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Sample records for achieve highly conformal

  1. Improving Reliability and Validity of "Achievement via Conformance" Through Computer Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Donald E.

    This paper describes an experiment conducted in order to improve the reliability and validity of the Achievement via Conformance (AC) scale of the California Psychological Inventory (CPI). The primary goal of AC is to identify those factors of interest and motivation which facilitate achievement in any setting where conformance is positive…

  2. Effects of Achievement Motivation, Social Identity, and Peer Group Norms on Academic Conformity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…

  3. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  4. Conformal coating of highly structured surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ginley, David S.; Perkins, John; Berry, Joseph; Gennett, Thomas

    2012-12-11

    Method of applying a conformal coating to a highly structured substrate and devices made by the disclosed methods are disclosed. An example method includes the deposition of a substantially contiguous layer of a material upon a highly structured surface within a deposition process chamber. The highly structured surface may be associated with a substrate or another layer deposited on a substrate. The method includes depositing a material having an amorphous structure on the highly structured surface at a deposition pressure of equal to or less than about 3 mTorr. The method may also include removing a portion of the amorphous material deposited on selected surfaces and depositing additional amorphous material on the highly structured surface.

  5. Modeling conformational transitions in kinases by molecular dynamics simulations: achievements, difficulties, and open challenges

    PubMed Central

    D'Abramo, Marco; Besker, Neva; Chillemi, Giovanni; Grottesi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases work because their flexibility allows to continuously switch from inactive to active form. Despite the large number of structures experimentally determined in such states, the mechanism of their conformational transitions as well as the transition pathways are not easily to capture. In this regard, computational methods can help to shed light on such an issue. However, due to the intrinsic sampling limitations, much efforts have been done to model in a realistic way the conformational changes occurring in protein kinases. In this review we will address the principal biological achievements and structural aspects in studying kinases conformational transitions and will focus on the main challenges related to computational approaches such as molecular modeling and MD simulations. PMID:24860596

  6. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  7. Self Regulated Learning of High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathod, Ami

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted on high achievers of Senior Secondary school. Main objectives were to identify the self regulated learners among the high achievers, to find out dominant components and characteristics operative in self regulated learners and to compare self regulated learning of learners with respect to their subject (science and non…

  8. The Constraints of Poverty on High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Virginia H.; Beilke, Jayne R.

    2008-01-01

    Research studies on school success often focus on the impact of discrete elements such as race, culture, ethnicity, gender, language, or school location on high achievement. The condition of poverty, however, may be the most important of all student differences in relation to high achievement; although not all schools have racial diversity, nearly…

  9. Spine stereotactic body radiation therapy plans: Achieving dose coverage, conformity, and dose falloff

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Linda X.; Shankar, Viswanathan; Shen, Jin; Kuo, Hsiang-Chi; Mynampati, Dinesh; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Goddard, Lee; Basavatia, Amar; Fox, Jana; Garg, Madhur; Kalnicki, Shalom; Tomé, Wolfgang A.

    2015-10-01

    We report our experience of establishing planning objectives to achieve dose coverage, conformity, and dose falloff for spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) plans. Patients with spine lesions were treated using SBRT in our institution since September 2009. Since September 2011, we established the following planning objectives for our SBRT spine plans in addition to the cord dose constraints: (1) dose coverage—prescription dose (PD) to cover at least 95% planning target volume (PTV) and 90% PD to cover at least 99% PTV; (2) conformity index (CI)—ratio of prescription isodose volume (PIV) to the PTV < 1.2; (3) dose falloff—ratio of 50% PIV to the PTV (R{sub 50%}); (4) and maximum dose in percentage of PD at 2 cm from PTV in any direction (D{sub 2cm}) to follow Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0915. We have retrospectively reviewed 66 separate spine lesions treated between September 2009 and December 2012 (31 treated before September 2011 [group 1] and 35 treated after [group 2]). The χ{sup 2} test was used to examine the difference in parameters between groups. The PTV V{sub 100%} {sub PD} ≥ 95% objective was met in 29.0% of group 1 vs 91.4% of group 2 (p < 0.01) plans. The PTV V{sub 90%} {sub PD} ≥ 99% objective was met in 38.7% of group 1 vs 88.6% of group 2 (p < 0.01) plans. Overall, 4 plans in group 1 had CI > 1.2 vs none in group 2 (p = 0.04). For D{sub 2cm}, 48.3% plans yielded a minor violation of the objectives and 16.1% a major violation for group 1, whereas 17.1% exhibited a minor violation and 2.9% a major violation for group 2 (p < 0.01). Spine SBRT plans can be improved on dose coverage, conformity, and dose falloff employing a combination of RTOG spine and lung SBRT protocol planning objectives.

  10. Catholic High Schools and Rural Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    1997-01-01

    A study of national longitudinal data examined effects of rural Catholic high schools on mathematics achievement, high school graduation rates, and the likelihood that high school graduates attend college. Findings indicate that rural Catholic high schools had a positive effect on mathematics test scores and no effect on graduation rates or rates…

  11. 45 CFR 1355.36 - Withholding Federal funds due to failure to achieve substantial conformity or failure to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withholding Federal funds due to failure to achieve substantial conformity or failure to successfully complete a program improvement plan. 1355.36 Section 1355.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  12. High Stakes Testing and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The effects of high stakes testing may be critical in the lives of public school students and may have many consequences for schools and teachers. There are no easy answers in measuring student achievement and in holding teachers accountable for learner progress. High stakes testing also involves responsibilities on the part of the principal who…

  13. Student Perceptions of High-Achieving Classmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Händel, Marion; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The reported study investigated students' perceptions of their high-performing classmates in terms of intelligence, social skills, and conscientiousness in different school subjects. The school subjects for study were examined with regard to cognitive, physical, and gender-specific issues. The results show that high academic achievements in…

  14. High Achievers: 23rd Annual Survey. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This report presents data from an annual survey of high school student leaders and high achievers. It is noted that of the nearly 700,000 high achievers featured in this edition, 5,000 students were sent the survey and 2,092 questionnaires were completed. Subjects were high school juniors and seniors selected for recognition by their principals or…

  15. Reliability achievement in high technology space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The production of failure-free hardware is discussed. The elements required to achieve such hardware are: technical expertise to design, analyze, and fully understand the design; use of high reliability parts and materials control in the manufacturing process; and testing to understand the system and weed out defects. The durability of the Hughes family of satellites is highlighted.

  16. Highly conformal fabrication of nanopatterns on non-planar surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massiot, Inès; Trompoukis, Christos; Lodewijks, Kristof; Depauw, Valérie; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    While the number of techniques for patterning materials at the nanoscale exponentially increases, only a handful of methods approach the conformal patterning of strongly non-planar surfaces. Here, using the direct surface self-assembly of colloids by electrostatics, we produce highly conformal bottom-up nanopatterns with a short-range order. We illustrate the potential of this approach by devising functional nanopatterns on highly non-planar substrates such as pyramid-textured silicon substrates and inherently rough polycrystalline films. We further produce functionalized polycrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells with enhanced optical performance. The perspective presented here to pattern essentially any surface at the nanoscale, in particular surfaces with high inherent roughness or with microscale features, opens new possibilities in a wide range of advanced technologies from affordable photovoltaics and optoelectronics to cellular engineering.

  17. Highly conformal fabrication of nanopatterns on non-planar surfaces.

    PubMed

    Massiot, Inès; Trompoukis, Christos; Lodewijks, Kristof; Depauw, Valérie; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    While the number of techniques for patterning materials at the nanoscale exponentially increases, only a handful of methods approach the conformal patterning of strongly non-planar surfaces. Here, using the direct surface self-assembly of colloids by electrostatics, we produce highly conformal bottom-up nanopatterns with a short-range order. We illustrate the potential of this approach by devising functional nanopatterns on highly non-planar substrates such as pyramid-textured silicon substrates and inherently rough polycrystalline films. We further produce functionalized polycrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells with enhanced optical performance. The perspective presented here to pattern essentially any surface at the nanoscale, in particular surfaces with high inherent roughness or with microscale features, opens new possibilities in a wide range of advanced technologies from affordable photovoltaics and optoelectronics to cellular engineering. PMID:27193504

  18. Academic achievement in high functioning autistic individuals.

    PubMed

    Minshew, N J; Goldstein, G; Taylor, H G; Siegel, D J

    1994-04-01

    Academic achievement levels in 54 high functioning (IQ > 70) autistic subjects were compared with those of 41 normal controls, who did not differ significantly in age, IQ, gender, race, or SES from the autistic subjects. The measures of academic achievement used included portions of the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-2, the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test, and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement. Based on prior neuropsychological findings, it was hypothesized that autistic subjects would not differ from controls on subtests assessing mechanical and procedural skills, but would differ on subtests measuring comprehension and interpretive skills. As predicted, the autistic subjects performed significantly less well than controls on comprehension tasks, but not on mechanical reading, spelling, and computational tasks. This pattern is at variance with the typical academic profile of individuals with disabilities in reading or spelling, but shares some features with the nonverbal learning disabilities. PMID:8021313

  19. Native proteins trap high-energy transit conformations

    PubMed Central

    Brereton, Andrew E.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    During protein folding and as part of some conformational changes that regulate protein function, the polypeptide chain must traverse high-energy barriers that separate the commonly adopted low-energy conformations. How distortions in peptide geometry allow these barrier-crossing transitions is a fundamental open question. One such important transition involves the movement of a non-glycine residue between the left side of the Ramachandran plot (that is, ϕ < 0°) and the right side (that is, ϕ > 0°). We report that high-energy conformations with ϕ ~ 0°, normally expected to occur only as fleeting transition states, are stably trapped in certain highly resolved native protein structures and that an analysis of these residues provides a detailed, experimentally derived map of the bond angle distortions taking place along the transition path. This unanticipated information lays to rest any uncertainty about whether such transitions are possible and how they occur, and in doing so lays a firm foundation for theoretical studies to better understand the transitions between basins that have been little studied but are integrally involved in protein folding and function. Also, the context of one such residue shows that even a designed highly stable protein can harbor substantial unfavorable interactions. PMID:26601321

  20. Method for producing highly conformal transparent conducting oxides

    DOEpatents

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Mane, Anil U.

    2016-07-26

    A method for forming a transparent conducting oxide product layer. The method includes use of precursors, such as tetrakis-(dimethylamino) tin and trimethyl indium, and selected use of dopants, such as SnO and ZnO for obtaining desired optical, electrical and structural properties for a highly conformal layer coating on a substrate. Ozone was also input as a reactive gas which enabled rapid production of the desired product layer.

  1. Conformal BaTiO3 Films with High Piezoelectric Coupling through an Optimized Hydrothermal Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi; Bowland, Christopher C; Patterson, Brendan A; Malakooti, Mohammad H; Sodano, Henry A

    2016-08-24

    Two-dimensional (2D) ferroelectric films have vast applications due to their dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties that meet the requirements of sensors, nonvolatile ferroelectric random access memory (NVFeRAM) devices, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). However, the small surface area of these 2D ferroelectric films has limited their ability to achieve higher memory storage density in NVFeRAM devices and more sensitive sensors and transducer. Thus, conformally deposited ferroelectric films have been actively studied for these applications in order to create three-dimensional (3D) structures, which lead to a larger surface area. Most of the current methods developed for the conformal deposition of ferroelectric films, such as metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and plasma-enhanced vapor deposition (PECVD), are limited by high temperatures and unstable and toxic organic precursors. In this paper, an innovative fabrication method for barium titanate (BaTiO3) textured films with 3D architectures is introduced to alleviate these issues. This fabrication method is based on converting conformally grown rutile TiO2 nanowire arrays into BaTiO3 textured films using a simple two-step hydrothermal process which allows for thickness-controlled growth of conformal films on patterned silicon wafers coated with fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). Moreover, the processing parameters have been optimized to achieve a high piezoelectric coupling coefficient of 100 pm/V. This high piezoelectric response along with high relative dielectric constant (εr = 1600) of the conformally grown textured BaTiO3 films demonstrates their potential application in sensors, NVFeRAM, and MEMS. PMID:27487556

  2. Achieving high performance on the Intel Paragon

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, D.S.; Maccabe, B.; Riesen, R.; Wheat, S.; Womble, D.

    1993-11-01

    When presented with a new supercomputer most users will first ask {open_quotes}How much faster will my applications run?{close_quotes} and then add a fearful {open_quotes}How much effort will it take me to convert to the new machine?{close_quotes} This paper describes some lessons learned at Sandia while asking these questions about the new 1800+ node Intel Paragon. The authors conclude that the operating system is crucial to both achieving high performance and allowing easy conversion from previous parallel implementations to a new machine. Using the Sandia/UNM Operating System (SUNMOS) they were able to port a LU factorization of dense matrices from the nCUBE2 to the Paragon and achieve 92% scaled speed-up on 1024 nodes. Thus on a 44,000 by 44,000 matrix which had required over 10 hours on the previous machine, they completed in less than 1/2 hour at a rate of over 40 GFLOPS. Two keys to achieving such high performance were the small size of SUNMOS (less than 256 kbytes) and the ability to send large messages with very low overhead.

  3. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 18th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Communications, Inc., Lake Forest, IL.

    This document contains factsheets and news releases which cite findings from a national survey of 1,985 high achieving high school students. Factsheets describe the Who's Who Among American High School Students recognition and service program for high school students and explain the Who's Who survey. A summary report of this eighteenth annual…

  4. 22nd Annual Survey of High Achievers: Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This study surveyed high school students (N=1,879) who were student leaders or high achievers in the spring of 1991 for the purpose of determining their attitudes. Students were members of the junior or senior high school class during the 1990-91 academic year and were selected for recognition by their principals or guidance counselors, other…

  5. 21st Annual Survey of High Achievers: Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey was conducted by Who's Who Among American High School Students during the spring of 1990, to determine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. A survey of high achievers sent to 5,000 students was completed and returned by approximately 2,000 students. All students were members of the junior or senior class during the…

  6. Academic Attitudes of High Achieving and Low Achieving Academically Able Black Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, John Rhodes

    1981-01-01

    In order to identify the relationships between the attitudes and perceptions of peer pressure and the academic achievement of academically able male adolescents, this study compares the school attitudes of high achieving and low achieving Black male youth. (EF)

  7. Differential Predictors of Achievement among Kibbutz and Urban High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Amos

    1982-01-01

    A study examines environmental and personality factors as predictors of academic achievement among kibbutz and urban high school students. Results of a comparison of personality factors indicate that kibbutz students are more restrained, reserved, adaptable, and conforming. The higher scores of city students on intelligence tests may stem from a…

  8. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 26th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    A national survey of 3,351 high achieving high school students (junior and senior level) was conducted. All students had A or B averages. Topics covered include lifestyles, political beliefs, violence and entertainment, education, cheating, school violence, sexual violence and date rape, peer pressure, popularity, suicide, drugs and alcohol,…

  9. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 24th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey represents information compiled by the largest national survey of adolescent leaders and high achievers. Of the 5,000 students selected demographically from "Who's Who Among American High School Students," 1,957 responded. All students surveyed had "A" or "B" averages, and 98% planned on attending college. Questions were asked about…

  10. Gaalop—High Performance Parallel Computing Based on Conformal Geometric Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildenbrand, Dietmar; Pitt, Joachim; Koch, Andreas

    We present Gaalop (Geometric algebra algorithms optimizer), our tool for high-performance computing based on conformal geometric algebra. The main goal of Gaalop is to realize implementations that are most likely faster than conventional solutions. In order to achieve this goal, our focus is on parallel target platforms like FPGA (field-programmable gate arrays) or the CUDA technology from NVIDIA. We describe the concepts, current status, and future perspectives of Gaalop dealing with optimized software implementations, hardware implementations, and mixed solutions. An inverse kinematics algorithm of a humanoid robot is described as an example.

  11. High Involvement Mothers of High Achieving Children: Potential Theoretical Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    In American society, parents who have high aspirations for the achievements of their children are often viewed by others in a negative light. Various pejoratives such as "pushy parent," "helicopter parent," "stage mother," and "soccer mom" are used in the common vernacular to describe these parents. Multiple…

  12. Factors Implicated in High Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgasz, Helen J.; Hill, Janelle C.

    2013-01-01

    The most recent Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (2009) mathematical literacy results provide evidence that in Western English-speaking countries, including Australia, the gender gap in achievement appears to be widening in favour of males. In the study reported in this article, the aim was to explore the effects of gender,…

  13. High Ability Readers and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.; Parke, Cynthia J.; Bramble, Joan G.

    2004-01-01

    To close the achievement gap, the "No Child Left Behind" law calls for all students to make appropriate yearly progress. This presumably means that progress is being made by capable readers at the same time progress is being made by struggling readers. However, there appear to be unintended effects of "No Child Left Behind" that may impede the…

  14. Conformation-Controlled Diplatinum(II)-Ferrocene Dyads to Achieve Long-Lived Charge-Separated States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ge-Xia; Feng, Ke; Crossley, Maxwell J; Xing, Ling-Bao; Xiao, Hong-Yan; Li, Wen; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2016-08-16

    Square-planar polypyridyl platinum(II) complexes possess a rich range of structural and spectroscopic properties that are ideal for designing artificial photosynthetic centers. Taking advantage of the directionality in the charge-transfer excitation from the metal to the polypyridyl ligand, we describe here diplatinum(II)-ferrocene dyads, open-butterfly-like dyad 1 and closed-butterfly-like dyad 2, which were designed to understand the conformation and orientation effects to prolong the lifetime of charge-separated state. In contrast to the open-butterfly-like dyad 1, the closed-butterfly-like dyad 2 shows three-times long lifetime of charge separated state upon photoexcitation, demonstrating that the orientation in the rigid structure of dyad 2 is a very important issue to achieve long-lived charge separated state. PMID:27339465

  15. Conformal symmetry breaking and degeneracy of high-lying unflavored mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchbach, Mariana; Pallares-Rivera, Adrian; Compean, Cliffor; Raya, Alfredo

    2012-08-01

    We show that though conformal symmetry can be broken by the dilaton, such can happen without breaking the conformal degeneracy patterns in the spectra. Our argumentation goes as follows: We departure from the gauge-gravity duality which predicts on the boundaries of the AdS5 geometry a conformal theory, associated with QCD at high temperatures, and consider S1 × S3 slicing. The inverse radius, R, of S3 relates to the temperature of the deconfinement phase transition and has to satisfy, hslashc/R gg ΛQCD. On S3, whose isometry group is SO(4), we then focus on the eigenvalue problem of the conformal Laplacian there, given by , with standing for the Casimir invariant of the so(4) algebra. This eigenvalue problem describes the spectrum of a scalar particle, to be associated with a qbar q system. Such a spectrum is characterized by a (K + l)2-fold degeneracy of its levels, with K in [0, ∞). We then break the conformal S3 metric, ds2 = dχ2 + sin2 χ(dθ2 + sin2θdvarphi2) -in polar chi,θ, and azimuthal varphi coordinates- according to, ds~2 = e-bχ((1 + b2/4)dχ2 + sin2 chi(dθ2 + sin2θdvarphi2)), and attribute the symmetry breaking scale bhslash2c2/R2 to the dilaton. Next we show that the above metric deformation is equivalent to a breaking of the conformal curvature of S3 by a term proportional to b cot χ, and that the perturbed conformal Laplacian is equivalent to , with cκ a representation constant, and being again an so(4) Casimir invariant, but this time in a representation unitarily nonequivalent to the 4D rotational one. As long as the spectra before and after the symmetry breaking happen to be determined each by eigenvalues of a Casimir invariant of an so(4), no matter whether or not in a representation that generates the orthogonal group SO(4) as a subgroup of the conformal group SO(2,4), the degeneracy patterns remain unaltered though the conformal symmetry breaks at the level of the representation of the algebra. We fit the S3 radius and the hslash2c

  16. Achieving strategic surety for high consequence software

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    A strategic surety roadmap for high consequence software systems under the High Integrity Software (HIS) Program at Sandia National Laboratories guides research in identifying methodologies to improve software surety. Selected research tracks within this roadmap are identified and described detailing current technology and outlining advancements to be pursued over the coming decade to reach HIS goals. The tracks discussed herein focus on Correctness by Design, and System Immunology{trademark}. Specific projects are discussed with greater detail given on projects involving Correct Specification via Visualization, Synthesis, & Analysis; Visualization of Abstract Objects; and Correct Implementation of Components.

  17. Norview High School: Leadership Fosters Achievment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Often little unsaid things demonstrate what is truly important in a school. When teachers have common planning time and all of the department chairs share a single space as they do at Norview High School in Norfolk, VA, the unmistakable message is that instructional collaboration and leadership are expected and valued. Norview, an urban,…

  18. Achieving High-Temperature Ferromagnetic Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katmis, Ferhat

    Topological insulators (TIs) are insulating materials that display conducting surface states protected by time-reversal symmetry, wherein electron spins are locked to their momentum. This unique property opens new opportunities for creating next-generation electronic and spintronic devices, including TI-based quantum computation. Introducing ferromagnetic order into a TI system without compromising its distinctive quantum coherent features could lead to a realization of several predicted novel physical phenomena. In particular, achieving robust long-range magnetic order at the TI surface at specific locations without introducing spin scattering centers could open up new possibilities for devices. Here, we demonstrate topologically enhanced interface magnetism by coupling a ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) to a TI (Bi2Se3); this interfacial ferromagnetism persists up to room temperature, even though the FMI (EuS) is known to order ferromagnetically only at low temperatures (<17 K). The induced magnetism at the interface resulting from the large spin-orbit interaction and spin-momentum locking feature of the TI surface is found to greatly enhance the magnetic ordering (Curie) temperature of the TI/FMI bilayer system. Due to the short range nature of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction, the time-reversal symmetry is broken only near the surface of a TI, while leaving its bulk states unaffected. The topological magneto-electric response originating in such an engineered TI could allow for an efficient manipulation of the magnetization dynamics by an electric field, providing an energy efficient topological control mechanism for future spin-based technologies. Work supported by MIT MRSEC through the MRSEC Program of NSF under award number DMR-0819762, NSF Grant DMR-1207469, the ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0301, and the STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF grant DMR-1231319.

  19. Self-Concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study "Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students" was investigated to find the relationship between Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students. Data for the study were collected using Self-concept Questionnaire developed by Raj Kumar Saraswath (1984) and Achievement Motive Test (ACMT)…

  20. Dynamic Aberration Correction for Conformal Window of High-Speed Aircraft Using Optimized Model-Based Wavefront Sensorless Adaptive Optics.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bing; Li, Yan; Han, Xin-Li; Hu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    For high-speed aircraft, a conformal window is used to optimize the aerodynamic performance. However, the local shape of the conformal window leads to large amounts of dynamic aberrations varying with look angle. In this paper, deformable mirror (DM) and model-based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WSLAO) are used for dynamic aberration correction of an infrared remote sensor equipped with a conformal window and scanning mirror. In model-based WSLAO, aberration is captured using Lukosz mode, and we use the low spatial frequency content of the image spectral density as the metric function. Simulations show that aberrations induced by the conformal window are dominated by some low-order Lukosz modes. To optimize the dynamic correction, we can only correct dominant Lukosz modes and the image size can be minimized to reduce the time required to compute the metric function. In our experiment, a 37-channel DM is used to mimic the dynamic aberration of conformal window with scanning rate of 10 degrees per second. A 52-channel DM is used for correction. For a 128 × 128 image, the mean value of image sharpness during dynamic correction is 1.436 × 10(-5) in optimized correction and is 1.427 × 10(-5) in un-optimized correction. We also demonstrated that model-based WSLAO can achieve convergence two times faster than traditional stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) method. PMID:27598161

  1. Scientific Temper among Academically High and Low Achieving Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kour, Sunmeet

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the scientific temper of high and low achieving adolescent girl students. Random sampling technique was used to draw the sample from various high schools of District Srinagar. The sample for the present study consisted of 120 school going adolescent girls (60 high and 60 low achievers). Data was…

  2. Rapid RNA–ligand interaction analysis through high-information content conformational and stability landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Nathan J.; Inglese, James; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R.

    2015-01-01

    The structure and biological properties of RNAs are a function of changing cellular conditions, but comprehensive, simultaneous investigation of the effect of multiple interacting environmental variables is not easily achieved. We have developed an efficient, high-throughput method to characterize RNA structure and thermodynamic stability as a function of multiplexed solution conditions using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). In a single FRET experiment using conventional quantitative PCR instrumentation, 19,400 conditions of MgCl2, ligand and temperature are analysed to generate detailed empirical conformational and stability landscapes of the cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) riboswitch. The method allows rapid comparison of RNA structure modulation by cognate and non-cognate ligands. Landscape analysis reveals that kanamycin B stabilizes a non-native, idiosyncratic conformation of the riboswitch that inhibits c-di-GMP binding. This demonstrates that allosteric control of folding, rather than direct competition with cognate effectors, is a viable approach for pharmacologically targeting riboswitches and other structured RNA molecules. PMID:26638992

  3. Rapid RNA-ligand interaction analysis through high-information content conformational and stability landscapes.

    PubMed

    Baird, Nathan J; Inglese, James; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R

    2015-01-01

    The structure and biological properties of RNAs are a function of changing cellular conditions, but comprehensive, simultaneous investigation of the effect of multiple interacting environmental variables is not easily achieved. We have developed an efficient, high-throughput method to characterize RNA structure and thermodynamic stability as a function of multiplexed solution conditions using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). In a single FRET experiment using conventional quantitative PCR instrumentation, 19,400 conditions of MgCl2, ligand and temperature are analysed to generate detailed empirical conformational and stability landscapes of the cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) riboswitch. The method allows rapid comparison of RNA structure modulation by cognate and non-cognate ligands. Landscape analysis reveals that kanamycin B stabilizes a non-native, idiosyncratic conformation of the riboswitch that inhibits c-di-GMP binding. This demonstrates that allosteric control of folding, rather than direct competition with cognate effectors, is a viable approach for pharmacologically targeting riboswitches and other structured RNA molecules. PMID:26638992

  4. Rapid RNA-ligand interaction analysis through high-information content conformational and stability landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, Nathan J.; Inglese, James; Ferré-D’Amaré, Adrian R.

    2015-12-07

    The structure and biological properties of RNAs are a function of changing cellular conditions, but comprehensive, simultaneous investigation of the effect of multiple interacting environmental variables is not easily achieved. We have developed an efficient, high-throughput method to characterize RNA structure and thermodynamic stability as a function of multiplexed solution conditions using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). In a single FRET experiment using conventional quantitative PCR instrumentation, 19,400 conditions of MgCl2, ligand and temperature are analysed to generate detailed empirical conformational and stability landscapes of the cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) riboswitch. This method allows rapid comparison of RNA structure modulation by cognate and non-cognate ligands. Landscape analysis reveals that kanamycin B stabilizes a non-native, idiosyncratic conformation of the riboswitch that inhibits c-di-GMP binding. Our research demonstrates that allosteric control of folding, rather than direct competition with cognate effectors, is a viable approach for pharmacologically targeting riboswitches and other structured RNA molecules.

  5. Rapid RNA-ligand interaction analysis through high-information content conformational and stability landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Nathan J.; Inglese, James; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R.

    2015-12-01

    The structure and biological properties of RNAs are a function of changing cellular conditions, but comprehensive, simultaneous investigation of the effect of multiple interacting environmental variables is not easily achieved. We have developed an efficient, high-throughput method to characterize RNA structure and thermodynamic stability as a function of multiplexed solution conditions using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). In a single FRET experiment using conventional quantitative PCR instrumentation, 19,400 conditions of MgCl2, ligand and temperature are analysed to generate detailed empirical conformational and stability landscapes of the cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) riboswitch. The method allows rapid comparison of RNA structure modulation by cognate and non-cognate ligands. Landscape analysis reveals that kanamycin B stabilizes a non-native, idiosyncratic conformation of the riboswitch that inhibits c-di-GMP binding. This demonstrates that allosteric control of folding, rather than direct competition with cognate effectors, is a viable approach for pharmacologically targeting riboswitches and other structured RNA molecules.

  6. Conformable pressure vessel for high pressure gas storage

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Lavender, Curt A.; Newhouse, Norman L.; Yeggy, Brian C.

    2016-01-12

    A non-cylindrical pressure vessel storage tank is disclosed. The storage tank includes an internal structure. The internal structure is coupled to at least one wall of the storage tank. The internal structure shapes and internally supports the storage tank. The pressure vessel storage tank has a conformability of about 0.8 to about 1.0. The internal structure can be, but is not limited to, a Schwarz-P structure, an egg-crate shaped structure, or carbon fiber ligament structure.

  7. Setting Educational Priorities: High Achievers Speak Out. White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickeson, Robert C.

    Noting that high achieving Indiana high school students can provide important insights into the educational system in the state, this study examined the opinions of recipients of Ameritchieve recognition, National Merit finalists, African-American students who were National Achievement finalists, and national Hispanic Scholar finalists, all from…

  8. Trickle-Down Preferences: Preferential Conformity to High Status Peers in Fashion Choices

    PubMed Central

    Galak, Jeff; Gray, Kurt; Elbert, Igor; Strohminger, Nina

    2016-01-01

    How much do our choices represent stable inner preferences versus social conformity? We examine conformity and consistency in sartorial choices surrounding a common life event of new norm exposure: relocation. A large-scale dataset of individual purchases of women’s shoes (16,236 transactions) across five years and 2,007 women reveals a balance of conformity and consistency, moderated by changes in location socioeconomic status. Women conform to new local norms (i.e., average heel size) when moving to relatively higher status locations, but mostly ignore new local norms when moving to relatively lower status locations. In short, at periods of transition, it is the fashion norms of the rich that trickle down to consumers. These analyses provide the first naturalistic large-scale demonstration of the tension between psychological conformity and consistency, with real decisions in a highly visible context. PMID:27144595

  9. Conformable actively multiplexed high-density surface electrode array for brain interfacing

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Litt, Brian; Viventi, Jonathan

    2015-01-13

    Provided are methods and devices for interfacing with brain tissue, specifically for monitoring and/or actuation of spatio-temporal electrical waveforms. The device is conformable having a high electrode density and high spatial and temporal resolution. A conformable substrate supports a conformable electronic circuit and a barrier layer. Electrodes are positioned to provide electrical contact with a brain tissue. A controller monitors or actuates the electrodes, thereby interfacing with the brain tissue. In an aspect, methods are provided to monitor or actuate spatio-temporal electrical waveform over large brain surface areas by any of the devices disclosed herein.

  10. Peak deconvolution in high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) to characterize macromolecular conformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Errol W.; Sellon, Rachel E.; Williams, Evan R.

    2007-01-01

    Protonated poly(ethylene glycol), produced by electrospray ionization (ESI), with molecular weights ranging from 0.3 to 5 kDa and charge states from 1+ to 7+ were characterized using high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS). Results for all but some of the 3+ and 4+ charge states are consistent with a single gas-phase conformer or family of unresolved conformers for each of these charge states. The FAIMS compensation voltage scans resulted in peaks that could be accurately fit with a single Gaussian for each peak. The peak widths increase linearly with compensation voltage for maximum ion transmission but do not depend on m/z or molecular weight. Fitting parameters obtained from the poly(ethylene glycol) data were used to analyze conformations of oxidized and reduced lysozyme formed from different solutions. For oxidized lysozyme formed from a buffered aqueous solution, a single conformer (or group of unresolved conformers) was observed for the 7+ and 8+ charge states. Two conformers were observed for the 9+ and 10+ charge states formed from more denaturing solutions. Data for the fully reduced form indicate the existence of up to three different conformers for each charge state produced directly by ESI and a general progression from a more extended to a more folded structure with decreasing charge state. These results are consistent with those obtained previously by proton-transfer reactivity and drift tube ion mobility experiments, although more conformers were identified for the fully reduced form of lysozyme using FAIMS.

  11. NIR Laser Radiation Induced Conformational Changes and Tunneling Lifetimes of High-Energy Conformers of Amino Acids in Low-Temperature Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazso, Gabor; Najbauer, Eszter E.; Magyarfalvi, Gabor; Tarczay, Gyorgy

    2013-06-01

    We review our recent results on combined matrix isolation FT-IR and NIR laser irradiation studies on glycine alanine, and cysteine. The OH and the NH stretching overtones of the low-energy conformers of these amino acids deposited in Ar, Kr, Xe, and N_{2} matrices were irradiated. At the expense of the irradiated conformer, other conformers were enriched and new, high-energy, formerly unobserved conformers were formed in the matrices. This enabled the separation and unambiguous assignment of the vibrational transitions of the different conformers. The main conversion paths and their efficiencies are described qualitatively showing that there are significant differences in different matrices. It was shown that the high-energy conformer decays in the matrix by H-atom tunneling. The lifetimes of the high-energy conformers in different matrices were measured. Based on our results we conclude that some theoretically predicted low-energy conformers of amino acids are likely even absent in low-energy matrices due to fast H-atom tunneling. G. Bazso, G. Magyarfalvi, G. Tarczay J. Mol. Struct. 1025 (Light-Induced Processes in Cryogenic Matrices Special Issue) 33-42 (2012). G. Bazso, G. Magyarfalvi, G. Tarczay J. Phys. Chem. A 116 (43) 10539-10547 (2012). G. Bazso, E. E. Najbauer, G. Magyarfalvi, G. Tarczay J. Phys. Chem. A in press, DOI: 10.1021/jp400196b. E. E. Najbauer, G. Bazso, G. Magyarfalvi, G. Tarczay in preparation.

  12. Achieving Diameter-Selective Separation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanobutes by Using Polymer Conformation-Confined Helical Cavity.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yusheng; Xu, Yongqian; Perry, Kelly A; Sokolov, Alexei P; More, Karren Leslie; Pang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    A water-soluble poly[(m-phenylenevinylene)-alt-(p-phenylenevinylene)] (PmPV) 2 has been synthesized, which exhibits an unsymmetrical substitution pattern on the para-phenylene unit. With one substituent being hydrophilic while the other being hydrophobic, the polymer chain has a higher tendency to fold in aqueous solution, thereby promoting the helical conformation. The polymer is found to selectively disperse the SWNTs of small diameters (d=0.75-0.84 nm), in sharp contrast to PmPV 1 with a symmetrical substitution pattern. The intriguing diameter-based selectivity is believed to be associated with the confined helical conformation, which provides a suitable cavity to host the SWNT of proper sizes. The study thus provides a useful demonstration that the polymer conformation can have a profound impact on the SWNT sorting.

  13. Test-Taking Strategies of High and Low Mathematics Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Sas, Maggie; Sas, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored test-preparation and test-taking strategies that high school students used in algebra tests. From a pool of high school students (N = 156), 61 students participated in interviews, and of those interviewed, 26 represented those who were high achieving as well as highly interested in mathematics (n = 15) vs. those who were low…

  14. Biculturalism and Academic Achievement of African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Jonathan P.; Jackson, Margo A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Blumberg, Fran C.

    2011-01-01

    Biculturalism was examined as a factor that may positively affect the academic achievement of African American high school students, beyond cultural identity and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses determined that cultural identity and academic self-esteem were important factors for academic achievement, but not biculturalism.…

  15. Tracking and Detracking: High Achievers in Massachusetts Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom

    2009-01-01

    This study examines tracking--the practice of grouping students into separate classes or courses based on their prior academic achievement--at the middle-school level, and the percentage of high-achieving students in tracked and untracked schools. It focuses on Massachusetts, a leader in "reforming" tracking, and the changes that have…

  16. Mobility and Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Janet Denise

    2013-01-01

    Student mobility is an issue for high poverty schools in the shadow of increased rigor and accountability for student performance. Whereas mobility is not a sole cause for poor achievement, it is a contributing factor for students in poverty who are already considered to be at risk of low achievement. Student mobility creates a hardship for…

  17. High Conformational Stability of Secreted Eukaryotic Catalase-peroxidases

    PubMed Central

    Zámocký, Marcel; García-Fernández, Queralt; Gasselhuber, Bernhard; Jakopitsch, Christa; Furtmüller, Paul G.; Loewen, Peter C.; Fita, Ignacio; Obinger, Christian; Carpena, Xavi

    2012-01-01

    Catalase-peroxidases (KatGs) are bifunctional heme enzymes widely spread in archaea, bacteria, and lower eukaryotes. Here we present the first crystal structure (1.55 Å resolution) of an eukaryotic KatG, the extracellular or secreted enzyme from the phytopathogenic fungus Magnaporthe grisea. The heme cavity of the homodimeric enzyme is similar to prokaryotic KatGs including the unique distal +Met-Tyr-Trp adduct (where the Trp is further modified by peroxidation) and its associated mobile arginine. The structure also revealed several conspicuous peculiarities that are fully conserved in all secreted eukaryotic KatGs. Peculiarities include the wrapping at the dimer interface of the N-terminal elongations from the two subunits and cysteine residues that cross-link the two subunits. Differential scanning calorimetry and temperature- and urea-mediated unfolding followed by UV-visible, circular dichroism, and fluorescence spectroscopy combined with site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that secreted eukaryotic KatGs have a significantly higher conformational stability as well as a different unfolding pattern when compared with intracellular eukaryotic and prokaryotic catalase-peroxidases. We discuss these properties with respect to the structure as well as the postulated roles of this metalloenzyme in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:22822072

  18. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 29th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report presents the 1998 statistical findings of the annual survey to determine the attitudes of national high school student leaders. Questionnaires were completed by 3,123 high school juniors and seniors, all of whom were selected for recognition in "Who's Who among American High School Students." In addition to demographic information, the…

  19. High-pressure EPR reveals conformational equilibria and volumetric properties of spin-labeled proteins

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, John; Hubbell, Wayne L.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying equilibrium conformational exchange and characterizing conformational substates is essential for elucidating mechanisms of function in proteins. Site-directed spin labeling has previously been employed to detect conformational changes triggered by some event, but verifying conformational exchange at equilibrium is more challenging. Conformational exchange (microsecond–millisecond) is slow on the EPR time scale, and this proves to be an advantage in directly revealing the presence of multiple substates as distinguishable components in the EPR spectrum, allowing the direct determination of equilibrium constants and free energy differences. However, rotameric exchange of the spin label side chain can also give rise to multiple components in the EPR spectrum. Using spin-labeled mutants of T4 lysozyme, it is shown that high-pressure EPR can be used to: (i) demonstrate equilibrium between spectrally resolved states, (ii) aid in distinguishing conformational from rotameric exchange as the origin of the resolved states, and (iii) determine the relative partial molar volume () and isothermal compressibility () of conformational substates in two-component equilibria from the pressure dependence of the equilibrium constant. These volumetric properties provide insight into the structure of the substates. Finally, the pressure dependence of internal side-chain motion is interpreted in terms of volume fluctuations on the nanosecond time scale, the magnitude of which may reflect local backbone flexibility. PMID:21205903

  20. Associations of Future Expectations, Negative Friends, and Academic Achievement in High-Achieving African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michael; Corprew, Charles S., III; Becker, Jonathan E.

    2009-01-01

    The relations of future expectations (general and academic) to academic outcomes were examined in a sample of 129 African American high-achieving adolescents (majority female participants, n = 92). This study was interested in the multidimensional nature of future expectations. Results from the study confirm the hypothesis that academic future…

  1. The "Renaissance Child": High Achievement and Gender in Late Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the concept of the "Renaissance Child" to illustrate the ways in which gender influences the opportunities and possibilities of high-achieving pupils. Using data from a study of 12-13-year high-achieving boys and girls based in schools in England, the paper considers the ways in which a group of popular boys was able to show an…

  2. The Effects of Block Scheduling on High School Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Chance W.; Dugan, James J.; Winokur, Marc A.; Cobb, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of block scheduling on high school student achievement in mathematics and reading was investigated in this study through the use of an ex post-facto, longitudinal research design. Specifically, student scores from 9th and 11th-grade standardized tests were matched and sorted by junior high and high school attended. Outcome measures…

  3. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 28th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report details the 28th annual study to examine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. Participating in the survey were 3,210 adolescents, primarily 16- and 17-year-olds, who had been featured in the 1997 edition of "Who's Who Among American High School Students." The report presents demographic information on the survey…

  4. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 27th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report details the 27th annual study to examine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. Participating in the survey were 3,370 adolescents, primarily 16- and 17-year-olds, who had been featured in the 1996 edition of "Who's Who Among American High School Students." The report presents demographic information on the survey…

  5. Calculator for conformational statistics of DNA and applications to high-curvature bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Brian C.; Wiggins, Paul A.

    2013-03-01

    DNA conformation plays an important role in a host of cellular processes. Despite the central importance of DNA conformation, there is not yet a general-purpose calculator for conformational statistics that is designed for the scientific community. Here we describe a public tool we developed for calculating an important class of conformational statistics: the end-to-end probability density of finding a locus of the DNA polymer at a given displacement and orientation relative to a second locus on the same polymer. As a demonstration, we propose a cyclization experiment and use our calculator to show that this experiment could measure the energy of DNA bending as a direct function of bend angle in the poorly understood high-bending regime. Our tool is available as both an online calculator and a downloadable program at http://mtshasta.phys.washington.edu/wormulator/.

  6. Capturing high temperature protein conformations for low-temperature study using ultra-fast cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, David; Atakisi, Hakan; Thorne, Robert

    protocols for cooling biomolecular crystals for x-ray cryocrystallography are poorly controlled, leading to crystal-to-crystal and within-crystal non-isomorphism. Furthermore, cooling times below the protein-solvent glass transition of .1 s provide ample time for biological temperature conformations to depopulate and shift. To address these issues, methods and apparatus for cooling biomolecular crystals at rates approaching 100,000 K/s have been developed. These cooling rates are sufficient to eliminate ice formation on cooling without use of cryoprotectants, and to quench additional high-temperature conformations for low-temperature study. Time scales for conformational relaxation can be characterized using variable cooling rates. Possible extension of these methods to maximize conformational quenching will be discussed.

  7. A Study on the Relationship between Logical Thinking Level and the Achievement in Enrichment Physics of School Science High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Min; Lee, Sung-Yi

    2001-01-01

    Investigates science high achievers' achievement in enrichment physics and logical thinking levels, and analyzes the relationship between logical thinking level and achievement in enrichment physics of high achievers in science. Involves (n=35) 7th and 8th grade junior high school students in the study. Uses the Group Assessment of Logical…

  8. Student Achievement for Whom? High-Performing and Still "Playing the Game," the Meaning of School Achievement among High Achieving African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggan, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The preponderance of the research on African American students has generally focused on issues of school failure and underperformance. While the literature on high achieving Black students is sparse, very little is known about these students' school experiences and the meanings that they assign to achievement. Using student-based inquiry…

  9. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 25th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey was conducted during the spring of 1994 for the purpose of determining the attitudes of student leaders in the nation's high schools. Eight thousand surveys were sent out to students, of which 3177 were returned. All students surveyed were members of the junior or senior class during the 1993-94 academic year. They were selected for…

  10. Student Achievement Levels Raised at Chandler High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Profiles, Programs & Products, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Chandler (Arizona) High School has reported a dramatic increase in student achievement levels since implementing a number of management, curriculum, and discipline policy changes. Among the program changes that contributed to these gains are: (1) creation of a positive school environment, with high expectations for teachers, emphasis on high…

  11. Brain Hemisphericity and Mathematics Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Sanny F.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the brain hemisphericity and mathematics achievement of high school students. The respondents of the study were the 168 first year high school students of Colegio de San Jose, during school year 2010-2011 who were chosen through stratified random sampling. The descriptive and interview methods of research were used in…

  12. Exploring High-Achieving Students' Images of Mathematicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Mario Sánchez; Rosas, Alejandro; Zavaleta, Juan Gabriel Molina; Romo-Vázquez, Avenilde

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the images that a group of high-achieving Mexican students hold of mathematicians. For this investigation, we used a research method based on the Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) with a sample of 63 Mexican high school students. The group of students' pictorial and written descriptions of mathematicians assisted us…

  13. High School Employment and Academic Achievement: A Note for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keister, Mary; Hall, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Educators are often in a position to affect student decisions to work during the school term. This study reviews and summarizes the literature on the effect that employment during high school has on academic achievement. The available evidence suggests that part-time jobs for high school students are beneficial as long as the number of hours…

  14. What Does Quality Programming Mean for High Achieving Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samudzi, Cleo

    2008-01-01

    The Missouri Academy of Science, Mathematics and Computing (Missouri Academy) is a two-year accelerated, early-entrance-to-college, residential school that matches the level, complexity and pace of the curriculum with the readiness and motivation of high achieving high school students. The school is a part of Northwest Missouri State University…

  15. An Analysis of High School Mathematics Achievement and English Language Arts Achievement as Predictors of Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Anthony C.

    2012-01-01

    Science assessments require students to read and comprehend questions and to solve mathematical problems. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the following variables can be used to predict science achievement: English language arts achievement, mathematics achievement, socioeconomic status (SES), limited English proficiency (LEP)…

  16. High-Dose Conformal Radiotherapy for Patients With Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kurishima, Koichi; Ishikawa, Hiroichi; Tokuuye, Koichi

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of high-dose conformal radiotherapy to the involved field for patients with Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between May 1999 and April 2006, a total of 100 consecutive patients with inoperable Stage IIIA or IIIB NSCLC with a performance score of 0 to 2 and treatment by radical radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy were included. Up to August 2002, 33 patients underwent conventional radiotherapy of 56 Gy to 66 Gy using anteroposterior opposite ports to the primary tumor and elective lymph nodes (conventional group). After September 2002, the remaining 67 patients underwent high-dose radiotherapy of 66 Gy to 84 Gy to the involved volume with three-dimensional (3-D) conformal radiotherapy (conformal group). Results: The median survival was 13.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.5-18.5 months) in the conventional group and 17.3 months (95% CI, 10.7- 24.0 months) in the conformal group. The overall survival at 3 years were 9.1% (95% CI, -0.7-18.9%) in the conventional group and 31.0% (95% CI, 18.9-43.1%) in the conformal group; the conformal group had a significantly better overall survival (p < 0.05). The radiotherapy method (hazard ratio = 0.55, p < 0.05) and performance status (hazard ratio = 1.48, p < 0.05) were shown to be statistically significant independent prognostic factors. Conclusions: Based on the practical experience reported here, 3-D conformal radiotherapy allowed dose escalation without excessive toxicity, and may improve overall survival rates for patients with Stage III NSCLC.

  17. Supplementary Education: The Hidden Curriculum of High Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edmund W., Ed.; Bridglall, Beatrice L., Ed.; Meroe, Aundra Saa, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    In this book, the editors argue that while access to schools that enable and expect academic achievement is a necessary ingredient for the education of students, schools alone may not be sufficient to ensure universally high levels of academic development. Supplemental educational experiences may also be needed. The idea of supplementary education…

  18. Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; Rajeswari, K.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the influence of self-esteem on academic achievement among high school students in Miandoab City of Iran. The methodology of the research is descriptive and correlation that descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Statistical Society includes male and female high…

  19. Student Achievement Levels Climb at Ribault Senior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Profiles, Programs & Products, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Ribault (Florida) Senior High School has reported a dramatic increase in student achievement levels since implementing a comprehensive college preparation curriculum. Among the program changes that contributed to those gains are: (1) the establishment and consistent enforcement of a strong discipline program, including rules for student conduct, a…

  20. Middle School Practices Improve Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Steven B.; Flowers, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Examined how interdisciplinary team practices and classroom instructional practices affected student achievement in high poverty middle schools in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Found that when the combined effects of family poverty level, teaming and common planning time, and duration of teaming were considered, there was a relationship…

  1. Student Achievement through the Development of Complete High School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamphere, Michael Frederick, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation undertook an investigation of school culture and achievement in the high school setting. The national data set ELS:2002 was used as the pool of variables because it allows for a complete picture of school culture comprising students, parents, administrators, and teachers. The data were selected based on current literature and…

  2. Mercer Middle School Case Study: High Science and Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    To spotlight effective practices, the Washington State Board of Education (SBE) is highlighting schools that are closing achievement gaps and performing at high levels. In 2009, the SBE partnered with the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) to create the Washington Accountability Index. The Index is a new way to measure schools'…

  3. Analysis of Three High-Achieving Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Chae, Jeong-Lim; Schinck-Mikel, Amelie G.; Watson, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an in-depth cross-case analysis of three high-achieving young adolescent girls who had contrasting mathematics learning experiences during the first year of middle school. In particular, this study examines the foundation for their motivation, as well as the dominant mode of learning and academic engagement in relation to three…

  4. The High Trust Classroom: Raising Achievement from the Inside Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lonnie

    2009-01-01

    This book provides a roadmap to developing a high-trust classroom, a classroom: (1) With increased student achievement; (2) With few discipline problems; (3) Where students are intrinsically motivated; and (4) Where the teacher can confidently use creative lesson planning. The author presents a simple step by step approach to earning the trust of…

  5. Best Practices for Achieving High, Rapid Reading Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbo, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The percentage of students who read at the proficient level on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has not improved, and is appallingly low. In order for students to achieve high reading gains and become life-long readers, reading comprehension and reading enjoyment must be the top two goals. This article presents several…

  6. Relationship between High School Leadership Team Practices and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Timothy M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated if a relationship existed between student achievement in 10th grade Missouri Assessment Program mathematics and 11th grade communication arts scores in 2007 and high school leadership team perceptions of the extent to which they demonstrated leadership practices. The secondary purpose was to compare perceptional…

  7. Achievement of U.S. High-School Physics Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandavarkar, Marilda S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reports results of the Second International Science Study concerning achievement in physics of U.S. high school students. Makes comparisons between students of 13 other countries and U.S. students, between first- and second-year U.S. physics students, and between U.S. students tested in the mid-1980s and those tested in 1970. (MDH)

  8. Progress Lags in High School, Especially for Advanced Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines trends in the achievement of high school students on the state reading/English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests used for accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). This study confirms that there is reason for concern about…

  9. Parent Involvement Practices of High-Achieving Elementary Science Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Samara Susan

    This study addressed a prevalence of low achievement in science courses in an urban school district in Georgia. National leaders and educators have identified the improvement of science proficiency as critical to the future of American industry. The purpose of this study was to examine parent involvement in this school district and its contribution to the academic achievement of successful science students. Social capital theory guided this study by suggesting that students achieve best when investments are made into their academic and social development. A collective case study qualitative research design was used to interview 9 parent participants at 2 elementary schools whose children scored in the exceeds category on the Science CRCT. The research questions focused on what these parents did at home to support their children's academic achievement. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview protocol and analyzed through the categorical aggregation of transcribed interviews. Key findings revealed that the parents invested time and resources in 3 practices: communicating high expectations, supporting and developing key skills, and communicating with teachers. These findings contribute to social change at both the local and community level by creating a starting point for teachers, principals, and district leaders to reexamine the value of parent input in the educational process, and by providing data to support the revision of current parent involvement policies. Possibilities for further study building upon the findings of this study may focus on student perceptions of their parents' parenting as it relates to their science achievement.

  10. The Will to Achieve: A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of African American High Achieving Students and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Natalie Faye

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to understand the experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents. The experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents have been missing from literature on the academic achievement of African American students. Much of the literature that has been published…

  11. The Structure of a High Fidelity DNA Polymerase Bound to a Mismatched Nucleotide Reveals an ;Ajar; Intermediate Conformation in the Nucleotide Selection Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Eugene Y.; Beese, Lorena S.

    2011-10-10

    To achieve accurate DNA synthesis, DNA polymerases must rapidly sample and discriminate against incorrect nucleotides. Here we report the crystal structure of a high fidelity DNA polymerase I bound to DNA primer-template caught in the act of binding a mismatched (dG:dTTP) nucleoside triphosphate. The polymerase adopts a conformation in between the previously established 'open' and 'closed' states. In this 'ajar' conformation, the template base has moved into the insertion site but misaligns an incorrect nucleotide relative to the primer terminus. The displacement of a conserved active site tyrosine in the insertion site by the template base is accommodated by a distinctive kink in the polymerase O helix, resulting in a partially open ternary complex. We suggest that the ajar conformation allows the template to probe incoming nucleotides for complementarity before closure of the enzyme around the substrate. Based on solution fluorescence, kinetics, and crystallographic analyses of wild-type and mutant polymerases reported here, we present a three-state reaction pathway in which nucleotides either pass through this intermediate conformation to the closed conformation and catalysis or are misaligned within the intermediate, leading to destabilization of the closed conformation.

  12. Conformation and hydrogen-bond-assisted polymerization in glycine lithium sulfate at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Mishra, A K; Murli, Chitra; Verma, Ashok K; Song, Yang; Kumar, M R Suresh; Sharma, Surinder M

    2013-07-18

    The conformation of glycine has been a subject of extensive research for the past several years. As glycine exists in zwitterionic form in liquids and solids, the experimental observations of its neutral conformation are very limited. The complexes of glycine are simple prototypes to study the conformational properties of glycine. We have investigated the high-pressure behavior of glycine lithium sulfate (GLS), a semiorganic complex of glycine using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT)-based first principles calculations. Our Raman studies and DFT calculations suggest formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond at higher pressures. Subsequent to a structural transformation to a new high-pressure phase at ∼9 GPa, the observed spectral changes in the Raman spectra above 14 GPa indicate possible conformational change of glycine from zwitterionic to neutral form. At pressures above 18 GPa, the characteristic features in the Raman spectra and the X-ray diffraction patterns suggest transformation to a hydrogen-bond-assisted polymeric phase with intermediate range order. PMID:23822139

  13. Structural investigation of ribonuclease A conformational preferences using high pressure protein crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurpiewska, Katarzyna; Dziubek, Kamil; Katrusiak, Andrzej; Font, Josep; Ribò, Marc; Vilanova, Maria; Lewiński, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Hydrostatic pressure in range 0.1-1.5 GPa is used to modify biological system behaviour mostly in biophysical studies of proteins in solution. Due to specific influence on the system equilibrium high pressure can act as a filter that enables to identify and investigate higher energy protein conformers. The idea of the presented experiments is to examine the behaviour of RNase A molecule under high pressure before and after introduction of destabilizing mutation. For the first time crystal structures of wild-type bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A and its markedly less stable variant modified at position Ile106 were determined at different pressures. X-ray diffraction experiments at high pressure showed that the secondary structure of RNase A is well preserved even beyond 0.67 GPa at room temperature. Detailed structural analysis of ribonuclease A conformation observed under high pressure revealed that pressure influences hydrogen bonds pattern, cavity size and packing of molecule.

  14. Assessment of high-level waste form conformance with proposed regulatory and repository criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D E; Gray, P L; Jennings, A S; Permar, P H

    1982-04-01

    Federal regulatory criteria for geologic disposal of high-level waste are under development. Also, interim performance specifications for high-level waste forms in geologic isolation are being developed within the Federal program responsible for repository selection and operation. Two high-level waste forms, borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic, have been selected as candidate immobilization forms for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) which is to immobilize high-level wastes at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). An assessment of how these two waste forms conform with the proposed regulatory criteria and repository specifications was performed. Both forms were determined to be in conformance with postulated rules for radionuclide releases and radiation exposures throughout the entire waste disposal system, as well as with proposed repository operation requirements.

  15. Experiences of High-Achieving High School Students Who Have Taken Multiple Concurrent Advanced Placement Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Problem: An increasing number of high-achieving American high school students are enrolling in multiple Advanced Placement (AP) courses. As a result, high schools face a growing need to understand the impact of taking multiple AP courses concurrently on the social-emotional lives of high-achieving students. Procedures: This phenomenological…

  16. Microscopic silicon-based lateral high-aspect-ratio structures for thin film conformality analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Feng; Arpiainen, Sanna; Puurunen, Riikka L.

    2015-01-15

    Film conformality is one of the major drivers for the interest in atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes. This work presents new silicon-based microscopic lateral high-aspect-ratio (LHAR) test structures for the analysis of the conformality of thin films deposited by ALD and by other chemical vapor deposition means. The microscopic LHAR structures consist of a lateral cavity inside silicon with a roof supported by pillars. The cavity length (e.g., 20–5000 μm) and cavity height (e.g., 200–1000 nm) can be varied, giving aspect ratios of, e.g., 20:1 to 25 000:1. Film conformality can be analyzed with the microscopic LHAR by several means, as demonstrated for the ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} processes from Me{sub 3}Al/H{sub 2}O and TiCl{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O. The microscopic LHAR test structures introduced in this work expose a new parameter space for thin film conformality investigations expected to prove useful in the development, tuning and modeling of ALD and other chemical vapor deposition processes.

  17. Interface Strategy To Achieve Tunable High Frequency Attenuation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hualiang; Zhang, Haiqian; Ji, Guangbin; Xu, Zhichuan J

    2016-03-16

    Among all polarizations, the interface polarization effect is the most effective, especially at high frequency. The design of various ferrite/iron interfaces can significantly enhance the materials' dielectric loss ability at high frequency. This paper presents a simple method to generate ferrite/iron interfaces to enhance the microwave attenuation at high frequency. The ferrites were coated onto carbonyl iron and could be varied to ZnFe2O4, CoFe2O4, Fe3O4, and NiFe2O4. Due to the ferrite/iron interface inducing a stronger dielectric loss effect, all of these materials achieved broad effective frequency width at a coating layer as thin as 1.5 mm. In particular, an effective frequency width of 6.2 GHz could be gained from the Fe@NiFe2O4 composite. PMID:26918285

  18. Unlocking Emergent Talent: Supporting High Achievement of Low-Income, High Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Clarenbach, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This report takes a comprehensive look at achievement for low-income promising learners--past, present, and future. At its core, it challenges the nation to move beyond its near-singular focus of achieving minimum performance for all students, to identifying and developing the talent of all students who are capable of high achievement, including…

  19. Equivalent Biochemical Control and Improved Prostate-Specific Antigen Nadir After Permanent Prostate Seed Implant Brachytherapy Versus High-Dose Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy and High-Dose Conformal Proton Beam Radiotherapy Boost

    SciTech Connect

    Jabbari, Siavash; Weinberg, Vivian K.; Shinohara, Katsuto; Speight, Joycelyn L.; Gottschalk, Alexander R.; Hsu, I.-C.; Pickett, Barby; McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Sandler, Howard M.; Roach, Mack

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: Permanent prostate implant brachytherapy (PPI), three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), and conformal proton beam radiotherapy (CPBRT) are used in the treatment of localized prostate cancer, although no head-to-head trials have compared these modalities. We studied the biochemical control (biochemical no evidence of disease [bNED]) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir achieved with contemporary PPI, and evaluated it against 3D-CRT and CPBRT. Patients and Methods: A total of 249 patients were treated with PPI at the University of California, San Francisco, and the outcomes were compared with those from a 3D-CRT cohort and the published results of a high-dose CPBRT boost (CPBRTB) trial. For each comparison, subsets of the PPI cohort were selected with patient and disease criteria similar to those of the reference group. Results: With a median follow-up of 5.3 years, the bNED rate at 5 and 7 years achieved with PPI was 92% and 86%, respectively, using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) definition, and 93% using the PSA nadir plus 2 ng/mL definition. Using the ASTRO definition, a 5-year bNED rate of 78% was achieved for the 3D-CRT patients compared with 94% for a comparable PPI subset and 93% vs. 92%, respectively, using the PSA nadir plus 2 ng/mL definition. The median PSA nadir for patients treated with PPI and 3D-CRT was 0.10 and 0.40 ng/mL, respectively (p < .0001). For the CPBRT comparison, the 5-year bNED rate after a CPBRTB was 91% using the ASTRO definition vs. 93% for a similar group of PPI patients. A greater proportion of PPI patients achieved a lower PSA nadir compared with those achieved in the CPBRTB trial (PSA nadir <=0.5 ng/mL, 91% vs. 59%, respectively). Conclusion: We have demonstrated excellent outcomes in low- to intermediate-risk patients treated with PPI, suggesting at least equivalent 5-year bNED rates and a greater proportion of men achieving lower PSA nadirs compared with 3D-CRT or

  20. Graphitic Carbon Conformal Coating of Mesoporous TiO2 Hollow Spheres for High-Performance Lithium Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Li, Wei; Shen, Dengke; Zhao, Dongyuan; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-10-14

    Rational design and controllable synthesis of TiO2 based materials with unique microstructure, high reactivity, and excellent electrochemical performance for lithium ion batteries are crucially desired. In this paper, we developed a versatile route to synthesize hollow TiO2/graphitic carbon (H-TiO2/GC) spheres with superior electrochemical performance. The as-prepared mesoporous H-TiO2/GC hollow spheres present a high specific surface area (298 m(2) g(-1)), a high pore volume (0.31 cm(3) g(-1)), a large pore size (∼5 nm), well-defined hollow structure (monodispersed size of 600 nm and inner diameter of ∼400 nm, shell thickness of 100 nm), and small nanocrystals of anatase TiO2 (∼8 nm) conformably encapsulated in ultrathin graphitic carbon layers. As a result, the H-TiO2/GC hollow spheres achieve excellent electrochemical reactivity and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. A high specific capacity of 137 mAh g(-1) can be achieved up to 1000 cycles at a current density of 1 A g(-1) (5 C). We believe that the mesoporous H-TiO2/GC hollow spheres are expected to be applied as a high-performance electrode material for next generation lithium ion batteries. PMID:26414170

  1. Unique Flap Conformation in an HIV-1 Protease with High-Level Darunavir Resistance.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Masaaki; Ode, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Koji; Fujino, Masayuki; Maejima, Masami; Kimura, Yuki; Masaoka, Takashi; Hattori, Junko; Matsuda, Masakazu; Hachiya, Atsuko; Yokomaku, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Atsuo; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Sugiura, Wataru; Iwatani, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    Darunavir (DRV) is one of the most powerful protease inhibitors (PIs) for treating human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection and presents a high genetic barrier to the generation of resistant viruses. However, DRV-resistant HIV-1 infrequently emerges from viruses exhibiting resistance to other protease inhibitors. To address this resistance, researchers have gathered genetic information on DRV resistance. In contrast, few structural insights into the mechanism underlying DRV resistance are available. To elucidate this mechanism, we determined the crystal structure of the ligand-free state of a protease with high-level DRV resistance and six DRV resistance-associated mutations (including I47V and I50V), which we generated by in vitro selection. This crystal structure showed a unique curling conformation at the flap regions that was not found in the previously reported ligand-free protease structures. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the curled flap conformation altered the flap dynamics. These results suggest that the preference for a unique flap conformation influences DRV binding. These results provide new structural insights into elucidating the molecular mechanism of DRV resistance and aid to develop PIs effective against DRV-resistant viruses. PMID:26870021

  2. Unique Flap Conformation in an HIV-1 Protease with High-Level Darunavir Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Masaaki; Ode, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Koji; Fujino, Masayuki; Maejima, Masami; Kimura, Yuki; Masaoka, Takashi; Hattori, Junko; Matsuda, Masakazu; Hachiya, Atsuko; Yokomaku, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Atsuo; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Sugiura, Wataru; Iwatani, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    Darunavir (DRV) is one of the most powerful protease inhibitors (PIs) for treating human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection and presents a high genetic barrier to the generation of resistant viruses. However, DRV-resistant HIV-1 infrequently emerges from viruses exhibiting resistance to other protease inhibitors. To address this resistance, researchers have gathered genetic information on DRV resistance. In contrast, few structural insights into the mechanism underlying DRV resistance are available. To elucidate this mechanism, we determined the crystal structure of the ligand-free state of a protease with high-level DRV resistance and six DRV resistance-associated mutations (including I47V and I50V), which we generated by in vitro selection. This crystal structure showed a unique curling conformation at the flap regions that was not found in the previously reported ligand-free protease structures. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the curled flap conformation altered the flap dynamics. These results suggest that the preference for a unique flap conformation influences DRV binding. These results provide new structural insights into elucidating the molecular mechanism of DRV resistance and aid to develop PIs effective against DRV-resistant viruses. PMID:26870021

  3. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed. PMID:25973781

  4. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-05-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed.

  5. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  6. Progress on achieving the ICF conditions needed for high gain

    SciTech Connect

    Lindl, J.D.

    1988-12-23

    Progress during the past two years has moved us much closer to demonstrating the scientific and technological requirements for high gain ICF in the laboratory. This progress has been made possible by operating at the third harmonic of 1..mu..m light which dramatically reduces concern about hot electrons and by advances in diagnostics such as 100 ps x-ray framing cameras which greatly increase the data available from each experiment. Making use of many of these new capabilities, major improvements in confinement conditions have been achieved for ICF implosions. In particular, in an optimized hohlraum on Nova, radiation driven implosions with convergence ratio in excess of 30 (volume compression /approximately/3 /times/ 10/sup 4/) have performed essentially as predicted by spherical implosion calculations. This paper presents these results as well as examples of advances in several other areas and discusses the implications for the future of ICF with lasers and heavy ion beam drivers. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs—Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  8. Achieving ultra-high temperatures with a resistive emitter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Tom; Franks, Greg; Holmes, Nicholas; LaVeigne, Joe; Matis, Greg; McHugh, Steve; Norton, Dennis; Vengel, Tony; Lannon, John; Goodwin, Scott

    2016-05-01

    The rapid development of very-large format infrared detector arrays has challenged the IR scene projector community to also develop larger-format infrared emitter arrays to support the testing of systems incorporating these detectors. In addition to larger formats, many scene projector users require much higher simulated temperatures than can be generated with current technology in order to fully evaluate the performance of their systems and associated processing algorithms. Under the Ultra High Temperature (UHT) development program, Santa Barbara Infrared Inc. (SBIR) is developing a new infrared scene projector architecture capable of producing both very large format (>1024 x 1024) resistive emitter arrays and improved emitter pixel technology capable of simulating very high apparent temperatures. During earlier phases of the program, SBIR demonstrated materials with MWIR apparent temperatures in excess of 1400 K. New emitter materials have subsequently been selected to produce pixels that achieve even higher apparent temperatures. Test results from pixels fabricated using the new material set will be presented and discussed. A 'scalable' Read In Integrated Circuit (RIIC) is also being developed under the same UHT program to drive the high temperature pixels. This RIIC will utilize through-silicon via (TSV) and Quilt Packaging (QP) technologies to allow seamless tiling of multiple chips to fabricate very large arrays, and thus overcome the yield limitations inherent in large-scale integrated circuits. Results of design verification testing of the completed RIIC will be presented and discussed.

  9. High-performance conformal sensors employing single-crystal silicon nanomembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaochuan; Subbaraman, Harish; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Chen, Ray T.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate light-weight, conformal, and high-performance flexible sensors fabricated on a large area (>2 cm × 2 cm) silicon nanomembrane transferred onto a flexible substrate. Linear L13 photonic crystal microcavities are designed to provide high quality factors on the flexible platform. Subwavelength grating (SWG) couplers are employed in order to enable efficient light coupling to the device using a single mode fiber. Photonic crystal tapers are implemented at the strip-photonic crystal waveguide interfaces to minimize loss. Preliminary chemical sensing data suggests a sensitivity of 75nm/RIU. Bending tests are further performed in order to demonstrate sensitivityindependent operation.

  10. E-selectin ligand complexes adopt an extended high-affinity conformation

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Roland C.; Jakob, Roman P.; Binder, Florian P.C.; Sager, Christoph P.; Ernst, Beat; Maier, Timm

    2016-01-01

    E-selectin is a cell-adhesion molecule of the vascular endothelium that promotes essential leukocyte rolling in the early inflammatory response by binding to glycoproteins containing the tetrasaccharide sialyl Lewisx (sLex). Efficient leukocyte recruitment under vascular flow conditions depends on an increased lifetime of E-selectin/ligand complexes under tensile force in a so-called catch-bond binding mode. Co-crystal structures of a representative fragment of the extracellular E-selectin region with sLex and a glycomimetic antagonist thereof reveal an extended E-selectin conformation, which is identified as a high-affinity binding state of E-selectin by molecular dynamics simulations. Small-angle X-ray scattering experiments demonstrate a direct link between ligand binding and E-selectin conformational transition under static conditions in solution. This permits tracing a series of concerted structural changes connecting ligand binding to conformational stretching as the structural basis of E-selectin catch-bond-mediated leukocyte recruitment. The detailed molecular view of the binding site paves the way for the design of a new generation of selectin antagonists. This is of special interest, since their therapeutic potential was recently demonstrated with the pan-selectin antagonists GMI-1070 (Rivipansel). PMID:26117840

  11. How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been used in a large number of fields, such as chemical, agricultural and biopharmaceutical industries. The enzyme production rate and yield are the main factors to consider when choosing the appropriate expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant enzymes have been expressed in bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria), filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and yeasts (e.g., Pichia pastoris). The favorable and very advantageous characteristics of these species have resulted in an increasing number of biotechnological applications. Bacterial hosts (e.g., E. coli) can be used to quickly and easily overexpress recombinant enzymes; however, bacterial systems cannot express very large proteins and proteins that require post-translational modifications. The main bacterial expression hosts, with the exception of lactic acid bacteria and filamentous fungi, can produce several toxins which are not compatible with the expression of recombinant enzymes in food and drugs. However, due to the multiplicity of the physiological impacts arising from high-level expression of genes encoding the enzymes and expression hosts, the goal of overproduction can hardly be achieved, and therefore, the yield of recombinant enzymes is limited. In this review, the recent strategies used for the high-level expression of microbial enzymes in the hosts mentioned above are summarized and the prospects are also discussed. We hope this review will contribute to the development of the enzyme-related research field. PMID:23686280

  12. Effects of Partner's Ability on the Achievement and Conceptual Organization of High-Achieving Fifth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Glenda; Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Investigates high-achieving fifth-grade students' achievement gains and conceptual reorganization on convection. Features an instructional sequence of three dyadic inquiry investigations related to convection currents as well as pre- and post-assessment consisting of a multiple-choice test, a card sorting task, construction of a concept map, and…

  13. Comparison of the Level of Using Metacognitive Strategies during Study between High Achieving and Low Achieving Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doganay, Ahmet; Demir, Ozden

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to compare the level of using metacognitive strategies during study between high achieving and low achieving prospective classroom teachers. This study was designed as a mixed method study. Metacognitive Learning Strategies Scale developed by Namlu (2004) was used to measure the use of metacognitive strategies…

  14. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Mathematics between Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Fifth Grade Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathbone, A. Sue

    Possible gender differences in attitudes toward mathematics were studied between low-achieving and high-achieving fifth-grade students in selected elementary schools within a large, metropolitan area. The attitudes of pre-adolescent children at an intermediate grade level were assessed to determine the effects of rapidly emerging gender-related…

  15. A Dualistic Conformational Response to Substrate Binding in the Human Serotonin Transporter Reveals a High Affinity State for Serotonin*

    PubMed Central

    Bjerregaard, Henriette; Severinsen, Kasper; Said, Saida; Wiborg, Ove; Sinning, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission is modulated by the membrane-embedded serotonin transporter (SERT). SERT mediates the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neurons. Conformational changes in SERT occur upon binding of ions and substrate and are crucial for translocation of serotonin across the membrane. Our understanding of these conformational changes is mainly based on crystal structures of a bacterial homolog in various conformations, derived homology models of eukaryotic neurotransmitter transporters, and substituted cysteine accessibility method of SERT. However, the dynamic changes that occur in the human SERT upon binding of ions, the translocation of substrate, and the role of cholesterol in this interplay are not fully elucidated. Here we show that serotonin induces a dualistic conformational response in SERT. We exploited the substituted cysteine scanning method under conditions that were sensitized to detect a more outward-facing conformation of SERT. We found a novel high affinity outward-facing conformational state of the human SERT induced by serotonin. The ionic requirements for this new conformational response to serotonin mirror the ionic requirements for translocation. Furthermore, we found that membrane cholesterol plays a role in the dualistic conformational response in SERT induced by serotonin. Our results indicate the existence of a subpopulation of SERT responding differently to serotonin binding than hitherto believed and that membrane cholesterol plays a role in this subpopulation of SERT. PMID:25614630

  16. A nanofiber based artificial electronic skin with high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weibin; Liu, Qiongzhen; Wu, Yongzhi; Wang, Yuedan; Qing, Xing; Li, Mufang; Liu, Ke; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Dong

    2016-06-16

    Pressure sensors with 3D conformability are highly desirable components for artificial electronic skin or e-textiles that can mimic natural skin, especially for application in real-time monitoring of human physiological signals. Here, a nanofiber based electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability is designed and built by interlocking two elastic patterned nanofibrous membranes. The patterned membrane is facilely prepared by casting conductive nanofiber ink into a silicon mould to form an array of semi-spheroid-like protuberances. The protuberances composed of intertwined elastic POE nanofibers and PPy@PVA-co-PE nanofibers afford a tunable effective elastic modulus that is capable of capturing varied strains and stresses, thereby contributing to a high sensitivity for pressure sensing. This electronic skin-like sensor demonstrates an ultra-high sensitivity (1.24 kPa(-1)) below 150 Pa with a detection limit as low as about 1.3 Pa. The pixelated sensor array and a RGB-LED light are then assembled into a circuit and show a feasibility for visual detection of spatial pressure. Furthermore, a nanofiber based proof-of-concept wireless pressure sensor with a bluetooth module as a signal transmitter is proposed and has demonstrated great promise for wireless monitoring of human physiological signals, indicating a potential for large scale wearable electronic devices or e-skin. PMID:27250529

  17. LDRD Project 52523 final report :Atomic layer deposition of highly conformal tribological coatings.

    SciTech Connect

    Jungk, John Michael; Dugger, Michael Thomas; George, Steve M.; Prasad, Somuri V.; Grubbs, Robert K.; Moody, Neville Reid; Mayer, Thomas Michael; Scharf, Thomas W.; Goeke, Ronald S.; Gerberich, William W.

    2005-10-01

    Friction and wear are major concerns in the performance and reliability of micromechanical (MEMS) devices. While a variety of lubricant and wear resistant coatings are known which we might consider for application to MEMS devices, the severe geometric constraints of many micromechanical systems (high aspect ratios, shadowed surfaces) make most deposition methods for friction and wear-resistance coatings impossible. In this program we have produced and evaluate highly conformal, tribological coatings, deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), for use on surface micromachined (SMM) and LIGA structures. ALD is a chemical vapor deposition process using sequential exposure of reagents and self-limiting surface chemistry, saturating at a maximum of one monolayer per exposure cycle. The self-limiting chemistry results in conformal coating of high aspect ratio structures, with monolayer precision. ALD of a wide variety of materials is possible, but there have been no studies of structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of these films. We have developed processes for depositing thin (<100 nm) conformal coatings of selected hard and lubricious films (Al2O3, ZnO, WS2, W, and W/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolaminates), and measured their chemical, physical, mechanical and tribological properties. A significant challenge in this program was to develop instrumentation and quantitative test procedures, which did not exist, for friction, wear, film/substrate adhesion, elastic properties, stress, etc., of extremely thin films and nanolaminates. New scanning probe and nanoindentation techniques have been employed along with detailed mechanics-based models to evaluate these properties at small loads characteristic of microsystem operation. We emphasize deposition processes and fundamental properties of ALD materials, however we have also evaluated applications and film performance for model SMM and LIGA devices.

  18. Achieving High Throughput for Data Transfer over ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.; Townsend, Jeffrey N.

    1996-01-01

    File-transfer rates for ftp are often reported to be relatively slow, compared to the raw bandwidth available in emerging gigabit networks. While a major bottleneck is disk I/O, protocol issues impact performance as well. Ftp was developed and optimized for use over the TCP/IP protocol stack of the Internet. However, TCP has been shown to run inefficiently over ATM. In an effort to maximize network throughput, data-transfer protocols can be developed to run over UDP or directly over IP, rather than over TCP. If error-free transmission is required, techniques for achieving reliable transmission can be included as part of the transfer protocol. However, selected image-processing applications can tolerate a low level of errors in images that are transmitted over a network. In this paper we report on experimental work to develop a high-throughput protocol for unreliable data transfer over ATM networks. We attempt to maximize throughput by keeping the communications pipe full, but still keep packet loss under five percent. We use the Bay Area Gigabit Network Testbed as our experimental platform.

  19. High-Achieving High School Students and Not so High-Achieving College Students: A Look at Lack of Self-Control, Academic Ability, and Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honken, Nora B.; Ralston, Patricia A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among lack of self-control, academic ability, and academic performance for a cohort of freshman engineering students who were, with a few exceptions, extremely high achievers in high school. Structural equation modeling analysis led to the conclusion that lack of self-control in high school, as measured by…

  20. Learning Styles and High School Students' Chemistry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of students' learning styles on their chemistry achievement, and whether matching between teaching and learning styles also affects students' chemistry achievement. Two hundred and sixty-five tenth-grade students enrolled in a chemistry course and seven chemistry teachers participated in…

  1. Does Recreational Computer Use Affect High School Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Berland, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the relationship between student academic achievement and use of computers for fun and video gaming has been described from a multitude of perspectives, from positive, to negative, to neutral. However, recent research has indicated that computer use and video gaming may be positively associated with achievement, yet these studies…

  2. Student Perception of Academic Achievement Factors at High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahar, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the quality of the "product" is elemental in education, and most studies depend on observational data about student achievement factors, focusing overwhelmingly on quantitative data namely achievement scores, school data like attendance, facilities, expenditure class size, etc. But there is little evidence of learner…

  3. Achievement of Hispanic Students in American High Schools: Background Characteristics and Achievement. Contractor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Francois; Fernandez, Roberto M.

    Presenting data and analyses from the first wave of the study "High School and Beyond" (HS&B), a longitudinal study of United States high school sophomores and seniors, the report focuses on the composition of the Hispanic tenth and twelfth grade student population with respect to various characteristics; i.e., language use and proficiency, length…

  4. Threatened and Placed at Risk: High Achieving African American Males in Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Ebony O.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the risk and protective factors of 11 high-achieving African American males attending 4 urban charter high schools in a Midwestern city to determine what factors account for their resilience and success in mathematics courses, and in high school more generally. This research was guided by a Phenomenological Variant of…

  5. Preferences of High Achieving High School Students in Their Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2010-01-01

    The intent of this study was to identify the needs and preference of high-achieving high school students. In terms of career related programs in high school, students listed AP courses and mentoring as their preferred career-related programs. Also, students stated that career guidance by counselors, workshops or sessions, and tech prep were the…

  6. Visualizing potential energy curves and conformations on ultra high-resolution display walls.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Karl N; Reith, Dirk; Jato, Oliver; Hinkenjann, André

    2015-11-01

    In this contribution, we examine how visualization on an ultra high-resolution display wall can augment force-field research in the field of molecular modeling. Accurate force fields are essential for producing reliable simulations, and subsequently important for several fields of applications (e.g. rational drug design and biomolecular modeling). We discuss how using HORNET, a recently constructed specific ultra high-resolution tiled display wall, enhances the visual analytics that are necessary for conformational-based interpretation of the raw data from molecular calculations. Simultaneously viewing multiple potential energy graphs and conformation overlays leads to an enhanced way of evaluating force fields and in their optimization. Consequently, we have integrated visual analytics into our existing Wolf2Pack workflow. We applied this workflow component to analyze how major AMBER force fields (Parm14SB, Gaff, Lipid14, Glycam06j) perform at reproducing the quantum mechanics relative energies and geometries of saturated hydrocarbons. Included in this comparison are the 1996 OPLS force field and our newly developed ExTrM force field. While we focus on atomistic force fields the ideas presented herein are generalizable to other research areas, particularly those that involve numerous representations of large data amounts and whose simultaneous visualization enhances the analysis. PMID:26454265

  7. High-dose radiotherapy in inoperable nonsmall cell lung cancer: comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy, dynamic IMRT and 3D conformal radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bree, Ingrid de; van Hinsberg, Mariëlle G E; van Veelen, Lieneke R

    2012-01-01

    Conformal 3D radiotherapy (3D-CRT) combined with chemotherapy for inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to the preferable high dose is often not achievable because of dose-limiting organs. This reduces the probability of regional tumor control. Therefore, the surplus value of using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques, specifically volumetric modulated arc therapy (RapidArc [RA]) and dynamic IMRT (d-IMRT) has been investigated. RA and d-IMRT plans were compared with 3D-CRT treatment plans for 20 patients eligible for concurrent high-dose chemoradiotherapy, in whom a dose of 60 Gy was not achievable. Comparison of dose delivery in the target volume and organs at risk was carried out by evaluating 3D dose distributions and dose-volume histograms. Quality of the dose distribution was assessed using the inhomogeneity and conformity index. For most patients, a higher dose to the target volume can be delivered using RA or d-IMRT; in 15% of the patients a dose ≥60 Gy was possible. Both IMRT techniques result in a better conformity of the dose (p < 0.001). There are no significant differences in homogeneity of dose in the target volume. IMRT techniques for NSCLC patients allow higher dose to the target volume, thus improving regional tumor control. PMID:22459649

  8. The Effect of Music Participation on Mathematical Achievement and Overall Academic Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, H. A.; Stephens, L. J.

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted on high school students, comparing those with some music credits to those with none. No statistically significant difference was found in their mean math grade point averages (GPA) or their mean cumulative GPAs. Students were then separated into two groups based on the number of music credits. Students who had earned at least…

  9. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  10. Exploring the free energy and conformational landscape of tRNA at high temperature and pressure.

    PubMed

    Schuabb, Caroline; Berghaus, Melanie; Rosin, Christopher; Winter, Roland

    2015-01-12

    A combined temperature- and pressure-dependent study was employed to reveal the conformational and free-energy landscape of phenylalanine transfer RNA (tRNA(Phe) ), a known model for RNA function, to elucidate the features that are essential in determining its stability. These studies also help explore its structural properties under extreme environmental conditions, such as low/high temperatures and high pressures. To this end, fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopies, calorimetric and small-angle scattering measurements were carried out at different ion concentrations over a wide range of temperatures and pressures up to several hundred MPa. Compared with the pronounced temperature effect, the pressure-dependent structural changes of tRNA(Phe) are small. A maximum of only 15 % unpaired bases is observed upon pressurization up to 1 GPa. RNA unfolding differs not only from protein unfolding, but also from DNA melting. Its pressure stability seems to be similar to that of noncanonical DNA structures. PMID:25393611

  11. “A novel highly stable and injectable hydrogel based on a conformationally restricted ultrashort peptide”

    PubMed Central

    Thota, Chaitanya Kumar; Yadav, Nitin; Chauhan, Virander Singh

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructures including hydrogels based on peptides containing non protein amino acids are being considered as platform for drug delivery because of their inherent biocompatibility and additional proteolytic stability. Here we describe instantaneous self-assembly of a conformationally restricted dipeptide, LeuΔPhe, containing an α,β-dehydrophenylalanine residue into a highly stable and mechanically strong hydrogel, under mild physiological aqueous conditions. The gel successfully entrapped several hydrophobic and hydrophilic drug molecules and released them in a controlled manner. LeuΔPhe was highly biocompatible and easily injectable. Administration of an antineoplastic drug entrapped in the gel in tumor bearing mice significantly controlled growth of tumors. These characteristics make LeuΔPhe an attractive candidate for further development as a delivery platform for various biomedical applications. PMID:27507432

  12. A nanofiber based artificial electronic skin with high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Weibin; Liu, Qiongzhen; Wu, Yongzhi; Wang, Yuedan; Qing, Xing; Li, Mufang; Liu, Ke; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Dong

    2016-06-01

    Pressure sensors with 3D conformability are highly desirable components for artificial electronic skin or e-textiles that can mimic natural skin, especially for application in real-time monitoring of human physiological signals. Here, a nanofiber based electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability is designed and built by interlocking two elastic patterned nanofibrous membranes. The patterned membrane is facilely prepared by casting conductive nanofiber ink into a silicon mould to form an array of semi-spheroid-like protuberances. The protuberances composed of intertwined elastic POE nanofibers and PPy@PVA-co-PE nanofibers afford a tunable effective elastic modulus that is capable of capturing varied strains and stresses, thereby contributing to a high sensitivity for pressure sensing. This electronic skin-like sensor demonstrates an ultra-high sensitivity (1.24 kPa-1) below 150 Pa with a detection limit as low as about 1.3 Pa. The pixelated sensor array and a RGB-LED light are then assembled into a circuit and show a feasibility for visual detection of spatial pressure. Furthermore, a nanofiber based proof-of-concept wireless pressure sensor with a bluetooth module as a signal transmitter is proposed and has demonstrated great promise for wireless monitoring of human physiological signals, indicating a potential for large scale wearable electronic devices or e-skin.Pressure sensors with 3D conformability are highly desirable components for artificial electronic skin or e-textiles that can mimic natural skin, especially for application in real-time monitoring of human physiological signals. Here, a nanofiber based electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability is designed and built by interlocking two elastic patterned nanofibrous membranes. The patterned membrane is facilely prepared by casting conductive nanofiber ink into a silicon mould to form an array of semi-spheroid-like protuberances. The

  13. Academic attainment and the high school science experiences among high-achieving African American males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trice, Rodney Nathaniel

    This study examines the educational experiences of high achieving African American males. More specifically, it analyzes the influences on their successful navigation through high school science. Through a series of interviews, observations, questionnaires, science portfolios, and review of existing data the researcher attempted to obtain a deeper understanding of high achieving African American males and their limitations to academic attainment and high school science experiences. The investigation is limited to ten high achieving African American male science students at Woodcrest High School. Woodcrest is situated at the cross section of a suburban and rural community located in the southeastern section of the United States. Although this investigation involves African American males, all of whom are successful in school, its findings should not be generalized to this nor any other group of students. The research question that guided this study is: What are the limitations to academic attainment and the high school science experiences of high achieving African American males? The student participants expose how suspension and expulsion, special education placement, academic tracking, science instruction, and teacher expectation influence academic achievement. The role parents play, student self-concept, peer relationships, and student learning styles are also analyzed. The anthology of data rendered three overarching themes: (1) unequal access to education, (2) maintenance of unfair educational structures, and (3) authentic characterizations of African American males. Often the policies and practices set in place by school officials aid in creating hurdles to academic achievement. These policies and practices are often formed without meaningful consideration of the unintended consequences that may affect different student populations, particularly the most vulnerable. The findings from this study expose that high achieving African American males face major

  14. Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

  15. Success Despite Socioeconomics: A Case Study of a High-Achieving, High-Poverty School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Thomas Brent; Smith, Samuel J.; Claxton, Russell L.

    2012-01-01

    This case study of a high-achieving, high-poverty school describes the school's leadership, culture, and programs that contributed to its success. Data were collected from two surveys (the School Culture Survey and the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education), observations at the school site, and interviews with school personnel. The…

  16. "Brains before "Beauty"?" High Achieving Girls, School and Gender Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky; Read, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In recent years educational policy on gender and achievement has concentrated on boys' underachievement, frequently comparing it with the academic success of girls. This has encouraged a perception of girls as the "winners" of the educational stakes and assumes that they no longer experience the kinds of gender inequalities identified in earlier…

  17. Cooperative Learning: A Standard for High Achievement. The Nutshell Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, R. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This book reveals some of the structural complexities involved in implementing authentic cooperative learning in the classroom. It also suggests that when full cooperative learning structures are implemented, the benefits in student achievement often can be astounding. Descriptions, decisions, designs, and developments, a simple four-part scheme,…

  18. Dominant Achievement Goals across Tracks in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheltinga, Peter A. M.; Kuyper, Hans; Timmermans, Anneke C.; van der Werf, Greetje P. C.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant achievement goals (DAGs) of 7,008 students in the third grade of Dutch secondary education (US grade 9) were investigated, based on Elliot & McGregors' 2 × 2 framework (2001), in relation to track-level and motivational variables. We found the mastery-approach goal and the performance-approach goal, generally considered adaptive,…

  19. High resolution ion mobility measurements for gas phase proteins: correlation between solution phase and gas phase conformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudgins, Robert R.; Woenckhaus, Jürgen; Jarrold, Martin F.

    1997-11-01

    Our high resolution ion mobility apparatus has been modified by attaching an electrospray source to perform measurements for biological molecules. While the greater resolving power permits the resolution of more conformations for BPTI and cytochrome c, the resolved features are generally much broader than expected for a single rigid conformation. A major advantage of the new experimental configuration is the much gentler introduction of ions into the drift tube, so that the observed gas phase conformations appear to more closely reflect those present in solution. For example, it is possible to distinguish between the native state of cytochrome c and the methanol-denatured form on the basis of the ion mobility measurements; the mass spectra alone are not sensitive enough to detect this change. Thus this approach may provide a quick and sensitive tool for probing the solution phase conformations of biological molecules.

  20. Postoperative Chemotherapy Followed by Conformal Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy in High-Risk Gastric Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Quero, Laurent; Bouchbika, Zineb; Kouto, Honorine; Baruch-Hennequin, Valerie; Gornet, Jean-Marc; Munoz, Nicolas; Cojean-Zelek, Isabelle; Houdart, Remi; Panis, Yves; Valleur, Patrice; Aparicio, Thomas; Maylin, Claude; Hennequin, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To analyze the efficacy, toxicity, and pattern of relapse after adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by three-dimensional irradiation and concomitant LV5FU2 chemotherapy (high-dose leucovorin and 5-fluorouracil bolus plus continuous infusion) in the treatment of completely resected high-risk gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective analysis of 52 patients with high-risk gastric cancer initially treated by total/partial gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy between January 2002 and June 2007. Median age was 54 years (range, 36-75 years). Postoperative treatment consisted of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was followed by three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in the tumor bed and regional lymph nodes at 4500 cGy/25 fractions in association with concomitant chemotherapy. Concomitant chemotherapy consisted of a 2-h infusion of leucovorin (200 mg/m Superscript-Two ) followed by a bolus of 5-fluorouracil (400 mg/m Superscript-Two ) and then a 44-h continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (2400-3600 mg/m Superscript-Two ) given every 14 days, for three cycles (LV5FU2 protocol). Results: Five-year overall and disease-free survival were 50% and 48%, respectively. Distant metastases and peritoneal spread were the most frequent sites of relapse (37% each). After multivariate analysis, only pathologic nodal status was significantly associated with disease-free and overall survival. Acute toxicities were essentially gastrointestinal and hematologic. One myocardial infarction and one pulmonary embolism were also reported. Eighteen patients had a radiotherapy program interruption because of acute toxicity. All patients but 2 have completed radiotherapy. Conclusion: Postoperative cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by conformal radiotherapy in association with concurrent 5-fluorouracil seemed to be feasible and resulted in successful locoregional control.

  1. 77 FR 64183 - Notice of Availability of a Final General Conformity Determination for the California High-Speed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... General Conformity requirements. The California High Speed Rail Authority (Authority), as the Project... California High-Speed Train System Merced to Fresno Section AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... Section of the California High-Speed Train (HST) System on September 18, 2012. FRA is the lead...

  2. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement in a Group of High, Medium, and Low Secondary Public High School Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas-Brantley, Betty J.

    This study investigated the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement in a group of 150 high, medium, and low achievers at a large midwestern public high school. Correlating data from the Coopersmith Inventory of self-esteem with grades, cumulative grade point averages, and class rank, the study disclosed a positive correlation…

  3. HX-MS2 for high performance conformational analysis of complex protein states

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Kyle M; Sarpe, Vladimir; Wagenbach, Mike; Wordeman, Linda; Schriemer, David C

    2015-01-01

    Water-mediated hydrogen exchange (HX) processes involving the protein main chain are sensitive to structural dynamics and molecular interactions. Measuring deuterium uptake in amide bonds provides information on conformational states, structural transitions and binding events. Increasingly, deuterium levels are measured by mass spectrometry (MS) from proteolytically generated peptide fragments of large molecular systems. However, this bottom-up method has limited spectral capacity and requires a burdensome manual validation exercise, both of which restrict analysis of protein systems to generally less than 150 kDa. In this study, we present a bottom-up HX-MS2 method that improves peptide identification rates, localizes high-quality HX data and simplifies validation. The method combines a new peptide scoring algorithm (WUF, weighted unique fragment) with data-independent acquisition of peptide fragmentation data. Scoring incorporates the validation process and emphasizes identification accuracy. The HX-MS2 method is illustrated using data from a conformational analysis of microtubules treated with dimeric kinesin MCAK. When compared to a conventional Mascot-driven HX-MS method, HX-MS2 produces two-fold higher α/β-tubulin sequence depth at a peptide utilization rate of 74%. A Mascot approach delivers a utilization rate of 44%. The WUF score can be constrained by false utilization rate (FUR) calculations to return utilization values exceeding 90% without serious data loss, indicating that automated validation should be possible. The HX-MS2 data confirm that N-terminal MCAK domains anchor kinesin force generation in kinesin-mediated depolymerization, while the C-terminal tails regulate MCAK-tubulin interactions. PMID:26009873

  4. Examining Organizational Practices That Predict Persistence among High-Achieving Black Males in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth Alonzo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: This article summarizes an increasing trend of antideficit Black male research in mathematics and highlights opportunities to add to the research. A review of the literature shows that antideficit researchers often examine relationships between individual traits and persistence of high-achieving Black males in mathematics.…

  5. Relationships among Stress, Coping, and Mental Health in High-Achieving High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Hardesty, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among stress, coping, and mental health in 139 students participating in an International Baccalaureate (IB) high school diploma program. Mental health was assessed using both positive indicators (life satisfaction, academic achievement, academic self-efficacy) and negative indicators (psychopathology) of…

  6. The Strengths of High-Achieving Black High School Students in a Racially Diverse Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Kris; Chaney, Cassandra; Jones, Derrick

    2012-01-01

    Robert Hill (1972) identified strengths of Black families: strong kinship bonds, strong work orientation, adaptability of family roles, high achievement orientation, and religious orientation. Some suggest these strengths sustain the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual needs of Blacks. This study used narratives and survey data from a…

  7. Relationship between High School Mathematical Achievement and Quantitative GPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Halpin, Glennelle; Halpin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The demand for STEM graduates has increased, but the number of incoming freshmen who declare a STEM major has remained stagnant. High school courses, such as calculus, can open or close the gate for students interested in careers in STEM. The purpose of this study was to determine if high school mathematics preparation was a significant…

  8. Practically Perfect in Every Way: Can Reframing Perfectionism for High-Achieving Undergraduates Impact Academic Resilience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Mary J.; Dickinson, David A. G.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on a pan-disciplinary scheme that targeted high-achieving undergraduate students. Earlier research from the scheme argued that high achievers have discernibly different learning and personal development support needs. One of the most frequent self-reported challenges within this high-achieving group is perfectionism. This…

  9. The Relationship to Achievement on the California High School Exit Exam for Language Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Paul A.; Gopal, Malati

    2003-01-01

    Examines first year results of the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) required for students to earn a high school diploma. Results suggest this high stakes test failed to meet legislative objectives to increase achievement and close the achievement gap. Instead, language-minority students with passing scores achieved significantly below…

  10. Conformationally restricted analogs of somatostatin with high mu-opiate receptor specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Pelton, J T; Gulya, K; Hruby, V J; Duckles, S P; Yamamura, H I

    1985-01-01

    A series of cyclic, conformationally restricted analogs of somatostatin have been prepared and tested for their ability to inhibit the binding of [3H]naloxone and [D-Ala2, D-Leu5] [3H]enkephalin to rat brain membranes. The most potent analog, D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 where Pen is penicillamine in [D-Phe5, Cys6, Tyr7, D-Trp8, Pen11]somatostatin-(5-12)-octapeptide amide, exhibited high affinity for mu-opiate receptors (IC50 value of [3H]naloxone = 3.5 nM), being 7800 times more potent than somatostatin. The cyclic octapeptide also displayed high mu-opiate receptor selectivity with an IC50 [( D-Ala2,D-Leu5]enkephalin)/IC50 (naloxone) ratio of 271. The high affinity and selectivity of the somatostatin analog for mu-opiate receptors may be of use in examining the physiological role(s) of the mu-opiate receptor. PMID:2857488

  11. Gender, Student Motivation and Academic Achievement in a Midsized Wisconsin High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutzke, Steven Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated relationships among gender, academic motivation and achievement in a mid-sized Wisconsin high school. A questionnaire was developed that focused on perceived ability, achievement motives and achievement goals. Interviews with teachers focused on relationships among academic motivation and gender achievement.…

  12. Achieving high CRI from warm to super white

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Edward; Tormey, Ellen S.

    2007-09-01

    Light sources which produce a high color rendering index (CRI) have many applications in the lighting industry today. High color rendering accents the rich color which abounds in nature, interior design, theatrical costumes and props, clothing and fabric, jewelry, and machine vision applications. Multi-wavelength LED sources can pump phosphors at multiple stokes shift emission regimes and when combined with selected direct emission sources can allow for greater flexibility in the production of warm-white and cool white light of specialty interest. Unique solutions to R8 and R14 CRI >95 at 2850K, 4750K, 5250K, and 6750K presented.

  13. Impact of learning orientation on African American children's attitudes toward high-achieving peers.

    PubMed

    Marryshow, Derrick; Hurley, Eric A; Allen, Brenda A; Tyler, Kenneth M; Boykin, A Wade

    2005-01-01

    This study examined Ogbu's widely accepted thesis that African American students reject high academic achievement because they perceive its limited utility in a world where their upward mobility is constrained by racial discrimination. Boykin's psychosocial integrity model contends that Black students value high achievement but that discrepancies between their formative cultural experiences and those imposed in school lead them to reject the modes of achievement available in classrooms. Ninety Black children completed a measure of attitudes toward students who achieve via mainstream or African American cultural values. Participants rejected the mainstream achievers and embraced the African American cultural achievers. Moreover, they expected their teachers to embrace the mainstream achievers and reject those who achieved through high-verve behavior. Results suggest that Boykin's thesis is a needed refinement to Ogbu's ideas. They indicate that Black children may reject not high achievement but some of the mainstream cultural values and behaviors on which success in mainstream classrooms is made contingent. PMID:16402748

  14. Technology's Achilles Heel: Achieving High-Quality Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gene E.

    2010-01-01

    An inherent characteristic of technology education is the continual development of new technologies and creating innovative applications of already existing technologies. As exciting as these innovations can be, technology educators and school staffs are frequently challenged to accomplish high levels of implementation. The metaphor of the…

  15. Vocational Interests of Intellectually Gifted and Highly Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vock, Miriam; Koller, Olaf; Nagy, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vocational interests play a central role in the vocational decision-making process and are decisive for the later job satisfaction and vocational success. Based on Ackerman's (1996) notion of "trait complexes," specific interest profiles of gifted high-school graduates can be expected. Aims: Vocational interests of gifted and highly…

  16. Academic Dishonesty among Gifted and High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    Gifted high school students are essentially absent in the research concerning academic integrity; however, over the past few years, educators of gifted students have noticed an increase in the occurrences of academic dishonesty among students in gifted classrooms (Abilock, 2009). This research may be analyzed to provide some insight into the…

  17. Student Achievement Data Systems in High and Low Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowiak, Jeannie E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in how high and low performing elementary school districts use and analyze data to differentiate instruction, make changes to district/grade level curriculum, determine professional development needs, determine teacher effectiveness, and determine the use of school district…

  18. Community Schools Seek to Improve High School Achievement, College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The Coalition for Community Schools, an alliance of more than 150 national, state, and local organizations, is bringing public schools in partnership with community resources to improve student success. While that might seem like an abstract idea, it has very concrete goals, such as boosting high school graduation rates and college readiness.…

  19. Scientific Reasoning and Achievement in a High School English Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kral, E. A.

    1997-01-01

    A Piagetian-based, systematic instructional theory developed by A. E. Lawson was used as a reasoning model in a 12th-grade English course at Grand Island Senior High in Grand Island, Nebraska, from 1982 to 1991. The thinking patterns that comprised the hypothetical-deductive stage of human intellectual development used in the course were…

  20. Common Core and America's High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    While the merit and politics of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have been much debated and discussed, one topic has been virtually ignored: What do the standards portend for America's high-ability students? This brief addresses that question and provides guidance for CCSS-implementing districts and schools as they seek to help these…

  1. Achieving High Performance with FPGA-Based Computing

    PubMed Central

    Herbordt, Martin C.; VanCourt, Tom; Gu, Yongfeng; Sukhwani, Bharat; Conti, Al; Model, Josh; DiSabello, Doug

    2011-01-01

    Numerous application areas, including bioinformatics and computational biology, demand increasing amounts of processing capability. In many cases, the computation cores and data types are suited to field-programmable gate arrays. The challenge is identifying the design techniques that can extract high performance potential from the FPGA fabric. PMID:21603088

  2. Organizational Citizenship of Faculty and Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaola, Michael F.; Hoy, Wayne K.

    2005-01-01

    All successful organizations, including successful high schools, have employees who go beyond their formal job responsibilities and freely give of their time and energy to succeed. Organ was the first to use the phrase "organizational citizenship behavior" (OCB) to denote organizationally beneficial behavior of workers that was not prescribed but…

  3. High-Achieving Schools Put Equity Front and Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Sonia Caus; Gerzon, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    How does professional learning look and feel in high-poverty schools where every student makes at least one year's worth of progress every year? How do schools and leaders put all the varied components of professional learning together so that they support all students learning every day? What professional learning grounds and sustains…

  4. Principals’ Perception of Influence on Factors Affecting Student Achievement in Low- and High-Achieving Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Collette M.; Owens, Emiel W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare and contrast influences principals have on staffing, curriculum issues, and discipline policies in high- and low-performing urban high schools. The data for the present study were drawn from the first year follow up of the Educational Longitudinal Survey of 2002-2004 (ELS: 02), administered by the National…

  5. Ru nanostructure fabrication using an anodic aluminum oxide nanotemplate and highly conformal Ru atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Hee; Park, Sang-Joon; Son, Jong-Yeog; Kim, Hyungjun

    2008-01-30

    We fabricated metallic nanostructures directly on Si substrates through a hybrid nanoprocess combining atomic layer deposition (ALD) and a self-assembled anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanotemplate. ALD Ru films with Ru(DMPD)(EtCp) as a precursor and O(2) as a reactant exhibited high purity and low resistivity with negligible nucleation delay and low roughness. These good growth characteristics resulted in the excellent conformality for nanometer-scale vias and trenches. Additionally, AAO nanotemplates were fabricated directly on Si and Ti/Si substrates through a multiple anodization process. AAO nanotemplates with various hole sizes (30-100 nm) and aspect ratios (2:1-20:1) were fabricated by controlling the anodizing process parameters. The barrier layers between AAO nanotemplates and Si substrates were completely removed by reactive ion etching (RIE) using BCl(3) plasma. By combining the ALD Ru and the AAO nanotemplate, Ru nanostructures with controllable sizes and shapes were prepared on Si and Ti/Si substrates. The Ru nanowire array devices as a platform for sensor devices exhibited befitting properties of good ohmic contact and high surface/volume ratio. PMID:21817499

  6. Achieving High Reliability Operations Through Multi-Program Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Holly M. Ashley; Ronald K. Farris; Robert E. Richards

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 20 years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has adopted a number of operations and safety-related programs which has each periodically taken its turn in the limelight. As new programs have come along there has been natural competition for resources, focus and commitment. In the last few years, the INL has made real progress in integrating all these programs and are starting to realize important synergies. Contributing to this integration are both collaborative individuals and an emerging shared vision and goal of the INL fully maturing in its high reliability operations. This goal is so powerful because the concept of high reliability operations (and the resulting organizations) is a masterful amalgam and orchestrator of the best of all the participating programs (i.e. conduct of operations, behavior based safety, human performance, voluntary protection, quality assurance, and integrated safety management). This paper is a brief recounting of the lessons learned, thus far, at the INL in bringing previously competing programs into harmony under the goal (umbrella) of seeking to perform regularly as a high reliability organization. In addition to a brief diagram-illustrated historical review, the authors will share the INL’s primary successes (things already effectively stopped or started) and the gaps yet to be bridged.

  7. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  8. Efforts toward achieving an unmanned, high-altitude LTA platform

    SciTech Connect

    Onda, Masahiko; Ford, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    The modern demands for an unmanned aerospace platform, capable of long-duration stationkeeping at high-altitudes, are well-known. Satellites, balloons, and aircraft have traditionally served in the role of platform, facilitating tasks ranging from telecommunications to deep-space astronomy. However, limitations on the performance and flexibility of these systems, as well as the intrinsically high-cost of satellite construction, operation, and repair, warrants development of a supplemental technology for the platform. Much has been written in the literature on the possible advantages of a lighter-than-air (LTA) platform, if such an LTA could be constructed. Potential applications include remote sensing, environmental monitoring, mobile communications, space and polar observations, cargo delivery, military reconnaissance, and others. At present, conventional LTA`s are not capable of serving in the manner specified. Within this context, a research program known as HALROP (High Altitude Long Range Observational Platform) is currently underway. The goal is to create a stratospheric platform, possibly in the form of a next generation LTA vehicle. The authors present a qualitative review of their efforts, focusing on milestones in the HALROP Program. 12 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Achieving high data reduction with integral cubic B-splines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin J.

    1993-01-01

    During geometry processing, tangent directions at the data points are frequently readily available from the computation process that generates the points. It is desirable to utilize this information to improve the accuracy of curve fitting and to improve data reduction. This paper presents a curve fitting method which utilizes both position and tangent direction data. This method produces G(exp 1) non-rational B-spline curves. From the examples, the method demonstrates very good data reduction rates while maintaining high accuracy in both position and tangent direction.

  10. High Achievement in Mathematics Education in India: A Report from Mumbai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Manya

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a study aimed at characterizing the conditions that lead to high achievement in mathematics in India. The study involved eight schools in the greater Mumbai region. The main result of the study is that the notion of high achievement itself is problematic, as reflected in the reports about mathematics achievement within and…

  11. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Student Achievement in a Rural Florida High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Willie A.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement is viewed as critical to the development of effective schools and student achievement. The relationship between parental involvement and achievement test scores at a rural high school in Florida was not known. This high school has not met the state standards as determined by the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT)…

  12. "This Was My Hell": The Violence Experienced by Gender Non-Conforming Youth in US High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyss, Shannon E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of harassment and violence endured by seven gender non-conforming youth in US high schools. Based on a larger research project, it opens an inquiry into the school-based lives of gender-variant teens, a group heretofore ignored by most academics and educators. Breaking violence down into two main types (physical…

  13. A vitellogenin polyserine cleavage site: highly disordered conformation protected from proteolysis by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Havukainen, Heli; Underhaug, Jarl; Wolschin, Florian; Amdam, Gro; Halskau, Øyvind

    2012-06-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is an egg-yolk precursor protein in most oviparous species. In honeybee (Apis mellifera), the protein (AmVg) also affects social behavior and life-span plasticity. Despite its manifold functions, the AmVg molecule remains poorly understood. The subject of our structure-oriented AmVg study is its polyserine tract - a little-investigated repetitive protein segment mostly found in insects. We previously reported that AmVg is tissue specifically cleaved in the vicinity of this tract. Here, we show that, despite its potential for an open, disordered structure, AmVg is unexpectedly resistant to trypsin/chymotrypsin digestion at the tract. Our findings suggest that multiple phosphorylation plays a role in this resilience. Sequence variation is highly pronounced at the polyserine region in insect Vgs. We demonstrate that sequence differences in this region can lead to structural variation, as NMR and circular dichroism (CD) evidence assign different conformational propensities to polyserine peptides from the honeybee and the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis; the former is extended and disordered and the latter more compact and helical. CD analysis of the polyserine region of bumblebee Bombus ignitus and wasp Pimpla nipponica supports a random coil structure in these species. The spectroscopic results strengthen our model of the AmVg polyserine tract as a flexible domain linker shielded by phosphorylation. PMID:22573762

  14. Conformation-Dependent High-Affinity Potent Ricin-Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei-Gang; Yin, Junfei; Chau, Damon; Hu, Charles Chen; Lillico, Dustin; Yu, Justin; Negrych, Laurel M.; Cherwonogrodzky, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Ricin is a potential biothreat agent with no approved antidote available for ricin poisoning. The aim of this study was to develop potent antibody-based antiricin antidotes. Four strong ricin resistant hybridoma clones secreting antiricin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were developed. All four mAbs are bound to conformational epitopes of ricin toxin B (RTB) with high affinity (KD values from 2.55 to 36.27 nM). RTB not only triggers cellular uptake of ricin, but also facilitates transport of the ricin toxin A (RTA) from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol, where RTA exerts its toxic activity. The four mAbs were found to have potent ricin-neutralizing capacities and synergistic effects among them as determined by an in vitro neutralization assay. In vivo protection assay demonstrated that all four mAbs had strong efficacy against ricin challenges. D9 was found to be exceptionally effective. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of D9, at a dose of 5 μg, 6 weeks before or 6 hours after an i.p. challenge with 5 × LD50 of ricin was able to protect or rescue 100% of the mice, indicating that mAb D9 is an excellent candidate to be developed as a potent antidote against ricin poisoning for both prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:23484120

  15. A vitellogenin polyserine cleavage site: highly disordered conformation protected from proteolysis by phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Havukainen, Heli; Underhaug, Jarl; Wolschin, Florian; Amdam, Gro; Halskau, Øyvind

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Vitellogenin (Vg) is an egg-yolk precursor protein in most oviparous species. In honeybee (Apis mellifera), the protein (AmVg) also affects social behavior and life-span plasticity. Despite its manifold functions, the AmVg molecule remains poorly understood. The subject of our structure-oriented AmVg study is its polyserine tract — a little-investigated repetitive protein segment mostly found in insects. We previously reported that AmVg is tissue specifically cleaved in the vicinity of this tract. Here, we show that, despite its potential for an open, disordered structure, AmVg is unexpectedly resistant to trypsin/chymotrypsin digestion at the tract. Our findings suggest that multiple phosphorylation plays a role in this resilience. Sequence variation is highly pronounced at the polyserine region in insect Vgs. We demonstrate that sequence differences in this region can lead to structural variation, as NMR and circular dichroism (CD) evidence assign different conformational propensities to polyserine peptides from the honeybee and the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis; the former is extended and disordered and the latter more compact and helical. CD analysis of the polyserine region of bumblebee Bombus ignitus and wasp Pimpla nipponica supports a random coil structure in these species. The spectroscopic results strengthen our model of the AmVg polyserine tract as a flexible domain linker shielded by phosphorylation. PMID:22573762

  16. Conformation-dependent high-affinity potent ricin-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei-Gang; Yin, Junfei; Chau, Damon; Hu, Charles Chen; Lillico, Dustin; Yu, Justin; Negrych, Laurel M; Cherwonogrodzky, John W

    2013-01-01

    Ricin is a potential biothreat agent with no approved antidote available for ricin poisoning. The aim of this study was to develop potent antibody-based antiricin antidotes. Four strong ricin resistant hybridoma clones secreting antiricin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were developed. All four mAbs are bound to conformational epitopes of ricin toxin B (RTB) with high affinity (KD values from 2.55 to 36.27 nM). RTB not only triggers cellular uptake of ricin, but also facilitates transport of the ricin toxin A (RTA) from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol, where RTA exerts its toxic activity. The four mAbs were found to have potent ricin-neutralizing capacities and synergistic effects among them as determined by an in vitro neutralization assay. In vivo protection assay demonstrated that all four mAbs had strong efficacy against ricin challenges. D9 was found to be exceptionally effective. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of D9, at a dose of 5 μ g, 6 weeks before or 6 hours after an i.p. challenge with 5 × LD50 of ricin was able to protect or rescue 100% of the mice, indicating that mAb D9 is an excellent candidate to be developed as a potent antidote against ricin poisoning for both prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:23484120

  17. Rectangular Dielectric-loaded Structures for Achieving High Acceleration Gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Changbiao; Yakovlev, V. P.; Marshall, T. C.; LaPointe, M. A.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2006-11-27

    Rectangular dielectric-loaded structures are described that may sustain higher acceleration gradients than conventional all-metal structures with similar apertures. One structure is a test cavity designed to ascertain the breakdown limits of dielectrics, while a second structure could be the basis for a two-beam accelerator. CVD diamond is an attractive dielectric for a high-gradient structure, since the published DC breakdown limit for CVD diamond is {approx} 2 GV/m, although the limit has never been determined for RF fields. Here we present a design of a diamond-lined test cavity to measure the breakdown limit. The designed cavity operates at 34 GHz, where with 10-MW input power it is expected to produce an {approx}800 MV/m field on the diamond surface - provided breakdown is avoided. The two channel rectangular dielectric-loaded waveguide could be a two-beam accelerator structure, in which a drive beam is in one channel and an accelerated beam is in the other. The RF power produced by drive bunches in the drive channel is continuously coupled to the acceleration channel. The ratio of fields in the channels (transformer ratio) for the operating mode can be designed by adjusting the dimensions of the structure. An example of the two-channel structure is described, in which a train of five 3-nC drive bunches excites wake fields in the accelerator channel of up to 1.3 GV/m with a transformer ratio of 10 for the design mode.

  18. (13)CHD2-CEST NMR spectroscopy provides an avenue for studies of conformational exchange in high molecular weight proteins.

    PubMed

    Rennella, Enrico; Huang, Rui; Velyvis, Algirdas; Kay, Lewis E

    2015-10-01

    An NMR experiment for quantifying slow (millisecond) time-scale exchange processes involving the interconversion between visible ground state and invisible, conformationally excited state conformers is presented. The approach exploits chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and makes use of (13)CHD2 methyl group probes that can be readily incorporated into otherwise highly deuterated proteins. The methodology is validated with an application to a G48A Fyn SH3 domain that exchanges between a folded conformation and a sparsely populated and transiently formed unfolded ensemble. Experiments on a number of different protein systems, including a 360 kDa half-proteasome, establish that the sensitivity of this (13)CHD2 (13)C-CEST technique can be upwards of a factor of 5 times higher than for a previously published (13)CH3 (13)C-CEST approach (Bouvignies and Kay in J Biomol NMR 53:303-310, 2012), suggesting that the methodology will be powerful for studies of conformational exchange in high molecular weight proteins. PMID:26271302

  19. Beyond Academic Reputation: Factors that Influence the College of First Choice for High Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Holly J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies that have investigated college choice factors for high-achieving students repeatedly cite academic reputation as one of the top indicators of choice but have not indicated why some high-achieving students choose to attend universities with a less prestigious reputation than the more highly prestigious options available to them. The purpose…

  20. The Chinese High School Student's Stress in the School and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 466 Chinese high school students, we examined the relationships between Chinese high school students' stress in the school and their academic achievements. Regression mixture modelling identified two different classes of the effects of Chinese high school students' stress on their academic achievements. One class contained 87% of…

  1. Does High School Facility Quality Affect Student Achievement? A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Urick, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall…

  2. The Effects of Web-Based/Non-Web-Based Problem-Solving Instruction and High/Low Achievement on Students' Problem-Solving Ability and Biology Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wen-Feng; She, Hsiao-Ching; Lee, Yu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two factors: the mode of problem-solving instruction (i.e. Web-based versus non-Web-based) and the level of academic achievement (i.e. high achievers versus low achievers) on students' problem-solving ability and biology achievement. A quasi-experimental design was used, in which the experimental group…

  3. Three-dimensional simple conformal symplectic particle-in-cell methods for simulations of high power microwave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; Wang, Jianguo; Chen, Zaigao; Cheng, Guoxin; Wang, Pan

    2016-08-01

    To overcome the staircase error in the traditional particle-in-cell (PIC) method, a three dimensional (3D) simple conformal (SC) symplectic PIC method is presented in this paper. The SC symplectic finite integration technique (FIT) scheme is used to advance the electromagnetic fields without reduction of the time step. Particles are emitted from conformal boundaries with the charge conserving emission scheme and moved by using the relativistic Newton-Lorentz force equation. The symplectic formulas of auxiliary-differential equation, complex frequency shifted perfectly matched layer (ADE-CFS-PML) are given for truncating the open boundaries, numerical results show that the maximum relative error of truncation is less than 90 dB. Based on the surface equivalence theorem, the computing algorithms of conformal signals' injection are given, numerical results show that the algorithms can give the right mode patterns and the errors of cutoff frequencies could be as low as 0.1%. To verify the conformal algorithms, a magnetically insulated line oscillator is simulated, and the results are compared to those provided by using the 2.5D UNIPIC code, which show that they agree well. The results also show that the high order symplectic integration method can suppress the numerical Cherenkov radiation.

  4. An Analysis of Java Programming Behaviors, Affect, Perceptions, and Syntax Errors among Low-Achieving, Average, and High-Achieving Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Andallaza, Thor Collin S.; Castro, Francisco Enrique Vicente G.; Armenta, Marc Lester V.; Dy, Thomas T.; Jadud, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we quantitatively and qualitatively analyze a sample of novice programmer compilation log data, exploring whether (or how) low-achieving, average, and high-achieving students vary in their grasp of these introductory concepts. High-achieving students self-reported having the easiest time learning the introductory programming…

  5. Insights into the conformational equilibria of maltose-binding protein by analysis of high affinity mutants.

    PubMed

    Telmer, Patrick G; Shilton, Brian H

    2003-09-01

    The affinity of maltose-binding protein (MBP) for maltose and related carbohydrates was greatly increased by removal of groups in the interface opposite the ligand binding cleft. The wild-type protein has a KD of 1200 nM for maltose; mutation of residues Met-321 and Gln-325, both to alanine, resulted in a KD for maltose of 70 nM; deletion of 4 residues, Glu-172, Asn-173, Lys-175, and Tyr-176, which are part of a poorly ordered loop, results in a KD for maltose of 110 nM. Combining the mutations yields an increased affinity for maltodextrins and a KD of 6 nM for maltotriose. Comparison of ligand binding by the mutants, using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, indicates that decreases in the off-rate are responsible for the increased affinity. Small-angle x-ray scattering was used to demonstrate that the mutations do not significantly affect the solution conformation of MBP in either the presence or absence of maltose. The crystal structures of selected mutants showed that the mutations do not cause significant structural changes in either the closed or open conformation of MBP. These studies show that interactions in the interface opposite the ligand binding cleft, which we term the "balancing interface," are responsible for modulating the affinity of MBP for its ligand. Our results are consistent with a model in which the ligand-bound protein alternates between the closed and open conformations, and removal of interactions in the balancing interface decreases the stability of the open conformation, without affecting the closed conformation. PMID:12794084

  6. Parent-Child Relations and Psychological Adjustment among High-Achieving Chinese and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Rak, Eniko; Rana, Meenal; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Chinese American students are often perceived as problem-free high achievers. Recent research, however, suggests that high-achieving Chinese American students can experience elevated levels of stress, especially comparing to their peers from other ethnic groups. In this paper, we examine how family dynamics may influence psychological adjustment…

  7. High-Achieving and Average Students' Reading Growth: Contrasting School and Summer Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Much is unknown about how initially high-achieving students grow academically, especially given the measurement issues inherent in assessing growth for the highest performing students. This study compared initially high-achieving and average students' growth in reading (in a cohort of third-grade students from 2,000 schools) over 3 years.…

  8. International Note: Between-Domain Relations of Chinese High School Students' Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yangyang, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the between-domain relations of Chinese high school students' academic achievements. In a sample of 1870 Chinese 10th grade students, the results indicated that Chinese high school students' academic achievements were correlated across nine subjects. In line with the previous Western findings, the findings suggested that…

  9. The Effect of the Time Management Art on Academic Achievement among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zoubi, Maysoon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the effect of the Time Management Art on academic achievement among high school students in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The researcher employed the descriptive-analytic research to achieve the purpose of the study where he chose a sample of (2000) high school female and male students as respondents to the…

  10. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  11. Effects of a Collaborative Science Intervention on High Achieving Students' Learning Anxiety and Attitudes toward Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Zuway-R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a collaborative science intervention on high achieving students' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. Thirty-seven eighth-grade high achieving students (16 boys and 21 girls) were selected as an experimental group who joined a 20-week collaborative science intervention, which integrated and utilized…

  12. Manifest Needs of High Ability Achieving and Underachieving Elementary School Children in a Culturally Disadvantaged Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masih, Lalit K.

    1974-01-01

    Study samples suggest that the high ability underachiever is characterized by low need for order and higher need to belong to supportive groups; the high ability achiever seems more independent and less attached to his peer group. (Author)

  13. The Meaning High-Achieving African-American Males in an Urban High School Ascribe to Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, LaTasha; Davis, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers, educators, administrators, policymakers and members of the general public doubt the prevalence of high-achieving African-American males in urban high schools capable of excelling in mathematics. As part of a larger study, the current study explored the educational experiences of four high-achieving African-American males…

  14. Conformal Coating Strategy Comprising N-doped Carbon and Conventional Graphene for Achieving Ultrahigh Power and Cyclability of LiFePO4.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kan; Lee, Jeong-Taik; Li, Ping; Kang, Byoungwoo; Kim, Jung Hyun; Yi, Gi-Ra; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2015-10-14

    Surface carbon coating to improve the inherent poor electrical conductivity of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4, LFP) has been considered as most efficient strategy. Here, we also report one of the conventional methods for LFP but exhibiting a specific capacity beyond the theoretical value, ultrahigh rate performance, and excellent long-term cyclability: the specific capacity is 171.9 mAh/g (70 μm-thick electrode with ∼10 mg/cm(2) loading mass) at 0.1 C (17 mA/g) and retains 143.7 mAh/g at 10 C (1.7 A/g) and 95.8% of initial capacity at 10 C after 1000 cycles. It was found that the interior conformal N-C coating enhances the intrinsic conductivity of LFP nanorods (LFP NR) and the exterior reduced graphene oxide coating acts as an electrically conducting secondary network to electrically connect the entire electrode. The great electron transport mutually promoted with shorten Li diffusion length on (010) facet exposed LFP NR represents the highest specific capacity value recorded to date at 10 C and ultralong-term cyclability. This conformal carbon coating approach can be a promising strategy for the commercialization of LFP cathode in lithium ion batteries. PMID:26389552

  15. High resolution (3 Tesla) MRI-guided conformal brachytherapy for cervical cancer: consequences of different high-risk CTV sizes

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, James W.; Xia, Junyi; Flynn, Ryan T.; Modrick, Joseph M.; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Jacobson, Geraldine M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate conventional brachytherapy (BT) plans using dose-volume parameters and high resolution (3 Tesla) MRI datasets, and to quantify dosimetric benefits and limitations when MRI-guided, conformal BT (MRIG-CBT) plans are generated. Material and methods Fifty-five clinical high-dose-rate BT plans from 14 cervical cancer patients were retrospectively studied. All conventional plans were created using MRI with titanium tandem-and-ovoid applicator (T&O) for delivery. For each conventional plan, a MRIG-CBT plan was retrospectively generated using hybrid inverse optimization. Three categories of high risk (HR)-CTV were considered based on volume: non-bulky (< 20 cc), low-bulky (> 20 cc and < 40 cc) and bulky (≥ 40 cc). Dose-volume metrics of D90 of HR-CTV and D2cc and D0.1cc of rectum, bladder, and sigmoid colon were analyzed. Results Tumor coverage (HR-CTV D90) of the conventional plans was considerably affected by the HR-CTV size. Sixteen percent of the plans covered HR-CTV D90 with the prescription dose within 5%. At least one OAR had D2cc values over the GEC-ESTRO recommended limits in 52.7% of the conventional plans. MRIG-CBT plans showed improved target coverage for HR-CTV D90 of 98 and 97% of the prescribed dose for non-bulky and low-bulky tumors, respectively. No MRIG-CBT plans surpassed the D2cc limits of any OAR. Only small improvements (D90 of 80%) were found for large targets (> 40 cc) when using T&O applicator approach. Conclusions MRIG-CBT plans displayed considerable improvement for tumor coverage and OAR sparing over conventional treatment. When the HR-CTV volume exceeded 40 cc, its improvements were diminished when using a conventional intracavitary applicator. PMID:23878555

  16. A highly correlated conformational motion of a tube-like fully conjugated hydrocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herges, R.; Deichmann, M.; Grunenberg, J.; Bucher, G.

    2000-09-01

    By comparing the matrix infrared spectrum (Ar, 12 K) with theoretically calculated spectra (B3LYP/6-31G ∗), the structure of the tube-like hydrocarbon 1 has been determined to be a fast equilibrium of two D2 d symmetrical structures. The previously assumed higher symmetrical D4 h structure was found to be the transition state of this conformational interconversion. The conformational process involves the correlated and simultaneous pincer-like movement of the four relatively rigid anthracene units. Two pincers are always closed and two are open. Changing the state of one of the pincers reverses the state of the other three pincers. Upon suitable substitution, the molecular framework meets the requirements to be used as a logic gate.

  17. Highly Conformal Deposition of an Ultrathin FeOOH Layer on a Hematite Nanostructure for Efficient Solar Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Young; Youn, Duck Hyun; Kang, Kyoungwoong; Lee, Jae Sung

    2016-08-26

    An ultrathin (ca. 2 nm) amorphous FeOOH overlayer was deposited conformally on a hematite nanostructure by a simple solution-based precipitation method, to generate an oxygen evolution cocatalyst for efficient solar water splitting. This uniform and highly conformal coating of the ultrathin metal oxyhydroxide is rare and is distinguished from the layers prepared by other conventional methods. With the FeOOH overlayer as the cocatalyst, the water oxidation photocurrent of hematite increased by a factor of approximately two and the onset potential shifted in the cathodic direction by 0.12 V under 1 sun illumination. The enhanced performance was attributed to the improved water oxidation kinetics and the passivation of the surface states of the hematite. PMID:27489101

  18. The impact of collective teacher efficacy on student achievement in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burcham, Mark W.

    This dissertation was designed to examine the impact of collective teacher efficacy on high school science achievement by looking at relationships among collective teacher efficacy, its two constructs, group competence and group task analysis, and high school science achievement scores at four rural high schools in Northwestern North Carolina. The researcher gathered historical test data from the testing coordinator from the school system and then administered the Collective Teacher Efficacy Instrument, developed by Goddard, Hoy, and Woolfolk Hoy (2000), to 24 science teachers from the four high schools. Using this information, the researcher conducted statistical analyses to determine the relationships among collective teacher efficacy, group competence, and group task analysis as compared with the tested science curriculum (physical science, biology, chemistry, and physics). The researcher also examined which construct was the most contributing factor and examined differences in efficacy levels and student achievement levels at each high school. Analysis of the data from this study indicated collective teacher efficacy, as well as its two constructs, group competence and group task analysis, does have a positive impact on student achievement in high school science. Analysis of the data revealed group competence is the major contributing factor for student achievement in biology and group task analysis is the major contributing factor for student achievement in physical science, chemistry, and physics. Further analysis of the data in this study, also revealed that the two high schools with the highest levels of collective teacher efficacy had the highest levels of student achievement.

  19. Cavity as a Source of Conformational Fluctuation and High-Energy State: High-Pressure NMR Study of a Cavity-Enlarged Mutant of T4Lysozyme

    PubMed Central

    Maeno, Akihiro; Sindhikara, Daniel; Hirata, Fumio; Otten, Renee; Dahlquist, Frederick W.; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Akasaka, Kazuyuki; Mulder, Frans A.A.; Kitahara, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Although the structure, function, conformational dynamics, and controlled thermodynamics of proteins are manifested by their corresponding amino acid sequences, the natural rules for molecular design and their corresponding interplay remain obscure. In this study, we focused on the role of internal cavities of proteins in conformational dynamics. We investigated the pressure-induced responses from the cavity-enlarged L99A mutant of T4 lysozyme, using high-pressure NMR spectroscopy. The signal intensities of the methyl groups in the 1H/13C heteronuclear single quantum correlation spectra, particularly those around the enlarged cavity, decreased with the increasing pressure, and disappeared at 200 MPa, without the appearance of new resonances, thus indicating the presence of heterogeneous conformations around the cavity within the ground state ensemble. Above 200 MPa, the signal intensities of >20 methyl groups gradually decreased with the increasing pressure, without the appearance of new resonances. Interestingly, these residues closely matched those sensing a large conformational change between the ground- and high-energy states, at atmospheric pressure. 13C and 1H NMR line-shape simulations showed that the pressure-induced loss in the peak intensity could be explained by the increase in the high-energy state population. In this high-energy state, the aromatic side chain of F114 gets flipped into the enlarged cavity. The accommodation of the phenylalanine ring into the efficiently packed cavity may decrease the partial molar volume of the high-energy state, relative to the ground state. We suggest that the enlarged cavity is involved in the conformational transition to high-energy states and in the volume fluctuation of the ground state. PMID:25564860

  20. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui–Yuan; Yu, Zhao–Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun–Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi–Chuan

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30-60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1-5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200-500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application.

  1. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui–Yuan; Yu, Zhao–Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun–Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi–Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30–60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1–5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200–500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application. PMID:26603776

  2. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Yuan; Yu, Zhao-Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun-Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30-60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1-5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200-500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application. PMID:26603776

  3. An Investigation of Student Characteristics as Related to Achievement in an Individualized High School Biology Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, David L.

    Reported is a study of possible differences in student characteristics between high, expected, and low achievers in an individualized learning biology program. Nine variables, ranging from biographical data through attitudinal data were studied. Effects on achievement and explanation of some of the differences were determined by examination of…

  4. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Student Achievement and Motivation in a High School Geometry Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Joe D.; Hall, Neff

    In this study, the effects of a form of cooperative group instruction (Student Teams Achievement Divisions) on student motivation and achievement in a high school geometry class were examined. Ninety (mostly 10th-grade) students were randomly assigned to either a control group receiving traditional instruction or one of two treatment groups…

  5. The Effects of Explicit Teaching of Metastrategic Knowledge on Low- And High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohar, Anat; Peled, Bracha

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of explicit teaching of metastrategic knowledge (MSK) on gains of low-achieving (LA) and high-achieving (HA) 5th grade students (N=41). Gains in reasoning scores of students from the Experimental group (compared to students from the control group) were obtained on the strategic and on the metastrategic level. Gains…

  6. A Quantitative Comparison of Pennsylvania High School Student Achievement by Middle States Association's Accreditation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    As public school accountability for student achievement has continued to increase, prior to and as a result of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, schools have sought ways of bringing new instructional services to their students to raise their levels of achievement. Some Pennsylvania public high schools have attempted to improve student…

  7. Unforgiving Confucian Culture: A Breeding Ground for High Academic Achievement, Test Anxiety and Self-Doubt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews findings from several studies that contribute to our understanding of cross-cultural differences in academic achievement, anxiety and self-doubt. The focus is on comparisons between Confucian Asian and European regions. Recent studies indicate that high academic achievement of students from Confucian Asian countries is…

  8. An Analysis of Mathematics Course Sequences for Low Achieving Students at a Comprehensive Technical High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, D. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This non-experimental study attempted to determine how the different prescribed mathematic tracks offered at a comprehensive technical high school influenced the mathematics performance of low-achieving students on standardized assessments of mathematics achievement. The goal was to provide an analysis of any statistically significant differences…

  9. Instructional, Transformational, and Managerial Leadership and Student Achievement: High School Principals Make a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jerry W.; Prater, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This statewide study examined the relationships between principal managerial, instructional, and transformational leadership and student achievement in public high schools. Differences in student achievement were found when schools were grouped according to principal leadership factors. Principal leadership behaviors promoting instructional and…

  10. Scholastic Achievement in High School Explained? Validation of a Longitudinal Structural Equations Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellle, Laura; Tuijula, Tiina; Laakkonen, Eero

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to shed light on the mechanisms behind scholastic achievement in high school by testing a structural equations model based on the work by Vermunt (1998). It was presumed that self-regulation of learning would predict scholastic achievement and that learning orientations would predict self-regulation of learning. A…

  11. Predicting Early Academic Failure in High School from Prior Academic Achievement, Psychosocial Characteristics, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casillas, Alex; Robbins, Steve; Allen, Jeff; Kuo, Yi-Lung; Hanson, Mary Ann; Schmeiser, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the differential effects of prior academic achievement, psychosocial, behavioral, demographic, and school context factors on early high school grade point average (GPA) using a prospective study of 4,660 middle-school students from 24 schools. The findings suggest that (a) prior grades and standardized achievement are the…

  12. Accelerated Mathematics and High-Ability Students' Math Achievement in Grades Three and Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the use of a computer-managed integrated learning system entitled Accelerated Math (AM) as a supplement to traditional mathematics instruction on achievement as measured by TerraNova achievement tests of third and fourth grade high-ability students. Gender, socioeconomic status, and…

  13. Early Reading Skills and Academic Achievement Trajectories of Students Facing Poverty, Homelessness, and High Residential Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbers, Janette E.; Cutuli, J. J.; Supkoff, Laura M.; Heistad, David; Chan, Chi-Keung; Hinz, Elizabeth; Masten, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation tested the importance of early academic achievement for later achievement trajectories among 18,011 students grouped by level of socioeconomic risk. Students considered to be at highest risk were those who experienced homelessness or high residential mobility (HHM). HHM students were compared with students eligible for free…

  14. Gender and High School Chemistry: Student Perceptions on Achievement in a Selective Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Andrew; Mills, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on research undertaken in a middle-class Australian school. The focus of the research was on the relationship between gender and students' engagement with high school chemistry. Achievement data from many OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] countries suggest that middle-class girls are achieving equally…

  15. Cohort versus Non-Cohort High School Students' Math Performance: Achievement Test Scores and Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Carol S.; Keener, Dana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare multiple measures of mathematics achievement for 1,378 cohort students who attended the same high school in a district from 9th to 12th grade with non-cohort students in each grade level. Results show that mobility had an impact on math achievement. After accounting for gender, ethnicity, and SES, adjusted…

  16. The Impact of Charter Schools on Promoting High Levels of Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.; Makel, Matthew C.; Rapp, Kelly E.

    2007-01-01

    This study compares achievement levels for high ability students attending charter schools and students in traditional public schools in Georgia. Researchers examined student achievement (as assessed by the state's Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests) using three comparison groups: students in the closest traditional schools with similar grade…

  17. The Impact of Placement on Reading and Mathematics Achievement of Students with High Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Jennifer Stell

    2011-01-01

    The question of where best to educate students with disabilities to maximize their academic achievement has been discussed and researched for over four decades, with inconsistent and contradictory results. This study focused on the mathematics and reading achievement of middle and high school students with mild disabilities in an urban district in…

  18. Parental Involvement, Homework, and TV Time: Direct and Indirect Effects on High School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A set of High School and Beyond data was used to study the effect of three variables on academic achievement. Homework had a positive effect, TV a negative, and parental involvement no direct effect on seniors' achievement scores, but influenced the amount of time students spent on homework. (Author/JAZ)

  19. Low and High Mathematics Achievement in Japanese, Chinese, and American Elementary-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttal, David H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    First and fifth grade students who scored high or low on a mathematics test were tested for intellectual ability and reading achievement. Students and their mothers were interviewed. Results indicated that factors associated with levels of achievement in mathematics operate in a similar fashion across three cultures that differ greatly in their…

  20. Highly conformal CT based surface mould brachytherapy for non-melanoma skin cancers of earlobe and nose

    PubMed Central

    Kozłowski, Sławomir; Pietraszek, Andrzej; Pietrzykowska-Kuncman, Malwina; Danielska, Justyna; Sobotkowski, Janusz; Łuniewska-Bury, Jolanta; Fijuth, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Brachytherapy (BT), due to rapid dose fall off and minor set-up errors, should be superior to external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for treatment of lesions in difficult locations like nose and earlobe. Evidences in this field are scarce. We describe computed tomography (CT) based surface mould BT for non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC), and compare its conformity, dose coverage, and tissue sparing ability to EBRT. Material and methods We describe procedure of preparation of surface mould applicator and dosimetry parameters of BT plans, which were implemented in 10 individuals with NMSC of nose and earlobe. We evaluated dose coverage by minimal dose to 90% of planning target volume (PTV) (D90), volumes of PTV receiving 90-150% of prescribed dose (PD) (VPTV90-150), conformal index for 90 and 100% of PD (COIN90, COIN100), dose homogeneity index (DHI), dose nonuniformity ratio (DNR), exposure of organs. Prospectively, we created CT-based photons and electrons plans. We compared conformity (COIN90, COIN100), dose coverage of PTV (D90, VPTV90, VPTV100), volumes of body receiving 10-90% of PD (V10-V90) of EBRT and BT plans. Results We obtained mean BT-DHI = 0.76, BT-DNR = 0.23, EBRT-DHI = 1.26. We observed no significant differences in VPTV90 and D90 between BT and EBRT. Mean BT-VPTV100 (89.4%) was higher than EBRT-VPTV100 (71.2%). Both COIN90 (BT-COIN90 = 0.46 vs. EBRT-COIN90 = 0.21) and COIN100 (BT-COIN100 = 0.52 vs. EBRT-COIN100 = 0.26) were superior for BT plans. We observed more exposure of normal tissues for small doses in BT plans (V10, V20), for high doses in EBRT plans (V70, V90). Conclusions Computed tmography-based surface mould brachytherapy for superficial lesions on irregular surfaces is a highly conformal method with good homogeneity. Brachytherapy is superior to EBRT in those locations in terms of conformity and normal tissue sparing ability in high doses. PMID:27504128

  1. Evaluation of High Density Air Traffic Operations with Automation for Separation Assurance, Weather Avoidance and Schedule Conformance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey S.; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Cabrall, Christopher D.; Brasil, Connie L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the development and evaluation of our prototype technologies and procedures for far-term air traffic control operations with automation for separation assurance, weather avoidance and schedule conformance. Controller-in-the-loop simulations in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at the NASA Ames Research Center in 2010 have shown very promising results. We found the operations to provide high airspace throughput, excellent efficiency and schedule conformance. The simulation also highlighted areas for improvements: Short-term conflict situations sometimes resulted in separation violations, particularly for transitioning aircraft in complex traffic flows. The combination of heavy metering and growing weather resulted in an increased number of aircraft penetrating convective weather cells. To address these shortcomings technologies and procedures have been improved and the operations are being re-evaluated with the same scenarios. In this paper we will first describe the concept and technologies for automating separation assurance, weather avoidance, and schedule conformance. Second, the results from the 2010 simulation will be reviewed. We report human-systems integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. Next, improvements will be discussed that were made to address identified shortcomings. We conclude that, with further refinements, air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can routinely provide currently unachievable levels of traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

  2. Elucidating Hyperconjugation from Electronegativity to Predict Drug Conformational Energy in a High Throughput Manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaomin; Pottel, Joshua; Shahamat, Moeed; Tomberg, Anna; Labute, Paul; Moitessier, Nicolas

    2016-04-25

    Computational chemists use structure-based drug design and molecular dynamics of drug/protein complexes which require an accurate description of the conformational space of drugs. Organic chemists use qualitative chemical principles such as the effect of electronegativity on hyperconjugation, the impact of steric clashes on stereochemical outcome of reactions, and the consequence of resonance on the shape of molecules to rationalize experimental observations. While computational chemists speak about electron densities and molecular orbitals, organic chemists speak about partial charges and localized molecular orbitals. Attempts to reconcile these two parallel approaches such as programs for natural bond orbitals and intrinsic atomic orbitals computing Lewis structures-like orbitals and reaction mechanism have appeared. In the past, we have shown that encoding and quantifying chemistry knowledge and qualitative principles can lead to predictive methods. In the same vein, we thought to understand the conformational behaviors of molecules and to encode this knowledge back into a molecular mechanics tool computing conformational potential energy and to develop an alternative to atom types and training of force fields on large sets of molecules. Herein, we describe a conceptually new approach to model torsion energies based on fundamental chemistry principles. To demonstrate our approach, torsional energy parameters were derived on-the-fly from atomic properties. When the torsional energy terms implemented in GAFF, Parm@Frosst, and MMFF94 were substituted by our method, the accuracy of these force fields to reproduce MP2-derived torsional energy profiles and their transferability to a variety of functional groups and drug fragments were overall improved. In addition, our method did not rely on atom types and consequently did not suffer from poor automated atom type assignments. PMID:27028941

  3. Manifest Needs of High Ability Achieving and Underachieving Elementary School Children in a Culturally Disadvantaged Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masih, Lalit K.

    1974-01-01

    This study, conducted in conjunction with a larger project entitled "Project Able" (part of the Madison Area Project), compared manifest needs of high ability achieving and underachieving elementary school children in a culturally disadvantaged setting. (EAK)

  4. Understanding the Elements of Operational Reliability: A Key for Achieving High Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews operational reliability and its role in achieving high reliability through design and process reliability. The topics include: 1) Reliability Engineering Major Areas and interfaces; 2) Design Reliability; 3) Process Reliability; and 4) Reliability Applications.

  5. High-resolution microwave and infrared molecular-beam studies of the conformers of 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, S.C.; Philips, L.A.; Fraser, G.T.; Lovas, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    High-resolution microwave and infrared molecular-beam spectra have been measured for 1,1,2,2-tetrafluorethane (HFC134). For the higher-energy, polar, C{sub 1}-symmetry, gauche conformer, microwave spectra have been recorded for the normal and mono-{sup 13}C isotopomers and analyzed to determine a C-C bond length of 1.512(4) {Angstrom} and a CCF angle of 109.7(3){degrees}. A tunable microwave-sideband CO{sub 2} laser and electric-resonance optothermal spectrometer have been used to measure the infrared spectrum of the {nu}{sub 6}, C-C stretch of the gauche conformer near 906 cm{sup -1}. Microwave-infrared double resonance and precise ground-state combination-differences provided by the microwave measurements guide the assignment of the spectrum. A b- and c-type spectrum is observed and fit to a Watson asymmetric-top Hamiltonian to within the experimental uncertainty of 0.3 MHz. The high quality of the fit and the similarity of the centrifugal distortion constants to the ground-state values indicate that the band is effectively unperturbed. A number of strong unassigned lines are present in the spectrum. These transitions do not display any microwave-infrared double resonance effect. The attribution of these transitions to the nonpolar anti conformer is ruled out since the transition intensities are sensitive to the field strength of the inhomogeneous electric field used to focus the molecules. Pulsed slit-jet diode-laser spectra have been recorded for the {nu}{sub 16}, anti conformer near 1127 cm{sup -1}. An a- and c-type hybrid band is observed consistent with previous low-resolution assignments of this vibration to a B. mode. A total of 522 non-blended transitions were assigned and fit to determine ground- and excited-state constants. The ground-state constants of A = 5134.952(65), B = 3148.277(27), and C = 2067.106(43) MHz are the first experimental determination of rotational constants for this conformer.

  6. Bullying and Victimization Rates among Gifted and High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Megan Parker; Bain, Sherry K.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying and victimization rates among 90 gifted and nongifted, high-achieving (HA) high school students were assessed by using the Reynolds Bully Victimization Scale (BVS; W. M. Reynolds, 2003). The mean scores indicate that gifted and HA high school students bully others and are victimized by others generally at unelevated rates based on BVS…

  7. A Study of Professional Learning Communities and Science Achievement in Large High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincannon, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the science achievement and high school completion rates of students in a large high school implementing professional learning community concepts and practices with two large high schools not participating in professional learning community concepts and practices. The primary methodology employed was a…

  8. Do Peers Influence Achievement in High School Economics? Evidence from Georgia's Economics End of Course Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christopher; Scafidi, Benjamin; Swinton, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The authors provide the first estimates of the impact of peers on achievement in high school economics. The estimates are obtained by analyzing three years of data on all high school students who take Georgia's required economics course and its accompanying high-stakes End of Course Test (Georgia Department of Education). They use an instrumental…

  9. Precision conformal optics technology program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotta, Patrick A.

    2001-09-01

    Conformal optics are defined as optics that deviate from conventional form to best satisfy the contour and shape needs of system platforms. Precision Conformal Optics Technology (PCOT), a comprehensive 48 month program funded by the Defense Advanced Research Program Agency (DARPA) and the U. S. Army Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (MRDEC), assessed the potential benefits achieved by use of conformal optics on a variety of U.S. weapon systems. Also addressed were all barriers impeding conformal optics use. The PCOT program was executed by a consortium of organizations ranging from major U.S. defense prime contractors, to small businesses, and academia. The diversity of organizations encouraged synergy across a broad array of skills and perspectives. Smooth team interaction was made possible by the 845 contractual structure of the program. Benefits identified by the PCOT consortium included major reductions in aerodynamic drag (by as much as 50%), reduced time-to-targets (by as much as 60%), and reduced weapon signatures. Impediments addressed included inadequacies in optical design tools, optical manufacturing methods and equipment, optical testing, and system integration. The PCOT program was successfully completed with a demonstration of a highly contoured missile dome, which reduced overall missile drag by 25%, and led to a predicted twofold increase in missile range.

  10. Electrostatic Swelling and Conformational Variation Observed in High-Generation Polyelectrolyte Dendrimers

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Paul D; Chen, Wei-Ren; Herwig, Kenneth W; Hong, Kunlun; Liu, Yun; Porcar, L.; Shew, Chwen-Yang; Smith, Gregory Scott; Chen, Hsin-Lung; Chen, Chun-Yu; Li, Xin; Liu, Emily

    2010-01-01

    A coordinated study combining small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements was conducted to investigate the structural characteristics of aqueous (D2O) generation 7 and 8 (G7 & G8) PAMAM dendrimer solutions as a function of molecular protonation at room temperature. The change in intra-molecular conformation was clearly exhibited in the data analysis by separating the variation in the inter-molecular correlation. Our results unambiguously demonstrate an increased molecular size and evolved intra-molecular density profile upon increasing the molecular protonation. This is contrary to the existing understanding that in higher generation polyelectrolyte dendrimers, steric crowding stiffens the local motion of dendrimer segments exploring additional available intra-dendrimer volume and therefore inhibits the electrostatic swelling. Our observation is relevant to elucidation of the general microscopic picture of polyelectrolyte dendrimer structure, as well as the development of dendrimer-based packages with based on the stimuli-responsive principle.

  11. Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

  12. Evaluation of English Achievement Test: A Comparison between High and Low Achievers amongst Selected Elementary School Students of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Zubair; Latif, Farah; Akhtar, Samina; Mushtaq, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Validity, reliability and item analysis are critical to the process of evaluating the quality of an educational measurement. The present study evaluates the quality of an assessment constructed to measure elementary school student's achievement in English. In this study, the survey model of descriptive research was used as a research method.…

  13. The Relationship between Cognitive and Emotional Intelligence and High School Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Matešić, Krunoslav

    2015-06-01

    The study investigated the relationship between intelligence, emotional intelligence and academic achievement in high school. The study was conducted within the standardization of two instruments for Croatian samples. A total of 369 high school students from the Republic of Croatia participated in the study. They completed the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT)--a test of cognitive intelligence and the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (EQ-i:YV). Academic achievement criteria were general school achievement, Croatian language and mathematics. Several regression analyses were conducted on the results. The results show that cognitive intelligence and the adaptability scale to be consistent predictors of academic achievement. Emotional intelligence was not shown to be a significant predictor of school success. PMID:26753453

  14. Impact of Principal Leadership on Catholic High School Students' Academic Achievement in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhangbe, Osayamen Samson

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, students of Catholic High/Senior secondary schools in Edo state, Nigeria have maintained a significantly higher level of academic achievement than their counterparts in public schools in the state. This development has not only been a cause of serious concern for parents of students who attend public High/Senior secondary schools…

  15. The Effects of Guided Inquiry Instruction on Student Achievement in High School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Laszlo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to measure the effect of a student-centered instructional method called guided inquiry on the achievement of students in a unit of study in high school biology. The study used a non-random sample of 109 students, the control group of 55 students enrolled in high school one, received…

  16. The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Achievement in At-Risk High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Jarrett Graham

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this quantitative survey study was the examination of the relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement in 164 at-risk high school students. The study used Bandura's self-efficacy as the theoretical framework. The research questions involved understanding the levels of self-efficacy in at-risk high school students and…

  17. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Expanding College Opportunities for High-Achieving, Low Income Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of providing low-income, high-achieving high school seniors with college application guidance and information about the costs of college. The "application guidance" included information about deadlines and requirements for college applications at nearby institutions, at the state's flagship institution, and at in-…

  18. The Relationship between Thinking Style Differences and Career Choices for High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this study was to present information about high-achieving students' career decision making associated with thinking styles. We gathered data from two International Baccalaureate (IB) programs and a Governor's School Program with a sample of 209 high-school students. The findings of this study demonstrated that the effect of program…

  19. Closing the Mathematics Achievement Gap in High-Poverty Middle Schools: Enablers and Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfanz, Robert; Byrnes, Vaughan

    2006-01-01

    The mathematics achievement levels of U.S. students fall far behind those of other developed nations; within the United States itself, the students who are falling behind come predominantly from high-poverty and high-minority areas. This article reports on a series of analyses that followed 4 cohorts of students from 3 such schools through the 5th…

  20. Mathematics Achievement with Digital Game-Based Learning in High School Algebra 1 Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Terri Lynn Kurley

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact of digital game-based learning (DGBL) on mathematics achievement in a rural high school setting in North Carolina. A causal comparative research design was used in this study to collect data to determine the effectiveness of DGBL in high school Algebra 1 classes. Data were collected from the North Carolina…

  1. Urban Students Achieve When High Schools Implement Proven Practices. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene; Han, Lingling; Presson, Alice

    2006-01-01

    Students benefit from a year or more gain in student achievement when urban district and high school leaders commit to the implementation of the "High Schools That Work" ("HSTW") design. It is not enough to be a "HSTW" site--it is about taking effective actions to implement the design. Schools that do take action witness significant progress in…

  2. The Effects of Modeling Instruction on High School Physics Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an "ex post facto," quasi-experimental research methodology. The…

  3. School Context, Precollege Educational Opportunities, and College Degree Attainment among High-Achieving Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Valija C.

    2013-01-01

    Access to high-quality educational opportunities is central to growing postsecondary degree attainment. This study employs secondary data analysis of the public-use National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88/00) to examine how school context and precollege educational opportunities influence college degree attainment among high-achieving Black…

  4. Study-Orientation of High and Low Academic Achievers at Secondary Level in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Bashir, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Naemullah; Khan, Muhammad Saeed

    2009-01-01

    The study orientation of low and high academic achievers was compared, measured through a self-developed study orientation scale (SOS) primarily based on 47 items comparing study habits and attitude. Students' marks obtained in the 10th grade Examination determined the measure of academic performance. The analysis revealed that the high achievers…

  5. The Relationship between Principals' Instructional Focus and Academic Achievement of High Poverty Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aste, Mahri

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between teacher perceptions of the frequency and effectiveness of principal instructional leadership behaviors and student achievement in high-poverty elementary schools. In order to accomplish the purpose, survey methodology was employed. Teachers from six high-poverty elementary schools…

  6. Small Classes in the Early Grades, Academic Achievement, and Graduating From High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Jeremy D.; Gerber, Susan B.; Boyd-Zaharias, Jayne

    2005-01-01

    This investigation addressed 3 questions about the long-term effects of early school experiences: (a) Is participation in small classes in the early grades (K-3) related to high school graduation? (b) Is academic achievement in K-3 related to high school graduation? (c) If class size is related to graduation, is the relationship explained by the…

  7. Causes of Nonattendance and Its Effect on Student Achievement at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracht, Kelly D.

    2010-01-01

    Many high schools in America have issues with student nonattendance. The researcher designed this mixed methods study to determine the affect of nonattendance on student achievement and to ascertain whether home-related factors or school-related factors were more significant causes of nonattendance. Both the high school in this study and other…

  8. Improving High School Students' Mathematics Achievement through the Use of Motivational Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portal, Jamie; Sampson, Lisa

    This report describes a program for motivating students in mathematics in order to improve achievement at the high school level. The targeted population consisted of high school students in a middle class community located in a suburb of a large metropolitan area. The problems of underachievement were documented through data collected from surveys…

  9. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Leadership of Kuwaiti High and Low Achieving 11th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnabhan, Mousa

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and the Leadership components (L) of high school students in the state of Kuwait. The possibility of predicting each leadership component via emotional intelligence components was investigated for high and low achievers. A sample of 11th grade students from Kuwaiti…

  10. The Contribution of Limbic Learning Aptitude to Achievement in High School. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ax, Albert F.; And Others

    Achievement in earning grades in high school was resolved into its intellectual and motivational components. This study employed tests of I.Q., personality inventories and classical and operant conditioning of autonomic nervous system controlled variables. Eleven procedures were given to 99 Black inner city high school seniors. Six physiological…

  11. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills in High Achieving Elementary Schools in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egnor, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines if practices that advocate for 21st century skills are in conflict with the mandates of NCLB. Interviews with influential school leaders of high achieving elementary schools focused on collecting data about 21st century skills. This study was designed to (a) Determine if 21st century skills are addressed in high achieving…

  12. Academic achievement and career choice in science: Perceptions of African American urban high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sheila Kay

    2007-12-01

    Low test scores in science and fewer career choices in science among African American high school students than their White counterparts has resulted in lower interest during high school and an underrepresentation of African Americans in science and engineering fields. Reasons for this underachievement are not known. This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to examine what influence parental involvement, ethnic identity, and early mentoring had on the academic achievement in science and career choice in science of African American urban high school 10th grade students. Using semi-structured open-ended questions in individual interviews and focus groups, twenty participants responded to questions about African American urban high school student achievement in science and their career choice in science. The median age of participants was 15 years; 85% had passed either high school biology or physical science. The findings of the study revealed influences and interactions of selected factors on African American urban high school achievement in science. Sensing potential emerged as the overarching theme with six subthemes; A Taste of Knowledge, Sounds I Hear, Aromatic Barriers, What Others See, The Touch of Others, and The Sixth Sense. These themes correlate to the natural senses of the human body. A disconnect between what science is, their own individual learning and success, and what their participation in science could mean for them and the future of the larger society. Insight into appropriate intervention strategies to improve African American urban high school achievement in science was gained.

  13. Factors That Influence School Board Actions to Support Student Achievement: A Multi-Case Study of High-Achieving Rural School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence the actions taken by school boards that advance student achievement in high-achieving rural public school districts. Much of what is discussed in the literature on school improvement efforts is centered on the work carried out by school personnel at the school level. What is…

  14. The Impact of Including Children with Intellectual Disability in General Education Classrooms on the Academic Achievement of Their Low-, Average-, and High-Achieving Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; Bless, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aimed at assessing the impact of including children with intellectual disability (ID) in general education classrooms with support on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers without disability. Method: A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an experimental group of 202 pupils from…

  15. Adjuvant treatment in patients at high risk of recurrence of thymoma: efficacy and safety of a three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy regimen

    PubMed Central

    Perri, Francesco; Pisconti, Salvatore; Conson, Manuel; Pacelli, Roberto; Della Vittoria Scarpati, Giuseppina; Gnoni, Antonio; D’Aniello, Carmine; Cavaliere, Carla; Licchetta, Antonella; Cella, Laura; Giuliano, Mario; Schiavone, Concetta; Falivene, Sara; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Buonerba, Carlo; Ravo, Vincenzo; Muto, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Background The clinical benefits of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) for patients with thymoma are still controversial. In the absence of defined guidelines, prognostic factors such as stage, status of surgical margins, and histology are often considered to guide the choice of adjuvant treatment (radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy). In this study, we describe our single-institution experience of three-dimensional conformal PORT administered as adjuvant treatment to patients with thymoma. Methods Twenty-two consecutive thymoma patients (eleven male and eleven female) with a median age of 52 years and treated at our institution by PORT were analyzed. The patients were considered at high risk of recurrence, having at least one of the following features: stage IIB or III, involved resection margins, or thymic carcinoma histology. Three-dimensional conformal PORT with a median total dose on clinical target volume of 50 (range 44–60) Gy was delivered to the tumor bed by 6–20 MV X-ray of the linear accelerator. Follow-up after radiotherapy was done by computed tomography scan every 6 months for 2 years and yearly thereafter. Results Two of the 22 patients developed local recurrence and four developed distant metastases. Median overall survival was 100 months, and the 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 83% and 74%, respectively. Median disease-free survival was 90 months, and the 5-year recurrence rate was 32%. On univariate analysis, pathologic stage III and presence of positive surgical margins had a significant impact on patient prognosis. Radiation toxicity was mild in most patients and no severe toxicity was registered. Conclusion Adjuvant radiotherapy achieved good local control and showed an acceptable toxicity profile in patients with high-risk thymoma. PMID:26089683

  16. Does Homogeneous Ability Grouping for High School Honors English Instruction Benefit the High Achiever?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetter, Douglas Paul

    2013-01-01

    Public schools are examining their policies and instructional practices to address the achievement gap exposed by the reporting requirements of NCLB (Wenglinski, 2004). As accountability measures and stakes rise, there is a call for an improved use of scientific evidence to inform educational policymaking (Wiseman, 2010). In terms of the…

  17. Effects of a Collaborative Science Intervention on High Achieving Students' Learning Anxiety and Attitudes toward Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zuway-R.

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of a collaborative science intervention on high achieving students' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. Thirty-seven eighth-grade high achieving students (16 boys and 21 girls) were selected as an experimental group who joined a 20-week collaborative science intervention, which integrated and utilized an innovative teaching strategy. Fifty-eight eighth-grade high achieving students were selected as the comparison group. The Secondary School Student Questionnaire was conducted to measure all participants' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. In addition, 12 target students from the experimental group (i.e., six active and six passive students) were recruited for weekly classroom observations and follow-up interviews during the intervention. Both quantitative and qualitative findings revealed that experimental group students experienced significant impact as seen through increased attitudes and decreased anxiety of learning science. Implications for practice and research are provided.

  18. School factors affecting postsecondary career pursuits of high-achieving girls in mathematics and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hyunsil

    This study examined the influences of secondary school experiences of high-achieving girls in math and science on their postsecondary career pursuits in science fields. Specifically, using the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), the study investigated how science class experiences in high school affect science career persistence of high-achieving girls over and above personal and family factors. Selecting the top 10% on the 8 th grade math and science achievement tests from two panel samples of 1988--1994 and 1988--2000, this study examined which science instructional experiences (i.e., lecture-oriented, experiment-oriented, and student-oriented) best predicted college major choices and postsecondary degree attainments in the fields of science after controlling for personal and family factors. A two-stage test was employed for the analysis of each panel sample. The first test examined the dichotomous career pursuits between science careers and non-science careers and the second test examined the dichotomous pursuits within science careers: "hard" science and "soft" science. Logistic regression procedures were used with consideration of panel weights and design effects. This study identified that experiment-oriented and student-oriented instructional practices seem to positively affect science career pursuits of high-achieving females, while lecture-oriented instruction negatively affected their science career pursuits, and that the longitudinal effects of the two positive instructional contributors to science career pursuits appear to be differential between major choice and degree attainment. This study also found that the influences of instructional practices seem to be slight for general females, while those for high-achieving females were highly considerable, regardless of whether negative or positive. Another result of the study found that only student-oriented instruction seemed to have positive effects for high-achieving males. In

  19. High-Resolution Microwave and Infrared Molecular Beam Studies of the Conformers of 1, 1, 2, 2-Tetrafluoroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Steven C.; Philips, Laura A.; Fraser, Gerry; Lovas, Fj; Xu, Li-Hong; Sharpe, Steven W.)

    1998-01-01

    High-resolution microwave and infrared molecular-beam spectra have been measure for 1,1,2,2-tetraflouroethane (HFC134). For the higher energy, polar, C2 symmetry, gauche conformer, microwave spectra have been recorded for the normal and mono-13C isotopomers and analyzed to determine a C-C bond length of 1.512(4)?, in good agreement with a recent ab initio value (MP2/6-31**) of 1.515?[S. Papasavva, K.H. Illinger, and J.E. Kenny, J. Phys. Chem 100 10100-10110(1996)]. A tunable microwave-sideband CO2 laser and electric-resonance optethermal spectrometer have been used to measure the infrared spectrum of the v6, C-C stretch of the gauche conformer near 906 cm-1. Microwave-infrared double resonance and precise ground state combination differences provided by the microwave measurements guide the assignment of the spectrum. The observation of a c-type spectrum definitively establishes that the upper state vibration is of A symmetry in the C2 point group. The spectrum is fit to a Watson asymmetric-top Hamiltonian to a standard deviation of 0.24 MHz. A weak perturbation shifts the line positions for transitions near J=Kc=20 by as much as 12 MHz. The identity of the perturber is unknown. Pulsed slit-jet diode-laser spectra have been recorded for the v16 vibration of the anti conformer near 1127 cm-1. An a- and c-type hybrid band is observed, consistent with a Bu symmetry mode. Previous low-resolution studies have attributed the 1127-cm-1 mode to either a Bu or an Au symmetry vibration. A total of 522 nonblended transitions were assigned and fit to determine ground and excited state constants. The ground state constants of A=52 5.952(65) MHz, B= 3148.277(27) MHz, and C= 2067.106(43) MHz are the first experimental determinations of the rotational constants for this conformer. Here, type A standard uncertainties are given in the parenthese.

  20. ConfGen: a conformational search method for efficient generation of bioactive conformers.

    PubMed

    Watts, K Shawn; Dalal, Pranav; Murphy, Robert B; Sherman, Woody; Friesner, Rich A; Shelley, John C

    2010-04-26

    We describe the methodology, parametrization, and application of a conformational search method, called ConfGen, designed to efficiently generate bioactive conformers. We define efficiency as the ability to generate a bioactive conformation within a small total number of conformations using a reasonable amount of computer time. The method combines physics-based force field calculations with empirically derived heuristics designed to achieve efficient searching and prioritization of the ligand's conformational space. While many parameter settings are supported, four modes spanning a range of speed and quality trades-offs are defined and characterized. The validation set used to test the method is composed of ligands from 667 crystal structures covering a broad array of target and ligand classes. With the fastest mode, ConfGen uses an average of 0.5 s per ligand and generates only 14.3 conformers per ligand, at least one of which lies within 2.0 A root-mean-squared deviation of the crystal structure for 96% of the ligands. The most computationally intensive mode raises this recovery rate to 99%, while taking 8 s per ligand. Combining multiple search modes to "fill-in" holes in the conformation space or energy minimizing using an all-atom force field each lead to improvements in the recovery rates at higher resolutions. Overall, ConfGen is at least as good as competing programs at high resolution and demonstrates higher efficiency at resolutions sufficient for many downstream applications, such as pharmacophore modeling. PMID:20373803

  1. Conformational changes in single carboxymethylcellulose chains on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface under different salt conditions.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Tomotsugu; Yokota, Shingo; Kitaoka, Takuya; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

    2007-05-21

    Conformational changes in individual carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) chains deposited on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). A small amount of CMC solution with various salt concentrations was deposited onto the HOPG surface. The CMC molecular chains adsorbed onto the HOPG surface were clearly visualized using tapping-mode AFM under ambient conditions, as compared with those on a hydrophilic mica surface. Each CMC chain was distinguishable at the molecular level based on the vertical profiles of the AFM images, and probably aligned along the HOPG crystal lattice. Higher NaCl concentrations brought about dramatic conformational changes from aligned single chains to globular aggregates via the molecular network structure only on the HOPG surface through electrostatic screening of the CM groups. Although CMC is a water-soluble hydrophilic polyelectrolyte, some interaction, possibly due to a CH-pi bonding between the glucopyranosic axial plane of CMC and the aromatic rings of HOPG, is considered to be effective and dominant for the unique molecular attachment. These phenomena would imply the potential use of HOPG as a substrate for not only molecular imaging, but also for nano-scale morphological control of cellulosic polymers and other structural polysaccharides. PMID:17316582

  2. Following Different Pathways: Social Integration, Achievement, and the Transition to High School.

    PubMed

    Langenkamp, Amy G

    2009-11-01

    This study expands research on an academic and social turning point for adolescents, the transition to high school, by analyzing how students' level of social integration into school can affect high school academic performance. Using nationally representative data, three different pathways emerged as students transition to high school, characterized by varying amounts of disruption and opportunity for new social relationships upon entering high school. Findings suggest that elements of middle school social integration, including teacher bonding, popularity, and extracurricular participation, affect academic achievement when students enter high school. However, the association between integration into school and academic performance appears to be contingent upon the pathway students follow. PMID:20664813

  3. Following Different Pathways: Social Integration, Achievement, and the Transition to High School

    PubMed Central

    LANGENKAMP, AMY G.

    2010-01-01

    This study expands research on an academic and social turning point for adolescents, the transition to high school, by analyzing how students’ level of social integration into school can affect high school academic performance. Using nationally representative data, three different pathways emerged as students transition to high school, characterized by varying amounts of disruption and opportunity for new social relationships upon entering high school. Findings suggest that elements of middle school social integration, including teacher bonding, popularity, and extracurricular participation, affect academic achievement when students enter high school. However, the association between integration into school and academic performance appears to be contingent upon the pathway students follow. PMID:20664813

  4. Mo' Money, Mo' Problems? High-Achieving Black High School Students' Experiences with Resources, Racial Climate, and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Walter; Griffin, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    A multi-site case study analyzed the college preparatory processes of nine African American high achievers attending a well-resourced, suburban high school and eight academically successful African Americans attending a low-resourced urban school. Students at both schools experienced barriers, that is, racial climate and a lack of resources, that…

  5. High IQ Is Sufficient to Explain the High Achievements in Math and Science of the East Asian Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    It is argued that it is unnecessary to propose that Confucian values explain the high achievements in math and science of the North East Asian peoples, and that these can be satisfactorily and more parsimoniously be explained by their high IQs.

  6. "It's a Way of Life for Us": High Mobility and High Achievement in Department of Defense Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smrekar, Claire E.; Owens, Debra E.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the academic performance of students in U.S. Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) schools, which have high student mobility. Some observers contend that these students' high achievement is a function of their middle class family and community characteristics. Asserts that DoDEA schools simultaneously "do the right things" and…

  7. Communication Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and the Relationship to Student Achievement in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Gayle A.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a correlational design that allowed the researcher to examine the relationship among communication satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and student achievement. High school teachers were surveyed from a convenience sample of 12 school districts in Arizona. Established instruments were used to survey…

  8. The Relationship between Student Attendance and Academic Achievement in a Selected South Dakota High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    There is limited research available on the relationship between student attendance and academic achievement in secondary school. This quantitative, non-experimental study, conducted within a South Dakota high school of students in grades 9-12 during the years 2006-2012, examined the relationship between student attendance and academic achievement…

  9. The Transition Experiences of High-Achieving, Low-Income Undergraduates in an Elite College Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Paul J., II

    2012-01-01

    This hermeneutic phenomenological study describes the lived experiences of high-achieving, low-income undergraduates and their transition into a college environment historically reserved for wealthy students. The results of this study indicate that these students are flourishing in full need-based financial aid programs as a result of their own…

  10. Central American Refugees and U.S. High Schools. A Psychosocial Study of Motivation and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo M.

    This ethnographic study documents and interprets key school, work, and family life issues in the lives and experiences of a sampling of recent immigrants from the war-torn Central American nations; and suggests a psychocultural theory of achievement motivation. Information was gathered from observation in two urban high schools, interviews with 50…

  11. Growing into Equity: Professional Learning and Personalization in High-Achieving Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Sonia Caus; Gerzon, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    What makes a Title I school high-achieving, and what can we all learn from that experience? Professional learning and leadership that supports personalized instruction makes the difference, as captured in the ground-breaking research of authors Sonia Caus Gleason and Nancy Gerzon. This illuminating book shows how four outstanding schools are…

  12. Excellence in English in Middle and High School: How Teachers' Professional Lives Support Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Judith A.

    The Center on English Learning and Achievement (CELA) has been studying the characteristics of successful English programs in middle and high schools. This report discusses the findings of the first two years of their 5-year Excellence in English study and focuses on the educational practices that support student literacy as well as the…

  13. Performance-Approach Goal Effects on Achievement under Low versus High Challenge Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Durik, Amanda M.; Patel, Lily; Lovejoy, Chelsea M.; Valentiner, David

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the effects of university students' achievement goals on performance under low versus high challenge conditions. The first was a laboratory experiment in which participants were assigned goals to pursue on a novel mathematics task alleged to be simple or complex to use. The second was a survey study in which students set goals…

  14. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Updated Analyses with NAEP Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The present research is a follow-up study of earlier published analyses that looked at the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement in 25 states. Using the previously derived Accountability Pressure Index (APR) as a measure of state-level policy pressure for performance on standardized tests, a series of…

  15. The Influence of Social Capital Factors on African-American and Hispanic High School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jacqueline L.

    2009-01-01

    The underachievement of African American and Hispanic students has been an ongoing problem for schools in the United States. The purpose of this investigation was to add to the existing body of knowledge concerning social capital of African American and Hispanic high school students' academic achievement. Using a nationally representative sample…

  16. Integrating Economic and Social Policy: Good Practices from High-Achieving Countries. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Santosh

    This paper examines the successes of 10 "high achievers," countries with social indicators far higher than might be expected, given their national wealth, pulling together the lessons learned for social policy in the developing world. The 10 countries identified are Costa Rica, Cuba, Barbados, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Kerala, Sri Lanka,…

  17. Turning around Reading Achievement: Predictors of High School Students' Academic Resilience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappella, Elise; Weinstein, Rhona S.

    2001-01-01

    In a national, longitudinal database, factors were examined that enabled public school students on a path toward failure to significantly improve reading achievement by high school graduation. Being Caucasian and female, having an internal locus of control, and taking an academic curriculum independently predicted academic resilience.…

  18. How Does Bennett Woods Elementary School Produce Such High Reading and Writing Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael; Mohan, Lindsey; Raphael, Lisa M.; Fingeret, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed a grounded theory about how a school serving relatively advantaged children produces high reading and writing achievement compared with schools serving similar populations of students. The school's faculty is reading and writing focused, and students experience many books as they receive explicit, demanding instruction (i.e.,…

  19. What Attracts High-Achieving Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students to the Physical Sciences and Engineering?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Sarah; Canetto, Silvia Sara; MacPhee, David; Farro, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) students are less likely to major in physical sciences or engineering. To guide recruitment and retention of a diversity of talent, this study examined what attracts high-achieving SED students to these fields. Participants were 50 undergraduates majoring in physical sciences or engineering enrolled in the…

  20. Experiencing More Mathematics Anxiety than Expected? Contrasting Trait and State Anxiety in High Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, A.-L.; Bieg, M.; Goetz, T.; Frenzel, A. C.; Taxer, J.; Zeidner, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to…

  1. An Analysis of the Academic Achievement of Indian High School Students in Federal and Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Willard P.

    A longitudinal study was designed to determine whether there were significant differences in academic achievement between senior high American Indian students in Federal on-reservation, Federal off-reservation, public on-reservation, and public off-reservation schools. The purpose of the study was to gather a variety of data on psychological and…

  2. Brain Structure and Resting-State Functional Connectivity in University Professors with High Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weiwei; Yang, Wenjing; Li, Wenfu; Li, Yadan; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Huimin; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2015-01-01

    Creative persons play an important role in technical innovation and social progress. There is little research on the neural correlates with researchers with high academic achievement. We used a combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity analysis, rsFC) approach to examine the…

  3. Effectiveness of Refutational Teaching for High- and Low-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Patricia; Taylor, Annette Kujawski

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of refutational readings and lecture on decreasing psychological misconceptions for students of high versus low levels of achievement. During the course of a semester we addressed introductory psychology students' misconceptions with refutational readings, refutational lecture, or not at all. From pre- and post-test…

  4. Faculty Perceptions of High-Achieving Male Collegians: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    Critical race theory was employed as an interpretive framework to explore faculty perceptions of the academic accomplishments of high-achieving Black and White male collegians. Using photo elicitation methodology, faculty participants responded to a randomly assigned photograph of and vignette about either a Black or White male student. While most…

  5. High Achievement on Advanced Placement Exams: The Relationship of School-Level Contextual Factors to Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Virginia H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify school- and district-level variables that relate to advanced academic achievement, as defined by the ratio of number of scores of 3, 4, or 5 on Advanced Placement exams to school enrollment. The study initially included 46 variables for 339 public high schools in one Midwestern state. Hierarchical linear…

  6. Diversity and Leadership: A Study of High-Achieving Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.; Rowley, Larry L.; Hu, Shouping

    2009-01-01

    Leadership development has long been considered an important outcome of higher education, but the patterns of leadership development among students of color have not been widely studied. This article develops a theory of leadership as an outcome of engaged learning. Findings from this study of high-achieving, low-income students of color include:…

  7. Ugandan Immigrant Students' Perceptions of Barriers to Academic Achievement in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ssekannyo, Denis

    2010-01-01

    In a world that is now a global village, enterprising individuals, especially from Third World countries, who make it to greener pastures do not leave their children behind. But with a long list of barriers to academic achievement associated with immigrant and minority students in American high schools, an understanding of the experiences and…

  8. Academic Optimism of High School Teachers: Its Relationship to Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Charles A.; DiPaola, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to build on an emergent research base for academic optimism by testing the construct and its relationship to student achievement and organizational citizenship behaviors in schools in a sample of public high schools. All participants in this study were full-time teachers, guidance counselors, and other full-time…

  9. Disabled and Successful: Education in the Life Stories of Disabled High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Sonali; Travers, Cheryl; Arnold, John

    2004-01-01

    There has been much debate concerning the pros and cons of special and mainstream education for young people with a disability. This paper adds data to this debate by reporting the educational experiences of 20 high-achievers with congenital disabilities who live in the United Kingdom and were born between 1950 and 1970. It presents personal…

  10. Balancing Dreams and Realities: The College Choice Process for High-Achieving Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, Ebelia

    2015-01-01

    This study's narratives of 17 high-achieving Latinas revealed how their college choice was a constant balancing of individual and family expectations, being "close, but far enough away," and "getting your money's worth." With the use of critical race theory, further analysis revealed the influence of "familismo" on…

  11. High School Success: An Effective Intervention for Achievement and Dropout Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowder, Christopher Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-design study was to use quantitative and qualitative research to explore the effects of High School Success (a course for at-risk ninth graders) and its effectiveness on student achievement, attendance, and dropout prevention. The research questions address whether there is a significant difference between at-risk ninth…

  12. School Factors Related to Reading Achievement in Rural Schools with and without High Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Seth W.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study identified how rural schools differ on five school-level factors related to student achievement according to their performance on Grade 3 reading. Through use of a MANOVA test, it was shown that principals of high-poverty rural schools that made AYP in Grade 3 reading reported significantly higher levels of guaranteed and…

  13. The College-Choice Process of High Achieving Freshmen: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the college-choice process of high achieving students. Employing current literature and previous research, it combined current models of college choice and the influential factors identified throughout the literature while utilizing the concept of bounded rationality to create a conceptual framework to…

  14. The Relationship between Illinois School District Superintendent Longevity and High School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libka, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Frequent changes in school district superintendents may be having a detrimental impact on student achievement. Rapid changes in leadership today parallel the present (NCLB) era of high stakes state assessments. The goal of the study was to provide correlation research that would have a positive effect on school district management, superintendent…

  15. Universal Factors of Student Achievement in High-Performing Eastern and Western Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether a common set of student attitudes and behavioral tendencies can account for academic achievement across different, especially high-performing, countries via analysis of the PISA 2009 international data set. The 13 countries examined are 5 of the top-performing Eastern countries/systems, namely Shanghai China, South…

  16. Student Satisfaction and Achievement Related to Organizational Structure: A Study on Semestering in Junior High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Rex G.

    1989-01-01

    Examines effects of academic year division on junior high school student satisfaction. Reports no relationship between semester organization and student satisfaction or achievement, although students report dissatisfaction with the length of certain classes. Advanced English students were more satisfied with semester courses than general English…

  17. One-to-One Computing and Student Achievement in Ohio High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Nancy L.; Larwin, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the impact of one-to-one computing on student achievement in Ohio high schools as measured by performance on the Ohio Graduation Test (OGT). The sample included 24 treatment schools that were individually paired with a similar control school. An interrupted time series methodology was deployed to examine OGT data over a period…

  18. Measuring the Outliers: An Introduction to Out-of-Level Testing with High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; Warne, Russell T.

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-level testing is an underused strategy for addressing the needs of students who score in the extremes, and when used wisely, it could provide educators with a much more accurate picture of what students know. Out-of-level testing has been shown to be an effective assessment strategy with high-achieving students; however, out-of-level…

  19. Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement of High School Students in Kanyakumari District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Deepa, T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to find the significant relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement of high school students with reference to the background variables. Survey method was employed. Two tools are used in this study namely self-made Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue SF) and the…

  20. Actively Closing the Gap? Social Class, Organized Activities, and Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…

  1. Effect of Textbook Readability on Student Achievement in High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, D. Neil

    2001-01-01

    Notes the readability level of many high school chemistry textbooks is far above students' reading levels. Conducts two separate studies, making every effort to keep the two classes as similar as possible in all aspects except text. Finds strong evidence that changing the chemistry textbook resulted in an increase in student achievement. Suggests…

  2. The Federal Transformation Intervention Model in Persistently Lowest Achieving High Schools: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Patner, Michelle B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act federal mandate of the Transformation Intervention Model (TIM) outlined by the School Improvement Grant, which was designed to turn around persistently lowest achieving schools. The study was conducted in four high schools in a large Southern California urban district that selected the…

  3. Consequences of the Confucian Culture: High Achievement but Negative Psychological Attributes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Irene T.; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2010-01-01

    In "Unforgiving Confucian culture: A breeding ground for high academic achievement, test anxiety and self-doubt?" Stankov (in press) provides three reasons for caution against over-glorifying the academic excellence of Confucian Asian learners, namely that it may lead to a reluctance to change their rote learning approach which is not conducive to…

  4. The Relationship between Student Achievement and Charter High Schools in Washington, DC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if differences in student achievement existed between traditional public and charter high schools in the District of Columbia. The study examined student outcomes on the standardized state test in reading and math from 2006 to 2010 utilizing descriptive statistics, crosstab analysis, chi-square tests…

  5. Social Media Use, Loneliness, and Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study with Urban High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neto, Roque; Golz, Nancy; Polega, Meaghan

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the association between social media use, loneliness, and academic achievement in high school students and identified the demographic characteristics associated with these three elements. This study also aimed to identify the percentage of variance in loneliness accounted for by social media use and GPA. Participants were 345…

  6. Evaluative and Behavioral Correlates to Intrarehearsal Achievement in High School Bands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships of teaching effectiveness, ensemble performance quality, and selected rehearsal procedures to various measures of intrarehearsal achievement (i.e., musical improvement exhibited by an ensemble during the course of a single rehearsal). Twenty-nine high school bands were observed in two…

  7. A Study of the Impact of Block Scheduling on Student Academic Achievement in Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Mary Kay

    2010-01-01

    The number of public high schools implementing a semester 4 x 4 block scheduling design within the state of South Carolina has tripled since 2005. However, minimal local research has been conducted regarding the impact of block scheduling on student academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to determine if significant differences exist…

  8. New Counter-School Cultures: Female Students' Drug Use at a High-Achieving Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Adam; Bonell, Chris; Rhodes, Tim

    2009-01-01

    We draw on case-study research at a high-achieving secondary school in London to illustrate how school experiences may influence drug use and reproduce inequalities in reconstructed ways in late modernity. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with students and teachers, and observations. We focus in particular on the…

  9. Spatial Experiences of High Academic Achievers: Insights from a Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weckbacher, Lisa Marie; Okamoto, Yukari

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the relationship between types of spatial experiences and spatial abilities among 13- to 14-year-old high academic achievers. Each participant completed two spatial tasks and a survey assessing favored spatial activities across five categories (computers, toys, sports, music, and art) and three developmental periods (early…

  10. The Impact of Reading Success Academy on High School Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlison, Kelly; Chave, Josh

    2014-01-01

    The study explores the effectiveness of the Reading Success Academy on the reading achievement of the selected group of ninth-grade students in a comprehensive high school. We examine in what ways the Reading Success Academy may improve the reading proficiency rates and amount of reading growth of ninth-grade students. The results indicate that…

  11. Students' High School Organizational Leadership Opportunities and Their Influences on Academic Achievement and Civic Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elemen, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze high school leadership praxis for its inclusion of students in organizational leadership dialogue and decision-making and the influences of these factors on student achievement and civic participation. Survey questionnaire data were provided by 215 full-time enrolled undergraduate students from…

  12. Antecedent and Concurrent Psychosocial Skills That Support High Levels of Achievement within Talent Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation and emotional regulation are important for the sustained focused study and practice required for high levels of achievement and creative productivity in adulthood. Using the talent development model proposed by the authors as a framework, the authors discuss several important psychosocial skills based on the psychological research…

  13. Perfectionism in High-Ability Students: Relational Precursors and Influences on Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.; Finch, Holmes

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to create and test a model that (a) illustrated variables influencing the development of perfectionism, and (b) demonstrated how different types of perfectionism may influence the achievement goals of high-ability students. Using a multiple groups path analysis, the researchers found that parenting style was…

  14. The Effects of Alcohol Use on Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Giuliano, Laura M.; French, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's grade point average (GPA) abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that…

  15. Negative Relationship between Achievement in High School and Self-Concept in College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Raymond N.; Grosch, James W.

    Social learning theory implies that there should be a significant positive relationship between academic performance and self-concept and outcomes of recent meta-analyses support this prediction. While path-analytic studies of high school samples in the 1960s and 1970s demonstrated that ability and achievement each made a small positive…

  16. Cognitive Abilities and Motivational Processes in High School Students' Situational Engagement and Achievement in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Shun; Roeser, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Building on R. Snow's two pathways to achievement outcomes (1989), examined how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways respectively contributed to prediction of outcomes in science for 491 high school students. Results are consistent with Snow's conjecture that factors related to both pathways…

  17. Obesity, High-Calorie Food Intake, and Academic Achievement Trends among U.S. School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jian; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated children's self-reported high-calorie food intake in Grade 5 and its relationship to trends in obesity status and academic achievement over the first 6 years of school. They used 3-level hierarchical linear models in the large-scale database (the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort). Findings indicated…

  18. On the Decline of the Achievement Orientation of High School Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Frank W.; Coutts, Larry M.

    Based on the evidence and theory that sex-role differentiation increases in salience during those later high school years as students prepare for their imminent transition into young adulthood, it was anticipated that there would be a lower orientation toward achievement among grade 12 girls than grade 10 girls, and, possibly, the opposite for…

  19. Organizational Practices of High-Achieving Rural School Districts in California's San Joaquin Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerksen, Amanda López; Wise, Donald

    2016-01-01

    For over 25 years, researchers have identified "best practices" used by high-achieving school districts. However, little research exists regarding rural school systems, making it difficult to determine whether the best practices identified are relevant within this context. This study filled a void in research by focusing on the…

  20. Academic Identity Status, Goal Orientation, and Academic Achievement among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hejazi, Elaheh; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali; Amani, Habib; Was, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between academic identity status, goal orientations and academic achievement. 301 first year high school students completed the Academic Identity Measure and Goal Orientation Questionnaire. The average of 10 exam scores in the final semester was used as an index of academic…

  1. The Impact of Inclusion on the Academic Achievement of High School Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Harold Smith

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examined the impact of inclusion on the academic achievement outcome of high school special education students as measured by English 1, biology, and algebra 1 as a function of gender, ethnicity, and years of inclusion. The study also examined the generalizations with confidence that could be made about the use of inclusion…

  2. Conflicts and Communication between High-Achieving Chinese American Adolescents and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Chang, Tzu-Fen; Han, Eun-Jin; Chee, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interview data collected on 18 high-achieving Chinese American students, the authors examine domains of acculturation-based conflicts, parent and child internal conflicts, and conflict resolution in their families. Their analyses show that well-established negative communication patterns in educational expectations, divergent…

  3. Comparative evaluation of two dose optimization methods for image-guided, highly-conformal, tandem and ovoids cervix brachytherapy planning.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiyun; Menon, Geetha; Sloboda, Ron

    2013-04-01

    Although the Manchester system is still extensively used to prescribe dose in brachytherapy (BT) for locally advanced cervix cancer, many radiation oncology centers are transitioning to 3D image-guided BT, owing to the excellent anatomy definition offered by modern imaging modalities. As automatic dose optimization is highly desirable for 3D image-based BT, this study comparatively evaluates the performance of two optimization methods used in BT treatment planning--Nelder-Mead simplex (NMS) and simulated annealing (SA)--for a cervix BT computer simulation model incorporating a Manchester-style applicator. Eight model cases were constructed based on anatomical structure data (for high risk-clinical target volume (HR-CTV), bladder, rectum and sigmoid) obtained from measurements on fused MR-CT images for BT patients. D90 and V100 for HR-CTV, D2cc for organs at risk (OARs), dose to point A, conformation index and the sum of dwell times within the tandem and ovoids were calculated for optimized treatment plans designed to treat the HR-CTV in a highly conformal manner. Compared to the NMS algorithm, SA was found to be superior as it could perform optimization starting from a range of initial dwell times, while the performance of NMS was strongly dependent on their initial choice. SA-optimized plans also exhibited lower D2cc to OARs, especially the bladder and sigmoid, and reduced tandem dwell times. For cases with smaller HR-CTV having good separation from adjoining OARs, multiple SA-optimized solutions were found which differed markedly from each other and were associated with different choices for initial dwell times. Finally and importantly, the SA method yielded plans with lower dwell time variability compared with the NMS method. PMID:23459004

  4. Comparative evaluation of two dose optimization methods for image-guided, highly-conformal, tandem and ovoids cervix brachytherapy planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jiyun; Menon, Geetha; Sloboda, Ron

    2013-04-01

    Although the Manchester system is still extensively used to prescribe dose in brachytherapy (BT) for locally advanced cervix cancer, many radiation oncology centers are transitioning to 3D image-guided BT, owing to the excellent anatomy definition offered by modern imaging modalities. As automatic dose optimization is highly desirable for 3D image-based BT, this study comparatively evaluates the performance of two optimization methods used in BT treatment planning—Nelder-Mead simplex (NMS) and simulated annealing (SA)—for a cervix BT computer simulation model incorporating a Manchester-style applicator. Eight model cases were constructed based on anatomical structure data (for high risk-clinical target volume (HR-CTV), bladder, rectum and sigmoid) obtained from measurements on fused MR-CT images for BT patients. D90 and V100 for HR-CTV, D2cc for organs at risk (OARs), dose to point A, conformation index and the sum of dwell times within the tandem and ovoids were calculated for optimized treatment plans designed to treat the HR-CTV in a highly conformal manner. Compared to the NMS algorithm, SA was found to be superior as it could perform optimization starting from a range of initial dwell times, while the performance of NMS was strongly dependent on their initial choice. SA-optimized plans also exhibited lower D2cc to OARs, especially the bladder and sigmoid, and reduced tandem dwell times. For cases with smaller HR-CTV having good separation from adjoining OARs, multiple SA-optimized solutions were found which differed markedly from each other and were associated with different choices for initial dwell times. Finally and importantly, the SA method yielded plans with lower dwell time variability compared with the NMS method.

  5. Quantum massive conformal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, F. F.

    2016-04-01

    We first find the linear approximation of the second plus fourth order derivative massive conformal gravity action. Then we reduce the linearized action to separated second order derivative terms, which allows us to quantize the theory by using the standard first order canonical quantization method. It is shown that quantum massive conformal gravity is renormalizable but has ghost states. A possible decoupling of these ghost states at high energies is discussed.

  6. Conformational Analysis of Proteins in Highly Concentrated Solutions by Dialysis-Coupled Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Houde, Damian; Nazari, Zeinab E; Bou-Assaf, George M; Weiskopf, Andrew S; Rand, Kasper D

    2016-04-01

    When highly concentrated, an antibody solution can exhibit unusual behaviors, which can lead to unwanted properties, such as increased levels of protein aggregation and unusually high viscosity. Molecular modeling, along with many indirect biophysical measurements, has suggested that the cause for these phenomena can be due to short range electrostatic and/or hydrophobic protein-protein interactions. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a useful tool for investigating protein conformation, dynamics, and interactions. However, "traditional" continuous dilution labeling HDX-MS experiments have limited utility for the direct analysis of solutions with high concentrations of protein. Here, we present a dialysis-based HDX-MS (di-HDX-MS) method as an alternative HDX-MS labeling format, which takes advantage of passive dialysis rather than the classic dilution workflow. We applied this approach to a highly concentrated antibody solution without dilution or significant sample manipulation, prior to analysis. Such a method could pave the way for a deeper understanding of the unusual behavior of proteins at high concentrations, which is highly relevant for development of biopharmaceuticals in industry. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26860088

  7. Conformational Analysis of Proteins in Highly Concentrated Solutions by Dialysis-Coupled Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houde, Damian; Nazari, Zeinab E.; Bou-Assaf, George M.; Weiskopf, Andrew S.; Rand, Kasper D.

    2016-04-01

    When highly concentrated, an antibody solution can exhibit unusual behaviors, which can lead to unwanted properties, such as increased levels of protein aggregation and unusually high viscosity. Molecular modeling, along with many indirect biophysical measurements, has suggested that the cause for these phenomena can be due to short range electrostatic and/or hydrophobic protein-protein interactions. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a useful tool for investigating protein conformation, dynamics, and interactions. However, "traditional" continuous dilution labeling HDX-MS experiments have limited utility for the direct analysis of solutions with high concentrations of protein. Here, we present a dialysis-based HDX-MS (di-HDX-MS) method as an alternative HDX-MS labeling format, which takes advantage of passive dialysis rather than the classic dilution workflow. We applied this approach to a highly concentrated antibody solution without dilution or significant sample manipulation, prior to analysis. Such a method could pave the way for a deeper understanding of the unusual behavior of proteins at high concentrations, which is highly relevant for development of biopharmaceuticals in industry.

  8. Test of the Anti-de Sitter-Space/Conformal-Field-Theory Correspondence Using High-Spin Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Benna, M. K.; Benvenuti, S.; Klebanov, I. R.; Scardicchio, A.

    2007-03-30

    In two remarkable recent papers the planar perturbative expansion was proposed for the universal function of the coupling appearing in the dimensions of high-spin operators of the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. We study numerically the integral equation derived by Beisert, Eden, and Staudacher, which resums the perturbative series. In a confirmation of the anti-de Sitter-space/conformal-field-theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, we find a smooth function whose two leading terms at strong coupling match the results obtained for the semiclassical folded string spinning in AdS{sub 5}. We also make a numerical prediction for the third term in the strong coupling series.

  9. Cofilin-induced unidirectional cooperative conformational changes in actin filaments revealed by high-speed atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Kien Xuan; Kodera, Noriyuki; Katayama, Eisaku; Ando, Toshio; Uyeda, Taro QP

    2015-01-01

    High-speed atomic force microscopy was employed to observe structural changes in actin filaments induced by cofilin binding. Consistent with previous electron and fluorescence microscopic studies, cofilin formed clusters along actin filaments, where the filaments were 2-nm thicker and the helical pitch was ∼25% shorter, compared to control filaments. Interestingly, the shortened helical pitch was propagated to the neighboring bare zone on the pointed-end side of the cluster, while the pitch on the barbed-end side was similar to the control. Thus, cofilin clusters induce distinctively asymmetric conformational changes in filaments. Consistent with the idea that cofilin favors actin structures with a shorter helical pitch, cofilin clusters grew unidirectionally toward the pointed-end of the filament. Severing was often observed near the boundaries between bare zones and clusters, but not necessarily at the boundaries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04806.001 PMID:25642645

  10. No More 1s: High Expectations Can Lead to High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervone, Laureen; DiMartino, Lisa; Kerr, Kris

    2010-01-01

    The school district in Middletown, New York, in the state's Orange County, today serves close to 7,000 students in four elementary schools, two middle schools, and one high school. The district is classified by the state in the highest of three Need-to-Resource-Capacity groups, an urban or suburban school district with high student needs in…

  11. Examining the Success Factors of High-Achieving Puerto Rican Male High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Tomas; Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene; Velez, William

    2010-01-01

    This article works to dispel the myth that Latino urban high-school students are not capable of performing at high academic levels. Whereas much educational research emphasizes the academic underachievement of urban Latino students, this article counteracts this research by describing the four success factors that three working-class Puerto Rican…

  12. Cultivating a Growth Mindset in Students at a High-Achieving High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fegley, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this EPP is to develop a plan for changing the mindset of a large number of Haddonfield Memorial High School (HMHS) students from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset. HMHS is by most conventional measures a high performing school. Typically 100% of the students graduate with 96% of the students attending two or four year colleges…

  13. Achieving highly dispersed nanofibres at high loading in carbon nanofibre-metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jianli; Nash, Philip; Li, Jiajun; Shi, Chunsheng; Zhao, Naiqin

    2009-06-01

    In order to tap into the advantages of the properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or carbon nanofibres (CNFs) in composites, the high dispersion of CNTs (or CNFs) and strong interfacial bonding are the key issues which are still challenging. In the current work, a novel approach, consisting of in situ synthesis of CNFs within the Cu powders and mixing Cu ions with the in situ CNF(Ni/Y)-Cu composite powders in a solvent, was developed to highly disperse CNFs in a Cu matrix. The composite, produced by vacuum hot pressing, shows extremely high strength, 3.6 times more than that of the matrix material alone. It is worth mentioning that this method can disperse CNFs at high loading in a metal matrix, inferring good potential for applications, such as electronic packaging materials.

  14. Achievement Motivation of the High School Students: A Case Study among Different Communities of Goalpara District of Assam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarangi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Achievement motivation is a consistent striving force of an individual to achieve success to a certain standard of excellence in competing situation. In this study an attempt was made to study the effect of achievement motivation on the academic achievement of the high school students of tribal and non tribal communities in relation to their sex…

  15. Are gender differences in high achievement disappearing? A test in one intellectual domain.

    PubMed

    Howard, Robert W

    2005-05-01

    Males traditionally predominate at upper achievement levels. One general view holds that this is due only to various social factors such as the 'glass ceiling' and lack of female role models. Another view holds that it occurs partly because of innate ability differences, with more males being at upper ability levels. In the last few decades, women have become more achievement focused and competitive and have gained many more opportunities to achieve. The present study examined one intellectual domain, international chess, to quantify its gender differences in achievement and to see if these have been diminishing with the societal changes. Chess is a good test domain because it is a meritocracy, it has objective performance measures, and longitudinal data of a whole population are available. Performance ratings overall and in the top 10, 50 and 100 players of each sex show large gender differences and little convergence over the past three decades, although a few females have become high achievers. The distribution of performance ratings on the January 2004 list shows a higher male mean and evidence for more male variation, just as with traits such as height. Career patterns of players first on the list between 1985 and 1989 show that top males and females entered the list at about the same age but females tend to play fewer games and have shorter careers. In this domain at least, the male predominance is large and has remained roughly constant despite societal changes. PMID:15906890

  16. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    PubMed

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement. PMID:26651154

  17. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  18. Conformational transitions and fibrillation mechanism of human calcitonin as studied by high-resolution solid-state 13C NMR.

    PubMed Central

    Kamihira, M.; Naito, A.; Tuzi, S.; Nosaka, A. Y.; Saitô, H.

    2000-01-01

    Conformational transitions of human calcitonin (hCT) during fibril formation in the acidic and neutral conditions were investigated by high-resolution solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. In aqueous acetic acid solution (pH 3.3), a local alpha-helical form is present around Gly10 whereas a random coil form is dominant as viewed from Phe22, Ala26, and Ala31 in the monomer form on the basis of the 13C chemical shifts. On the other hand, a local beta-sheet form as viewed from Gly10 and Phe22, and both beta-sheet and random coil as viewed from Ala26 and Ala31 were detected in the fibril at pH 3.3. The results indicate that conformational transitions from alpha-helix to beta-sheet, and from random coil to beta-sheet forms occurred in the central and C-terminus regions, respectively, during the fibril formation. The increased 13C resonance intensities of fibrils after a certain delay time suggests that the fibrillation can be explained by a two-step reaction mechanism in which the first step is a homogeneous association to form a nucleus, and the second step is an autocatalytic heterogeneous fibrillation. In contrast to the fibril at pH 3.3, the fibril at pH 7.5 formed a local beta-sheet conformation at the central region and exhibited a random coil at the C-terminus region. Not only a hydrophobic interaction among the amphiphilic alpha-helices, but also an electrostatic interaction between charged side chains can play an important role for the fibril formation at pH 7.5 and 3.3 acting as electrostatically favorable and unfavorable interactions, respectively. These results suggest that hCT fibrils are formed by stacking antiparallel beta-sheets at pH 7.5 and a mixture of antiparallel and parallel beta-sheets at pH 3.3. PMID:10850796

  19. High-Dose Conformal Radiotherapy Reduces Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality: Results of a Meta-analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Viani, Gustavo Arruda; Godoi Bernardes da Silva, Lucas; Stefano, Eduardo Jose

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To determine in a meta-analysis whether prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), biochemical or clinical failure (BCF), and overall mortality (OM) in men with localized prostate cancer treated with conformal high-dose radiotherapy (HDRT) are better than those in men treated with conventional-dose radiotherapy (CDRT). Methods and Materials: The MEDLINE, Embase, CANCERLIT, and Cochrane Library databases, as well as the proceedings of annual meetings, were systematically searched to identify randomized, controlled studies comparing conformal HDRT with CDRT for localized prostate cancer. Results: Five randomized, controlled trials (2508 patients) that met the study criteria were identified. Pooled results from these randomized, controlled trials showed a significant reduction in the incidence of PCSM and BCF rates at 5 years in patients treated with HDRT (p = 0.04 and p < 0.0001, respectively), with an absolute risk reduction (ARR) of PCSM and BCF at 5 years of 1.7% and 12.6%, respectively. Two trials evaluated PCSM with 10 years of follow up. The pooled results from these trials showed a statistical benefit for HDRT in terms of PCSM (p = 0.03). In the subgroup analysis, trials that used androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) showed an ARR for BCF of 12.9% (number needed to treat = 7.7, p < 0.00001), whereas trials without ADT had an ARR of 13.6% (number needed to treat = 7, p < 0.00001). There was no difference in the OM rate at 5 and 10 years (p = 0.99 and p = 0.11, respectively) between the groups receiving HDRT and CDRT. Conclusions: This meta-analysis is the first study to show that HDRT is superior to CDRT in preventing disease progression and prostate cancer-specific death in trials that used conformational technique to increase the total dose. Despite the limitations of our study in evaluating the role of ADT and HDRT, our data show no benefit for HDRT arms in terms of BCF in trials with or without ADT.

  20. Asymmetric hydrogenation of ketones: Tactics to achieve high reactivity, enantioselectivity, and wide scope

    PubMed Central

    Ohkuma, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Ru complexes with chiral diphosphines and amine-based ligands achieve high catalytic activity and enantioselectivity for the hydrogenation of ketones under neutral to slightly basic conditions. The chiral environment is controllable by changing the combination of these two ligands. A concerted six-membered transition state is proposed to be the origin of the high reactivity. The η6-arene/TsDPEN–Ru and MsDPEN–Cp*Ir catalysts effect the asymmetric reaction under slightly acidic conditions. A variety of chiral secondary alcohols are obtained in high enantiomeric excess. PMID:20228621

  1. The numerical stroop effect in primary school children: a comparison of low, normal, and high achievers.

    PubMed

    Heine, Angela; Tamm, Sascha; De Smedt, Bert; Schneider, Michael; Thaler, Verena; Torbeyns, Joke; Stern, Elsbeth; Verschaffel, Lieven; Jacobs, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Sixty-six primary school children were selected, of which 21 scored low on a standardized math achievement test, 23 were normal, and 22 high achievers. In a numerical Stroop experiment, children were asked to make numerical and physical size comparisons on digit pairs. The effects of congruity and numerical distance were determined. All children exhibited congruity and distance effects in the numerical comparison. In the physical comparison, children of all performance groups showed Stroop effects when the numerical distance between the digits was large but failed to show them when the distance was small. Numerical distance effects depended on the congruity condition, with a typical effect of distance in the congruent, and a reversed distance effect in the incongruent condition. Our results are hard to reconcile with theories that suggest that deficits in the automaticity of numerical processing can be related to differential math achievement levels. Immaturity in the precision of mappings between numbers and their numerical magnitudes might be better suited to explain the Stroop effects in children. However, as the results for the high achievers demonstrate, in addition to numerical processing capacity per se, domain-general functions might play a crucial role in Stroop performance, too. PMID:20437281

  2. Strong and highly asymmetrical optical absorption in conformal metal-semiconductor-metal grating system for plasmonic hot-electron photodetection application

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kai; Zhan, Yaohui; Zhang, Cheng; Wu, Shaolong; Li, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    We propose an architecture of conformal metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device for hot-electron photodetection by asymmetrical alignment of the semiconductor barrier relative to the Fermi level of metals and strong energy localization through plasmonic resonances. Compared with the conventional grating design, the multi-layered grating system under conformal configuration is demonstrated to possess both optical and electrical advantages for high-sensitivity hot-electron photodetection. Finite-element simulation reveals that a strong and highly asymmetrical optical absorption (top metal absorption >99%) can be realized under such a conformal arrangement. An analytical probability-based electrical simulation verifies the strong unidirectional photocurrent, by taking advantage of the extremely high net absorption and a low metal/semiconductor barrier height, and predicts that the corresponding photoresponsivity can be ~3 times of that based on the conventional grating design in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) configuration. PMID:26387836

  3. Strong and highly asymmetrical optical absorption in conformal metal-semiconductor-metal grating system for plasmonic hot-electron photodetection application.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kai; Zhan, Yaohui; Zhang, Cheng; Wu, Shaolong; Li, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    We propose an architecture of conformal metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device for hot-electron photodetection by asymmetrical alignment of the semiconductor barrier relative to the Fermi level of metals and strong energy localization through plasmonic resonances. Compared with the conventional grating design, the multi-layered grating system under conformal configuration is demonstrated to possess both optical and electrical advantages for high-sensitivity hot-electron photodetection. Finite-element simulation reveals that a strong and highly asymmetrical optical absorption (top metal absorption >99%) can be realized under such a conformal arrangement. An analytical probability-based electrical simulation verifies the strong unidirectional photocurrent, by taking advantage of the extremely high net absorption and a low metal/semiconductor barrier height, and predicts that the corresponding photoresponsivity can be ~3 times of that based on the conventional grating design in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) configuration. PMID:26387836

  4. Small-angle X-ray scattering- and nuclear magnetic resonance-derived conformational ensemble of the highly flexible antitoxin PaaA2.

    PubMed

    Sterckx, Yann G J; Volkov, Alexander N; Vranken, Wim F; Kragelj, Jaka; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Buts, Lieven; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Jové, Thomas; Van Melderen, Laurence; Blackledge, Martin; van Nuland, Nico A J; Loris, Remy

    2014-06-10

    Antitoxins from prokaryotic type II toxin-antitoxin modules are characterized by a high degree of intrinsic disorder. The description of such highly flexible proteins is challenging because they cannot be represented by a single structure. Here, we present a combination of SAXS and NMR data to describe the conformational ensemble of the PaaA2 antitoxin from the human pathogen E. coli O157. The method encompasses the use of SAXS data to filter ensembles out of a pool of conformers generated by a custom NMR structure calculation protocol and the subsequent refinement by a block jackknife procedure. The final ensemble obtained through the method is validated by an established residual dipolar coupling analysis. We show that the conformational ensemble of PaaA2 is highly compact and that the protein exists in solution as two preformed helices, connected by a flexible linker, that probably act as molecular recognition elements for toxin inhibition. PMID:24768114

  5. Facilitating High Achievement: High School Principals' Reflections on Their Successful Leadership Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crum, Karen S.; Sherman, Whitney H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The burden for school improvement in a time of accountability falls squarely on the shoulders of principals as new requirements demand that they act as instructional leaders. The purpose of this study is to discover the common themes of school leadership and instructional practices of high school principals at successful schools in…

  6. High-Achieving African American Male High School Students: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilt, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    This case study highlighted the fundamental reasons why a small group of African American male high school seniors in the selected school district succeeded academically while their same race peers did not. Through classroom observation, interviews, and focus groups, the researcher uncovered factors related to instructional practices and classroom…

  7. Supercharging with m-nitrobenzyl alcohol and propylene carbonate: forming highly charged ions with extended, near-linear conformations.

    PubMed

    Going, Catherine C; Williams, Evan R

    2015-04-01

    The effectiveness of the supercharging reagents m-nitrobenzyl alcohol (m-NBA) and propylene carbonate at producing highly charged protein ions in electrospray ionization is compared. Addition of 5% m-NBA or 15% propylene carbonate increases the average charge of three proteins by ∼21% or ∼23%, respectively, when these ions are formed from denaturing solutions (water/methanol/acetic acid). These results indicate that both reagents are nearly equally effective at supercharging when used at their optimum concentrations. A narrowing of the charge state distribution occurs with both reagents, although this effect is greater for propylene carbonate. Focusing the ion signal into fewer charge states has the advantage of improving sensitivity. The maximum charge state of ubiquitin formed with propylene carbonate is 21+, four charges higher than previously reported. Up to nearly 30% of all residues in a protein can be charged, and the collisional cross sections of the most highly charged ions of both ubiquitin and cytochrome c formed with these supercharging reagents were measured for the first time and found to be similar to those calculated for theoretical highly extended, linear or near-linear conformations. Under native supercharging conditions, m-NBA is significantly more effective at producing high charge states than propylene carbonate. PMID:25719488

  8. Challenges to achievement of metal sustainability in our high-tech society

    SciTech Connect

    Izatt, Reed M.; Izatt, Steven R.; Bruening, Ronald L.; Izatt, Neil; Moyer, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Achievement of sustainability in metal life cycles from mining of virgin ore to consumer and industrial devices to end-of-life products requires greatly increased recycling and improved processing of metals. Electronic and other high-tech products containing precious, toxic, and specialty metals usually have short lifetimes and low recycling rates. Products containing these metals generally are incinerated, discarded as waste in landfills, or dismantled in informal recycling using crude and environmentally irresponsible procedures. Low metal recycling rates coupled with increasing demand for products containing them necessitate increased mining with attendant environmental, health, energy, water, and carbon-footprint consequences. In this tutorial review, challenges to achieving metal sustainability in present high-tech society are presented; health, environmental, and economic incentives for various stakeholders to improve metal sustainability are discussed; a case for technical improvements in separations technology, especially employing molecular recognition, is given; and global consequences of continuing on the present path are examined.

  9. An investigation into high-achiever and low-achiever knowledge organisation and knowledge processing in concept mapping: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siew Lian, Mary Wong

    1998-09-01

    This study used concept map content analysis and interviews to gain insights into the knowledge organisation and knowledge processing of pre-service teachers. Forty-eight preservice teachers of elementary science from a teachers’ training college in Sarawak, Malaysia, participated in this study. Correlations between achievement and five concept map characteristics showed that there were significant positive correlations ( p<.01) between achievement and: the number of appropriate links; the average number of appropriate concepts per cluster; and, the hierarchy score of subjects’ concept maps, and significant negative correlations ( p<.01) between achievement and: the number of inappropriate links; and, the average number of inappropriate concepts per cluster. Interviews with high-achievers and lowachievers revealed that there were differences in the way they processed knowledge during concept mapping. The high-achievers were more thorough than were the low-achievers in cognitive processing of knowledge, taking time to make sense of concepts, sort and group concepts, form relevant links between concepts, and organise concepts hierarchically. Active cognitive processing of knowledge seems to be related to more complex, well-integrated cognitive structures for the material learned.

  10. The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence.

    PubMed

    Krapohl, Eva; Rimfeld, Kaili; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Asbury, Kathryn; Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2014-10-21

    Because educational achievement at the end of compulsory schooling represents a major tipping point in life, understanding its causes and correlates is important for individual children, their families, and society. Here we identify the general ingredients of educational achievement using a multivariate design that goes beyond intelligence to consider a wide range of predictors, such as self-efficacy, personality, and behavior problems, to assess their independent and joint contributions to educational achievement. We use a genetically sensitive design to address the question of why educational achievement is so highly heritable. We focus on the results of a United Kingdom-wide examination, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which is administered at the end of compulsory education at age 16. GCSE scores were obtained for 13,306 twins at age 16, whom we also assessed contemporaneously on 83 scales that were condensed to nine broad psychological domains, including intelligence, self-efficacy, personality, well-being, and behavior problems. The mean of GCSE core subjects (English, mathematics, science) is more heritable (62%) than the nine predictor domains (35-58%). Each of the domains correlates significantly with GCSE results, and these correlations are largely mediated genetically. The main finding is that, although intelligence accounts for more of the heritability of GCSE than any other single domain, the other domains collectively account for about as much GCSE heritability as intelligence. Together with intelligence, these domains account for 75% of the heritability of GCSE. We conclude that the high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence. PMID:25288728

  11. The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Krapohl, Eva; Rimfeld, Kaili; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Asbury, Kathryn; Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Because educational achievement at the end of compulsory schooling represents a major tipping point in life, understanding its causes and correlates is important for individual children, their families, and society. Here we identify the general ingredients of educational achievement using a multivariate design that goes beyond intelligence to consider a wide range of predictors, such as self-efficacy, personality, and behavior problems, to assess their independent and joint contributions to educational achievement. We use a genetically sensitive design to address the question of why educational achievement is so highly heritable. We focus on the results of a United Kingdom-wide examination, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which is administered at the end of compulsory education at age 16. GCSE scores were obtained for 13,306 twins at age 16, whom we also assessed contemporaneously on 83 scales that were condensed to nine broad psychological domains, including intelligence, self-efficacy, personality, well-being, and behavior problems. The mean of GCSE core subjects (English, mathematics, science) is more heritable (62%) than the nine predictor domains (35–58%). Each of the domains correlates significantly with GCSE results, and these correlations are largely mediated genetically. The main finding is that, although intelligence accounts for more of the heritability of GCSE than any other single domain, the other domains collectively account for about as much GCSE heritability as intelligence. Together with intelligence, these domains account for 75% of the heritability of GCSE. We conclude that the high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence. PMID:25288728

  12. High-fidelity simulation: Assessment of student nurses' team achievements of clinical judgment.

    PubMed

    Hallin, Karin; Bäckström, Britt; Häggström, Marie; Kristiansen, Lisbeth

    2016-07-01

    Nursing educators have the challenge of preparing nursing students to handle complex patient care situations in real life, but much remains unknown about the ability to make clinical judgments. In this study, high-fidelity simulation (HFS) was used at a Swedish university to find answers about pre-licensure nursing students' success in clinical judgment in terms of team ability and relationships with theoretical achievements, and personal and scenario circumstances. The matrix Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric (LCJR) was used to analyze and score the students' ability in teams to notice, interpret and respond to complex care situations. Overall, the results showed the student teams in their first meeting with HFS in a complex care situation achieved low clinical judgment points; most teams were in the stages of Beginning and Developing. For attaining high team achievements the majority of the students in the team should theoretically be "high performance". Being observers and having HFS experience before nursing education was significant too. However, age, health care experience, and assistant nurse degrees were of secondary importance. Further research at universities regionally, nationally, and internationally is needed. PMID:27428686

  13. Nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanoflakes conformal coating on carbon nanotubes as a supercapacitive material with high-rate capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Ma, K. Y.; Cheng, J. P.; Lv, Danhui; Zhang, X. B.

    2015-07-01

    A carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanoflake core-shell structure is designed and fabricated by a facile one-step chemical bath deposition method. Structure analysis confirms that the as-synthesized hydroxides are conformally coated on the surface of CNTs with a hydrotalcite structure. The incorporation of Co into nickel hydroxides can improve the electrical conductivity together with intercalated sulphate ions into the interlayer spacing to enlarge the lattice space, which further improves the rate capabilities and cycling stability. Electrochemical data demonstrates that the hybrid hydroxide with Ni-Co molar ratio of 1:2 exhibits a high specific capacitance of 1151 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and an excellent high rate capability, with 61% retention after a 70-fold increase in current densities. Its specific capacitance can maintain 77% of the initial value after 10,000 cycles. The nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanoflakes-CNTs hybrid shows a great potential of being an electrode material for supercapacitors with its high specific capacitance, good rate capability and long-term cycling life.

  14. The closed conformation of the LDL receptor is destabilized by the low Ca(++) concentration but favored by the high Mg(++) concentration in the endosome.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Oliván, Juan; Arias-Moreno, Xabier; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramón; Carrodeguas, José Alberto; Miguel-Romero, Laura; Marina, Alberto; Bruscolini, Pierpaolo; Sancho, Javier

    2015-11-30

    The LDL receptor (LDLR) internalizes LDL and VLDL particles. In the endosomes, it adopts a closed conformation important for recycling, by interaction of two modules of the ligand binding domain (LR4-5) and a β-propeller motif. Here, we investigate by SPR the interactions between those two modules and the β-propeller. Our results indicate that the two modules cooperate to bind the β-propeller. The binding is favored by low pH and by high [Ca(++)]. Our data show that Mg(++), at high concentration in the endosome, favors the formation of the closed conformation by replacing the structuring effect of Ca(++) in LR5. We propose a sequential model of LDL release where formation of the close conformation follows LDL release. PMID:26526611

  15. Achieving high performance polymer optoelectronic devices for high efficiency, long lifetime and low fabrication cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinsong

    This thesis described three types of organic optoelectronic devices: polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), polymer photovoltaic solar cell, and organic photo detector. The research in this work focuses improving their performance including device efficiency, operation lifetime simplifying fabrication process. With further understanding in PLED device physics, we come up new device operation model and improved device architecture design. This new method is closely related to understanding of the science and physics at organic/metal oxide and metal oxide/metal interface. In our new device design, both material and interface are considered in order to confine and balance all injected carriers, which has been demonstrated very be successful in increasing device efficiency. We created two world records in device efficiency: 18 lm/W for white emission fluorescence PLED, 22 lm/W for red emission phosphorescence PLED. Slow solvent drying process has been demonstrated to significantly increase device efficiency in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixture polymer solar cell. From the mobility study by time of flight, the increase of efficiency can be well correlated to the improved carrier transport property due to P3HT crystallization during slow solvent drying. And it is found that, similar to PLED, balanced carrier mobility is essential in high efficient polymer solar cell. There is also a revolution in our device fabrication method. A unique device fabrication method is presented by an electronic glue based lamination process combined with interface modification as a one-step polymer solar cell fabrication process. It can completely skip the thermal evaporation process, and benefit device lifetime by several merits: no air reactive. The device obtained is metal free, semi-transparent, flexible, self-encapsulated, and comparable efficiency with that by regular method. We found the photomultiplication (PM) phenomenon in C

  16. Dry Blending to Achieve Isotopic Dilution of Highly Enriched Uranium Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Roger Neil; Chipman, Nathan Alan; Rajamani, R. K.

    2001-04-01

    The end of the cold war produced large amounts of excess fissile materials in the United States and Russia. The Department of Energy has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies for disposition of these excess materials. To date, many of these planning strategies have included isotopic dilution of highly enriched uranium as a means of reducing the proliferation and safety risks. Isotopic dilution by dry blending highly enriched uranium with natural and/or depleted uranium has been identified as one non-aqueous method to achieve these risk (proliferation and criticality safety) reductions. This paper reviews the technology of dry blending as applied to free flowing oxide materials.

  17. Preoperative treatment planning with intraoperative optimization can achieve consistent high-quality implants in prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Pugh, Thomas J.; Swanson, David A.; Bruno, Teresa L.; Bolukbasi, Yasemin; Frank, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in brachytherapy treatment planning systems have allowed the opportunity for brachytherapy to be planned intraoperatively as well as preoperatively. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each approach have been the subject of extensive debate, and some contend that the intraoperative approach is vital to the delivery of optimal therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether high-quality permanent prostate implants can be achieved consistently using a preoperative planning approach that allows for, but does not necessitate, intraoperative optimization. To achieve this purpose, we reviewed the records of 100 men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who had been prospectively treated with brachytherapy monotherapy between 2006 and 2009 at our institution. All patients were treated with iodine-125 stranded seeds; the planned target dose was 145 Gy. Only 8 patients required adjustments to the plan on the basis of intraoperative findings. Consistency and quality were assessed by calculating the correlation coefficient between the planned and implanted amounts of radioactivity and by examining the mean values of the dosimetric parameters obtained on preoperative and 30 days postoperative treatment planning. The amount of radioactivity implanted was essentially identical to that planned (mean planned radioactivity, 41.27 U vs. mean delivered radioactivity, 41.36 U; R{sup 2} = 0.99). The mean planned and day 30 prostate V100 values were 99.9% and 98.6%, respectively. The mean planned and day 30 prostate D90 values were 186.3 and 185.1 Gy, respectively. Consistent, high-quality prostate brachytherapy treatment plans can be achieved using a preoperative planning approach, mostly without the need for intraoperative optimization. Good quality assurance measures during simulation, treatment planning, implantation, and postimplant evaluation are paramount for achieving a high level of quality and consistency.

  18. A Study of Gifted High, Moderate, and Low Achievers in Their Personal Characteristics and Attitudes toward School and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the problem of underachievement among gifted high school students. Low achievers were compared to high and moderate achievers on their motivation, self-regulation, and attitudes toward their school and teachers. Participants were all highly able students from grades 10 and 11 in an academically selective gifted high school in…

  19. Progress toward achieving high power and high efficiency semipolar LEDs and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hong

    Performance of current commercially available wurtzite nitride based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), grown along the polar (0001) c-plane orientation, is limited by the presence of polarization-related electric fields inside multi-quantum wells (MQWs). The discontinuities in both spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization at the heterointerfaces result in internal electric fields in the quantum wells. These electric fields cause carrier separation [quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE)] and reduce the radiative recombination rate within the quantum wells. One approach to reduce and possibly eliminate the polarization-related effects is to grow III-nitride devices on crystal planes that are inclined with respect to the c-axis, i.e., on semipolar planes. In this dissertation, metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been employed for the homoepitaxial growth of GaN based LEDs on semipolar orientations. As a consequence of growing on high-quality bulk GaN substrates, the LEDs have significantly reduced threading dislocation and stacking fault densities, resulting in remarkable improvements in EQE and output power. High efficiency semipolar (1011) violet-blue and blue LEDs have been demonstrated without any intentional effort to enhance the light extraction from those devices. Optimizations of epitaxial structures have led to increased output power and external quantum efficiency. A silicone encapsulated single quantum well blue LED with peak wavelength of 444 nm with output power of 24.3 mW, external quantum efficiency of 43% and luminous efficacy of 75 lm/W (with phosphorescent coating) at 20 mA has been demonstrated. Polarization fields in strained (1011) and (112¯2) InGaN quantum wells have been experimentally determined through bias-dependent optical studies. Our results show that the polarization field flips its direction in semipolar InGaN quantum wells with large inclination angles (i.e. around 60°). This suggests that there exists a polarization

  20. Strategies to achieve high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover.

    PubMed

    Geng, Wenhui; Jin, Yongcan; Jameel, Hasan; Park, Sunkyu

    2015-01-01

    Three strategies were presented to achieve high solids loading while maximizing carbohydrate conversion, which are fed-batch, splitting/thickening, and clarifier processes. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed at water insoluble solids (WIS) of 15% using washed dilute-acid pretreated corn stover. The carbohydrate concentration increased from 31.8 to 99.3g/L when the insoluble solids content increased from 5% to 15% WIS, while the final carbohydrate conversion was decreased from 78.4% to 73.2%. For the fed-batch process, a carbohydrate conversion efficiency of 76.8% was achieved when solid was split into 60:20:20 ratio, with all enzymes added first. For the splitting/thickening process, a carbohydrate conversion of 76.5% was realized when the filtrate was recycled to simulate a steady-state process. Lastly, the clarifier process was evaluated and the highest carbohydrate conversion of 81.4% was achieved. All of these results suggests the possibility of enzymatic hydrolysis at high solids to make the overall conversion cost-competitive. PMID:25836373

  1. Achieving all-dielectric metamaterial band-pass frequency selective surface via high-permittivity ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liyang; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Wang, Jun; Feng, Mingde; Du, Hongliang; Yan, Mingbao; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo; Xu, Zhuo

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose the design of all-dielectric metamaterial band-pass frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) using high-permittivity ceramics based on effective medium theory and dielectric resonator theory. The band-pass response can be determined by the permittivity of the dielectric material, the periodicity, and geometrical shape of the dielectric unit cell. As an example, a band-pass FSS composed of H shaped ceramic resonators is demonstrated. Both the simulation and experiment results show that the FSS can achieve a pass band in X-band. Since such FSSs are made of low-loss high-permittivity ceramics, they are of important application values, especially in high-temperature, high-power environments. The design method can be readily extended to the design of FSSs in other frequencies.

  2. The role of shaping in achieving high performance in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, E.A.; Hyatt, A.W.; Osborne, T.H.

    1994-10-01

    Experiments to study the effect of plasma shape on performance show that the high performance levels characteristic of VH-mode plasmas are only obtained for high triangularity ({delta}). A characteristic difference in central heating efficiency is observed when high and low {delta} plasmas are compared. The authors find this difference to correlate well with the attainment of Mercier stability. The core plasma for the high {delta} cases achieves Mercier stability when q{sub 0} rises above a critical value which depends on {delta}, providing direct access to the second-stable regime. Other attributes of the VH-mode commence after a delay. The rise in q{sub 0} is attributable to the radial gradients in the neutral beam and bootstrap current sources. Simulation indicates that such plasmas would persist for many seconds if the rise in density could be controlled, maintaining a centrally peaked neutral beam deposition profile.

  3. Phase II Study of Vinorelbine and Estramustine in Combination With Conformational Radiotherapy for Patients With High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Carles, Joan; Nogue, Miguel; Sole, Josep M.; Foro, Palmira; Domenech, Montserrat; Suarez, Marta; Gallardo, Enrique; Garcia, Dario; Ferrer, Ferran; Gelabert-Mas, Antoni; Gayo, Javier; Fabregat, Xavier

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of vinorelbine and estramustine in combination with three-dimensional conformational radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in patients with localized high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients received estramustine, 600 mg/m{sup 2} daily, and vinorelbine, 25 mg/m{sup 2}, on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle for three cycles in combination with 8 weeks of 3D-CRT (total dose of 70.2 gray [Gy] at 1.8-Gy fractions or 70 Gy at 2.0-Gy fractions). Additionally, patients received luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs for 3 years. Results: All patients were evaluated for response and toxicity. Progression-free survival at 5 years was 72% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 52-86). All patients who relapsed had only biochemical relapse. The most frequent severe toxicities were cystitis (16% of patients), leucopenia (10% of patients), diarrhea (10% of patients), neutropenia (8% of patients), and proctitis (8% of patients). Six patients (12%) did not complete study treatment due to the patient's decision (n = 1) and to adverse events such as hepatotoxicity, proctitis, paralytic ileus, and acute myocardial infarction. Conclusions: Vinorelbine and estramustine in combination with 3D-CRT is a safe and effective regimen for patients with localized high-risk prostate cancer. A randomized trial is needed to determine whether the results of this regimen are an improvement over the results obtained with radiotherapy and androgen ablation.

  4. The effects of modeling instruction on high school physics academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an ex post facto , quasi-experimental research methodology. The independent variables in this study were the instructional methods of teaching. The treatment variable was Modeling Instruction and the control variable was traditional lecture instruction. The Treatment Group consisted of participants in Physical World Concepts who received Modeling Instruction. The Control Group consisted of participants in Physical Science who received traditional lecture instruction. The dependent variable was gains scores on the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI). The participants for this study were 133 students each in both the Treatment and Control Groups (n = 266), who attended a public, high school in rural middle Tennessee. The participants were administered the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) prior to being taught the mechanics of physics. The FCI data were entered into the computer-based Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Two independent samples t-tests were conducted to answer the research questions. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups concerning the instructional method. Modeling Instructional methods were found to be effective in increasing the academic achievement of students in high school physics. There was no statistically significant difference between FCI gains scores for gender. Gender was found to have no effect on the academic achievement of students in high school physics classes. However, even though there was not a statistically significant difference, female students' gains scores were higher than male students' gains scores when Modeling Instructional methods of teaching were used. Based on these findings, it is recommended

  5. Design, Synthesis, and Proticity Inclined Conformational Modulation in a Highly Fluorescent Bichromophoric Naphthalimide Derivative: Hint Directed from RICT Perspective.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Ritika; Meitei, Oinam Romesh; Kumar, Himank; Jadhao, Manojkumar; Ghosh, Sujit Kumar

    2016-02-25

    The present study embodies design, in silico DNA interaction, synthesis of benzothiazole containing naphthalimide derivative, 2-(6-chlorobenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-1H-benzo[de] isoquinoline-1,3(2H)-dione (CBIQD) along with its systematic photophysics, solvatochromic behavior, and solvation dynamics using an experimental and theoretical spectroscopic approach. Steady-state dual emission and biexponential fluorescence decay reveals the formation of two different excited species. Ground- and excited-state optimized geometry and the potential-energy curve obtained from DFT and TD-DFT calculation ascertained the existence of nonplanar and planar conformation. When the solvent polarity is changed from nonpolar to protic polar, the feebly emissive emission band highly intensifies probably due to the reversal of n, π*-π, π* emissive state along with consequent modulation of their energy gap that is induced by H-bonding. Excluding nonpolar solvents, in all other solvents, the Stokes shift correlates linearly with orientation polarizability, whereas in water, the story remains intriguing. With photoexcitation, intermolecular H-bonding stimulates the pyramidalization tendency of imide "N" with subsequent conformational change of GS nonplanar geometry to a coplanar one through acceptor rehybridization generating a rehybridized intramolecular charge transfer (RICT) state that caused a dramatic fluorescence upsurge. This allosteric modulation is promoted by excited-state H-bonding dynamics especially in strong H-bond donor water. A close interplay between preferential solvation and the proximity effect is evident in the emission behavior in a benzene (Bn)-ethanol (EtOH) binary mixture. Molecular docking analysis delineates considerable noncovalent sandwiched π-π stacking interactions of CBIQD with the pyrimidine rings as well as with imidazole rings of dG 6 and dG 2 base pairs of B-DNA double helix, which probably suffices the design strategy adopted. Overall, a strategic design

  6. Moving to higher ground: Closing the high school science achievement gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebane, Joyce Graham

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of West High School constituents (students, parents, teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors) about the readiness and interest of African American students at West High School to take Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) science courses as a strategy for closing the achievement gap. This case study utilized individual interviews and questionnaires for data collection. The participants were selected biology students and their parents, teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors at West High School. The results of the study indicated that just over half the students and teachers, most parents, and all guidance counselors thought African American students were prepared to take AP science courses. Only one of the three administrators thought the students were prepared to take AP science courses. Between one-half and two-thirds of the students, parents, teachers, and administrators thought students were interested in taking an AP science course. Only two of the guidance counselors thought there was interest among the African American students in taking AP science courses. The general consensus among the constituents about the readiness and interest of African American students at West High School to take IB science courses was that it is too early in the process to really make definitive statements. West is a prospective IB school and the program is new and not yet in place. Educators at the West High School community must find reasons to expect each student to succeed. Lower expectations often translate into lower academic demands and less rigor in courses. Lower academic demands and less rigor in courses translate into less than adequate performance by students. When teachers and administrators maintain high expectations, they encourage students to aim high rather than slide by with mediocre effort (Lumsden, 1997). As a result of the study, the following suggestions should

  7. A conformational study of the binding of a high mobility group protein with chromatin.

    PubMed

    Sasi, R; Hüvös, P E; Fasman, G D

    1982-10-10

    The nature of the binding of a high mobility group protein (HMG 17) to native and H1-H5-depleted chicken erythrocyte chromatin was studied, as a function of ionic strength, using circular dichroism and thermal denaturation techniques. The circular dichroism properties of the HMG 17-reconstituted whole chromatin and H1-H5-depleted chromatin demonstrated that a condensation of chromatin structure occurred upon HMG 17 binding at low ionic strength (1 mM Na phosphate, 0.25 mM EDTA, pH 7.0). Thermal denaturation profiles confirmed this change in the structure of chromatin induced by HMG 17. Thermal denaturation profiles were resolved into three-component transitions. In general, a shift in the temperature of maximum dh/dT for each transition (Tm) was observed for all transitions upon HMG 17 binding. DNA melting in the first transition, originating from linker regions of whole chromatin, was nearly totally depleted and was distributed mainly into the highest melting transition. The same trends were also observed in H1-H5-depleted chromatin. These results indicate that the binding sites of HMG 17 are situated in the linker regions immediately adjacent to the core. The nature of the interaction of HMG 17 at higher ionic strength (50 mM NaCl, 1 mM Na phosphate, 0.25 mM EDTA, pH 7.0) with whole chromatin and H1-H5-depleted chromatin was found to be different but a decrease in [theta] values was found in both chromatins. These observations suggest that HMG 17 does not loosen chromatin structure but produces an overall stabilization and condensation of structure. The implications of these results to the currently accepted models of transcriptionally active chromatin are discussed. PMID:6214552

  8. A strategy for achieving high reliability for reusable launch vehicles (RLVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholtis, Joseph A.

    2002-01-01

    Expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) have been used since the early 1960s to put numerous payloads, including humans, into space. Yet, in spite of their widespread use since that time, ELV reliability has not improved much. Why has this been the case? And, more importantly, what might be done to substantially improve the reliability of future reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) to levels needed for commercial viability, i.e., approaching that of the U.S. commercial airline industry? This paper attempts to answer these questions-by reviewing the history of launch vehicles, identifying factors important to their reliability and safety, and in doing so, offering a potential strategy for achieving high RLV reliability. The conclusion reached is that there is every reason to believe that high reliability (~0.99999 per mission) is achievable for future RLVs, if key features to enhance their inherent robustness, forgiveness, and recoverability are considered and integrated into RLV design and operation at the outset. It is hoped that this paper will serve as a catalyst for further discussions intended to ensure that high reliability is realized for RLVs. .

  9. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L.; Smith, Gregory M.; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today’s OLEDs in performance. PMID:27063414

  10. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L; Smith, Gregory M; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m(2) with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today's OLEDs in performance. PMID:27063414

  11. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L.; Smith, Gregory M.; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-04-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today’s OLEDs in performance.

  12. Achieving high bit rate logical stochastic resonance in a bistable system by adjusting parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Gu, Feng-Shou; Feng, Guo-Jin; Yang, Yong-Min; Ball, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    The phenomenon of logical stochastic resonance (LSR) in a nonlinear bistable system is demonstrated by numerical simulations and experiments. However, the bit rates of the logical signals are relatively low and not suitable for practical applications. First, we examine the responses of the bistable system with fixed parameters to different bit rate logic input signals, showing that an arbitrary high bit rate LSR in a bistable system cannot be achieved. Then, a normalized transform of the LSR bistable system is introduced through a kind of variable substitution. Based on the transform, it is found that LSR for arbitrary high bit rate logic signals in a bistable system can be achieved by adjusting the parameters of the system, setting bias value and amplifying the amplitudes of logic input signals and noise properly. Finally, the desired OR and AND logic outputs to high bit rate logic inputs in a bistable system are obtained by numerical simulations. The study might provide higher feasibility of LSR in practical engineering applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51379526).

  13. Race and Academic Achievement in Racially Diverse High Schools: Opportunity and Stratification.

    PubMed

    Muller, Chandra; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Schiller, Kathryn S; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Frank, Kenneth A

    2010-04-01

    BACKGROUND/CONTEXT: Brown v Board of Education fundamentally changed our nation's schools, yet we know surprisingly little about how and whether they provide equality of educational opportunity. Although substantial evidence suggests that African American and Latino students who attend these schools face fewer learning opportunities than their White counterparts, until now, it has been impossible to examine this using a representative sample because of lack of data. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE/RESEARCH QUESTION/FOCUS OF STUDY: This study uses newly available data to investigate whether racially diverse high schools offer equality of educational opportunity to students from different racial and ethnic groups. This is examined by measuring the relative representation of minority students in advanced math classes at the beginning of high school and estimating whether and how this opportunity structure limits the level of achievement attained by African American and Latino students by the end of high school. SETTING: This study uses data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA) and its partner study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a stratified, nationally representative study of students in U.S. high schools first surveyed in 1994-1995. POPULATION/PARTICIPANTS/SUBJECTS: Two samples of racially diverse high schools were used in the analysis: one with African Americans, Whites, and Asians (26 schools with 3,149 students), and the other with Latinos, Whites, and Asians (22 schools with 2,775 students). RESEARCH DESIGN: Quantitative analyses first assess how high schools vary in the extent to which minority students are underrepresented in advanced sophomore math classes. Hierarchical multilevel modeling is then used to estimate whether racial-ethnic differences in representation in advanced math have an impact on African American and Latino students' achievement by the end of high school, relative to the Whites and Asians

  14. Number Sense-Based Strategies Used by High-Achieving Sixth Grade Students Who Experienced Reform Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsawaie, Othman N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore strategies used by high-achieving 6th grade students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to solve basic arithmetic problems involving number sense. The sample for the study consisted of 15 high-achieving boys and 15 high-achieving girls in grade 6 from 2 schools in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE. Data for the…

  15. Cognitive abilities and motivational processes in high school students' science achievement and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Shun

    The dissertation presents two analytic approaches, a variable-centered and person-centered approach, to investigating holistic patterns of the cognitive, motivational, and affective correlates of science achievement and engagement in a sample of 491 10th and 11th grade high-school students. Building on Snow's (1989) idea of two pathways to achievement outcomes, Study 1 adopted a variable-centered approach to examining how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways, respectively, contributed to the prediction of achievement outcomes in science. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that (a) students' cognitive abilities were the strongest predictors of their performance in science as measured by standardized test scores; (b) motivational processes enhanced the predictive validity for science test scores and grades beyond the variance accounted for by ability and demography; (c) motivational processes were the strongest predictors of students' commitment to science in the form of situational engagement and anticipated choices of science-related college majors and careers; and (d) competence beliefs served as a point of contact between the performance and commitment pathways. These results are consistent with Snow's (1989) conjecture that both performance and commitment pathway-related factors are necessary for understanding the full range of person-level inputs to achievement outcomes. Study 2 adopted a person-centered approach to examining holistic organizations of psychological factors within individuals and their relations to science achievement and engagement. Four types of students characterized by unique configurations of cognitive, motivational, and affective attributes were identified in both the male and female subsamples using inverse factor analysis. Type membership was found to distinguish students in various indicators of science achievement and engagement. Two of the four types were also found

  16. The effects of alcohol use on academic achievement in high school.

    PubMed

    Balsa, Ana I; Giuliano, Laura M; French, Michael T

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's GPA abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that increases in alcohol consumption result in small yet statistically significant reductions in GPA for male students and in statistically non-significant changes for females. For females, however, higher levels of drinking result in self-reported academic difficulty. The fixed-effects results are substantially smaller than OLS estimates, underscoring the importance of addressing unobserved individual heterogeneity. PMID:21278841

  17. The Relation of High-Achieving Adolescents' Social Perceptions and Motivation to Teachers' Nominations for Advanced Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Carolyn; Torney-Purta, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The discrepancies between test-based and teacher-based criteria of high achievement are well-documented for students of all ages. This study seeks to determine whether certain high school students who score high on tests of academic achievement are more likely than others to be nominated for advanced academic programs by their teachers. Using…

  18. The Differential Impact of Motivation on the Self-Regulated Strategy Use of High- and Low-Achieving College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Low-achieving college students (N=94) evidenced less use of self-regulating strategies and a stronger relationship of self-regulated strategy use to positive motivational orientation than high-achieving students (N=49). Samples were predominantly white and female. Encouraging the use of these strategies may improve low achievers' academic…

  19. The Combined Effect of Teacher Effectiveness Characteristics on Value-Added Student Achievement in Junior High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadleigh, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Student academic achievement in junior high mathematics is an ongoing mission for educational leaders. To achieve that undertaking, teacher effectiveness plays an important role. The purpose of this study was to examine the combined effects of teacher effectiveness on student achievement. The study was conducted in a suburban school district in…

  20. Multiplexed chromosome conformation capture sequencing for rapid genome-scale high-resolution detection of long-range chromatin interactions.

    PubMed

    Stadhouders, Ralph; Kolovos, Petros; Brouwer, Rutger; Zuin, Jessica; van den Heuvel, Anita; Kockx, Christel; Palstra, Robert-Jan; Wendt, Kerstin S; Grosveld, Frank; van Ijcken, Wilfred; Soler, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology is a powerful and increasingly popular tool for analyzing the spatial organization of genomes. Several 3C variants have been developed (e.g., 4C, 5C, ChIA-PET, Hi-C), allowing large-scale mapping of long-range genomic interactions. Here we describe multiplexed 3C sequencing (3C-seq), a 4C variant coupled to next-generation sequencing, allowing genome-scale detection of long-range interactions with candidate regions. Compared with several other available techniques, 3C-seq offers a superior resolution (typically single restriction fragment resolution; approximately 1-8 kb on average) and can be applied in a semi-high-throughput fashion. It allows the assessment of long-range interactions of up to 192 genes or regions of interest in parallel by multiplexing library sequencing. This renders multiplexed 3C-seq an inexpensive, quick (total hands-on time of 2 weeks) and efficient method that is ideal for the in-depth analysis of complex genetic loci. The preparation of multiplexed 3C-seq libraries can be performed by any investigator with basic skills in molecular biology techniques. Data analysis requires basic expertise in bioinformatics and in Linux and Python environments. The protocol describes all materials, critical steps and bioinformatics tools required for successful application of 3C-seq technology. PMID:23411633

  1. Rapid high resolution MHC class I genotyping of Chinese rhesus macaques by capillary reference strand mediated conformational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Blasky, Alex J.; Karl, Julie A.; Wiseman, Roger W.; Read, Daniel S.; O’Connor, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) provide well-established models for studying human disease pathogenesis and vaccine development. When challenged with infectious agents macaques exhibit individual differences in susceptibility. An important determinant of these differences is the complement of major histocompatability complex (MHC) class I sequences expressed by each animal. Although previous studies have reported strong associations between MHC expression and disease outcome, a rapid, cost effective method for high resolution MHC genotyping in macaques is lacking. Here, we adapted a modified heteroduplex assay, reference strand mediated conformational analysis (RSCA), to an ABI 3130xl capillary electrophoresis genetic analyzer for macaque MHC class I genotyping. For validation, we investigated the concordance of RSCA genotyping for fourteen MHC class I sequences in twelve Chinese rhesus macaques whose genotypes were established through cDNA cloning and sequencing of MHC class I sequences. We observed a concordance greater than 98% between RSCA and the cloning and sequencing data. Further, RSCA confirmed the presence of MHC haplotype sharing between three macaques as predicted previously by microsatellite analysis. RSCA genotyping of an additional 25 Chinese rhesus macaques demonstrated that the frequency of these fourteen MHC class I sequences ranged from 5 to 32%, with the Mamu-A1*2601 sequence being most common in this cohort. Capillary RSCA genotyping has the potential to enable researchers to rapidly evaluate MHC class I genotypes in rhesus macaques and associate specific MHC sequences with disease susceptibility. PMID:18629489

  2. The effects of frequency of technology use on high school students' mathematics and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Michael John

    1998-11-01

    This study examined whether the frequency of technology (calculator, computer) use among a nationally representative, random, sample of U.S. public and private high school seniors significantly (p<.001) impacts mathematics and science achievement. Student survey data from NELS:88 were analyzed to determine how the frequency of technology use among approximately 11,000 high school seniors impacts mathematics and science test scores. Four data sets (calculator/mathematics, calculator/science, computer/mathematics, computer/science) were analyzed using ANCOVA, after statistically controlling for: (a) sophomore exam scores, and socio-economic status. The findings indicated that the frequency of calculator use has a significant (p<.001) impact on mathematics and science exam scores. Likewise, the frequency of computer use, has a significant (p<.001) impact on mathematics and science test scores. Mathematics students using calculators either every day or almost daily scored significantly higher than students who never or rarely used calculators. Mathematics students who employed calculators daily attained significantly greater scores than students using calculators 1-2 times per month. Mathematics students using calculators daily achieved significantly higher scores than students using calculators 1-2 times each week. Science students using calculators at any one of the following three frequencies: (a) daily, (b) almost each day, or (c) 1-2 times per week, scored significantly higher than students who never or rarely used calculators. Science students using calculators at any one of the following three rates: (a) daily, (b) almost each day, or (c) once or twice each week, attained significantly greater science exam scores when compared to students who used calculators once or twice a month. Mathematics students who never or rarely used computers achieved significantly greater test scores when compared with students who employed computers almost each day. Mathematics

  3. Achieving High Contrast for Exoplanet Imaging with a Kalman Filter and Stroke Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Groff, T. D.; Kasdin, N. J.; Carlotti, A.; Vanderbei, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    High contrast imaging requires focal plane wavefront control and estimation to correct aberrations in an optical system; non-common path errors prevent the use of conventional estimation with a separate wavefront sensor. The High Contrast Imaging Laboratory (HCIL) at Princeton has led the development of several techniques for focal plane wavefront control and estimation. In recent years, we developed a Kalman filter for optimal wavefront estimation. Our Kalman filter algorithm is an improvement upon DM Diversity, which requires at least two images pairs each iteration and does not utilize any prior knowledge of the system. The Kalman filter is a recursive estimator, meaning that it uses the data from prior estimates along with as few as one new image pairs per iteration to update the electric field estimate. Stroke minimization has proven to be a feasible controller for achieving high contrast. While similar to a variation of Electric Field Conjugation (EFC), stroke minimization achieves the same contrast with less stroke on the DMs. We recently utilized these algorithms to achieve high contrast for the first time in our experiment at the High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Our HCIT experiment was also the first demonstration of symmetric dark hole correction in the image plane using two DMs--this is a major milestone for future space missions. Our ongoing work includes upgrading our optimal estimator to include an estimate of the incoherent light in the system, which allows for simultaneous estimation of the light from a planet along with starlight. The two-DM experiment at the HCIT utilized a shaped pupil coronagraph. Those tests utilized ripple style, free-standing masks etched out of silicon, but our current work is in designing 2-D optimized reflective shaped pupils. In particular, we have created several designs for the AFTA telescope, whose pupil presents major hurdles because of its atypical pupil obstructions. Our

  4. High Intensive Processes and Extreme States of Matter: Achievements and Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Simonenko, V. A.

    2006-08-03

    The paper briefly presents some main highlights of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) achievements starting from its origin in the 1940s to the current time. A decisive role of high explosives (HE) is emphasized in studying high intensive processes and high energy density states of matter. Mechanisms of detonation and kinetics of energy release still remain acute in the HE studying. Research and scientific applications of nuclear explosions opened a new stage in HEDP development. They provided a million-fold increase of energy density if compared to that of high explosives. High intensive heat waves and strong shock waves were studied and used to measure dense plasma opacities and matter properties under extreme conditions. This data remains important for the development of theoretical models of matter. Powerful pulsed facilities (lasers, electric explosion installations, and charged particle accelerators) were constructed to extend opportunities for the HEDP research. One of their main goals is to study inertial confinement fusion. HEDP technologies and results are very useful in space and astrophysical research, and on the contrary, astrophysical studies enrich HEDP with new models, problems and solutions.

  5. The Pentagon-S process: A systematic approach for achieving high confidence in high-consequence products

    SciTech Connect

    D`Antonio, P.E.; Covan, J.M.; Ekman, M.E.

    1997-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a systematic approach for achieving high confidence in major products requiring high reliability for use in high-consequence applications. A high-consequence application is one in which product failure could result in significant loss of life, damage to major systems or to the environment, financial loss, or political repercussions. The application of this process has proven to be of significant benefit in the early identification, verification, and correction of potential product design and manufacturing process failure modes. Early identification and correction of these failures modes and the corresponding controls placed on safety-critical features, ensures product adherence to safety-critical design requirements, and enhances product quality, reliability, and the cost effectiveness of delivered products. Safety-critical features include design features such as materials and dimensions, as well as manufacturing features such as assembly processes, inspections, and testing.

  6. THE EDUCATIONAL MOTIVATION PATTERNS OF SUPERIOR STUDENTS WHO DO AND DO NOT ACHIEVE IN HIGH SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PIERCE, JAMES V.

    THIS STUDY SOUGHT TO DISCOVER AND ANALYZE SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN MOTIVATIONAL PATTERNS AND THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF TALENTED STUDENTS. THE OBJECTIVES WERE TO DETERMINE--(1) THE DIFFERENCES IN MOTIVATION TOWARD ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT BETWEEN THOSE WHO ACHIEVE AND THOSE WHO DO NOT, (2) THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ACHIEVERS AND NONACHIEVERS IN…

  7. Conformational flexibility of mephenesin.

    PubMed

    Écija, Patricia; Evangelisti, Luca; Vallejo, Montserrat; Basterretxea, Francisco J; Lesarri, Alberto; Castaño, Fernando; Caminati, Walther; Cocinero, Emilio J

    2014-05-22

    The mephenesin molecule (3-(2-methylphenoxy)propane-1,2-diol) serves as a test bank to explore several structural and dynamical issues, such as conformational flexibility, the orientation of the carbon linear chain relative to the benzene plane, or the effect of substituent position on the rotational barrier of a methyl group. The molecule has been studied by rotational spectroscopy in the 4-18 GHz frequency range by Fourier-transform methods in a supersonic expansion. The experiment has been backed by a previous conformational search plus optimization of the lowest energy structures by ab initio and density functional quantum calculations. The three lowest-lying conformers that can interconvert to each other by simple bond rotations have been detected in the jet. Rotational parameters for all structures have been obtained, and methyl torsional barriers have been determined for the two lowest-lying rotamers. The lowest-lying structure of mephenesin is highly planar, with all carbon atoms lying nearly in the benzene ring plane, and is stabilized by the formation of cooperative intramolecular hydrogen bonding. An estimation of the relative abundance of the detected conformers indicates that the energetically most stable conformer will have an abundance near 80% at temperatures relevant for biological activity. PMID:24754523

  8. Influence of acid-induced conformational variability on protein separation in reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bobály, Balázs; Tóth, Eszter; Drahos, László; Zsila, Ferenc; Visy, Júlia; Fekete, Jenő; Vékey, Károly

    2014-01-17

    Influence of acid concentration in the mobile phase on protein separation was studied in a wide concentration range using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and formic acid (FA). At low, 0.001-0.01 (v/v%) TFA concentration and appropriate solvent strength proteins elute before the column's dead time. This is explained by the proteins having a structured, but relatively extended conformation in the eluent; and are excluded from the pores of the stationary phase. Above ca. 0.01-0.05 (v/v%) TFA concentration proteins undergo further conformational change, leading to a compact, molten globule-like structure, likely stabilized by ion pairing. Proteins in this conformation enter the pores and are retained on the column. The results suggest a pore exclusion induced separation related to protein conformation. This effect is influenced by the pH and type of acid used, and is likely to involve ion-pair formation. The TFA concentration needed to result in protein folding (and therefore to observe retention on the column) depends on the protein; and therefore can be utilized to improve chromatographic performance. Conformation change was monitored by circular dichroism spectroscopy and mass spectrometry; and it was shown that not only TFA but FA can also induce molten globule formation. PMID:24373532

  9. Non-Planar Structures of the High-Energy Rotational Conformers of 2-METHYLBUTA-1,3-DIENE (isoprene) and 2,3-DIMETHYLBUTA-1,3-DIENE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Yu. N.; Bock, Ch. W.; Larkin, J. D.; Abramenkov, A. V.; Kühnemann, F.

    2009-06-01

    Optimization of the geometrical parameters and determination of the force fields for rotamers of the title molecules were performed at the MP2(FC)/aug-cc-pVDZ//MP2(FC)/aug-cc-pVDZ computational level. The vibrational analyses of these conformers were carried out using scaled quantum-mechanical force field methodology. Recent experimental wavenumbers for these conformers and their deuteroisomers were incorporated into these analyses. The theoretical non-planar structures of the high-energy conformers of 2-methylbuta-1,3-diene (isoprene) and 2,3-dimethylbuta-1,3-diene were corroborated by good agreement between the experimental and theoretical wavenumbers of the molecules under investigation. The dihedral angles of the non-planar high-energy conformers for rotation around the =C-C= bond are as follows: 41.6^° for 2-methylbuta-1,3-diene (isoprene) and 47.0^° for 2,3-dimethylbuta-1,3-diene. Previous studies performed at the HF/6-31G level gave 41.0^° and 48.5^° for the first and second compounds, respectively. Yu. N. Panchenko, Ch. W. Bock, J. D. Larkin, A. V. Abramenkov, F. Kühnemann, Struct. Chem. 19, 421 (2008). Yu. N. Panchenko, Ch. W. Bock, J. D. Larkin, A. V. Abramenkov, Struct. Chem. 19, 793 (2008)

  10. Human papillomavirus vaccine delivery strategies that achieved high coverage in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Barge, Sandhya; Le, Nga Thi; Mugisha, Emmanuel; Penny, Mary E; Gandhi, Sanjay; Janmohamed, Amynah; Kumakech, Edward; Mosqueira, N Rocio; Nguyen, Nghi Quy; Paul, Proma; Tang, Yuxiao; Minh, Tran Hung; Uttekar, Bella Patel; Jumaan, Aisha O

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage after demonstration projects conducted in India, Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam by PATH and national governments and to explore the reasons for vaccine acceptance or refusal. Methods Vaccines were delivered through schools or health centres or in combination with other health interventions, and either monthly or through campaigns at fixed time points. Using a two-stage cluster sample design, the authors selected households in demonstration project areas and interviewed over 7000 parents or guardians of adolescent girls to assess coverage and acceptability. They defined full vaccination as the receipt of all three vaccine doses and used an open-ended question to explore acceptability. Findings Vaccination coverage in school-based programmes was 82.6% (95% confidence interval, CI: 79.3–85.6) in Peru, 88.9% (95% CI: 84.7–92.4) in 2009 in Uganda and 96.1% (95% CI: 93.0–97.8) in 2009 in Viet Nam. In India, a campaign approach achieved 77.2% (95% CI: 72.4–81.6) to 87.8% (95% CI: 84.3–91.3) coverage, whereas monthly delivery achieved 68.4% (95% CI: 63.4–73.4) to 83.3% (95% CI: 79.3–87.3) coverage. More than two thirds of respondents gave as reasons for accepting the HPV vaccine that: (i) it protects against cervical cancer; (ii) it prevents disease, or (iii) vaccines are good. Refusal was more often driven by programmatic considerations (e.g. school absenteeism) than by opposition to the vaccine. Conclusion High coverage with HPV vaccine among young adolescent girls was achieved through various delivery strategies in the developing countries studied. Reinforcing positive motivators for vaccine acceptance is likely to facilitate uptake. PMID:22084528

  11. Is Early Ability Grouping Good for High-Achieving Students' Psychosocial Development? Effects of the Transition into Academically Selective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Michael; Neumann, Marko; Tetzner, Julia; Böse, Susanne; Knoppick, Henrike; Maaz, Kai; Baumert, Jürgen; Lehmann, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates school context effects on psychosocial characteristics (academic self-concept, peer relations, school satisfaction, and school anxiety) of high-achieving and gifted students. Students who did or did not make an early transition from elementary to secondary schools for high-achieving and gifted students in 5th grade…

  12. What Can Teacher Education Programs Do to Prepare Teachers to Teach High-Achieving Culturally Diverse Male Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, H. Richard; Tenore, F. Blake; Laughter, Judson

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss what teacher education programs can do to prepare teachers to teach high-achieving culturally diverse male students. They suggest that special attention needs to be directed at the educational experiences of high-achieving Black male students. They also believe that diverse male learners, and especially high…

  13. Robust and Fragile Mathematical Identities: A Framework for Exploring Racialized Experiences and High Achievement among Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Ebony O.

    2015-01-01

    I introduce the construct of fragile and robust identities for the purpose of exploring the experiences that influenced the mathematical and racial identities of high-achieving Black college students in mathematics and engineering. These students maintained high levels of academic achievement in these fields while enduring marginalization,…

  14. Self-Concept and Academic Achievement: Investigating Their Importance as Discriminators of Academic Track Membership in High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Barbara M.

    1990-01-01

    Using linear discriminant analysis, two samples of Canadian high school students (n=929 and n=968) were tested using measures of self-concept, academic self-concept, and academic achievement. Academic self-concept was more effective than was academic achievement in differentiating between low-track and high-track students. (SLD)

  15. A Comparison of Strategic Development for Multiplication Problem Solving in Low-, Average-, and High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dake; Ding, Yi; Barrett, Dave E.; Xin, Yan Ping; Liu, Ru-de

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the differences of strategy use between low-, average-, and high-achieving students when solving different multiplication problems. Nineteen high-, 48 average-, and 17 low-achieving students participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete three different multiplication tests and to explain how…

  16. Trajectories of Chinese Students' Sense of School Belonging and Academic Achievement over the High School Transition Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    The present study identified the different patterns of Chinese students' academic achievement trajectories over the high school transition period and examined the relationships between students' sense of school belonging trajectories and the different patterns of academic achievement trajectories. In a sample of 567 Chinese high school students, a…

  17. The Difference in the Academic Achievement of Hispanic High School Students Based on the Theme of the Small Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Beate M. Winter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the difference in the academic achievement of urban Hispanic high school students based on the small learning community theme. The study used a quantitative method of ex post facto research to examine how the academic achievement of Hispanic high school students differs across the themes of small…

  18. High school students' perceptions of EFL teacher control orientations and their English academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND. Theories distinguish between student-initiated and teacher-initiated regulation of students' learning activities, or between strong, shared, or loose teacher control during the completion of learning tasks. Empirical validations for such distinctions are scarce, however. AIM. The present study aimed at (a) investigating students' perceptions of control behaviours exhibited by their English teachers; and (b) exploring the contribution of different types of teacher control behaviours to students' cognitive outcomes (English Achievement). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 732 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students studying in three major fields of high school (Mathematics, Natural Science, and Humanities). The participants (16-17 years of age) were selected from third-grade classes of 27 EFL teachers working in 25 high schools of 6 main different geographical regions in the Isfahan province, Iran. METHOD. To obtain a comprehensive picture of different control types exhibited by Iranian EFL teachers, the control subscales of the two existing questionnaires, i.e., the Questionnaire on Instructional Behaviours (QIB), adapted by Den Brok et al. (2004) and the Questionnaire on Lesson Activities (QLA) used by Den Brok (2001) were merged to form the Questionnaire of Teacher Control (QTC). The development of this Persian instrument involved several steps: translation and back translation by the researchers, one expert translator, and two EFL teachers; piloting; and a final administration of the questionnaire to the student sample. With respect to the second aim of the study, data regarding students' performances on the Standardized National English Achievement Tests were gathered from local educational offices and schools. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION. Statistical analyses supported acceptable reliability and validity of the instrument. A main factor structure with three types of teacher control (strong/high, shared/mid, and loose/low) was found to underlie students

  19. Tuning charge balance in PHOLEDs with ambipolar host materials to achieve high efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Koech, Phillip K.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Chopra, Neetu; So, Franky; Sapochak, Linda S.; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2009-08-27

    The efficiency and stability of blue organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) continue to be a primary roadblock to developing organic solid state white lighting. For OLEDs to meet the high power conversion efficiency goal, they will require both close to 100% internal quantum efficiency and low operating voltage in a white light emitting device.1 It is generally accepted that such high quantum efficiency, can only be achieved with the use of organometallic phosphor doped OLEDs. Blue OLEDs are particularly important for solid state lighting. The simplest (and therefore likely the lowest cost) method of generating white light is to down convert part of the emission from a blue light source with a system of external phosphors.2 A second method of generating white light requires the superposition of the light from red, green and blue OLEDs in the correct ratio. Either of these two methods (and indeed any method of generating white light with a high color rendering index) critically depends on a high efficiency blue light component.3 A simple OLED generally consists of a hole-injecting anode, a preferentially hole transporting organic layer (HTL), an emissive layer that contains the recombination zone and ideally transports both holes and electrons, a preferentially electron-transporting layer (ETL) and an electron-injecting cathode. Color in state-of-the-art OLEDs is generated by an organometallic phosphor incorporated by co-sublimation into the emissive layer (EML).4 New materials functioning as hosts, emitters, charge transporting, and charge blocking layers have been developed along with device architectures leading to electrophosphorescent based OLEDs with high quantum efficiencies near the theoretical limit. However, the layers added to the device architecture to enable high quantum efficiencies lead to higher operating voltages and correspondingly lower power efficiencies. Achievement of target luminance power efficiencies will require new strategies for lowering

  20. Efforts to achieve high-performance long-pulse operations in the EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Baonian; EAST Team; Collaborators

    2016-01-01

    To achieve long-pulse tokamak operation, sufficient current drive and self-generated current are required, with the challenges of the exhaust of the heat from the divertor plates. Experiments have proven that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) can broaden the divertor power footprint and cause the splitting of the strike point current and hence reduce the peak heat flux on the divertors. Edge localized mode (ELM) mitigation can be realized by supersonic molecule beam injection (SMBI), modulated LHCD, lithium granule and aerosol injection, as well as resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). Enhanced transport by an electrostatic edge coherent mode at the pedestal region is observed in the ELM mitigated plasmas by LHCD. Long-pulse H-mode plasmas in the small ELMy regime have been demonstrated by a combination of ELM mitigation techniques and the optimization of the plasma confinement performance. These newly achieved H-mode scenarios by using features of LHCD in the control of steady-state peak heat flux and transient heat flux due to ELMs may offer a promising regime for further EAST long-pulse high-performance operation and be applicable to ITER.

  1. Science literacy in high school students: A comparison of achievement in two curriculum approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlister, Diane C.

    2009-12-01

    Academic achievement as measured by the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) in science for 367 students in two science curriculum options, integrated science and the traditional subject-specific courses, in one central Florida high school were compared. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) of science curriculum choice was analyzed for three variables, total FCAT score, earth science subscore, and scientific thinking subscore. Covariate of academic ability as defined by grade point average (GPA) and academic focus as defined by post secondary plans were considered for use. Analysis of statistically significant results was completed through analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). While statistically significant results were found in favor of the traditional curriculum group, additional statistical analysis of the curriculum groups for differences in socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and instructional level led to a logistic regression to explore the ability of these variables, GPA, and total FCAT score to predict curriculum group membership. GPA, level of instruction and FCAT score were found to be statistically significant predictors. Final conclusions to the study indicated a significant difference in scientific literacy for the two groups in favor of the traditional curriculum. However, logistic regression results indicated that due to significant differences in SES, gender, GPA, and level of instruction for the groups, the differences in academic achievement were probably due to factors other than curriculum design. Limitations of the study and suggestions for further research were presented.

  2. Achievement of high atomic hydrogen densities in cylindrical rf plasmas with magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantz, Ursel; Briefi, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Cylindrical rf plasmas in hydrogen with and without an axial magnetic field of up to 120 G are investigated in the pressure range of 0.3 to 10 Pa. The atomic hydrogen density is determined with optical emission spectroscopy, analyzing the Balmer lines and the molecular radiation (Fulcher band). The results obtained by using different coil geometries (4 to 6 turn windings and Nagoya type antenna) as well as different diameters (10 cm and 25 cm) of a quartz, aluminum oxide or aluminum nitride cylinder are compared. RF powers of up to 600 W at a frequency of 13.56 MHz are available for the 10 cm configuration, whereas up to 70 kW power at 1 MHz are used for the 25 cm cylinder. Density ratios of atoms to molecules of up to 0.3 are achieved in both configurations, whereby the achievement in the high power setup is limited by neutral depletion. The influence of the wall material on the atomic densities, and thus the recombination coefficient, will be pointed out.

  3. The clinical potential of high energy, intensity and energy modulated electron beams optimized by simulated annealing for conformal radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Bill Jean, Jr.

    Purpose. The advent of new, so called IVth Generation, external beam radiation therapy treatment machines (e.g. Scanditronix' MM50 Racetrack Microtron) has raised the question of how the capabilities of these new machines might be exploited to produce extremely conformal dose distributions. Such machines possess the ability to produce electron energies as high as 50 MeV and, due to their scanned beam delivery of electron treatments, to modulate intensity and even energy, within a broad field. Materials and methods. Two patients with 'challenging' tumor geometries were selected from the patient archives of the Cancer Therapy and Research Center (CTRC), in San Antonio Texas. The treatment scheme that was tested allowed for twelve, energy and intensity modulated beams, equi-spaced about the patient-only intensity was modulated for the photon treatment. The elementary beams, incident from any of the twelve allowed directions, were assumed parallel, and the elementary electron beams were modeled by elementary beam data. The optimal arrangement of elementary beam energies and/or intensities was optimized by Szu-Hartley Fast Simulated Annealing Optimization. Optimized treatment plans were determined for each patient using both the high energy, intensity and energy modulated electron (HIEME) modality, and the 6 MV photon modality. The 'quality' of rival plans were scored using three different, popular objective functions which included Root Mean Square (RMS), Maximize Dose Subject to Dose and Volume Limitations (MDVL - Morrill et. al.), and Probability of Uncomplicated Tumor Control (PUTC) methods. The scores of the two optimized treatments (i.e. HIEME and intensity modulated photons) were compared to the score of the conventional plan with which the patient was actually treated. Results. The first patient evaluated presented a deeply located target volume, partially surrounding the spinal cord. A healthy right kidney was immediately adjacent to the tumor volume, separated

  4. Alternative scheduling models and their effect on science achievement at the high school level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostal, Jay Roland

    This study will evaluate alternative scheduling methods implemented in secondary level schools. Students were selected based on parent selection of programs. Traditional scheduling involves numerous academic subjects with small increments of time in each class and block scheduling focuses on fewer academic subjects and more instructional time. This study will compare office referral numbers, absence frequency, and Essential Learner Outcome (ELO) science strand scores in the 8th-grade (pretest) to the same students office referrals, absence frequency, and ELO science strand scores in the 11th-grade (posttest) between Seven Period Traditional Scheduling (SPTS) and Four Period Block Scheduling (FPBS) in the hopes that no matter what schedule students are a part of, the achievement results will be similar. (Study participants had completed both grade level ELO assessments and were continuously enrolled in one high school through their junior year.

  5. Conflicts and communication between high-achieving Chinese American adolescents and their parents.

    PubMed

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Chang, Tzu-Fen; Han, Eun-Jin; Chee, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interview data collected on 18 high-achieving Chinese American students, the authors examine domains of acculturation-based conflicts, parent and child internal conflicts, and conflict resolution in their families. Their analyses show that well-established negative communication patterns in educational expectations, divergent attitudes toward other races and country of origin, and cultural and language barriers contributed to parent-child conflicts. Their findings also illustrate important internal conflicts both adolescents and parents had along the cultural tightrope of autonomy and relatedness. Finally, the vertical in-group conflict resolution style that was evidenced in youths' accounts raises questions about cultural differences in constructive versus destructive conflict resolution styles. PMID:22407881

  6. Strategies for achieving high-level expression of genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Makrides, S C

    1996-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of several biological processes promises to broaden the usefulness of Escherichia coli as a tool for gene expression. There is an expanding choice of tightly regulated prokaryotic promoters suitable for achieving high-level gene expression. New host strains facilitate the formation of disulfide bonds in the reducing environment of the cytoplasm and offer higher protein yields by minimizing proteolytic degradation. Insights into the process of protein translocation across the bacterial membranes may eventually make it possible to achieve robust secretion of specific proteins into the culture medium. Studies involving molecular chaperones have shown that in specific cases, chaperones can be very effective for improved protein folding, solubility, and membrane transport. Negative results derived from such studies are also instructive in formulating different strategies. The remarkable increase in the availability of fusion partners offers a wide range of tools for improved protein folding, solubility, protection from proteases, yield, and secretion into the culture medium, as well as for detection and purification of recombinant proteins. Codon usage is known to present a potential impediment to high-level gene expression in E. coli. Although we still do not understand all the rules governing this phenomenon, it is apparent that "rare" codons, depending on their frequency and context, can have an adverse effect on protein levels. Usually, this problem can be alleviated by modification of the relevant codons or by coexpression of the cognate tRNA genes. Finally, the elucidation of specific determinants of protein degradation, a plethora of protease-deficient host strains, and methods to stabilize proteins afford new strategies to minimize proteolytic susceptibility of recombinant proteins in E. coli. PMID:8840785

  7. Superintendent Leadership and Student Achievement in Suburban High Schools: A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellner, Steven Reese

    2012-01-01

    This research study explored the critical nature of the connection between student achievement and superintendent leadership. A great deal of scholarship has addressed either student achievement or leadership and previous evidence has suggested the impact of both parental education and racioethnicity on student achievement, but few studies have…

  8. Examining the Long-Term Impact of Achievement Loss during the Transition to High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joshua S.

    2006-01-01

    Research shows that prior academic achievement is a strong predictor of future academic performance. For some students, the transition from one educational environment to another is associated with academic challenges and achievement loss. This study examined the extent to which achievement loss during the transition from middle school to high…

  9. Held Back: The Impact of Curricular and Pedagogical Factors on Tested Achievement in High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agvanian, Zara

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of curricular factors and teaching practices on students' tested achievement in mathematics, explored the best predictors of the tested achievement, and examined differences in the tested achievement among student subgroups. The study utilized qualitative and quantitative methods and triangulated findings from…

  10. The Effects of School Bonding on High School Seniors' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Julia; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Gaenzle, Stacey; Kim, Jungnam; Lin, Chia-Huei; Na, Goeun

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of school bonding on academic achievement (measured by math achievement scores) in a sample of 12th graders from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (Ingels, Pratt, Rogers, Siegel, & Stutts, 2005). Components of school bonding have proximal and distal effects on academic achievement. Attachment to school and…

  11. Replacement between conformity and counter-conformity in consumption decisions.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ting-Jui; Chang, En-Chung; Dai, Qi; Wong, Veronica

    2013-02-01

    This study assessed, in a Chinese context, how self-esteem interacts with perceived similarity and uniqueness to yield cognitive dissonance, and whether the dissonance leads to self-reported conformity or counter-conformity behavior. Participants were 408 respondents from 4 major Chinese cities (M age = 33.0 yr., SD = 4.3; 48% men). Self-perceptions of uniqueness, similarity, cognitive dissonance, self-esteem and need to behave in conformity or counter-conformity were measured. A theoretical model was assessed in four situations, relating the ratings of self-esteem and perceived similarity/uniqueness to the way other people at a wedding were dressed, and the resultant cognitive dissonance and conformity/ counter-conformity behavior. Regardless of high or low self-esteem, all participants reported cognitive dissonance when they were told that they were dressed extremely similarly to or extremely differently from the other people attending the wedding. However, the conforming/counter-conforming strategies used by participants to resolve the cognitive dissonance differed. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme uniqueness of dress, participants with low self-esteem tended to say they would dress next time so as to conform with the way others were dressed, while those with high self-esteem indicated they would continue their counter-conformity in attire. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme similarity to others, both those with high and low self-esteem tended to say they would dress in an unorthodox manner to surprise other people in the future. PMID:23654033

  12. Achievement of high nuclear spin polarization using lanthanides as low-temperature NMR relaxation agents.

    PubMed

    Peat, David T; Horsewill, Anthony J; Köckenberger, Walter; Perez Linde, Angel J; Gadian, David G; Owers-Bradley, John R

    2013-05-28

    Many approaches are now available for achieving high levels of nuclear spin polarization. One of these methods is based on the notion that as the temperature is reduced, the equilibrium nuclear polarization will increase, according to the Boltzmann distribution. The main problem with this approach is the length of time it may take to approach thermal equilibrium at low temperatures, since nuclear relaxation times (characterized by the spin-lattice relaxation time T1) can become very long. Here, we show, by means of relaxation time measurements of frozen solutions, that selected lanthanide ions, in the form of their chelates with DTPA, can act as effective relaxation agents at low temperatures. Differential effects are seen with the different lanthanides that were tested, holmium and dysprosium showing highest relaxivity, while gadolinium is ineffective at temperatures of 20 K and below. These observations are consistent with the known electron-spin relaxation time characteristics of these lanthanides. The maximum relaxivity occurs at around 10 K for Ho-DTPA and 20 K for Dy-DTPA. Moreover, these two agents show only modest relaxivity at room temperature, and can thus be regarded as relaxation switches. We conclude that these agents can speed up solid state NMR experiments by reducing the T1 values of the relevant nuclei, and hence increasing the rate at which data can be acquired. They could also be of value in the context of a simple low-cost method of achieving several-hundred-fold improvements in polarization for experiments in which samples are pre-polarized at low temperatures, then rewarmed and dissolved immediately prior to analysis. PMID:23588269

  13. New insulating materials and their use to achieve high operating stresses in electrostatic machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Chathan M.

    1986-02-01

    Compressed gas insulation has provided the main insulation for sustaining terminal voltages of electrostatic accelerators. Essentially coaxial geometry is used with mechanical support of the terminal achieved by long columns which also support the acceleration tubes. Because of the vacuum insulation in the acceleration tubes, the electric gradient along the columns is typically 10-20 kV/cm, whereas the radial gas gap can operate at stresses about ten times larger. Until now, the terminal support has always been located in the low stress axial direction along the column and not in the radial high stress region. This paper is concerned with support insulation to be used in the radial direction. Advantages of radial supports include: simpler, more compact column structures, higher total voltages, and support of discrete stress redistribution electrodes such as vivitron. Important factors to the design of radial support insulators include the insulation constraints imposed by the gas gap, mechanical contact to the solid insulator, and basic limits of gas-solid dielectric interfaces. The gas gap insulation strength is shown to be limited by surface microirregularities and this accounts for electrode area and pressure effects. Based on the gas gap requirements, a design strategy for the insulators is developed. Epoxy is employed as the dielectric to allow the use of cast-in metal inserts at the ends. The inserts provide mechanical contact, shielding of the triple junction, and redistribution of the interface electric stresses. By careful design, the electric stress on the interface is made lower than that in the plain coaxial electrode gap. Practical experience shows that voltage increases linearly with insulator length and that designs achieve more than 10 MV/m into the multimegavolt region.

  14. The influence of momentary classroom goal structures on student engagement and achievement in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleski, Diana Janet

    Teachers' instructional practices fundamentally shape students' classroom experiences. However, it is still unclear what patterns of instructional practice are related to specific classroom goal structures, and how momentary changes in classroom goal structures affect students' momentary cognitive engagement in high school science. This study examined the relationship between classroom goal structures in high school science and two different learning outcomes: (1) students' cognitive engagement in science and (2) students' science course grades. To achieve this aim, classroom goal structures were examined as both a variable feature of the classroom that shifts from activity to activity (i.e., momentary classroom goal structure), and as a single global characteristic describing the dominant goal structure of a classroom over time (i.e., global classroom goal structure). Students' momentary cognitive engagement significantly increased when instructional moments were mastery or performance goal structured compared to moments that had no identifiable goal structure. However, no relationships were found between global classroom goal structure and cognitive engagement or science course grades.

  15. Highly efficient industrial large-area black silicon solar cells achieved by surface nanostructured modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping; Wei, Yi; Zhao, Zengchao; Tan, Xin; Bian, Jiming; Wang, Yuxuan; Lu, Chunxi; Liu, Aimin

    2015-12-01

    Traditional black silicon solar cells show relatively low efficiencies due to the high surface recombination occurring at the front surfaces. In this paper, we present a surface modification process to suppress surface recombination and fabricate highly efficient industrial black silicon solar cells. The Ag-nanoparticle-assisted etching is applied to realize front surface nanostructures on silicon wafers in order to reduce the surface reflectance. Through a further tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) treatment, the carrier recombination at and near the surface is greatly suppressed, due to a lower surface dopant concentration after the surface modification. This modified surface presents a low reflectivity in a range of 350-1100 nm. Large-area solar cells with an average conversion efficiency of 19.03% are achieved by using the TMAH treatment of 30 s. This efficiency is 0.18% higher than that of standard silicon solar cells with pyramidal surfaces, and also a remarkable improvement compared with black silicon solar cells without TMAH modifications.

  16. A Study Comparing the Academic Achievement of African American Male Students Enrolled in Two Types of Nontraditional High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Anthony B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of the achievement of African American male students enrolled in an early college high school to those enrolled in a performing arts high school. The Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) scores of the 11th-grade African American male students from an early college high school were compared to the GHSGT…

  17. Exploratory studies of new avenues to achieve high electromechanical response and high dielectric constant in polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cheng

    High performance soft electronic materials are key elements in advanced electronic devices for broad range applications including capacitors, actuators, artificial muscles and organs, smart materials and structures, microelectromechanical (MEMS) and microfluidic devices, acoustic devices and sensors. This thesis exploits new approaches to improve the electromechanical response and dielectric response of these materials. By making use of novel material phenomena such as large anisotropy in dipolar response in liquid crystals (LCs) and all-organic composites in which high dielectric constant organic solids and conductive polymers are either physically blended into or chemically grafted to a polymer matrix, we demonstrate that high dielectric constant and high electromechanical conversion efficiency comparable to that in ceramic materials can be achieved. Nano-composite approach can also be utilized to improve the performance of the electronic electroactive polymers (EAPs) and composites, for example, exchange coupling between the fillers and matrix with very large dielectric contrast can lead to significantly enhance the dielectric response as well as electromechanical response when the heterogeneity size of the composite is comparable to the exchange length. In addition to the dielectric composites, in which high dielectric constant fillers raise the dielectric constant of composites, conductive percolation can also lead to high dielectric constant in polymeric materials. An all-polymer percolative composite is introduced which exhibits very high dielectric constant (>7,000). The flexible all-polymer composites with a high dielectric constant make it possible to induce a high electromechanical response under a much reduced electric field in the field effect electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators (a strain of 2.65% with an elastic energy density of 0.18 J/cm3 can be achieved under a field of 16 V/mum). Agglomeration of the particles can also be effectively prevented

  18. Qualitative research study of high-achieving females' life experiences impacting success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, Ann Patrice

    2003-07-01

    This qualitative study investigated the life experiences of five academically gifted female students in math and science in reflection of their elementary learning prior to enrollment at a prestigious science and mathematics high school. The elite high school limits admission to the state of Illinois' top students. The purpose of this study is to unfold the story of five academically gifted females in attendance at the elite high school reflecting on their life experiences in elementary school that contributed to their current academic success. Twelve female students, who at the time of this study were currently in their senior year (12th grade) of high school, were solicited from the top academic groups who are regarded by their teachers as highly successful in class. Students were selected as part of the study based on academic status, survey completion and interest in study, Caucasian and Asian ethnicity, locale of elementary school with preference given to the variety of school demographics---urban, suburban, and rural---further defined the group to the core group of five. All female participants were personally interviewed and communicated via Internet with the researcher. Parents and teachers completing surveys as well met the methodological requirements of triangulation. An emergent theme of paternal influence came from the research. Implications supported in the research drawn from this study to increase achievement of academically gifted females include: (a) proper early identification of learner strengths plays a role; (b) learning with appropriate intellectual peers is more important than learning with their age group; (c) teachers are the greatest force for excellent instruction; (d) effective teaching strategies include cooperative learning, multi-sensory learning, problem-based learning, and hands-on science; (e) rigor in math is important; (f) gender and stereotypes need not be barriers; (g) outside interests and activities are important for self

  19. Optimal microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device for achieving high pyroelectric response of AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Bemnnet; Coutu, Ronald A.; Starman, LaVern

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses research being conducted on aluminum nitride (AlN) as a pyroelectric material for use in detecting applications. AlN is being investigated because of its high pyroelectric coefficient, thermal stability, and high Curie temperature. In order to determine suitability of the pyroelectric properties of AlN for use as a detector, testing of several devices was conducted. These devices were fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication processes; the devices were also designed to allow for voltage and current measurements. The deposited AlN films used were 150 nm - 300 nm in thickness. Thin-films were used to rapidly increase the temperature response after the thermal stimulus was applied to the pyroelectric material. This is important because the pyroelectric effect is directly proportional to the rate of temperature change. The design used was a face-electrode bridge that provides thermal isolation which minimizes heat loss to the substrate, thereby increasing operation frequency of the pyroelectric device. A thermal stimulus was applied to the pyroelectric material and the response was measured across the electrodes. A thermal imaging camera was used to monitor the changes in temperature. Throughout the testing process, the annealing temperatures, type of layers, and thicknesses were also varied. These changes resulted in improved MEMS designs, which were fabricated to obtain an optimal design configuration for achieving a high pyroelectric response. A pyroelectric voltage response of 38.9 mVp-p was measured without filtering, 12.45 mVp-p was measured in the infrared (IR) region using a Si filter, and 6.38 mVp-p was measured in the short wavelength IR region using a long pass filter. The results showed that AlN's pyroelectric properties can be used in detecting applications.

  20. Longitudinal Outcomes of Start Time Delay on Sleep, Behavior, and Achievement in High School

    PubMed Central

    Thacher, Pamela V.; Onyper, Serge V.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To establish whether sleep, health, mood, behavior, and academics improved after a 45-minute delay in high school start time, and whether changes persisted longitudinally. Methods: We collected data from school records and student self-report across a number of domains at baseline (May 2012) and at two follow-up time points (November 2012 and May 2013), at a public high school in upstate New York. Students enrolled during academic years (AY) 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; the DASS-21; the “Owl-Lark” Scale; the Daytime Sleepiness Index; and a brief self-report of health. Reports from school records regarding attendance, tardiness, disciplinary violations, and academic performance were collected for AY 2010–2011 through 2013–2014. Results: Students delayed but did not extend their sleep period; we found lasting improvements in tardiness and disciplinary violations after the start-time delay, but no changes to other variables. At the first follow-up, students reported 20 minutes longer sleep, driven by later rise times and stable bed times. At the second follow-up, students maintained later rise times but delayed bedtimes, returning total sleep to baseline levels. A delay in rise time, paralleling the delay in the start time that occurred, resulted in less tardiness and decreased disciplinary incidents, but larger improvements to sleep patterns may be necessary to affect health, attendance, sleepiness, and academic performance. Conclusions: Later start times improved tardiness and disciplinary issues at this school district. A delay in start time may be a necessary but not sufficient means to increase sleep time and may depend on preexisting individual differences. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 267. Citation: Thacher PV, Onyper SV. Longitudinal outcomes of start time delay on sleep, behavior, and achievement in high school. SLEEP 2016;39(2):271–281. PMID

  1. High-Resolution Microwave and Infrared Molecular-Beam Studies of the Conformers of 1,1,2,2-Tetrafluoroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Stephen C.; Philips, Laura A.; Fraser, G. T.; Lovas, F. J.; Xu, Li-Hong; Sharpe, S. W.

    1998-11-01

    High-resolution microwave and infrared molecular-beam spectra have been measured for 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC134). For the higher energy, polar,C2symmetry,gaucheconformer, microwave spectra have been recorded for the normal and mono-13C isotopomers and analyzed to determine a C-C bond length of 1.512(4) Å, in good agreement with a recentab initiovalue (MP2/6-31G**) of 1.515 Å [S. Papasavva, K. H. Illinger, and J. E. Kenny,J. Phys. Chem.100, 10100-10110 (1996)]. A tunable microwave-sideband CO2laser and electric-resonance optothermal spectrometer have been used to measure the infrared spectrum of the ν6, C-C stretch of thegaucheconformer near 906 cm-1. Microwave-infrared double resonance and precise ground state combination differences provided by the microwave measurements guide the assignment of the spectrum. The observation of ac-type spectrum definitively establishes that the upper state vibration is ofAsymmetry in theC2point group. The spectrum is fit to a Watson asymmetric-top Hamiltonian to a standard deviation of 0.24 MHz. A weak perturbation shifts the line positions for transitions nearJ = Kc= 20 by as much as 12 MHz. The identity of the perturber is unknown. Pulsed slit-jet diode-laser spectra have been recorded for the ν16vibration of theanticonformer near 1127 cm-1. Ana- andc-type hybrid band is observed, consistent with aBusymmetry mode. Previous low-resolution studies have attributed the 1127-cm-1mode to either aBuor anAusymmetry vibration. A total of 522 nonblended transitions were assigned and fit to determine ground and excited state constants. The ground state constants ofA= 5134.952(65) MHz,B= 3148.277(27) MHz, andC= 2067.106(43) MHz are the first experimental determinations of the rotational constants for this conformer. Here, typeAstandard uncertainties are given in the parentheses.

  2. Extrinsic Motivation for Large-Scale Assessments: A Case Study of a Student Achievement Program at One Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmett, Joshua; McGee, Dean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to discover the critical attributes of a student achievement program, known as "Think Gold," implemented at one urban comprehensive high school as part of the improvement process. Student achievement on state assessments improved during the period under study. The study draws upon perspectives on motivation as a…

  3. American High School Students from Different Ethnic Backgrounds: The Role of Parents and the Classroom in Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jung-In

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between ethnically diverse US high school students' (N = 331) perceptions of their parents' or classroom's motivating factors and their achievement motivation in their math class, connecting achievement goal orientation and self-determination theories. Two hypothesized path models were…

  4. Bright and Beautiful: High Achieving Girls, Ambivalent Femininities, and the Feminization of Success in the Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renold, Emma; Allan, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    This paper refocuses attention on and problematizes girls' experiences of school achievement and the construction of schoolgirl femininities. In particular, it centres on the relatively neglected experiences and identity work of high achieving primary school girls. Drawing upon ethnographic data (observations, interviews, and pupil diaries) from a…

  5. The Impact of Principal Perception on Student Academic Climate and Achievement in High School: How Does It Measure Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urick, Angela; Bowers, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the independent direct effects of student and principal perceptions of academic climate on student achievement in high school. To date, few studies have considered the influence of principal perceptions of academic climate on student achievement. In the present study, we test a set of two-level hierarchical…

  6. Validation of a Test to Measure Need-Achievement Motivation Among American Indian High School Students. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, Bryan P.

    A cross-cultural test measuring need-achievement motivation was developed and administered to 634 American Indian, Spanish American and Anglo high school seniors attending 24 schools, including Federal, public and private boarding and day types. Need-achievement was related to the following types of measures: academic, aptitude, intelligence, and…

  7. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  8. (Re)Defining the Narrative: High-Achieving Nontraditional Black Male Undergraduates at a Historically Black College and University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goings, Ramon B.

    2016-01-01

    Using Harper's anti-deficit achievement framework as a theoretical guide, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the academic and social experiences of four nontraditional, high-achieving, Black male undergraduates attending one historically Black university. Findings show that the participants were intrinsically motivated…

  9. Academic Achievement Trajectories of Homeless and Highly Mobile Students: Resilience in the Context of Chronic and Acute Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutuli, J. J.; Desjardins, Christopher David; Herbers, Janette E.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Heistad, David; Chan, Chi-Keung; Hinz, Elizabeth; Masten, Ann S.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses examined academic achievement data across third through eighth grades ("N" = 26,474), comparing students identified as homeless or highly mobile (HHM) with other students in the federal free meal program (FM), reduced price meals (RM), or neither (General). Achievement was lower as a function of rising risk status (General greater than RM…

  10. Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement in High School: A Cross-Subject Analysis with Student Fixed Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2010-01-01

    We use data on statewide end-of-course tests in North Carolina to examine the relationship between teacher credentials and student achievement at the high school level. We find compelling evidence that teacher credentials, particularly licensure and certification, affects student achievement in systematic ways and that the magnitudes are large…

  11. An Examination of the Impact of Successive and Non-Successive Geometry Classes on High School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugg, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of successive versus non-successive scheduling of mathematics courses on the achievement of ninth-grade students in a suburban Oregon high school. The Oregon Assessment of Knowledge and Skills and student performance on the geometry course final exam were employed to compare the achievement of intact groups of…

  12. The Relationship between Professional Learning Communities, Personal Teacher Efficacy, and Student Achievement at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sherri L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to determine if there was a relationship between professional learning community (PLC), personal teacher efficacy (PTE), and student achievement. The study examined teacher perception of PLC implementation and PET as it related to student achievement at the high school level on the Virginia End-of Course…

  13. The Relationship between Professional Learning Community Implementation and Academic Achievement and Graduation Rates in Georgia High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardinger, Regina Gail

    2013-01-01

    Many educational administrators in Georgia continue to struggle with low student academic achievement and low high school graduation rates. DuFour's professional learning community (PLC) theory suggests a positive relationship between levels of PLC implementation and academic achievement and between levels of PLC implementation and graduation…

  14. Balance the Carrier Mobility To Achieve High Performance Exciplex OLED Using a Triazine-Based Acceptor.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Chiang, Pin-Yi; Lin, Shih-Wei; Tang, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hung; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hung, Yi-Tzu; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2016-02-01

    A star-shaped 1,3,5-triazine/cyano hybrid molecule CN-T2T was designed and synthesized as a new electron acceptor for efficient exciplex-based OLED emitter by mixing with a suitable electron donor (Tris-PCz). The CN-T2T/Tris-PCz exciplex emission shows a high ΦPL of 0.53 and a small ΔET-S = -0.59 kcal/mol, affording intrinsically efficient fluorescence and highly efficient exciton up-conversion. The large energy level offsets between Tris-PCz and CN-T2T and the balanced hole and electron mobility of Tris-PCz and CN-T2T, respectively, ensuring sufficient carrier density accumulated in the interface for efficient generation of exciplex excitons. Employing a facile device structure composed as ITO/4% ReO3:Tris-PCz (60 nm)/Tris-PCz (15 nm)/Tris-PCz:CN-T2T(1:1) (25 nm)/CN-T2T (50 nm)/Liq (0.5 nm)/Al (100 nm), in which the electron-hole capture is efficient without additional carrier injection barrier from donor (or acceptor) molecule and carriers mobilities are balanced in the emitting layer, leads to a highly efficient green exciplex OLED with external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11.9%. The obtained EQE is 18% higher than that of a comparison device using an exciplex exhibiting a comparable ΦPL (0.50), in which TCTA shows similar energy levels but higher hole mobility as compared with Tris-PCz. Our results clearly indicate the significance of mobility balance in governing the efficiency of exciplex-based OLED. Exploiting the Tris-PCz:CN-T2T exciplex as the host, we further demonstrated highly efficient yellow and red fluorescent OLEDs by doping 1 wt % Rubrene and DCJTB as emitter, achieving high EQE of 6.9 and 9.7%, respectively. PMID:26820247

  15. A comparison of rural high school students in Germany with rural Tennessee high school students' mathematics and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, R. Fredrick

    This descriptive study compared the science and mathematics aptitudes and achievement test scores for the final school year students in rural White County and Van Buren County, Tennessee with rural county students in Germany. In accordance with the previous research literature (Stevenson, 2002), German students outperformed U.S. students on The International Trends in Math and Science test (TIMSS). As reform in the U.S. education system has been underway, this study intended to compare German county student final school year performance with White County and Van Buren County (Grade 12) performance in science and mathematics. The entire populations of 176 White and Van Buren Counties senior high final school year students were compared with 120 school final year students from two rural German county high schools. The student responses to identical test and questionnaire items were compared using the t-test statistical analysis. In conclusion after t-test analyses, there was no significant difference (p>.05 level) in student attitudes on the 27 problem achievement and the 35 TIMSS questionnaire items between the sampled population of 120 German students compared with the population of 176 White and Van Buren students. Also, there was no statistically significant difference (p>.05 level) between the German, White, and Van Buren County rural science and math achievement in the TIMSS problem section of the final year test. Based on the research, recommendations to improve U.S. student scores to number one in the world include making changes in teaching methodology in mathematics and science; incorporating pamphlet lessons rather than heavily reliance on textbooks; focusing on problem solving; establishing an online clearinghouse for effective lessons; creating national standards in mathematics and science; matching students' course choices to job aspirations; tracking misbehaving students rather than mainstreaming them into the regular classroom; and designing

  16. A conformational transition in the structure of a 2'-thiomethyl-modified DNA visualized at high resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Pallan, Pradeep S.; Prakash, Thazha P.; Li, Feng; Eoff, Robert L.; Manoharan, Muthiah; Egli, Martin

    2009-06-17

    Crystal structures of A-form and B-form DNA duplexes containing 2'-S-methyl-uridines reveal that the modified residues adopt a RNA-like C3'-endo pucker, illustrating that the replacement of electronegative oxygen at the 2'-carbon of RNA by sulfur does not appear to fundamentally alter the conformational preference of the sugar in the oligonucleotide context and sterics trump stereoelectronics.

  17. Achieving high survival of tournament-caught black bass: past efforts and future needs and opportunities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, Harold, Jr.; Gilliland, Gene

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of black bass (Micropterus spp.) tournaments in the 1960s and 1970s caused concern among fisheries managers and anglers about the impacts of tournament-caused mortality on bass populations. Tournament organizers voluntarily implemented live-release events in the early 1980s. As catch-and-release practices became more common, procedures to improve the survival of tournament-caught fish were developed and have evolved. The objectives of this paper are to review education and outreach efforts to improve survival of tournament-caught black bass, suggest research needs and opportunities to achieve greater survival, and show the relevance of high survival to contemporary black bass management. Since 1985, a succession of informational products describing those techniques have been developed and distributed to anglers. Although research has confirmed the effectiveness of the recommended procedures and documented that angler and tournament organizer behavior has changed and the survival of tournament-caught black bass has increased, the impacts of the outreach efforts on tournament practices have not been quantified. Continued efforts towards increasing angler awareness of proper handling techniques may benefit from better communication, endorsement by professional anglers, and the use of incentives by state agencies to encourage better fish care.

  18. Effect of bead and illustrations models on high school students' achievement in molecular genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotbain, Yosi; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Stavy, Ruth

    2006-05-01

    Our main goal in this study was to explore whether the use of models in molecular genetics instruction in high school can contribute to students' understanding of concepts and processes in genetics. Three comparable groups of 11th and 12th graders participated: The control group (116 students) was taught in the traditional lecture format, while the others received instructions which integrated a bead model (71 students), or an illustration model (71 students). Similar instructions and the same guiding questions accompanied the two models. We used three instruments: a multiple-choice and an open-ended written questionnaire, as well as personal interviews. Five of the multiple-choice questions were also given to students before receiving their genetics instruction (pretest). We found that students who used one of the two types of models improved their knowledge in molecular genetics compared to the control group. However, the open-ended questions revealed that bead model activity was significantly more effective than illustration activity. On the basis of these findings we conclude that, though it is advisable to use a three-dimensional model, such as the bead model, engaging students in activities with illustrations can still improve their achievement in comparison to traditional instruction.

  19. Fair and Just Culture, Team Behavior, and Leadership Engagement: The Tools to Achieve High Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Allan S; Leonard, Michael W; Denham, Charles R

    2006-01-01

    Background Disparate health care provider attitudes about autonomy, teamwork, and administrative operations have added to the complexity of health care delivery and are a central factor in medicine's unacceptably high rate of errors. Other industries have improved their reliability by applying innovative concepts to interpersonal relationships and administrative hierarchical structures (Chandler 1962). In the last 10 years the science of patient safety has become more sophisticated, with practical concepts identified and tested to improve the safety and reliability of care. Objective Three initiatives stand out as worthy regarding interpersonal relationships and the application of provider concerns to shape operational change: The development and implementation of Fair and Just Culture principles, the broad use of Teamwork Training and Communication, and tools like WalkRounds that promote the alignment of leadership and frontline provider perspectives through effective use of adverse event data and provider comments. Methods Fair and Just Culture, Teamwork Training, and WalkRounds are described, and implementation examples provided. The argument is made that they must be systematically and consistently implemented in an integrated fashion. Conclusions There are excellent examples of institutions applying Just Culture principles, Teamwork Training, and Leadership WalkRounds—but to date, they have not been comprehensively instituted in health care organizations in a cohesive and interdependent manner. To achieve reliability, organizations need to begin thinking about the relationship between these efforts and linking them conceptually. PMID:16898986

  20. New Powder Metallurgical Approach to Achieve High Fatigue Strength in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei; Ravi Chandran, K. S.; Kumar, Pankaj; Sun, Pei; Zak Fang, Z.; Koopman, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Recently, manufacturing of titanium by sintering and dehydrogenation of hydride powders has generated a great deal of interest. An overarching concern regarding powder metallurgy (PM) titanium is that critical mechanical properties, especially the high-cycle fatigue strength, are lower than those of wrought titanium alloys. It is demonstrated here that PM Ti-6Al-4V alloy with mechanical properties comparable (in fatigue strength) and exceeding (in tensile properties) those of wrought Ti-6Al-4V can be produced from titanium hydride powder, through the hydrogen sintering and phase transformation process. Tensile and fatigue behavior, as well as fatigue fracture mechanisms, have been investigated under three processing conditions. It is shown that a reduction in the size of extreme-sized pores by changing the hydride particle size distribution can lead to improved fatigue strength. Further densification by pneumatic isostatic forging leads to a fatigue strength of ~550 MPa, comparable to the best of PM Ti-6Al-4V alloys prepared by other methods and approaching the fatigue strengths of wrought Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The microstructural factors that limit fatigue strength in PM titanium have been investigated, and pathways to achieve greater fatigue strengths in PM Ti-6Al-4V alloys have been identified.

  1. The Stories Clinicians Tell: Achieving High Reliability and Improving Patient Safety

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Daniel L; Stewart, Kevin O

    2016-01-01

    The patient safety movement has been deeply affected by the stories patients have shared that have identified numerous opportunities for improvements in safety. These stories have identified system and/or human inefficiencies or dysfunctions, possibly even failures, often resulting in patient harm. Although patients’ stories tell us much, less commonly heard are the stories of clinicians and how their personal observations regarding the environments they work in and the circumstances and pressures under which they work may degrade patient safety and lead to harm. If the health care industry is to function like a high-reliability industry, to improve its processes and achieve the outcomes that patients rightly deserve, then leaders and managers must seek and value input from those on the front lines—both clinicians and patients. Stories from clinicians provided in this article address themes that include incident identification, disclosure and transparency, just culture, the impact of clinical workload pressures, human factors liabilities, clinicians as secondary victims, the impact of disruptive and punitive behaviors, factors affecting professional morale, and personal failings. PMID:26580146

  2. Achieving accurate simulations of urban impacts on ozone at high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Georgescu, M.; Hyde, P.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.

    2014-11-01

    The effects of urbanization on ozone levels have been widely investigated over cities primarily located in temperate and/or humid regions. In this study, nested WRF-Chem simulations with a finest grid resolution of 1 km are conducted to investigate ozone concentrations [O3] due to urbanization within cities in arid/semi-arid environments. First, a method based on a shape preserving Monotonic Cubic Interpolation (MCI) is developed and used to downscale anthropogenic emissions from the 4 km resolution 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI05) to the finest model resolution of 1 km. Using the rapidly expanding Phoenix metropolitan region as the area of focus, we demonstrate the proposed MCI method achieves ozone simulation results with appreciably improved correspondence to observations relative to the default interpolation method of the WRF-Chem system. Next, two additional sets of experiments are conducted, with the recommended MCI approach, to examine impacts of urbanization on ozone production: (1) the urban land cover is included (i.e., urbanization experiments) and, (2) the urban land cover is replaced with the region’s native shrubland. Impacts due to the presence of the built environment on [O3] are highly heterogeneous across the metropolitan area. Increased near surface [O3] due to urbanization of 10-20 ppb is predominantly a nighttime phenomenon while simulated impacts during daytime are negligible. Urbanization narrows the daily [O3] range (by virtue of increasing nighttime minima), an impact largely due to the region’s urban heat island. Our results demonstrate the importance of the MCI method for accurate representation of the diurnal profile of ozone, and highlight its utility for high-resolution air quality simulations for urban areas.

  3. Culture, Motivation, and Reading Achievement: High School Students in 41 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ming Ming; Chow, Bonnie Wing Yin

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how cultural values and family cultural capital were linked to adolescents' motivation and reading achievement using multilevel analyses on reading tests and questionnaire responses of 193,841 fifteen-year-olds in 41 countries. In countries that valued more rigid gender roles, girls had lower reading achievement than girls in…

  4. Cooperative Learning and Group Educational Modules: Effects on Cognitive Achievement of High School Biology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Scott B.

    1991-01-01

    Reports a study examining the effects of cooperative learning and self-instructional packets--"Group Educational Modules" (GEM)--on the achievement of biology students. Significant differences in achievement (as compared to control groups) were found for students using GEM materials and students in cooperative learning situations. (PR)

  5. A Portrait of Benchmark School: How a School Produces High Achievement in Students who Previously Failed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael; Gaskins, Irene W.; Solic, Katie; Collins, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    This is a case study of Benchmark School, which educates 6-to 15-year-olds with a history of school failure. Grounded theory methodology was employed to generate a theory about how the school promotes achievement. Many elements potentially promoting academic achievement were identified, including ones informed by psychological theory and research…

  6. Social Adaptation and Its Relationship to Achievement Motivation among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlZboon, Saleem Odeh

    2013-01-01

    The study amid at exploring and detecting the level of social adaptation and its relationship with the achievement motivation of the secondary school students in Jordan, the study sample consisted of 495 secondary school students in the province of Jerash, and to achieve the objective of this study comes the development of two tools: the first one…

  7. Longitudinal Analysis of Chinese High School Student's Stress in School and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    In previous research, few studies have examined the effects of adolescents' stress in school on the change rates of their academic achievement. In the present study, we seek to examine the longitudinal relationships between adolescents' stress in school and the change rates of their academic achievement. The results indicated that for those whose…

  8. Achievement Goal Validation among African American High School Students: CFA and Rasch Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Caroline O.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Jones, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goal theory helps describe how and why students engage in various academic behaviors. Historically, achievement goals have been examined almost exclusively with undergraduate, nonminority samples, and predominately with factor analytic techniques. The present study adds to a growing literature by providing initial validation of a…

  9. School Readiness Factors for Predicting High and Low Achieving Students in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davion, Edward, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    When analyzed according to race and ethnicity, poverty level, parental education level, as well as other related factors in schools in America, academic achievement disparities negatively impact educational outcomes for poor children and children of color on a consistent basis. At all educational levels, academic achievement and attainments of…

  10. Motivational Factors Contributing to Turkish High School Students' Achievement in Gases and Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadioglu, Cansel; Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the contribution of motivational factors to 10th grade students' achievement in gases and chemical reactions in chemistry. Three hundred fifty nine 10th grade students participated in the study. The Gases and Chemical Reactions Achievement Test and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire were…

  11. Growth and Achievement Trends of Advanced Placement (AP) Exams in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene; Hobson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined and compared overall trends in growth and student achievement of the Advanced Placement (AP) program. Using data from the past two decades, analyses indicated there has been steady and extensive growth of AP participation, particularly among underclassmen and some minority groups. However, overall achievement, as…

  12. From Division to Vision: Achievement Climbs at a Reservation School High in the Rocky Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lee

    2002-01-01

    In response to Salish and Kootenai tribal demands for educational equity, a Montana school district chose a reform model based on cooperative learning strategies, which fits American Indian learning styles, and switched from tolerating to celebrating American Indian culture. Academic achievement has risen in all subjects, and the achievement gap…

  13. Pressure-induced conformational switch of an interfacial protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Quentin R; Lindsay, Richard J; Nellas, Ricky B; Shen, Tongye

    2016-06-01

    A special class of proteins adopts an inactive conformation in aqueous solution and activates at an interface (such as the surface of lipid droplet) by switching their conformations. Lipase, an essential enzyme for breaking down lipids, serves as a model system for studying such interfacial proteins. The underlying conformational switch of lipase induced by solvent condition is achieved through changing the status of the gated substrate-access channel. Interestingly, a lipase was also reported to exhibit pressure activation, which indicates it is drastically active at high hydrostatic pressure. To unravel the molecular mechanism of this unusual phenomenon, we examined the structural changes induced by high hydrostatic pressures (up to 1500 MPa) using molecular dynamics simulations. By monitoring the width of the access channel, we found that the protein undergoes a conformational transition and opens the access channel at high pressures (>100 MPa). Particularly, a disordered amphiphilic α5 region of the protein becomes ordered at high pressure. This positive correlation between the channel opening and α5 ordering is consistent with the early findings of the gating motion in the presence of a water-oil interface. Statistical analysis of the ensemble of conformations also reveals the essential collective motions of the protein and how these motions contribute to gating. Arguments are presented as to why heightened sensitivity to high-pressure perturbation can be a general feature of switchable interfacial proteins. Further mutations are also suggested to validate our observations. Proteins 2016; 84:820-827. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26967808

  14. What’s Past is Prologue: Relations Between Early Mathematics Knowledge and High School Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, nor have they investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at 54 months to adolescent mathematics achievement using multi-site longitudinal data. We find that preschool mathematics ability predicts mathematics achievement through age 15, even after accounting for early reading, cognitive skills, and family and child characteristics. Moreover, we find that growth in mathematical ability between age 54 months and first grade is an even stronger predictor of adolescent mathematics achievement. These results demonstrate the importance of pre-kindergarten mathematics knowledge and early math learning for later achievement. PMID:26806961

  15. Attitudinal Conformity and Anonymity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Herbert; Kaplowitz, Stan

    1977-01-01

    Tested college students for conformity when conditions contributing to conformity were absent. Found that social pressures (responding in public, being surveyed by fellow group members) are necessary to produce conformity. (RL)

  16. Ultrasound-guided high dose rate conformal brachytherapy boost in prostate cancer: Treatment description and preliminary results of a phase I/II clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Stromberg, J.; Martinez, A.; Edmundson, G.

    1995-08-30

    To improve results for locally advanced prostate cancer, a prospective clinical trial of concurrent external beam irradiation and fractionated iridium-192 (IR-192) high dose rate (HDR) conformal boost brachytherapy was initiated. This technique of concurrent external pelvic irradiation and conformal HDR brachytherapy was well tolerated. No significant intraoperative or perioperative complications occurred. Three patients (9%) experienced Grade 3 acute toxicity (two dysuria and one diarrhea). All toxicities were otherwise Grades 1 or 2 and were primarily as expected from pelvic external irradiation. Persistent implant-related toxicities included Grades 1-2 perineal pain (12%) and hematospermia (15%). Median follow-up time was 13 months. Serum prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) levels normalized in 91% of patients (29 out of 32) within 1-14 months (median 2.8 months) after irradiation. PSA levels were progressively decreasing in the other three patients at last measurement. Prospectively planned prostatic rebiopsies done at 18 months in the first 10 patients were negative in 9 out of 10 (90%). Acute toxicity has been acceptable with this unique approach using conformal high dose rate IR-192 boost brachytherapy with concurrent external irradiation. The initial tumor response as assessed by serial PSA measurement and rebiopsy is extremely encouraging. Dose escalation will proceed in accordance with the protocol guidelines. Further patient accrual and longer follow-up will allow comparison to other techniques. 58 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Conformers, infrared spectrum, UV-induced photochemistry, and near-IR-induced generation of two rare conformers of matrix-isolated phenylglycine

    SciTech Connect

    Borba, Ana Fausto, Rui; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2014-10-21

    The conformational space of α-phenylglycine (PG) have been investigated theoretically at both the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and MP2/6-311++G(d,p) levels of approximation. Seventeen different minima were found on the investigated potential energy surfaces, which are characterized by different dominant intramolecular interactions: type I conformers are stabilized by hydrogen bonds of the type N–H···O=C, type II by a strong O–H···N hydrogen bond, type III by weak N–H···O–H hydrogen bonds, and type IV by a C=O···H–C contact. The calculations indicate also that entropic effects are relevant in determining the equilibrium populations of the conformers of PG in the gas phase, in particular in the case of conformers of type II, where the strong intramolecular O–H···N hydrogen bond considerably diminishes entropy by reducing the conformational mobility of the molecule. In consonance with the relative energies of the conformers and barriers for conformational interconversion, only 3 conformers of PG were observed for the compound isolated in cryogenic Ar, Xe, and N{sub 2} matrices: the conformational ground state (ICa), and forms ICc and IITa. All other significantly populated conformers existing in the gas phase prior to deposition convert either to conformer ICa or to conformer ICc during matrix deposition. The experimental observation of ICc had never been achieved hitherto. Narrowband near-IR irradiation of the first overtone of νOH vibrational mode of ICa and ICc in nitrogen matrices (at 6910 and 6930 cm{sup −1}, respectively) led to selective generation of two additional conformers of high-energy, ITc and ITa, respectively, which were also observed experimentally for the first time. In addition, these experiments also provided the key information for the detailed vibrational characterization of the 3 conformers initially present in the matrices. On the other hand, UV irradiation (λ = 255 nm) of PG isolated in a xenon matrix revealed that

  18. Conformational changes in biopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Vassili

    2005-12-01

    Biopolymer conformational changes are involved in many biological processes. This thesis summarizes some theoretical and experimental approaches which I have taken at UCLA to explore conformational changes in biopolymers. The reversible thermal denaturation of the DNA double helix is, perhaps, the simplest example of biopolymer conformational change. I have developed a statistical mechanics model of DNA melting with reduced degrees of freedom, which allows base stacking interaction to be taken into account and treat base pairing and stacking separately. Unlike previous models, this model describes both the unpairing and unstacking parts of the experimental melting curves and explains the observed temperature dependence of the effective thermodynamic parameters used in models of the nearest neighbor type. I developed a basic kinetic model for irreversible thermal denaturation of F-actin, which incorporates depolymerization of F-actin from the ends and breaking of F-actin fiber in the middle. The model explains the cooperativity of F-actin thermal denaturation observed by D. Pavlov et al. in differential calorimetry measurements. CG-rich DNA sequences form left-handed Z-DNA at high ionic strength or upon binding of polyvalent ions and some proteins. I studied experimentally the B-to-Z transition of the (CG)6 dodecamer. Improvement of the locally linearized model used to interpret the data gives evidence for an intermediate state in the B-to-Z transition of DNA, contrary to previous research on this subject. In the past 15 years it has become possible to study the conformational changes of biomolecules using single-molecule techniques. In collaboration with other lab members I performed a single-molecule experiment, where we monitored the displacement of a micrometer-size bead tethered to a surface by a DNA probe undergoing the conformational change. This technique allows probing of conformational changes with subnanometer accuracy. We applied the method to detect

  19. Louisiana High School Weathers the Storm to Become a Leader in Student Achievement and High Graduation Rates. "High Schools That Work" Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Warren Easton Charter High School in New Orleans, Louisiana, has weathered changes of many types, including Hurricane Katrina in 2005. After having to close for the 2005-2006 school year, the school reopened as a charter school with a board and stepped up its efforts to raise student achievement. Now the school is receiving attention for the…

  20. Closing the Academic Achievement Gap on the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) through Professional Learning Communities (PLC) Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buenrostro, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of importance that DuFour's nine characteristics of highly effective schools have on closing the academic achievement gap on the California High School Exit Exam, as perceived by high school principals. The study also examined the strategies believed to be most important in…

  1. Microalgal growth with intracellular phosphorus for achieving high biomass growth rate and high lipid/triacylglycerol content simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yin-Hu; Yu, Yin; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2015-09-01

    Nutrient deprivation is a commonly-used trigger for microalgal lipid accumulation, but its adverse impact on microalgal growth seems to be inevitable. In this study, Scenedesmus sp. LX1 was found to show similar physiological and biochemical variation under oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions during growth with intracellular phosphorus. Under both conditions microalgal chlorophyll content and photosynthesis activity was stable during this growth process, leading to significant increase of single cell weight and size. Therefore, while algal density growth rate dropped significantly to below 1.0 × 10(5)cells mL(-1) d(-1) under oligotrophic condition, the biomass dry weight growth rate still maintained about 40 mg L(-1) d(-1). Meanwhile, the lipid content in biomass and triacylglycerols (TAGs) content in lipids increased significantly to about 35% and 65%, respectively. Thus, high biomass growth rate and high lipid/TAG content were achieved simultaneously at the late growth phase with intracellular phosphorus. Besides, microalgal biomass produced was rich in carbohydrate with low protein content. PMID:26056779

  2. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a “dream” display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays. PMID:23492854

  3. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a "dream" display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays. PMID:23492854

  4. Achievement and Social Ascription: A Comparison of Public and Private High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Public and private schooling have a roughly uniform effect on achievement, but variability among students' home and neighborhood environments mask the leveling effect. Includes an historical discussion of egalitarianism and stratification in American education. (PS)

  5. Family socioeconomic status, family health, and changes in students' math achievement across high school: A mediational model.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ashley Brooke

    2015-09-01

    In response to recent calls to integrate understandings of socioeconomic disparities in health with understandings of socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement, this study tested a mediational model whereby family socioeconomic status predicted gains in academic achievement across high school through its impact on both student and parent health. Data on over 8000 high school students in the U.S. were obtained from wave 1 (2009-2010) and wave 2 (2012) of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and structural equation modeling with latent difference scores was used to determine the role of family health problems in mediating the well-established link between family SES and gains in academic achievement. Using both static and dynamic indicators of family SES, support was found for this mediational model. Higher family SES in 9th grade reduced the probability of students and their parents experiencing a serious health problem in high school, thereby promoting growth in academic achievement. In addition, parent and student health problems mediated the effect of changes in family SES across high school on math achievement gains. Results emphasize the importance of considering the dynamic nature of SES and that both student and parent health should be considered in understanding SES-related disparities in academic achievement. This relational process provides new mechanisms for understanding the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status and the status attainment process more broadly. PMID:26189011

  6. Detection of Short-Range DNA Interactions in Mammalian Cells Using High-Resolution Circular Chromosome Conformation Capture Coupled to Deep Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Millau, Jean-François; Gaudreau, Luc

    2015-01-01

    DNA interactions shape the genome to physically and functionally connect regulatory elements to their target genes. Studying these interactions is crucial to understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression. In this chapter, we present a protocol for high-resolution circular chromosome conformation capture coupled to deep sequencing. This methodology allows to investigate short-range DNA interactions (<100 kbp) and to obtain high-resolution DNA interaction maps of loci. It is a powerful tool to explore how regulatory elements and genes are connected together. PMID:26404155

  7. The Highly Conserved Layer-3 Component of the HIV-1 gp120 Inner Domain Is Critical for CD4-Required Conformational Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Désormeaux, Anik; Coutu, Mathieu; Medjahed, Halima; Pacheco, Beatriz; Herschhorn, Alon; Gu, Christopher; Xiang, Shi-Hua; Mao, Youdong; Sodroski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The trimeric envelope glycoprotein (Env) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mediates virus entry into host cells. CD4 engagement with the gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein subunit represents the first step during HIV-1 entry. CD4-induced conformational changes in the gp120 inner domain involve three potentially flexible topological layers (layers 1, 2, and 3). Structural rearrangements between layer 1 and layer 2 have been shown to facilitate the transition of the envelope glycoprotein trimer from the unliganded to the CD4-bound state and to stabilize gp120-CD4 interaction. However, our understanding of CD4-induced conformational changes in the gp120 inner domain remains incomplete. Here, we report that a highly conserved element of the gp120 inner domain, layer 3, plays a pivot-like role in these allosteric changes. In the unliganded state, layer 3 modulates the association of gp120 with the Env trimer, probably by influencing the relationship of the gp120 inner and outer domains. Importantly, layer 3 governs the efficiency of the initial gp120 interaction with CD4, a function that can also be fulfilled by filling the Phe43 cavity. This work defines the functional importance of layer 3 and completes a picture detailing the role of the gp120 inner domain in CD4-induced conformational transitions in the HIV-1 Env trimer. PMID:23255784

  8. High-throughput biophysical analysis and data visualization of conformational stability of an IgG1 monoclonal antibody after deglycosylation.

    PubMed

    Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Kim, Jae Hyun; Majumdar, Ranajoy; Weis, David D; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Tolbert, Thomas J; Middaugh, C Russell; Volkin, David B

    2013-11-01

    The structural integrity and conformational stability of an IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb), after partial or complete enzymatic removal of the N-linked Fc glycan, were compared with the untreated mAb over a wide range of temperature (10°C-90°C) and solution pH (3-8) using circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and static light scattering combined with data visualization employing empirical phase diagrams. Subtle-to-larger stability differences between the different glycoforms were observed. Improved detection of physical stability differences was then demonstrated over narrower pH range (4.0-6.0) using smaller temperature increments, especially when combined with an alternative data visualization method (radar plots). Differential scanning calorimetry and differential scanning fluorimetry were then utilized and also showed an improved ability to detect differences in the physical stability of a mAb glycoform. On the basis of these results, a two-step methodology was used in which conformational stability of a mAb glycoform is first screened with a wide variety of instruments and environmental stresses, followed by a second evaluation with optimally sensitive experimental conditions, analytical techniques, and data visualization methods. With this approach, a high-throughput biophysical analysis to assess relatively subtle conformational stability differences in protein glycoforms is demonstrated. PMID:24114789

  9. Synthesis and Conformational Analysis of Locked Carbocyclic Analogues of 1,3-Diazepinone Riboside, a High-Affinity Cytidine Deaminase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Cytidine deaminase (CDA) catalyzes the deamination of cytidine via a hydrated transition-state intermediate that results from the nucleophilic attack of zinc-bound water at the active site. Nucleoside analogues where the leaving NH3 group is replaced by a proton and prevent conversion of the transition state to product are very potent inhibitors of the enzyme. However, stable carbocyclic versions of these analogues are less effective as the role of the ribose in facilitating formation of hydrated species is abolished. The discovery that a 1,3-diazepinone riboside (4) operated as a tight-binding inhibitor of CDA independent of hydration provided the opportunity to study novel inhibitors built as conformationally locked, carbocyclic 1,3-diazepinone nucleosides to determine the enzyme’s conformational preference for a specific form of sugar pucker. This work describes the synthesis of two target bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane nucleosides, locked as north (5) and south (6) conformers, as well as a flexible analogue (7) built with a cyclopentane ring. The seven-membered 1,3-diazepinone ring in all the three targets was built from the corresponding benzoyl-protected carbocyclic bis-allyl ureas by ring-closing metathesis. The results demonstrate CDA’s binding preference for a south sugar pucker in agreement with the high-resolution crystal structures of other CDA inhibitors bound at the active site. PMID:19618900

  10. A Highly Crystalline and Wide-Bandgap Polydiarylfluorene with β-Phase Conformation toward Stable Electroluminescence and Dual Amplified Spontaneous Emission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Lin, Jinyi; Liu, Feng; Yu, Mengna; Zhang, Xinwen; Xia, Ruidong; Yang, Tao; Fang, Yueting; Xie, Linghai; Huang, Wei

    2016-08-24

    Bulky conjugated polymers with high crystallinity is the prerequisite for the overall improvement of performance in wide-bandgap semiconductors, including charge transport, photoluminescence quantum yield, processing reliability, and stability. Herein, we report a stable β-phase film of bulky polydiarylfluorene (PODPF) preparing by thermal annealing at ∼220 °C. The β-phase conformation and regular molecular packing are confirmed by UV-vis, photoluminescence (PL), Raman spectra, and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), respectively. Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) with crystalline and β-phase film serving as the active layer exhibit higher current efficiency of 1.8 cd/A (6.0 V) and more stable electroluminescence over the amorphous one. Surprisingly, mixed conformations in PODPF film produce dually tunable amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) at 463 and 482 nm. Polydiarylfluorenes with quasi-planar conformation will be a promising candidate for the next-generation gain medium toward a broadly tunable lasing and dual-wavelength laser. PMID:27480142

  11. Achievement Emotions as Predictors of High School Science Success Among African-American and European American Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowe, Marilyn Louise Simmons

    The literature includes few studies of the interrelations of achievement goals and achievement emotions with respect to minority students and science achievement. The objective of this study was to test the control-value theory (CVT) of achievement emotions to determine if the eight discrete achievement emotions would be predictive of test scores on the High School Graduation Test (GHSGT)-Science for African-American compared to European-American science students. Convenience cluster sampling was employed to select 160 students who were all juniors in the same public high school at the time that they took the GHSGT-Science. The central research question for this study aimed to uncover whether any of the eight achievement emotions identified in CVT would contribute significantly to the predictability of science achievement as measured by GHSGT-Science scores. Data were collected using a nonexperimental, cross sectional design survey. Data were analyzed using a hierarchal, forced entry, multiple regression analysis. Key results indicated that the eight achievement emotions were predictive of GHSGT-Science score outcomes. Positive social change at the individual level could reflect a boost in confidence for African American science students and help decrease the achievement gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) endeavors between European Americans and African-American students. Educators may consider the importance of achievement emotions in science outcomes by including social emotional learning (SEL) as a part of the regular science curriculum. Future researchers should repeat the study in a school district where the population is available to support the desired cluster sample of equal parts European Americans to African Americans and male to female students.

  12. Multiscale conformal pattern transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics. PMID:27329824

  13. Multiscale conformal pattern transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics.

  14. Multiscale conformal pattern transfer.

    PubMed

    Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics. PMID:27329824

  15. The Predictive Relation of a High School Mathematic GPA to High-Stakes Assessment Achievement Scores in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Course grades, which often include non-achievement factors such as effort and behavior and are subject to individual teacher grading philosophies, suffer from issues of unreliability. Yet, course grades continue to be utilized as a primary tool for reporting academic achievement to students and parents and are used by most colleges and…

  16. Lithium Sulfide (Li2S)/Graphene Oxide Nanospheres with Conformal Carbon Coating as a High-Rate, Long-Life Cathode for Li/S Cells.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Yoon; Zhao, Juan; Cairns, Elton J

    2015-05-13

    In recent years, lithium/sulfur (Li/S) cells have attracted great attention as a candidate for the next generation of rechargeable batteries due to their high theoretical specific energy of 2600 W·h kg(-1), which is much higher than that of Li ion cells (400-600 W·h kg(-1)). However, problems of the S cathode such as highly soluble intermediate species (polysulfides Li2Sn, n = 4-8) and the insulating nature of S cause poor cycle life and low utilization of S, which prevents the practical use of Li/S cells. Here, a high-rate and long-life Li/S cell is proposed, which has a cathode material with a core-shell nanostructure comprising Li2S nanospheres with an embedded graphene oxide (GO) sheet as a core material and a conformal carbon layer as a shell. The conformal carbon coating is easily obtained by a unique CVD coating process using a lab-designed rotating furnace without any repetitive steps. The Li2S/GO@C cathode exhibits a high initial discharge capacity of 650 mA·h g(-1) of Li2S (corresponding to the 942 mA·h g(-1) of S) and very low capacity decay rate of only 0.046% per cycle with a high Coulombic efficiency of up to 99.7% for 1500 cycles when cycled at the 2 C discharge rate. PMID:25915431

  17. Building the bacterial orisome: high affinity DnaA recognition plays a role in setting the conformation of oriC DNA

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gulpreet; Vora, Mansi P.; Czerwonka, Christopher A.; Rozgaja, Tania A.; Grimwade, Julia E.; Leonard, Alan C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary During assembly of the E. coli pre-replicative complex (pre-RC), initiator DnaA oligomers are nucleated from three widely separated high affinity DnaA recognition sites in oriC. Oligomer assembly is then guided by low affinity DnaA recognition sites, but is also regulated by a switch-like conformational change in oriC mediated by sequential binding of two DNA bending proteins, Fis and IHF, serving as inhibitor and activator, respectively. Although their recognition sites are separated by up to 90 bp, Fis represses IHF binding and weak DnaA interactions until accumulating DnaA displaces Fis from oriC. It remains unclear whether high affinity DnaA binding plays any role in Fis repression at a distance and it is also not known whether all high affinity DnaA recognition sites play an equivalent role in oligomer formation. To examine these issues, we developed origin-selective recombineering methods to mutate E. coli chromosomal oriC. We found that, although oligomers were assembled in the absence of any individual high affinity DnaA binding site, loss of DnaA binding at peripheral sites eliminated Fis repression, and made binding of both Fis and IHF essential. We propose a model in which interaction of DnaA molecules at high affinity sites regulates oriC DNA conformation. PMID:24443848

  18. Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 and high school academic achievement: longitudinal latent variable modeling.

    PubMed

    Breslau, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua; Miller, Elizabeth; Raykov, Tenko

    2011-02-28

    Previous studies documented long-run effects of behavior problems at the start of school on academic achievement. However, these studies did not examine whether the observed effects of early behavior problems are explained by more proximate behavior problems, given the tendency of children's behavior problems to persist. Latent variable modeling was applied to estimate the effects of behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 on academic achievement at age 17, using data from a longitudinal study (n=823). Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11, each stage independently of the other, predicted lower math and reading test scores at age 17, controlling for intelligence quotient (IQ), birth weight, maternal characteristics, family and community environment, and taking into account behavior problems at age 17. Behavior problems at the start of school, independent of later behavior problems, exert lingering effects on achievement by impeding the acquisition of cognitive skills that are the foundation for later academic progress. PMID:20719395

  19. Academic achievement of homeless and highly mobile children in an urban school district: longitudinal evidence on risk, growth, and resilience.

    PubMed

    Obradović, Jelena; Long, Jeffrey D; Cutuli, J J; Chan, Chi-Keung; Hinz, Elizabeth; Heistad, David; Masten, Ann S

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal growth trajectories of reading and math achievement were studied in four primary school grade cohorts (GCs) of a large urban district to examine academic risk and resilience in homeless and highly mobile (H/HM) students. Initial achievement was assessed when student cohorts were in the second, third, fourth, and fifth grades, and again 12 and 18 months later. Achievement trajectories of H/HM students were compared to low-income but nonmobile students and all other tested students in the district, controlling for four well-established covariates of achievement: sex, ethnicity, attendance, and English language skills. Both disadvantaged groups showed markedly lower initial achievement than their more advantaged peers, and H/HM students manifested the greatest risk, consistent with an expected risk gradient. Moreover, in some GCs, both disadvantaged groups showed slower growth than their relatively advantaged peers. Closer examination of H/HM student trajectories in relation to national test norms revealed striking variability, including cases of academic resilience as well as problems. H/HM students may represent a major component of "achievement gaps" in urban districts, but these students also constitute a heterogeneous group of children likely to have markedly diverse educational needs. Efforts to close gaps or enhance achievement in H/HM children require more differentiated knowledge of vulnerability and protective processes that may shape individual development and achievement. PMID:19338695

  20. Comparing the Reading Performance of High-Achieving Adolescents: Computer-Based Testing versus Paper/Pencil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eno, Linda Peet

    2011-01-01

    Literacy is moving into the digital context. Many of the literacy tasks associated with higher education, the workplace, and civic life now take place in the digital world. Literacy in high school, however, languishes in the text world. This study compared the text literacy of a group of high-achieving 10th-grade students, to their digital…

  1. Gender Differences in Korean High School Students' Science Achievements and Attitudes towards Science in Three Different School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, EunJin; Baker, Dale R.

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of high schools' gender organization on Korean tenth-grade students' science achievements, and their attitudes towards science. The high schools involved included an all-male institution, an all-female institution, and a co-educational institution. Three schools, three principals, three science teachers, and 302…

  2. The Grasshopper and the Ant: Motivational Responses of Low-Achieving Students to High-Stakes Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderick, Melissa; Engel, Mimi

    2001-01-01

    Examined the responses of 102 low achieving sixth and eighth graders to Chicago's highly publicized efforts to end social promotion. Students generally described increased work efforts, and students with high levels of work effort generally had greater than average learning gains and positive outcomes in terms of promotion. About one-third of…

  3. Career and Technical Education in the Balance: An Analysis of High School Persistence, Academic Achievement, and Postsecondary Destinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, Stephen

    A study examined the relationship between: (1) the balance struck between career and technical education (CTE) and academic course-taking during the high school years; and (2) academic achievement, persistence in high school, and postsecondary destinations. Data for the study were drawn from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988. The…

  4. Case Studies of Factors Affecting the Motivation of Musical High Achievers to Learn Music in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Bo Wah; McPherson, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the personal beliefs and attitudes of highly motivated Hong Kong school-age subjects who studied music. A total of 24 participants who demonstrated high achievement and interest in learning music were interviewed. Content analysis of the interview data was performed to elucidate four topics: background information about the…

  5. Factors Influencing Student Achievement at a High-Performing Title I Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeier, Charlann K.

    2012-01-01

    Schools in America are required to provide all students with a quality education regardless of race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background, demonstrated through test scores mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act. Knowledge about factors that influence students' academic performance and serve to reduce the achievement gap between Hispanic…

  6. High School Size, Achievement Equity, and Cost: Robust Interaction Effects and Tentative Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert; Howley, Craig; Williams, Tony; Glascock, Catherine

    Research has revealed interactive effects of school size and socioeconomic status--as school size increases, the mean measured achievement of schools with disadvantaged students declines. The larger the number of less advantaged students attending a school, the greater the decline. The same school-level interactions have been found in California,…

  7. Mathematically Gifted Students and High Achievement: The Role of Motivation and Classroom Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Kollmayer, Marlene; Bergsmann, Evelyn; Jöstl, Gregor; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    One of the most intriguing questions for those who study intellectually gifted students is why some of them reach peak performances at school and others don't. Moderator theories of giftedness assume that domain-specific gifts are transformed into achievement in a process influenced by non-cognitive and environmental variables. Thus, the current…

  8. A Qualitative Study of High Student Achievement in a Rural Appalachian Region: Perceptions of Selected Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Regina

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was based on grounded theory and used purposive sampling for selecting participants. The sample for this study included 12 of the 16 superintendents in this region. This rural Appalachian region has historically outperformed the remainder of the southeastern state on reading and math achievement tests at the elementary and…

  9. Low-Achieving Readers, High Expectations: Image Theatre Encourages Critical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozansky, Carol Lloyd; Aagesen, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    Students in an eighth-grade, urban, low-achieving reading class were introduced to critical literacy through engagement in Image Theatre. Developed by liberatory dramatist Augusto Boal, Image Theatre gives participants the opportunity to examine texts in the triple role of interpreter, artist, and sculptor (i.e., image creator). The researchers…

  10. Inferring Adequate Yearly Progress of Schools from Student Achievement in Highly Mobile Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offenberg, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Many attempts at educational reform, among them No Child Left Behind and a recent Philadelphia effort, assume that the quality of the educational programs being offered by schools can be inferred from the achievements of the children who attend them. This article explores the reasonableness of this assumption for Philadelphia public schools by…

  11. What's Past Is Prologue: Relations between Early Mathematics Knowledge and High School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, and few have investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at…

  12. Principals in Two High Achieving Elementary Schools in Rural New Mexico: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tom, Deborah F.

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written regarding the dire educational state of most schools in rural America. This case study profiles two elementary school principals (preK-6) in rural New Mexico whose schools achieved adequate yearly progress (AYP) for the 2009-10 school year. The focus of this study centered on specific characteristics of the school cultures…

  13. Impacts of Comprehensive Reading Instruction on Diverse Outcomes of Low- and High-Achieving Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the…

  14. Effect of Blended Learning Environment Model on High School Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazu, Ibrahim Yasar; Demirkol, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the students' academic performance by comparing the blended learning environment and traditional learning environment. It has been observed whether there is a significant difference between the academic achievement grade dispersions and the male-female students' grades. The study has been carried out in Diyarbakir…

  15. The Influence of Mathematics Anxiety in Middle and High School Students Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Mutawah, Masooma Ali

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has been the focus of much psychological and educational research in the past few years, there are many international studies showing that mathematics anxiety is an influence on student's achievements in school, but little research has been done about this issue in Bahrain. Bahrain is a country in the Arabian Gulf region, its economic…

  16. Factors Affecting the Achievement of High School Students in Beginning Computer Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinan, Tricia; Stephens, Larry

    1988-01-01

    Considers three questions regarding computer science courses: (1) Can performance be predicted?; (2) Does a solid mathematical background provide the student with an advantage?; and (3) Is gender a factor in performance or aptitude? Reports a strong math background was related to achievement in a beginning course while gender was not related. (MVL)

  17. The Relationship of Grade Span in 9th Grade to Math Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, John; Miller, Mary Lou; Myers, Jim; Norton, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose, Scope, and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between grade span for ninth grade and gains in math achievement test scores in 10th grade and 12th grade. A quantitative, longitudinal, correlational research design was employed to investigate the research questions. The population was high…

  18. Constructions of High Academic Achievement through the Analysis of Critical Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2002-01-01

    In this study, critical events in the career development of 26 Finnish Academy professors describe the trajectories of their achievement and success. Primary themes included mentors, academic years abroad, strong interest in the domain, and luck. Also described are transformative themes. Personal stories illustrate the individualistic nature of…

  19. Comprehensive Achievement Monitoring in the Sequoia Union High School District. Symposium, California Mathematics Council Northern Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easter, John; And Others

    A description is provided of comprehensive Achievement Monitoring (CAM), a tool which enables classroom teachers to function as researchers and evaluators. Part I reviews the CAM philosophy and the section following discusses computerized feedback in CAM operations. The final two portions of the report describes the use of CAM in mathematics…

  20. Self-Regulation, Executive Function, Working Memory, and Academic Achievement of Female High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halloran, Roberta Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation, executive function and working memory are areas of cognitive processing that have been studied extensively. Although many studies have examined the constructs, there is limited empirical support suggesting a formal link between the three cognitive processes and their prediction of academic achievement. Thus, the present study…