within the cell is achieved and the design order of accuracy is preserved. The filter is applied for inviscid and viscous flow test problems including strong shocks interactions to demonstrate that the proposed dissipative mechanism for DG discretizations yields superior results compared to the results obtained with the TVB limiter and high-order hierarchical limiting. The proposed approach is suitable for p-adaptivity in order to locally enhance resolution of three-dimensional flow simulations.

  17. Ultrahigh resolution photoacoustic microscopy via transient absorption

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Ryan L.; Applegate, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a novel, hybrid imaging modality, Transient Absorption Ultrasonic Microscopy (TAUM), which takes advantage of the optical nonlinearities afforded by transient absorption to achieve ultrahigh-resolution photoacoustic microscopy. The theoretical point spread function for TAUM is functionally equivalent to confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy, potentially enabling cellular/subcellular photoacoustic imaging. A prototype TAUM system was designed, built, and used to image a cross-section through several capillaries in the excised cheek pouch of a Syrian Hamster. The well-resolved capillaries in the TAUM image provided experimental evidence of the spatial resolution. These results suggest that TAUM has excellent potential for producing volumetric images with cellular/subcellular resolution in three dimensions deep inside living tissue. PMID:21258499

  18. Micrometer axial resolution OCT for corneal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rahul; Lee, Kye-Sung; Rolland, Jannick P.; Zavislan, James M.; Aquavella, James V.; Yoon, Geunyoung

    2011-01-01

    An optical coherence tomography (OCT) for high axial resolution corneal imaging is presented. The system uses 375 nm bandwidth (625 to 1000 nm) from a broadband supercontinuum light source. The system was developed in free space to minimize image quality degradation due to dispersion. A custom-designed spectrometer based on a Czerny Turner configuration was implemented to achieve an imaging depth of 1 mm. Experimentally measured axial resolution was 1.1 μm in corneal tissue and had a good agreement with the theoretically calculated resolution from the envelope of the spectral interference fringes. In vivo imaging was carried out and thin corneal layers such as the tear film and the Bowman’s layer were quantified in normal, keratoconus, and contact lens wearing eyes, indicating the system’s suitability for several ophthalmic applications. PMID:22076265

  19. Quantum interpolation for high-resolution sensing.

    PubMed

    Ajoy, Ashok; Liu, Yi-Xiang; Saha, Kasturi; Marseglia, Luca; Jaskula, Jean-Christophe; Bissbort, Ulf; Cappellaro, Paola

    2017-02-28

    Recent advances in engineering and control of nanoscale quantum sensors have opened new paradigms in precision metrology. Unfortunately, hardware restrictions often limit the sensor performance. In nanoscale magnetic resonance probes, for instance, finite sampling times greatly limit the achievable sensitivity and spectral resolution. Here we introduce a technique for coherent quantum interpolation that can overcome these problems. Using a quantum sensor associated with the nitrogen vacancy center in diamond, we experimentally demonstrate that quantum interpolation can achieve spectroscopy of classical magnetic fields and individual quantum spins with orders of magnitude finer frequency resolution than conventionally possible. Not only is quantum interpolation an enabling technique to extract structural and chemical information from single biomolecules, but it can be directly applied to other quantum systems for superresolution quantum spectroscopy.

  20. High resolution Thomson scattering for Joint European Torus (JET)

    SciTech Connect

    Pasqualotto, R.; Nielsen, P.; Gowers, C.; Beurskens, M.; Kempenaars, M.; Carlstrom, T.; Johnson, D.

    2004-10-01

    A Thomson scattering system is being developed for Joint European Torus with 15 mm spatial resolution and a foreseen accuracy for temperature better than 15% at a density of 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}. This resolution is required at the internal transport barrier and edge pedestal and it can not be fully achieved with the present light detection and ranging systems. The laser for this system is Nd:YAG, 5 Joule, 20 Hz. Scattering volumes from R=2.9 m to R=3.9 m are imaged onto 1 mm diameter fibers, with F/25 collection aperture. Two fibers are used per scattering volume. Using optical delay lines, three scattering volumes are combined in each of the 21 filter polychromators. The signals are recorded with transient digitizers, which allow the combined time delayed signals to be resolved. Knowledge of the time delay between signals allows the use of correlation techniques in determining signal levels. The ac output of the amplifier is used, which tolerates a higher level of background signal without affecting dynamic range. The noise resulting from plasma light is determined directly.

  1. Virtual electrode design for increasing spatial resolution in retinal prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Loizos, Kyle; Cela, Carlos; Marc, Robert; Lazzi, Gianluca

    2016-06-01

    Retinal prostheses systems are currently used to restore partial vision to patients blinded by degenerative diseases by electrically stimulating surviving retinal cells. To obtain likely maximum resolution, electrode size is minimised, allowing for a large quantity on an array and localised stimulation regions. Besides the small size leading to fabrication difficulties and higher electrochemical charge density, there are challenges associated with the number of drivers needed for a large electrode count as well as the strategies to deliver sufficient power to these drivers wirelessly. In hopes to increase electrode resolution while avoiding these issues, the authors propose a new 'virtual electrode' design to increase locations of likely stimulation. Passive metallisation strategically placed between disk electrodes, combined with alternating surrounding stimuli, channel current into a location between electrodes, producing a virtual stimulation site. A computational study was conducted to optimise the passive metal element geometry, quantify the expected current density output, and simulate retinal ganglion cell activity due to virtual electrode stimulation. Results show that this procedure leads to array geometry that focuses injected current and achieves retinal ganglion cell stimulation in a region beneath the 'virtual electrode,' creating an alternate stimulation site without additional drivers.

  2. The resolution of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Christopher D; Gilroy, Derek W; Serhan, Charles N; Stockinger, Brigitta; Tak, Paul P

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, Nature Reviews Immunology organized a conference that brought together scientists and clinicians from both academia and industry to discuss one of the most pressing questions in medicine--how do we turn off rampant, undesirable inflammation? There is a growing appreciation that, similarly to the initiation of inflammation, the resolution of inflammation is an intricate and active process. Can we therefore harness the mediators involved in resolution responses to treat patients with chronic inflammatory or autoimmune diseases? Here, we ask five of the speakers from the conference to share their thoughts on this emerging field.

  3. Sustainability and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, David

    2008-01-01

    People face four fundamental dilemmas, which are essentially moral choices: (1) alleviating poverty; (2) removing the gap between rich and poor; (3) controlling the use of violence for political ends; and (4) changing the patterns of production and consumption and achieving the transition to sustainability. The world in which future generations…

  4. Improving Student Achievement in Math and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.

    1998-01-01

    As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order

  5. Mathematical methods of spectrometer resolution improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Chepurnov, A.S.; Efimkin, N.G.; Rodionov, D.A.

    1993-12-31

    The highly desired property of the nuclear spectrometer is the monochromativity. This property is very often restricted by the line width achievable for the detector and by the competing effects such as radiation rescattering. These restrictions make the data interpretation difficult. The idea of spectrum reconstruction from instrumentally obtained data by means of mathematical procedures is not new. In this report, we demonstrate the application of the method for the energy resolution improvement of a germanium-lithium gamma spectrometer.

  6. High resolution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.

    1983-01-01

    A class of new explicit second order accurate finite difference schemes for the computation of weak solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is presented. These highly nonlinear schemes are obtained by applying a nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme to an appropriately modified flux function. The so-derived second order accurate schemes achieve high resolution while preserving the robustness of the original nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the performance of these new schemes.

  7. High resolution beamforming for small aperture arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Chris; Null, Tom; Wagstaff, Ronald A.

    2003-04-01

    Achieving fine resolution bearing estimates for multiple sources using acoustic arrays with small apertures, in number of wavelengths, is a difficult challenge. It requires both large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gains and very narrow beam responses. High resolution beamforming for small aperture arrays is accomplished by exploiting acoustical fluctuations. Acoustical fluctuations in the atmosphere are caused by wind turbulence along the propagation path, air turbulence at the sensor, source/receiver motion, unsteady source level, and fine scale temperature variations. Similar environmental and source dependent phenomena cause fluctuations in other propagation media, e.g., undersea, optics, infrared. Amplitude fluctuations are exploited to deconvolve the beam response functions from the beamformed data of small arrays to achieve high spatial resolution, i.e., fine bearing resolution, and substantial SNR gain. Results are presented for a six microphone low-frequency array with an aperture of less than three wavelengths. [Work supported by U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center.

  8. Enhanced resolution of soft-materials spectroscopic imaging in the scanning transmission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, Sergey

    The quantitative analysis of soft-materials morphology at nano lengths is an important scientific and technical challenge. Imaging based on spatially resolved Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) enables both real-space morphological measurements and the quantitative determination of local composition without assuming a particular model as is done by scattering approaches. EELS imaging is being increasingly used in a variety of hard-materials applications. However, its application to soft materials, such as synthetic polymers and biological tissue, remains challenging because of the resolution limits imposed by the radiation sensitivity of most soft materials. This thesis explores the factors that affect the dose-limited resolution of soft materials, and it develops new approaches to improve this resolution. We show that the accuracy of compositional analysis can be compromised in order to enhance the resolution, and we successfully apply this approach to a semi-quantitative analysis of alkane-based coatings on nanosized poly(amine) nanoparticles. More generally, however, one would like to preserve compositional accuracy while using the higher electron doses required to achieve high resolution. To this end, we have discovered that the effects of radiation-induced evolution of hydrogen---a damage mechanism known to be a significant limitation in EELS studies of frozen-hydrated soft materials---can be completely avoided if very thin TEM sections are studied. We illustrate the thickness dependence of hydrogen evolution in solvated Nafion, a perflourinated ionomer, and in hydrated porcine skin. Then, working with thin sections of frozen-hydrated skin, we develop and apply a method to extract from an experimental spectrum dataset a reference spectrum that accurately represents the hydrated skin's protein component under conditions where the protein has suffered significant radiation damage. Using such an extracted reference spectrum virtually eliminates the error

  9. Global land cover mapping at 30 m resolution: A POK-based operational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Chen, Jin; Liao, Anping; Cao, Xin; Chen, Lijun; Chen, Xuehong; He, Chaoying; Han, Gang; Peng, Shu; Lu, Miao; Zhang, Weiwei; Tong, Xiaohua; Mills, Jon

    2015-05-01

    Global Land Cover (GLC) information is fundamental for environmental change studies, land resource management, sustainable development, and many other societal benefits. Although GLC data exists at spatial resolutions of 300 m and 1000 m, a 30 m resolution mapping approach is now a feasible option for the next generation of GLC products. Since most significant human impacts on the land system can be captured at this scale, a number of researchers are focusing on such products. This paper reports the operational approach used in such a project, which aims to deliver reliable data products. Over 10,000 Landsat-like satellite images are required to cover the entire Earth at 30 m resolution. To derive a GLC map from such a large volume of data necessitates the development of effective, efficient, economic and operational approaches. Automated approaches usually provide higher efficiency and thus more economic solutions, yet existing automated classification has been deemed ineffective because of the low classification accuracy achievable (typically below 65%) at global scale at 30 m resolution. As a result, an approach based on the integration of pixel- and object-based methods with knowledge (POK-based) has been developed. To handle the classification process of 10 land cover types, a split-and-merge strategy was employed, i.e. firstly each class identified in a prioritized sequence and then results are merged together. For the identification of each class, a robust integration of pixel-and object-based classification was developed. To improve the quality of the classification results, a knowledge-based interactive verification procedure was developed with the support of web service technology. The performance of the POK-based approach was tested using eight selected areas with differing landscapes from five different continents. An overall classification accuracy of over 80% was achieved. This indicates that the developed POK-based approach is effective and feasible

  10. Childhood vaccination: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ndumbe, P

    1996-09-01

    As the goal of eradicating smallpox was being met, the World Health Organization created its Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) in 1974 and reached its initial goal of achieving full vaccination of 80% of the world's children by 1990. This effort was aided by the creation of "cold chain" delivery systems and resulted in the annual saving of 3.5 million children in less-developed countries. Current EPI vaccination goals include 1) eradication of poliomyelitis by the year 2000, 2) elimination of neonatal tetanus by the year 1995, 3) control of measles and hepatitis B, and 4) immunization of 90% of the world's children 1 year or younger by the year 2000. Goals of the Children's Vaccine Initiative (formed in 1991) include 1) provision of an adequate supply of affordable, safe, and effective vaccines; 2) production of improved and new vaccines; and 3) simplification of the logistics of vaccine delivery. Future challenges are to sustain high vaccination coverage, reach the unreached, achieve proper storage of vaccines and reduce waste, integrate new vaccines into national programs, and achieve vaccine self-sufficiency. The fact that these challenges will be difficult to achieve is illustrated by the situation in Africa where the high immunization levels achieved in 1990 have dropped dramatically. Those who must act to implement immunization programs are health personnel, families, governments, and development partners. In order to achieve equity in health, every child must be reached, governments must be made accountable for programs, health workers must convince families of the importance of vaccination, delivery systems must be in place to take advantage of the new vaccines being delivered, and a multisectoral approach must be taken to assure sustainability.

  11. Microfluidic high-resolution free-flow isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Eijkel, Jan C T; Schlautmann, Stefan; van den Berg, Albert; Schasfoort, Richard B M

    2007-11-01

    A microfluidic free-flow isoelectric focusing glass chip for separation of proteins is described. Free-flow isoelectric focusing is demonstrated with a set of fluorescent standards covering a wide range of isoelectric points from pH 3 to 10 as well as the protein HSA. With respect to an earlier developed device, an improved microfluidic FFE chip was developed. The improvements included the usage of multiple sheath flows and the introduction of preseparated ampholytes. Preseparated ampholytes are commonly used in large-scale conventional free-flow isoelectric focusing instruments but have not been used in micromachined devices yet. Furthermore, the channel depth was further decreased. These adaptations led to a higher separation resolution and peak capacity, which were not achieved with previously published free-flow isoelectric focusing chips. An almost linear pH gradient ranging from pH 2.5 to 11.5 between 1.2 and 2 mm wide was generated. Seven isoelectric focusing markers were successfully and clearly separated within a residence time of 2.5 s and an electrical field of 20 V mm-1. Experiments with pI markers proved that the device is fully capable of separating analytes with a minimum difference in isoelectric point of Delta(pI) = 0.4. Furthermore, the results indicate that even a better resolution can be achieved. The theoretical minimum difference in isoelectric point is Delta(pI) = 0.23 resulting in a peak capacity of 29 peaks within 1.8 mm. This is an 8-fold increase in peak capacity to previously published results. The focusing of pI markers led to an increase in concentration by factor 20 and higher. Further improvement in terms of resolution seems possible, for which we envisage that the influence of electroosmotic flow has to be further reduced. The performance of the microfluidic free-flow isoelectric focusing device will enable new applications, as this device might be used in clinical analysis where often low sample volumes are available and fast

  12. High-resolution imaging without iteration: a fast and robust method for breast ultrasound tomography.

    PubMed

    Huthwaite, P; Simonetti, F

    2011-09-01

    Breast ultrasound tomography has the potential to improve the cost, safety, and reliability of breast cancer screening and diagnosis over the gold-standard of mammography. Vital to achieving this potential is the development of imaging algorithms to unravel the complex anatomy of the breast and its mechanical properties. The solution most commonly relied upon is time-of-flight tomography, but this exhibits low resolution due to the presence of diffraction effects. Iterative full-wave inversion methods present one solution to achieve higher resolution, but these are slow and are not guaranteed to converge to the correct solution. Presented here is HARBUT, the hybrid algorithm for robust breast ultrasound tomography, which utilizes the complementary strengths of time-of-flight and diffraction tomography resulting in a direct, fast, robust and accurate high resolution method of reconstructing the sound speed through the breast. The algorithm is shown to produce accurate reconstructions with realistic data from a complex three-dimensional simulation, with masses as small as 4 mm being clearly visible.

  13. Tunable Fabry-Perot filter and grating hybrid modulator to improve dispersive spectrometer resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Liang; Li, Guojun; Yang, Huan; Zhou, Chongxi

    2016-05-01

    We describe a tunable Fabry-Perot filter and grating hybrid modulator to achieve a higher spectral resolution compared with that produced by a single grating with the same period. In the hybrid modulator, a tunable Fabry-Perot filter is designed with a long cavity to accommodate a multi-order narrowband pre-filter. A grating is then utilized to separate these multi-orders spatially. Scanning the air gap of the tunable Fabry-Perot filter within 1/2 wavelength, the entire spectrogram can be achieved by compositing each group of transmitted multi-orders. Light passes first through the Fabry-Perot cavity and then into the grating. Thus, all of the light is incident on the Fabry-Perot cavity at a given angle, which can reduce the requirement for incident beam alignment and simplify the operation of the hybrid modulator. The structural matching conditions of the tunable Fabry-Perot filter and grating were presented based on the operating law of the hybrid modulator. In terms of the Rayleigh criterion, the practical spectral resolution of the hybrid modulator can be increased by at least twice that of the single grating. Experiments with a neon lamp revealed that the spectral resolution of the hybrid modulator was nearly double that of a single grating.

  14. Perspectives on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Lewis B.

    1971-01-01

    A review of Human Resources and Higher Education: Staff Report of the Commission on Human Resources and Advanced Education (New York; Basic, 1970) by John K. Folger, Helen S. Astin, and Alan E. Bayer. (DB)

  15. Forecasting Higher Education's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, Don; Buck, Tina S.; Kollie, Ellen; Przyborowski, Danielle; Rondinelli, Joseph A.; Hunter, Jeff; Hanna, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Offers predictions on trends in higher education to accommodate changing needs, lower budgets, and increased enrollment. They involve campus construction, security, administration, technology, interior design, athletics, and transportation. (EV)

  16. Antenna performance and resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The performance of the antenna throughout SL-2, SL-3, and SL-4 was investigated along with the antenna resolution of brightness temperature during flight. The target area selected for the test flights was the Gulf of California, as it offered land/water interface. The coordinate transformations and antenna orientation, flight path simulation, and integration over the radiometric target are discussed.

  17. Conflict Resolution Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busselle, Tish

    This 7-day unit, intended for use with secondary students, contains a statement of rationale and objectives, lesson plans, class assignments, teacher and student bibliographies, and suggestions for instructional materials on conflict resolution between individuals, groups, and nations. Among the six objectives listed for the unit are: 1) explain…

  18. Coreference Resolution With Reconcile

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Procedure (RAP). JavaRap resolves only pronouns and, thus, it is not directly comparable to Reconcile. GuiTaR (Poesio and Kabadjov, 2004) and BART...Versley et al., 2008) (which can be considered a succes- sor of GuiTaR ) are both modular systems that tar- get the full coreference resolution task. As such

  19. High-resolution headlamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gut, Carsten; Cristea, Iulia; Neumann, Cornelius

    2016-04-01

    The following article shall describe how human vision by night can be influenced. At first, front lighting systems that are already available on the market will be described, followed by their analysis with respect to the positive effects on traffic safety. Furthermore, how traffic safety by night can be increased since the introduction of high resolution headlamps shall be discussed.

  20. Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Okatan, M. B.; Rajapaksa, Indrajit; Kim, Yunseok; Marincel, Dan; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Jesse, Stephen; Nagarajan, Valanoor; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, decoupling the contributions of competing or co-existing mechanisms to the system response can be achieved through investigation of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The utility of the technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a well-known system, a model Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, nanoscale measurements of the second harmonic response with field reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of combining proximal probe techniques with nth harmonic detection methods in exploring and decoupling nonlinear dynamics in a wide variety of nanoscale materials.

  1. EDITORIAL: Deeper, broader, higher, better?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-07-01

    Honorary Editor The standard of educational achievement in England and Wales is frequently criticized, and it seems to be an axiom of government that schools and teachers need to be shaken up, kept on a tight rein, copiously inspected, shamed and blamed as required: in general, subjected to the good old approach of: ' Find out what Johnny is doing and tell him to stop.' About the only exception to this somewhat severe attitude is at A-level, where the standard is simply golden. Often, comparisons are made between the performance of, say, English children and that of their coevals in other countries, with different customs, systems, aims and languages. But there has been a recent comparison of standards at A-level with a non-A-level system of pre-university education, in an English-speaking country that both sends students to English universities and accepts theirs into its own, and is, indeed, represented in the UK government at well above the level expected from its ethnical weighting in the population. This semi-foreign country is Scotland. The conclusions of the study are interesting. Scotland has had its own educational system, with `traditional breadth', and managed to escape much of the centralized authoritarianism that we have been through south of the border. It is interesting to note that, while for the past dozen years or so the trend in A-level Physics entries has been downwards, there has been an increase in the take-up of Scottish `Highers'. Highers is a one-year course. Is its popularity due to its being easier than A-level? Scottish students keen enough to do more can move on to the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies, and will shortly be able to upgrade a Higher Level into an Advanced Higher Level. A comparability study [ Comparability Study of Scottish Qualifications and GCE Advanced Levels: Report on Physics January 1998 (free from SQA)] was carried out by the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) with the aim (amongst others) of helping

  2. "Feeling" Hierarchy: The Pathway from Subjective Social Status to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Destin, Mesmin; Richman, Scott; Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested a psychosocial mediation model of the association between subjective social status (SSS) and academic achievement for youth. The sample included 430 high school students from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Those who perceived themselves to be at higher social status levels had higher GPAs. As…

  3. Ultrahigh-resolution endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Herz, Paul R.; Hsiung, Pei-Lin; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Desai, Saleem; Pedrosa, Macos; Koski, Amanda; Schmitt, Joseph M.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2005-01-01

    Early detection of gastrointestinal cancer is essential for the patient treatment and medical care. Endoscopically guided biopsy is currently the gold standard for the diagnosis of early esophageal cancer, but can suffer from high false negative rates due to sampling errors. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging medical imaging technology which can generate high resolution, cross-sectional images of tissue in situ and in real time, without the removal of tissue specimen. Although endoscopic OCT has been used successfully to identify certain pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract, the resolution of current endoscopic OCT systems has been limited to 10 - 15 m for clinical procedures. In this study, in vivo imaging of the gastrointestinal tract is demonstrated at a three-fold higher resolution (< 5 m), using a portable, broadband, Cr4+:Forsterite laser as the optical light source. Images acquired from the esophagus, gastro-esophageal junction and colon on animal model display tissue microstructures and architectural details at high resolution, and the features observed in the OCT images are well-matched with histology. The clinical feasibility study is conducted through delivering OCT imaging catheter using standard endoscope. OCT images of normal esophagus, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal cancers are demonstrated with distinct features. The ability of high resolution endoscopic OCT to image tissue morphology at an unprecedented resolution in vivo would facilitate the development of OCT as a potential imaging modality for early detection of neoplastic changes.

  4. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  5. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's…

  6. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  7. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  8. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  9. Student Achievement, 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangino, Evangelina

    This report summarizes results of student achievement in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD) on the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) tests in 1986-87. Major findings indicate the following: (1) 99.4% of AISD seniors to graduate in May 1987 passed the Exit-Level TEAMS tests, with only 17 denied diplomas in…

  10. Sociocultural Variation in Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the variations in literacy achievement among native and non-native upper primary school children (grades three to six) in the Netherlands. Various measures of word decoding, reading literacy and writing skill were collected from 1091 native Dutch children, 753 children with a former Dutch colonial…

  11. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  12. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  13. Attribution Theory in Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by…

  14. Grouping Students for Increased Achievements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews results of four recent studies exploring the effects of various student-grouping schemes on academic achievement. Grouping plans included multiage classrooms, full-time ability grouping, and within-classroom grouping. Two studies investigated administrator attitudes toward student grouping. Several studies found that grouping plans…

  15. Achievement, Hedonism and the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin

    1991-01-01

    The problem of poor school achievement is in part because students lack work and discipline values. The article suggests moral and ethical teachings inspire students to be better scholars and people; and teacher education must prepare teachers to be moral educators by reintroducing moral education into the curriculum. (SM)

  16. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  17. Faculty Development: Assessing Learner Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Barbara A.; Overfield, Karen

    This study addressed the challenges of developing a faculty professional development workshop on assessment, measurement, and evaluation of achievement in adult learners. The setting for the workshop was a system of postsecondary career colleges throughout the United States. The curriculum development model of D. Kirkpatrick (1994) was used as a…

  18. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  19. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  20. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…