Science.gov

Sample records for achieve increased efficiency

  1. Benefits of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion to Achieve 4x Increase in Cruise Efficiency for a VTOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J.; Moore, Mark D.; Busan, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Electric propulsion enables radical new vehicle concepts, particularly for Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft because of their significant mismatch between takeoff and cruise power conditions. However, electric propulsion does not merely provide the ability to normalize the power required across the phases of flight, in the way that automobiles also use hybrid electric technologies. The ability to distribute the thrust across the airframe, without mechanical complexity and with a scale-free propulsion system, is a new degree of freedom for aircraft designers. Electric propulsion is scale-free in terms of being able to achieve highly similar levels of motor power to weight and efficiency across a dramatic scaling range. Applying these combined principles of electric propulsion across a VTOL aircraft permits an improvement in aerodynamic efficiency that is approximately four times the state of the art of conventional helicopter configurations. Helicopters typically achieve a lift to drag ratio (L/D) of between 4 and 5, while the VTOL aircraft designed and developed in this research were designed to achieve an L/D of approximately 20. Fundamentally, the ability to eliminate the problem of advancing and retreating rotor blades is shown, without resorting to unacceptable prior solutions such as tail-sitters. This combination of concept and technology also enables a four times increase in range and endurance while maintaining the full VTOL and hover capability provided by a helicopter. Also important is the ability to achieve low disc-loading for low ground impingement velocities, low noise and hover power minimization (thus reducing energy consumption in VTOL phases). This combination of low noise and electric propulsion (i.e. zero emissions) will produce a much more community-friendly class of vehicles. This research provides a review of the concept brainstorming, configuration aerodynamic and mission analysis, as well as subscale prototype construction and

  2. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  3. Revamps increase efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Marschner, F.; Moertel, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    In many cases, idle capacities throughout the work and lack of financing capital forbid the construction of new chemical plants that are more profitable and reflect the latest state-of-the-art. On the other hand, the glut of cheap raw materials over the past 20 years led to the construction of numerous plants according to the motto, ''make it cheap-energy consumption is of secondary importance.'' Such projects included, above all, hydrogen plants based on natural gas and plants to produce syngases for methanol, ammonia and oxo alcohols. As raw materials are becoming scarcer almost everywhere in the work and raw material prices keep rising, taking such plants out of service in many instances can be avoided only by increasing their efficiency, sometimes by increasing their capacity (debottlenecking) or by revamping them to use cheaper feedstocks.

  4. Daily energy balance in growth hormone receptor/binding protein (GHR−/−) gene-disrupted mice is achieved through an increase in dark-phase energy efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Kenneth A.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Kelder, Bruce; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; DiStefano, Peter S.; Geddes, Brad J.; Kopchick, John

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine factors that contribute to energy balance in female GHR −/− mice. We measured energy intake, energy expenditure (EE), fuel utilization, body mass (Mb) changes and physical activity in 17 month-old female GHR −/− mice and their age-matched wild type littermates. The GHR −/− mice were smaller, consumed more food per unit Mb, had greater EE per unit Mb and had an increase in 24-h EE/Mb that was similar to the increase in their surface-area-to-volume ratio. Locomotor activity (LMA) was reduced in the GHR −/− mice, but the energetic cost associated with their LMA was greater than in wild type controls. Furthermore, Mb and LMA were independent explanatory covariates of most of the variance in EE, and when adjusted for Mb and LMA, the GHR −/− mice had higher EE during both the light and dark phases of the daily cycle. Respiratory quotient was lower in GHR −/− mice during the light phase, which indicated a greater utilization of lipid relative to carbohydrate in these mice. Additionally, GHR −/− mice had higher ratios of caloric intake to EE at several intervals during the dark phase, and this effect was greater and more sustained in the final three hours of the dark phase. Therefore, we conclude that GHR −/− mice are able to overcome the substantial energetic challenges of dwarfism through several mechanisms that promote stable Mb. Relative to wild type mice, the GHR −/− mice consumed more calories per unit Mb, which offset the disproportionate increase in their daily energy expenditure. While GHR −/− mice oxidized a greater proportion of lipid during the light phase in order to meet their energy requirements, they achieved greater energy efficiency and storage during the dark phase through a combination of higher energy consumption and lower LMA. PMID:19747867

  5. Increasing Math Achievement through Use of Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant-Jones, Marian; Shimmins, Kymberley J.; Vega, Jill D.

    This report describes a program for increasing math achievement through the use of musical interventions including repeated exposure to Mozart classical music and School House Rock, and introduction to teacher-made songs that introduce mathematical concepts in the music classroom. The students of the targeted second and fourth grade classes…

  6. Heterostructure optimization for increasing LED efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Oleg; Legotin, Sergey; Didenko, Sergey; Yakimov, Evgeniy; Osipov, Yuriy; Fedorchenko, Irina

    2016-05-01

    Computer simulations were performed to increase the quantum efficiency of LED by optimizing the nanoheterostructure (NH). Furthermore, the InGaN and AlGaP NHs for LEDs were optimized. On the basis of the optimum NH, ways to further increase the efficiency and the influence of impurities and indium atoms doped into barriers between quantum wells were investigated. The optimum impurity and indium atom concentrations to achieve higher flux were determined.

  7. Achieving energy efficiency during collective communications

    SciTech Connect

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav; Sosonkina, Masha; Zhang, Zhao

    2012-09-13

    Energy consumption has become a major design constraint in modern computing systems. With the advent of petaflops architectures, power-efficient software stacks have become imperative for scalability. Techniques such as dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (called DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (called throttling) are often used to reduce the power consumption of the compute nodes. To avoid significant performance losses, these techniques should be used judiciously during parallel application execution. For example, its communication phases may be good candidates to apply the DVFS and CPU throttling without incurring a considerable performance loss. They are often considered as indivisible operations although little attention is being devoted to the energy saving potential of their algorithmic steps. In this work, two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather, are investigated as to their augmentation with energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. The experiments prove the viability of such a fine-grain approach. They also validate a theoretical power consumption estimate for multicore nodes proposed here. While keeping the performance loss low, the obtained energy savings were always significantly higher than those achieved when DVFS or throttling were switched on across the entire application run

  8. Achieving Energy Efficiency Through Real-Time Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, Ronald J.

    2011-09-01

    Through the careful implementation of simple behavior change measures, opportunities exist to achieve strategic gains, including greater operational efficiencies, energy cost savings, greater tenant health and ensuing productivity and an improved brand value through sustainability messaging and achievement.

  9. Using the network to achieve energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Giglio, M.

    1995-12-01

    Novell, the third largest software company in the world, has developed Netware Embedded Systems Technology (NEST). NEST will take the network deeper into non-traditional computing environments and will imbed networking into more intelligent devices. Ultimately, this will lead to energy efficiencies in the office. NEST can make point-of-sale terminals, alarm systems, televisions, traffic controls, printers, lights, fax machines, copiers, HVAC controls, PBX machines, etc., either intelligent or more intelligent than they are currently. The mission statement for this particular group is to integrate over 30 million new intelligent devices into the workplace and the home with Novell networks by 1997. Computing trends have progressed from mainframes in the 1960s to keys, security systems, and airplanes in the year 2000. In fact, the new Boeing 777 has NEST in it, and it also has network servers on board. NEST enables the embedded network with the ability to put intelligence into devices. This gives one more control of the devices from wherever one is. For example, the pharmaceutical industry could use NEST to coordinate what the consumer is buying, what is in the warehouse, what the manufacturing plant is tooled for, and so on. Through NEST technology, the pharmaceutical industry now uses a camera that takes pictures of the pills. It can see whether an {open_quotes}overdose{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}underdose{close_quotes} of a particular type of pill is being manufactured. The plant can be shut down and corrections made immediately.

  10. The ways of SOFC systems efficiency increasing

    SciTech Connect

    Demin, A.K.; Timofeyeva, N.

    1996-04-01

    The efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is described. This paper considers methods to lift the fuel utilization and/or the average cell voltage with the goal of increasing the cell efficiency by improved cell designs.

  11. Upside-Down Solar Cell Achieves Record Efficiencies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    The inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cell is an exercise in efficient innovation - literally, as the technology boasted the highest demonstrated efficiency for converting sunlight into electrical energy at its debut in 2005. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) inverted the conventional photovoltaic (PV) structure to revolutionary effect, achieving solar conversion efficiencies of 33.8% and 40.8% under one-sun and concentrated conditions, respectively.

  12. Does Site-Based Management Increase Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Bridgette D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this review of literature is to determine if the literature suggests that site-based management increase student achievement. Original research findings done on 19 Michigan Title I schools using the Bureaucracy Theory, Systems Theory, and Human Resource Development Theory was reviewed. Also, qualitative studies on superintendents…

  13. Using Differentiated Instruction to Increase Mathematics Achievement in Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Jennifer H.

    2013-01-01

    As evidenced by the poor mathematics performance in American schools, specifically in the school district in the current study, providing identical educational opportunities for diverse students does not necessarily increase academic achievement for everyone. Differentiation is an instructional method that has been found to be successful in…

  14. Using Positive Student Engagement to Increase Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Teachers and school-based administrators alike have searched to find ways to increase student achievement in their schools. Several widely known and discussed strategies include: (1) using data to drive instruction; (2) employing highly qualified teachers; and (3) improving school leadership. Additionally, positive student engagement in the…

  15. Conscientiousness increases efficiency of multicomponent behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Many everyday situations require the flexible interruption and changing of different actions to achieve a goal. Several strategies can be applied to do so, but those requiring high levels of cognitive control seem to confer an efficiency (speed) advantage in situations requiring multi-component behavior. However, it is elusive in how far personality traits affect performance in such situations. Given that top-down control is an important aspect of personality and furthermore correlates with conscientiousness, N = 163 participants completed the NEO-FFI and performed an experimental (stop-change) paradigm assessing multicomponent behavior. Applying mathematical constraints to the behavioral data, we estimated the processing strategy of each individual. The results show that multicomponent behavior is selectively affected by conscientiousness which explained approximately 19% of the measured inter-individual behavioral variance. Conscientiousness should hence be seen as a major personality dimension modulating multicomponent behavior. Highly conscientious people showed a more effective, step-by-step processing strategy of different actions necessary to achieve a goal. In situations with simultaneous requirements, this strategy equipped them with an efficiency (speed) advantage towards individuals with lower conscientiousness. In sum, the results show that strategies and the efficiency with which people cope with situations requiring multicomponent behavior are strongly influenced by their personality. PMID:26503352

  16. Increasing Efficiency: A Process-Oriented Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbour, Jerry L.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of the need to increase efficiency focuses on a process-oriented approach for systematically identifying and minimizing non-value-adding process steps to analyze and improve tasks, services, and production. Highlights include a historical perspective, a discussion of wasted efforts, and a case study. (Contains 16 references.) (LRW)

  17. Wind increases leaf water use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani

    2016-07-01

    A widespread perception is that, with increasing wind speed, transpiration from plant leaves increases. However, evidence suggests that increasing wind speed enhances carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake while reducing transpiration because of more efficient convective cooling (under high solar radiation loads). We provide theoretical and experimental evidence that leaf water use efficiency (WUE, carbon uptake per water transpired) commonly increases with increasing wind speed, thus improving plants' ability to conserve water during photosynthesis. Our leaf-scale analysis suggests that the observed global decrease in near-surface wind speeds could have reduced WUE at a magnitude similar to the increase in WUE attributed to global rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is indication that the effect of long-term trends in wind speed on leaf gas exchange may be compensated for by the concurrent reduction in mean leaf sizes. These unintuitive feedbacks between wind, leaf size and water use efficiency call for re-evaluation of the role of wind in plant water relations and potential re-interpretation of temporal and geographic trends in leaf sizes. PMID:26714739

  18. Wind increases leaf water use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani

    2016-07-01

    A widespread perception is that, with increasing wind speed, transpiration from plant leaves increases. However, evidence suggests that increasing wind speed enhances carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake while reducing transpiration because of more efficient convective cooling (under high solar radiation loads). We provide theoretical and experimental evidence that leaf water use efficiency (WUE, carbon uptake per water transpired) commonly increases with increasing wind speed, thus improving plants' ability to conserve water during photosynthesis. Our leaf-scale analysis suggests that the observed global decrease in near-surface wind speeds could have reduced WUE at a magnitude similar to the increase in WUE attributed to global rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is indication that the effect of long-term trends in wind speed on leaf gas exchange may be compensated for by the concurrent reduction in mean leaf sizes. These unintuitive feedbacks between wind, leaf size and water use efficiency call for re-evaluation of the role of wind in plant water relations and potential re-interpretation of temporal and geographic trends in leaf sizes.

  19. An apparent contradiction: increasing variability to achieve greater precision?

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Noah J; Hurt, Christopher P; Latash, Mark L; Grabiner, Mark D

    2014-02-01

    To understand the relationship between variability of foot placement in the frontal plane and stability of gait patterns, we explored how constraining mediolateral foot placement during walking affects the structure of kinematic variance in the lower-limb configuration space during the swing phase of gait. Ten young subjects walked under three conditions: (1) unconstrained (normal walking), (2) constrained (walking overground with visual guides for foot placement to achieve the measured unconstrained step width) and, (3) beam (walking on elevated beams spaced to achieve the measured unconstrained step width). The uncontrolled manifold analysis of the joint configuration variance was used to quantify two variance components, one that did not affect the mediolateral trajectory of the foot in the frontal plane ("good variance") and one that affected this trajectory ("bad variance"). Based on recent studies, we hypothesized that across conditions (1) the index of the synergy stabilizing the mediolateral trajectory of the foot (the normalized difference between the "good variance" and "bad variance") would systematically increase and (2) the changes in the synergy index would be associated with a disproportionate increase in the "good variance." Both hypotheses were confirmed. We conclude that an increase in the "good variance" component of the joint configuration variance may be an effective method of ensuring high stability of gait patterns during conditions requiring increased control of foot placement, particularly if a postural threat is present. Ultimately, designing interventions that encourage a larger amount of "good variance" may be a promising method of improving stability of gait patterns in populations such as older adults and neurological patients. PMID:24162866

  20. Is yield increase sufficient to achieve food security in China?

    PubMed

    Wei, Xing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Peijun; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yi; Song, Xiao; Tao, Fulu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food, driven by unprecedented population growth and increasing consumption, will keep challenging food security in China. Although cereal yields have substantially improved during the last three decades, whether it will keep thriving to meet the increasing demand is not known yet. Thus, an integrated analysis on the trends of crop yield and cultivated area is essential to better understand current state of food security in China, especially on county scale. So far, yield stagnation has extensively dominated the main cereal-growing areas across China. Rice yield is facing the most severe stagnation that 53.9% counties tracked in the study have stagnated significantly, followed by maize (42.4%) and wheat (41.9%). As another important element for production sustainability, but often neglected is the planted area patterns. It has been further demonstrated that the loss in productive arable land for rice and wheat have dramatically increased the pressure on achieving food security. Not only a great deal of the planted areas have stagnated since 1980, but also collapsed. 48.4% and 54.4% of rice- and wheat-growing counties have lost their cropland areas to varying degrees. Besides, 27.6% and 35.8% of them have retrograded below the level of the 1980s. The combined influence (both loss in yield and area) has determined the crop sustainable production in China to be pessimistic for rice and wheat, and consequently no surprise to find that more than half of counties rank a lower level of production sustainability. Therefore, given the potential yield increase in wheat and maize, as well as substantial area loss of rice and wheat, the possible targeted adaptation measures for both yield and cropping area is required at county scale. Moreover, policies on food trade, alongside advocation of low calorie diets, reducing food loss and waste can help to enhance food security. PMID:25680193

  1. Is yield increase sufficient to achieve food security in China?

    PubMed

    Wei, Xing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Peijun; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yi; Song, Xiao; Tao, Fulu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food, driven by unprecedented population growth and increasing consumption, will keep challenging food security in China. Although cereal yields have substantially improved during the last three decades, whether it will keep thriving to meet the increasing demand is not known yet. Thus, an integrated analysis on the trends of crop yield and cultivated area is essential to better understand current state of food security in China, especially on county scale. So far, yield stagnation has extensively dominated the main cereal-growing areas across China. Rice yield is facing the most severe stagnation that 53.9% counties tracked in the study have stagnated significantly, followed by maize (42.4%) and wheat (41.9%). As another important element for production sustainability, but often neglected is the planted area patterns. It has been further demonstrated that the loss in productive arable land for rice and wheat have dramatically increased the pressure on achieving food security. Not only a great deal of the planted areas have stagnated since 1980, but also collapsed. 48.4% and 54.4% of rice- and wheat-growing counties have lost their cropland areas to varying degrees. Besides, 27.6% and 35.8% of them have retrograded below the level of the 1980s. The combined influence (both loss in yield and area) has determined the crop sustainable production in China to be pessimistic for rice and wheat, and consequently no surprise to find that more than half of counties rank a lower level of production sustainability. Therefore, given the potential yield increase in wheat and maize, as well as substantial area loss of rice and wheat, the possible targeted adaptation measures for both yield and cropping area is required at county scale. Moreover, policies on food trade, alongside advocation of low calorie diets, reducing food loss and waste can help to enhance food security.

  2. The efficient algorithms for achieving Euclidean distance transformation.

    PubMed

    Shih, Frank Y; Wu, Yi-Ta

    2004-08-01

    Euclidean distance transformation (EDT) is used to convert a digital binary image consisting of object (foreground) and nonobject (background) pixels into another image where each pixel has a value of the minimum Euclidean distance from nonobject pixels. In this paper, the improved iterative erosion algorithm is proposed to avoid the redundant calculations in the iterative erosion algorithm. Furthermore, to avoid the iterative operations, the two-scan-based algorithm by a deriving approach is developed for achieving EDT correctly and efficiently in a constant time. Besides, we discover when obstacles appear in the image, many algorithms cannot achieve the correct EDT except our two-scan-based algorithm. Moreover, the two-scan-based algorithm does not require the additional cost of preprocessing or relative-coordinates recording.

  3. Increasing the efficiency of solar thermal panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Latinović, T.; Dobrnjac, S.; Živković, P.

    2016-08-01

    The popularity of solar heating systems is increasing for several reasons. These systems are reliable, adaptable and pollution-free, because the renewable solar energy is used. There are many variants of solar systems in the market mainly constructed with copper pipes and absorbers with different quality of absorption surface. Taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing solutions, in order to increase efficiency and improve the design of solar panel, the innovative solution has been done. This new solar panel presents connection of an attractive design and the use of constructive appropriate materials with special geometric shapes. Hydraulic and thermotechnical tests that have been performed on this panel showed high hydraulic and structural stability. Further development of the solar panel will be done in the future in order to improve some noticed disadvantages.

  4. Some methods for achieving more efficient performance of fuel assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltenko, E. A.

    2014-07-01

    More efficient operation of reactor plant fuel assemblies can be achieved through the use of new technical solutions aimed at obtaining more uniform distribution of coolant over the fuel assembly section, more intense heat removal on convex heat-transfer surfaces, and higher values of departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR). Technical solutions using which it is possible to obtain more intense heat removal on convex heat-transfer surfaces and higher DNBR values in reactor plant fuel assemblies are considered. An alternative heat removal arrangement is described using which it is possible to obtain a significantly higher power density in a reactor plant and essentially lower maximal fuel rod temperature.

  5. Reshaping Light-Emitting Diodes To Increase External Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, Robert; Egalon, Claudio

    1995-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) reshaped, according to proposal, increasing amount of light emitted by decreasing fraction of light trapped via total internal reflection. Results in greater luminous output power for same electrical input power; greater external efficiency. Furthermore, light emitted by reshaped LEDs more nearly collimated (less diffuse). Concept potentially advantageous for conventional red-emitting LEDs. More advantageous for new "blue" LEDs, because luminous outputs and efficiencies of these devices very low. Another advantage, proposed conical shapes achieved relatively easily by chemical etching of semiconductor surfaces.

  6. New York: Expanding Time, Increasing Opportunities for Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tiffany D.

    2014-01-01

    New York is poised to take an important step to improve student achievement by expanding learning time for students attending high-poverty, low-performing schools. Recent district- and state-level investments in expanded learning time--a promising strategy to close achievement and opportunity gaps--will give students more time to learn core…

  7. Has competition increased hospital technical efficiency?

    PubMed

    Lee, Keon-Hyung; Park, Jungwon; Lim, Seunghoo; Park, Sang-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Hospital competition and managed care have affected the hospital industry in various ways including technical efficiency. Hospital efficiency has become an important topic, and it is important to properly measure hospital efficiency in order to evaluate the impact of policies on the hospital industry. The primary independent variable is hospital competition. By using the 2001-2004 inpatient discharge data from Florida, we calculate the degree of hospital competition in Florida for 4 years. Hospital efficiency scores are developed using the Data Envelopment Analysis and by using the selected input and output variables from the American Hospital Association's Annual Survey of Hospitals for those acute care general hospitals in Florida. By using the hospital efficiency score as a dependent variable, we analyze the effects of hospital competition on hospital efficiency from 2001 to 2004 and find that when a hospital was located in a less competitive market in 2003, its technical efficiency score was lower than those in a more competitive market.

  8. Do Pretests Increase Student Achievement as Measured by Posttests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, Roger J.

    This report describes a study of the effects of using pretests in science classes on chapter test achievement results. The targeted population consisted of eighth grade science students at a junior high school from 1992 to 2001. Whether giving a pretest followed by a posttest at the end of the chapter, or giving only the test at chapter end…

  9. Effective Teaching Results in Increased Science Achievement for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.; Kahle, Jane Butler; Fargo, Jamison D.

    2007-01-01

    This study of teacher effectiveness and student achievement in science demonstrated that effective teachers positively impact student learning. A general linear mixed model was used to assess change in student scores on the Discovery Inquiry Test as a function of time, race, teacher effectiveness, gender, and impact of teacher effectiveness in…

  10. Teacher Research Experience Programs = Increase in Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, J.

    2010-12-01

    Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers (SRP), founded in 1990, is one of the largest, best known university-based professional development programs for science teachers in the U.S. The program’s basic premise is simple: teachers cannot effectively teach science if they have not experienced it firsthand. For eight weeks in each of two consecutive summers, teachers participate as a member of a research team, led by a member of Columbia University’s research faculty. In addition to the laboratory experience, all teachers meet as a group one day each week during the summer for a series of pedagogical activities. A unique quality of the Summer Research Program is its focus on objective assessment of its impact on attitudes and instructional practices of participating teachers, on the performance of these teachers in their mentors’ laboratories, and most importantly, on the impact of their participation in the program on student interest and performance in science. SRP uses pass rate on the New York State Regents standardized science examinations as an objective measure of student achievement. SRP's data is the first scientific evidence of a connection between a research experience for teachers program and gains in student achievement. As a result of the research, findings were published in Science Magazine. The author will present an overview of Columbia's teacher research program and the results of the published program evaluation.

  11. Algorithmic Processes for Increasing Design Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, William R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the role of algorithmic processes as a supplementary method for producing cost-effective and efficient instructional materials. Examines three approaches to problem solving in the context of developing training materials for the Naval Training Command: application of algorithms, quasi-algorithms, and heuristics. (EAO)

  12. Liquid Cooling Technology Increases Exercise Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    To keep astronauts' airtight spacesuits from becoming hot and humid, Ames Research Center developed liquid cooling garments that were integrated into each suit's long underwear. Vasper Systems, in San Jose, California, is using the technology in its liquid-cooled compression cuffs, which help people exercise more efficiently by concentrating lactic acid in their muscles.

  13. Software Cuts Homebuilding Costs, Increases Energy Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    To sort out the best combinations of technologies for a crewed mission to Mars, NASA Headquarters awarded grants to MIT's Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics to develop an algorithm-based software tool that highlights the most reliable and cost-effective options. Utilizing the software, Professor Edward Crawley founded Cambridge, Massachussetts-based Ekotrope, which helps homebuilders choose cost- and energy-efficient floor plans and materials.

  14. Strategies for Increasing Academic Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Julene; Woods, Amelia Mays

    2014-01-01

    Higher education today faces unique challenges. Decreasing student engagement, increasing diversity, and limited resources all contribute to the issues being faced by students, educators, and administrators alike. The unique characteristics and expectations that students bring to their professional programs require new methods of addressing…

  15. Increasing Student Achievement through Brain-Based Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pociask, Amanda; Settles, Jeri

    2007-01-01

    The students targeted were third and fourth grade students with learning-disabilities and seventh-eighth grade science students who exhibited poor test scores, motivation, and behaviors that negatively impacted their learning. The objective of this study was to change the level of student engagement in order to increase their academic achievement…

  16. Laboratory 2000--the challenge of achieving efficiency and compliance.

    PubMed

    Potter, J A

    2001-01-01

    Significant advances within the field of laboratory automation and instrumentation have greatly benefited the pharmaceutical industry in its quest to discover, develop and monitor the quality of its products. Necessitated by the need for efficiency and greater productivity, faster and more cost-effective means of analyses exist in the form of devices made up of complex electromechanical components, all logically controlled and most with the capability to interface with sophisticated information systems. This benefit does come with a price, a greater responsibility to ensure data quality while complying with increased regulatory requirements. Commitment to this responsibility presents a substantial challenge to scientists and managers throughout the industry. Due diligence must be demonstrated. A comprehensive evaluation of every laboratory system utilized, a solid plan of action for correcting any known deficiencies including upgrades or complete replacement, and an accurate monitoring procedure with the ability to measure progress are all absolute necessities to ensure success. Crossfunctional team effort and communication must transpire with full managerial support. Vendors need to be audited, made aware of any functional or quality inadequacies they possess as well as the pharmaceutical industry's expectation for these shortcomings to be rapidly corrected. Suppliers of these systems should also be encouraged to provide complete 'off-the-shelf solutions' to eliminate the need for in-house customization. The requirements for regulatory compliance in today's electronic environment have been well publicized. The players involved are not only listening, but also taking the necessary steps to retain and improve efficiency without sacrificing quality. With the proper measures, planning and action, a highly automated, cost-effective and compliant laboratory operation can become a reality.

  17. A modular modulation method for achieving increases in metabolite production.

    PubMed

    Acerenza, Luis; Monzon, Pablo; Ortega, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the production of overproducing strains represents a great challenge. Here, we develop a modular modulation method to determine the key steps for genetic manipulation to increase metabolite production. The method consists of three steps: (i) modularization of the metabolic network into two modules connected by linking metabolites, (ii) change in the activity of the modules using auxiliary rates producing or consuming the linking metabolites in appropriate proportions and (iii) determination of the key modules and steps to increase production. The mathematical formulation of the method in matrix form shows that it may be applied to metabolic networks of any structure and size, with reactions showing any kind of rate laws. The results are valid for any type of conservation relationships in the metabolite concentrations or interactions between modules. The activity of the module may, in principle, be changed by any large factor. The method may be applied recursively or combined with other methods devised to perform fine searches in smaller regions. In practice, it is implemented by integrating to the producer strain heterologous reactions or synthetic pathways producing or consuming the linking metabolites. The new procedure may contribute to develop metabolic engineering into a more systematic practice. PMID:25683235

  18. Increasing Efficiency in Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S.; Turner, J.

    2002-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production promises to be a renewable, clean, and efficient way of storing the sun's energy for use in hydrogen-powered fuel cells. We use p-type Ga.51In.49P semiconductor (henceforth as GaInP2) to absorb solar energy and produce a photocurrent. When the semiconductor is immersed in water, the photocurrent can break down water into hydrogen and oxygen. However, before the GaInP2 can produce hydrogen and oxygen, the conduction band and the Fermi level of the semiconductor must overlap the water redox potentials. In an unmodified system, the conduction band and Fermi level of GaInP2 do not overlap the water redox potentials. When light shines on the semiconductor, electrons build up on the surface, shifting the bandedges and Fermi level further away from overlap of the water redox potentials. We report on surface treatments with metallated porphyrins and transition metals that suppress bandedge migration and allow bandedge overlap to occur. Coating ruthenium octaethylporphyrin carbonyl (RuOEP CO) on the GaInP2 surface shifted bandedges in the positive direction by 270 mV on average, allowing the bandedges to frequently overlap the water redox potentials. Coating the GaInP2 surface with RuCl3 catalyzed charge transfer from the semiconductor to the water, lessening bandedge migration under light irradiation. Future work will focus on the long-term surface stability of these new treatments and quantitative applications of porphyrins.

  19. Hyaluronidase increases electrogene transfer efficiency in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Mennuni, Carmela; Calvaruso, Francesco; Zampaglione, Immacolata; Rizzuto, Gabriella; Rinaudo, Daniela; Dammassa, Ernesta; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Fattori, Elena; La Monica, Nicola

    2002-02-10

    Electrogene transfer (EGT) of plasmid DNA into skeletal muscle is a promising strategy for the treatment of muscle disorders and for the systemic secretion of therapeutic proteins. We report here that preinjecting hyaluronidase (HYAse) significantly increases the gene transfer efficiency of muscle EGT. Three constructs encoding mouse erythropoietin (pCMV/mEPO), secreted alkaline phosphatase (pCMV/SeAP), and luciferase (pGGluc) were electroinjected intramuscularly in BALB/c mice and rabbits with and without HYAse pretreatment. Preinjection 1 or 4 hr before EGT increased EPO gene expression by about 5-fold in mice and maintained higher gene expression than plasmid EGT alone. A similar increment in gene expression was observed on pretreatment with HYAse and electroinjection of pCMV/mEPO into rabbit tibialis muscle. The increment of gene expression in rabbits reached 17-fold on injection of plasmid pCMV/SeAP and 24-fold with plasmid pGGluc. Injection of a plasmid encoding beta-galactosidase (pCMV/beta gal/NLS) and subsequent staining with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside indicated that HYAse increased the tissue area involved in gene expression. No irreversible tissue damage was observed on histological analysis of treated muscles. HYAse is used in a variety of clinical applications, and thus the combination of HYAse pretreatment and muscle EGT may constitute an efficient gene transfer method to achieve therapeutic levels of gene expression.

  20. Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Air Force’s Air Mobility Command (AMC) is changing the way it does business. It is saving energy and money through an aircraft fleet fuel-efficiency program inspired by private industry best practices and ideas resulting from the empowered fuel savings culture.

  1. Increasing the Efficiency of Prevention Trials by Incorporating Baseline Covariates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Gilbert, Peter B

    2010-01-01

    Most randomized efficacy trials of interventions to prevent HIV or other infectious diseases have assessed intervention efficacy by a method that either does not incorporate baseline covariates, or that incorporates them in a non-robust or inefficient way. Yet, it has long been known that randomized treatment effects can be assessed with greater efficiency by incorporating baseline covariates that predict the response variable. Tsiatis et al. (2007) and Zhang et al. (2008) advocated a semiparametric efficient approach, based on the theory of Robins et al. (1994), for consistently estimating randomized treatment effects that optimally incorporates predictive baseline covariates, without any parametric assumptions. They stressed the objectivity of the approach, which is achieved by separating the modeling of baseline predictors from the estimation of the treatment effect. While their work adequately justifies implementation of the method for large Phase 3 trials (because its optimality is in terms of asymptotic properties), its performance for intermediate-sized screening Phase 2b efficacy trials, which are increasing in frequency, is unknown. Furthermore, the past work did not consider a right-censored time-to-event endpoint, which is the usual primary endpoint for a prevention trial. For Phase 2b HIV vaccine efficacy trials, we study finite-sample performance of Zhang et al.'s (2008) method for a dichotomous endpoint, and develop and study an adaptation of this method to a discrete right-censored time-to-event endpoint. We show that, given the predictive capacity of baseline covariates collected in real HIV prevention trials, the methods achieve 5-15% gains in efficiency compared to methods in current use. We apply the methods to the first HIV vaccine efficacy trial. This work supports implementation of the discrete failure time method for prevention trials. PMID:21152074

  2. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  3. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.7 Water used to achieve energy efficiency. ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section...

  4. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND... achieve energy efficiency....

  5. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.7 Water used to achieve energy efficiency....

  6. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND... achieve energy efficiency....

  7. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.7 Water used to achieve energy efficiency....

  8. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.7 Water used to achieve energy efficiency....

  9. Barriers to Achieving Textbook Multigrid Efficiency (TME) in CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, Achi

    1998-01-01

    As a guide to attaining this optimal performance for general CFD problems, the table below lists every foreseen kind of computational difficulty for achieving that goal, together with the possible ways for resolving that difficulty, their current state of development, and references. Included in the table are staggered and nonstaggered, conservative and nonconservative discretizations of viscous and inviscid, incompressible and compressible flows at various Mach numbers, as well as a simple (algebraic) turbulence model and comments on chemically reacting flows. The listing of associated computational barriers involves: non-alignment of streamlines or sonic characteristics with the grids; recirculating flows; stagnation points; discretization and relaxation on and near shocks and boundaries; far-field artificial boundary conditions; small-scale singularities (meaning important features, such as the complete airplane, which are not visible on some of the coarse grids); large grid aspect ratios; boundary layer resolution; and grid adaption.

  10. Distillation column revamp eliminates jet flooding; increases efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Arneson, A.D.; Boike, J.

    1986-10-01

    UOP's McCook, IL, plant produces a great variety of chemicals, among them many antioxidants and antiozonants which are used by gasoline producers, rubber processors and other industrial customers. Low boiling oxygenated aliphatics are stripped from high boiling nitrogenous compounds in a distillation column. In order to achieve the necessary separation, very high column reflux rates were required. This sometimes caused jet flooding which led to entrainment and contamination of the overhead streams. When the overhead streams did not meet purity specs, they had to be inventoried and later recycled. The result was unacceptably high costs and low overall unit efficiency. To correct the problem, UOP decided to revamp the column in question. The 28 original sieve trays were removed from the 28' tall, 19 1/4'' ID column, and 27 SS304 cartridge-type fabricated screen trays were installed don 12'' spacing. The closely spaced wires from which the decks of the trays are fabricated form venturi-shaped slots that allow operation in the froth regime over a wide range of conditions. Reduced entrainment and low pressure drop combine to permit use of very high vapor and liquid rates without flooding. After the revamp, UOP found that flooding problems were eliminated in the column. Pressure drop was considerably reduced, too. An increase in separation efficiency was also noticed which permitted reboiler temperatures to be lowered by 20-50/sup 0/F, and lower reflux rates to be employed. Energy requirements of the reboiler were cut by 400,000 Btu/hr at 80% of maximum column feed rate. This represented a savings of more that $16,000/yr in fuel costs on an annualized basis, calculated on 80% efficiency in the natural gas-fired furnace.

  11. Energy efficiency enhancements for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software achieved in cool silicon cluster project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinger, Frank; Mikolajick, Thomas; Fettweis, Gerhard; Hentschel, Dieter; Kolodinski, Sabine; Warnecke, Helmut; Reppe, Thomas; Tzschoppe, Christoph; Dohl, Jan; Carta, Corrado; Fritsche, David; Tretter, Gregor; Wiatr, Maciej; Detlef Kronholz, Stefan; Mikalo, Ricardo Pablo; Heinrich, Harald; Paulo, Robert; Wolf, Robert; Hübner, Johannes; Waltsgott, Johannes; Meißner, Klaus; Richter, Robert; Michler, Oliver; Bausinger, Markus; Mehlich, Heiko; Hahmann, Martin; Möller, Henning; Wiemer, Maik; Holland, Hans-Jürgen; Gärtner, Roberto; Schubert, Stefan; Richter, Alexander; Strobel, Axel; Fehske, Albrecht; Cech, Sebastian; Aßmann, Uwe; Pawlak, Andreas; Schröter, Michael; Finger, Wolfgang; Schumann, Stefan; Höppner, Sebastian; Walter, Dennis; Eisenreich, Holger; Schüffny, René

    2013-07-01

    An overview about the German cluster project Cool Silicon aiming at increasing the energy efficiency for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software is presented. Examples for achievements are: 1000 times reduced gate leakage in transistors using high-fc (HKMG) materials compared to conventional poly-gate (SiON) devices at the same technology node; 700 V transistors integrated in standard 0.35 μm CMOS; solar cell efficiencies above 19% at < 200 W/m2 irradiation; 0.99 power factor, 87% efficiency and 0.088 distortion factor for dc supplies; 1 ns synchronization resolution via Ethernet; database accelerators allowing 85% energy savings for servers; adaptive software yielding energy reduction of 73% for e-Commerce applications; processors and corresponding data links with 40% and 70% energy savings, respectively, by adaption of clock frequency and supply voltage in less than 20 ns; clock generator chip with tunable frequency from 83-666 MHz and 0.62-1.6 mW dc power; 90 Gb/s on-chip link over 6 mm and efficiency of 174 fJ/mm; dynamic biasing system doubling efficiency in power amplifiers; 60 GHz BiCMOS frontends with dc power to bandwidth ratio of 0.17 mW/MHz; driver assistance systems reducing energy consumption by 10% in cars Contribution to the Topical Issue “International Semiconductor Conference Dresden-Grenoble - ISCDG 2012”, Edited by Gérard Ghibaudo, Francis Balestra and Simon Deleonibus.

  12. Fast Reactor Subassembly Design Modifications for Increasing Electricity Generation Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; K. Hamman

    2009-09-01

    Suggested for Track 7: Advances in Reactor Core Design and In-Core Management _____________________________________________________________________________________ Fast Reactor Subassembly Design Modifications for Increasing Electricity Generation Efficiency R. Wigeland and K. Hamman Idaho National Laboratory Given the ability of fast reactors to effectively transmute the transuranic elements as are present in spent nuclear fuel, fast reactors are being considered as one element of future nuclear power systems to enable continued use and growth of nuclear power by limiting high-level waste generation. However, a key issue for fast reactors is higher electricity cost relative to other forms of nuclear energy generation. The economics of the fast reactor are affected by the amount of electric power that can be produced from a reactor, i.e., the thermal efficiency for electricity generation. The present study is examining the potential for fast reactor subassembly design changes to improve the thermal efficiency by increasing the average coolant outlet temperature without increasing peak temperatures within the subassembly, i.e., to make better use of current technology. Sodium-cooled fast reactors operate at temperatures far below the coolant boiling point, so that the maximum coolant outlet temperature is limited by the acceptable peak temperatures for the reactor fuel and cladding. Fast reactor fuel subassemblies have historically been constructed using a large number of small diameter fuel pins contained within a tube of hexagonal cross-section, or hexcan. Due to this design, there is a larger coolant flow area next to the hexcan wall as compared to flow area in the interior of the subassembly. This results in a higher flow rate near the hexcan wall, overcooling the fuel pins next to the wall, and a non-uniform coolant temperature distribution. It has been recognized for many years that this difference in sodium coolant temperature was detrimental to achieving

  13. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  14. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  15. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  16. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  17. Increasing Digging Efficiency Using Two Biologically-Inspired Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendell, Dawn; Hosoi, Peko

    2011-03-01

    The mechanics of digging through granular materials often neglect the inhomogeneities present in granular packings. This work reports on two biologically-inspired mechanisms that aim to increase the efficiency of digging through granular materials by taking advantage of the variety of forces found in granular packings. First, flexible diggers demonstrate that a slight increase in flexibility can lead to more efficient digging using a completely passive mechanism. Secondly, a digger with an actuated tip is investigated to find optimum parameters for energy efficient digging with actuated mechanisms. This work is funded by Schlumberger-Doll Research.

  18. Efficiency and equity of a gasoline tax increase

    SciTech Connect

    French, M. )

    1989-01-01

    This article evaluates the efficiency and equity of an increase in the federal gasoline tax. Such an increase is shown to be a relatively efficient source of additional federal revenues. Near-term deadweight losses in consumer welfare would be small, the tax increase would reduce the price distortions related to pollution and congestion, and near-term income losses related to macroeconomic rigidities would be comparable to losses from alternative revenue-raising options. However, an increase in the gasoline tax would not affect equally all people with the same earning power, and it would not take less from those people with less ability to pay.

  19. Increasing efficiency in intermediate band solar cells with overlapping absorptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Akshay; Krich, Jacob J.

    2016-07-01

    Intermediate band (IB) materials are promising candidates for realizing high efficiency solar cells. In IB photovoltaics, photons are absorbed in one of three possible electronic transitions—valence to conduction band, valence to intermediate band, or intermediate to conduction band. With fully concentrated sunlight, when the band gaps have been chosen appropriately, the highest efficiency IB solar cells require that these three absorptions be non-overlapping, so absorbed photons of fixed energy contribute to only one transition. The realistic case of overlapping absorptions, where the transitions compete for photons, is generally considered to be a source of loss. We show that overlapping absorptions can in fact lead to significant improvements in IB solar cell efficiencies, especially for IB that are near the middle of the band gap. At low to moderate concentration, the highest efficiency requires overlapping absorptions. We use the detailed-balance method and indicate how much overlap of the absorptions is required to achieve efficiency improvements, comparing with some known cases. These results substantially broaden the set of materials that can be suitable for high-efficiency IB solar cells.

  20. Gratings for Increasing Solid-State Laser Gain and Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Erlandson, A C; Britten, J A; Bonlie, J D

    2010-04-16

    We introduce new concepts for increasing the efficiency of solid state lasers by using gratings deposited on laser slabs or disks. The gratings improve efficiency in two ways: (1) by coupling out of the slab deleterious amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and (2) by increasing the absorption efficiency of pump light. The gratings also serve as antireflective coatings for the extracting laser beam. To evaluate the potential for such coatings to improve laser performance, we calculated optical properties of a 2500 groove/mm, tantala-silica grating on a 1cm x 4cm x 8cm titanium-doped sapphire slab and performed ray-trace calculations for ASE and pump light. Our calculations show substantial improvements in efficiency due to grating ASE-coupling properties. For example, the gratings reduce pump energy required to produce a 0.6/cm gain coefficient by 9%, 20% and 35% for pump pulse durations of 0.5 {micro}s, 1{micro}s and 3{micro}s, respectively. Gratings also increase 532-nm pump-light absorption efficiency, particularly when the product slab overall absorption is small. For example, when the single-pass absorption is 1 neper, absorption efficiency increases from 66%, without gratings, to 86%, when gratings are used.

  1. Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, B. A.; Harringa, J. L.; Russel, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by an Ames-led project team under a 4-year DOE-ITP sponsored project titled, 'Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency.' The Report serves as the project deliverable for the CPS agreement number 15015. The purpose of this project was to develop and commercialize a family of lightweight, bulk composite materials that are highly resistant to degradation by erosive and abrasive wear. These materials, based on AlMgB{sub 14}, are projected to save over 30 TBtu of energy per year when fully implemented in industrial applications, with the associated environmental benefits of eliminating the burning of 1.5 M tons/yr of coal and averting the release of 4.2 M tons/yr of CO{sub 2} into the air. This program targeted applications in the mining, drilling, machining, and dry erosion applications as key platforms for initial commercialization, which includes some of the most severe wear conditions in industry. Production-scale manufacturing of this technology has begun through a start-up company, NewTech Ceramics (NTC). This project included providing technical support to NTC in order to facilitate cost-effective mass production of the wear-resistant boride components. Resolution of issues related to processing scale-up, reduction in energy intensity during processing, and improving the quality and performance of the composites, without adding to the cost of processing were among the primary technical focus areas of this program. Compositional refinements were also investigated in order to achieve the maximum wear resistance. In addition, synthesis of large-scale, single-phase AlMgB{sub 14} powder was conducted for use as PVD sputtering targets for nanocoating applications.

  2. U.S. Public Administration Programs: Increasing Academic Achievement by Identifying and Utilizing Student Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Lorenda A; Wooldridge, Blue; Lyles, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Global economic shifts are forcing universities to become more competitive and operationally efficient. As a result, universities emphasize access, affordability, and achievement. More specifically, U.S. universities have responded by emphasizing course assessment, retention rates, and graduation rates. Both university administrators and faculty…

  3. FEMP's O & M Best Practices Guide: A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Gregory P. ); Melendez, Aldo P. ); Pugh, Ray )

    2002-10-01

    FEMP's O & M Best Practices Guide (O & M BPG) highlights O & M programs targeting energy efficiency that are estimated to save between 5% and 20% on energy bills without a significant capital investment. Depending on the Federal site, these savings can represent thousands to hundreds-of-thousands of dollars each year, and many can be achieved with minimal cash outlays. In addition to energy/resource savings, a well-run O & M program will (1)increase the safety of all staff because properly maintained equipment is safer equipment; (2)ensure the comfort, health and safety of building occupants through properly functioning equipment providing a healthy indoor environment; (3)confirm the design life expectancy of equipment is achieved; and (4)facilitate the compliance with Federal legislation such as the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act. The focus of this guide is to provide the Federal O & M/Energy manager and practitioner with information and actions aimed at achieving these savings and benefits. The O & M BPG was developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP).

  4. Improving Reading Achievement Through Increased Motivation, Specific Skill Enhancement, and Practice Time for Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecklund, Britt K.; Lamon, Kathryn M.

    2008-01-01

    The action research project report began when the teacher researchers determined that students at Sites A and B struggled with reading achievement. The purpose of the project was to improve students' reading achievement through increased motivation, specific skill instruction, and additional practice time. The project involved 26 students: 17…

  5. Food security: increasing yield and improving resource use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Parry, Martin A J; Hawkesford, Malcolm J

    2010-11-01

    Food production and security will be a major issue for supplying an increasing world population. The problem will almost certainly be exacerbated by climate change. There is a projected need to double food production by 2050. In recent times, the trend has been for incremental modest yield increases for most crops. There is an urgent need to develop integrated and sustainable approaches that will significantly increase both production per unit land area and the resource use efficiency of crops. This review considers some key processes involved in plant growth and development with some examples of ways in which molecular technology, plant breeding and genetics may increase the yield and resource use efficiency of wheat. The successful application of biotechnology to breeding is essential to provide the major increases in production required. However, each crop and each specific agricultural situation presents specific requirements and targets for optimisation. Some increases in production will come about as new varieties are developed which are able to produce satisfactory crops on marginal land presently not considered appropriate for arable crops. Other new varieties will be developed to increase both yield and resource use efficiency on the best land.

  6. Advanced Nano-Composites for Increased Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to increase energy efficiency and operating lifetime of wear-intensive industrial components and systems by developing and commercializing a family of ceramic-based monolithic composites that have shown remarkable resistance to wear in laboratory tests.

  7. An IRB Transformation: Increasing Quality and Efficiency Using Existing Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Joseph E., Jr.; Moore, J. Brian; Means, Paula; Weinberg, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to increase review-quality and efficiency, research administration at Wake Forest School of Medicine initiated a change in the operational structure of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) via a reconfiguring of the boards and rescheduling of the convened meetings. The number of IRB Panels was doubled and each panel/board began…

  8. Semiconductor technology for reducing emissions and increasing efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Duffin, B.; Frank, R.

    1997-12-31

    The cooperation and support of all industries are required to significantly impact a worldwide reduction in gaseous emissions that may contribute to climate change. Each industry also is striving to more efficiently utilize the resources that it consumes since this is both conservation for good citizenship and an intelligent approach to business. The semiconductor industry is also extremely concerned with these issues. However, semiconductor manufacturer`s products provide solutions for reduced emissions and increased efficiency in their industry, other industries and areas that can realize significant improvements through control technology. This paper will focus on semiconductor technologies of digital control, power switching and sensing to improve efficiency and reduce emissions in automotive, industrial, and office/home applications. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  9. A general strategy to achieve ultra-high gene transfection efficiency using lipid-nanoparticle composites.

    PubMed

    Vankayala, Raviraj; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Chao, Jui-I; Yuan, Chiun-Jye; Lin, Shyr-Yeu; Hwang, Kuo Chu

    2014-09-01

    Gene therapy provides a new hope for previously "incurable" diseases. Low gene transfection efficiency, however, is the bottle-neck to the success of gene therapy. It is very challenging to develop non-viral nanocarriers to achieve ultra-high gene transfection efficiencies. Herein, we report a novel design of "tight binding-but-detachable" lipid-nanoparticle composite to achieve ultrahigh gene transfection efficiencies of 60∼82%, approaching the best value (∼90%) obtained using viral vectors. We show that Fe@CNPs nanoparticles coated with LP-2000 lipid molecules can be used as gene carriers to achieve ultra-high (60-80%) gene transfection efficiencies in HeLa, U-87MG, and TRAMP-C1 cells. In contrast, Fe@CNPs having surface-covalently bound N,N,N-trimethyl-N-2-methacryloxyethyl ammonium chloride (TMAEA) oligomers can only achieve low (23-28%) gene transfection efficiencies. Similarly ultrahigh gene transfection/expression was also observed in zebrafish model using lipid-coated Fe@CNPs as gene carriers. Evidences for tight binding and detachability of DNA from lipid-nanoparticle nanocarriers will be presented. PMID:24973297

  10. A general strategy to achieve ultra-high gene transfection efficiency using lipid-nanoparticle composites.

    PubMed

    Vankayala, Raviraj; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Chao, Jui-I; Yuan, Chiun-Jye; Lin, Shyr-Yeu; Hwang, Kuo Chu

    2014-09-01

    Gene therapy provides a new hope for previously "incurable" diseases. Low gene transfection efficiency, however, is the bottle-neck to the success of gene therapy. It is very challenging to develop non-viral nanocarriers to achieve ultra-high gene transfection efficiencies. Herein, we report a novel design of "tight binding-but-detachable" lipid-nanoparticle composite to achieve ultrahigh gene transfection efficiencies of 60∼82%, approaching the best value (∼90%) obtained using viral vectors. We show that Fe@CNPs nanoparticles coated with LP-2000 lipid molecules can be used as gene carriers to achieve ultra-high (60-80%) gene transfection efficiencies in HeLa, U-87MG, and TRAMP-C1 cells. In contrast, Fe@CNPs having surface-covalently bound N,N,N-trimethyl-N-2-methacryloxyethyl ammonium chloride (TMAEA) oligomers can only achieve low (23-28%) gene transfection efficiencies. Similarly ultrahigh gene transfection/expression was also observed in zebrafish model using lipid-coated Fe@CNPs as gene carriers. Evidences for tight binding and detachability of DNA from lipid-nanoparticle nanocarriers will be presented.

  11. Cascaded OPGaAs OPO for increased longwave efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feaver, R. K.; Peterson, R. D.; Haus, J. W.; Powers, P. E.

    2015-03-01

    Optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) producing longwave output from a much shorter pump wavelength suffer from low conversion efficiency into the idler due to the large quantum defect compared with similar devices operating in the 3 - 5 μm regime. One method to increase pump to idler conversion efficiency is to recycle the undesired and higher energy signal photons into additional idler photons in a second nonlinear stage. We present numerical simulation results showing the improvement in efficiency that can be obtained in a linear, two stage, cascaded orientation patterned gallium arsenide (OPGaAs) nanosecond OPO. It includes diffraction, crystal loss, phase mismatch, pump depletion, and back conversion; and it assumes monochromatic waves but it neglects group velocity dispersion. For a singly resonant oscillator (SRO) pumped by a 2.054 μm Tm:Ho,YLF laser with 45 ns pulse widths, the addition of the second crystal in the cavity increases idler generation by overall factor of two and exceeds the quantum defect limit. The model has been validated by comparison with SNLO for the case of a single-stage OPO, and suggests crystal and resonator parameters that will lead to an optimized cascaded OPO.

  12. Increasing Women's Aspirations and Achievement in Science: The Effect of Role Models on Implicit Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Julie E.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the role of implicit science beliefs in the gender gap in science aspirations and achievement, with the goal of testing identification with a female role model as a potential intervention strategy for increasing women's representation in science careers. At Time 1, women's implicit science stereotyping (i.e., associating…

  13. Coteachers' Attitudes and Perceptions of Coteaching Strategies on Increasing Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohaya, Ngozi Chidinma

    2014-01-01

    Meeting the goal of increasing academic achievement for students with disabilities in general education classes remains a challenge in the research district's high schools. Coteachers need to know if the teaching strategies of Project Instruction, Collaboration, and Environment, known as Project ICE, are effective in addressing the problem of poor…

  14. Light increases energy transfer efficiency in a boreal stream.

    PubMed

    Lesutienė, Jūratė; Gorokhova, Elena; Stankevičienė, Daiva; Bergman, Eva; Greenberg, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Periphyton communities of a boreal stream were exposed to different light and nutrient levels to estimate energy transfer efficiency from primary to secondary producers using labeling with inorganic (13)C. In a one-day field experiment, periphyton grown in fast-flow conditions and dominated by opportunistic green algae were exposed to light levels corresponding to sub-saturating (forest shade) and saturating (open stream section) irradiances, and to N and P nutrient additions. In a two-week laboratory experiment, periphyton grown in low-flow conditions and dominated by slowly growing diatoms were incubated under two sub-saturating light and nutrient enrichment levels as well as grazed and non-grazed conditions. Light had significant positive effect on (13)C uptake by periphyton. In the field experiment, P addition had a positive effect on (13)C uptake but only at sub-saturating light levels, whereas in the laboratory experiment nutrient additions had no effect on the periphyton biomass, (13)C uptake, biovolume and community composition. In the laboratory experiment, the grazer (caddisfly) effect on periphyton biomass specific (13)C uptake and nutrient content was much stronger than the effects of light and nutrients. In particular, grazers significantly reduced periphyton biomass and increased biomass specific (13)C uptake and C:nutrient ratios. The energy transfer efficiency, estimated as a ratio between (13)C uptake by caddisfly and periphyton, was positively affected by light conditions, whereas the nutrient effect was not significant. We suggest that the observed effects on energy transfer were related to the increased diet contribution of highly palatable green algae, stimulated by higher light levels. Also, high heterotrophic microbial activity under low light levels would facilitate energy loss through respiration and decrease overall trophic transfer efficiency. These findings suggest that even a small increase in light intensity could result in community

  15. Increasing the Cost-efficiency of the DSN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, Joseph I.; Berner, Jeff B.

    2008-01-01

    JPL has operated the Deep Space Network (DSN) on behalf of NASA since the 1960's. Over the last two decades, the DSN budget has generally declined in real-year dollars while the aging assets required more attention, and the missions became more complex. As a result, the budget has been increasingly consumed by Operations and Maintenance (O and M), significantly reducing the funding wedge available for technology investment and for enhancing the DSN capability and capacity. Responding to this budget squeeze, the DSN launched an effort to improve the cost-efficiency of the O and M. In this paper we: Analyze the components of O&M. We note for example that, for the DSN, less than 20% of the staff engage in the traditional human-in-front-a-console role, so any effort to increase the cost efficiency must go beyond reducing the number of "Real-time operators." Explain the underlying organizational and cultural structures. Any cost-efficiency activities changes either accept, or carefully modify these structures. For example, the DSN O&M is based on the concept that there are three nearly identical antenna complexes separated by approximately 1200 in latitude and that each antenna complex is operated by a different contractor (driven by international agreements). Explore planned changes in the customer interface, e.g. web-based automated scheduling, and the processes required for a transition. Changes have to be evaluated in the larger end-to-end context, e.g. do the changes provide a net cost-efficiency for the DSN and the missions, or do they merely shift cost from the DSN to the missions. Consider possible significant changes in real-time pass management, e.g. full-remoting of operations, and lights-dim operations, while maintaining (or improving) the performance metrics of the DSN. Investigate how procedural and administrative changes could increase cost-efficiency, in conjunction with changes in the customer interfaces and real-time pass management. Examples would be

  16. Thermodynamic and achievable efficiencies for solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenesh R; Clark, Ezra L; Bell, Alexis T

    2015-11-10

    Thermodynamic, achievable, and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven electrochemical conversion of water and carbon dioxide to fuels are investigated as functions of light-absorber composition and configuration, and catalyst composition. The maximum thermodynamic efficiency at 1-sun illumination for adiabatic electrochemical synthesis of various solar fuels is in the range of 32-42%. Single-, double-, and triple-junction light absorbers are found to be optimal for electrochemical load ranges of 0-0.9 V, 0.9-1.95 V, and 1.95-3.5 V, respectively. Achievable solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies are determined using ideal double- and triple-junction light absorbers and the electrochemical load curves for CO2 reduction on silver and copper cathodes, and water oxidation kinetics over iridium oxide. The maximum achievable STF efficiencies for synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and Hythane (H2 and CH4) are 18.4% and 20.3%, respectively. Whereas the realistic STF efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) can be as low as 0.8%, tandem PECs and photovoltaic (PV)-electrolyzers can operate at 7.2% under identical operating conditions. We show that the composition and energy content of solar fuels can also be adjusted by tuning the band-gaps of triple-junction light absorbers and/or the ratio of catalyst-to-PV area, and that the synthesis of liquid products and C2H4 have high profitability indices.

  17. Thermodynamic and achievable efficiencies for solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Meenesh R.; Clark, Ezra L.; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic, achievable, and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven electrochemical conversion of water and carbon dioxide to fuels are investigated as functions of light-absorber composition and configuration, and catalyst composition. The maximum thermodynamic efficiency at 1-sun illumination for adiabatic electrochemical synthesis of various solar fuels is in the range of 32–42%. Single-, double-, and triple-junction light absorbers are found to be optimal for electrochemical load ranges of 0–0.9 V, 0.9–1.95 V, and 1.95–3.5 V, respectively. Achievable solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies are determined using ideal double- and triple-junction light absorbers and the electrochemical load curves for CO2 reduction on silver and copper cathodes, and water oxidation kinetics over iridium oxide. The maximum achievable STF efficiencies for synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and Hythane (H2 and CH4) are 18.4% and 20.3%, respectively. Whereas the realistic STF efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) can be as low as 0.8%, tandem PECs and photovoltaic (PV)-electrolyzers can operate at 7.2% under identical operating conditions. We show that the composition and energy content of solar fuels can also be adjusted by tuning the band-gaps of triple-junction light absorbers and/or the ratio of catalyst-to-PV area, and that the synthesis of liquid products and C2H4 have high profitability indices. PMID:26504215

  18. Thermodynamic and achievable efficiencies for solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Meenesh R.; Clark, Ezra L.; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-11-01

    Thermodynamic, achievable, and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven electrochemical conversion of water and carbon dioxide to fuels are investigated as functions of light-absorber composition and configuration, and catalyst composition. The maximum thermodynamic efficiency at 1-sun illumination for adiabatic electrochemical synthesis of various solar fuels is in the range of 32-42%. Single-, double-, and triple-junction light absorbers are found to be optimal for electrochemical load ranges of 0-0.9 V, 0.9-1.95 V, and 1.95-3.5 V, respectively. Achievable solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies are determined using ideal double- and triple-junction light absorbers and the electrochemical load curves for CO2 reduction on silver and copper cathodes, and water oxidation kinetics over iridium oxide. The maximum achievable STF efficiencies for synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and Hythane (H2 and CH4) are 18.4% and 20.3%, respectively. Whereas the realistic STF efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) can be as low as 0.8%, tandem PECs and photovoltaic (PV)-electrolyzers can operate at 7.2% under identical operating conditions. We show that the composition and energy content of solar fuels can also be adjusted by tuning the band-gaps of triple-junction light absorbers and/or the ratio of catalyst-to-PV area, and that the synthesis of liquid products and C2H4 have high profitability indices.

  19. Thermodynamic and achievable efficiencies for solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenesh R; Clark, Ezra L; Bell, Alexis T

    2015-11-10

    Thermodynamic, achievable, and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven electrochemical conversion of water and carbon dioxide to fuels are investigated as functions of light-absorber composition and configuration, and catalyst composition. The maximum thermodynamic efficiency at 1-sun illumination for adiabatic electrochemical synthesis of various solar fuels is in the range of 32-42%. Single-, double-, and triple-junction light absorbers are found to be optimal for electrochemical load ranges of 0-0.9 V, 0.9-1.95 V, and 1.95-3.5 V, respectively. Achievable solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies are determined using ideal double- and triple-junction light absorbers and the electrochemical load curves for CO2 reduction on silver and copper cathodes, and water oxidation kinetics over iridium oxide. The maximum achievable STF efficiencies for synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and Hythane (H2 and CH4) are 18.4% and 20.3%, respectively. Whereas the realistic STF efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) can be as low as 0.8%, tandem PECs and photovoltaic (PV)-electrolyzers can operate at 7.2% under identical operating conditions. We show that the composition and energy content of solar fuels can also be adjusted by tuning the band-gaps of triple-junction light absorbers and/or the ratio of catalyst-to-PV area, and that the synthesis of liquid products and C2H4 have high profitability indices. PMID:26504215

  20. Endurance training increases the efficiency of rat skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Koziel, Agnieszka; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej; Celichowski, Jan; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-10-01

    Endurance training enhances mitochondrial oxidative capacity, but its effect on mitochondria functioning is poorly understood. In the present study, the influence of an 8-week endurance training on the bioenergetic functioning of rat skeletal muscle mitochondria under different assay temperatures (25, 35, and 42 °C) was investigated. The study was performed on 24 adult 4-month-old male Wistar rats, which were randomly assigned to either a treadmill training group (n = 12) or a sedentary control group (n = 12). In skeletal muscles, endurance training stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity. In isolated mitochondria, endurance training increased the phosphorylation rate and elevated levels of coenzyme Q. Moreover, a decrease in mitochondrial uncoupling, including uncoupling protein-mediated proton leak, was observed after training, which could explain the increased reactive oxygen species production (in nonphosphorylating mitochondria) and enhanced oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. At all studied temperatures, endurance training significantly augmented H2O2 production (and coenzyme Q reduction level) in nonphosphorylating mitochondria and decreased H2O2 production (and coenzyme Q reduction level) in phosphorylating mitochondria. Endurance training magnified the hyperthermia-induced increase in oxidative capacity and attenuated the hyperthermia-induced decline in oxidative phosphorylation efficiency and reactive oxygen species formation of nonphosphorylating mitochondria via proton leak enhancement. Thus, endurance training induces both quantitative and qualitative changes in muscle mitochondria that are important for cell signaling as well as for maintaining muscle energy homeostasis, especially at high temperatures. PMID:27568192

  1. Enhanced Aromatic Sequons Increase Oligosaccharyltransferase Glycosylation Efficiency and Glycan Homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Murray, Amber N; Chen, Wentao; Antonopoulos, Aristotelis; Hanson, Sarah R; Wiseman, R Luke; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart M; Powers, David L; Powers, Evan T; Kelly, Jeffery W

    2015-08-20

    N-Glycosylation plays an important role in protein folding and function. Previous studies demonstrate that a phenylalanine residue introduced at the n-2 position relative to an Asn-Xxx-Thr/Ser N-glycosylation sequon increases the glycan occupancy of the sequon in insect cells. Here, we show that any aromatic residue at n-2 increases glycan occupancy in human cells and that this effect is dependent upon oligosaccharyltransferase substrate preferences rather than differences in other cellular processing events such as degradation or trafficking. Moreover, aromatic residues at n-2 alter glycan processing in the Golgi, producing proteins with less complex N-glycan structures. These results demonstrate that manipulating the sequence space surrounding N-glycosylation sequons is useful both for controlling glycosylation efficiency, thus enhancing glycan occupancy, and for influencing the N-glycan structures produced. PMID:26190824

  2. Increasing women's aspirations and achievement in science: The effect of role models on implicit cognitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, Julie E.

    This research investigated the role of implicit science beliefs in the gender gap in science aspirations and achievement, with the goal of testing identification with a female role model as a potential intervention strategy for increasing women's representation in science careers. At Time 1, women's implicit science stereotyping (i.e., associating men more than women with science) was linked to more negative (implicit and explicit) attitudes towards science and less identification with science. For men, stereotypes were either non-significantly or positively related to science attitudes and identification. Time 2 examined the influence of implicit and explicit science cognitions on students' science aspirations and achievement, and found that implicit stereotyping, attitudes, and identification were all unique predictors of science aspirations, but not achievement. Of more importance, Time 2 examined the influence of science role models, and found that identification with a role model of either gender reduced women's implicit science stereotyping and increased their positive attitudes toward science. Implications for decreasing the gender gap in advanced science achievement are discussed.

  3. Increasing Mathematics and Science Achievement for Culturally Diverse Students through Teaching Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahon, Lee

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal was to field test and evaluate a Teacher Training program that would prepare teachers to increase the motivation and achievement of culturally diverse students in the areas of science and mathematics. Designed as a three year program, this report covers the first two years of the training program at the Ronald McNair School in the Ravenswood School district, using the resources of the NASA Ames Research Center and the California Framework for Mathematics and Science.

  4. Thyroid hormone increases bulk histones expression by enhancing translational efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Alberto; García-Carpizo, Verónica; Villamuera, Raquel; Aranda, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The expression of canonical histones is normally coupled to DNA synthesis during the S phase of the cell cycle. Replication-dependent histone mRNAs do not contain a poly(A) tail at their 3' terminus, but instead possess a stem-loop motif, the binding site for the stem-loop binding protein (SLBP), which regulates mRNA processing, stability, and relocation to polysomes. Here we show that the thyroid hormone can increase the levels of canonical histones independent of DNA replication. Incubation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with T3 increases the total levels of histones, and expression of the thyroid hormone receptor β induces a further increase. This is not restricted to mouse embryonic fibroblasts, because T3 also raises histone expression in other cell lines. T3 does not increase histone mRNA or SLBP levels, suggesting that T3 regulates histone expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism. Indeed, T3 enhanced translational efficiency, inducing relocation of histone mRNA to heavy polysomes. Increased translation was associated with augmented transcription of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 γ2 (EIF4G2). T3 induced EIF4G2 protein and mRNA levels and the thyroid hormone receptor bound to the promoter region of the Eif4g2 gene. Induction of EIF4G2 was essential for T3-dependent histone induction, because depletion of this factor abolished histone increase. These results point out the importance of the thyroid hormones on the posttranscriptional regulation of histone biosynthesis in a cell cycle-independent manner and also suggest the potential regulation of eukaryotic translation by the modulation of the initiation factor EIF4G2, which also operates in the translation of canonical mRNAs.

  5. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  6. Controlling surface enrichment in polymeric hole extraction layers to achieve high-efficiency organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hun; Lim, Kyung-Geun; Park, Jong Hyeok; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2012-10-01

    Hole extraction in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) can be modulated by a surface-enriched layer formed on top of the conducting polymer-based hole extraction layer (HEL). This tunes the surface work function of the HEL to better align with the ionization potential of the polymeric photoactive layer. Results show noticeable improvement in device power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in OPVs. We achieved a 6.1 % PCE from the OPV by optimizing the surface-enriched layer.

  7. Increased structure and active learning reduce the achievement gap in introductory biology.

    PubMed

    Haak, David C; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Pitre, Emile; Freeman, Scott

    2011-06-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics instructors have been charged with improving the performance and retention of students from diverse backgrounds. To date, programs that close the achievement gap between students from disadvantaged versus nondisadvantaged educational backgrounds have required extensive extramural funding. We show that a highly structured course design, based on daily and weekly practice with problem-solving, data analysis, and other higher-order cognitive skills, improved the performance of all students in a college-level introductory biology class and reduced the achievement gap between disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged students--without increased expenditures. These results support the Carnegie Hall hypothesis: Intensive practice, via active-learning exercises, has a disproportionate benefit for capable but poorly prepared students.

  8. From Guide to Practice: Improving Your After School Science Program to Increase Student Academic Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous science organizations, such as NASA, offer educational outreach activities geared towards after school. For some programs, the primary goal is to grow students' love of science. For others, the programs are also intended to increase academic achievement. For those programs looking to support student learning in out-of-school time environments, aligning the program with learning during the classroom day can be a challenge. The Institute for Education Sciences, What Works Clearinghouse, put together a 'Practice Guide' for maximizing learning time beyond the regular school day. These practice guides provide concrete recommendations for educators supported by research. While this guide is not specific to any content or subject-area, the recommendations provided align very well with science education. After school science is often viewed as a fun, dynamic environment for students. Indeed, one of the recommendations to ensure time is structured according to students' needs is to provide relevant and interesting experiences. Given that our after school programs provide such creative environments for students, what other components are needed to promote increased academic achievement? The recommendations provided to academic achievement, include: 1. Align Instruction, 2. Maximize Attendance and Participation, 3. Adapt Instruction, 4. Provide Engaging Experiences, and 5. Evaluate Program. In this session we will examine these five recommendations presented in the Practice Guide, discuss how these strategies align with science programs, and examine what questions each program should address in order to provide experiences that lend themselves to maximizing instruction. Roadblocks and solutions for overcoming challenges in each of the five areas will be presented. Jessica Taylor will present this research based on her role as an author on the Practice Guide, 'Improving Academic Achievement in Out-of-School Time' and her experience working in various informal science

  9. Bilingual communication methods, text versus video, to increase parent involvement and science fair project student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clevenson, Rhonda Suzanne

    This research examined the responses of families to bilingual communication methods, text versus video, designed to facilitate school to home communication to increase parent involvement and seventh grade student achievement in the science fair project. Using an experimental design, 161 families were randomly selected to receive either a two part informational text or video series during the science fair unit taught at a culturally diverse urban middle school. The bilingual informational materials were created and produced by the staff at the research site. Measures were taken to make sure all families could access the informational materials and innovations such as a special travel envelope and reminding procedures aided data collection. Surveys measuring variables on a Likert scale with spaces for comments were collected from the parents and students. An interrater reliability study was completed to measure the agreement of the two teachers who used a grading checklist to score science fair project achievement. Quantitative methods including ANOVA and MLR were used to examine the data in terms of student achievement and the communication method (text or video), audience (students and parents), and the anticipated outcome (parent help). Nonparametric and qualitative data analyses were used to explore how families used and responded to the informational materials. Significant results were that the video communication method was positively associated with student achievement on the science fair project. Significant main effects were observed for the student characteristics, educational services (general and special education, and English as a Second Language), and previous achievement in science, and the parent characteristics, previous experience with science fair projects, primary viewing language (English or Spanish), and expectations for student achievement. Student achievement was not significantly related to the amount or usefulness of parent help. The amount

  10. Device engineering of perovskite solar cells to achieve near ideal efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Sumanshu E-mail: prnair@ee.iitb.ac.in; Nair, Pradeep R. E-mail: prnair@ee.iitb.ac.in

    2015-09-21

    Despite the exciting recent research on perovskite based solar cells, the design space for further optimization and the practical limits of efficiency are not well known in the community. In this letter, we address these aspects through theoretical calculations and detailed numerical simulations. Here, we first provide the detailed balance limit efficiency in the presence of radiative and Auger recombination. Then, using coupled optical and carrier transport simulations, we identify the physical mechanisms that contribute towards bias dependent carrier collection, and hence low fill factors of current perovskite based solar cells. Our detailed simulations indicate that it is indeed possible to achieve efficiencies and fill factors greater than 25% and 85%, respectively, with near ideal super-position characteristics even in the presence of Auger recombination.

  11. Increasing computational efficiency of cochlear models using boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhairy, Samiya A.; Shera, Christopher A.

    2015-12-01

    Our goal is to develop methods to improve the efficiency of computational models of the cochlea for applications that require the solution accurately only within a basal region of interest, specifically by decreasing the number of spatial sections needed for simulation of the problem with good accuracy. We design algebraic spatial and parametric transformations to computational models of the cochlea. These transformations are applied after the basal region of interest and allow for spatial preservation, driven by the natural characteristics of approximate spatial causality of cochlear models. The project is of foundational nature and hence the goal is to design, characterize and develop an understanding and framework rather than optimization and globalization. Our scope is as follows: designing the transformations; understanding the mechanisms by which computational load is decreased for each transformation; development of performance criteria; characterization of the results of applying each transformation to a specific physical model and discretization and solution schemes. In this manuscript, we introduce one of the proposed methods (complex spatial transformation) for a case study physical model that is a linear, passive, transmission line model in which the various abstraction layers (electric parameters, filter parameters, wave parameters) are clearer than other models. This is conducted in the frequency domain for multiple frequencies using a second order finite difference scheme for discretization and direct elimination for solving the discrete system of equations. The performance is evaluated using two developed simulative criteria for each of the transformations. In conclusion, the developed methods serve to increase efficiency of a computational traveling wave cochlear model when spatial preservation can hold, while maintaining good correspondence with the solution of interest and good accuracy, for applications in which the interest is in the solution

  12. Tuning charge balance in PHOLEDs with ambipolar host materials to achieve high efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Koech, Phillip K.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Chopra, Neetu; So, Franky; Sapochak, Linda S.; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2009-08-27

    The efficiency and stability of blue organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) continue to be a primary roadblock to developing organic solid state white lighting. For OLEDs to meet the high power conversion efficiency goal, they will require both close to 100% internal quantum efficiency and low operating voltage in a white light emitting device.1 It is generally accepted that such high quantum efficiency, can only be achieved with the use of organometallic phosphor doped OLEDs. Blue OLEDs are particularly important for solid state lighting. The simplest (and therefore likely the lowest cost) method of generating white light is to down convert part of the emission from a blue light source with a system of external phosphors.2 A second method of generating white light requires the superposition of the light from red, green and blue OLEDs in the correct ratio. Either of these two methods (and indeed any method of generating white light with a high color rendering index) critically depends on a high efficiency blue light component.3 A simple OLED generally consists of a hole-injecting anode, a preferentially hole transporting organic layer (HTL), an emissive layer that contains the recombination zone and ideally transports both holes and electrons, a preferentially electron-transporting layer (ETL) and an electron-injecting cathode. Color in state-of-the-art OLEDs is generated by an organometallic phosphor incorporated by co-sublimation into the emissive layer (EML).4 New materials functioning as hosts, emitters, charge transporting, and charge blocking layers have been developed along with device architectures leading to electrophosphorescent based OLEDs with high quantum efficiencies near the theoretical limit. However, the layers added to the device architecture to enable high quantum efficiencies lead to higher operating voltages and correspondingly lower power efficiencies. Achievement of target luminance power efficiencies will require new strategies for lowering

  13. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve Advances in Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hollomon, Brad

    2003-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Defense Logistics Agency, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently conducted a technology procurement to increase the availability of energy-efficient, packaged unitary ''rooftop'' air conditioners. The procurement encouraged air conditioner manufacturers to produce equipment that exceeded US energy efficiency standards by at least 25% at a lower life-cycle cost. An outgrowth of the project, a web-based cost estimator tool is now available to help consumers determine the cost-effectiveness of purchasing energy-efficient air conditioners based on climate conditions and other factors at their own locations.

  14. Increased efficiency of topping cycle PCFB power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W.; Horazak, D.

    1996-05-01

    Pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) power plants offer the power industry significantly increased efficiencies with reduced costs of electricity and lower emissions. When topping combustion is incorporated in the plant, these advantages are enhanced. In the plant, coal is fed to a pressurized carbonizer that produces a low-Btu fuel gas and char. After passing through a cyclone and ceramic barrier filter to remove gas-entrained particulates and a packed bed of emathelite pellets to remove alkali vapors. the fuel gas is burned in a topping combustor to produce the energy required to drive a gas turbine. The gas turbine drives a generator combustor, and a fluidized bed heat exchanger (FBHE). The carbonizer char is burned in the PCFB and the exhaust gas passes through its own cyclone, ceramic barrier filter, and alkali getter and supports combustion of the fuel gas in the topping combustor. Steam generated in a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) downstream of the gas turbine and in the FBHE associated with the PCFB drives the steam turbine generator that furnishes the balance of electric power delivered by the plant.

  15. Increasing power plant efficiency with an ammonia bottoming cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, S.G.; Johnson, B.M.

    1983-08-01

    A Rankine cycle with ammonia as the working fluid was examined for operation between the condenser and cooling tower of a typical steam-cycle power plant. During periods of cold ambient temperature this ammonia bottoming cycle increases the net output of the plant as much as 10% by improving the net thermal efficiency. The levelized cost of this extra power was estimated to be as little as 50 mills/kWh in colder climates. This paper highlights a study conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using these ammonia bottoming cycles in air-cooled power plants. The thermodynamic and heat transfer properties of ammonia make it the best choice to serve the dual purpose of a heat transfer medium and a thermodynamic working fluid. Several operational modes are discussed, including the possibility of replacing the entire low-pressure steam turbine with an ammonia turbine. Costs, however, are estimated only for the case of a typical steam-cycle power plant with steam condensing at 120/sup 0/F or less.

  16. Increasing power plant efficiency with an ammonia bottoming cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, S.G.; Johnson, B.M.

    1983-08-01

    A Rankine cycle with ammonia as the working fluid was examined for operation between the condenser and cooling tower of a typical steam-cycle power plant. During periods of cold ambient temperature this ammonia bottoming cycle increases the net output of the plant as much as 10% by improving the net thermal efficiency. The levelized cost of this extra power was estimated to be as little as 50 mills/kWh in colder climates. This paper highlights a study conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using these ammonia bottoming cycles in air-cooled power plants. The thermodynamic and heat transfer properties of ammonia make it the best choice to serve the dual purpose of a heat transfer medium and a thermodynamic working fluid. Several operational modes are discussed, including the possibility of replacing the entire low-pressure steam turbine with an ammonia turbine. Costs, however, are estimated only for the case of a typical steam-cycle power plant with steam condensing at 120/sup 0/F or less.

  17. Innovative strategy with potential to increase hemodialysis efficiency and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Mai, Fu-Der; Liu, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Chun-Mao; Chang, Chun-Chao; Tsai, Hui-Yen; Yang, Chih-Ping

    2014-03-01

    Uremic toxins are mainly represented by blood urine nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Crea) whose removal is critically important in hemodialysis (HD) for kidney disease. Patients undergoing HD have a complex illness, resulting from: inadequate removal of organic waste, dialysis-induced oxidative stress and membrane-induced inflammation. Here we report innovative breakthroughs for efficient and safe HD by using a plasmon-induced dialysate comprising Au nanoparticles (NPs)-treated (AuNT) water that is distinguishable from conventional deionized (DI) water. The diffusion coefficient of K3Fe(CN)6 in saline solution can be significantly increased from 2.76, to 4.62 × 10-6 cm s-1, by using AuNT water prepared under illumination by green light-emitting diodes (LED). In vitro HD experiments suggest that the treatment times for the removals of 70% BUN and Crea are reduced by 47 and 59%, respectively, using AuNT water instead of DI water in dialysate, while additionally suppressing NO release from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cells.

  18. Meditation training increases brain efficiency in an attention task.

    PubMed

    Kozasa, Elisa H; Sato, João R; Lacerda, Shirley S; Barreiros, Maria A M; Radvany, João; Russell, Tamara A; Sanches, Liana G; Mello, Luiz E A M; Amaro, Edson

    2012-01-01

    Meditation is a mental training, which involves attention and the ability to maintain focus on a particular object. In this study we have applied a specific attentional task to simply measure the performance of the participants with different levels of meditation experience, rather than evaluating meditation practice per se or task performance during meditation. Our objective was to evaluate the performance of regular meditators and non-meditators during an fMRI adapted Stroop Word-Colour Task (SWCT), which requires attention and impulse control, using a block design paradigm. We selected 20 right-handed regular meditators and 19 non-meditators matched for age, years of education and gender. Participants had to choose the colour (red, blue or green) of single words presented visually in three conditions: congruent, neutral and incongruent. Non-meditators showed greater activity than meditators in the right medial frontal, middle temporal, precentral and postcentral gyri and the lentiform nucleus during the incongruent conditions. No regions were more activated in meditators relative to non-meditators in the same comparison. Non-meditators showed an increased pattern of brain activation relative to regular meditators under the same behavioural performance level. This suggests that meditation training improves efficiency, possibly via improved sustained attention and impulse control.

  19. Efficient watermarking system with increased reliability for video authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winne, Dominique A.; Knowles, Henry D.; Bull, David R.; Canagarajah, C. N.

    2003-06-01

    The widespread adoption of digital video techniques has generated a requirement for authenticity verification in applications such as criminal evidence, insurance claims and commercial databases. This paper extends our previous work and improves the watermark estimation procedure of a spatial digital video watermarking system designed to detect and characterize time-base attacks. Most watermark extraction processes utilize the noise masking levels of the image. These levels change during transmission, especially when the host signal is compressed at low bit-rates. The blocking artifacts that are introduced by this process modify the noise masking levels and influence the ability to form a good estimate of the embedded watermark. This paper describes a novel filter procedure to eliminate these artifacts from the noise masking levels. The efficiency is compared with the standard MPEG-4 deblocking and deringing filters. Extracting the watermark from only the encoded Macroblocks, excluding the skipped Macroblocks improves the performance significantly without an increase in computational complexity. The functionality of this system within an MPEG-4 implementation is demonstrated with a receiver operating characteristic.

  20. Proportion of corn silage in diets of feedlot steers fed to achieve stepwise increases in growth.

    PubMed

    Rossi, J E; Loerch, S C

    2001-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of proportion of dietary corn silage during periods of feed restriction on performance of steers. In Exp. 1, Simmental x Angus steer calves (n = 107; initial BW = 273 +/- 3.8 kg) were allotted to 12 pens with eight or nine steers/pen and four pens/treatment. Periods of growth were 273 to 366 kg BW (Period 1), 367 to 501 kg BW (Period 2), and 502 to 564 kg BW (Period 3). In two of the dietary regimens, steers were given ad libitum access to feed throughout the experiment and were fed either a 15% corn silage diet in each period or an 85, 50, and 15% corn silage diet in Periods 1, 2, and 3; respectively. In the third feeding regimen, a programmed intake feeding regimen was used. Steers were fed a 15% corn silage diet in each period. However, feed intake was restricted to achieve a predicted gain of 1.13 kg/d in Period 1 and 1.36 kg/d in Period 2, and feed was offered for ad libitum consumption in Period 3. For the entire experiment, ADG was similar (P = 0.41) among treatments and feed efficiency was lower (P < 0.10) for steers in the corn silage regimen than for steers in the programmed intake and ad libitum regimens. In Exp. 2, Simmental x Angus steer calves (n = 106; initial BW = 233 +/- 2 kg) were allotted by BW to 12 pens (three pens/treatment) and fed in three periods similar to those described in Exp. 1. Four feeding regimens were investigated: 1) AL; steers were offered a 15% corn silage diet for ad libitum consumption in all three periods; 2) PI; DMI was programmed to achieve gains as described in Exp. 1; 3) CS-HLL; programmed intake as described above except diets contained 85, 15, and 15% corn silage in Periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and 4) CS-HIL; same feeding regimens as CS-HLL, except diets contained 85, 50, and 15% corn silage in Periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Steers were given ad libitum access to feed in Period 3. Overall ADG was lower (P < 0.05) for steers in the CS-HLL and CS

  1. Achievement-Relevant Personality: Relations with the Big Five and Validation of an Efficient Instrument.

    PubMed

    Briley, Daniel A; Domiteaux, Matthew; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2014-05-01

    Many achievement-relevant personality measures (APMs) have been developed, but the interrelations among APMs or associations with the broader personality landscape are not well-known. In Study 1, 214 participants were measured on 36 APMs and a measure of the Big Five. Factor analytic results supported the convergent and discriminant validity of five latent dimensions: performance, mastery, self-doubt, effort, and intellectual investment. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience had the most consistent associations with APMs. We constructed a more efficient scale- the Multidimensional Achievement-Relevant Personality Scale (MAPS). In Study 2, we replicated the factor structure and external correlates of the MAPS in a sample of 359 individuals. Finally, we validated the MAPS with four indicators of academic performance and demonstrated incremental validity.

  2. Achievement-Relevant Personality: Relations with the Big Five and Validation of an Efficient Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Briley, Daniel A.; Domiteaux, Matthew; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2014-01-01

    Many achievement-relevant personality measures (APMs) have been developed, but the interrelations among APMs or associations with the broader personality landscape are not well-known. In Study 1, 214 participants were measured on 36 APMs and a measure of the Big Five. Factor analytic results supported the convergent and discriminant validity of five latent dimensions: performance, mastery, self-doubt, effort, and intellectual investment. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience had the most consistent associations with APMs. We constructed a more efficient scale– the Multidimensional Achievement-Relevant Personality Scale (MAPS). In Study 2, we replicated the factor structure and external correlates of the MAPS in a sample of 359 individuals. Finally, we validated the MAPS with four indicators of academic performance and demonstrated incremental validity. PMID:24839374

  3. III-V photocathode with nitrogen doping for increased quantum efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, L. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An increase in the quantum efficiency of a 3-5 photocathode is achieved by doping its semiconductor material with an acceptor and nitrogen, a column-5 isoelectronic element, that introduces a spatially localized energy level just below the conduction band similar to a donor level to which optical transitions can occur. This increases the absorption coefficient, alpha without compensation of the acceptor dopant. A layer of a suitable 1-5, 1-6 or 1-7 compound is included as an activation layer on the electron emission side to lower the work function of the photocathode.

  4. Ion-beam sputtering increases solar-cell efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, D. E.; Dubow, J. B.; Sites, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Ion-beam sputtering, fabrication of oxide-semiconductor-on-silicon (OSOS) solar cells, results in cells of 12% efficiency. Ion-beam sputtering technique is compatible with low-cost continuous fabrication and requires no high-temperature processing.

  5. Increasing the volumetric efficiency of Diesel engines by intake pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    List, Hans

    1933-01-01

    Development of a method for calculating the volumetric efficiency of piston engines with intake pipes. Application of this method to the scavenging pumps of two-stroke-cycle engines with crankcase scavenging and to four-stroke-cycle engines. The utility of the method is demonstrated by volumetric-efficiency tests of the two-stroke-cycle engines with crankcase scavenging. Its practical application to the calculation of intake pipes is illustrated by example.

  6. Alternative Formats to Achieve More Efficient Energy Codes for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Halverson, Mark A.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Makela, Eric J.

    2013-01-26

    This paper identifies and examines several formats or structures that could be used to create the next generation of more efficient energy codes and standards for commercial buildings. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) to provide technical support to the development of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. While the majority of PNNL’s ASHRAE Standard 90.1 support focuses on developing and evaluating new requirements, a portion of its work involves consideration of the format of energy standards. In its current working plan, the ASHRAE 90.1 committee has approved an energy goal of 50% improvement in Standard 90.1-2013 relative to Standard 90.1-2004, and will likely be considering higher improvement targets for future versions of the standard. To cost-effectively achieve the 50% goal in manner that can gain stakeholder consensus, formats other than prescriptive must be considered. Alternative formats that include reducing the reliance on prescriptive requirements may make it easier to achieve these aggressive efficiency levels in new codes and standards. The focus on energy code and standard formats is meant to explore approaches to presenting the criteria that will foster compliance, enhance verification, and stimulate innovation while saving energy in buildings. New formats may also make it easier for building designers and owners to design and build the levels of efficiency called for in the new codes and standards. This paper examines a number of potential formats and structures, including prescriptive, performance-based (with sub-formats of performance equivalency and performance targets), capacity constraint-based, and outcome-based. The paper also discusses the pros and cons of each format from the viewpoint of code users and of code enforcers.

  7. Efficient and anonymous two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks: achieving user anonymity with lightweight sensor computation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks).

  8. Efficient and anonymous two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks: achieving user anonymity with lightweight sensor computation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks). PMID:25849359

  9. Efficient and Anonymous Two-Factor User Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks: Achieving User Anonymity with Lightweight Sensor Computation

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks). PMID:25849359

  10. New Operational Modes to Increase Energy Efficiency in Capacitive Deionization Systems.

    PubMed

    García-Quismondo, Enrique; Santos, Cleis; Soria, Jorge; Palma, Jesús; Anderson, Marc A

    2016-06-01

    In order for capacitive deionization (CDI) as a water treatment technology to achieve commercial success, substantial improvements in the operational aspects of the system should be improved in order to efficiently recover the energy stored during the deionization step. In the present work, to increase the energy efficiency of the adsorption-desorption processes, we propose a new operational procedure that utilizes a concentrated brine stream as a washing solution during regeneration. Using this approach, we demonstrate that by replacing the electrolyte during regeneration for a solution with higher conductivity, it is possible to substantially increase round-trip energy efficiency. This procedure was experimentally verified in a flow cell reactor using a pair of carbon electrodes (10(2) cm geometric area) and NaCl solutions having concentrations between 50 and 350 mmol·L(-1). According to experimental data, this new operational mode allows for a better utilization of the three-dimensional structure of the porous material. This increases the energetic efficiency of the global CDI process to above 80% when deionization/regeneration currents ratio are optimized for brackish water treatment.

  11. Increasing the Efficiency of the One Room School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Paul

    The one room school is a challenging educational setting for both teacher and student. Isolation of the school, limited availability of educational resources, and the demanding role of the school as the only formal educational institution within the community are conditions which make classroom efficiency an important consideration for the…

  12. Swine herds achieve high performance by culling low lifetime efficiency sows in early parity.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Ariko; McTaggart, Iain; Koketsu, Yuzo

    2011-11-01

    Sow lifetime performance and by-parity performance were analyzed using a 3 by 3 factorial design, comprising 3 herd productivity groups and 3 sow efficiency groups. Data was obtained from 101 Japanese herds, totaling 173,526 parity records of 34,929 sows, for the years 2001 to 2006. Sows were categorized into 3 groups based on the lower and upper 25th percentiles of the annualized lifetime pigs born alive: low lifetime efficiency sows (LE sows), intermediate lifetime efficiency sows or high lifetime efficiency sows. Herds were grouped on the basis of the upper and lower 25th percentiles of pigs weaned per mated female per year, averaged over 6 years: high-, intermediate- or low-performing herds. Mixed-effects models were used for comparisons. LE sows in high-performing herds had 57.8 fewer lifetime nonproductive days and 0.5 earlier parity at removal than those in low-performing herds (P<0.05). The number of pigs born alive of LE sows continuously decreased from parity 1 to 5, whereas those of high lifetime efficiency sows gradually increased from parity 1 to 4 before decreasing up to parity ≥ 6 (P<0.05). In conclusion, the LE sows have a performance pattern of decreasing number of pigs born alive across parity. The present study also indicates that high-performing herds culled potential LE sows earlier than the other herds.

  13. Achieving high performance polymer optoelectronic devices for high efficiency, long lifetime and low fabrication cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinsong

    This thesis described three types of organic optoelectronic devices: polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), polymer photovoltaic solar cell, and organic photo detector. The research in this work focuses improving their performance including device efficiency, operation lifetime simplifying fabrication process. With further understanding in PLED device physics, we come up new device operation model and improved device architecture design. This new method is closely related to understanding of the science and physics at organic/metal oxide and metal oxide/metal interface. In our new device design, both material and interface are considered in order to confine and balance all injected carriers, which has been demonstrated very be successful in increasing device efficiency. We created two world records in device efficiency: 18 lm/W for white emission fluorescence PLED, 22 lm/W for red emission phosphorescence PLED. Slow solvent drying process has been demonstrated to significantly increase device efficiency in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixture polymer solar cell. From the mobility study by time of flight, the increase of efficiency can be well correlated to the improved carrier transport property due to P3HT crystallization during slow solvent drying. And it is found that, similar to PLED, balanced carrier mobility is essential in high efficient polymer solar cell. There is also a revolution in our device fabrication method. A unique device fabrication method is presented by an electronic glue based lamination process combined with interface modification as a one-step polymer solar cell fabrication process. It can completely skip the thermal evaporation process, and benefit device lifetime by several merits: no air reactive. The device obtained is metal free, semi-transparent, flexible, self-encapsulated, and comparable efficiency with that by regular method. We found the photomultiplication (PM) phenomenon in C

  14. Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Chao, B.T.; Rabl, A.

    1975-06-27

    A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

  15. Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1977-02-15

    A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

  16. Increased Efficiencies in the INEEL SAR/TSR/USQ Process

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.E.

    2002-05-16

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has implemented a number of efficiencies to reduce the time and cost of preparing safety basis documents. The INEEL is continuing to look at other aspects of the safety basis process to identify other efficiencies that can be implemented and remain in compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 830. A six-sigma approach is used to identify areas to improve efficiencies and develop the action plan for implementation of the new process, as applicable. Three improvement processes have been implemented: The first was the development of standardized Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and technical safety requirement (TSR) documents that all nuclear facilities use, by adding facility-specific details. The second is a material procurement process, which is based on safety systems specified in the individual safety basis documents. The third is a restructuring of the entire safety basis preparation and approval process. Significant savings in time to prepare safety basis document, cost of materials, and total cost of the documents are currently being realized.

  17. Increased Efficiencies in the INEEL SAR/TSR/USQ Process

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Norman Edward

    2002-06-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has implemented a number of efficiencies to reduce the time and cost of preparing safety basis documents. The INEEL is continuing to look at other aspects of the safety basis process to identify other efficiencies that can be implemented and remain in compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 830. A six-sigma approach is used to identify areas to improve efficiencies and develop the action plan for implementation of the new process, as applicable. Three improvement processes have been implemented: The first was the development of standardized Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and technical safety requirement (TSR) documents that all nuclear facilities use, by adding facility-specific details. The second is a material procurement process, which is based on safety systems specified in the individual safety basis documents. The third is a restructuring of the entire safety basis preparation and approval process. Significant savings in time to prepare safety basis document, cost of materials, and total cost of the documents are currently being realized.

  18. Physiological geroscience: targeting function to increase healthspan and achieve optimal longevity.

    PubMed

    Seals, Douglas R; Justice, Jamie N; LaRocca, Thomas J

    2016-04-15

    Most nations of the world are undergoing rapid and dramatic population ageing, which presents great socio-economic challenges, as well as opportunities, for individuals, families, governments and societies. The prevailing biomedical strategy for reducing the healthcare impact of population ageing has been 'compression of morbidity' and, more recently, to increase healthspan, both of which seek to extend the healthy period of life and delay the development of chronic diseases and disability until a brief period at the end of life. Indeed, a recently established field within biological ageing research, 'geroscience', is focused on healthspan extension. Superimposed on this background are new attitudes and demand for 'optimal longevity' - living long, but with good health and quality of life. A key obstacle to achieving optimal longevity is the progressive decline in physiological function that occurs with ageing, which causes functional limitations (e.g. reduced mobility) and increases the risk of chronic diseases, disability and mortality. Current efforts to increase healthspan centre on slowing the fundamental biological processes of ageing such as inflammation/oxidative stress, increased senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired proteostasis and reduced stress resistance. We propose that optimization of physiological function throughout the lifespan should be a major emphasis of any contemporary biomedical policy addressing global ageing. Effective strategies should delay, reduce in magnitude or abolish reductions in function with ageing (primary prevention) and/or improve function or slow further declines in older adults with already impaired function (secondary prevention). Healthy lifestyle practices featuring regular physical activity and ideal energy intake/diet composition represent first-line function-preserving strategies, with pharmacological agents, including existing and new pharmaceuticals and novel 'nutraceutical' compounds, serving as potential

  19. Increasing Postsecondary Education Access and Success: Raising Achievement through Outreach Programs. Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broton, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Closing the achievement gap depends on highly effective public schools, strong community support, and family involvement. Raising the overall rates of achievement in Minnesota is a vital part of this goal. Research has shown that pre-college outreach programs improve college access for underrepresented groups, including low-income,…

  20. Implementation of Comprehensive School Reform and Its Impact on Increases in Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Fashola, Olatokunbo; Shkolnik, Jamie; Boyle, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the implementation of comprehensive school reform (CSR) and changes in reading and math achievement from 1999 until 2003. Survey data about CSR implementation and school-level achievement data were collected for multiple years from a sample of CSR schools and compared with a sample of matched comparison…

  1. Answering the Question that Matters Most: Has Student Achievement Increased since No Child Left Behind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Since 2002, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) has spurred far-reaching changes in elementary and secondary education, all aimed at accomplishing the same fundamental goal--to improve students' academic achievement. As the Congress prepares to reauthorize the Act, two related questions matter most: (1) Has student achievement in reading and…

  2. Calibration of STUD+ parameters to achieve optimally efficient broadband adiabatic decoupling in a single transient

    PubMed

    Bendall; Skinner

    1998-10-01

    for a single sech/tanh pulse. Residual splitting of the centerband, normally associated with incomplete or inefficient decoupling, is not seen in sech/tanh decoupling and therefore cannot be used as a measure of adiabatic decoupling efficiency. The calibrated experimental performance levels achieved in this study are within 20% of theoretical performance levels derived previously for ideal sech/tanh decoupling at high power, indicating a small scope for further improvement at practical RF power levels. The optimization procedures employed here will be generally applicable to any good combination of adiabatic inversion pulse and phase cycle. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9761708

  3. Heterostructures for Increased Quantum Efficiency in Nitride LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Robert F.

    2010-09-30

    Task 1. Development of an advanced LED simulator useful for the design of efficient nitride-based devices. Simulator will contain graphical interface software that can be used to specify the device structure, the material parameters, the operating conditions and the desired output results. Task 2. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence on the microstructure, defect concentration, mechanical stress and strain and IQE of controlled changes in the chemistry and process route of deposition of the buffer layer underlying the active region of nitride-based blue- and greenemitting LEDs. Task 3. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence on the physical properties including polarization and IQE of controlled changes in the geometry, chemistry, defect density, and microstructure of components in the active region of nitride-based blue- and green-emitting LEDs. Task 4. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence on IQE of novel heterostructure designs to funnel carriers into the active region for enhanced recombination efficiency and elimination of diffusion beyond this region. Task 5. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence of enhanced p-type doping on the chemical, electrical, and microstructural characteristics of the acceptor-doped layers, the hole injection levels at Ohmic contacts, the specific contact resistivity and the IQE of nitride-based blue- and green-emitting LEDs. Development and optical and electrical characterization of reflective Ohmic contacts to n- and p-type GaN films.

  4. A Panel Analysis of Student Mathematics Achievement in the US in the 1990s: Does Increasing the Amount of Time in Learning Activities Affect Math Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksoy, Tevfik; Link, Charles R.

    2000-01-01

    Uses panel estimation techniques to estimate econometric models of mathematics achievement determinants for a nationally representative sample of high-school students. Extra time spent on math homework increases test scores; an extra hour of TV viewing negatively affects scores. Longer math periods also help. (Contains 56 references.) (MLH)

  5. Challenges to increasing targeting efficiency in genome engineering

    PubMed Central

    HORII, Takuro; HATADA, Izuho

    2015-01-01

    Gene targeting technologies are essential for the analysis of gene functions. Knockout mouse generation via genetic modification of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is the commonest example, but it is a time-consuming and labor-intensive procedure. Recently, a novel genome editing technology called CRISPR/Cas has enabled the direct production of knockout mice by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ)-mediated mutations. Unexpectedly, however, it generally exhibits a low efficiency in homologous recombination (HR) and is prone to high mosaicism. Meanwhile, gene targeting using ESCs is still being improved, as reported by Fukuda et al. in this issue. Here, we outline current gene targeting technologies with special emphasis on HR-mediated technologies, which are currently being performed using these two major strategies. PMID:26688299

  6. Decreased latent inhibition is associated with increased creative achievement in high-functioning individuals.

    PubMed

    Carson, Shelley H; Peterson, Jordan B; Higgins, Daniel M

    2003-09-01

    Reductions in latent inhibition (LI), the capacity to screen from conscious awareness stimuli previously experienced as irrelevant, have been generally associated with the tendency towards psychosis. However, "failure" to screen out previously irrelevant stimuli might also hypothetically contribute to original thinking, particularly in combination with high IQ. Meta-analysis of two studies, conducted on youthful high-IQ samples. demonstrated that high lifetime creative achievers had significantly lower LI scores than low creative achievers (r(effect size) = .31, p = .0003, one-tailed). Eminent creative achievers (participants under 21 years who reported unusually high scores in a single domain of creative achievement) were 7 times more likely to have low rather than high LI scores, chi2 (1, N = 25) = 10.69, phi = .47. p = .003.

  7. Increasing Educational Efficiency Through Technology (Commission Discussion and Background Materials).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Commission for Higher Education, Indianapolis.

    A program schedule and background information for Indiana Commission for Higher Education-sponsored discussion of the use of educational technology to increase educational effeciency are presented. The four major topics of discussion to illustrate the uses and advantages/disadvantages of audio, video, and computing technologies are as follows:…

  8. Advanced liquid cooling in HCPVT systems to achieve higher energy efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, S.; Helmers, H.; Tiwari, M. K.; Escher, W.; Paredes, S.; Neves, P.; Poulikakos, D.; Wiesenfarth, M.; Bett, A. W.; Michel, B.

    2013-09-01

    The benefits of advanced thermal packaging are demonstrated through a receiver package consisting of a monolithic interconnected module (MIM) which is directly attached to a high performance microchannel heat sink. Those packages can be applied in high-concentration photovoltaic systems and the generated heat can be used in addition to the electrical power output (CPVT systems). Thus, the total energy efficiency of the system increases significantly. A detailed exergy analysis of the receiver power output underscores the advantages of the new cooling approach.

  9. Citrulline malate supplementation increases muscle efficiency in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Giannesini, Benoît; Le Fur, Yann; Cozzone, Patrick J; Verleye, Marc; Le Guern, Marie-Emmanuelle; Bendahan, David

    2011-09-30

    Citrulline malate (CM; CAS 54940-97-5, Stimol®) is known to limit the deleterious effect of asthenic state on muscle function, but its effect under healthy condition remains poorly documented. The aim of this longitudinal double-blind study was to investigate the effect of oral ingestion of CM on muscle mechanical performance and bioenergetics in normal rat. Gastrocnemius muscle function was investigated strictly non-invasively using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. A standardized rest-stimulation- (5.7 min of repeated isometric contractions electrically induced by transcutaneous stimulation at a frequency of 3.3 Hz) recovery-protocol was performed twice, i.e., before (t(0)-24 h) and after (t(0)+48 h) CM (3 g/kg/day) or vehicle treatment. CM supplementation did not affect PCr/ATP ratio, [PCr], [Pi], [ATP] and intracellular pH at rest. During the stimulation period, it lead to a 23% enhancement of specific force production that was associated to significant decrease in both PCr (28%) and oxidative (32%) costs of contraction, but had no effect on the time-courses of phosphorylated compounds and intracellular pH. Furthermore, both the rate of PCr resynthesis during the post-stimulation period (VPCr(rec)) and the oxidative ATP synthesis capacity (Q(max)) remained unaffected by CM treatment. These data demonstrate that CM supplementation under healthy condition has an ergogenic effect associated to an improvement of muscular contraction efficiency. PMID:21664351

  10. Template-based breast IMRT planning for increased workload efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To be less resource intensive, we developed a template-based breast IMRT technique (TB-IMRT). This study aims to compare resources and dose distribution between TB-IMRT and conventional breast radiation (CBR). Methods Twenty patients with early stage breast cancer were planned using CBR and TB-IMRT. Time to plan, coverage of volumes, dose to critical structures and treatment times were evaluated for CBR and TB-IMRT. Two sided-paired t tests were used. Results TB-IMRT planning time was less than CBR (14.0 vs 39.0 min, p < 0.001). Fifteen patients with CBR needed 18 MV, and 11 of these were planned successfully with TB-IMRT using 6 MV. TB-IMRT provided better homogeneity index (0.096 vs 0.124, p < 0.001) and conformity index (0.68 vs 0.59, p = 0.003). Dose to critical structures were comparable between TB-IMRT and CBR, and treatment times were also similar (6.0 vs 7.8 min, p = 0.13). Conclusions TB- IMRT provides reduction of planning time and minimizes the use of high energy beams, while providing similar treatment times and equal plans compared to CBR. This technique permits efficient use of resources with a low learning curve, and can be done with existing equipment and personnel. PMID:23514439

  11. Chicken Farming in Grassland Increases Environmental Sustainability and Economic Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meizhen; Wang, Bingxue; Osborne, Colin P.; Jiang, Gaoming

    2013-01-01

    Background Grassland degradation caused by overgrazing poses a threat to both animal husbandry and environmental sustainability in most semi-arid areas especially north China. Although the Chinese Government has made huge efforts to restore degraded grasslands, a considerable attempt has unfortunately failed due to an inadequate consideration of economic benefits to local communities. Methodology/Principal Findings A controlled field experiment was conducted to test our hypothesis that utilizing natural grasslands as both habitat and feed resources for chickens and replacing the traditional husbandry system with chicken farming would increase environmental sustainability and raise income. Aboveground plant biomass elevated from 25 g m−2 for grazing sheep to 84 g m−2 for chicken farming. In contrast to the fenced (unstocked) grassland, chicken farming did not significantly decrease aboveground plant biomass, but did increase the root biomass by 60% (p<0.01). Compared with traditional sheep grazing, chicken farming significantly improved soil surface water content (0–10 cm), from 5% to 15%. Chicken farming did not affect the soil bulk density, while the traditional sheep grazing increased the soil bulk density in the 0–10 cm soil layer by 35% of the control (p<0.05). Most importantly, the economic income of local herdsmen has been raised about six times compared with the traditional practice of raising sheep. Ecologically, such an innovative solution allowed large degraded grasslands to naturally regenerate. Grasslands also provided a high quality organic poultry product which could be marketed in big cities. Conclusion/Significance Chicken farming is an innovative alternative strategy for increasing environmental sustainability and economic income, rather than a challenge to the traditional nomadic pastoral system. Our approach might be technically applicable to other large degraded grasslands of the world, especially in China. PMID:23372678

  12. [Clinical efficacy and achievement of a complete remission in depression: increasing interest in treatment with escitalopram].

    PubMed

    Favré, P

    2012-02-01

    Such a prevalent disease as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), associated with prominent impairment in physical and social functioning, implies as well an increased morbidity and mortality. Long-term treatments are required due to the frequent occurrence of relapses. Patient compliance is a core factor in both acute and continuation treatment, closely related to tolerability issues. We have partially reviewed the literature published on PubMed since 2004 which assess the relative antidepressant efficacy of escitalopram and comparator antidepressants in adult patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). Clinically important differences exist between commonly prescribed antidepressants. These analyses are in favor of a superior efficacy and tolerability of long-term escitalopram treatment (10 to 20mg/day) compared with active controls, including selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (paroxetine, citalopram, bupropion, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline), serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (venlafaxine, milnacipran and duloxetine) and noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs) (mirtazapine). Cipriani et al. (2009) have performed a network meta-analysis of 12 new generation antidepressants. They have shown that clinically important differences exist between commonly prescribed antidepressants for both efficacy and acceptability in favor of escitalopram and sertraline in acute treatment, defined as 8-week treatment. Kasper et al. (2009) conducted a post-hoc pooled analysis of data from two 6-month randomized controlled trials that revealed superior efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram when compared with paroxetine. The pooled analysis of four randomized, double-blind, active comparator, 6-month trials in MDD, by Wade et al. (2009), showed that short-term outcomes may predict long-term treatment compliance and outcomes. A higher probability of achieving remission was associated with responding

  13. Supervillin Reorganizes the Actin Cytoskeleton and Increases Invadopodial Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Jessica L.; Smith, Tara C.; Fang, Zhiyou; Takizawa, Norio

    2009-01-01

    Tumor cells use actin-rich protrusions called invadopodia to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) and invade tissues; related structures, termed podosomes, are sites of dynamic ECM interaction. We show here that supervillin (SV), a peripheral membrane protein that binds F-actin and myosin II, reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton and potentiates invadopodial function. Overexpressed SV induces redistribution of lamellipodial cortactin and lamellipodin/RAPH1/PREL1 away from the cell periphery to internal sites and concomitantly increases the numbers of F-actin punctae. Most punctae are highly dynamic and colocalize with the podosome/invadopodial proteins, cortactin, Tks5, and cdc42. Cortactin binds SV sequences in vitro and contributes to the formation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-SV induced punctae. SV localizes to the cores of Src-generated podosomes in COS-7 cells and with invadopodia in MDA-MB-231 cells. EGFP-SV overexpression increases average numbers of ECM holes per cell; RNA interference-mediated knockdown of SV decreases these numbers. Although SV knockdown alone has no effect, simultaneous down-regulation of SV and the closely related protein gelsolin reduces invasion through ECM. Together, our results show that SV is a component of podosomes and invadopodia and that SV plays a role in invadopodial function, perhaps as a mediator of cortactin localization, activation state, and/or dynamics of metalloproteinases at the ventral cell surface. PMID:19109420

  14. Mathematics Achievement Gaps between Suburban Students and Their Rural and Urban Peers Increase over Time. Issue Brief No. 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Suzanne E.; Provost, Lauren E.

    2012-01-01

    In this brief, authors Suzanne Graham and Lauren Provost examine whether attending a school in a rural, urban, or suburban community is related to children's mathematics achievement in kindergarten, and whether increases in mathematics achievement between kindergarten and eighth grade differ for children in rural, urban, and suburban schools. They…

  15. Achieving Highly Efficient, Selective, and Stable CO2 Reduction on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingjie; Yadav, Ram Manohar; Liu, Mingjie; Sharma, Pranav P; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Ma, Lulu; Zou, Xiaolong; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Yakobson, Boris I; Lou, Jun; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2015-05-26

    The challenge in the electrosynthesis of fuels from CO2 is to achieve durable and active performance with cost-effective catalysts. Here, we report that carbon nanotubes (CNTs), doped with nitrogen to form resident electron-rich defects, can act as highly efficient and, more importantly, stable catalysts for the conversion of CO2 to CO. The unprecedented overpotential (-0.18 V) and selectivity (80%) observed on nitrogen-doped CNTs (NCNTs) are attributed to their unique features to facilitate the reaction, including (i) high electrical conductivity, (ii) preferable catalytic sites (pyridinic N defects), and (iii) low free energy for CO2 activation and high barrier for hydrogen evolution. Indeed, DFT calculations show a low free energy barrier for the potential-limiting step to form key intermediate COOH as well as strong binding energy of adsorbed COOH and weak binding energy for the adsorbed CO. The highest selective site toward CO production is pyridinic N, and the NCNT-based electrodes exhibit no degradation over 10 h of continuous operation, suggesting the structural stability of the electrode.

  16. Dynamic ocean management increases the efficiency and efficacy of fisheries management

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Sara M.; Halpin, Patrick N.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the inherent dynamic nature of the oceans and continuing difficulty in managing ecosystem impacts of fisheries, interest in the concept of dynamic ocean management, or real-time management of ocean resources, has accelerated in the last several years. However, scientists have yet to quantitatively assess the efficiency of dynamic management over static management. Of particular interest is how scale influences effectiveness, both in terms of how it reflects underlying ecological processes and how this relates to potential efficiency gains. Here, we address the empirical evidence gap and further the ecological theory underpinning dynamic management. We illustrate, through the simulation of closures across a range of spatiotemporal scales, that dynamic ocean management can address previously intractable problems at scales associated with coactive and social patterns (e.g., competition, predation, niche partitioning, parasitism, and social aggregations). Furthermore, it can significantly improve the efficiency of management: as the resolution of the closures used increases (i.e., as the closures become more targeted), the percentage of target catch forgone or displaced decreases, the reduction ratio (bycatch/catch) increases, and the total time–area required to achieve the desired bycatch reduction decreases. In the scenario examined, coarser scale management measures (annual time–area closures and monthly full-fishery closures) would displace up to four to five times the target catch and require 100–200 times more square kilometer-days of closure than dynamic measures (grid-based closures and move-on rules). To achieve similar reductions in juvenile bycatch, the fishery would forgo or displace between USD 15–52 million in landings using a static approach over a dynamic management approach. PMID:26729885

  17. Dynamic ocean management increases the efficiency and efficacy of fisheries management.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Daniel C; Maxwell, Sara M; Boustany, Andre M; Halpin, Patrick N

    2016-01-19

    In response to the inherent dynamic nature of the oceans and continuing difficulty in managing ecosystem impacts of fisheries, interest in the concept of dynamic ocean management, or real-time management of ocean resources, has accelerated in the last several years. However, scientists have yet to quantitatively assess the efficiency of dynamic management over static management. Of particular interest is how scale influences effectiveness, both in terms of how it reflects underlying ecological processes and how this relates to potential efficiency gains. Here, we address the empirical evidence gap and further the ecological theory underpinning dynamic management. We illustrate, through the simulation of closures across a range of spatiotemporal scales, that dynamic ocean management can address previously intractable problems at scales associated with coactive and social patterns (e.g., competition, predation, niche partitioning, parasitism, and social aggregations). Furthermore, it can significantly improve the efficiency of management: as the resolution of the closures used increases (i.e., as the closures become more targeted), the percentage of target catch forgone or displaced decreases, the reduction ratio (bycatch/catch) increases, and the total time-area required to achieve the desired bycatch reduction decreases. In the scenario examined, coarser scale management measures (annual time-area closures and monthly full-fishery closures) would displace up to four to five times the target catch and require 100-200 times more square kilometer-days of closure than dynamic measures (grid-based closures and move-on rules). To achieve similar reductions in juvenile bycatch, the fishery would forgo or displace between USD 15-52 million in landings using a static approach over a dynamic management approach. PMID:26729885

  18. Dynamic ocean management increases the efficiency and efficacy of fisheries management.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Daniel C; Maxwell, Sara M; Boustany, Andre M; Halpin, Patrick N

    2016-01-19

    In response to the inherent dynamic nature of the oceans and continuing difficulty in managing ecosystem impacts of fisheries, interest in the concept of dynamic ocean management, or real-time management of ocean resources, has accelerated in the last several years. However, scientists have yet to quantitatively assess the efficiency of dynamic management over static management. Of particular interest is how scale influences effectiveness, both in terms of how it reflects underlying ecological processes and how this relates to potential efficiency gains. Here, we address the empirical evidence gap and further the ecological theory underpinning dynamic management. We illustrate, through the simulation of closures across a range of spatiotemporal scales, that dynamic ocean management can address previously intractable problems at scales associated with coactive and social patterns (e.g., competition, predation, niche partitioning, parasitism, and social aggregations). Furthermore, it can significantly improve the efficiency of management: as the resolution of the closures used increases (i.e., as the closures become more targeted), the percentage of target catch forgone or displaced decreases, the reduction ratio (bycatch/catch) increases, and the total time-area required to achieve the desired bycatch reduction decreases. In the scenario examined, coarser scale management measures (annual time-area closures and monthly full-fishery closures) would displace up to four to five times the target catch and require 100-200 times more square kilometer-days of closure than dynamic measures (grid-based closures and move-on rules). To achieve similar reductions in juvenile bycatch, the fishery would forgo or displace between USD 15-52 million in landings using a static approach over a dynamic management approach.

  19. Effective Practices for Increasing the Achievement of English Learners. CREATE Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echevarría, Jana

    2012-01-01

    This research brief highlights two schools' efforts to improve the achievement of their students using the SIOP Model. These schools, one elementary and one secondary, have seen significant improvement in the performance of their English learners through the use of the SIOP Model of instruction, an approach that addresses both academic…

  20. Improving Teaching Capacity to Increase Student Achievement: The Key Role of Data Interpretation by School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, David; Smith, Richard; Provost, Steven; Madden, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper argues that in a well-organised school with strong leadership and vision coupled with a concerted effort to improve the teaching performance of each teacher, student achievement can be enhanced. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that while macro-effect sizes such as "whole of school" metrics are useful for…

  1. Reading for Success: The Effectiveness of Literacy Interventions for Increasing Student Achievement in Core Academic Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to utilize quantitative and qualitative data to measure the effects of Tier 2 and Tier 3 literacy interventions as they affect student achievement in the secondary school setting. The research questions addressed performance of students who were enrolled in Reading for Success as compared to a cohort…

  2. Pairing New Science Curriculum with Professional Learning Increases Student Achievement. Lessons from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen

    2016-01-01

    A randomized trial study, conducted over two school years in 18 high schools in Washington, finds that "An Inquiry Approach," a three-year, educative curriculum for high school science, has a positive impact on student achievement, teacher practice, and fidelity of implementation of the curriculum when the curriculum is paired with…

  3. Strategies for Success: Links to Increased Mathematics Achievement Scores of English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pray, Lisa; Ilieva, Vessela

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the link between mathematic teachers' use of English-language learner (ELL) strategies and the mathematics achievement of their students who are ELLs. Interviews and observations of mathematic teachers who taught ELLs were used to document instructional strategies use. The findings from the interviews and observations…

  4. A Study of Effective Practices in Reading Intervention that Increase Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Ray

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a reading intervention program designed to narrow the achievement gap between students who are proficient in reading language arts as measured by the California Standards Test in comparison to students who are performing below the targeted proficiency level. State, district, and local school data show that…

  5. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Does Accountability Pressure Increase Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement across 25 states. Standardized portfolios were created for each study state. Each portfolio contained a range of documents that told the "story" of accountability implementation and impact in that state. Using the "law of comparative judgments," over…

  6. Increasing Equity and Achievement in Fifth Grade Mathematics: The Contribution of Content Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottmar, Erin R.; Konold, Timothy R.; Berry, Robert Q.; Grissmer, David W.; Cameron, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    This study uses a large nationally representative data set (ECLS-K) of 5,181 students to examine the extent to which exposure to content and instructional practice contributes to mathematics achievement in fifth grade. Using hierarchical linear modeling, results suggest that more exposure to content beyond numbers and operations (i.e., geometry,…

  7. Increasing Access to Higher Education among Low-Income Students: The Washington State Achievers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carrie B.; Brown, Doreen E.; Pavel, D. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how a comprehensive precollege intervention and developmental program among low-income high school students contributed to college enrollment outcomes measured in 2006. Our focus was on the Fifth Cohort of the Washington State Achievers (WSA) Program, which provides financial, academic, and college…

  8. Analyzing the possibility of achieving more efficient cooling of water in the evaporative cooling towers of the Armenian NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, V. G.; Yeghoyan, E. A.

    2015-10-01

    The specific features of the service cooling water system used at the Armenian NPP and modifications made in the arrangement for supplying water to the water coolers in order to achieve more efficient cooling are presented. The mathematical model applied in carrying out the analyses is described, the use of which makes it possible to investigate the operation of parallel-connected cooling towers having different hydraulic and thermal loads. When the third standby cooling tower is put into operation (with the same flow rate of water supplied to the water coolers), the cooled water temperature is decreased by around 2-3°C in the range of atmospheric air temperatures 0-35°C. However, the introduced water distribution arrangement with a decreased spraying density has limitation on its use at negative outdoor air temperatures due to the hazard intense freezing of the fill in the cooling tower peripheral zone. The availability of standby cooling towers in the shutdown Armenian NPP power unit along with the planned full replacement of the cooling tower process equipment create good possibilities for achieving a deeper water cooling extent and better efficiency of the NPP. The present work was carried out with the aim of achieving maximally efficient use of existing possibilities and for elaborating the optimal cooling tower modernization version. Individual specific heat-andmass transfer processes in the chimney-type evaporative cooling towers are analyzed. An improved arrangement for distributing cooled water over the cooling tower spraying area (during its operation with a decreased flow rate) is proposed with the aim of cooling water to a deeper extent and preserving the possibility of using the cooling towers in winter. The main idea behind improving the existing arrangement is to exclude certain zones of the cooling tower featuring inefficient cooling from operation. The effectiveness of introducing the proposed design is proven by calculations (taking as an

  9. From here to efficiency : time lags between the introduction of new technology and the achievement of fuel savings.

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.; Wang, M.; Stodolsky, F.; Cuenca, R.; Gaines, L.

    1999-12-03

    In this paper, the energy savings of new technology offering significant improvements in fuel efficiency are tracked for over 20 years as vehicles incorporating that technology enter the fleet and replace conventional light-duty vehicles. Two separate analyses are discussed: a life-cycle analysis of aluminum-intensive vehicles and a fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and greenhouse gas emissions of double vs. triple fuel-economy vehicles. In both efforts, market-penetration modeling is used to simulate the rate at which new technology enters the new fleet, and stock-adjustment modeling is used to capture the inertia in turnover of new and existing current-technology vehicles. Together, these two effects--slowed market penetration and delayed vehicle replacement--increase the time lag between market introduction and the achievement of substantial energy savings. In both cases, 15-20 years elapse, before savings approach these levels.

  10. Evidence-Based Instruction Is Not Enough: Strategies for Increasing Instructional Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Moira; Helf, Shawnna; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2011-01-01

    Even evidence-based instructional methods may not be sufficient for closing achievement gaps. If teachers are not maximizing instructional time, achievement gaps are likely to widen over time; therefore, instruction need not only be effective but efficient as well. The purposes of this article are to (a) provide practitioners with a broad…

  11. Designing for multiple global user populations: increasing resource allocation efficiency for greater sustainability.

    PubMed

    Nadadur, G; Parkinson, M B

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to identify opportunities for increasing the efficiency of raw material allocation decisions for products that are simultaneously targeted at multiple user populations around the world. The values of 24 body measures at certain key percentiles were used to estimate the best-fitting anthropometric distributions for female and male adults in nine national populations, which were selected to represent the diverse target markets multinational companies must design for. These distributions were then used to synthesize body measure data for combined populations with a 1:1 female:male ratio. An anthropometric range metric (ARM) was proposed for assessing the variation of these body measures across the populations. At any percentile, ARM values were calculated as the percentage difference between the highest and lowest anthropometric values across the considered user populations. Based on their magnitudes, plots of ARM values computed between the 1st and 99 th percentiles for each body measure were grouped into low, medium, and high categories. This classification of body measures was proposed as a means of selecting the most suitable strategies for designing raw material-efficient products. The findings in this study and the contributions of subsequent work along these lines are expected to help achieve greater efficiencies in resource allocation in global product development.

  12. The honeymoon effect in job performance - Temporal increases in the predictive power of achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Sawin, Linda L.; Carsrud, Alan L.

    1986-01-01

    Correlations between a job performance criterion and personality measures reflecting achievement motivation and an interpersonal orientation were examined at three points in time after completion of job training for a sample of airline reservations agents. Although correlations between the personality predictors and performance were small and nonsignificant for the 3-month period after beginning the job, by the end of six and eight months a number of significant relationships had emerged. Implications for the utility of personality measures in selection and performance prediction are discussed.

  13. Optimizing effort: increased efficiency of motor memory with time away from practice

    PubMed Central

    Shadmehr, Reza

    2014-01-01

    In motor tasks, efficiency can be measured via the commands that are produced to accomplish a goal. To maximize efficiency, the nervous system should produce task-relevant motor commands while avoiding behaviors that are task-irrelevant. The current view is that this is achieved through training, i.e., the optimum motor commands are learned by trial and error. However, in contrast to this view, there are numerous examples in which during an experiment, task-irrelevant commands are continuously produced. To address this, we trained human volunteers to reach in a force field. With practice, they learned to produce forces that compensated for the field, generating task-relevant commands that were necessary to achieve success. As expected, training also resulted in generalization, the transfer of learning to other movements. We designed the task so that any forces produced as a result of generalization were unnecessary and therefore task-irrelevant. Importantly, there were no explicit cues to indicate that production of these forces was task-irrelevant. Rather, the only indicator was effort itself. Could this inefficiency of the motor commands be reduced? We found that even with extensive practice, the production of task-irrelevant forces persisted. However, if subjects were given sufficient time away from practice (6 or 24 h but not 3 or 30 min), they spontaneously reduced production of the task-irrelevant forces. Therefore, practice alone was insufficient to allow for increased efficiency of motor output. Time away from practice was a required element for optimization of effort. PMID:25355964

  14. Learning Increases the Survival of Newborn Neurons Provided that Learning Is Difficult to Achieve and Successful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curlik, Daniel M., II; Shors, Tracey J.

    2011-01-01

    Learning increases neurogenesis by increasing the survival of new cells generated in the adult hippocampal formation [Shors, T. J. Saving new brain cells. "Scientific American," 300, 46-52, 2009]. However, only some types of learning are effective. Recent studies demonstrate that animals that learn the conditioned response (CR) but require more…

  15. The Effect on Student Achievement of Increasing Kinetic Structure of Teachers' Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Tests O. R. Anderson's theory of kinetic structure of verbal communications by administering lectures on swine flu to high school biology students and then reteaching the lectures with increased commonality. Results weakly support Anderson's theory. Implications are made for training teachers to increase the commonality of their lectures. (CS)

  16. Progress toward achieving high power and high efficiency semipolar LEDs and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hong

    Performance of current commercially available wurtzite nitride based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), grown along the polar (0001) c-plane orientation, is limited by the presence of polarization-related electric fields inside multi-quantum wells (MQWs). The discontinuities in both spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization at the heterointerfaces result in internal electric fields in the quantum wells. These electric fields cause carrier separation [quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE)] and reduce the radiative recombination rate within the quantum wells. One approach to reduce and possibly eliminate the polarization-related effects is to grow III-nitride devices on crystal planes that are inclined with respect to the c-axis, i.e., on semipolar planes. In this dissertation, metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been employed for the homoepitaxial growth of GaN based LEDs on semipolar orientations. As a consequence of growing on high-quality bulk GaN substrates, the LEDs have significantly reduced threading dislocation and stacking fault densities, resulting in remarkable improvements in EQE and output power. High efficiency semipolar (1011) violet-blue and blue LEDs have been demonstrated without any intentional effort to enhance the light extraction from those devices. Optimizations of epitaxial structures have led to increased output power and external quantum efficiency. A silicone encapsulated single quantum well blue LED with peak wavelength of 444 nm with output power of 24.3 mW, external quantum efficiency of 43% and luminous efficacy of 75 lm/W (with phosphorescent coating) at 20 mA has been demonstrated. Polarization fields in strained (1011) and (112¯2) InGaN quantum wells have been experimentally determined through bias-dependent optical studies. Our results show that the polarization field flips its direction in semipolar InGaN quantum wells with large inclination angles (i.e. around 60°). This suggests that there exists a polarization

  17. Lipid Encapsulation Provides Insufficient Total-Tract Digestibility to Achieve an Optimal Transfer Efficiency of Fatty Acids to Milk Fat

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, Melissa; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Transfer efficiencies of rumen-protected n-3 fatty acids (FA) to milk are low, thus we hypothesized that rumen-protection technologies allow for biohydrogenation and excretion of n-3 FA. The objectives of this study were to i) investigate the ruminal protection and post-ruminal release of the FA derived from the lipid-encapsulated echium oil (EEO), and ii) assess the bioavailability and metabolism of the EEO-derived FA through measuring the FA content in plasma lipid fractions, feces, and milk. The EEO was tested for rumen stability using the in situ nylon bag technique, then the apparent total-tract digestibility was assessed in vivo using six Holstein dairy cattle. Diets consisted of a control (no EEO); 1.5% of dry matter (DM) as EEO and 1.5% DM as encapsulation matrix; and 3% DM as EEO. The EEO was rumen-stable and had no effect on animal production. EEO-derived FA were incorporated into all plasma lipid fractions, with the highest proportion of n-3 FA observed in cholesterol esters. Fecal excretion of EEO-derived FA ranged from 7–14%. Biohydrogenation products increased in milk, plasma, and feces with EEO supplementation. In conclusion, lipid-encapsulation provides inadequate digestibility to achieve an optimal transfer efficiency of n-3 FA to milk. PMID:27741299

  18. Using graphic organizers to increase achievement in middle school life science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawk, Parmalee P.

    Educators are constantly searching for teaching procedures that will produce greater cognitive learning and at the same time make learning more appealing. Also, faced with economic problems, educators are looking for techniques that are both inexpensive and effective. The teaching strategy, Graphic Organizers, explained and used in the study reported here, presents information in an organized and structured manner with no expenditures other than paper, pencil, and instructor time. Graphic organizers require minimal training time with teachers, little investment in materials, no investment in equipment, and no change in the existing physical plant. Research conducted (Hawk, 1982; Hawk, McLeod and Jeane, 1981) using graphic organizers has shown them to be significantly beneficial to student achievement.

  19. Increasing the efficiency of organic solar cells by photonic and electrostatic-field enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Nalwa, Kanwar

    2011-01-01

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology is an attractive solar-electric conversion paradigm due to the promise of low cost roll-to-roll production and amenability to flexible substrates. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeding 7% has recently been achieved. OPV cells suffer from low charge carrier mobilities of polymers, leading to recombination losses, higher series resistances and lower fill-factors. Thus, it is imperative to develop fabrication methodologies that can enable efficient optical absorption in films thinner than optical absorption length. Active layers conformally deposited on light-trapping, microscale textured, grating-type surfaces is one possible approach to achieve this objective. In this study, 40% theoretical increase in photonic absorption over flat OPVs is shown for devices with textured geometry by the simulation results. For verifying this theoretical result and improving the efficiency of OPVs by light trapping, OPVs were fabricated on grating-type textured substrates possessing t pitch and -coat PV active-layer on these textured substrates led to over filling of the valleys and shunts at the crest, which severely affected the performance of the resultant PV devices. Thus, it is established that although the optical design is important for OPV performance but the potential of light trapping can only be effectively tapped if the textures are amenable for realizing a conformal active layer. It is discovered that if the height of the underlying topographical features is reduced to sub-micron regime (e.g. 300 nm) and the pitch is increased to more than a micron (e.g. 2 μm), the textured surface becomes amenable to coating a conformal PV active-layer. The resultant PV cells showed 100% increase in average light absorption near the band edge due to trapping of higher wavelength photons, and 20% improvement in power conversion efficiency as compared with the flat PV cell. Another factor that severely limits the performance of OPVs is

  20. Increasing the efficiency of SAGE adaptor ligation by directed ligation chemistry

    PubMed Central

    So, Austin P.; Turner, Robin F. B.; Haynes, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    The ability of Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) to provide a quantitative picture of global gene expression relies not only on the depth and accuracy of sequencing into the SAGE library, but also on the efficiency of each step required to generate the SAGE library from the starting mRNA material. The first critical step is the ligation of adaptors containing a Type IIS recognition sequence to the anchored 3′ end cDNA population that permits the release of short sequence tags (SSTs) from defined sites within the 3′ end of each transcript. Using an in vitro transcript as a template, we observed that only a small fraction of anchored 3′ end cDNA are successfully ligated with added SAGE adaptors under typical reaction conditions currently used in the SAGE protocol. Although the introduction of ∼500-fold molar excess of adaptor or the inclusion of 15% (w/v) PEG-8000 increased the yield of the adaptor-modified product, complete conversion to the desired adaptor:cDNA hetero-ligation product is not achieved. An alternative method of ligation, termed as directed ligation, is described which exploits a favourable mass-action condition created by the presence of NlaIII during ligation in combination with a novel SAGE adaptor containing a methylated base within the ligation site. Using this strategy, we were able to achieve near complete conversion of the anchored 3′ end cDNA into the desired adaptor-modified product. This new protocol therefore greatly increases the probability that a SST will be generated from every transcript, greatly enhancing the fidelity of SAGE. Directed ligation also provides a powerful means to achieve near-complete ligation of any appropriately designed adaptor to its respective target. PMID:15247329

  1. Thinking Maps: An innovative way to increase sixth-grade student achievement in social studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Tamita

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the effect of Thinking Maps on the achievement of 6th-grade social studies students in order to determine its effectiveness. The population of this study came from a suburban middle school in the state of Georgia. The quantitative data included a pretest and posttest. The study was designed to find (a) whether there is a significant difference between the mean posttest scores on the benchmark test of 6th-grade students who are taught with either Thinking Maps or traditional social studies methods, (b) whether there is a significant difference between the mean posttest scores on the benchmark test of 6th-grade male versus female social studies students, and (c) whether there is a significant interaction between 6th-grade students' type of social studies class and gender as to differentially affect their mean posttest scores on the benchmark test. To answer these questions, students' pretest and posttest were compared to determine if there was a statistically significant difference after Thinking Maps were implemented with the treatment group for 9 weeks. The results indicate that there was no significant difference in the test scores between the students who were taught with Thinking Maps and the students who were taught without Thinking Maps. However, the students taught with Thinking Maps had the higher adjusted posttest scores.

  2. Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.

    2012-03-01

    This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

  3. Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, Larry

    2012-03-01

    This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

  4. Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Ceri B.; Stone, BJ; Hubbell, Elizabeth; Pitler, Howard

    2012-01-01

    First published in 2001, "Classroom Instruction That Works" revolutionized teaching by linking classroom strategies to evidence of increased student learning. Now this landmark guide has been reenergized and reorganized for today's classroom with new evidence-based insights and a refined framework that strengthens instructional planning. Whether…

  5. Increasing Achievement of At-Risk Students through the Use of Metacognitive Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidgus, Cathy; Vassos, Sophia

    A metacognition instructional strategy was employed to increase class participation and motivation in 21 seventh grade "at-risk" students at 2 schools in the context of the national problem of meeting the needs of "at-risk" students. A survey of the students' content area teachers and of the students themselves found evidence of the students'…

  6. Increasing Young Children's Contact with Print during Shared Reading: Longitudinal Effects on Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; McGinty, Anita S.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal results for a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) assessing the impact of increasing preschoolers' attention to print during reading are reported. Four-year-old children (N = 550) in 85 classrooms experienced a 30-week shared reading program implemented by their teachers. Children in experimental classrooms experienced shared-book…

  7. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber products

  8. Significant Increase in Ecosystem C Can Be Achieved with Sustainable Forest Management in Subtropical Plantation Forests

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500–2500 trees ha−1. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir – Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr−1, offsetting 1.9% of China’s annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber

  9. Improving the Understanding of Intake and Charge Effects for Increasing RCCI Engine Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Reitz, Rolf; Wissink, martin; DelVescovo, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The present experimental engine efficiency study explores the effects of intake pressure and temperature, and premixed and global equivalence ratios on gross thermal efficiency (GTE) using the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy. Experiments were conducted in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine at constant net load (IMEPn) of 8.45 bar, 1300 rev/min engine speed, with 0% EGR, and a 50% mass fraction burned combustion phasing (CA50) of 0.5 CA ATDC. The engine was port fueled with E85 for the low reactivity fuel and direct injected with 3.5% 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) doped into 91 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline for the high-reactivity fuel. The resulting reactivity of the enhanced fuel corresponds to an AKI of approximately 56 and a cetane number of approximately 28. The engine was operated with a wide range of intake pressures and temperatures, and the ratio of low- to high-reactivity fuel was adjusted to maintain a fixed speed-phasing-load condition. This allowed for the investigation of several combinations of intake temperature, intake pressure, and charge stratification at otherwise constant thermodynamic conditions. The results show that sources of engine inefficiency compete as functions of premixed and global equivalence ratios. Losses are minimized through proper balancing of intake pressure and temperature, such that the global equivalence ratio ( global) is as lean as possible without overly lean regions of the stratified charge causing an increase in incomplete combustion. The explored speed-load-phasing combination shows that losses are minimized at conditions where approximately 2/3 of the fuel is fully premixed. The results exhibit a pathway for achieving simultaneous increases in combustion and fuel efficiency through proper fuel reactivity and initial condition management.

  10. A 12%-efficient upgraded metallurgical grade silicon-organic heterojunction solar cell achieved by a self-purifying process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Song, Tao; Shen, Xinlei; Yu, Xuegong; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Sun, Baoquan

    2014-11-25

    Low-quality silicon such as upgraded metallurgical-grade (UMG) silicon promises to reduce the material requirements for high-performance cost-effective photovoltaics. So far, however, UMG silicon currently exhibits the short diffusion length and serious charge recombination associated with high impurity levels, which hinders the performance of solar cells. Here, we used a metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) method to partially upgrade the UMG silicon surface. The silicon was etched into a nanostructured one by the MACE process, associated with removing impurities on the surface. Meanwhile, nanostructured forms of UMG silicon can benefit improved light harvesting with thin substrates, which can relax the requirement of material purity for high photovoltaic performance. In order to suppress the large surface recombination due to increased surface area of nanostructured UMG silicon, a post chemical treatment was used to decrease the surface area. A solution-processed conjugated polymer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was deposited on UMG silicon at low temperature (<150 °C) to form a heterojunction to avoid any impurity diffusion in the silicon substrate. By optimizing the thickness of silicon and suppressing the charge recombination at the interface between thin UMG silicon/PEDOT:PSS, we are able to achieve 12.0%-efficient organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells, which are higher than analogous UMG silicon devices. We show that the modified UMG silicon surface can increase the minority carrier lifetime because of reduced impurity and surface area. Our results suggest a design rule for an efficient silicon solar cell with low-quality silicon absorbers.

  11. Live births achieved via IVF are increased by improvements in air quality and laboratory environment.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Hill, Micah J; James, Aidita N; Schimmel, Tim; Segars, James H; Csokmay, John M; Cohen, Jacques; Payson, Mark D

    2015-09-01

    Infertility is a common disease, which causes many couples to seek treatment with assisted reproduction techniques. Many factors contribute to successful assisted reproduction technique outcomes. One important factor is laboratory environment and air quality. Our facility had the unique opportunity to compare consecutively used, but separate assisted reproduction technique laboratories, as a result of a required move. Environmental conditions were improved by strategic engineering designs. All other aspects of the IVF laboratory, including equipment, physicians, embryologists, nursing staff and protocols, were kept constant between facilities. Air quality testing showed improved air quality at the new IVF site. Embryo implantation (32.4% versus 24.3%; P < 0.01) and live birth (39.3% versus 31.8%, P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the new facility compared with the old facility. More patients met clinical criteria and underwent mandatory single embryo transfer on day 5 leading to both a reduction in multiple gestation pregnancies and increased numbers of vitrified embryos per patient with supernumerary embryos available. Improvements in IVF laboratory conditions and air quality had profound positive effects on laboratory measures and patient outcomes. This study further strengthens the importance of the laboratory environment and air quality in the success of an IVF programme.

  12. Live births achieved via IVF are increased by improvements in air quality and laboratory environment

    PubMed Central

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Hill, Micah J; James, Aidita N; Schimmel, Tim; Segars, James H; Csokmay, John M; Cohen, Jacques; Payson, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common disease, which causes many couples to seek treatment with assisted reproduction techniques. Many factors contribute to successful assisted reproduction technique outcomes. One important factor is laboratory environment and air quality. Our facility had the unique opportunity to compare consecutively used, but separate assisted reproduction technique laboratories, as a result of a required move. Environmental conditions were improved by strategic engineering designs. All other aspects of the IVF laboratory, including equipment, physicians, embryologists, nursing staff and protocols, were kept constant between facilities. Air quality testing showed improved air quality at the new IVF site. Embryo implantation (32.4% versus 24.3%; P < 0.01) and live birth (39.3% versus 31.8%, P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the new facility compared with the old facility. More patients met clinical criteria and underwent mandatory single embryo transfer on day 5 leading to both a reduction in multiple gestation pregnancies and increased numbers of vitrified embryos per patient with supernumerary embryos available. Improvements in IVF laboratory conditions and air quality had profound positive effects on laboratory measures and patient outcomes. This study further strengthens the importance of the laboratory environment and air quality in the success of an IVF programme. PMID:26194882

  13. Increasing young children's contact with print during shared reading: longitudinal effects on literacy achievement.

    PubMed

    Piasta, Shayne B; Justice, Laura M; McGinty, Anita S; Kaderavek, Joan N

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal results for a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) assessing the impact of increasing preschoolers' attention to print during reading are reported. Four-year-old children (N = 550) in 85 classrooms experienced a 30-week shared reading program implemented by their teachers. Children in experimental classrooms experienced shared-book readings 2 or 4 times per week during which their teachers verbally and nonverbally referenced print. Children in comparison classrooms experienced their teachers' typical book reading style. Longitudinal results (n = 356, 366) showed that use of print references had significant impacts on children's early literacy skills (reading, spelling, comprehension) for 2 years following the RCT's conclusion. Results indicate a causal relation between early print knowledge and later literacy skills and have important implications concerning the primary prevention of reading difficulties.

  14. The Effect of Curriculum for Developing Efficient Studying Skills on Academic Achievements and Studying Skills of Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Semra; Kilinc, Mehmet; Dogan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to examine the effect of "Development of Efficient Studying Skills Curriculum" on academic achievements and studying skills of 7th grade primary school students. In this study, pre-test post-test from experiment models and semi-experimental model with control group were preferred. The reason for the preference is…

  15. O&M Best Practices - A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency (Release 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Gregory P.; Pugh, Ray; Melendez, Aldo P.; Hunt, W. D.

    2004-07-31

    This guide, sponsored by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program, highlights operations and maintenance (O&M) programs targeting energy efficiency that are estimated to save 5% to 20% on energy bills without a significant capital investment. The purpose of this guide is to provide the federal O&M energy manager and practitioner with useful information about O&M management, technologies, energy efficiency and cost-reduction approaches.

  16. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Increasing Academic Learning Time for College Undergraduate Students' Achievement in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shammari, Zaid; Mohammad, Anwar; Al-Shammari, Bandar

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of increasing ALT for college students' achievement in Kuwait. In Phase 1, 37 students participated (22, experimental; 15, control); in Phase 2, 19 students participated (8, sub-experimental; 11, sub-control). Several experimental research methods used in conducting this study, including development of a…

  17. 76 FR 41790 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice Establishing Date for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice... discuss opportunities for increasing real-time and day- ahead market efficiency through improved software... improved software, 76 Fed. Reg. 28,022 (2011). Parties wishing to submit written comments regarding...

  18. Student Achievement and Efficiency in Missouri Schools and the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primont, Diane F.; Domazlicky, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    The 2001 No Child Left Behind Act requires that schools make ''annual yearly progress'' in raising student achievement, or face possible sanctions. The No Child Left Behind Act places added emphasis on test scores, such as scores from the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP), to evaluate the performance of schools. In this paper, we investigate…

  19. A Thorough and Efficient Education: School Funding, Student Achievement and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlgrim, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    Many school districts are facing stagnant or reduced funding (input) concurrent with demands for improved student achievement (output). In other words, there is pressure for all schools, even those schools with student populations of low socioeconomic status, to improve academic results (accountability for output) without a directly proportionate…

  20. A Strategy to Achieve High-Efficiency Organolead Trihalide Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andalibi, Shabnam; Rostami, Ali; Darvish, Ghafar; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem

    2016-11-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental reports have shown that organometal lead halide perovskite solar cells have attracted attention as a low-cost photovoltaic technology offering high power conversion efficiency. However, the photovoltaic efficiency of these materials is still limited by poor chemical and structural stability in the case of methylammonium lead triiodide and by large bandgap in the case of methylammonium lead tribromide or trichloride. To obtain high-performance devices, we have investigated the computationally optimal efficiency for these materials using the detailed-balance method and present optimal intermediate-band perovskite solar cells with high open-circuit voltage. We model different halide perovskites using density function theory calculations and study their bandgap and absorption coefficient. Based on calculation results, surprisingly Hg doping in different halide perovskites introduces a narrow partially filled intermediate band in the forbidden bandgap. We investigate electrical and optical properties of MAPb0.97Hg0.03I3, MAPb0.96Hg0.04Br3, and MAPb0.96Hg0.04Cl3 and calculate the high absorption efficiency of the different perovskite structures to create thin films suitable for photovoltaic devices.

  1. A Strategy to Achieve High-Efficiency Organolead Trihalide Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andalibi, Shabnam; Rostami, Ali; Darvish, Gafar; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem

    2016-07-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental reports have shown that organometal lead halide perovskite solar cells have attracted attention as a low-cost photovoltaic technology offering high power conversion efficiency. However, the photovoltaic efficiency of these materials is still limited by poor chemical and structural stability in the case of methylammonium lead triiodide and by large bandgap in the case of methylammonium lead tribromide or trichloride. To obtain high-performance devices, we have investigated the computationally optimal efficiency for these materials using the detailed-balance method and present optimal intermediate-band perovskite solar cells with high open-circuit voltage. We model different halide perovskites using density function theory calculations and study their bandgap and absorption coefficient. Based on calculation results, surprisingly Hg doping in different halide perovskites introduces a narrow partially filled intermediate band in the forbidden bandgap. We investigate electrical and optical properties of MAPb0.97Hg0.03I3, MAPb0.96Hg0.04Br3, and MAPb0.96Hg0.04Cl3 and calculate the high absorption efficiency of the different perovskite structures to create thin films suitable for photovoltaic devices.

  2. Achieving strategic cost advantages by focusing on back-office efficiency.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Jim

    2010-06-01

    A study of more than 270 hospitals over a four-year period highlighted a number of investments that can reduce hospitals' costs and improve efficiency, including the following: E-procurement systems. Electronic exchange of invoices and payments (and electronic receipt of payments). Human resources IT systems that reduce the need for manual entry of data. Shared services deployment.

  3. Combination of molecular, morphological, and interfacial engineering to achieve highly efficient and stable plastic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Yu; Cheng, Yen-Ju; Hung, Shih-Hsiu; Wu, Jhong-Sian; Kao, Wei-Shun; Lee, Chia-Hao; Hsu, Chain-Shu

    2012-01-24

    A flexible solar device showing exceptional air and mechanical stability is produced by simultaneously optimizing molecular structure, active layer morphology, and interface characteristics. The PFDCTBT-C8-based devices with inverted architecture exhibited excellent power conversion efficiencies of 7.0% and 6.0% on glass and flexible substrates, respectively.

  4. Effects of Using Channelling Devices to Increase Efficiency of Hydrokinetic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnacs, A.; Kalnacs, J.; Mutule, A.; Entins, V.

    2015-04-01

    In the rivers of Latvia and of many other countries the flow velocity in the places that are most suitable for installation of hydrokinetic devices is 0.4 to 0.9 m/s. In a stream or a river the hydrokinetic devices can reach full efficiency starting from about twice higher flow velocities. It is advisable to at least double this velocity thus increasing the efficiency and power output of the hydrokinetic devices installed in such places. Since Latvia has abundance of slow rivers and almost none are fast, research in this field is of high importance. Diversified technical methods are known that allow increasing substantially the efficiency of hydrokinetic devices. These methods include the use of diffusers, concentrators, different types of other channelling devices and means of flow control. Desirable effects are achieved through changing the cross-section and/or direction of a flow, its pressure, minimizing the turbulence, etc. This work substantiates the use of such devices for increasing the efficiency of hydrokinetic devices. A method is proposed for evaluation of the effects on power output gained owing to the use of channelling devices. Results show that the efficiency of hydrokinetic devices can be increased by at least 110%. Kā rāda pētījumi, Latvijā upju vietās, kuras ir piemērotas hidrokinētisko HES ierīkošanai, straumes ātrums pārsvarā ir robežās 0,4 līdz 0,9 m/s. Būtu izdevīgi vismaz dubultot šo ātrumu, līdz ar to būtiski palielinot šādās vietās izvietojamo iekārtu efektivitāti un jaudu. Sakarā ar to, ka Latvijā ir daudz tieši lēni plūstošu upju, minēto tēmu izpēte un iekārtu izmantošana Latvijai ir sevišķi aktuāla. Ir zināmi dažādi tehniskie paņēmieni, kas dod iespējas būtiski palielināt hidrokinētisko iekārtu efektivitāti. Šādas iespējas dod koncentratori, difuzori, dažādi plūsmas virzītāji un citi speciāli plūsmas vadības paņēmieni. Šīs ierīces maina straumes šķērsgriezumu un

  5. Carrots and Sticks: A Comprehensive Business Model for the Successful Achievement of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards Environmental Energy Technologies DivisionMarch 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Satchwell, Andrew; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2011-03-22

    Energy efficiency resource standards (EERS) are a prominent strategy to potentially achieve rapid and aggressive energy savings goals in the U.S. As of December 2010, twenty-six U.S. states had some form of an EERS with savings goals applicable to energy efficiency (EE) programs paid for by utility customers. The European Union has initiated a similar type of savings goal, the Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive, where it is being implemented in some countries through direct partnership with regulated electric utilities. U.S. utilities face significant financial disincentives under traditional regulation which affects the interest of shareholders and managers in aggressively pursuing cost-effective energy efficiency. Regulators are considering some combination of mandated goals ('sticks') and alternative utility business model components ('carrots' such as performance incentives) to align the utility's business and financial interests with state and federal energy efficiency public policy goals. European countries that have directed their utilities to administer EE programs have generally relied on non-binding mandates and targets; in the U.S., most state regulators have increasingly viewed 'carrots' as a necessary condition for successful achievement of energy efficiency goals and targets. In this paper, we analyze the financial impacts of an EERS on a large electric utility in the State of Arizona using a pro-forma utility financial model, including impacts on utility earnings, customer bills and rates. We demonstrate how a viable business model can be designed to improve the business case while retaining sizable ratepayer benefits. Quantifying these concerns and identifying ways they can be addressed are crucial steps in gaining the support of major stakeholder groups - lessons that can apply to other countries looking to significantly increase savings targets that can be achieved from their own utility-administered EE programs.

  6. Identification of Energy Efficiency Opportunities through Building Data Analysis and Achieving Energy Savings through Improved Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Koran, Bill

    2014-09-04

    This chapter will highlight analysis techniques to identify energy efficiency opportunities to improve operations and controls. A free tool, Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM), will be used to assist in the analysis of whole-building, sub-metered, and/or data from the building automation system (BAS). Appendix A describes the features of ECAM in more depth, and also provide instructions for downloading ECAM and all resources pertaining to using ECAM.

  7. [Bariatric surgery is more efficient than medical treatment in achieving remission in diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    Klein, Mads; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Observational studies have shown that bariatric surgery can lead to remission of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMII), but randomized controlled trials have been lacking. Recently, randomized controlled trials comparing bariatric surgery with optimal medical treatment in patients suffering from poorly controlled DMII, have been performed. These trials show that bariatric surgery in general, and the malabsorptive procedures in particular, are more effective than medical treatment in achieving remission of DMII. These procedures should therefore be considered in the treatment of patients with DMII and obesity.

  8. Optimal thickness of silicon membranes to achieve maximum thermoelectric efficiency: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, Claudia; Neogi, Sanghamitra; Donadio, Davide

    2016-08-01

    Silicon nanostructures with reduced dimensionality, such as nanowires, membranes, and thin films, are promising thermoelectric materials, as they exhibit considerably reduced thermal conductivity. Here, we utilize density functional theory and Boltzmann transport equation to compute the electronic properties of ultra-thin crystalline silicon membranes with thickness between 1 and 12 nm. We predict that an optimal thickness of ˜7 nm maximizes the thermoelectric figure of merit of membranes with native oxide surface layers. Further thinning of the membranes, although attainable in experiments, reduces the electrical conductivity and worsens the thermoelectric efficiency.

  9. Inorganic Nutrients Increase Humification Efficiency and C-Sequestration in an Annually Cropped Soil

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Alan E.; Wade, Len J.; Conyers, Mark; Kirkegaard, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and storing the carbon (C) in resistant soil organic matter (SOM) is a global priority to restore soil fertility and help mitigate climate change. Although it is widely assumed that retaining rather than removing or burning crop residues will increase SOM levels, many studies have failed to demonstrate this. We hypothesised that the microbial nature of resistant SOM provides a predictable nutrient stoichiometry (C:nitrogen, C:phosphorus and C:sulphur–C:N:P:S) to target using supplementary nutrients when incorporating C-rich crop residues into soil. An improvement in the humification efficiency of the soil microbiome as a whole, and thereby C-sequestration, was predicted. In a field study over 5 years, soil organic-C (SOC) stocks to 1.6 m soil depth were increased by 5.5 t C ha-1 where supplementary nutrients were applied with incorporated crop residues, but were reduced by 3.2 t C ha-1 without nutrient addition, with 2.9 t C ha-1 being lost from the 0–10 cm layer. A net difference of 8.7 t C ha-1 was thus achieved in a cropping soil over a 5 year period, despite the same level of C addition. Despite shallow incorporation (0.15 m), more than 50% of the SOC increase occurred below 0.3 m, and as predicted by the stoichiometry, increases in resistant SOC were accompanied by increases in soil NPS at all depths. Interestingly the C:N, C:P and C:S ratios decreased significantly with depth possibly as a consequence of differences in fungi to bacteria ratio. Our results demonstrate that irrespective of the C-input, it is essential to balance the nutrient stoichiometry of added C to better match that of resistant SOM to increase SOC sequestration. This has implications for global practices and policies aimed at increasing SOC sequestration and specifically highlight the need to consider the hidden cost and availability of associated nutrients in building soil-C. PMID:27144282

  10. Inorganic Nutrients Increase Humification Efficiency and C-Sequestration in an Annually Cropped Soil.

    PubMed

    Kirkby, Clive A; Richardson, Alan E; Wade, Len J; Conyers, Mark; Kirkegaard, John A

    2016-01-01

    Removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and storing the carbon (C) in resistant soil organic matter (SOM) is a global priority to restore soil fertility and help mitigate climate change. Although it is widely assumed that retaining rather than removing or burning crop residues will increase SOM levels, many studies have failed to demonstrate this. We hypothesised that the microbial nature of resistant SOM provides a predictable nutrient stoichiometry (C:nitrogen, C:phosphorus and C:sulphur-C:N:P:S) to target using supplementary nutrients when incorporating C-rich crop residues into soil. An improvement in the humification efficiency of the soil microbiome as a whole, and thereby C-sequestration, was predicted. In a field study over 5 years, soil organic-C (SOC) stocks to 1.6 m soil depth were increased by 5.5 t C ha-1 where supplementary nutrients were applied with incorporated crop residues, but were reduced by 3.2 t C ha-1 without nutrient addition, with 2.9 t C ha-1 being lost from the 0-10 cm layer. A net difference of 8.7 t C ha-1 was thus achieved in a cropping soil over a 5 year period, despite the same level of C addition. Despite shallow incorporation (0.15 m), more than 50% of the SOC increase occurred below 0.3 m, and as predicted by the stoichiometry, increases in resistant SOC were accompanied by increases in soil NPS at all depths. Interestingly the C:N, C:P and C:S ratios decreased significantly with depth possibly as a consequence of differences in fungi to bacteria ratio. Our results demonstrate that irrespective of the C-input, it is essential to balance the nutrient stoichiometry of added C to better match that of resistant SOM to increase SOC sequestration. This has implications for global practices and policies aimed at increasing SOC sequestration and specifically highlight the need to consider the hidden cost and availability of associated nutrients in building soil-C. PMID:27144282

  11. Efficient Method of Achieving Agreements between Individuals and Organizations about RFID Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Shi-Cho

    This work presents novel technical and legal approaches that address privacy concerns for personal data in RFID systems. In recent years, to minimize the conflict between convenience and the privacy risk of RFID systems, organizations have been requested to disclose their policies regarding RFID activities, obtain customer consent, and adopt appropriate mechanisms to enforce these policies. However, current research on RFID typically focuses on enforcement mechanisms to protect personal data stored in RFID tags and prevent organizations from tracking user activity through information emitted by specific RFID tags. A missing piece is how organizations can obtain customers' consent efficiently and flexibly. This study recommends that organizations obtain licenses automatically or semi-automatically before collecting personal data via RFID technologies rather than deal with written consents. Such digitalized and standard licenses can be checked automatically to ensure that collection and use of personal data is based on user consent. While individuals can easily control who has licenses and license content, the proposed framework provides an efficient and flexible way to overcome the deficiencies in current privacy protection technologies for RFID systems.

  12. Achieving Selective and Efficient Electrocatalytic Activity for CO2 Reduction Using Immobilized Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheonghee; Jeon, Hyo Sang; Eom, Taedaehyeong; Jee, Michael Shincheon; Kim, Hyungjun; Friend, Cynthia M; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong

    2015-11-01

    Selective electrochemical reduction of CO2 is one of the most sought-after processes because of the potential to convert a harmful greenhouse gas to a useful chemical. We have discovered that immobilized Ag nanoparticles supported on carbon exhibit enhanced Faradaic efficiency and a lower overpotential for selective reduction of CO2 to CO. These electrocatalysts were synthesized directly on the carbon support by a facile one-pot method using a cysteamine anchoring agent resulting in controlled monodispersed particle sizes. These synthesized Ag/C electrodes showed improved activities, specifically decrease of the overpotential by 300 mV at 1 mA/cm(2), and 4-fold enhanced CO Faradaic efficiency at -0.75 V vs RHE with the optimal particle size of 5 nm compared to polycrystalline Ag foil. DFT calculations enlightened that the specific interaction between Ag nanoparticle and the anchoring agents modified the catalyst surface to have a selectively higher affinity to the intermediate COOH over CO, which effectively lowers the overpotential. PMID:26447349

  13. Achieving Internet-based efficiencies in a rural IDS: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bacus, R; Zunke, R

    2001-09-01

    After suffering payment cuts resulting from the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, Colorado-Fayette Medical Center (CFMC), a not-for-profit, rural integrated delivery system in Texas, wanted to reduce costs by gaining systemwide Internet access for its internal information system at a reasonable price. An application service provider affiliated with the Texas Hospital Association, helped CFMC achieve its goals for the project by performing a needs assessment, installing a wide-area network (WAN) with Internet access, and training staff. The new WAN enabled CFMC to improve its Web presence, allow radiologic image viewing at all sites, negotiate more favorable prices from vendors, implement electronic communication for staff members, and take advantage of on-line education opportunities. CFMC has found that the monthly fee paid to THN is offset by savings on long-distance calls, Internet service provider fees, and marketing and advertising costs. PMID:11552587

  14. Metering Best Practices, A Guide to Achieving Utility Resource Efficiency, Release 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Greg; Hunt, W. D.; Pugh, Ray; Sandusky, William F.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Boyd, Brian K.

    2011-08-31

    This release is an update and expansion of the information provided in Release 1.0 of the Metering Best Practice Guide that was issued in October 2007. This release, as was the previous release, was developed under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The mission of FEMP is to facilitate the Federal Government's implementation of sound cost-effective energy management and investment practices to enhance the nation's energy security and environmental stewardship. Each of these activities is directly related to achieving requirements set forth in the Energy Policy Acts of 1992 and 2005, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, and the goals that have been established in Executive Orders 13423 and 13514 - and also those practices that are inherent in sound management of Federal financial and personnel resources.

  15. 76 FR 28022 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice... Software Take notice that Commission staff will convene a technical conference on June 28-30, 2011, from 8... efficiency through improved software. This conference will bring together diverse experts from ISOs/RTOs,...

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells with 13% efficiency achieved through the molecular engineering of porphyrin sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Simon; Yella, Aswani; Gao, Peng; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Curchod, Basile F E; Ashari-Astani, Negar; Tavernelli, Ivano; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Nazeeruddin, Md Khaja; Grätzel, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells have gained widespread attention in recent years because of their low production costs, ease of fabrication and tunable optical properties, such as colour and transparency. Here, we report a molecularly engineered porphyrin dye, coded SM315, which features the prototypical structure of a donor-π-bridge-acceptor and both maximizes electrolyte compatibility and improves light-harvesting properties. Linear-response, time-dependent density functional theory was used to investigate the perturbations in the electronic structure that lead to improved light harvesting. Using SM315 with the cobalt(II/III) redox shuttle resulted in dye-sensitized solar cells that exhibit a high open-circuit voltage VOC of 0.91 V, short-circuit current density JSC of 18.1 mA cm(-2), fill factor of 0.78 and a power conversion efficiency of 13%.

  17. Dye-sensitized solar cells with 13% efficiency achieved through the molecular engineering of porphyrin sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Simon; Yella, Aswani; Gao, Peng; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Curchod, Basile F. E.; Ashari-Astani, Negar; Tavernelli, Ivano; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Nazeeruddin, Md. Khaja; Grätzel, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells have gained widespread attention in recent years because of their low production costs, ease of fabrication and tunable optical properties, such as colour and transparency. Here, we report a molecularly engineered porphyrin dye, coded SM315, which features the prototypical structure of a donor-π-bridge-acceptor and both maximizes electrolyte compatibility and improves light-harvesting properties. Linear-response, time-dependent density functional theory was used to investigate the perturbations in the electronic structure that lead to improved light harvesting. Using SM315 with the cobalt(II/III) redox shuttle resulted in dye-sensitized solar cells that exhibit a high open-circuit voltage VOC of 0.91 V, short-circuit current density JSC of 18.1 mA cm-2, fill factor of 0.78 and a power conversion efficiency of 13%.

  18. Operations & Maintenance Best Practices - A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency (Release 3)

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Greg; Pugh, Ray; Melendez, Aldo P.; Hunt, W. D.

    2010-08-04

    This guide highlights operations and maintenance programs targeting energy and water efficiency that are estimated to save 5% to 20% on energy bills without a significant capital investment. The purpose of this guide is to provide you, the Operations and Maintenance (O&M)/Energy manager and practitioner, with useful information about O&M management, technologies, energy and water efficiency, and cost-reduction approaches. To make this guide useful and to reflect your needs and concerns, the authors met with O&M and Energy managers via Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) workshops. In addition, the authors conducted extensive literature searches and contacted numerous vendors and industry experts. The information and case studies that appear in this guide resulted from these activities. It needs to be stated at the outset that this guide is designed to provide information on effective O&M as it applies to systems and equipment typically found at Federal facilities. This guide is not designed to provide the reader with step-by-step procedures for performing O&M on any specific piece of equipment. Rather, this guide first directs the user to the manufacturer's specifications and recommendations. In no way should the recommendations in this guide be used in place of manufacturer's recommendations. The recommendations in this guide are designed to supplement those of the manufacturer, or, as is all too often the case, provide guidance for systems and equipment for which all technical documentation has been lost. As a rule, this guide will first defer to the manufacturer's recommendations on equipment operation and maintenance.

  19. 78 FR 31916 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Supplemental Agenda Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software... improved software. A detailed agenda with the list of times for the selected speakers and presentation... diverse experts from public utilities, the software industry, government, research centers and...

  20. Achieving greenhouse gas emission reductions in developing countries through energy efficient lighting projects in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

    SciTech Connect

    Figueres, C.; Bosi, M.

    2006-11-15

    Energy efficiency can help address the challenge of increasing access to modern energy services, reduce the need for capital-intensive supply investments as well as mitigating climate change. Efficient lighting is a promising sector for improving the adequacy and reliability of power systems and reducing emissions in developing countries. However, these measures are hardly represented in the CDM portfolio. The COP/MOP decision to include programs of activities in the CDM could open the door to the implementation of a large number of energy efficiency projects in developing countries. Since GHG reductions are essentially the emission equivalent of energy savings, the CDM can benefit from long established energy efficiency methodologies for quantifying energy savings and fulfilling CDM methodological requirements. The integration of the CDM into energy efficiency programs could help spur a necessary transformation in the lighting market.

  1. Exciplex-triplet energy transfer: A new method to achieve extremely efficient organic light-emitting diode with external quantum efficiency over 30% and drive voltage below 3 V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Satoshi; Shitagaki, Satoko; Ohsawa, Nobuharu; Inoue, Hideko; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Nowatari, Hiromi; Yamazaki, Shunpei

    2014-04-01

    A novel approach to enhance the power efficiency of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) by employing energy transfer from an exciplex to a phosphorescent emitter is reported. It was found that excitation energy of an exciplex formed between an electron-transporting material with a π-deficient quinoxaline moiety and a hole-transporting material with aromatic amine structure can be effectively transferred to a phosphorescent iridium complex in an emission layer of a phosphorescent OLED. Moreover, such an exciplex formation increases quantum efficiency and reduces drive voltage. A highly efficient, low-voltage, and long-life OLED based on this energy transfer is also demonstrated. This OLED device exhibited extremely high external quantum efficiency of 31% even without any attempt to enhance light outcoupling and also achieved a low drive voltage of 2.8 V and a long lifetime of approximately 1,000,000 h at a luminance of 1,000 cd/m2.

  2. The Roles of Collective Efficacy of Teachers and Fiscal Efficiency in Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cybulski, Timothy G.; Hoy, Wayne K.; Sweetland, Scott R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Public schools in the USA face increased pressures for more accountability and improved performance. The objective of this study was to wed two previously separated theoretical strands of educational research--economic theory and organizational theory--by using variables from each theory base to develop, compare, and test a series of…

  3. Learner Characteristics and Motivation: How to Achieve Efficient and Effective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Catherine Marie Fraser

    2015-01-01

    During the Society for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Conference 2014, a workshop was held three consecutive times as part of the Pedagogical Speed Dating sessions to introduce experienced college/university faculty and instructional designers to an approach to instructional design that is based on increasing motivation. The purpose of…

  4. The use of ECDIS equipment to achieve an optimum value for energy efficiency operation index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acomi, N.; Acomi, O. C.; Stanca, C.

    2015-11-01

    To reduce air pollution produced by ships, the International Maritime Organization has developed a set of technical, operational and management measures. The subject of our research addresses the operational measures for minimizing CO2 air emissions and the way how the emission value could be influenced by external factors regardless of ship-owners’ will. This study aims to analyse the air emissions for a loaded voyage leg performed by an oil tanker. The formula that allows us to calculate the predicted Energy Efficiency Operational Index involves the estimation of distance and fuel consumption, while the quantity of cargo is known. The electronic chart display and information system, ECDIS Simulation Software, will be used for adjusting the passage plan in real time, given the predicted severe environmental conditions. The distance will be determined using ECDIS, while the prediction of the fuel consumption will consider the sea trial and the vessel experience records. That way it will be possible to compare the estimated EEOI value in the case of great circle navigation in adverse weather condition with the estimated EEOI value for weather navigation.

  5. Depth Filters Containing Diatomite Achieve More Efficient Particle Retention than Filters Solely Containing Cellulose Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Buyel, Johannes F.; Gruchow, Hannah M.; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The clarification of biological feed stocks during the production of biopharmaceutical proteins is challenging when large quantities of particles must be removed, e.g., when processing crude plant extracts. Single-use depth filters are often preferred for clarification because they are simple to integrate and have a good safety profile. However, the combination of filter layers must be optimized in terms of nominal retention ratings to account for the unique particle size distribution in each feed stock. We have recently shown that predictive models can facilitate filter screening and the selection of appropriate filter layers. Here we expand our previous study by testing several filters with different retention ratings. The filters typically contain diatomite to facilitate the removal of fine particles. However, diatomite can interfere with the recovery of large biopharmaceutical molecules such as virus-like particles and aggregated proteins. Therefore, we also tested filtration devices composed solely of cellulose fibers and cohesive resin. The capacities of both filter types varied from 10 to 50 L m−2 when challenged with tobacco leaf extracts, but the filtrate turbidity was ~500-fold lower (~3.5 NTU) when diatomite filters were used. We also tested pre–coat filtration with dispersed diatomite, which achieved capacities of up to 120 L m−2 with turbidities of ~100 NTU using bulk plant extracts, and in contrast to the other depth filters did not require an upstream bag filter. Single pre-coat filtration devices can thus replace combinations of bag and depth filters to simplify the processing of plant extracts, potentially saving on time, labor and consumables. The protein concentrations of TSP, DsRed and antibody 2G12 were not affected by pre-coat filtration, indicating its general applicability during the manufacture of plant-derived biopharmaceutical proteins. PMID:26734037

  6. Depth Filters Containing Diatomite Achieve More Efficient Particle Retention than Filters Solely Containing Cellulose Fibers.

    PubMed

    Buyel, Johannes F; Gruchow, Hannah M; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The clarification of biological feed stocks during the production of biopharmaceutical proteins is challenging when large quantities of particles must be removed, e.g., when processing crude plant extracts. Single-use depth filters are often preferred for clarification because they are simple to integrate and have a good safety profile. However, the combination of filter layers must be optimized in terms of nominal retention ratings to account for the unique particle size distribution in each feed stock. We have recently shown that predictive models can facilitate filter screening and the selection of appropriate filter layers. Here we expand our previous study by testing several filters with different retention ratings. The filters typically contain diatomite to facilitate the removal of fine particles. However, diatomite can interfere with the recovery of large biopharmaceutical molecules such as virus-like particles and aggregated proteins. Therefore, we also tested filtration devices composed solely of cellulose fibers and cohesive resin. The capacities of both filter types varied from 10 to 50 L m(-2) when challenged with tobacco leaf extracts, but the filtrate turbidity was ~500-fold lower (~3.5 NTU) when diatomite filters were used. We also tested pre-coat filtration with dispersed diatomite, which achieved capacities of up to 120 L m(-2) with turbidities of ~100 NTU using bulk plant extracts, and in contrast to the other depth filters did not require an upstream bag filter. Single pre-coat filtration devices can thus replace combinations of bag and depth filters to simplify the processing of plant extracts, potentially saving on time, labor and consumables. The protein concentrations of TSP, DsRed and antibody 2G12 were not affected by pre-coat filtration, indicating its general applicability during the manufacture of plant-derived biopharmaceutical proteins.

  7. Enhancing Thermophotovoltaics: 2D photonic crystals and Surface Plasmon Resonance to Increase the efficiency of GaSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemelya, Corey; DeMeo, Dante; Vandervelde, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    For many years researchers have attempted to efficiently harvest waste heat via thermophotovoltics (TPVs). The low quantum efficiency (QE; i.e. the probability that a photon will be absorbed) in most cells is probably the biggest limiting factor in achieving an economically viable device and directly affects the conversion efficiency (CE; i.e. the probability that a photon will be converted into a carrier that is collected). In many cases, top of the line TPV cells might only have a CE of 20 percent. Recent advances have enabled the creation of novel structures to enhance the absorption and the conversion of the incident thermal photons. In particular, photonic crystals (PhC) and surface plasmon (SP) interface enhancements have been shown to increase the efficiency of photon to current conversions for infrared photodetectors. Here, we report on the enhancement of photon conversion by integration of PhC and SP structures into the TPV cells. Photonic crystals consisting of rods of either air or dielectric surface-passivation material are placed into the base semiconductor TPV cells to increase duration of thermal photon absorption, resulting in significantly enhanced QE and CE. The ability to harvest waste heat for energy will help make many processes more energy efficient, a critical component in ushering the USA into an era of energy independence.

  8. Application of ITO/Al reflectors for increasing the efficiency of single-crystal silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kopach, V. R.; Kirichenko, M. V. Khrypunov, G. S.; Zaitsev, R. V.

    2010-06-15

    It is shown that an increase in the efficiency and manufacturability of single-junction single-crystal silicon photoelectric converters of solar energy requires the use of a back-surface reflector based on conductive transparent indium-tin oxide (ITO) 0.25-2 {mu}m thick. To increase the efficiency and reduce the sensitivity to the angle of light incidence on the photoreceiving surface of multijunction photoelectric converters with vertical diode cells based on single-crystal silicon, ITO/Al reflectors with an ITO layer >1 {mu}m thick along vertical boundaries of diode cells should be fabricated. The experimental study of multijunction photoelectric converters with ITO/Al reflectors at diode cell boundaries shows the necessity of modernizing the used technology of ITO layers to achieve their theoretically calculated thickness.

  9. Effectiveness of increasing the frequency of posaconazole syrup administration to achieve optimal plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Park, Wan Beom; Cho, Joo-Youn; Park, Sang-In; Kim, Eun Jung; Yoon, Seonghae; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Youngil; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Eu Suk; Bang, Su Mi; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Inho; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Sang Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Few data are available on whether adjusting the dose of posaconazole syrup is effective in patients receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the impact of increasing the frequency of posaconazole administration on optimal plasma concentrations in adult patients with haematological malignancy. A total of 133 adult patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received posaconazole syrup 200 mg three times daily for fungal prophylaxis were enrolled in this study. Drug trough levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In 20.2% of patients (23/114) the steady-state concentration of posaconazole was suboptimal (<500 ng/mL) on Day 8. In these patients, the frequency of posaconazole administration was increased to 200 mg four times daily. On Day 15, the median posaconazole concentration was significantly increased from 368 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 247-403 ng/mL] to 548 ng/mL (IQR, 424-887 ng/mL) (P = 0.0003). The median increase in posaconazole concentration was 251 ng/mL (IQR, 93-517 ng/mL). Among the patients with initially suboptimal levels, 79% achieved the optimal level unless the steady-state level was <200 ng/mL. This study shows that increasing the administration frequency of posaconazole syrup is effective for achieving optimal levels in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:27234674

  10. Hyaluronidase and collagenase increase the transfection efficiency of gene electrotransfer in various murine tumors.

    PubMed

    Cemazar, Maja; Golzio, Muriel; Sersa, Gregor; Escoffre, Jean-Michel; Coer, Andrej; Vidic, Suzana; Teissie, Justin

    2012-01-01

    One of the applications of electroporation/electropulsation in biomedicine is gene electrotransfer, the wider use of which is hindered by low transfection efficiency in vivo compared with viral vectors. The aim of our study was to determine whether modulation of the extracellular matrix in solid tumors, using collagenase and hyaluronidase, could increase the transfection efficiency of gene electrotransfer in histologically different solid subcutaneous tumors in mice. Tumors were treated with enzymes before electrotransfer of plasmid DNA encoding either green fluorescent protein or luciferase. Transfection efficiency was determined 3, 9, and 15 days posttransfection. We demonstrated that pretreatment of tumors with a combination of enzymes significantly increased the transfection efficiency of electrotransfer in tumors with a high extracellular matrix area (LPB fibrosarcoma). In tumors with a smaller extracellular matrix area and less organized collagen lattice, the increase was not so pronounced (SA-1 fibrosarcoma and EAT carcinoma), whereas in B16 melanoma, in which only traces of collagen are present, pretreatment of tumors with hyaluronidase alone was more efficient than pretreatment with both enzymes. In conclusion, our results suggest that modification of the extracellular matrix could improve distribution of plasmid DNA in solid subcutaneous tumors, demonstrated by an increase in transfection efficiency, and thus have important clinical implications for electrogene therapy. PMID:21797718

  11. Titanate cathodes with enhanced electrical properties achieved via growing surface Ni particles toward efficient carbon dioxide electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lizhen; Ye, Lingting; Tao, Shanwen; Xie, Kui

    2016-01-28

    Ionic conduction in perovskite oxide is commonly tailored by element doping in lattices to create charge carriers, while few studies have been focused on ionic conduction enhancement through tailoring microstructures. In this work, remarkable enhancement of ionic conduction in titanate has been achieved via in situ growing active nickel nanoparticles on an oxide surface by controlling the oxide material nonstoichiometry. The combined use of XRD, SEM, XPS and EDS indicates that the exsolution/dissolution of the nickel nanoparticles is completely reversible in redox cycles. With the synergetic effect of enhanced ionic conduction of titanate and the presence of catalytic active Ni nanocatalysts, significant improvement of electrocatalytic performances of the titanate cathode is demonstrated. A current density of 0.3 A cm(-2) with a Faradic efficiency of 90% has been achieved for direct carbon dioxide electrolysis in a 2 mm-thick YSZ-supported solid oxide electrolyzer with the modified titanate cathode at 2 V and 1073 K. PMID:26743799

  12. Teacher Research Programs: An Effective Form of Professional Development to Increase Student Achievement and Benefit the Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, J.

    2008-12-01

    U.S. high school students perform markedly less well in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) than students in other economically advanced countries. This low level of STEM performance endangers our democracy and economy. The President's Council of Advisors in Science and Technology's 2004 report attributed the shortfall of students attracted to the sciences is a result of the dearth of teachers sufficiently conversant with science and scientists to enable them to communicate to their students the excitement of scientific exploration and discovery, and the opportunities science provides for highly rewarding and remunerative careers. Nonetheless, the United States has made little progress in correcting these deficiencies. Studies have shown that high-quality teaching matters more to student achievement than anything else schools do. This belief is buttressed by evidence from Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers (SRP) that highly motivated, in-service science teachers require professional development to enable them and their students to perform up to their potential. Columbia's Summer Research Program is based on the premise that to teach science effectively requires experience in using the tools of contemporary science to answer unsolved questions. From its inception, SRP's goal has been to enhance interest and improve performance in science of students. It seeks to achieve this goal by increasing the professional competence of teachers. The reports of Elmore, Sanders and Rivers, and our own studies, show that professional development is a "key lever for improving student outcomes." While most middle and high school science teachers have taken college science courses that include cookbook laboratory exercises, the vast majority of them have never attempted to answer an unsolved question. Just as student learning depends on the expertise of teachers, the expertise of teachers depends on the quality of their professional

  13. Achieving Extreme Utilization of Excitons by an Efficient Sandwich-Type Emissive Layer Architecture for Reduced Efficiency Roll-Off and Improved Operational Stability in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongbin; Sun, Ning; Zhu, Liping; Sun, Hengda; Wang, Jiaxiu; Yang, Dezhi; Qiao, Xianfeng; Chen, Jiangshan; Alshehri, Saad M; Ahamad, Tansir; Ma, Dongge

    2016-02-10

    It has been demonstrated that the efficiency roll-off is generally caused by the accumulation of excitons or charge carriers, which is intimately related to the emissive layer (EML) architecture in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this article, an efficient sandwich-type EML structure with a mixed-host EML sandwiched between two single-host EMLs was designed to eliminate this accumulation, thus simultaneously achieving high efficiency, low efficiency roll-off and good operational stability in the resulting OLEDs. The devices show excellent electroluminescence performances, realizing a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 24.6% with a maximum power efficiency of 105.6 lm W(-1) and a maximum current efficiency of 93.5 cd A(-1). At the high brightness of 5,000 cd m(-2), they still remain as high as 23.3%, 71.1 lm W(-1), and 88.3 cd A(-1), respectively. And, the device lifetime is up to 2000 h at initial luminance of 1000 cd m(-2), which is significantly higher than that of compared devices with conventional EML structures. The improvement mechanism is systematically studied by the dependence of the exciton distribution in EML and the exciton quenching processes. It can be seen that the utilization of the efficient sandwich-type EML broadens the recombination zone width, thus greatly reducing the exciton quenching and increasing the probability of the exciton recombination. It is believed that the design concept provides a new avenue for us to achieve high-performance OLEDs.

  14. Efficiency increase of hard rock destruction with the use of eccentric pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushmin, P.; Romanov, G.

    2015-11-01

    The increase of efficiency of expendable well-drilling directly depends on the mechanism of rock destruction. The depth of hole coverage should be at the maximum possible value and equal along the whole contact area. The design features of performing rock- destruction tool in rotary drilling prevent the cutters, located on different distance from rotation axis, from working with equal intensity. The application of the shock pulses to a boring tool increases the mechanical drilling speed and sinking per revolution. One of the techniques for the efficiency increase is the application of impactor machines. On the other hand, the high values of mechanical drilling speed require the high values of impact energy which results in high power inputs energy consumption. The use of eccentric impact loading instead of central one can provide the enhancement of rock destruction efficiency, lower the power inputs, and decrease the risk of borehole deviation.

  15. Processing speed training increases the efficiency of attentional resource allocation in young adults.

    PubMed

    Burge, Wesley K; Ross, Lesley A; Amthor, Franklin R; Mitchell, William G; Zotov, Alexander; Visscher, Kristina M

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive training has been shown to improve performance on a range of tasks. However, the mechanisms underlying these improvements are still unclear. Given the wide range of transfer effects, it is likely that these effects are due to a factor common to a wide range of tasks. One such factor is a participant's efficiency in allocating limited cognitive resources. The impact of a cognitive training program, Processing Speed Training (PST), on the allocation of resources to a set of visual tasks was measured using pupillometry in 10 young adults as compared to a control group of a 10 young adults (n = 20). PST is a well-studied computerized training program that involves identifying simultaneously presented central and peripheral stimuli. As training progresses, the task becomes increasingly more difficult, by including peripheral distracting stimuli and decreasing the duration of stimulus presentation. Analysis of baseline data confirmed that pupil diameter reflected cognitive effort. After training, participants randomized to PST used fewer attentional resources to perform complex visual tasks as compared to the control group. These pupil diameter data indicated that PST appears to increase the efficiency of attentional resource allocation. Increases in cognitive efficiency have been hypothesized to underlie improvements following experience with action video games, and improved cognitive efficiency has been hypothesized to underlie the benefits of PST in older adults. These data reveal that these training schemes may share a common underlying mechanism of increasing cognitive efficiency in younger adults. PMID:24151461

  16. Homeostatic structural plasticity increases the efficiency of small-world networks.

    PubMed

    Butz, Markus; Steenbuck, Ines D; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2014-01-01

    In networks with small-world topology, which are characterized by a high clustering coefficient and a short characteristic path length, information can be transmitted efficiently and at relatively low costs. The brain is composed of small-world networks, and evolution may have optimized brain connectivity for efficient information processing. Despite many studies on the impact of topology on information processing in neuronal networks, little is known about the development of network topology and the emergence of efficient small-world networks. We investigated how a simple growth process that favors short-range connections over long-range connections in combination with a synapse formation rule that generates homeostasis in post-synaptic firing rates shapes neuronal network topology. Interestingly, we found that small-world networks benefited from homeostasis by an increase in efficiency, defined as the averaged inverse of the shortest paths through the network. Efficiency particularly increased as small-world networks approached the desired level of electrical activity. Ultimately, homeostatic small-world networks became almost as efficient as random networks. The increase in efficiency was caused by the emergent property of the homeostatic growth process that neurons started forming more long-range connections, albeit at a low rate, when their electrical activity was close to the homeostatic set-point. Although global network topology continued to change when neuronal activities were around the homeostatic equilibrium, the small-world property of the network was maintained over the entire course of development. Our results may help understand how complex systems such as the brain could set up an efficient network topology in a self-organizing manner. Insights from our work may also lead to novel techniques for constructing large-scale neuronal networks by self-organization.

  17. Increasing efficiency of BEAMnrc-simulated Co-60 beams using directional source biasing

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, B. R. B.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: This study describes the implementation of a directional source biasing (DSB) scheme for efficiently simulating Cobalt-60 treatment heads using the BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code. Previous simulation of Co-60 beams with BEAMnrc was impractical because of the time required to track photons not directed into the treatment field and to simulate secondary charged particles. Methods: In DSB, efficiency is increased by splitting each photon emitted by the Co-60 source a user-defined number of times. Only those split primary photons directed into a user-defined splitting field (encompassing the treatment field) are sampled, yielding many low-weight photons directed into the field. Efficiency can be further increased by taking advantage of radial symmetry at the top of the treatment head to reduce the number of split primary photons tracked in this portion. There is also an option to generate contaminant electrons in DSB. Results: The DSB scheme in BEAMnrc increases the photon fluence calculation efficiency in a 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} Co-60 beam by a factor of 1800 with a concurrent increase in contaminant electron fluence calculation efficiency by a factor of 1200. Implementation of DSB in beampp, a C++ code for accelerator simulations based on EGSnrc and the C++ class library, egspp, increases photon fluence efficiency by a factor of 2800 and contaminant electron fluence efficiency by a factor of 1600. Optimum splitting numbers are in the range of 20 000–40 000. For dose calculations in a water phantom (0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 cm{sup 3} voxels) this translates into a factor of ∼400 increase in dose calculation efficiency (all doses > 0.5 × D{sub max}). An example calculation of the ratio of dose to water to dose to chamber (the basis of the beam quality correction factor) to within 0.2% in a realistic chamber using a full simulation of a Co-60 treatment head as a source indicates the practicality of Co-60 simulations with DSB. Conclusions: The efficiency improvement

  18. Controlled surface oxidation of multi-layered graphene anode to increase hole injection efficiency in organic electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tae-Hee; Kwon, Sung-Joo; Seo, Hong-Kyu; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-03-01

    Ultraviolet ozone (UVO) surface treatment of graphene changes its sp2-hybridized carbons to sp3-bonded carbons, and introduces oxygen-containing components. Oxidized graphene has a finite energy band gap, so UVO modification of the surface of a four-layered graphene anode increases its surface ionization potential up to ∼5.2 eV and improves the hole injection efficiency (η) in organic electronic devices by reducing the energy barrier between the graphene anode and overlying organic layers. By controlling the conditions of the UVO treatment, the electrical properties of the graphene can be tuned to improve η. This controlled surface modification of the graphene will provide a way to achieve efficient and stable flexible displays and solid-state lighting.

  19. Increasing round trip efficiency of hybrid Li-air battery with bifunctional catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K; Li, YF; Xing, YC

    2013-07-30

    Previously it was shown that Pt as cathode catalyst ha's a large overpotential during charge in rechargeable hybrid Li-air battery with sulfuric acid catholyte. This article demonstrates that a bifunctional catalyst composed of Pt and IrO2 supported on carbon nanotubes can address this problem. The specially designed and synthesized bifunctional catalyst showed significant overpotential reduction and achieved a round trip energy efficiency of 81% after 10 cycles, higher than many achieved in aprotic Li-O-2 batteries. The hybrid Li-air battery was discharged and recharged for 20 cycles at 0.2 mA/cm(2), showing a fairly stable cell performance. A specific capacity of 306 mAh/g and a specific energy of 1110 Wh/kg were obtained for the hybrid Li-air battery in terms of acid weight. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Acquired Phototrophy through Retention of Functional Chloroplasts Increases Growth Efficiency of the Sea Slug Elysia viridis

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Finn A.; Pavia, Henrik; Toth, Gunilla B.

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a fundamental process sustaining heterotrophic organisms at all trophic levels. Some mixotrophs can retain functional chloroplasts from food (kleptoplasty), and it is hypothesized that carbon acquired through kleptoplasty may enhance trophic energy transfer through increased host growth efficiency. Sacoglossan sea slugs are the only known metazoans capable of kleptoplasty, but the relative fitness contributions of heterotrophy through grazing, and phototrophy via kleptoplasts, are not well understood. Fitness benefits (i.e. increased survival or growth) of kleptoplasty in sacoglossans are commonly studied in ecologically unrealistic conditions under extended periods of complete darkness and/or starvation. We compared the growth efficiency of the sacoglossan Elysia viridis with access to algal diets providing kleptoplasts of differing functionality under ecologically relevant light conditions. Individuals fed Codium fragile, which provide highly functional kleptoplasts, nearly doubled their growth efficiency under high compared to low light. In contrast, individuals fed Cladophora rupestris, which provided kleptoplasts of limited functionality, showed no difference in growth efficiency between light treatments. Slugs feeding on Codium, but not on Cladophora, showed higher relative electron transport rates (rETR) in high compared to low light. Furthermore, there were no differences in the consumption rates of the slugs between different light treatments, and only small differences in nutritional traits of algal diets, indicating that the increased growth efficiency of E. viridis feeding on Codium was due to retention of functional kleptoplasts. Our results show that functional kleptoplasts from Codium can provide sacoglossan sea slugs with fitness advantages through photosynthesis. PMID:25830355

  1. Design and synthesis of dendritic molecular transporter that achieves efficient in vivo delivery of morpholino antisense oligo.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Fu; Morcos, Paul A

    2008-07-01

    Safe and efficient in vivo delivery of Morpholino antisense oligos was probably the last and most difficult challenge for the broad application of antisense in animal research and therapeutics. Several arginine-rich peptides effective for in vivo delivery of Morpholino antisense oligos require rather complex and expensive procedures for synthesis and conjugation. This work describes the design and synthesis of a dendritic transporter in a most concise manner where the selection of the core scaffold, functional group multiplication, orthogonal protecting group manipulation, solid phase conjugation, and off-resin perguanidinylation of the transporter structure are all orchestrated for efficient assembly. We utilized triazine as a core to provide a site for on-column conjugation to the Morpholino oligo and to anchor functional side arms which, after extension, multiplication, and deprotection, are subsequently converted from primary amines to the eight guanidinium headgroups that serve for transport across cell membranes. Intravenous administration of the delivery-enabled Morpholino into a splice-reporter strain of transgenic living mice results in de novo expression of splice-corrected green fluorescent protein in a broad range of tissues and organs in those treated mice. This rigorously demonstrates that this new dendritic transporter achieves effective delivery of a Morpholino oligo into the cytosol/nuclear compartment of cells systemically in vivo. The practical conjugation process may overcome any availability limitation for routine use by the scientific community, and the efficient delivery ability of this transporter may advance the application of Morpholino antisense technology in animals.

  2. Increased Efficiency in SI Engine with Air Replaced by Oxygen in Argon Mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Killingsworth, N J; Rapp, V H; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M; Chen, J; Dibble, R

    2010-01-13

    Basic engine thermodynamics predicts that spark ignited engine efficiency is a function of both the compression ratio of the engine and the specific heat ratio of the working fluid. In practice the compression ratio of the engine is often limited due to knock. Both higher specific heat ratio and higher compression ratio lead to higher end gas temperatures and increase the likelihood of knock. In actual engine cycles, heat transfer losses increase at higher compression ratios and limit efficiency even when the knock limit is not reached. In this paper we investigate the role of both the compression ratio and the specific heat ratio on engine efficiency by conducting experiments comparing operation of a single-cylinder variable-compression-ratio engine with both hydrogen-air and hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures. For low load operation it is found that the hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures result in higher indicated thermal efficiencies. Peak efficiency for the hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures is found at compression ratio 5.5 whereas for the hydrogen-air mixture with an equivalence ratio of 0.24 the peak efficiency is found at compression ratio 13. We apply a three-zone model to help explain the effects of specific heat ratio and compression ratio on efficiency. Operation with hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures at low loads is more efficient because the lower compression ratio results in a substantially larger portion of the gas to reside in the adiabatic core rather than in the boundary layer and in the crevices, leading to less heat transfer and more complete combustion.

  3. Increasing pumping efficiency in a micro throttle pump by enhancing displacement amplification in an elastomeric substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, T.; Johnston, I. D.; Tracey, M. C.; Tan, C. K. L.

    2010-06-01

    Fluid transport is accomplished in a micro throttle pump (MTP) by alternating deformation of a micro channel cast into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomeric substrate. The active deformation is achieved using a bimorph PZT piezoelectric disc actuator bonded to a glass diaphragm. The bimorph PZT deflects the diaphragm as well as alternately pushing and pulling the elastomer layer providing displacement amplification in the PDMS directly surrounding the micro channel. In order to improve pumping rates we have embedded a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) ring into the PMDS substrate which increases the magnitude of the displacement amplification achieved. FEM simulation of the elastomeric substrate deformation predicts that the inclusion of the PMMA ring should increase the channel deformation. We experimentally demonstrate that inclusion of a PMMA ring, having a diameter equal to that of the circular node of the PZT/glass/PDMS composite, increases in the throttle resistance ratio by 40% and the maximum pumping rate by 90% compared to an MTP with no ring.

  4. The Superintendent Beliefs and Leadership Practices in a School District that Has Successfully Increased the Achievement of Traditionally Marginalized Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks-Schutz, Jo-Ellen M.

    2010-01-01

    Superintendent leadership can influence student achievement and with the alarming gap between the academic achievement of traditionally marginalized students and their peers, superintendents have an ethical duty to lead their districts in closing these achievement gaps. Spillane, Halverson, and Diamond (2001) suggested that to have a more complete…

  5. Possibility of increasing the efficiency of laser-induced tattoo removal by optical skin clearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Tuchin, V. V.; Altshuler, G. B.; Yaroslavskii, I. V.

    2008-06-01

    The possibility of selective laser photothermolysis improvement for the removal of tattoo pigments due to the optical clearing of human skin is investigated. It is shown experimentally that the optical skin clearing increases the tattoo image contrast. Computer Monte Carlo simulations show that by decreasing the laser beam scattering in upper skin layers, it is possible to reduce the radiation power required for tattoo removal by 30%—40% and, therefore, to increase the the photothermolysis efficiency.

  6. Prospects for increasing the efficiency of water photodecomposition on inorganic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogarev, V. A.; Rudoi, V. M.; Dement'eva, O. V.

    2014-02-01

    The advantages of using hydrogen as a fuel source are discussed, along with the main industrial sources of hydrogen. Recent studies aimed at increasing the efficiency of water photodecomposition on semiconductors in the visible light region using two approaches, doping (alloying) and using metallic nanoparticles and quantum dots, are analyzed.

  7. Extension Master Gardener Intranet: Automating Administration, Motivating Volunteers, Increasing Efficiency, and Facilitating Impact Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Lucy K.; Cook, Jonneen; Cook, Chris

    2011-01-01

    North Carolina State University has incorporated many aspects of volunteer program administration and reporting into an on-line solution that integrates impact reporting into daily program management. The Extension Master Gardener Intranet automates many of the administrative tasks associated with volunteer management, increasing efficiency, and…

  8. 75 FR 45623 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice Establishing Date for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Software, 75 FR 27,341 (2010). June 2-3 Enhanced Unit-Commitment Models. June 9-10 Enhanced Wide-Area... Energy Regulatory Commission Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice... conferences regarding models and software related to wholesale electricity markets and planning: \\1\\...

  9. Increasing Efficiency in Academia: The Use of a Weaning Model in Fundraising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniaci, Vincent M.; Poole, Rob

    2005-01-01

    The authors discuss a method to increase institutional efficiency and financial stability through strategic planning, by gradually reallocating funds raised for annual operations to quasi-endowment over a period of years using a weaning model. The weaning model is offered as a tactic to address issues of financial vulnerability developed in…

  10. Mammary stem cells: Novel markers and novel approaches to increase lactation efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue r...

  11. Increasing the Efficiency of Data Collection with a Research Participation Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilb, Angela; Herzig, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Data collection can be a frustrating experience for student researchers due to difficulty in scheduling appointments with participants. To increase the efficiency of research project data collection, we organized a Research Participation Night in which volunteers were incentivized to participate in as many experiments as time allowed. By offering…

  12. Fractal-like receiver geometries and features for increased light trapping and thermal efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Clifford K.; Christian, Joshua M.; Yellowhair, Julius; Ortega, Jesus; Andraka, Charles

    2016-05-01

    Novel designs to increase light trapping and thermal efficiency of concentrating solar receivers at multiple length scales have been conceived and tested. The fractal-like geometries and features are introduced at both macro (meters) and meso (millimeters to centimeters) scales. Advantages include increased solar absorptance, reduced thermal emittance, and increased thermal efficiency. Radial and linear structures at the meso (tube shape and geometry) and macro (total receiver geometry and configuration) scales redirect reflected solar radiation toward the interior of the receiver for increased absorptance. Hotter regions within the interior of the receiver can reduce thermal emittance due to reduced local view factors to the environment, and higher concentration ratios can be employed with similar surface irradiances to reduce the effective optical aperture, footprint, and thermal losses. Coupled optical/fluid/thermal models have been developed to evaluate the performance of these designs relative to conventional designs, and meso-scale tests have been performed. Results show that fractal-like structures and geometries can increase the thermal efficiency by several percentage points at both the meso and macro scales, depending on factors such as intrinsic absorptance. The impact was more pronounced for materials with lower intrinsic solar absorptances (<0.9). The goal of this work is to increase the effective solar absorptance of oxidized substrate materials from ~0.9 to 0.95 or greater using these fractal-like geometries without the need for coatings.

  13. Increase in forest water-use efficiency as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Trevor F; Hollinger, David Y; Bohrer, Gil; Dragoni, Danilo; Munger, J William; Schmid, Hans Peter; Richardson, Andrew D

    2013-07-18

    Terrestrial plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere through photosynthesis, a process that is accompanied by the loss of water vapour from leaves. The ratio of water loss to carbon gain, or water-use efficiency, is a key characteristic of ecosystem function that is central to the global cycles of water, energy and carbon. Here we analyse direct, long-term measurements of whole-ecosystem carbon and water exchange. We find a substantial increase in water-use efficiency in temperate and boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere over the past two decades. We systematically assess various competing hypotheses to explain this trend, and find that the observed increase is most consistent with a strong CO2 fertilization effect. The results suggest a partial closure of stomata-small pores on the leaf surface that regulate gas exchange-to maintain a near-constant concentration of CO2 inside the leaf even under continually increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. The observed increase in forest water-use efficiency is larger than that predicted by existing theory and 13 terrestrial biosphere models. The increase is associated with trends of increasing ecosystem-level photosynthesis and net carbon uptake, and decreasing evapotranspiration. Our findings suggest a shift in the carbon- and water-based economics of terrestrial vegetation, which may require a reassessment of the role of stomatal control in regulating interactions between forests and climate change, and a re-evaluation of coupled vegetation-climate models.

  14. You need this done by when '': Increasing your efficiency with the SAS reg sign system

    SciTech Connect

    DeHaan, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The SAS Institute publication -- SAS Programming Tips: A Guide to Efficient SAS Processing defines efficiency as obtaining more results from fewer computer or human resources.'' While this publication contains many very useful tips, it seems to concentrate mostly on computer efficiency. This paper will focus on ways of increasing your efficiency in developing, writing, and debugging SAS programs, i.e. increasing human efficiency. In my job as a consulting statistician, my programs are usually one-run programs. That is, I develop and test a program, then I run them once to get the results I need, and the program is typically never used again. Even for multiple run jobs, the greatest expense by far is the time used to develop a program, and any CPU/hardware expense'' is relatively insignificant. I believe that this is true for most SAS system users and that not enough attention has been given to this aspect of cost''. While most of these tips and techniques were developed under the PC platform, nearly all are applicable and useful under all SAS supported platforms. Some of the tips the experienced SAS programmer may already be familiar with, but many should be new and useful to both novice and veteran users.

  15. ``You need this done by when?``: Increasing your efficiency with the SAS{reg_sign} system

    SciTech Connect

    DeHaan, M.S.

    1992-08-01

    The SAS Institute publication -- SAS Programming Tips: A Guide to Efficient SAS Processing defines efficiency as ``obtaining more results from fewer computer or human resources.`` While this publication contains many very useful tips, it seems to concentrate mostly on computer efficiency. This paper will focus on ways of increasing your efficiency in developing, writing, and debugging SAS programs, i.e. increasing human efficiency. In my job as a consulting statistician, my programs are usually one-run programs. That is, I develop and test a program, then I run them once to get the results I need, and the program is typically never used again. Even for multiple run jobs, the greatest expense by far is the time used to develop a program, and any CPU/hardware ``expense`` is relatively insignificant. I believe that this is true for most SAS system users and that not enough attention has been given to this aspect of ``cost``. While most of these tips and techniques were developed under the PC platform, nearly all are applicable and useful under all SAS supported platforms. Some of the tips the experienced SAS programmer may already be familiar with, but many should be new and useful to both novice and veteran users.

  16. Dual daughter strand incision is processive and increases the efficiency of DNA mismatch repair.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Nicolaas; Laffeber, Charlie; Cristovão, Michele; Artola-Borán, Mariela; Mardenborough, Yannicka; Ikpa, Pauline; Jaddoe, Aruna; Winterwerp, Herrie H K; Wyman, Claire; Jiricny, Josef; Kanaar, Roland; Friedhoff, Peter; Lebbink, Joyce H G

    2016-08-19

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is an evolutionarily-conserved process responsible for the repair of replication errors. In Escherichia coli, MMR is initiated by MutS and MutL, which activate MutH to incise transiently-hemimethylated GATC sites. MMR efficiency depends on the distribution of these GATC sites. To understand which molecular events determine repair efficiency, we quantitatively studied the effect of strand incision on unwinding and excision activity. The distance between mismatch and GATC site did not influence the strand incision rate, and an increase in the number of sites enhanced incision only to a minor extent. Two GATC sites were incised by the same activated MMR complex in a processive manner, with MutS, the closed form of MutL and MutH displaying different roles. Unwinding and strand excision were more efficient on a substrate with two nicks flanking the mismatch, as compared to substrates containing a single nick or two nicks on the same side of the mismatch. Introduction of multiple nicks by the human MutLα endonuclease also contributed to increased repair efficiency. Our data support a general model of prokaryotic and eukaryotic MMR in which, despite mechanistic differences, mismatch-activated complexes facilitate efficient repair by creating multiple daughter strand nicks.

  17. Babesia and its hosts: adaptation to long-lasting interactions as a way to achieve efficient transmission

    PubMed Central

    Chauvin, Alain; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Bonnet, Sarah; Plantard, Olivier; Malandrin, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Babesia, the causal agent of babesiosis, are tick-borne apicomplexan protozoa. True babesiae (Babesia genus sensu stricto) are biologically characterized by direct development in erythrocytes and by transovarial transmission in the tick. A large number of true Babesia species have been described in various vertebrate and tick hosts. This review presents the genus then discusses specific adaptations of Babesia spp. to their hosts to achieve efficient transmission. The main adaptations lead to long-lasting interactions which result in the induction of two reservoirs: in the vertebrate host during low long-term parasitemia and throughout the life cycle of the tick host as a result of transovarial and transstadial transmission. The molecular bases of these adaptations in vertebrate hosts are partially known but few of the tick-host interaction mechanisms have been elucidated. PMID:19379662

  18. Internal 6-methyladenine residues increase the in vitro translation efficiency of dihydrofolate reductase messenger RNA.

    PubMed

    Heilman, K L; Leach, R A; Tuck, M T

    1996-07-01

    N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) is found internally in a number of mRNA molecules from higher eucaryotic cells. In these investigations, it was found that the presence of m6A residues increase the in vitro translation efficiency of capped T7 transcripts of mouse dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) mRNA. Using an in vitro rabbit reticulocyte translation system, the formation of internal m6A residues in the DHFR transcripts resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in translated DHFR compared to transcripts void of internal m6A residues. Translation in a wheat germ system, however, resulted in no increase in translation efficiency upon m6A formation, suggesting that the mechanism may be species-specific. PMID:8925412

  19. Automatic control of negative emotions: evidence that structured practice increases the efficiency of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Christou-Champi, Spyros; Farrow, Tom F D; Webb, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) is vital to everyday functioning. However, the effortful nature of many forms of ER may lead to regulation being inefficient and potentially ineffective. The present research examined whether structured practice could increase the efficiency of ER. During three training sessions, comprising a total of 150 training trials, participants were presented with negatively valenced images and asked either to "attend" (control condition) or "reappraise" (ER condition). A further group of participants did not participate in training but only completed follow-up measures. Practice increased the efficiency of ER as indexed by decreased time required to regulate emotions and increased heart rate variability (HRV). Furthermore, participants in the ER condition spontaneously regulated their negative emotions two weeks later and reported being more habitual in their use of ER. These findings indicate that structured practice can facilitate the automatic control of negative emotions and that these effects persist beyond training.

  20. Automatic control of negative emotions: Evidence that structured practice increases the efficiency of emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Christou-Champi, Spyros; Farrow, Tom F. D.; Webb, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) is vital to everyday functioning. However, the effortful nature of many forms of ER may lead to regulation being inefficient and potentially ineffective. The present research examined whether structured practice could increase the efficiency of ER. During three training sessions, comprising a total of 150 training trials, participants were presented with negatively valenced images and asked either to “attend” (control condition) or “reappraise” (ER condition). A further group of participants did not participate in training but only completed follow-up measures. Practice increased the efficiency of ER as indexed by decreased time required to regulate emotions and increased heart rate variability (HRV). Furthermore, participants in the ER condition spontaneously regulated their negative emotions two weeks later and reported being more habitual in their use of ER. These findings indicate that structured practice can facilitate the automatic control of negative emotions and that these effects persist beyond training. PMID:24678930

  1. Increased project efficiency using telemetry technology as part of an integrated data management system

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Until recently, the use of telemetry in the environmental consulting industry has generally been limited to large scale projects and the occasional collection of equipment or field instrumentation data from environmental remediation hardware. With today`s ever increasing personal computer processing power and decreasing prices, telemetry based management is feasible for smaller scale projects. With the increased focus on cost reduction within the environmental industry, successful project managers will take advantage of increased efficiencies available through the use of telemetry. Like any tool though, those that use it must understand how to make use of telemetry technology from raw data collection through data reduction and analysis to production of the final report.

  2. Binding of DNA with Abf2p Increases Efficiency of DNA Uptake by Isolated Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Samoilova, E O; Krasheninnikov, I A; Vinogradova, E N; Kamenski, P A; Levitskii, S A

    2016-07-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial DNA often lead to severe hereditary diseases that are virtually resistant to symptomatic treatment. During the recent decades, many efforts were made to develop gene therapy approaches for treatment of such diseases using nucleic acid delivery into the organelles. The possibility of DNA import into mitochondria has been shown, but this process has low efficiency. In the present work, we demonstrate that the efficiency of DNA import can be significantly increased by preforming its complex with a mitochondria-targeted protein nonspecifically binding with DNA. As a model protein, we used the yeast protein Abf2p. In addition, we measured the length of the DNA site for binding this protein and the dissociation constant of the corresponding DNA-protein complex. Our data can serve as a basis for development of novel, highly efficient approaches for suppressing mutations in the mitochondrial genome. PMID:27449618

  3. Enhanced charge efficiency and reduced energy use in capacitive deionization by increasing the discharge voltage.

    PubMed

    Kim, T; Dykstra, J E; Porada, S; van der Wal, A; Yoon, J; Biesheuvel, P M

    2015-05-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an electrochemical method for water desalination using porous carbon electrodes. A key parameter in CDI is the charge efficiency, Λ, which is the ratio of salt adsorption over charge in a CDI-cycle. Values for Λ in CDI are typically around 0.5-0.8, significantly less than the theoretical maximum of unity, due to the fact that not only counterions are adsorbed into the pores of the carbon electrodes, but at the same time coions are released. To enhance Λ, ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) can be implemented. With membranes, Λ can be close to unity because the membranes only allow passage for the counterions. Enhancing the value of Λ is advantageous as this implies a lower electrical current and (at a fixed charging voltage) a reduced energy use. We demonstrate how, without the need to include IEMs, the charge efficiency can be increased to values close to the theoretical maximum of unity, by increasing the cell voltage during discharge, with only a small loss of salt adsorption capacity per cycle. In separate constant-current CDI experiments, where after some time the effluent salt concentration reaches a stable value, this value is reached earlier with increased discharge voltage. We compare the experimental results with predictions of porous electrode theory which includes an equilibrium Donnan electrical double layer model for salt adsorption in carbon micropores. Our results highlight the potential of modified operational schemes in CDI to increase charge efficiency and reduce energy use of water desalination.

  4. Masting promotes individual- and population-level reproduction by increasing pollination efficiency.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Linhart, Yan B; Mooney, Kailen A

    2014-04-01

    Masting is a reproductive strategy defined as the intermittent and synchronized production of large seed crops by a plant population. The pollination efficiency hypothesis proposes that masting increases pollination success in plants. Despite its general appeal, no previous studies have used long-term data together with population- and individual-level analyses to assess pollination efficiency between mast and non-mast events. Here we rigorously tested the pollination efficiency hypothesis in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a long-lived monoecious, wind-pollinated species, using a data set on 217 trees monitored annually for 20 years. Relative investment in male and female function by individual trees did not vary between mast and non-mast years. At both the population and individual level, the rate of production of mature female cones relative to male strobili production was higher in mast than non-mast years, consistent with the predicted benefit of reproductive synchrony on reproductive success. In addition, at the individual level we found a higher conversion of unfertilized female conelets into mature female cones during a mast year compared to a non-mast year. Collectively, parallel results at the population and individual tree level provide robust evidence for the ecological, and potentially also evolutionary, benefits of masting through increased pollination efficiency.

  5. Appropriate Teacher Strategies to Increase the Participation of Low-Achieving Youths in Art Activities in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, William B.

    A study was initiated to determine effective teaching strategies for the art education of low achieving students. A review of literature on academic drive yielded five mechanistic models that provided explanations for low-achievement drive. The key factors in these models were avoidance, time gradients, extraneous stimuli, prolonged deprivations,…

  6. Deep learning as a tool for increased accuracy and efficiency of histopathological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Litjens, Geert; Sánchez, Clara I; Timofeeva, Nadya; Hermsen, Meyke; Nagtegaal, Iris; Kovacs, Iringo; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina; Bult, Peter; van Ginneken, Bram; van der Laak, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Pathologists face a substantial increase in workload and complexity of histopathologic cancer diagnosis due to the advent of personalized medicine. Therefore, diagnostic protocols have to focus equally on efficiency and accuracy. In this paper we introduce 'deep learning' as a technique to improve the objectivity and efficiency of histopathologic slide analysis. Through two examples, prostate cancer identification in biopsy specimens and breast cancer metastasis detection in sentinel lymph nodes, we show the potential of this new methodology to reduce the workload for pathologists, while at the same time increasing objectivity of diagnoses. We found that all slides containing prostate cancer and micro- and macro-metastases of breast cancer could be identified automatically while 30-40% of the slides containing benign and normal tissue could be excluded without the use of any additional immunohistochemical markers or human intervention. We conclude that 'deep learning' holds great promise to improve the efficacy of prostate cancer diagnosis and breast cancer staging. PMID:27212078

  7. Deep learning as a tool for increased accuracy and efficiency of histopathological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Litjens, Geert; Sánchez, Clara I; Timofeeva, Nadya; Hermsen, Meyke; Nagtegaal, Iris; Kovacs, Iringo; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina; Bult, Peter; van Ginneken, Bram; van der Laak, Jeroen

    2016-05-23

    Pathologists face a substantial increase in workload and complexity of histopathologic cancer diagnosis due to the advent of personalized medicine. Therefore, diagnostic protocols have to focus equally on efficiency and accuracy. In this paper we introduce 'deep learning' as a technique to improve the objectivity and efficiency of histopathologic slide analysis. Through two examples, prostate cancer identification in biopsy specimens and breast cancer metastasis detection in sentinel lymph nodes, we show the potential of this new methodology to reduce the workload for pathologists, while at the same time increasing objectivity of diagnoses. We found that all slides containing prostate cancer and micro- and macro-metastases of breast cancer could be identified automatically while 30-40% of the slides containing benign and normal tissue could be excluded without the use of any additional immunohistochemical markers or human intervention. We conclude that 'deep learning' holds great promise to improve the efficacy of prostate cancer diagnosis and breast cancer staging.

  8. Deep learning as a tool for increased accuracy and efficiency of histopathological diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litjens, Geert; Sánchez, Clara I.; Timofeeva, Nadya; Hermsen, Meyke; Nagtegaal, Iris; Kovacs, Iringo; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina; Bult, Peter; van Ginneken, Bram; van der Laak, Jeroen

    2016-05-01

    Pathologists face a substantial increase in workload and complexity of histopathologic cancer diagnosis due to the advent of personalized medicine. Therefore, diagnostic protocols have to focus equally on efficiency and accuracy. In this paper we introduce ‘deep learning’ as a technique to improve the objectivity and efficiency of histopathologic slide analysis. Through two examples, prostate cancer identification in biopsy specimens and breast cancer metastasis detection in sentinel lymph nodes, we show the potential of this new methodology to reduce the workload for pathologists, while at the same time increasing objectivity of diagnoses. We found that all slides containing prostate cancer and micro- and macro-metastases of breast cancer could be identified automatically while 30–40% of the slides containing benign and normal tissue could be excluded without the use of any additional immunohistochemical markers or human intervention. We conclude that ‘deep learning’ holds great promise to improve the efficacy of prostate cancer diagnosis and breast cancer staging.

  9. Diffuse radiation increases global ecosystem-level water-use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, A. M.; Reichstein, M.; Cescatti, A.; Knohl, A.; Zaehle, S.

    2012-12-01

    Current environmental changes lead not only to rising atmospheric CO2 levels and air temperature but also to changes in air pollution and thus the light quality of the solar radiation reaching the land-surface. While rising CO2 levels are thought to enhance photosynthesis and closure of stomata, thus leading to relative water savings, the effect of diffuse radiation on transpiration by plants is less clear. It has been speculated that the stimulation of photosynthesis by increased levels of diffuse light may be counteracted by higher transpiration and consequently water depletion and drought stress. Ultimately, in water co-limited systems, the overall effect of diffuse radiation will depend on the sensitivity of canopy transpiration versus photosynthesis to diffuse light, i.e. whether water-use efficiency changes with relative levels of diffuse light. Our study shows that water-use efficiency increases significantly with higher fractions of diffuse light. It uses the ecosystem-atmosphere gas-exchange observations obtained with the eddy covariance method at 29 flux tower sites. In contrast to previous global studies, the analysis is based directly on measurements of diffuse radiation. Its effect on water-use efficiency was derived by analyzing the multivariate response of carbon and water fluxes to radiation and air humidity using a purely empirical approach based on artificial neural networks. We infer that per unit change of diffuse fraction the water-use efficiency increases up to 40% depending on diffuse fraction levels and ecosystem type. Hence, in regions with increasing diffuse radiation positive effects on primary production are expected even under conditions where water is co-limiting productivity.

  10. More crop per drop - Increasing input efficiency in sprinkler irrigated potatoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostka, Stan; Fang, Lisa; Ren, Haiqin; Glucksman, Robert; Gadd, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Water scarcity, climate change, and population growth are significant global challenges for producing sufficient food, fiber, and fuel in the 21st century. Feeding an increasingly hungry world necessitates innovative strategies and technologies to maximize crop production outputs while simultaneously increasing crop water productivity. In the 20th century, major advances in precision irrigation enabled producers to increase productivity while more efficiently applying water to crops. While pressurized irrigation systems can deliver water effectively to the soil surface, the efficiency of rootzone delivery may be compromised by intrinsic heterogeneities in soil wetting characteristics related to organic matter, biofilms, and hydrophobic coatings on soil particles and aggregates. Efficiently delivering applied irrigation water throughout the soil matrix is critical to increasing crop productivity. We propose that management of soil water access by surfactants is a viable management option to maintain or increase yields under deficit irrigation. Potato yield and tuber quality under sprinkler irrigation were evaluated under standard production practices or with the inclusion of an aqueous nonionic surfactant formulation (10 wt% alkoxylated polyols and 7% glucoethers) applied at 10L ha-1 between emergence and tuberization. Crop responses from multi-year evaluations conducted on irrigated potatoes in Idaho (USA) were compared to multi-year on farm grower evaluations in Australia and China. Surfactant treatment resulted in statistically significant increases in yield (+5%) and US No. 1 grades (+8%) while reducing culls (-10%) in trials conducted in Idaho, USA. Similar responses were observed in commercial grower evaluations conducted in Australia (+8% total yield, +18% mean tuber weight) and in China in 2011 (+8% total yield and +18% premium, -12% culls). Under diverse production conditions, a single application of the surfactant formulation improved crop water

  11. Long-term increase in forest water-use efficiency observed across ecosystem carbon flux networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Trevor; Bohrer, Gil; Dragoni, Danilo; Hollinger, David; Munger, James W.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Richardson, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere through photo- synthesis, a process that is accompanied by the loss of water vapour from leaves. The ratio of water loss to carbon gain, or water-use efficiency, is a key characteristic of ecosystem function that is central to the global cycles of water, energy and carbon. Here we analyse direct, long-term measurements of whole-ecosystem carbon and water exchange. We find a substantial increase in water-use efficiency in temperate and boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere over the past two decades. We systematically assess various competing hypotheses to explain this trend, and find that the observed increase is most consistent with a strong CO2 fertilization effect. The results suggest a partial closure of stomata - small pores on the leaf surface that regulate gas exchange - to maintain a near- constant concentration of CO2 inside the leaf even under continually increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. The observed increase in forest water-use efficiency is larger than that predicted by existing theory and 13 terrestrial biosphere models. The increase is associated with trends of increasing ecosystem-level photosynthesis and net carbon uptake, and decreasing evapotranspiration. Our findings demonstrate the utility of maintaining long-term eddy-covariance flux measurement sites. The results suggest a shift in the carbon- and water-based economics of terrestrial vegetation, which may require a reassessment of the role of stomatal control in regulating interactions between forests and climate change, and a re-evaluation of coupled vegetation-climate models.

  12. Possibility of increasing the efficiency of laser-induced tattoo removal by optical skin clearing

    SciTech Connect

    Genina, E A; Bashkatov, A N; Tuchin, V V; Yaroslavskii, I V; Altshuler, G B

    2008-06-30

    The possibility of selective laser photothermolysis improvement for the removal of tattoo pigments due to the optical clearing of human skin is investigated. It is shown experimentally that the optical skin clearing increases the tattoo image contrast. Computer Monte Carlo simulations show that by decreasing the laser beam scattering in upper skin layers, it is possible to reduce the radiation power required for tattoo removal by 30%-40% and, therefore, to increase the the photothermolysis efficiency. (special issue devoted to application of laser technologies in biophotonics and biomedical studies)

  13. Deregulation: increased competition is making airlines more efficient and responsive to consumers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-06

    The Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 gave domestic airlines, after 40 years of regulation, the freedom to decide where they would fly and what fares they would charge. GAO's review of airline operations before and after deregulation through 1984 shows that most passengers benefited as the industry became more competitive: fare increases were lower, on average, than what might have been expected under continued regulation; the numbers of flights and available seats increased; airlines have been more responsive to consumer preferences through a wider range of price/service options; and operating efficiency has increased. Increasing airport congestion may bring federal action to restrict airline access - action that could offset some of deregulation's benefits. While some favorable trends in fares and services have emerged, further changes are likely as airlines continue to adapt to deregulation.

  14. New method to increase the energy conversion efficiency of thermoacoustic engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kido, Aiko; Sakamoto, Shin-ichi; Taga, Kazusa; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2015-10-01

    Many researches have been reported to improve an energy conversion efficiency of thermoacoustic engine. Proposed improvement methods by our group were a phase adjuster (PA) and expanding phase adjuster (EPA) devices. They act as the amplifier and stabilizer of the system oscillation. However, there are some problems for these devices. Because of the solidified device and located in the thermoacoustic tube, it is difficult to tune and move them to the best setting position during system operation. Therefore, it is necessary to find more easy methods that produce the same amplifier and stabilizer effects of the PA and EPA. In this report, we propose the local heating method. Experiments are carried out using the loop-tube-type thermoacoustic system. Two electric heaters are set on the system, one is for the PM stack and the other is for the proposed heater HPA. The setting position of the HPA is easily changed, and then the HPA is moved to the various positions from the PM stack along the system. Resonant mode was changed depending on the setting position of HPA. As the result of the change of resonant mode, energy conversion efficiency is also changed. Especially the resonant mode is realized in the single wavelength mode, it is confirmed that, the energy conversion efficiency in substantially increased compare with the system without the HPA. These observed phenomena are similar to the behavior of EPA. Therefore, the presented method can be performed as an easier method to perform a high efficiency and stable oscillation.

  15. Mechanisms that increase the growth efficiency of diatoms in low light.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Nerissa L; Halsey, Kimberly H

    2016-08-01

    Photoacclimation was studied in Thalassiosira pseudonana to help understand mechanisms underlying the success of diatoms in low-light environments, such as coastal and deep mixing ecosystems. Light harvesting and other cell characteristics were combined with oxygen and carbon production measurements to assess the water-splitting reaction at PSII ([Formula: see text]) and intermediate steps leading to net carbon production (NPPC). These measurements revealed that T. pseudonana is remarkably efficient at converting harvested light energy into biomass, with at least 57 % of [Formula: see text] retained as NPPC across all light-limited growth rates examined. Evidence for upregulation of ATP generation pathways that circumvent carbon fixation indicated that high growth efficiency at low light levels was at least partly due to increases in the efficiency of ATP production. Growth rate-dependent demands for ATP and NADPH were reflected in carbon composition and in unexpected shifts in the light-limited slope (α) of photosynthesis-irradiance relationships generated from chlorophyll-specific (14)C-uptake. Overall, these results suggest that pathway gating of carbon and energy flow depends on light availability and is a key factor promoting the efficiency of diatom growth at low light intensities.

  16. Mechanisms that increase the growth efficiency of diatoms in low light.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Nerissa L; Halsey, Kimberly H

    2016-08-01

    Photoacclimation was studied in Thalassiosira pseudonana to help understand mechanisms underlying the success of diatoms in low-light environments, such as coastal and deep mixing ecosystems. Light harvesting and other cell characteristics were combined with oxygen and carbon production measurements to assess the water-splitting reaction at PSII ([Formula: see text]) and intermediate steps leading to net carbon production (NPPC). These measurements revealed that T. pseudonana is remarkably efficient at converting harvested light energy into biomass, with at least 57 % of [Formula: see text] retained as NPPC across all light-limited growth rates examined. Evidence for upregulation of ATP generation pathways that circumvent carbon fixation indicated that high growth efficiency at low light levels was at least partly due to increases in the efficiency of ATP production. Growth rate-dependent demands for ATP and NADPH were reflected in carbon composition and in unexpected shifts in the light-limited slope (α) of photosynthesis-irradiance relationships generated from chlorophyll-specific (14)C-uptake. Overall, these results suggest that pathway gating of carbon and energy flow depends on light availability and is a key factor promoting the efficiency of diatom growth at low light intensities. PMID:27312336

  17. Hands-On, Demonstration, and Videotape Laboratories for Non-Science Majors in a Food Science Course: Achievement, Attitude, and Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, H. L.; Trout, B. L.; Brekke, C. J.; Luedecke, L. O.

    2004-01-01

    Student achievement, attitude, and instructional efficiency were determined for hands-on and for live and videotape demonstration laboratories for nonscience majors. Each of 3 laboratory sections experienced 3 different teaching methods for one 4-wk unit. No significant difference in achievement was found among the laboratory methods. An attitude…

  18. High-efficiency acceleration in the laser wakefield by a linearly increasing plasma density

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Kegong; Wu, Yuchi; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Zhimeng; Zhao, Zongqing; Zhou, Weimin; Hong, Wei; Cao, Leifeng; Gu, Yuqiu

    2014-12-15

    The acceleration length and the peak energy of the electron beam are limited by the dephasing effect in the laser wakefield acceleration with uniform plasma density. Based on 2D-3V particle in cell simulations, the effects of a linearly increasing plasma density on the electron acceleration are investigated broadly. Comparing with the uniform plasma density, because of the prolongation of the acceleration length and the gradually increasing accelerating field due to the increasing plasma density, the electron beam energy is twice higher in moderate nonlinear wakefield regime. Because of the lower plasma density, the linearly increasing plasma density can also avoid the dark current caused by additional injection. At the optimal acceleration length, the electron energy can be increased from 350 MeV (uniform) to 760 MeV (linearly increasing) with the energy spread of 1.8%, the beam duration is 5 fs and the beam waist is 1.25 μm. This linearly increasing plasma density distribution can be achieved by a capillary with special gas-filled structure, and is much more suitable for experiment.

  19. Efficient dye regeneration at low driving force achieved in triphenylamine dye LEG4 and TEMPO redox mediator based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenxing; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hao, Yan; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2015-06-28

    Minimizing the driving force required for the regeneration of oxidized dyes using redox mediators in an electrolyte is essential to further improve the open-circuit voltage and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Appropriate combinations of redox mediators and dye molecules should be explored to achieve this goal. Herein, we present a triphenylamine dye, LEG4, in combination with a TEMPO-based electrolyte in acetonitrile (E(0) = 0.89 V vs. NHE), reaching an efficiency of up to 5.4% under one sun illumination and 40% performance improvement compared to the previously and widely used indoline dye D149. The origin of this improvement was found to be the increased dye regeneration efficiency of LEG4 using the TEMPO redox mediator, which regenerated more than 80% of the oxidized dye with a driving force of only ∼0.2 eV. Detailed mechanistic studies further revealed that in addition to electron recombination to oxidized dyes, recombination of electrons from the conducting substrate and the mesoporous TiO2 film to the TEMPO(+) redox species in the electrolyte accounts for the reduced short circuit current, compared to the state-of-the-art cobalt tris(bipyridine) electrolyte system. The diffusion length of the TEMPO-electrolyte based DSSCs was determined to be ∼0.5 μm, which is smaller than the ∼2.8 μm found for cobalt-electrolyte based DSSCs. These results show the advantages of using LEG4 as a sensitizer, compared to previously record indoline dyes, in combination with a TEMPO-based electrolyte. The low driving force for efficient dye regeneration presented by these results shows the potential to further improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSCs by utilizing redox couples and dyes with a minimal need of driving force for high regeneration yields.

  20. Efficient dye regeneration at low driving force achieved in triphenylamine dye LEG4 and TEMPO redox mediator based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenxing; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hao, Yan; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2015-06-28

    Minimizing the driving force required for the regeneration of oxidized dyes using redox mediators in an electrolyte is essential to further improve the open-circuit voltage and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Appropriate combinations of redox mediators and dye molecules should be explored to achieve this goal. Herein, we present a triphenylamine dye, LEG4, in combination with a TEMPO-based electrolyte in acetonitrile (E(0) = 0.89 V vs. NHE), reaching an efficiency of up to 5.4% under one sun illumination and 40% performance improvement compared to the previously and widely used indoline dye D149. The origin of this improvement was found to be the increased dye regeneration efficiency of LEG4 using the TEMPO redox mediator, which regenerated more than 80% of the oxidized dye with a driving force of only ∼0.2 eV. Detailed mechanistic studies further revealed that in addition to electron recombination to oxidized dyes, recombination of electrons from the conducting substrate and the mesoporous TiO2 film to the TEMPO(+) redox species in the electrolyte accounts for the reduced short circuit current, compared to the state-of-the-art cobalt tris(bipyridine) electrolyte system. The diffusion length of the TEMPO-electrolyte based DSSCs was determined to be ∼0.5 μm, which is smaller than the ∼2.8 μm found for cobalt-electrolyte based DSSCs. These results show the advantages of using LEG4 as a sensitizer, compared to previously record indoline dyes, in combination with a TEMPO-based electrolyte. The low driving force for efficient dye regeneration presented by these results shows the potential to further improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSCs by utilizing redox couples and dyes with a minimal need of driving force for high regeneration yields. PMID:26016854

  1. SirT1 gain-of-function increases energy efficiency and prevents diabetes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Alexander S.; Kon, Ning; Knight, Colette; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Gutiérrez-Juárez, Roger; Rossetti, Luciano; Gu, Wei; Accili, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Summary In yeast, worms and flies, an extra copy of the gene encoding the Sirtuin Sir2 increases metabolic efficiency, as does administration of polyphenols like resveratrol, thought to act through Sirtuins. But evidence that Sirtuin gain-of-function results in increased metabolic efficiency in mammals is limited. We generated transgenic mice with moderate overexpression of SirT1, designed to mimic the Sirtuin gain-of-function that improves metabolism in C.elegans. These mice exhibit normal insulin sensitivity, but decreased food intake and locomotor activity, resulting in decreased energy expenditure. However, in various models of insulin resistance and diabetes, SirT1 transgenics display improved glucose tolerance due to decreased hepatic glucose production and increased adiponectin levels, without changes in body weight or composition. We conclude that SirT1 gain-of-function primes the organism for metabolic adaptation to insulin resistance, increasing hepatic insulin sensitivity and decreasing whole-body energy requirements. These findings have important implications for Sirtuin-based therapies in humans. PMID:18840364

  2. Highly Functional TNTs with Superb Photocatalytic, Optical, and Electronic Performance Achieving Record PV Efficiency of 10.1% for 1D-Based DSSCs.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Li, Yuewen; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Sun, Kyung Chul; Mengal, Naveed; Memon, Anam Ali; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    Different nanostructures of TiO2 play an important role in the photocatalytic and photoelectronic applications. TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) have received increasing attention for these applications due to their unique physicochemical properties. Focusing on highly functional TNTs (HF-TNTs) for photocatalytic and photoelectronic applications, this study describes the facile hydrothermal synthesis of HF-TNTs by using commercial and cheaper materials for cost-effective manufacturing. To prove the functionality and applicability, these TNTs are used as scattering structure in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Photocatalytic, optical, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), electrochemical impedance spectrum, incident-photon-to-current efficiency, and intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy/intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy characterizations are proving the functionality of HF-TNTs for DSSCs. HF-TNTs show 50% higher photocatalytic degradation rate and also 68% higher dye loading ability than conventional TNTs (C-TNTs). The DSSCs having HF-TNT and its composite-based multifunctional overlayer show effective light absorption, outstanding light scattering, lower interfacial resistance, longer electron lifetime, rapid electron transfer, and improved diffusion length, and consequently, J SC , quantum efficiency, and record photoconversion efficiency of 10.1% using commercial N-719 dye is achieved, for 1D-based DSSCs. These new and highly functional TNTs will be a concrete fundamental background toward the development of more functional applications in fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, Li-ion batteries, photocatalysis process, ion-exchange/adsorption process, and photoelectrochemical devices. PMID:27432775

  3. Increasing the Efficiency of the Multi-mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holgate, Tim C.; Bennett, Russell; Hammel, Tom; Caillat, Thierry; Keyser, Steve; Sievers, Bob

    2015-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Mars Science Laboratory terrestrial rover, Curiosity, has recently completed its first Martian year (687 Earth days) during which it has provided a wealth of information and insight into the red planet's atmosphere and geology. The success of this mission was made possible in part by the reliable electrical power provided by its onboard thermoelectric power source—the multi-mission radioisotope thermoelectric generator (MMRTG). In an effort to increase the output power and efficiency of these generators, a newly designed enhanced MMRTG (eMMRTG) that will utilize the more efficient skutterudite-based thermoelectric materials has been conceptualized and modeled, and is now being developed. A discussion of the motivations, modeling results and key design factors are presented and discussed.

  4. Natural dyes as sensitizers to increase the efficiency in sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerda, Bayron; Sivakumar, R.; Paulraj, M.

    2016-05-01

    A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a sandwich type solar cell consisting of a photoelectrode, a counter electrode and a liquid electrolyte. The photo electrode comprises of a titanium dioxide semiconducting thin film grown over a glass substrate which in-turn has a transparent thin conducting layer of tin oxide film doped with fluorine (FTO) coated over it. The aim of this work is to develop photoelectrodes with different dyes to increase the efficiency of this type of solar cells. Dyes obtained from fresh sources of maqui, black myrtle, spinach and a dye mixture of spinach and spinach-maqui-myrtle were used. The technique used for the extraction of the dyes was maceration for one day, in methanol. Colourants and photoelectrodes were studied using, UV-vis spectrophotometer for their spectral properties. Their photovoltaic properties such as efficiency, fill factor, open circuit voltage and short circuit current were studied using a solar simulator and source meter unit.

  5. Plasmids for increased efficiency of vector construction and genetic engineering in filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Schoberle, Taylor J; Nguyen-Coleman, C Kim; May, Gregory S

    2013-01-01

    Fungal species are continuously being studied to not only understand disease in humans and plants but also to identify novel antibiotics and other metabolites of industrial importance. Genetic manipulations, such as gene deletion, gene complementation, and gene over-expression, are common techniques to investigate fungal gene functions. Although advances in transformation efficiency and promoter usage have improved genetic studies, some basic steps in vector construction are still laborious and time-consuming. Gateway cloning technology solves this problem by increasing the efficiency of vector construction through the use of λ phage integrase proteins and att recombination sites. We developed a series of Gateway-compatible vectors for use in genetic studies in a range of fungal species. They contain nutritional and drug-resistance markers and can be utilized to manipulate different filamentous fungal genomes.

  6. Human-to-mosquito transmission efficiency increases as malaria is controlled.

    PubMed

    Churcher, Thomas S; Trape, Jean-François; Cohuet, Anna

    2015-01-19

    The efficiency of malaria transmission between human and mosquito has been shown to be influenced by many factors in the laboratory, although their impact in the field and how this changes with disease endemicity are unknown. Here we estimate how human-mosquito transmission changed as malaria was controlled in Dielmo, Senegal. Mathematical models were fit to data collected between 1990 and the start of vector control in 2008. Results show that asexual parasite slide prevalence in humans has reduced from 70 to 20%, but that the proportion of infectious mosquitoes has remained roughly constant. Evidence suggests that this is due to an increase in transmission efficiency caused by a rise in gametocyte densities, although the uneven distribution of mosquito bites between hosts could also contribute. The resilience of mosquito infection to changes in endemicity will have important implications for planning disease control, and the development and deployment of transmission-reducing interventions.

  7. Impact of 5-aminolevulinic acid with iron supplementation on exercise efficiency and home-based walking training achievement in older women.

    PubMed

    Masuki, Shizue; Morita, Atsumi; Kamijo, Yoshi-ichiro; Ikegawa, Shigeki; Kataoka, Yufuko; Ogawa, Yu; Sumiyoshi, Eri; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Tanaka, Tohru; Nakajima, Motowo; Nose, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in exercise efficiency with aging limits daily living activities. We examined whether 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) increased exercise efficiency and voluntary achievement of interval walking training (IWT) in older women. Ten women [65 ± 3(SD) yr] who had performed IWT for >12 mo and were currently performing IWT participated in this study. The study was conducted in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover design. All subjects underwent two trials for 7 days each in which they performed IWT with ALA+SFC (100 and 115 mg/day, respectively) or placebo supplement intake (CNT), intermittently with a 2-wk washout period. Before and after each trial, subjects underwent a graded cycling test at 27.0 °C atmospheric temperature and 50% relative humidity, and oxygen consumption rate, carbon dioxide production rate, and lactate concentration in plasma were measured. Furthermore, for the first 6 days of each trial, exercise intensity for IWT was measured by accelerometry. We found that, in the ALA+SFC trial, oxygen consumption rate and carbon dioxide production rate during graded cycling decreased by 12% (P < 0.001) and 11% (P = 0.001) at every workload, respectively, accompanied by a 16% reduction in lactate concentration in plasma (P < 0.001), although all remained unchanged in the CNT trial (P > 0.2). All of the reductions were significantly greater in the ALA+SFC than the CNT trial (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the training days, impulse, and time at fast walking were 42% (P = 0.028), 102% (P = 0.027), and 69% (P = 0.039) higher during the ALA+SFC than the CNT intake period, respectively. Thus ALA+SFC supplementation augmented exercise efficiency and thereby improved IWT achievement in older women.

  8. Impact of 5-aminolevulinic acid with iron supplementation on exercise efficiency and home-based walking training achievement in older women

    PubMed Central

    Masuki, Shizue; Morita, Atsumi; Kamijo, Yoshi-ichiro; Ikegawa, Shigeki; Kataoka, Yufuko; Ogawa, Yu; Sumiyoshi, Eri; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Tanaka, Tohru; Nakajima, Motowo

    2015-01-01

    A reduction in exercise efficiency with aging limits daily living activities. We examined whether 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) increased exercise efficiency and voluntary achievement of interval walking training (IWT) in older women. Ten women [65 ± 3(SD) yr] who had performed IWT for >12 mo and were currently performing IWT participated in this study. The study was conducted in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover design. All subjects underwent two trials for 7 days each in which they performed IWT with ALA+SFC (100 and 115 mg/day, respectively) or placebo supplement intake (CNT), intermittently with a 2-wk washout period. Before and after each trial, subjects underwent a graded cycling test at 27.0°C atmospheric temperature and 50% relative humidity, and oxygen consumption rate, carbon dioxide production rate, and lactate concentration in plasma were measured. Furthermore, for the first 6 days of each trial, exercise intensity for IWT was measured by accelerometry. We found that, in the ALA+SFC trial, oxygen consumption rate and carbon dioxide production rate during graded cycling decreased by 12% (P < 0.001) and 11% (P = 0.001) at every workload, respectively, accompanied by a 16% reduction in lactate concentration in plasma (P < 0.001), although all remained unchanged in the CNT trial (P > 0.2). All of the reductions were significantly greater in the ALA+SFC than the CNT trial (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the training days, impulse, and time at fast walking were 42% (P = 0.028), 102% (P = 0.027), and 69% (P = 0.039) higher during the ALA+SFC than the CNT intake period, respectively. Thus ALA+SFC supplementation augmented exercise efficiency and thereby improved IWT achievement in older women. PMID:26514619

  9. Increasing RO efficiency by chemical-free ion-exchange and Donnan dialysis: Principles and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Vanoppen, Marjolein; Stoffels, Griet; Demuytere, Célestin; Bleyaert, Wouter; Verliefde, Arne R D

    2015-09-01

    Ion-exchange (IEX) and Donnan dialysis (DD) are techniques which can selectively remove cations, limiting scaling in reverse osmosis (RO). If the RO concentrate could be recycled for regeneration of these pre-treatment techniques, RO recovery could be largely increased without the need for chemical addition or additional technologies. In this study, two different RO feed streams (treated industrial waste water and simple tap water) were tested in the envisioned IEX-RO and DD-RO hybrids including RO concentrate recycling. The efficiency of multivalent cation removal depends mainly on the ratio of monovalent to multivalent cations in the feed stream, influencing the ion-exchange efficiency in both IEX and DD. Since the mono-to-multivalent ratio was very high in the waste water, the RO recovery could potentially be increased to 92%. For the tap water, these high RO recoveries could only be reached by adding additional NaCl, because of the low initial monovalent to multivalent ratio in the feed. In both cases, the IEX-RO hybrid proved to be most cost-efficient, due to the high current cost of the membranes used in DD. The membrane cost would have to decrease from ±300 €/m² to 10-30 €/m² - comparable to current reverse osmosis membranes - to achieve a comparable cost. In conclusion, the recycling of RO concentrate to regenerate ion exchange pre-treatment techniques for RO is an interesting option to increase RO recovery without addition of chemicals, but only at high monovalent/multivalent cation-ratios in the feed stream.

  10. Efficient Consistency Achievement of Federated Identity and Access Management Based on a Novel Self-Adaptable Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Shi-Cho; Chang, Hsiang-Meng

    Federated identity and access management (FIAM) systems enable a user to access services provided by various organizations seamlessly. In FIAM systems, service providers normally stipulate that their users show assertions issued by allied parties to use their services as well as determine user privileges based on attributes in the assertions. However, the integrity of the attributes is important under certain circumstances. In such a circumstance, all released assertions should reflect modifications made to user attributes. Despite the ability to adopt conventional certification revocation technologies, including CRL or OCSP, to revoke an assertion and request the corresponding user to obtain a new assertion, re-issuing an entirely new assertion if only one attribute, such as user location or other environmental information, is changed would be inefficient. Therefore, this work presents a self-adaptive framework to achieve consistency in federated identity and access management systems (SAFIAM). In SAFIAM, an identity provider (IdP), which authenticates users and provides user attributes, should monitor access probabilities according to user attributes. The IdP can then adopt the most efficient means of ensuring data integrity of attributes based on related access probabilities. While Internet-based services emerge daily that have various access probabilities with respect to their user attributes, the proposed self-adaptive framework significantly contributes to efforts to streamline the use of FIAM systems.

  11. Novel benzimidazole derivatives as electron-transporting type host to achieve highly efficient sky-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PHOLED) device.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jau-Jiun; Leung, Man-Kit; Chiu, Tien-Lung; Chuang, Ya-Ting; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hung, Yu-Hsiang

    2014-10-17

    The development of benzimidazole substituted biphenyls as electron-transporting hosts for bis[2-(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridinato-C(2),N](picolinato)iridium(III) is reported. Under the optimized conditions, the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) achieves the maximum current efficiency of 57.2 cd/A, power efficiency of 50.4 lm/W, and external quantum efficiency 25.7%. PMID:25296531

  12. Physiological mechanisms contributing to the increased water-use efficiency in winter wheat under deficit irrigation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qingwu; Zhu, Zixi; Musick, Jack T; Stewart, B A; Dusek, Donald A

    2006-02-01

    Deficit irrigation in winter wheat has been practiced in the areas with limited irrigation water resources. The objectives of this study were to (i) understand the physiological basis for determinations of grain yield and water-use efficiency in grain yield (WUE) under deficit irrigation; and (ii) investigate the effect of deficit irrigation on dry matter accumulation and remobilization of pre-anthesis carbon reserves during grain filling. A field experiment was conducted in the Southern High Plains of the USA and winter wheat (cv. TAM 202) was grown on Pullman clay loam soil (fine mixed thermic Torretic Paleustoll). Treatments consisted of rain-fed, deficit irrigation from jointing to the middle of grain filling, and full irrigation. The physiological measurements included leaf water potential, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and leaf area index. The rain-fed treatment had the lowest seasonal evapotranspiration (ET), biomass, grain yield, harvest index (HI) and WUE as a result of moderate to severe water stress from jointing to grain filling. Irrigation application increased seasonal ET, and ET increased as irrigation frequency increased. The seasonal ET increased 20% in one-irrigation treatments between jointing and anthesis, 32-46% in two-irrigation treatments, and 67% in three- and full irrigation treatments. Plant biomass, grain yield, HI and WUE increased as the result of increased ET. The increased yield under irrigation was mainly contributed by the increased number of spikes, and seeds per square meter and per spike. Among the irrigation treatments, grain yield increased significantly but the WUE increased slightly as irrigation frequency increased. The increased WUE under deficit irrigation was contributed by increased HI. Water stress during grain filling reduced Pn and Gs, and accelerated leaf senescence. However, the water stress during grain filling induced remobilization of pre-anthesis carbon reserves to grains, and the

  13. Test results of a steam injected gas turbine to increase power and thermal efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Messerlie, R.L.; Tischler, A.O.

    1983-08-01

    The desire to increase both power and thermal efficiency of the gas turbine (Brayton cycle) engine has been pursued for a number of years and has involved many approaches. The use of steam in the cycle to improve performance has been proposed by various investigators. This was most recently proposed by International Power Technology, Inc. (IPT) and has been tested by Detroit Diesel Allison (DDA), Division of General Motors. This approach, identified as the Cheng dual-fluid cycle (Cheng/DFC), includes the generation of steam using heat from the exhaust, and injecting this steam into the engine combustion chamber. Test results on an Allison 501-KB engine have demonstrated that use of this concept will increase the thermal efficiency of the engine by 30% and the output power by 60% with no increase in turbine inlet temperature. These results will be discussed, as will the impact of steam rate, location of steam injection, turbine temperature, and engine operational characteristics on the performance of the Cheng/DFC.

  14. Methods for increasing the efficiency of heating scrap metal in electric arc furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raile, V.

    2013-06-01

    The type of heating, which determines heat transfer from an external energy source to a metallic charge, plays a key role in the process of preliminary heating of scrap metal. The type of charge heating during preliminary heating of scrap metal mainly determines the average scrap metal heating temperature and the formation of harmful substances. This article considers the existing types of charge heating in EAF baths and shaft heaters. The types of scrap metal heating that increase the energy efficiency and weaken the ecological problems related to this process in electric furnace steelmaking units are found.

  15. The diffraction efficiency of echelle gratings increased by ion-beam polishing of groove surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorina, M. V.; Zuev, S. Yu.; Mikhailenko, M. S.; Pestov, A. E.; Polkovnikov, V. N.; Salashchenko, N. N.; Chkhalo, N. I.

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency of first-order diffraction on F1 glass echelle gratings for soft X-ray and extreme UV radiation can be significantly increased (by up to ten times) by etching the groove surface with a beam of neutralized Ar ions at 1250-eV energy. The processing was performed at normal incidence of ion beam on the surface of gratings, and the material thickness removed was on a level of 80-300 nm. A principle of optimization of the ion-beam etching process is proposed for solving particular tasks related to the planarization of microstructures with various lateral dimensions.

  16. Increasing the physically effective fiber content of dairy cow diets may lower efficiency of feed use.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2006-07-01

    Barley silages varying in theoretical chop length were used to evaluate the effects of physically effective (pe) neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of dairy cow diets on nutrient intakes, site and extent of digestion, microbial protein synthesis, and milk production. The experiment was designed as a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square using 6 lactating dairy cows with ruminal and duodenal cannulas. During each of 3 periods, cows were offered 1 of 3 diets (low, medium, and high peNDF) obtained using barley silage that varied in particle length: fine (theoretical chop length of 4.8 mm), medium (equal proportions of long and fine silages), and long (theoretical chop length of 9.5 mm). The peNDF contents were determined by multiplying the proportion (dry matter basis) of feed retained on the 2 screens (8 and 19 mm) of the Penn State Particle Separator by the NDF content of the diet, and were 10.5, 11.8, and 13.8% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Increased forage particle length linearly increased intake of peNDF but intakes of dry matter, organic matter, starch, and N were highest for cows fed the medium peNDF diet. Digestibilities of organic matter, NDF, and acid detergent fiber in the total tract were linearly decreased with increasing dietary peNDF, although total digestibility of starch and N was not affected by the treatments. Nevertheless, decreased digestibility due to increased dietary peNDF did not reduce milk production or milk composition because the cows were in mid to late lactation. Ruminal microbial protein synthesis and microbial efficiency were numerically higher with the low peNDF than with the medium or high peNDF diets. These results indicate that increasing the peNDF content of a diet containing barley silage decreases fiber digestibility in the total tract and lowers microbial efficiency. Therefore, the benefits of increasing dietary particle size, expressed as peNDF, on reducing the risk of ruminal acidosis should be weighed

  17. The Use of Several Diverse Methodologies for Increasing Pupil Achievement: Wesley Avenue Elementary School, 1972-73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gail; Gaskin, Comer

    Since many of the children attending Wesley School come from homes which have a low income base, it qualifies for federally funded compensatory services. The educational program at Wesley was unique in that the various compensatory programs in operation reflected the use of several diverse methodologies for improving pupil achievement. The total…

  18. LinguaFolio Goal Setting Intervention and Academic Achievement: Increasing Student Capacity for Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Oxana D.

    2013-01-01

    In the last few decades there has been a shift from thinking less about teaching and more about learning. Such a paradigm shift from teacher-centered to student-centered instruction requires students to think about their own learning and to monitor their own learning development and language achievement. Researchers have identified goal setting…

  19. Does Minority Status Increase the Effect of Disability Status on Elementary Schoolchildren's Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Qiong; Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether children's reading and mathematics growth trajectories from kindergarten to fifth grade inter-related, and to what extent disability and minority status interacted to predict their achievement trajectories. We conducted secondary data analysis based on a nationally representative sample of 6,446 U.S. schoolchildren…

  20. Schools and Districts Use Resources Wisely to Increase Achievement and Graduate More Students. High Schools That Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2011

    2011-01-01

    In a time of reduced funding, schools are meeting the challenge to continue improving classroom practices, student achievement and graduation rates. Many schools and teachers are forming networks to exchange information via the Internet as they tap into free electronic resources. Career/technical (CT) instructors are teaching students about…

  1. Daily Practices Elementary Principals Utilize to Increase Student Reading Achievement: A Case Study of Successful Michigan Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined three K-5 schools, one 3-5 school, and two K-2 schools that implemented Michigan's Behavior and Learning Support Initiative (MiBLSi) and showed improvement trends in third grade reading achievement as measured by MEAP results over four years. Each of the six schools completed the three years of MiBLSi training and are…

  2. Code RED (Remediation and Enrichment Days): The Complex Journey of a School and University Partnership's Process to Increase Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Patricia S.; Dockery, Kim; Jamieson, Spencer; Ross, Julie

    2007-01-01

    This study examined a focused remediation and enrichment effort among school and university faculty to affect the mathematics achievement of a group of third-grade students in a Title I elementary school. A total of 87 students participated in the Code RED (Remediation and Enrichment Days) Project. During the Code RED Project, student assessment…

  3. Mediterranean agriculture: More efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in future irrigation water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, Marianela; Shi, Sinan; von Bloh, Werner; Bondeau, Alberte; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. Our research shows that, at present, Mediterranean region could save 35% of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops (1). Also under climate change, more efficient irrigation is of vital importance for counteracting increases in irrigation water requirements. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4% and 18% from climate change alone by the end of the century if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved. Population growth increases these numbers to 22% and 74%, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and population growth. Both subregions would need around 35% more water than today if they could afford some degree of modernization of irrigation and conveyance systems and benefit from the CO2-fertilization effect (1). However, in some scenarios (in this case as combinations of climate change, irrigation technology, influence of population growth and CO2-fertilization effect) water scarcity may constrain the supply of the irrigation water needed in future in Algeria, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain (1). In this study, vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL ("Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land") after a

  4. Biochar-induced concomitant decrease in ammonia volatilization and increase in nitrogen use efficiency by wheat.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sanchita; Thangarajan, Ramya; Bolan, Nanthi S; Sarkar, Binoy; Khan, Naser; Ok, Yong Sik; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization is a major nitrogen (N) loss from the soil, especially under tropical conditions, NH3 volatilization results in low N use efficiency by crops. Incubation experiments were conducted using five soils (pH 5.5-9.0), three N sources such as, urea, di-ammonium phosphate (DAP), and poultry manure (PM) and two biochars such as, poultry litter biochar (PL-BC) and macadamia nut shell biochar (MS-BC). Ammonia volatilization was higher at soil with higher pH (pH exceeding 8) due to the increased hydroxyl ions. Among the N sources, urea recorded the highest NH3 volatilization (151.6 mg kg(-1)soil) followed by PM (124.2 mg kg(-1)soil) and DAP (99 mg kg(-1)soil). Ammonia volatilization was reduced by approximately 70% with PL-BC and MS-BC. The decreased NH3 volatilization with biochars is attributed to multiple mechanisms such as NH3 adsorption/immobilization, and nitrification. Moreover, biochar increased wheat dry weight and N uptake as high as by 24.24% and 76.11%, respectively. This study unravels the immense potential of biochar in decreasing N volatilization from soils and simultaneously improving use efficiency by wheat.

  5. Lipid-based Transfection Reagents Exhibit Cryo-induced Increase in Transfection Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sork, Helena; Nordin, Joel Z; Turunen, Janne J; Wiklander, Oscar PB; Bestas, Burcu; Zaghloul, Eman M; Margus, Helerin; Padari, Kärt; Duru, Adil D; Corso, Giulia; Bost, Jeremy; Vader, Pieter; Pooga, Margus; Smith, CI Edvard; Wood, Matthew JA; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Hällbrink, Mattias; Andaloussi, Samir EL

    2016-01-01

    The advantages of lipid-based transfection reagents have permitted their widespread use in molecular biology and gene therapy. This study outlines the effect of cryo-manipulation of a cationic lipid-based formulation, Lipofectamine 2000, which, after being frozen and thawed, showed orders of magnitude higher plasmid delivery efficiency throughout eight different cell lines, without compromising cell viability. Increased transfection efficiency with the freeze-thawed reagent was also seen with 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate oligonucleotide delivery and in a splice-correction assay. Most importantly, a log-scale improvement in gene delivery using the freeze-thawed reagent was seen in vivo. Using three different methods, we detected considerable differences in the polydispersity of the different nucleic acid complexes as well as observed a clear difference in their surface spreading and sedimentation, with the freeze-thawed ones displaying substantially higher rate of dispersion and deposition on the glass surface. This hitherto overlooked elevated potency of the freeze-thawed reagent facilitates the targeting of hard-to-transfect cells, accomplishes higher transfection rates, and decreases the overall amount of reagent needed for delivery. Additionally, as we also saw a slight increase in plasmid delivery using other freeze-thawed transfection reagents, we postulate that freeze-thawing might prove to be useful for an even wider variety of transfection reagents. PMID:27111416

  6. Deep learning as a tool for increased accuracy and efficiency of histopathological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Litjens, Geert; Sánchez, Clara I.; Timofeeva, Nadya; Hermsen, Meyke; Nagtegaal, Iris; Kovacs, Iringo; Hulsbergen - van de Kaa, Christina; Bult, Peter; van Ginneken, Bram; van der Laak, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Pathologists face a substantial increase in workload and complexity of histopathologic cancer diagnosis due to the advent of personalized medicine. Therefore, diagnostic protocols have to focus equally on efficiency and accuracy. In this paper we introduce ‘deep learning’ as a technique to improve the objectivity and efficiency of histopathologic slide analysis. Through two examples, prostate cancer identification in biopsy specimens and breast cancer metastasis detection in sentinel lymph nodes, we show the potential of this new methodology to reduce the workload for pathologists, while at the same time increasing objectivity of diagnoses. We found that all slides containing prostate cancer and micro- and macro-metastases of breast cancer could be identified automatically while 30–40% of the slides containing benign and normal tissue could be excluded without the use of any additional immunohistochemical markers or human intervention. We conclude that ‘deep learning’ holds great promise to improve the efficacy of prostate cancer diagnosis and breast cancer staging. PMID:27212078

  7. Biochar-induced concomitant decrease in ammonia volatilization and increase in nitrogen use efficiency by wheat.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sanchita; Thangarajan, Ramya; Bolan, Nanthi S; Sarkar, Binoy; Khan, Naser; Ok, Yong Sik; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization is a major nitrogen (N) loss from the soil, especially under tropical conditions, NH3 volatilization results in low N use efficiency by crops. Incubation experiments were conducted using five soils (pH 5.5-9.0), three N sources such as, urea, di-ammonium phosphate (DAP), and poultry manure (PM) and two biochars such as, poultry litter biochar (PL-BC) and macadamia nut shell biochar (MS-BC). Ammonia volatilization was higher at soil with higher pH (pH exceeding 8) due to the increased hydroxyl ions. Among the N sources, urea recorded the highest NH3 volatilization (151.6 mg kg(-1)soil) followed by PM (124.2 mg kg(-1)soil) and DAP (99 mg kg(-1)soil). Ammonia volatilization was reduced by approximately 70% with PL-BC and MS-BC. The decreased NH3 volatilization with biochars is attributed to multiple mechanisms such as NH3 adsorption/immobilization, and nitrification. Moreover, biochar increased wheat dry weight and N uptake as high as by 24.24% and 76.11%, respectively. This study unravels the immense potential of biochar in decreasing N volatilization from soils and simultaneously improving use efficiency by wheat. PMID:25959224

  8. IDENTIFICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL DATABASE FOR BINARY AND MULTICOMPONENT MIXTURES WITH POTENTIAL FOR INCREASING OVERALL CYCLE EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen M Bajorek; J. Schnelle

    2002-05-01

    This report describes an experimental investigation designed to identify binary and multicomponent mixture systems that may be for increasing the overall efficiency of a coal fired unit by extracting heat from flue gases. While ammonia-water mixtures have shown promise for increasing cycle efficiencies in a Kalina cycle, the costs and associated range of thermal conditions involved in a heat recovery system may prohibit its use in a relatively low temperature heat recovery system. This investigation considered commercially available non-azeotropic binary mixtures with a boiling range applicable to a flue gas initially at 477.6 K (400 F) and developed an experimental database of boiling heat transfer coefficients for those mixtures. In addition to their potential as working fluids for increasing cycle efficiency, cost, ease of handling, toxicity, and environmental concerns were considered in selection of the mixture systems to be examined experimentally. Based on this review, water-glycol systems were identified as good candidates. However, previous investigations of mixture boiling have focused on aqueous hydrocarbon mixtures, where water is the heaviest component. There have been few studies of water-glycol systems, and those that do exist have investigated boiling on plain surfaces only. In water-glycol systems, water is the light component, which makes these systems unique compared to those that have been previously examined. This report examines several water-glycol systems, and documents a database of experimental heat transfer coefficients for these systems. In addition, this investigation also examines the effect of an enhanced surface on pool boiling in water-glycol mixtures, by comparing boiling on a smooth surface to boiling on a Turbo IIIB. The experimental apparatus, test sections, and the experimental procedures are described. The mixture systems tested included water-propylene glycol, water-ethylene glycol, and water-diethylene glycol. All

  9. Single-use instruments, cutting blocks, and trials increase efficiency in the operating room during total knee arthroplasty: a prospective comparison of navigated and non-navigated cases.

    PubMed

    Mont, Michael A; McElroy, Mark J; Johnson, Aaron J; Pivec, Robert

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this prospective controlled trial was to determine if efficiency increases could be achieved in non-navigated and navigated total knee arthroplasties by replacing traditional saws, cutting blocks, and trials with specialized saws and single-use cutting blocks and trials. Various timing metrics during total knee arthroplasty, including operating room preparation times and specific intra-operative times, were measured in 400 procedures performed by eight different surgeons at 6 institutions. Efficiency increases were the result of statistically significant reductions in combined instrument setup and cleanup times as well as in adjusted surgical episode times in navigated total knee arthroplasties. Single-use instruments show promising benefits, but adequate patient follow-up is needed to confirm safety and efficacy before they can be widely adopted. Nevertheless, the authors believe that the use of single-use instruments, cutting guides, and trial implants for total knee arthroplasty will play an increasing role in improving operating room efficiency.

  10. Strategies to increase the activity of microglia as efficient protectors of the brain against infections

    PubMed Central

    Nau, Roland; Ribes, Sandra; Djukic, Marija; Eiffert, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    In healthy individuals, infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are comparatively rare. Based on the ability of microglial cells to phagocytose and kill pathogens and on clinical findings in immunocompromised patients with CNS infections, we hypothesize that an intact microglial function is crucial to protect the brain from infections. Phagocytosis of pathogens by microglial cells can be stimulated by agonists of receptors of the innate immune system. Enhancing this pathway to increase the resistance of the brain to infections entails the risk of inducing collateral damage to the nervous tissue. The diversity of microglial cells opens avenue to selectively stimulate sub-populations responsible for the defence against pathogens without stimulating sub-populations which are responsible for collateral damage to the nervous tissue. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous lipid, increased phagocytosis of bacteria by microglial cells in vitro without a measurable proinflammatory effect. It was tested clinically apparently without severe side effects. Glatiramer acetate increased phagocytosis of latex beads by microglia and monocytes, and dimethyl fumarate enhanced elimination of human immunodeficiency virus from infected macrophages without inducing a release of proinflammatory compounds. Therefore, the discovery of compounds which stimulate the elimination of pathogens without collateral damage of neuronal structures appears an achievable goal. PEA and, with limitations, glatiramer acetate and dimethyl fumarate appear promising candidates. PMID:24904283

  11. Strategies to increase the activity of microglia as efficient protectors of the brain against infections.

    PubMed

    Nau, Roland; Ribes, Sandra; Djukic, Marija; Eiffert, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    In healthy individuals, infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are comparatively rare. Based on the ability of microglial cells to phagocytose and kill pathogens and on clinical findings in immunocompromised patients with CNS infections, we hypothesize that an intact microglial function is crucial to protect the brain from infections. Phagocytosis of pathogens by microglial cells can be stimulated by agonists of receptors of the innate immune system. Enhancing this pathway to increase the resistance of the brain to infections entails the risk of inducing collateral damage to the nervous tissue. The diversity of microglial cells opens avenue to selectively stimulate sub-populations responsible for the defence against pathogens without stimulating sub-populations which are responsible for collateral damage to the nervous tissue. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous lipid, increased phagocytosis of bacteria by microglial cells in vitro without a measurable proinflammatory effect. It was tested clinically apparently without severe side effects. Glatiramer acetate increased phagocytosis of latex beads by microglia and monocytes, and dimethyl fumarate enhanced elimination of human immunodeficiency virus from infected macrophages without inducing a release of proinflammatory compounds. Therefore, the discovery of compounds which stimulate the elimination of pathogens without collateral damage of neuronal structures appears an achievable goal. PEA and, with limitations, glatiramer acetate and dimethyl fumarate appear promising candidates. PMID:24904283

  12. Ionic liquids increase the catalytic efficiency of a lipase (Lip1) from an antarctic thermophilic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Patricio A; Correa-Llantén, Daniela N; Blamey, Jenny M

    2015-01-01

    Lipases catalyze the hydrolysis and synthesis of triglycerides and their reactions are widely used in industry. The use of ionic liquids has been explored in order to improve their catalytic properties. However, the effect of these compounds on kinetic parameters of lipases has been poorly understood. A study of the kinetic parameters of Lip1, the most thermostable lipase from the supernatant of the strain ID17, a thermophilic bacterium isolated from Deception Island, Antarctica, and a member of the genus Geobacillus is presented. Kinetic parameters of Lip1 were modulated by the use of ionic liquids BmimPF6 and BmimBF4. The maximum reaction rate of Lip1 was improved in the presence of both salts. The highest effect was observed when BmimPF6 was added in the reaction mix, resulting in a higher hydrolytic activity and in a modulation of the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. However, the catalytic efficiency did not change in the presence of BmimBF4. The increase of the reaction rates of Lip1 promoted by these ionic liquids could be related to possible changes in the Lip1 structure. This effect was measured by quenching of tryptophan fluorescence of the enzyme, when it was incubated with each liquid salt. In conclusion, the hydrolytic activity of Lip1 is modulated by the ionic liquids BmimBF4 and BmimPF6, improving the reaction rate and the catalytic efficiency of this enzyme when BmimPF6 was used. This effect is probably due to changes in the structure of Lip1 induced by the presence of these ionic liquids, stimulating its catalytic activity.

  13. Induced overexpression of OCT4A in human embryonic stem cells increases cloning efficiency.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Steven C; Chang, David F; Hong, Chang-Mu; Xia, Ping; Senadheera, Dinithi; Trump, Lisa; Mishra, Suparna; Lutzko, Carolyn

    2014-06-15

    Our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying human embryonic stem cell (hESC) self-renewal and differentiation is incomplete. The level of octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), a critical regulator of pluripotency, is precisely controlled in mouse embryonic stem cells. However, studies of human OCT4 are often confounded by the presence of three isoforms and six expressed pseudogenes, which has complicated the interpretation of results. Using an inducible lentiviral overexpression and knockdown system to manipulate OCT4A above or below physiological levels, we specifically examine the functional role of the OCT4A isoform in hESC. (We also designed and generated a comparable series of vectors, which were not functional, for the overexpression and knockdown of OCT4B.) We show that specific knockdown of OCT4A results in hESC differentiation, as indicated by morphology changes, cell surface antigen expression, and upregulation of ectodermal genes. In contrast, inducible overexpression of OCT4A in hESC leads to a transient instability of the hESC phenotype, as indicated by changes in morphology, cell surface antigen expression, and transcriptional profile, that returns to baseline within 5 days. Interestingly, sustained expression of OCT4A past 5 days enhances hESC cloning efficiency, suggesting that higher levels of OCT4A can support self-renewal. Overall, our results indicate that high levels of OCT4A increase hESC cloning efficiency and do not induce differentiation (whereas OCT4B expression cannot be induced in hESC), highlighting the importance of isoform-specific studies in a stable and inducible expression system for human OCT4. Additionally, we demonstrate the utility of an efficient method for conditional gene expression in hESC.

  14. Ionic liquids increase the catalytic efficiency of a lipase (Lip1) from an antarctic thermophilic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Patricio A; Correa-Llantén, Daniela N; Blamey, Jenny M

    2015-01-01

    Lipases catalyze the hydrolysis and synthesis of triglycerides and their reactions are widely used in industry. The use of ionic liquids has been explored in order to improve their catalytic properties. However, the effect of these compounds on kinetic parameters of lipases has been poorly understood. A study of the kinetic parameters of Lip1, the most thermostable lipase from the supernatant of the strain ID17, a thermophilic bacterium isolated from Deception Island, Antarctica, and a member of the genus Geobacillus is presented. Kinetic parameters of Lip1 were modulated by the use of ionic liquids BmimPF6 and BmimBF4. The maximum reaction rate of Lip1 was improved in the presence of both salts. The highest effect was observed when BmimPF6 was added in the reaction mix, resulting in a higher hydrolytic activity and in a modulation of the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. However, the catalytic efficiency did not change in the presence of BmimBF4. The increase of the reaction rates of Lip1 promoted by these ionic liquids could be related to possible changes in the Lip1 structure. This effect was measured by quenching of tryptophan fluorescence of the enzyme, when it was incubated with each liquid salt. In conclusion, the hydrolytic activity of Lip1 is modulated by the ionic liquids BmimBF4 and BmimPF6, improving the reaction rate and the catalytic efficiency of this enzyme when BmimPF6 was used. This effect is probably due to changes in the structure of Lip1 induced by the presence of these ionic liquids, stimulating its catalytic activity. PMID:25425150

  15. Human diaphragm efficiency estimated as power output relative to activation increases with hypercapnic hyperpnea.

    PubMed

    Finucane, Kevin E; Singh, Bhajan

    2009-11-01

    Hyperpnea with exercise or hypercapnia causes phasic contraction of abdominal muscles, potentially lengthening the diaphragm at end expiration and unloading it during inspiration. Muscle efficiency in vitro varies with load, fiber length, and precontraction stretch. To examine whether these properties of muscle contractility determine diaphragm efficiency (Eff(di)) in vivo, we measured Eff(di) in six healthy adults breathing air and during progressive hypercapnia at three levels of end-tidal Pco(2) with mean values of 48 (SD 2), 55 (SD 2), and 61 (SD 1) Torr. Eff(di) was estimated as the ratio of diaphragm power (Wdi) [the product of mean inspiratory transdiaphragmatic pressure, diaphragm volume change (DeltaVdi) measured fluoroscopically, and 1/inspiratory duration (Ti(-1))] to activation [root mean square values of inspiratory diaphragm electromyogram (RMS(di)) measured from esophageal electrodes]. At maximum hypercapnea relative to breathing air, 1) gastric pressure and diaphragm length at end expiration (Pg(ee) and Ldi(ee), respectively) increased 1.4 (SD 0.2) and 1.13 (SD 0.08) times, (P < 0.01 for both); 2) inspiratory change (Delta) in Pg decreased from 4.5 (SD 2.2) to -7.7 (SD 3.8) cmH(2)O (P < 0.001); 3) DeltaVdi.Ti(-1), Wdi, RMS(di), and Eff(di) increased 2.7 (SD 0.6), 4.9 (SD 1.8), 2.6 (SD 0.9), and 1.8 (SD 0.3) times, respectively (P < 0.01 for all); and 4) net and inspiratory Wdi were not different (P = 0.4). Eff(di) was predicted from Ldi(ee) (P < 0.001), Pg(ee) (P < 0.001), DeltaPg.Ti(-1) (P = 0.03), and DeltaPg (P = 0.04) (r(2) = 0.52) (multivariate regression analysis). We conclude that, with hypercapnic hyperpnea, 1) approximately 47% of the maximum increase of Wdi was attributable to increased Eff(di); 2) Eff(di) increased due to preinspiratory lengthening and inspiratory unloading of the diaphragm, consistent with muscle behavior in vitro; 3) passive recoil of the diaphragm did not contribute to inspiratory Wdi or Eff(di); and 4) phasic

  16. Novel Approach to Increase the Energy-related Process Efficiency and Performance of Laser Brazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstädt, C.; Seefeld, T.; Radel, T.; Vollertsen, F.

    Although laser brazing is well established, the energy-related efficiency of this joining method is quite low. That is because of low absorptivity of solid-state laser radiation, especially when copper base braze metals are used. Conventionally the laser beam is set close to the vertical axis and the filler wire is delivered under a flat angle. Therefore, the most of the utilized laser power is reflected and thus left unexploited. To address this situation an alternative processing concept for laser brazing, where the laser beam is leading the filler wire, has been investigated intending to make use of reflected shares of the laser radiation. Process monitoring shows, that the reflection of the laser beam can be used purposefully to preheat the substrate which is supporting the wetting and furthermore increasing the efficiency of the process. Experiments address a standard application from the automotive industry joining zinc coated steels using CuSi3Mn1 filler wire. Feasibility of the alternative processing concept is demonstrated, showing that higher processing speeds can be attained, reducing the required energy per unit length while maintaining joint properties.

  17. Increasing the efficiency of traveling wave ultrasonic motor by modifying the stator geometry.

    PubMed

    Mohd Romlay, Fadhlur Rahman; Wan Yusoff, Wan Azhar; Mat Piah, Kamal Arifin

    2016-01-01

    Current traveling wave ultrasonic motor (TWUSM) utilizes comb-teeth structure as deflection amplifier. The position of the stator neutral axis to the stator contact surface is one of the factors that influences the deflection amplifier. Stator deflection directly effects on motor performance. In this study, the modification of the comb-teeth stator design is proposed to see its effect on motor efficiency. The modification is done so that the neutral axis position is further distance from the stator top contact surface. The proposed solution is to remove a selected mass element from the comb-teeth structure. Modeling, simulation and experimental work of the proposed concept is carried out utilizing Shinsei USR60 as the chosen TWUSM. The modeling and analyses are conducted through multi-physic finite element simulation MSC Marc Mentat. The results of the analyses and experimental work reveal that the modified comb-teeth stator increases the position of the neutral axis from the stator top surface. Due to the neutral axis shifting, the results also confirm that the proposed modified motor has higher efficiency compared to the non-modified motor.

  18. Increasing water-use efficiency directly through genetic manipulation of stomatal density.

    PubMed

    Franks, Peter J; W Doheny-Adams, Timothy; Britton-Harper, Zoe J; Gray, Julie E

    2015-07-01

    Improvement in crop water-use efficiency (WUE) is a critical priority for regions facing increased drought or diminished groundwater resources. Despite new tools for the manipulation of stomatal development, the engineering of plants with high WUE remains a challenge. We used Arabidopsis epidermal patterning factor (EPF) mutants exhibiting altered stomatal density to test whether WUE could be improved directly by manipulation of the genes controlling stomatal density. Specifically, we tested whether constitutive overexpression of EPF2 reduced stomatal density and maximum stomatal conductance (gw(max) ) sufficiently to increase WUE. We found that a reduction in gw(max) via reduced stomatal density in EPF2-overexpressing plants (EPF2OE) increased both instantaneous and long-term WUE without altering significantly the photosynthetic capacity. Conversely, plants lacking both EPF1 and EPF2 expression (epf1epf2) exhibited higher stomatal density, higher gw(max) and lower instantaneous WUE, as well as lower (but not significantly so) long-term WUE. Targeted genetic modification of stomatal conductance, such as in EPF2OE, is a viable approach for the engineering of higher WUE in crops, particularly in future high-carbon-dioxide (CO2 ) atmospheres. PMID:25754246

  19. Effects of temperature and UV radiation increases on the photosynthetic efficiency in four scleractinian coral species.

    PubMed

    Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Richard, Cécile; Forcioli, Didier; Allemand, Denis; Pichon, Michel; Shick, J Malcolm

    2007-08-01

    Experiments were performed on coral species containing clade A (Stylophora pistillata, Montipora aequituberculata) or clade C (Acropora sp., Pavona cactus) zooxanthellae. The photosynthetic efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) of the corals was first assessed during a short-term increase in temperature (from 27 degrees C to 29 degrees C, 32 degrees C, and 34 degrees C) and acute exposure to UV radiation (20.5 W m(-2) UVA and 1.2 W m(-2) UVB) alone or in combination. Increasing temperature to 34 degrees C significantly decreased the F(v)/F(m) in S. pistillata and M. aequituberculata. Increased UV radiation alone significantly decreased the F(v)/F(m) of all coral species, even at 27 degrees C. There was a combined effect of temperature and UV radiation, which reduced F(v)/F(m) in all corals by 25% to 40%. During a long-term exposure to UV radiation (17 days) the F(v)/F(m) was significantly reduced after 3 days' exposure in all species, which did not recover their initial values, even after 17 days. By this time, all corals had synthesized mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). The concentration and diversity of MAAs differed among species, being higher for corals containing clade A zooxanthellae. Prolonged exposure to UV radiation at the nonstressful temperature of 27 degrees C conferred protection against independent, thermally induced photoinhibition in all four species. PMID:17679722

  20. Efficient Bayesian mixed model analysis increases association power in large cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Po-Ru; Tucker, George; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan K; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Finucane, Hilary K; Salem, Rany M; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Neale, Benjamin M; Berger, Bonnie; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L

    2014-01-01

    Linear mixed models are a powerful statistical tool for identifying genetic associations and avoiding confounding. However, existing methods are computationally intractable in large cohorts, and may not optimize power. All existing methods require time cost O(MN2) (where N = #samples and M = #SNPs) and implicitly assume an infinitesimal genetic architecture in which effect sizes are normally distributed, which can limit power. Here, we present a far more efficient mixed model association method, BOLT-LMM, which requires only a small number of O(MN)-time iterations and increases power by modeling more realistic, non-infinitesimal genetic architectures via a Bayesian mixture prior on marker effect sizes. We applied BOLT-LMM to nine quantitative traits in 23,294 samples from the Women’s Genome Health Study (WGHS) and observed significant increases in power, consistent with simulations. Theory and simulations show that the boost in power increases with cohort size, making BOLT-LMM appealing for GWAS in large cohorts. PMID:25642633

  1. A novel strategy to increase heating efficiency in a split-focus ultrasound phased array.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Li; Shih, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Ju, Kuen-Cheng

    2007-07-01

    Focus splitting using sector-based phased arrays increases the necrosed volume in a single sonication and reduces the total treatment time in the treatment of large tumors. However, split-focus sonication results in a lower energy density and worse focal-beam distortion, which limits its usefulness in practical treatments. Here, we propose a new heating strategy involving consecutive strongly focused and split-focus sonications to improve the heating efficiency. Theoretical predictions including linear and thermal-dose-dependent attenuation change were employed to investigate potential factors of this strategy, and ex vivo tissue experiments were conducted to confirm its effectiveness. Results showed that the thermal lesions produced by the proposed strategy could be increased when comparing with the previous reported strategies. The proposed heating strategy also induces a thermal lesion more rapidly, and exhibits higher robustness to various blood perfusion conditions, higher robustness to various power/heating time combinations, and superiority to generate deep-seated lesions through tissues with complex interfaces. Possible mechanisms include the optimization of the thermal conduction created by the strongly focused sonication and the temperature buildup gained from thermally induced tissue attenuation change based on the theoretical analysis. This may represent a useful technique for increasing the applicability of split-focus and multiple-focus sonication techniques, and solve the obstacles encountered when attempting to use these methods to shorten the total clinical treatment time.

  2. Consolidation of silicon nitride without additives. [for gas turbine engine efficiency increase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikora, P. F.; Yeh, H. C.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ceramics for gas turbine engine construction might make it possible to increase engine efficiency by raising operational temperatures to values beyond those which can be tolerated by metallic alloys. The most promising ceramics being investigated in this connection are Si3N4 and SiC. A description is presented of a study which had the objective to produce dense Si3N4. The two most common methods of consolidating Si3N4 currently being used include hot pressing and reaction sintering. The feasibility was explored of producing a sound, dense Si3N4 body without additives by means of conventional gas hot isostatic pressing techniques and an uncommon hydraulic hot isostatic pressing technique. It was found that Si3N4 can be densified without additions to a density which exceeds 95% of the theoretical value

  3. Stratified storage economically increases capacity and efficiency of campus chilled water system

    SciTech Connect

    Bahnfleth, W.P.; Joyce, W.S.

    1995-03-01

    This article describes how the addition of stratified chilled water storage to the Cornell University campus chilled water system has increased its capacity and efficiency and reduced its operating costs for less than the cost of a conventional chilled water plant expansion. While chilled water storage is not appropriate for all chilled water systems, the experience at Cornell indicates that it can be very cost effective when favorable conditions exist. It should receive serious consideration by owners of large systems who are investigating alternatives for system expansion. The benefits of variable speed chiller operation were found to be considerable. It is hoped that this successful application will stimulate further interest in the development and application of variable speed drive chillers.

  4. Vertical Take-Off and Landing Vehicle with Increased Cruise Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J. (Inventor); Moore, Mark D. (Inventor); Busan, Ronald C. (Inventor); Rothhaar, Paul M. (Inventor); North, David D. (Inventor); Langford, William M. (Inventor); Laws, Christopher T. (Inventor); Hodges, William T. (Inventor); Johns, Zachary R. (Inventor); Webb, Sandy R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices are provided that combine an advance vehicle configuration, such as an advanced aircraft configuration, with the infusion of electric propulsion, thereby enabling a four times increase in range and endurance while maintaining a full vertical takeoff and landing ("VTOL") and hover capability for the vehicle. Embodiments may provide vehicles with both VTOL and cruise efficient capabilities without the use of ground infrastructure. An embodiment vehicle may comprise a wing configured to tilt through a range of motion, a first series of electric motors coupled to the wing and each configured to drive an associated wing propeller, a tail configured to tilt through the range of motion, a second series of electric motors coupled to the tail and each configured to drive an associated tail propeller, and an electric propulsion system connected to the first series of electric motors and the second series of electric motors.

  5. Improved Design of Motors for Increased Efficiency in Residential Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Pragasen Pillay

    2008-12-31

    Research progress on understanding magnetic steel core losses is presented in this report. Three major aspects have been thoroughly investigated: 1, experimental characterization of core losses, 2, fundamental physical understanding of core losses and development of core loss formulas, and 3, design of more efficient machine based on the new formulations. Considerable progress has been achieved during the four years of research and the main achievements are summarized in the following: For the experimental characterization, a specially designed advanced commercial test bench was commissioned in addition to the development of a laboratory system with advanced capabilities. The measured properties are core losses at low and higher frequencies, with sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal excitations, at different temperatures, with different measurement apparatus (Toroids, Epstein etc). An engineering-based core loss formula has been developed which considers skin effect. The formula can predict core losses for both sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal flux densities and frequencies up to 4000 Hz. The formula is further tested in electric machines. The formula error range is 1.1% - 7.6% while the standard formulas can have % errors between -8.5% {-+} 44.7%. Two general core loss formulas, valid for different frequencies and thickness, have been developed by analytically and numerically solving Maxwell's equations based on a physical investigation of the dynamic hysteresis effects of magnetic materials. To our knowledge, they are the first models that can offer accurate core loss prediction over a wide range of operating frequencies and lamination thicknesses without a massive experimental database of core losses. The engineering core loss formula has been used with commercial software. The formula performs better than the modified Steinmetz and Bertotti's model used in Cedrat/Magsoft Flux 2D/3D. The new formula shows good correlation with measured results under both sinusoidal and

  6. Shifts in the myosin heavy chain isozymes in the mouse heart result in increased energy efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Kirsten; Krenz, Maike; Robbins, Jeffrey; Ingwall, Joanne S.

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac-specific transgenesis in the mouse is widely used to study the basic biology and chemistry of the heart and to model human cardiovascular disease. A fundamental difference between mouse and human hearts is the background motor protein: mouse hearts contain predominantly the αα-myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isozyme while human hearts contain predominantly the ββ-MyHC isozyme. Although the intrinsic differences in mechanical and enzymatic properties of the αα- and ββ-MyHC molecules are well known, the consequences of isozyme shifts on energetic of the intact beating heart remain unknown. Therefore, we compared the free energy of ATP hydrolysis (|ΔG~ATP|) determined by 31P NMR spectroscopy in isolated perfused littermate mouse hearts containing the same amount of myosin comprised of either >95% αα-MyHC or ~83% ββ-MyHC. |ΔG~ATP| was ~2 kJ mol−1 higher in the ββ-MyHC hearts at all workloads. Furthermore, upon inotropic challenge, hearts containing predominantly ββ-MyHC hearts increased developed pressure more than αα-MyHC hearts whereas heart rate increased more in αα-MyHC hearts. Thus, hearts containing predominantly the ββ-MyHC isozyme are more energy efficient than αα-MyHC hearts. We suggest that these fundamental differences in the motor protein energy efficiency at the whole heart level should be considered when interpreting results using mouse-based cardiovascular modeling of normal and diseased human heart. PMID:17054980

  7. Using interlayer step-wise triplet transfer to achieve an efficient white organic light-emitting diode with high color-stability

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qi; Ma, Dongge Ding, Junqiao; Wang, Lixiang; Leo, Karl; Qiao, Qiquan; Jia, Huiping; Gnade, Bruce E.

    2014-05-12

    An efficient phosphorescent white organic light emitting-diode with a red-green-blue tri-emitting-layer structure is reported. The host of the red dopant possesses a lower triplet-energy than the green dye. An interlayer step-wise triplet transfer via blue dye → green dye → red host → red dye is achieved. This mechanism allows an efficient triplet harvesting by the three dopants, thus maintaining a balanced white light and reducing energy loss. Moreover, the color stability of the device is improved significantly. The white device not only achieves a peak external quantum efficiency of 21.1 ± 0.8% and power efficiency of 37.5 ± 1.4 lm/W but shows no color shift over a wide range of voltages.

  8. Enhanced Conversion Efficiencies in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Achieved through Self-Assembled Platinum(II) Metallacages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zuoli; Hou, Zhiqiang; Xing, Yonglei; Liu, Xiaobin; Yin, Xingtian; Que, Meidan; Shao, Jinyou; Que, Wenxiu; Stang, Peter J.

    2016-07-01

    Two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes with particular photo-physical property, wherein unique donors are combined with a single metal acceptor, can be utilized for many applications including in photo-devices. In this communication, we described the synthesis and characterization of two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) bearing triazine and porphyrin faces with promising light-harvesting properties. These complexes were obtained from the self-assembly of a 90° Pt(II) acceptor with 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPyT) or 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (TPyP). The greatly improved conversion efficiencies of the dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells were 6.79 and 6.08 respectively, while these SCCs were introduced into the TiO2 nanoparticle film photoanodes. In addition, the open circuit voltage (Voc) of dye-sensitized solar cells was also increased to 0.769 and 0.768 V, which could be ascribed to the inhibited interfacial charge recombination due to the addition of SCCs.

  9. Enhanced Conversion Efficiencies in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Achieved through Self-Assembled Platinum(II) Metallacages

    PubMed Central

    He, Zuoli; Hou, Zhiqiang; Xing, Yonglei; Liu, Xiaobin; Yin, Xingtian; Que, Meidan; Shao, Jinyou; Que, Wenxiu; Stang, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes with particular photo-physical property, wherein unique donors are combined with a single metal acceptor, can be utilized for many applications including in photo-devices. In this communication, we described the synthesis and characterization of two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) bearing triazine and porphyrin faces with promising light-harvesting properties. These complexes were obtained from the self-assembly of a 90° Pt(II) acceptor with 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPyT) or 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (TPyP). The greatly improved conversion efficiencies of the dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells were 6.79 and 6.08 respectively, while these SCCs were introduced into the TiO2 nanoparticle film photoanodes. In addition, the open circuit voltage (Voc) of dye-sensitized solar cells was also increased to 0.769 and 0.768 V, which could be ascribed to the inhibited interfacial charge recombination due to the addition of SCCs. PMID:27404912

  10. Use of Rasch Rating Scale Modeling to Develop and Validate a Measure of District-Level Characteristics and Practices Identified to Improve Instruction and Increase Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soska, Paul J., III

    2012-01-01

    Increasing qualitative evidence in the literature supports specific characteristics and practices, presented from a distributed leadership perspective, to be prevalent in school districts that demonstrate significant increases in student achievement. Quantitative evidence linking these identified district-level characteristics and practices to…

  11. Between-country collaboration and consideration of costs increase conservation planning efficiency in the Mediterranean Basin

    PubMed Central

    Kark, Salit; Levin, Noam; Grantham, Hedley S.; Possingham, Hugh P.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of global and regional coordination in conservation is growing, although currently, the majority of conservation programs are applied at national and subnational scales. Nevertheless, multinational programs incur transaction costs and resources beyond what is required in national programs. Given the need to maximize returns on investment within limited conservation budgets, it is crucial to quantify how much more biodiversity can be protected by coordinating multinational conservation efforts when resources are fungible. Previous studies that compared different scales of conservation decision-making mostly ignored spatial variability in biodiversity threats and the cost of actions. Here, we developed a simple integrating metric, taking into account both the cost of conservation and threats to biodiversity. We examined the Mediterranean Basin biodiversity hotspot, which encompasses over 20 countries. We discovered that for vertebrates to achieve similar conservation benefits, one would need substantially more money and area if each country were to act independently as compared to fully coordinated action across the Basin. A fully coordinated conservation plan is expected to save approximately US$67 billion, 45% of total cost, compared with the uncoordinated plan; and if implemented over a 10-year period, the plan would cost ≈0.1% of the gross national income of all European Union (EU) countries annually. The initiative declared in the recent Paris Summit for the Mediterranean provides a political basis for such complex coordination. Surprisingly, because many conservation priority areas selected are located in EU countries, a partly coordinated solution incorporating only EU-Mediterranean countries is almost as efficient as the fully coordinated scenario. PMID:19717457

  12. Manipulating tillage to increase stored soil water and manipulating plant geometry to increase water-use efficiency in dryland areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper briefly summarizes some of the practices being used in the semiarid U.S. Great Plains to grow crops without irrigation. Fallow periods are commonly used to increase the amount of plant-available water in the soil profile at the time of seeding a crop because growing-season precipitation i...

  13. Dental office ergonomics: how to reduce stress factors and increase efficiency.

    PubMed

    Pollack, R

    1996-06-01

    Ergonomics, the science that studies human stress and strain related to activities, has one primary objective-to prevent work related musculoskeletal disorders, or symptoms that aggravate these disorders. Smart business owners have adopted the practice of ergonomics as an integral element in their ongoing strategies to increase productivity and ensure reduced workers' compensation liability. In British Columbia, however, potentially expensive ergonomic draft regulations created by the province's Workers' Compensation Board in 1993, have been put on hold. These ergonomic standards-described as the stiffest in the world -were to have been implemented across the province in early 1995. Nonetheless, ergonomic practices are alive and thriving in Canadian businesses that are devoted to ensuring a reduction in work-related injuries and salvaging potentially lost productivity. Although it is difficult to document lost productivity, Ontario's Workers' Compensation Board reported that it received 707 repetitive stress injury claims from office workers in 1992, with a per person cost of $7,703. In addition to these costs, each claimant took about 93 days off work. In dentistry, poor working habits, along with repetitive tasks, such as scaling and root planing, contribute greatly to musculoskeletal disorders, stress claims and lost productivity. Our tendency is to adapt awkward and illogical physical postures to access the oral cavity. The key objective for clinicians is to find a position that allows them to achieve optimum access, visibility, comfort and control at all times. With the professional goal to deliver the highest quality of care for a reasonable profit, the practice of ergonomics becomes a core focus in determining how to achieve practice success with less stress.

  14. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunqi; Zhang, Yinghua; Ji, Wei; Yu, Peng; Wang, Bin; Li, Jinpeng; Han, Meikun; Xu, Xuexin; Wang, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage), one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation) and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis) conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure stands under W0, those for W1 and W2 were 80% and 85%, respectively. Over 75% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments got greater biomass than the mean of the pure stands under the three irrigation conditions. Cultivar mixture cropping cost more water than pure stands under W0 and W1, whereas the water consumption under W2 decreased by 5.9%–6.8% as compared with pure stands. Approximately 90% of cultivar mixtures showed an increase of 5.4%–34.5% in WUE as compared with the mean of the pure stands, and about 75% of cultivar mixtures had 0.8%–28.5% higher WUE than the better pure stands under W0. Similarly, there were a majority of mixture cropping treatments with higher WUE than the mean and the better one of the pure stands under W1 and W2. On the whole, proper cultivar mixture cropping could increase yield and WUE, and a higher increase in WUE occurred under limited irrigation condition. PMID:27362563

  15. Increases in efficiency and enhancements to the Mars Observer non-stored commanding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Robert N., Jr.; Torgerson, J. Leigh

    1994-01-01

    The Mars Observer team was, until the untimely loss of the spacecraft on August 21, 1993, performing flight operations with greater efficiency and speed than any previous JPL mission of its size. This level of through-put was made possible by a mission operations system which was composed of skilled personnel using sophisticated sequencing and commanding tools. During cruise flight operations, however, it was realized by the project that this commanding level was not going to be sufficient to support the activities planned for mapping operations. The project had committed to providing the science instrument principle investigators with a much higher level of commanding during mapping. Thus, the project began taking steps to enhance the capabilities of the flight team. One mechanism used by project management was a tool available from total quality management (TQM). This tool is known as a process action team (PAT). The Mars Observer PAT was tasked to increase the capacity of the flight team's nonstored commanding process by fifty percent with no increase in staffing and a minimal increase in risk. The outcome of this effort was, in fact, to increase the capacity by a factor of 2.5 rather than the desired fifty percent and actually reduce risk. The majority of these improvements came from the automation of the existing command process. These results required very few changes to the existing mission operations system. Rather, the PAT was able to take advantage of automation capabilities inherent in the existing system and make changes to the existing flight team procedures.

  16. Increased skeletal muscle mitochondrial efficiency in rats with fructose-induced alteration in glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Cigliano, Luisa; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2013-12-14

    In the present study, the effect of long-term fructose feeding on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics was investigated. Measurements in isolated tissue were coupled with the determination of whole-body energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity. A significant increase in plasma NEFA, as well as in skeletal muscle TAG and ceramide, was found in fructose-fed rats compared with the controls, together with a significantly higher plasma insulin response to a glucose load, while no significant variation in plasma glucose levels was found. Significantly lower RMR values were found in fructose-fed rats starting from week 4 of the dietary treatment. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial mass and degree of coupling were found to be significantly higher in fructose-fed rats compared with the controls. Significantly higher lipid peroxidation was found in fructose-fed rats, together with a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase activity. Phosphorylated Akt levels normalised to plasma insulin levels were significantly lower in fructose-fed rats compared with the controls. In conclusion, a fructose-rich diet has a deep impact on a metabolically relevant tissue such as skeletal muscle. In this tissue, the consequences of high fructose feeding are altered glucose tolerance, elevated mitochondrial biogenesis and increased mitochondrial coupling. This latter modification could have a detrimental metabolic effect by causing oxidative stress and energy sparing that contribute to the high metabolic efficiency of fructose-fed rats.

  17. Feeding on prey increases photosynthetic efficiency in the carnivorous sundew Drosera capensis

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovič, Andrej; Krausko, Miroslav; Libiaková, Michaela; Adamec, Lubomír

    2014-01-01

    Backround and Aims It has been suggested that the rate of net photosynthesis (AN) of carnivorous plants increases in response to prey capture and nutrient uptake; however, data confirming the benefit from carnivory in terms of increased AN are scarce and unclear. The principal aim of our study was to investigate the photosynthetic benefit from prey capture in the carnivorous sundew Drosera capensis. Methods Prey attraction experiments were performed, with measurements and visualization of enzyme activities, elemental analysis and pigment quantification together with simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence in D. capensis in response to feeding with fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). Key Results Red coloration of tentacles did not act as a signal to attract fruit flies onto the traps. Phosphatase, phophodiesterase and protease activities were induced 24 h after prey capture. These activities are consistent with the depletion of phosphorus and nitrogen from digested prey and a significant increase in their content in leaf tissue after 10 weeks. Mechanical stimulation of tentacle glands alone was not sufficient to induce proteolytic activity. Activities of β-D-glucosidases and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidases in the tentacle mucilage were not detected. The uptake of phosphorus from prey was more efficient than that of nitrogen and caused the foliar N:P ratio to decrease; the contents of other elements (K, Ca, Mg) decreased slightly in fed plants. Increased foliar N and P contents resulted in a significant increase in the aboveground plant biomass, the number of leaves and chlorophyll content as well as AN, maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII). Conclusions According to the stoichiometric relationships among different nutrients, the growth of unfed D. capensis plants was P-limited. This P-limitation was markedly alleviated by feeding on fruit flies and resulted in improved

  18. Sertoli cell numbers and spermatogenic efficiency are increased in inducible nitric oxide synthase mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Auharek, S A; Avelar, G F; Lara, N L M; Sharpe, R M; França, L R

    2011-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is produced via oxidation of l-arginine by nitric oxide synthases (NOSs), and is known as inducible (iNOS), neuronal, endothelial or testis-specific. Suggesting important functions for NOS in the normal rat and mouse testis, iNOS is reported to be constitutively expressed in Leydig cells (LC), Sertoli cells (SC) and germ cells. In our study, we sought to provide further insights into the roles of iNOS in the adult mouse testis using iNOS(-/-) mice. Perfusion-fixed testes from wild type (WT) and iNOS(-/-) mice were used for histological and stereological evaluations. Some of the mice had been injected with (3) H-thymidine to label proliferating cells and to determine the duration of spermatogenesis that was unaffected in iNOS(-/-) mice. Both LC nuclear volume and individual cell size were significantly decreased in iNOS(-/-) mice, but the total number of LC per testis was increased (p < 0.05) by approximately 16%. The number of SC per testis was strikingly increased (approximately twofold) in iNOS(-/-) mice, and testis weight and DSP per gram of testis (spermatogenic efficiency) were similarly increased. The anogenital distance was also significantly increased in iNOS(-/-) mice, and this key endpoint suggests that the augmentation observed for the SC number may be related to increased foetal T-exposure during the masculinization programming window. Compared with WT testes, the numbers of spermatocytes and spermatids and SC per tubule cross sections were significantly increased in iNOS(-/-) mice. Except for stages V-VI and VII-VIII, iNOS(-/-) mice exhibited approximately 3.5-fold fewer apoptotic germ cells than in WT mice. Taken together, our results provide new evidence that iNOS plays an important role in numerical and functional regulation of key somatic cells in the testis, which in turn impacts on germ cells and their survival and thus on daily sperm production.

  19. A Comparison of Secondary Principals' Use of Data Systems to Increase Student Achievement in Mathematics as Measured by Standardized Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The pressure to meet the demands of "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) Act coupled with poor results by secondary students on national assessments in mathematics have forced school principals to develop skill sets in the use of data in efforts to increase student performance on standardized assessments. The effective use of data by school principals…

  20. Implementation of a compressive sampling scheme for wireless sensors to achieve energy efficiency in a structural health monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Sean M.; Lynch, Jerome P.; Gilbert, Anna C.

    2013-04-01

    Wireless sensors have emerged to offer low-cost sensors with impressive functionality (e.g., data acquisition, computing, and communication) and modular installations. Such advantages enable higher nodal densities than tethered systems resulting in increased spatial resolution of the monitoring system. However, high nodal density comes at a cost as huge amounts of data are generated, weighing heavy on power sources, transmission bandwidth, and data management requirements, often making data compression necessary. The traditional compression paradigm consists of high rate (>Nyquist) uniform sampling and storage of the entire target signal followed by some desired compression scheme prior to transmission. The recently proposed compressed sensing (CS) framework combines the acquisition and compression stage together, thus removing the need for storage and operation of the full target signal prior to transmission. The effectiveness of the CS approach hinges on the presence of a sparse representation of the target signal in a known basis, similarly exploited by several traditional compressive sensing applications today (e.g., imaging, MRI). Field implementations of CS schemes in wireless SHM systems have been challenging due to the lack of commercially available sensing units capable of sampling methods (e.g., random) consistent with the compressed sensing framework, often moving evaluation of CS techniques to simulation and post-processing. The research presented here describes implementation of a CS sampling scheme to the Narada wireless sensing node and the energy efficiencies observed in the deployed sensors. Of interest in this study is the compressibility of acceleration response signals collected from a multi-girder steel-concrete composite bridge. The study shows the benefit of CS in reducing data requirements while ensuring data analysis on compressed data remain accurate.

  1. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in irrigation water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2015-08-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are accounted for, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL after a large development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitude of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, being the increases most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (2 °C global warming combined with full CO2-fertilization effect, and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and

  2. Optimizing the configuration of a superconducting photonic band gap accelerator cavity to increase the maximum achievable gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakov, Evgenya I.; Kurennoy, Sergey S.; O'Hara, James F.; Olivas, Eric R.; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu.

    2014-02-01

    We present a design of a superconducting rf photonic band gap (SRF PBG) accelerator cell with specially shaped rods in order to reduce peak surface magnetic fields and improve the effectiveness of the PBG structure for suppression of higher order modes (HOMs). The ability of PBG structures to suppress long-range wakefields is especially beneficial for superconducting electron accelerators for high power free-electron lasers (FELs), which are designed to provide high current continuous duty electron beams. Using PBG structures to reduce the prominent beam-breakup phenomena due to HOMs will allow significantly increased beam-breakup thresholds. As a result, there will be possibilities for increasing the operation frequency of SRF accelerators and for the development of novel compact high-current accelerator modules for the FELs.

  3. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  4. Multibeam Bathymetry Data Value and Increased Efficiency Through Improved Data Access and Reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, D. J.; Fischman, D.; Varner, J. D.; McLean, S. J.; Henderson, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    The costs associated with geophysical data collection are ever increasing, and efficiencies created by data reuse have never been more important. Multibeam sonar bathymetry, collected by specialized research vessels in challenging oceanic environments, is an example data type that has experienced steady increases in acquisition costs. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) in partnership with the Academic Fleet Rolling deck To Repository (R2R) program provides streamlined delivery of multibeam bathymetric data from ship to shore to user. By ensuring long term archive and easy access to these data, we foster the innovative reuse of data to produce additional products to serve multiple needs beyond the original intent of collection. Archived data are made widely accessible to the scientific community and the public via Web technologies that also support a "whole ocean" approach to management and planning, leveraging limited resources, and maximizing the benefit of the original investment in data collection. Currently, the public has access to more than 461,000 multibeam bathymetry files from the NGDC website through various Web based tools (ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/bathymetry/). Data are discoverable through geospatial maps and text search options. Once data are identified, users can download individual files, bundled data, or create custom grids. This paper takes a closer look at the multibeam data downloaded from the NGDC website and attempts to quantify the value of providing data for reuse. Using the number of surveys downloaded, an average cost to collect and steward multibeam data, and computing the ship hours required to acquire these data, we can estimate the value of the data freely available through R2R and NGDC. We will show that the value of long term stewardship, sharing, and reuse of these data provides a significant return on the initial investment. Proper data stewardship by NOAA's National Data

  5. Aggregating embryonic but not somatic nuclear transfer embryos increases cloning efficiency in cattle.

    PubMed

    Misica-Turner, Pavla M; Oback, Fleur C; Eichenlaub, Michael; Wells, David N; Oback, Björn

    2007-02-01

    Our objectives were to compare the cellular and molecular effects of aggregating bovine embryonic vs. somatic cell nuclear transfer (ECNT vs. SCNT) embryos and to determine whether aggregation can improve cattle cloning efficiency. We reconstructed cloned embryos from: 1) morula-derived blastomeres, 2) six adult male ear skin fibroblast lines, 3) one fetal female lung fibroblast line (BFF), and 4) two transgenic clonal strains derived from BFF. Embryos were cultured either singularly (1X) or as aggregates of three (3X). In vitro-fertilized (IVF) 1X and 3X embryos served as controls. After aggregation, the in vitro development of ECNT but not that of SCNT or IVF embryos was strongly compromised. The inner cell mass (ICM), total cell (TC) numbers, and ICM:TC ratios significantly increased for all the aggregates. The relative concentration of the key embryonic transcript POU5F1 (or OCT4) did not correlate with these increases, remaining unchanged in the ECNT and IVF aggregates and decreasing significantly in the SCNT aggregates. Overall, the IVF and 3X ECNT but not the 1X ECNT embryos had significantly higher relative POU5F1 levels than the SCNT embryos. High POU5F1 levels correlated with high in vivo survival, while no such correlation was noted for the ICM:TC ratios. Development to weaning was more than doubled in the ECNT aggregates (10/51 or 20% vs. 7/85 or 8% for 3X vs. 1X, respectively; P < 0.05). In contrast, the SCNT and IVF controls showed no improvement in survival. These data reveal striking biological differences between embryonic and somatic clones in response to aggregation.

  6. Special Enrichment Strategies Greatly Increase the Efficiency of Missing Proteins Identification from Regular Proteome Samples.

    PubMed

    Su, Na; Zhang, Chengpu; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Fan, Fengxu; Zhao, Mingzhi; Wu, Feilin; Gao, Yuan; Li, Yanchang; Chen, Lingsheng; Tian, Miaomiao; Zhang, Tao; Wen, Bo; Sensang, Na; Xiong, Zhi; Wu, Songfeng; Liu, Siqi; Yang, Pengyuan; Zhen, Bei; Zhu, Yunping; He, Fuchu; Xu, Ping

    2015-09-01

    As part of the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) mission, laboratories all over the world have tried to map the entire missing proteins (MPs) since 2012. On the basis of the first and second Chinese Chromosome Proteome Database (CCPD 1.0 and 2.0) studies, we developed systematic enrichment strategies to identify MPs that fell into four classes: (1) low molecular weight (LMW) proteins, (2) membrane proteins, (3) proteins that contained various post-translational modifications (PTMs), and (4) nucleic acid-associated proteins. Of 8845 proteins identified in 7 data sets, 79 proteins were classified as MPs. Among data sets derived from different enrichment strategies, data sets for LMW and PTM yielded the most novel MPs. In addition, we found that some MPs were identified in multiple-data sets, which implied that tandem enrichments methods might improve the ability to identify MPs. Moreover, low expression at the transcription level was the major cause of the "missing" of these MPs; however, MPs with higher expression level also evaded identification, most likely due to other characteristics such as LMW, high hydrophobicity and PTM. By combining a stringent manual check of the MS2 spectra with peptides synthesis verification, we confirmed 30 MPs (neXtProt PE2 ∼ PE4) and 6 potential MPs (neXtProt PE5) with authentic MS evidence. By integrating our large-scale data sets of CCPD 2.0, the number of identified proteins has increased considerably beyond simulation saturation. Here, we show that special enrichment strategies can break through the data saturation bottleneck, which could increase the efficiency of MP identification in future C-HPP studies. All 7 data sets have been uploaded to ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD002255.

  7. Cholesterol improves the transfection efficiency of lipoplexes by increasing the effective membrane charge density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safinya, Cyrus R.; Zidovska, Alexandra; Evans, Heather M.; Ewert, Kai K.

    2008-03-01

    Motivated by its important role in lipid-mediated gene delivery, we have studied the effect of cholesterol on the transfection efficiency (TE) of lamellar, cationic lipid-DNA (CL-DNA) complexes. A successful in vivo liposome mixture seems to require cholesterol. Recent work in our group has identified the membrane charge density (σ) as a universal parameter for TE of lamellar, DOPC containing CL-DNA complexes (A.J. Lin et al, Biophys. J., 2003, K. Ewert et al, J. Med. Chem., 2002, A. Ahmad et al., J. Gene Med., 2005), with TE following a universal bell-shaped curve as a function of σ. Theoretical calculations considering the headgroup area of cholesterol and thus necessarily counting for an increase in σ, when DOPC is replaced by cholesterol, show that TE strongly deviates from the TE universal curve. However, experimental determination of σ via X-ray diffraction shows full agreement with the TE universal curve demonstrating that the real σ is higher as predicted, therefore the effective headgroup area of cholesterol is lower as expected by theory, suggesting that cholesterol is inserted deep into lipid bilayer partially hidden by the neighboring lipids. Funding provided by NIH GM-59288 and NSF DMR-0503347.

  8. Increased enzyme binding to substrate is not necessary for more efficient cellulose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dahai; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Sethi, Anurag; Balan, Venkatesh; Gnanakaran, S; Dale, Bruce E

    2013-07-01

    Substrate binding is typically one of the rate-limiting steps preceding enzyme catalytic action during homogeneous reactions. However, interfacial-based enzyme catalysis on insoluble crystalline substrates, like cellulose, has additional bottlenecks of individual biopolymer chain decrystallization from the substrate interface followed by its processive depolymerization to soluble sugars. This additional decrystallization step has ramifications on the role of enzyme-substrate binding and its relationship to overall catalytic efficiency. We found that altering the crystalline structure of cellulose from its native allomorph I(β) to III(I) results in 40-50% lower binding partition coefficient for fungal cellulases, but surprisingly, it enhanced hydrolytic activity on the latter allomorph. We developed a comprehensive kinetic model for processive cellulases acting on insoluble substrates to explain this anomalous finding. Our model predicts that a reduction in the effective binding affinity to the substrate coupled with an increase in the decrystallization procession rate of individual cellulose chains from the substrate surface into the enzyme active site can reproduce our anomalous experimental findings. PMID:23784776

  9. Increasing the efficiency of digitization workflows for herbarium specimens

    PubMed Central

    Tulig, Melissa; Tarnowsky, Nicole; Bevans, Michael; Anthony Kirchgessner; Thiers,  Barbara M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The New York Botanical Garden Herbarium has been databasing and imaging its estimated 7.3 million plant specimens for the past 17 years. Due to the size of the collection, we have been selectively digitizing fundable subsets of specimens, making successive passes through the herbarium with each new grant. With this strategy, the average rate for databasing complete records has been 10 specimens per hour. With 1.3 million specimens databased, this effort has taken about 130,000 hours of staff time. At this rate, to complete the herbarium and digitize the remaining 6 million specimens, another 600,000 hours would be needed. Given the current biodiversity and economic crises, there is neither the time nor money to complete the collection at this rate. Through a combination of grants over the last few years, The New York Botanical Garden has been testing new protocols and tactics for increasing the rate of digitization through combinations of data collaboration, field book digitization, partial data entry and imaging, and optical character recognition (OCR) of specimen images. With the launch of the National Science Foundation’s new Advancing Digitization of Biological Collections program, we hope to move forward with larger, more efficient digitization projects, capturing data from larger portions of the herbarium at a fraction of the cost and time. PMID:22859882

  10. Synergy between social and private information increases foraging efficiency in ants.

    PubMed

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Grüter, Christoph; Jones, Sam M; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2011-08-23

    Insect societies integrate many information sources to organize collective activities such as foraging. Many ants use trail pheromones to guide foragers to food sources, but foragers can also use memories to find familiar locations of stable food sources. Route memories are often more accurate than trail pheromones in guiding ants, and are often followed in preference to trail pheromones when the two conflict. Why then does the system expend effort in producing and acquiring seemingly redundant and low-quality information, such as trail pheromones, when route memory is available? Here we show that, in the ant Lasius niger, trail pheromones and route memory act synergistically during foraging; increasing walking speed and straightness by 25 and 30 per cent, respectively, and maintaining trail pheromone deposition, but only when used together. Our results demonstrate a previously undescribed major role of trail pheromones: to complement memory by allowing higher confidence in route memory. This highlights the importance of multiple interacting information sources in the efficient running of complex adaptive systems. PMID:21325309

  11. Observational evidence for an increase in the efficiency of precipitation in a warmer climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondanelli, R.; Lindzen, R. S.

    2006-05-01

    Using data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMM-PR) over oceanic regions between 20°N and 20°S and data from the ground based radar at Kwajalein (Marshall Islands), we study the dependence of the fraction of convective (cumuliform) to total precipitation in tropical convective systems. We regard the fraction of convective to total precipitation as a proxy for the efficiency of the precipitation processes within active cumulus towers. We find that the fraction of convective precipitation increases over the range of temperatures between 24°C to 30°C in about 7 to 15 %K. Also the area of stratiform rainfall by unit of total precipitation decreases by about 20%K. The results are quantitatively similar to the original data analysis in support of the iris hypothesis, despite the methodological differences. They are also consistent with independent research (Del Genio et al. 2005) when the detrainment is properly normalized. Also, these results roughly follow simple conceptual models of the dependence of cloud microphysics on the specific humidity of the sort used by Sun and Lindzen (1993) and Del Genio et al. (2005). The picture that emerges from the results is that when properly normalized, the total area of detrainment in oceanic mesoscale convective systems decreases with sea surface temperature consistent with the iris hypothesis.

  12. Directly incorporating fluorochromes into DNA probes by PCR increases the efficience of fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Dittmer, Joy

    1996-05-01

    The object of this study was to produce a directly labeled whole chromosome probe in a Degenerative Oligonucleotide Primed-Polymerase Chain Reaction (DOP-PCR) that will identify chromosome breaks, deletions, inversions and translocations caused by radiation damage. In this study we amplified flow sorted chromosome 19 using DOP-PCR. The product was then subjected to a secondary DOP PCR amplification, After the secondary amplification the DOP-PCR product was directly labeled in a tertiary PCR reaction with rhodamine conjugated with dUTP (FluoroRed) to produce a DNA fluorescent probe. The probe was then hybridized to human metaphase lymphocytes on slides, washed and counterstained with 4{prime},6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). The signal of the FluoroRed probe was then compared to a signal of a probe labeled with biotin and stained with avidin fluorescein isothio cynate (FITC) and anti-avidin FITC. The results show that the probe labeled with FluoroRed gave signals as bright as the probe with biotin labeling. The FluoroRed probe had less noise than the biotin labeled probe. Therefore, a directly labeled probe has been successfully produced in a DOP-PCR reaction. In future a probe labeled with FluoroRed will be produced instead of a probe labeled with biotin to increase efficiency.

  13. Increased enzyme binding to substrate is not necessary for more efficient cellulose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dahai; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Sethi, Anurag; Balan, Venkatesh; Gnanakaran, S; Dale, Bruce E

    2013-07-01

    Substrate binding is typically one of the rate-limiting steps preceding enzyme catalytic action during homogeneous reactions. However, interfacial-based enzyme catalysis on insoluble crystalline substrates, like cellulose, has additional bottlenecks of individual biopolymer chain decrystallization from the substrate interface followed by its processive depolymerization to soluble sugars. This additional decrystallization step has ramifications on the role of enzyme-substrate binding and its relationship to overall catalytic efficiency. We found that altering the crystalline structure of cellulose from its native allomorph I(β) to III(I) results in 40-50% lower binding partition coefficient for fungal cellulases, but surprisingly, it enhanced hydrolytic activity on the latter allomorph. We developed a comprehensive kinetic model for processive cellulases acting on insoluble substrates to explain this anomalous finding. Our model predicts that a reduction in the effective binding affinity to the substrate coupled with an increase in the decrystallization procession rate of individual cellulose chains from the substrate surface into the enzyme active site can reproduce our anomalous experimental findings.

  14. Achieving Peak Flow and Sediment Loading Reductions through Increased Water Storage in the Le Sueur Watershed, Minnesota: A Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, N. A.; Gran, K. B.; Cho, S. J.; Dalzell, B. J.; Kumarasamy, K.

    2015-12-01

    A combination of factors including climate change, land clearing, and artificial drainage have increased many agricultural regions' stream flows and rates at which channel banks and bluffs are eroded. Increasing erosion rates within the Minnesota River Basin have contributed to higher sediment-loading rates, excess turbidity levels, and increases in sedimentation rates in Lake Pepin further downstream. Water storage sites (e.g., wetlands) have been discussed as a means to address these issues. This study uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess a range of water retention site (WRS) implementation scenarios in the Le Sueur watershed in south-central Minnesota, a subwatershed of the Minnesota River Basin. Sediment loading from bluffs was assessed through an empirical relationship developed from gauging data. Sites were delineated as topographic depressions with specific land uses, minimum areas (3000 m2), and high compound topographic index values. Contributing areas for the WRS were manually measured and used with different site characteristics to create 210 initial WRS scenarios. A generalized relationship between WRS area and contributing area was identified from measurements, and this relationship was used with different site characteristics (e.g., depth, hydraulic conductivity (K), and placement) to create 225 generalized WRS scenarios. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates are generally maximized by placing site with high K values in the upper half of the watershed. High K values allow sites to lose more water through seepage, emptying their storages between precipitation events and preventing frequent overflowing. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates also level off at high WRS extents due to the decreasing frequencies of high-magnitude events. The generalized WRS scenarios were also used to create a simplified empirical model capable of generating peak flows and sediment-loading rates from near

  15. Simple combination of oxidants with zero-valent-iron (ZVI) achieved very rapid and highly efficient removal of heavy metals from water.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuejun; Yang, Zhe; Dong, Haiyang; Guan, Xiaohong; Ren, Qidong; Lv, Xiaofang; Jin, Xin

    2016-01-01

    This study, for the first time, demonstrated a continuously accelerated Fe(0) corrosion driven by common oxidants (i.e., NaClO, KMnO4 or H2O2) and thereby the rapid and efficient removal of heavy metals (HMs) by zero-valent iron (ZVI) under the experimental conditions of jar tests and column running. ZVI simply coupled with NaClO, KMnO4 or H2O2 (0.5 mM) resulted in almost complete As(V) removal within only 10 min with 1000 μg/L of initial As(V) at initial pH of 7.5(±0.1) and liquid solid ratio of 200:1. Simultaneous removal of 200 μg/L of initial Cd(II) and Hg(II) to 2.4-4.4 μg/L for Cd(II) and to 4.0-5.0 μg/L for Hg(II) were achieved within 30 min. No deterioration of HM removal was observed during the ten recycles of jar tests. The ZVI columns activated by 0.1 mM of oxidants had stably treated 40,200 (NaClO), 20,295 (KMnO4) and 40,200 (H2O2) bed volumes (BV) of HM-contaminated drinking water, but with no any indication of As breakthrough (<10 μg/L) even at short empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 8.0 min. The high efficiency of HMs removal from both the jar tests and column running implied a continuous and stable activation (overcoming of iron passivation) of Fe(0) surface by the oxidants. Via the proper increase in oxidant dosing, the ZVI/oxidant combination was applicable to treat highly As(V)-contaminated wastewater. During Fe(0) surface corrosion accelerated by oxidants, a large amount of fresh and reactive iron oxides and oxyhydroxides were continuously generated, which were responsible for the rapid and efficient removal of HMs through multiple mechanisms including adsorption and co-precipitation. A steady state of Fe(0) surface activation and HM removal enabled this simply coupled system to remove HMs with high speed, efficiency and perdurability. PMID:26575476

  16. Simple combination of oxidants with zero-valent-iron (ZVI) achieved very rapid and highly efficient removal of heavy metals from water.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuejun; Yang, Zhe; Dong, Haiyang; Guan, Xiaohong; Ren, Qidong; Lv, Xiaofang; Jin, Xin

    2016-01-01

    This study, for the first time, demonstrated a continuously accelerated Fe(0) corrosion driven by common oxidants (i.e., NaClO, KMnO4 or H2O2) and thereby the rapid and efficient removal of heavy metals (HMs) by zero-valent iron (ZVI) under the experimental conditions of jar tests and column running. ZVI simply coupled with NaClO, KMnO4 or H2O2 (0.5 mM) resulted in almost complete As(V) removal within only 10 min with 1000 μg/L of initial As(V) at initial pH of 7.5(±0.1) and liquid solid ratio of 200:1. Simultaneous removal of 200 μg/L of initial Cd(II) and Hg(II) to 2.4-4.4 μg/L for Cd(II) and to 4.0-5.0 μg/L for Hg(II) were achieved within 30 min. No deterioration of HM removal was observed during the ten recycles of jar tests. The ZVI columns activated by 0.1 mM of oxidants had stably treated 40,200 (NaClO), 20,295 (KMnO4) and 40,200 (H2O2) bed volumes (BV) of HM-contaminated drinking water, but with no any indication of As breakthrough (<10 μg/L) even at short empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 8.0 min. The high efficiency of HMs removal from both the jar tests and column running implied a continuous and stable activation (overcoming of iron passivation) of Fe(0) surface by the oxidants. Via the proper increase in oxidant dosing, the ZVI/oxidant combination was applicable to treat highly As(V)-contaminated wastewater. During Fe(0) surface corrosion accelerated by oxidants, a large amount of fresh and reactive iron oxides and oxyhydroxides were continuously generated, which were responsible for the rapid and efficient removal of HMs through multiple mechanisms including adsorption and co-precipitation. A steady state of Fe(0) surface activation and HM removal enabled this simply coupled system to remove HMs with high speed, efficiency and perdurability.

  17. On use of time-dependent microwave fields to increase an FEL oscillator efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    1995-12-31

    Various schemes of a high efficiency FEL oscillator with time-dependent accelerating (or decelerating) microwave field in interaction region are proposed. All the, schemes are based on standard accelerating structure and undulator technology. Feasibility of the proposed schemes is confirmed by results of numerical simulations. Realistic examples of FEL oscillators of infrared and visible wavelength ranges with efficiency about 20 % are presented.

  18. 75 FR 27341 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... solution techniques. Enhanced Wide-Area Planning Models Dates: June 9-10, 2010. Speaker Nomination Deadline... process through the employment of better large- scale transmission expansion and economic planning models... overall improvement in planning efficiency. Better models are required to efficiently plan...

  19. Influence of College Clubs in Increasing Students' Interest and Achievement in Nigerian Post-Primary Schools as Perceived by Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwankwo, Madeleine C.; Okoye, K. R. E.

    2015-01-01

    The perceived influence of college club in increasing students' interest and achievement in Nigerian post-primary schools in Anambra State was studied using a survey research design. The population of the study comprised all senior secondary school science students in Anambra State totaling 9322 as at 2007. From this population, a sample of 140…

  20. Small Businesses Save Big: A Borrower's Guide To Increase the Bottom Line Using Energy Efficiency (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides a guide for small businesses to find the resources to increase the energy efficiency of their buildings.

  1. Methods to increase efficiency of laser therapy of oncologic diseases: methods, equipment, experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikov, A. A.; Svirin, V. N.

    2008-04-01

    The rapid development of quantum electronics and the advent of various types of lasers favored the formation of an independent line in medicine, namely, laser medicine In recent years devices based on semiconductor lasers have been introduced into medicine at a most rapid pace At present day this is connected with , that the essential improvement energy and spectral features has occurred in development semiconductor laser. The power of serial discrete near-IR semiconductor lasers has reached a level of 5 W and more, the spectral range has extended to 1.7...1.8 μm. Laser-optical information technologies and devices develop since the 70- years at the end of 20 century and are broadly used for treatment of oncologic diseases. Although such methods as photodynamic therapy (PDT), laser-induce thermotherapy (LITT), fluorescent diagnostics and spectrophotometry already more than 30 years are used for treatment and diagnostics of oncologic diseases, nevertheless, they are enough new methods and, as a rule, are used in large scientific centers and medical institutions. This is bound, first of all, with lack of information on modern method of cancer treatment, the absence of widely available laser procedures and corresponding devices in the polyclinics and even in district hospitals, as well as insufficient understanding of application areas, where laser methods has an advantage by comparison, for instance, with beam or chemotherapy. Presented in the article are new developed methods and results of designing equipment and software for their realization aimed at increase in efficiency of treatment of oncologic diseases as well as several clinical materials of the use of industrial models of the developed devices at medical institutions.

  2. ACHIEVING PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR EFFICIENCY, A SPACE-ORIENTED APPROACH TO LEARNING. PERCEPTUAL MOTOR CURRICULUM, VOLUME I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARSCH, RAY H.

    THE FIRST OF A 3-VOLUME PERCEPTUAL MOTOR CURRICULUM, THE BOOK DESCRIBES A PROGRAM BASED ON A THEORY OF MOVEMENT WHICH THE AUTHOR LABELS MOVIGENICS (THE STUDY OF THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF PATTERNS OF MOVEMENT IN MAN AND THE RELATIONSHIP OF THESE MOVEMENTS TO HIS LEARNING EFFICIENCY). TEN BASIC CONSTRUCTS OF MOVIGENICS ARE OUTLINED, AND THE…

  3. Use of combined steam-water and organic rankine cycles for achieving better efficiency of gas turbine units and internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotovskiy, M. A.; Grinman, M. I.; Fomin, V. I.; Aref'ev, V. K.; Grigor'ev, A. A.

    2012-03-01

    Innovative concepts of recovering waste heat using low-boiling working fluids, due to which the the efficiency can be increased to 28-30%, are presented. If distributed generation of electricity or combined production of heat and electricity is implemented, the electrical efficiency can reach 58-60% and the fuel heat utilization factor, 90%.

  4. Solar-to-hydrogen efficiency exceeding 2.5% achieved for overall water splitting with an all earth-abundant dual-photoelectrode.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chunmei; Qin, Wei; Wang, Nan; Liu, Guiji; Wang, Zhiliang; Yan, Pengli; Shi, Jingying; Li, Can

    2014-08-01

    The solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiency of a traditional mono-photoelectrode photoelectrochemical water splitting system has long been limited as large external bias is required. Herein, overall water splitting with STH efficiency exceeding 2.5% was achieved using a self-biased photoelectrochemical-photovoltaic coupled system consisting of an all earth-abundant photoanode and a Si-solar-cell-based photocathode connected in series under parallel illumination. We found that parallel irradiation mode shows higher efficiency than tandem illumination especially for photoanodes with a wide light absorption range, probably as the driving force for water splitting reaction is larger and the photovoltage loss is smaller in the former. This work essentially takes advantage of a tandem solar cell which can enhance the solar-to-electricity efficiency from another point of view.

  5. Solar-to-hydrogen efficiency exceeding 2.5% achieved for overall water splitting with an all earth-abundant dual-photoelectrode.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chunmei; Qin, Wei; Wang, Nan; Liu, Guiji; Wang, Zhiliang; Yan, Pengli; Shi, Jingying; Li, Can

    2014-08-01

    The solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiency of a traditional mono-photoelectrode photoelectrochemical water splitting system has long been limited as large external bias is required. Herein, overall water splitting with STH efficiency exceeding 2.5% was achieved using a self-biased photoelectrochemical-photovoltaic coupled system consisting of an all earth-abundant photoanode and a Si-solar-cell-based photocathode connected in series under parallel illumination. We found that parallel irradiation mode shows higher efficiency than tandem illumination especially for photoanodes with a wide light absorption range, probably as the driving force for water splitting reaction is larger and the photovoltage loss is smaller in the former. This work essentially takes advantage of a tandem solar cell which can enhance the solar-to-electricity efficiency from another point of view. PMID:24956231

  6. Industry Stakeholder Recommendations for DOE's RD&D for Increasing Energy Efficiency in Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Plympton, P.; Dagher, L.; Zwack, B.

    2007-06-01

    This technical report documents feedback for Industry Stakeholders on the direction of future U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research and development in the area of improving energy efficiency in existing residential buildings.

  7. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance

  8. Low-cost and no-cost practice to achieve energy efficiency of government office buildings: A case study in federal territory of Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Ibrahim, Amlus

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the findings of a case study to achieve energy-efficient performance of conventional office buildings in Malaysia. Two multi-storey office buildings in Federal Territory of Malaysia have been selected. The aim is to study building energy saving potential then to highlight the appropriate measures that can be implemented. Data was collected using benchmarking method by comparing the measured consumption to other similar office buildings and a series of preliminary audit which involves interviews, a brief review of utility and operating data as well as a walkthrough in the buildings. Additionally, in order to get a better understanding of major energy consumption in the selected buildings, general audit have been conducted to collect more detailed information about building operation. In the end, this study emphasized low-cost and no-cost practice to achieve energy efficiency with significant results in some cases.

  9. Limits on Achievable Dimensional and Photon Efficiencies with Intensity-Modulation and Photon-Counting Due to Non-Ideal Photon-Counter Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Erkmen, Baris I.; Farr, William; Dolinar, Samuel J.; Birnbaum, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    An ideal intensity-modulated photon-counting channel can achieve unbounded photon information efficiencies (PIEs). However, a number of limitations of a physical system limit the practically achievable PIE. In this paper, we discuss several of these limitations and illustrate their impact on the channel. We show that, for the Poisson channel, noise does not strictly bound PIE, although there is an effective limit, as the dimensional information efficiency goes as e[overline] e PIE beyond a threshold PIE. Since the Holevo limit is bounded in the presence of noise, this illustrates that the Poisson approximation is invalid at large PIE for any number of noise modes. We show that a finite transmitter extinction ratio bounds the achievable PIE to a maximum that is logarithmic in the extinction ratio. We show how detector jitter limits the ability to mitigate noise in the PPM signaling framework. We illustrate a method to model detector blocking when the number of detectors is large, and illustrate mitigation of blocking with spatial spreading and altering. Finally, we illustrate the design of a high photon efficiency system using state-of-the-art photo-detectors and taking all these effects into account.

  10. The Inter-Group Comparison – Intra-Group Cooperation Hypothesis: Comparisons between Groups Increase Efficiency in Public Goods Provision

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Robert; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Identifying methods to increase cooperation and efficiency in public goods provision is of vital interest for human societies. The methods that have been proposed often incur costs that (more than) destroy the efficiency gains through increased cooperation. It has for example been shown that inter-group conflict increases intra-group cooperation, however at the cost of collective efficiency. We propose a new method that makes use of the positive effects associated with inter-group competition but avoids the detrimental (cost) effects of a structural conflict. We show that the mere comparison to another structurally independent group increases both the level of intra-group cooperation and overall efficiency. The advantage of this new method is that it directly transfers the benefits from increased cooperation into increased efficiency. In repeated public goods provision we experimentally manipulated the participants’ level of contribution feedback (intra-group only vs. both intra- and inter-group) as well as the provision environment (smaller groups with higher individual benefits from cooperation vs. larger groups with lower individual benefits from cooperation). Irrespective of the provision environment groups with an inter-group comparison opportunity exhibited a significantly stronger cooperation than groups without this opportunity. Participants conditionally cooperated within their group and additionally acted to advance their group to not fall behind the other group. The individual efforts to advance the own group cushion the downward trend in the above average contributors and thus render contributions on a higher level. We discuss areas of practical application. PMID:23405262

  11. The Pausing Principle: Increasing the Efficiency of Memory for Ongoing Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Vesta, Francis J.; Smith, Deborah A.

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of pausing for learning from lectures was investigated. Pause location and kind of activity conducted during the pause were varied. Free-recall and cued-recall tests were administered immediately after the lecture and two weeks later. Interspersed pauses coupled with group discussion was the most efficient procedure. (Author/RD)

  12. Techniques for Increasing the Efficiency of Automation Systems in School Library Media Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffarella, Edward P.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses methods of managing queues (waiting lines) to optimize the use of student computer stations in school library media centers and to make searches more efficient and effective. The three major factors in queue management are arrival interval of the patrons, service time, and number of stations. (Author/LRW)

  13. Increasing Instructional Efficiency by Presenting Additional Stimuli in Learning Trials for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vladescu, Jason C.; Kodak, Tiffany M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the effectiveness and efficiency of presenting secondary targets within learning trials for 4 children with an autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, we compared 4 instructional conditions using a progressive prompt delay. In 3 conditions, we presented secondary targets in the antecedent or consequence portion of…

  14. Compressed Air System Enhancement Increase Efficiency and Provides Energy Savings at a Circuit Board Manufacturer

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the circuit board manufacturer (Sanmina Plant) project.

  15. Firearm Injury Prevention Skills: Increasing the Efficiency of Training with Peer Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jostad, Candice M.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2004-01-01

    Gun play results in hundreds of childhood injuries and deaths each year in the United States. Behavioral Skills Training (BST) is used to teach children the skills needed to resist gun play when finding a firearm. Although effective, existing BST programs are time and resource intensive and therefore lack the efficiency required to be widely…

  16. Single-Cell-State Culture of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Increases Transfection Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nii, Takenobu; Kohara, Hiroshi; Marumoto, Tomotoshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Tani, Kenzaburo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Efficient gene transfer into human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) holds great promise for regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical development. In the past decade, various methods were developed for gene transfer into hPSCs; however, hPSCs form tightly packed colonies, making gene transfer difficult. In this study, we established a stable culture method of hPSCs at a single-cell state to reduce cell density and investigated gene transfection efficiency followed by gene editing efficiency. hPSCs cultured in a single-cell state were transfected using nonliposomal transfection reagents with plasmid DNA or mRNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein. We found that most cells (DNA > 90%; mRNA > 99%) were transfected without the loss of undifferentiated PSC marker expression or pluripotency. Moreover, we demonstrated an efficient gene editing method using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) targeting the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Our new method may improve hPSC gene transfer techniques, thus facilitating their use for human regenerative medicine. PMID:27257519

  17. Increasing the sonoporation efficiency of targeted polydisperse microbubble populations using chirp excitation.

    PubMed

    McLaughlan, James; Ingram, Nicola; Smith, Peter R; Harput, Sevan; Coletta, P Louise; Evans, Stephen; Freear, Steven

    2013-12-01

    The therapeutic use of microbubbles for targeted drug or gene delivery is a highly active area of research. Phospholipid- encapsulated microbubbles typically have a polydisperse size distribution over the 1 to 10 μm range and can be functionalized for molecular targeting and loaded with drugcarrying liposomes. Sonoporation through the generation of shear stress on the cell membrane by microbubble oscillations is one mechanism that results in pore formation in the cell membrane and can improve drug delivery. A microbubble oscillating at its resonant frequency would generate maximum shear stress on a membrane. However, because of the polydisperse nature of phospholipid microbubbles, a range of resonant frequencies would exist in a single population. In this study, the use of linear chirp excitations was compared with equivalent duration and acoustic pressure tone excitations when measuring the sonoporation efficiency of targeted microbubbles on human colorectal cancer cells. A 3 to 7 MHz chirp had the greatest sonoporation efficiency of 26.9 ± 5.6%, compared with 16.4 ± 1.1% for the 1.32 to 3.08 MHz chirp. The equivalent 2.2- and 5-MHz tone excitations have efficiencies of 12.8 ± 2.1% and 15.6 ± 1.1%, respectively, which were all above the efficiency of 4.1 ± 3.1% from the control exposure.

  18. Online decision support based on modeling with the aim of increased irrigation efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dövényi-Nagy, Tamás; Bakó, Károly; Molnár, Krisztina; Rácz, Csaba; Vasvári, Gyula; Nagy, János; Dobos, Attila

    2015-04-01

    The significant changes in the structure of ownership and control of irrigation infrastructure in the past decades resultted in the decrease of total irrigable and irrigated area (Szilárd, 1999). In this paper, the development of a model-based online service is described whose aim is to aid reasonable irrigation practice and increase water use efficiency. In order to establish a scientific background for irrigation, an agrometeorological station network has been built up by the Agrometeorological and Agroecological Monitoring Centre. A website has been launched in order to provide direct access for local agricultural producers to both the measured weather parameters and results of model based calculations. The public site provides information for general use, registered partners get a handy model based toolkit for decision support at the plot level concerning irrigation, plant protection or frost forecast. The agrometeorological reference station network was established in the recent years by the Agrometeorological and Agroecological Monitoring Centre and is distributed to cover most of the irrigated cropland areas of Hungary. From the spatial aspect, the stations have been deployed mainly in Eastern Hungary with concentrated irrigation infrastructure. The meteorological stations' locations have been carefully chosen to represent their environment in terms of soil, climatic and topographic factors, thereby assuring relevant and up-to-date input data for the models. The measured parameters range from classic meteorological data (air temperature, relative humidity, solar irradiation, wind speed etc.) to specific data which are not available from other services in the region, such as soil temperature, soil water content in multiple depths and leaf wetness. In addition to the basic grid of reference stations, specific stations under irrigated conditions have been deployed to calibrate and validate the models. A specific modeling framework (MetAgro) has been developed

  19. Absorber and emitter for solar thermo-photovoltaic systems to achieve efficiency exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit.

    PubMed

    Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2009-08-17

    We present theoretical considerations as well as detailed numerical design of absorber and emitter for Solar Thermophotovoltaics (STPV) applications. The absorber, consisting of an array of tungsten pyramids, was designed to provide near-unity absorptivity over all solar wavelengths for a wide angular range, enabling it to absorb light effectively from solar sources regardless of concentration. The emitter, a tungsten slab with Si/SiO(2) multilayer stack, provides a sharp emissivity peak at the solar cell band-gap while suppressing emission at lower frequencies. We show that, under a suitable light concentration condition, and with a reasonable area ratio between the emitter and absorber, a STPV system employing such absorber-emitter pair and a single-junction solar cell can attain efficiency that exceeds the Shockley-Queisser limit.

  20. THz generation at 1.55 µm excitation: six-fold increase in THz conversion efficiency by separated photoconductive and trapping regions.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Roman J B; Gerhard, Marina; Stanze, Dennis; Koch, Martin; Sartorius, Bernd; Schell, Martin

    2011-12-19

    We present first results on photoconductive THz emitters for 1.55µm excitation. The emitters are based on MBE grown In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As multilayer heterostructures (MLHS) with high carrier mobility. The high mobility is achieved by spatial separation of photoconductive and trapping regions. Photoconductive antennas made of these MLHS are evaluated as THz emitters in a THz time domain spectrometer (THz TDS). The high carrier mobility and effective absorption significantly increases the optical-to-THz conversion efficiency with THz bandwidth in excess of 3 THz. PMID:22274179

  1. Application of X-Y Separable 2-D Array Beamforming for Increased Frame Rate and Energy Efficiency in Handheld Devices

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Kevin; Fuller, Michael I.; Hossack, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays present significant beamforming computational challenges because of their high channel count and data rate. These challenges are even more stringent when incorporating a 2-D transducer array into a battery-powered hand-held device, placing significant demands on power efficiency. Previous work in sonar and ultrasound indicates that 2-D array beamforming can be decomposed into two separable line-array beamforming operations. This has been used in conjunction with frequency-domain phase-based focusing to achieve fast volume imaging. In this paper, we analyze the imaging and computational performance of approximate near-field separable beamforming for high-quality delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming and for a low-cost, phaserotation-only beamforming method known as direct-sampled in-phase quadrature (DSIQ) beamforming. We show that when high-quality time-delay interpolation is used, separable DAS focusing introduces no noticeable imaging degradation under practical conditions. Similar results for DSIQ focusing are observed. In addition, a slight modification to the DSIQ focusing method greatly increases imaging contrast, making it comparable to that of DAS, despite having a wider main lobe and higher side lobes resulting from the limitations of phase-only time-delay interpolation. Compared with non-separable 2-D imaging, up to a 20-fold increase in frame rate is possible with the separable method. When implemented on a smart-phone-oriented processor to focus data from a 60 × 60 channel array using a 40 × 40 aperture, the frame rate per C-mode volume slice increases from 16 to 255 Hz for DAS, and from 11 to 193 Hz for DSIQ. Energy usage per frame is similarly reduced from 75 to 4.8 mJ/ frame for DAS, and from 107 to 6.3 mJ/frame for DSIQ. We also show that the separable method outperforms 2-D FFT-based focusing by a factor of 1.64 at these data sizes. This data indicates that with the optimal design choices, separable 2-D beamforming can

  2. Application of X-Y separable 2-D array beamforming for increased frame rate and energy efficiency in handheld devices.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kevin; Fuller, Michael; Hossack, John

    2012-07-01

    Two-dimensional arrays present significant beamforming computational challenges because of their high channel count and data rate. These challenges are even more stringent when incorporating a 2-D transducer array into a battery-powered hand-held device, placing significant demands on power efficiency. Previous work in sonar and ultrasound indicates that 2-D array beamforming can be decomposed into two separable line-array beamforming operations. This has been used in conjunction with frequency-domain phase-based focusing to achieve fast volume imaging. In this paper, we analyze the imaging and computational performance of approximate near-field separable beamforming for high-quality delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming and for a low-cost, phase-rotation-only beamforming method known as direct-sampled in-phase quadrature (DSIQ) beamforming. We show that when high-quality time-delay interpolation is used, separable DAS focusing introduces no noticeable imaging degradation under practical conditions. Similar results for DSIQ focusing are observed. In addition, a slight modification to the DSIQ focusing method greatly increases imaging contrast, making it comparable to that of DAS, despite having a wider main lobe and higher side lobes resulting from the limitations of phase-only time-delay interpolation. Compared with non-separable 2-D imaging, up to a 20-fold increase in frame rate is possible with the separable method. When implemented on a smart-phone-oriented processor to focus data from a 60 x 60 channel array using a 40 x 40 aperture, the frame rate per C-mode volume slice increases from 16 to 255 Hz for DAS, and from 11 to 193 Hz for DSIQ. Energy usage per frame is similarly reduced from 75 to 4.8 mJ/ frame for DAS, and from 107 to 6.3 mJ/frame for DSIQ. We also show that the separable method outperforms 2-D FFT-based focusing by a factor of 1.64 at these data sizes. This data indicates that with the optimal design choices, separable 2-D beamforming can

  3. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  4. How endogenous plant cell-wall degradation mechanisms can help achieve higher efficiency in saccharification of biomass.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Eveline Q P; De Souza, Amanda P; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-07-01

    Cell-wall recalcitrance to hydrolysis still represents one of the major bottlenecks for second-generation bioethanol production. This occurs despite the development of pre-treatments, the prospect of new enzymes, and the production of transgenic plants with less-recalcitrant cell walls. Recalcitrance, which is the intrinsic resistance to breakdown imposed by polymer assembly, is the result of inherent limitations in its three domains. These consist of: (i) porosity, associated with a pectin matrix impairing trafficking through the wall; (ii) the glycomic code, which refers to the fine-structural emergent complexity of cell-wall polymers that are unique to cells, tissues, and species; and (iii) cellulose crystallinity, which refers to the organization in micro- and/or macrofibrils. One way to circumvent recalcitrance could be by following cell-wall hydrolysis strategies underlying plant endogenous mechanisms that are optimized to precisely modify cell walls in planta. Thus, the cell-wall degradation that occurs during fruit ripening, abscission, storage cell-wall mobilization, and aerenchyma formation are reviewed in order to highlight how plants deal with recalcitrance and which are the routes to couple prospective enzymes and cocktail designs with cell-wall features. The manipulation of key enzyme levels in planta can help achieving biologically pre-treated walls (i.e. less recalcitrant) before plants are harvested for bioethanol production. This may be helpful in decreasing the costs associated with producing bioethanol from biomass.

  5. Trophic assimilation efficiency markedly increases at higher trophic levels in four-level host-parasitoid food chain.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Dirk; Moser, Andrea; Newton, Jason; van Veen, F J Frank

    2016-03-16

    Trophic assimilation efficiency (conversion of resource biomass into consumer biomass) is thought to be a limiting factor for food chain length in natural communities. In host-parasitoid systems, which account for the majority of terrestrial consumer interactions, a high trophic assimilation efficiency may be expected at higher trophic levels because of the close match of resource composition of host tissue and the consumer's resource requirements, which would allow for longer food chains. We measured efficiency of biomass transfer along an aphid-primary-secondary-tertiary parasitoid food chain and used stable isotope analysis to confirm trophic levels. We show high efficiency in biomass transfer along the food chain. From the third to the fourth trophic level, the proportion of host biomass transferred was 45%, 65% and 73%, respectively, for three secondary parasitoid species. For two parasitoid species that can act at the fourth and fifth trophic levels, we show markedly increased trophic assimilation efficiencies at the higher trophic level, which increased from 45 to 63% and 73 to 93%, respectively. In common with other food chains, δ(15)N increased with trophic level, with trophic discrimination factors (Δ(15)N) 1.34 and 1.49‰ from primary parasitoids to endoparasitic and ectoparasitic secondary parasitoids, respectively, and 0.78‰ from secondary to tertiary parasitoids. Owing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of hyperparasitoids, cryptic higher trophic levels may exist in host-parasitoid communities, which could alter our understanding of the dynamics and drivers of community structure of these important systems.

  6. Association between mitochondrial DNA haplotype compatibility and increased efficiency of bovine intersubspecies cloning.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hao; Yan, Zhonghai; Ma, Qingwen; Jiao, Fei; Huang, Shuzhen; Zeng, Fanyi; Zeng, Yitao

    2011-01-01

    Reconstructed embryos derived from intersubspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) have poorer developmental potential than those from intrasubspecies SCNT. Based on our previous study that Holstein dairy bovine (HD) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype compatibility between donor karyoplast and recipient cytoplast is crucial for SCNT embryo development, we performed intersubspecies SCNT using HD as donor karyoplast and Luxi yellow heifer (LY) as recipient cytoplast according to mtDNA haplotypes determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. The results demonstrated that intersubspecies mtDNA homotype SCNT embryos had higher pre- and post-implantation developmental competence than intrasubspecies mtDNA heterotype embryos as well as improved blastocyst reprogramming status, including normal H3K9 dimethylation pattern and promoter hypomethylation of pluripotent genes such as Oct4 and Sox2, suggesting that intersubspecies SCNT using LY oocytes maintains HD cloning efficiency and may reprogram HD nuclei to develop into a normal cloned animal ultimately. Our results indicated that karyoplast-cytoplast interactions and mtDNA haplotype compatibility may affect bovine intersubspecies SCNT efficiency. This study on bovine intersubspecies SCNT is valuable for understanding the mechanisms of mtDNA haplotype compatibility between karyoplast and cytoplast impacting the bovine SCNT efficiency, and provides an alternative and economic resource for HD cloning.

  7. Industry perspectives on increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Torrens, I.M.; Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-12-31

    Independent power producers will build a substantial fraction of expected new coal-fired power generation in developing countries over the coming decades. To reduce perceived risk and obtain financing for their projects, they are currently building and plan to continue to build subcritical coal-fired plants with generating efficiency below 40%. Up-to-date engineering assessment leads to the conclusion that supercritical generating technology, capable of efficiencies of up to 45%, can produce electricity at a lower total cost than conventional plants. If such plants were built in Asia over the coming decades, the savings in carbon dioxide emissions over their lifetime would be measured in billions of tons. IPPs perceive supercritical technology as riskier and higher cost than conventional technology. The truth needs to be confirmed by discussions with additional experienced power engineering companies. Better communication among the interested parties could help to overcome the IPP perception issue. Governments working together with industry might be able to identify creative financing arrangements which can encourage the use of more efficient pulverized clean coal technologies, while awaiting the commercialization of advanced clean coal technologies like gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  8. Achieving High Efficiency and Eliminating Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrochemical Cells Using High Oxygen-Capacity Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Jun, Areum; Kim, Junyoung; Shin, Jeeyoung; Kim, Guntae

    2016-09-26

    Recently, there have been efforts to use clean and renewable energy because of finite fossil fuels and environmental problems. Owing to the site-specific and weather-dependent characteristics of the renewable energy supply, solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) have received considerable attention to store energy as hydrogen. Conventional SOECs use Ni-YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia) and LSM (strontium-doped lanthanum manganites)-YSZ as electrodes. These electrodes, however, suffer from redox-instability and coarsening of the Ni electrode along with delamination of the LSM electrode during steam electrolysis. In this study, we successfully design and fabricate highly efficient SOECs using layered perovskites, PrBaMn2 O5+δ (PBM) and PrBa0.5 Sr0.5 Co1.5 Fe0.5 O5+δ (PBSCF50), as both electrodes for the first time. The SOEC with layered perovskites as both-side electrodes shows outstanding performance, reversible cycling, and remarkable stability over 600 hours. PMID:27604172

  9. Achieving High Efficiency and Eliminating Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrochemical Cells Using High Oxygen-Capacity Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Jun, Areum; Kim, Junyoung; Shin, Jeeyoung; Kim, Guntae

    2016-09-26

    Recently, there have been efforts to use clean and renewable energy because of finite fossil fuels and environmental problems. Owing to the site-specific and weather-dependent characteristics of the renewable energy supply, solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) have received considerable attention to store energy as hydrogen. Conventional SOECs use Ni-YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia) and LSM (strontium-doped lanthanum manganites)-YSZ as electrodes. These electrodes, however, suffer from redox-instability and coarsening of the Ni electrode along with delamination of the LSM electrode during steam electrolysis. In this study, we successfully design and fabricate highly efficient SOECs using layered perovskites, PrBaMn2 O5+δ (PBM) and PrBa0.5 Sr0.5 Co1.5 Fe0.5 O5+δ (PBSCF50), as both electrodes for the first time. The SOEC with layered perovskites as both-side electrodes shows outstanding performance, reversible cycling, and remarkable stability over 600 hours.

  10. An approach for an advanced anode interfacial layer with electron-blocking ability to achieve high-efficiency organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jun-Seok; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kang, Minji; Khim, Dongyoon; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seok-Soon; Na, Seok-In; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2014-11-26

    The interfacial properties of PEDOT:PSS, pristine r-GO, and r-GO with sulfonic acid (SR-GO) in organic photovoltaic are investigated to elucidate electron-blocking property of PEDOT:PSS anode interfacial layer (AIL), and to explore the possibility of r-GO as electron-blocking layers. The SR-GO results in an optimized power conversion efficiency of 7.54% for PTB7-th:PC71BM and 5.64% for P3HT:IC61BA systems. By combining analyses of capacitance-voltage and photovoltaic-parameters dependence on light intensity, it is found that recombination process at SR-GO/active film is minimized. In contrast, the devices using r-GO without sulfonic acid show trap-assisted recombination. The enhanced electron-blocking properties in PEDOT:PSS and SR-GO AILs can be attributed to surface dipoles at AIL/acceptor. Thus, for electron-blocking, the AIL/acceptor interface should be importantly considered in OPVs. Also, by simply introducing sulfonic acid unit on r-GO, excellent contact selectivity can be realized in OPVs.

  11. Chitosan nanoparticles for siRNA delivery: optimizing formulation to increase stability and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Ragelle, H; Riva, R; Vandermeulen, G; Naeye, B; Pourcelle, V; Le Duff, C S; D'Haese, C; Nysten, B; Braeckmans, K; De Smedt, S C; Jérôme, C; Préat, V

    2014-02-28

    This study aims at developing chitosan-based nanoparticles suitable for an intravenous administration of small interfering RNA (siRNA) able to achieve (i) high gene silencing without cytotoxicity and (ii) stability in biological media including blood. Therefore, the influence of chitosan/tripolyphosphate ratio, chitosan physicochemical properties, PEGylation of chitosan as well as the addition of an endosomal disrupting agent and a negatively charged polymer was assessed. The gene silencing activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated on B16 melanoma cells expressing luciferase. We monitored the integrity and the size behavior of siRNA nanoparticles in human plasma using fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy and single particle tracking respectively. The presence of PEGylated chitosan and poly(ethylene imine) was essential for high levels of gene silencing in vitro. Chitosan nanoparticles immediately released siRNA in plasma while the inclusion of hyaluronic acid and high amount of poly(ethylene glycol) in the formulation improved the stability of the particles. The developed formulations of PEGylated chitosan-based nanoparticles that achieve high gene silencing in vitro, low cytotoxicity and high stability in plasma could be promising for intravenous delivery of siRNA. PMID:24389132

  12. Model for increased efficiency of CIGS solar cells by a stepped distribution of carrier density and Ga in the absorber layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharbati, Samaneh; Keshmiri, Sayyed-Hossein

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, several structures for multilayer Cu (In1- x Ga x ) Se2 (CIGS) thin film solar cells are proposed to achieve high conversion efficiency. All of the modeling and simulations were based on the actual data of experimentally produced CIGS cells reported in the literature. In standard CIGS cells with a single absorber layer, the effects of acceptor density and Ga content on device performance were studied, and then optimized for maximum conversion efficiency. The same procedure was performed for cells with two and three sectioned CIGS absorber layers in which Cu and/or Ga contents were varied within each consecutive section. This produces an internal additional electric field within the absorber layer, which resulted in an increase in carrier collection for longer wavelength photons, and hence, improvement in the conversion efficiency of the cell. An increase of approximately 3% in efficiency is predicted for cells with two layer absorbers. For multilayer cells in which Cu and Ga distribution were stepped simultaneously, the improvement could be approximately 3.5%. This improvement is due to; enhanced carrier collection for longer-wavelength photons, and reduced recombination at the heterojunction and back regions of the cell. These results are confirmed by the physics of the cells.

  13. Emerging and established technologies to increase nitrogen use efficiency of cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizers are expensive inputs; additionally, loss of N increases costs, contributes to soil acidification, and causes off-site pollution of air, groundwater and waterways. This study reviews current knowledge about technologies for N fertilization with potential to increase N use eff...

  14. A new framework to increase the efficiency of large-scale solar power plants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimohammadi, Shahrouz; Kleissl, Jan P.

    2015-11-01

    A new framework to estimate the spatio-temporal behavior of solar power is introduced, which predicts the statistical behavior of power output at utility scale Photo-Voltaic (PV) power plants. The framework is based on spatio-temporal Gaussian Processes Regression (Kriging) models, which incorporates satellite data with the UCSD version of the Weather and Research Forecasting model. This framework is designed to improve the efficiency of the large-scale solar power plants. The results are also validated from measurements of the local pyranometer sensors, and some improvements in different scenarios are observed. Solar energy.

  15. Lead-acid battery with improved cycle life and increased efficiency for lead leveling application and electric road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsel, A.; Schulz, J.; Guetlich, K. F.

    1983-11-01

    Lifetime and efficiency of lead acid batteries are discussed. A gas lift pump was used to prevent acid stratification and to reduce the charging factor (down to 1.03 to 1.05). A re-expansion method was applied and an expander depot and a compound separation were built in. Cycle life is increased from 700 cycles to 1690 cycles. Efficiency is increased by energy and time saving due to the reduced charging factor and by the use of a recombination stopper and a charge indicator with remote control. It is suggested that the lead acid system is still one of the best possibilities for electric road vehicle applications.

  16. REVERSAL OF FORTUNE: INCREASED STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCIES IN THE EARLY HISTORIES OF DWARF GALAXIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Madau, Piero; Weisz, Daniel R.; Conroy, Charlie

    2014-08-01

    On dwarf galaxy scales, the different shapes of the galaxy stellar mass function and the dark halo mass function require a star-formation efficiency (SFE) in these systems that is currently more than 1 dex lower than that of Milky Way-size halos. Here, we argue that this trend may actually be reversed at high redshift. Specifically, by combining the resolved star-formation histories of nearby isolated dwarfs with the simulated mass-growth rates of dark matter halos, we show that the assembly of these systems occurs in two phases: (1) an early, fast halo accretion phase with a rapidly deepening potential well, characterized by a high SFE; and (2) a late, slow halo accretion phase where, perhaps as a consequence of reionization, the SFE is low. Nearby dwarfs have more old stars than predicted by assuming a constant or decreasing SFE with redshift, a behavior that appears to deviate qualitatively from the trends seen among more massive systems. Taken at face value, the data suggest that at sufficiently early epochs, dwarf galaxy halos above the atomic cooling mass limit can be among the most efficient sites of star formation in the universe.

  17. China's growing CO{sub 2} emissions - a race between increasing consumption and efficiency gains

    SciTech Connect

    Glen P. Peters; Christopher L. Weber; Dabo Guan; Klaus Hubacek

    2007-09-15

    China's rapidly growing economy and energy consumption are creating serious environmental problems on both local and global scales. Understanding the key drivers behind China's growing energy consumption and the associated CO{sub 2} emissions is critical for the development of global climate policies and provides insight into how other emerging economies may develop a low emissions future. Using recently released Chinese economic input-output data and structural decomposition analysis we analyze how changes in China's technology, economic structure, urbanization, and lifestyles affect CO{sub 2} emissions. We find that infrastructure construction and urban household consumption, both in turn driven by urbanization and lifestyle changes, have outpaced efficiency improvements in the growth of CO{sub 2} emissions. Net trade had a small effect on total emissions due to equal, but significant, growth in emissions from the production of exports and emissions avoided by imports. Technology and efficiency improvements have only partially offset consumption growth, but there remains considerable untapped potential to reduce emissions by improving both production and consumption systems. As China continues to rapidly develop there is an opportunity to further implement and extend policies, such as the Circular Economy, that will help China avoid the high emissions path taken by today's developed countries. 65 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. China's growing CO2 emissions--a race between increasing consumption and efficiency gains.

    PubMed

    Peters, Glen P; Weber, Christopher L; Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2007-09-01

    China's rapidly growing economy and energy consumption are creating serious environmental problems on both local and global scales. Understanding the key drivers behind China's growing energy consumption and the associated CO2 emissions is critical for the development of global climate policies and provides insight into how other emerging economies may develop a low emissions future. Using recently released Chinese economic input-output data and structural decomposition analysis we analyze how changes in China's technology, economic structure, urbanization, and lifestyles affect CO2 emissions. We find that infrastructure construction and urban household consumption, both in turn driven by urbanization and lifestyle changes, have outpaced efficiency improvements in the growth of CO2 emissions. Net trade had a small effect on total emissions due to equal, but significant, growth in emissions from the production of exports and emissions avoided by imports. Technology and efficiency improvements have only partially offset consumption growth, but there remains considerable untapped potential to reduce emissions by improving both production and consumption systems. As China continues to rapidly develop there is an opportunity to further implement and extend policies, such as the Circular Economy, that will help China avoid the high emissions path taken by today's developed countries. PMID:17937264

  19. China's growing CO2 emissions--a race between increasing consumption and efficiency gains.

    PubMed

    Peters, Glen P; Weber, Christopher L; Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2007-09-01

    China's rapidly growing economy and energy consumption are creating serious environmental problems on both local and global scales. Understanding the key drivers behind China's growing energy consumption and the associated CO2 emissions is critical for the development of global climate policies and provides insight into how other emerging economies may develop a low emissions future. Using recently released Chinese economic input-output data and structural decomposition analysis we analyze how changes in China's technology, economic structure, urbanization, and lifestyles affect CO2 emissions. We find that infrastructure construction and urban household consumption, both in turn driven by urbanization and lifestyle changes, have outpaced efficiency improvements in the growth of CO2 emissions. Net trade had a small effect on total emissions due to equal, but significant, growth in emissions from the production of exports and emissions avoided by imports. Technology and efficiency improvements have only partially offset consumption growth, but there remains considerable untapped potential to reduce emissions by improving both production and consumption systems. As China continues to rapidly develop there is an opportunity to further implement and extend policies, such as the Circular Economy, that will help China avoid the high emissions path taken by today's developed countries.

  20. Eco-efficient approaches to land management: a case for increased integration of crop and animal production systems.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, R J

    2008-02-12

    Eco-efficiency is concerned with the efficient and sustainable use of resources in farm production and land management. It can be increased either by altering the management of individual crop and livestock enterprises or by altering the land-use system. This paper concentrates on the effects of crop sequence and rotation on soil fertility and nutrient use efficiency. The potential importance of mixed farming involving both crops and livestock is stressed, particularly when the systems incorporate biological nitrogen fixation and manure recycling. There is, however, little evidence that the trend in developed countries to farm-level specialization is being reduced. In some circumstances legislation to restrict diffuse pollution may provide incentives for more diverse eco-efficient farming and in other circumstances price premia for produce from eco-efficient systems, such as organic farming, and subsidies for the provision of environmental services may provide economic incentives for the adoption of such systems. However, change is likely to be most rapid where the present systems lead to obvious reductions in the productive potential of the land, such as in areas experiencing salinization. In other situations, there is promise that eco-efficiency could be increased on an area-wide basis by the establishment of linkages between farms of contrasting type, particularly between specialist crop and livestock farms, with contracts for the transfer of manures and, to a lesser extent, feeds. PMID:17652073

  1. Eco-efficient approaches to land management: a case for increased integration of crop and animal production systems.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, R J

    2008-02-12

    Eco-efficiency is concerned with the efficient and sustainable use of resources in farm production and land management. It can be increased either by altering the management of individual crop and livestock enterprises or by altering the land-use system. This paper concentrates on the effects of crop sequence and rotation on soil fertility and nutrient use efficiency. The potential importance of mixed farming involving both crops and livestock is stressed, particularly when the systems incorporate biological nitrogen fixation and manure recycling. There is, however, little evidence that the trend in developed countries to farm-level specialization is being reduced. In some circumstances legislation to restrict diffuse pollution may provide incentives for more diverse eco-efficient farming and in other circumstances price premia for produce from eco-efficient systems, such as organic farming, and subsidies for the provision of environmental services may provide economic incentives for the adoption of such systems. However, change is likely to be most rapid where the present systems lead to obvious reductions in the productive potential of the land, such as in areas experiencing salinization. In other situations, there is promise that eco-efficiency could be increased on an area-wide basis by the establishment of linkages between farms of contrasting type, particularly between specialist crop and livestock farms, with contracts for the transfer of manures and, to a lesser extent, feeds.

  2. Efficiency of incentives to jointly increase carbon sequestration and species conservation on a landscape

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Erik; Polasky, Stephen; Lewis, David J.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Lonsdorf, Eric; White, Denis; Bael, David; Lawler, Joshua J.

    2008-01-01

    We develop an integrated model to predict private land-use decisions in response to policy incentives designed to increase the provision of carbon sequestration and species conservation across heterogeneous landscapes. Using data from the Willamette Basin, Oregon, we compare the provision of carbon sequestration and species conservation under five simple policies that offer payments for conservation. We evaluate policy performance compared with the maximum feasible combinations of carbon sequestration and species conservation on the landscape for various conservation budgets. None of the conservation payment policies produce increases in carbon sequestration and species conservation that approach the maximum potential gains on the landscape. Our results show that policies aimed at increasing the provision of carbon sequestration do not necessarily increase species conservation and that highly targeted policies do not necessarily do as well as more general policies. PMID:18621703

  3. Translation efficiency of mRNAs is increased by antisense oligonucleotides targeting upstream open reading frames.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Shen, Wen; Sun, Hong; Migawa, Michael T; Vickers, Timothy A; Crooke, Stanley T

    2016-08-01

    Increasing the levels of therapeutic proteins in vivo remains challenging. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are often used to downregulate gene expression or to modify RNA splicing, but antisense technology has not previously been used to directly increase the production of selected proteins. Here we used a class of modified ASOs that bind to mRNA sequences in upstream open reading frames (uORFs) to specifically increase the amounts of protein translated from a downstream primary ORF (pORF). Using ASO treatment, we increased the amount of proteins expressed from four genes by 30-150% in a dose-dependent manner in both human and mouse cells. Notably, systemic treatment of mice with ASO resulted in an ∼80% protein increase of LRPPRC. The ASO-mediated increase in protein expression was sequence-specific, occurred at the level of translation and was dependent on helicase activity. We also found that the type of RNA modification and the position of modified nucleotides in ASOs affected translation of a pORF. ASOs are a useful class of therapeutic agents with broad utility. PMID:27398791

  4. Advances in the Development of Gene-Targeting Vectors to Increase the Efficiency of Genetic Modification.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shinta; Adachi, Noritaka

    2016-01-01

    Gene targeting via homologous recombination, albeit highly inefficient in human cells, is considered a powerful tool for analyzing gene functions. Despite recent progress in the application of artificial nucleases for genome editing, safety issues remain a concern, particularly when genetic modification is used for therapeutic purposes. Therefore, the development of gene-targeting vectors is necessary for safe and sophisticated genetic modification. In this paper, we describe the effect of vector structure on random integration, which is a major obstacle in efficient gene targeting. In addition, we focus on the features of exon-trapping-type gene-targeting vectors, and discuss a novel strategy for negative selection to enhance gene targeting in human cells.

  5. Increasing Combustion Efficiency for Structural Reactive Materials through Design and Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahrah, Tony; Rowland, Rod; Silva, Erin; Littrell, Donald

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the development of multifunctional materials - materials that are both structural and energetic. These materials typically consist of metal-metal, metal-metal oxide, or metal-oxidizer powder blends that are consolidated into structural components via Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), and release energy when explosively shocked via anaerobic (intermetallic or thermitic) reactions and aerobic (particle-air) reactions. The mechanical and reactive properties of the materials were tailored through powder selection and ratios. The powder blends included soft and hard materials, and the volume percent from each material was adjusted to control the consolidation temperature. This paper discusses the use of a unique instrumented-HIP technique to minimize the exposure of the powder blend to high temperature and maximize its combustion efficiency. It will focus on the Al-AlMg material system with discussion of its formulation, HIP processing parameters, mechanical properties, and energy release when explosively shocked.

  6. Joint System Prognostics For Increased Efficiency And Risk Mitigation In Advanced Nuclear Reactor Instrumentation and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Tuan Q. Tran; Ronald L. Boring; Bruce P. Hallbert

    2006-08-01

    The science of prognostics is analogous to a doctor who, based on a set of symptoms and patient tests, assesses a probable cause, the risk to the patient, and a course of action for recovery. While traditional prognostics research has focused on the aspect of hydraulic and mechanical systems and associated failures, this project will take a joint view in focusing not only on the digital I&C aspect of reliability and risk, but also on the risks associated with the human element. Model development will not only include an approximation of the control system physical degradation but also on human performance degradation. Thus the goal of the prognostic system is to evaluate control room operation; to identify and potentially take action when performance degradation reduces plant efficiency, reliability or safety.

  7. Increasing prototype airfoil fabrication efficiency through the use of sectional molds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karges, Adam T.

    Airfoil development has always been important in the aeronautics industry. Current airfoil development techniques are being applied to design larger and more efficient wind turbine blades. To verify simulation results, a prototype blade must be built and tested. Current wing or blade structures are fabricated using traditional molding techniques. These large molds, particularly those used for wind turbine blades, can be fabricated from composite materials formed over a master shape. This process can be time and material intensive. This project develops techniques and methodology to build cavity molds using sectional pieces directly fabricated by computer numerically controlled (CNC) milling. A mold cavity was machined into tooling foam using CNC milling. This process allowed for mold creation without fabricating a master airfoil. Employment of several mold sections makes the machining process much easier and allows machine shops to produce larger, previously unfeasible, airfoil molds using limited machining length.

  8. Relaxed damage threshold intensity conditions and nonlinear increase in the conversion efficiency of an optical parametric oscillator using a bi-directional pump geometry.

    PubMed

    Norris, G; McConnell, G

    2010-03-01

    A novel bi-directional pump geometry that nonlinearly increases the nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is reported. This bi-directional pumping method synchronizes the circulating signal pulse with two counter-propagating pump pulses within a linear OPO resonator. Through this pump scheme, an increase in nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of 22% was achieved at the signal wavelength, corresponding to a 95% overall increase in average power. Given an almost unchanged measured pulse duration of 260 fs under optimal performance conditions, this related to a signal wavelength peak power output of 18.8 kW, compared with 10 kW using the traditional single-pass geometry. In this study, a total effective peak intensity pump-field of 7.11 GW/cm(2) (corresponding to 3.55 GW/cm(2) from each pump beam) was applied to a 3 mm long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, which had a damage threshold intensity of 4 GW/cm(2), without impairing crystal integrity. We therefore prove the application of this novel pump geometry provides opportunities for power-scaling of synchronously pumped OPO systems together with enhanced nonlinear conversion efficiency through relaxed damage threshold intensity conditions.

  9. How to use the world's scarce selenium resources efficiently to increase the selenium concentration in food

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Anna; Graham, Robin D.; Christophersen, Olav A.; Lyons, Graham H.

    2007-01-01

    The world's rare selenium resources need to be managed carefully. Selenium is extracted as a by-product of copper mining and there are no deposits that can be mined for selenium alone. Selenium has unique properties as a semi-conductor, making it of special value to industry, but it is also an essential nutrient for humans and animals and may promote plant growth and quality. Selenium deficiency is regarded as a major health problem for 0.5 to 1 billion people worldwide, while an even larger number may consume less selenium than required for optimal protection against cancer, cardiovascular diseases and severe infectious diseases including HIV disease. Efficient recycling of selenium is difficult. Selenium is added in some commercial fertilizers, but only a small proportion is taken up by plants and much of the remainder is lost for future utilization. Large biofortification programmes with selenium added to commercial fertilizers may therefore be a fortification method that is too wasteful to be applied to large areas of our planet. Direct addition of selenium compounds to food (process fortification) can be undertaken by the food industry. If selenomethionine is added directly to food, however, oxidation due to heat processing needs to be avoided. New ways to biofortify food products are needed, and it is generally observed that there is less wastage if selenium is added late in the production chain rather than early. On these bases we have proposed adding selenium-enriched, sprouted cereal grain during food processing as an efficient way to introduce this nutrient into deficient diets. Selenium is a non-renewable resource. There is now an enormous wastage of selenium associated with large-scale mining and industrial processing. We recommend that this must be changed and that much of the selenium that is extracted should be stockpiled for use as a nutrient by future generations. PMID:18833333

  10. Increasing the efficiency of bacterial transcription simulations: When to exclude the genome without loss of accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Iafolla, Marco AJ; Dong, Guang Qiang; McMillen, David R

    2008-01-01

    Background Simulating the major molecular events inside an Escherichia coli cell can lead to a very large number of reactions that compose its overall behaviour. Not only should the model be accurate, but it is imperative for the experimenter to create an efficient model to obtain the results in a timely fashion. Here, we show that for many parameter regimes, the effect of the host cell genome on the transcription of a gene from a plasmid-borne promoter is negligible, allowing one to simulate the system more efficiently by removing the computational load associated with representing the presence of the rest of the genome. The key parameter is the on-rate of RNAP binding to the promoter (k_on), and we compare the total number of transcripts produced from a plasmid vector generated as a function of this rate constant, for two versions of our gene expression model, one incorporating the host cell genome and one excluding it. By sweeping parameters, we identify the k_on range for which the difference between the genome and no-genome models drops below 5%, over a wide range of doubling times, mRNA degradation rates, plasmid copy numbers, and gene lengths. Results We assess the effect of the simulating the presence of the genome over a four-dimensional parameter space, considering: 24 min <= bacterial doubling time <= 100 min; 10 <= plasmid copy number <= 1000; 2 min <= mRNA half-life <= 14 min; and 10 bp <= gene length <= 10000 bp. A simple MATLAB user interface generates an interpolated k_on threshold for any point in this range; this rate can be compared to the ones used in other transcription studies to assess the need for including the genome. Conclusion Exclusion of the genome is shown to yield less than 5% difference in transcript numbers over wide ranges of values, and computational speed is improved by two to 24 times by excluding explicit representation of the genome. PMID:18789148

  11. Increased efficiency of evolved group I intron spliceozymes by decreased side product formation

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Zhaleh N.; Müller, Ulrich F.

    2015-01-01

    The group I intron ribozyme from Tetrahymena was recently reengineered into a trans-splicing variant that is able to remove 100-nt introns from pre-mRNA, analogous to the spliceosome. These spliceozymes were improved in this study by 10 rounds of evolution in Escherichia coli cells. One clone with increased activity in E. coli cells was analyzed in detail. Three of its 10 necessary mutations extended the substrate binding duplexes, which led to increased product formation and reduced cleavage at the 5′-splice site. One mutation in the conserved core of the spliceozyme led to a further reduction of cleavage at the 5′-splice site but an increase in cleavage side products at the 3′-splice site. The latter was partially reduced by six additional mutations. Together, the mutations increased product formation while reducing activity at the 5′-splice site and increasing activity at the 3′-splice site. These results show the adaptation of a ribozyme that evolved in nature for cis-splicing to trans-splicing, and they highlight the interdependent function of nucleotides within group I intron ribozymes. Implications for the possible use of spliceozymes as tools in research and therapy, and as a model for the evolution of the spliceosome, are discussed. PMID:26106216

  12. Marine mixotrophy increases trophic transfer efficiency, mean organism size, and vertical carbon flux

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Ben A.; Follows, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Mixotrophic plankton, which combine the uptake of inorganic resources and the ingestion of living prey, are ubiquitous in marine ecosystems, but their integrated biogeochemical impacts remain unclear. We address this issue by removing the strict distinction between phytoplankton and zooplankton from a global model of the marine plankton food web. This simplification allows the emergence of a realistic trophic network with increased fidelity to empirical estimates of plankton community structure and elemental stoichiometry, relative to a system in which autotrophy and heterotrophy are mutually exclusive. Mixotrophy enhances the transfer of biomass to larger sizes classes further up the food chain, leading to an approximately threefold increase in global mean organism size and an ∼35% increase in sinking carbon flux. PMID:26831076

  13. Improved efficiency of photoconductive THz emitters by increasing the effective contact length of electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Abhishek; Surdi, Harshad; Nikesh, V. V.; Prabhu, S. S.; Döhler, G. H.

    2013-12-15

    We study the effect of a surface modification at the interface between metallic electrodes and semiconducting substrate in Semi-Insulating GaAs (SI-GaAs) based photoconductive emitters (PCE) on the emission of Tera-Hertz (THz) radiation. We partially etch out a 500 nm thick layer of SI-GaAs in grating like pattern with various periods before the contact deposition. By depositing the electrodes on the patterned surface, the electrodes follow the contour of the grating period. This increases the effective contact length of the electrodes per unit area of the active regions on the PCE. The maxima of the electric field amplitude of the THz pulses emitted from the patterned surface are enhanced by up to more than a factor 2 as compared to an un-patterned surface. We attribute this increase to the increase of the effective contact length of the electrode due to surface patterning.

  14. Marine mixotrophy increases trophic transfer efficiency, mean organism size, and vertical carbon flux.

    PubMed

    Ward, Ben A; Follows, Michael J

    2016-03-15

    Mixotrophic plankton, which combine the uptake of inorganic resources and the ingestion of living prey, are ubiquitous in marine ecosystems, but their integrated biogeochemical impacts remain unclear. We address this issue by removing the strict distinction between phytoplankton and zooplankton from a global model of the marine plankton food web. This simplification allows the emergence of a realistic trophic network with increased fidelity to empirical estimates of plankton community structure and elemental stoichiometry, relative to a system in which autotrophy and heterotrophy are mutually exclusive. Mixotrophy enhances the transfer of biomass to larger sizes classes further up the food chain, leading to an approximately threefold increase in global mean organism size and an ∼35% increase in sinking carbon flux. PMID:26831076

  15. Strategies for reconciling environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector: Analytic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    The project is motivated by recommendations that were made by industry in a number of different forums: the Industry Workshop of the White House Conference on Climate Change, and more recently, industry consultations for EPAct Section 131(c) and Section 160(b). These recommendations were related to reconciling conflicts in environmental goals, productivity improvements and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector.

  16. Using Supplementary Video in Multimedia Instruction as a Teaching Tool to Increase Efficiency of Learning and Quality of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljubojevic, Milos; Vaskovic, Vojkan; Stankovic, Srecko; Vaskovic, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to investigate efficiency of use of supplementary video content in multimedia teaching. Integrating video clips in multimedia lecture presentations may increase students' perception of important information and motivation for learning. Because of that, students can better understand and remember key…

  17. The Endless Pursuit of Efficiency: The International Movement To Increase Accountability and Performance in Higher Education. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, F. King

    This paper examines the trend toward demanding increased accountability and efficiency by institutions of higher education in the United States and Europe and its implications for the relationship between government and the college or university. It notes that such factors as limited state resources, rising educational costs, and the growing…

  18. Efficient, high-brightness wavelength-beam-combined commercial off-the-shelf diode stacks achieved by use of a wavelength-chirped volume Bragg grating.

    PubMed

    Chann, B; Goyal, A K; Fan, T Y; Sanchez-Rubio, A; Volodin, B L; Ban, V S

    2006-05-01

    We report a method of scaling the spatial brightness from commercial off-the-shelf diode laser stacks through wavelength beam combining, by use of a linearly wavelength-chirped volume Bragg grating (VBG). Using a three-bar commercial stack of broad-area lasers and a VBG, we demonstrate 89.5 W cw of beam-combined output with a beam-combining efficiency of 75%. The output beam has a propagation factor M2 approximately 26 on the slow axis and M2 approximately 21 on the fast axis. This corresponds to a brightness of approximately 20 MW/cm2 sr. To our knowledge, this is the highest brightness broad-area diode laser system. We achieve 81% coupling efficiency into a 100 microm, 0.22 N.A. fiber.

  19. Increasing Efficiency at the NTF by Optimizing Model AoA Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Bradley L.; Spells, Courtney

    2006-01-01

    The National Transonic Facility (NTF) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is a national resource for aeronautical research and development. The government, military and private industries rely on the capability of this facility for realistic flight data. Reducing the operation costs and keeping the NTF affordable is essential for aeronautics research. The NTF is undertaking an effort to reduce the time between data points during a pitch polar. This reduction is being driven by the operating costs of a cryogenic facility. If the time per data point can be reduced, a substantial cost savings can be realized from a reduction in liquid nitrogen (LN2) consumption. It is known that angle-of-attack (AoA) positioning is the longest lead-time item between points. In January 2005 a test was conducted at the NTF to determine the cause of the long lead-time so that an effort could be made to improve efficiency. The AoA signal at the NTF originates from onboard instrumentation then travels through a number of different systems including the signal conditioner, digital voltmeter, and the data system where the AoA angle is calculated. It is then fed into a closed loop control system that sets the model position. Each process along this path adds to the time per data point affecting the efficiency of the data taking process. Due to the nature of the closed loop feed back AoA control and the signal path, it takes approximately 18 seconds to take one pitch pause point with a typical AoA increment. Options are being investigated to reduce the time delay between points by modifying the signal path. These options include: reduced signal filtering, using analog channels instead of a digital volt meter (DVM), re-routing the signal directly to the AoA control computer and implementing new control algorithms. Each of these has potential to reduce the positioning time and together the savings could be significant. These timesaving efforts are essential but must be weighed against

  20. Increase in C3 plant water-use efficiency and biomass over Glacial to present C02 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Policy, H. Wayne; Johnson, Hyrum B.; Marinot, Bruno D.; Mayeux, Herman S.

    1993-01-01

    ATMOSPHERIC CO2 concentration was 160 to 200 μmol mol-1 during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; about 18,000 years ago)1, rose to about 275 (μmol mol-1 10,000 years ago2,3, and has increased to about 350 μmol mol-1 since 1800 (ref. 4). Here we present data indicating that this increase in CO2 has enhanced biospheric carbon fixation and altered species abundances by increasing the water-use efficiency of biomass production of C3 plants, the bulk of the Earth's vegetation. We grew oats (Avena sativa), wild mustard (Brassica kaber) and wheat (Triticum aes-tivum cv. Seri M82 and Yaqui 54), all C3 annuals, and selected C4 grasses along daytime gradients of Glacial to present atmospheric CO2 concentrations in a 38-m-long chamber. We calculated parameters related to leaf photosynthesis and water-use efficiency from stable carbon isotope ratios (13C/12C) of whole leaves. Leaf water-use efficiency and above-ground biomass/plant of C3 species increased linearly and nearly proportionally with increasing CO2 concentrations. Direct effects of increasing CO2 on plants must be considered when modelling the global carbon cycle and effects of climate change on vegetation.

  1. Conservation cropping systems: Increasing water use efficiency and lowering production costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As of the 2007 Census of Agriculture, irrigated acres were only found on 4.4% of agricultural operations in Alabama. To increase irrigated acres, the Alabama Legislature passed the Irrigation Incentives Bill in 2012 to provide a state income tax credit of 20 percent of the costs of the purchase and ...

  2. A new biofilm-associated colicin with increased efficiency against biofilm bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rendueles, Olaya; Beloin, Christophe; Latour-Lambert, Patricia; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Formation of bacterial biofilm communities leads to profound physiological modifications and increased physical and metabolic exchanges between bacteria. It was previously shown that bioactive molecules produced within the biofilm environment contribute to bacterial interactions. Here we describe new pore-forming colicin R, specifically produced in biofilms formed by the natural isolate Escherichia coli ROAR029 but that cannot be detected under planktonic culture conditions. We demonstrate that an increased SOS stress response within mature biofilms induces SOS-dependent colicin R expression. We provide evidence that colicin R displays increased activity against E. coli strains that have a reduced lipopolysaccharide length, such as the pathogenic enteroaggregative E. coli LF82 clinical isolate, therefore pointing to lipopolysaccharide size as an important determinant for resistance to colicins. We show that colicin R toxicity toward E. coli LF82 is increased under biofilm conditions compared with planktonic susceptibility and that release of colicin R confers a strong competitive advantage in mixed biofilms by rapidly outcompeting sensitive neighboring bacteria. This work identifies the first biofilm-associated colicin that preferentially targets biofilm bacteria. Furthermore, it indicates that the study of antagonistic molecules produced in biofilm and multispecies contexts could reveal unsuspected, ecologically relevant bacterial interactions influencing population dynamics in natural environments. PMID:24451204

  3. A survey on breeding strategies and selection objectives for increased feed efficiency and decreased methane emission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combined effects of world population growth, rising incomes and dietary changes have resulted in an increasing international demand for dairy and meat products. However, livestock can have negative impacts on the environment and the greater awareness of climate change has placed pressure on the ...

  4. Down regulation of Akirin-2 increases chemosensitivity in human glioblastomas more efficiently than Twist-1

    PubMed Central

    Krossa, Sebastian; Schmitt, Anne Dorothée; Hattermann, Kirsten; Fritsch, Jürgen; Scheidig, Axel J.; Mehdorn, Hubertus Maximilian; Held-Feindt, Janka

    2015-01-01

    The Twist-1 transcription factor and its interacting protein Akirin-2 regulate apoptosis. We found that in glioblastomas, highly malignant brain tumors, Akirin-2 and Twist-1 were expressed in glial fibrillary acidic protein positive tumor regions as well as in tumor endothelial cells and infiltrating macrophages / microglia. Temozolomide (TMZ) induced the expression of both molecules, partly shifting their nuclear to cytosolic localization. The knock-down (kd) of Akirin-2 increased the activity of cleaved (c)Caspase-3/-7, the amounts of cCaspases-3, -7 and cPARP-1 and resulted in an increased number of apoptotic cells after TMZ exposure. Glioblastoma cells containing decreased amounts of Akirin-2 after kd contained increased amounts of cCaspase-3 as determined by the ImageStreamx Mark II technology. For Twist-1, similar results were obtained with the exception that the combination of TMZ treatment and Twist-1 kd failed to significantly reduce chemoresistance compared with controls. This could be attributed to a cell population containing only slightly increased cCaspase-3 together with decreased Twist-1 levels, which was clearly larger than the respective population observed under Akirin-2 kd. Our results showed that, compared with Twist-1, Akirin-2 is the more promising target for RNAi strategies antagonizing Twist-1/Akirin-2 facilitated glioblastoma cell survival. PMID:26036627

  5. Increasing Completion Rates in Norwegian Doctoral Training: Multiple Causes for Efficiency Improvements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein; Olsen, Terje Bruen

    2014-01-01

    This article examines changes in completion rates and time-to-degree in Norwegian doctoral training over the last 30 years. A steadily increasing share of doctoral candidates holding a fellowship have been awarded their doctoral degree within five years; from 30% of those admitted in 1980 to 60% of those admitted 25 years later. Furthermore, the…

  6. Supplementing Vitamin E to the Ration of Beef Cattle Increased the Utilization Efficiency of Dietary Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chen; Lin, Shixin; Wu, Jinlong; Zhao, Guangyong; Zhang, Tingting; Zheng, Wensi

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the trial were to investigate the effects of supplementing vitamin E (VE) on nutrient digestion, nitrogen (N) retention and plasma parameters of beef cattle in feedlot. Four growing Simmental bulls, fed with a total mixed ration composed of corn silage and concentrate mixture as basal ration, were used as the experimental animals. Four levels of VE product, i.e. 0, 150, 300, 600 mg/head/d (equivalent to 0, 75, 150, 300 IU VE/head/d), were supplemented to the basal ration (VE content 38 IU/kg dry matter) in a 4×4 Latin square design as experimental treatments I, II, III and IV, respectively. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, of which the first 12 days were for pretreatment and the last 3 days for sampling. The results showed that supplementing VE did not affect the nutrient digestibility (p>0.05) whereas decreased the urinary N excretion (p<0.01), increased the N retention (p<0.05) and tended to increase the microbial N supply estimated based on the total urinary purine derivatives (p = 0.057). Supplementing VE increased the plasma concentrations of VE, glucose and triglycerol (TG) (p<0.05) and tended to increase the plasma concentration of total protein (p = 0.096) whereas did not affect the plasma antioxidant indices and other parameters (p>0.05). It was concluded that supplementing VE up to 300 IU/head/d did not affect the nutrient digestibility whereas supplementing VE at 150 or 300 IU/head/d increased the N retention and the plasma concentrations of VE and TG (p<0.05) of beef cattle. PMID:26950868

  7. Utilizing Diffuse Reflection to Increase the Efficiency of Luminescent Solar Concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowser, Seth; Weible, Seth; Solomon, Joel; Schrecengost, Jonathan; Wittmershaus, Bruce

    A luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) consists of a high index solid plate containing a fluorescent material that converts sunlight into fluorescence. Utilizing total internal reflection, the LSC collects and concentrates the fluorescence at the plate's edges where it is converted into electricity via photovoltaic solar cells. The lower production costs of LSCs make them an attractive alternative to photovoltaic solar cells. To optimize an LSC's efficiency, a white diffusive surface (background) is positioned behind it. The background allows sunlight transmitted in the first pass to be reflected back through the LSC providing a second chance for absorption. Our research examines how the LSC's performance is affected by changing the distance between the white background and the LSC. An automated linear motion apparatus was engineered to precisely measure this distance and the LSC's electrical current, simultaneously. LSC plates, with and without the presence of fluorescent material and in an isolated environment, showed a maximum current at a distance greater than zero. Further experimentation has proved that the optimal distance results from the background's optical properties and how the reflected light enters the LSC. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number NSF-ECCS-1306157.

  8. Perspectives of Increasing Efficiency and Productivity of Electromagnetic Induction Pumps for Mercury Basing on Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Bucenieks, I.

    2006-07-01

    In the next generation neutron sources the HLM (heavy liquid metals) such as lead, lead based eutectic alloys and mercury will be used both as spallation target material and simultaneously as the cooling liquid. In this aspect the design of safe and effective pumps for HLM recirculation at high pressure heads and big flow rates becomes important. For this purpose electromagnetic inductions pumps having no problems of hydraulic seals being in contact with liquid metal (electromagnetic forces in the liquid metal are induced by magnetic system located outside of the channel of pump) are more perspective from the point of view of their safety for operation at high temperature and radiation conditions in comparison with mechanical pumps. At the Institute of Physics of University of Latvia (IPUL) the design concept of electromagnetic induction pumps basing on the principle of rotating permanent magnets (PMP) have been developed. Such design concept of electromagnetic induction pumps has many advantages in comparison with traditionally used electromagnetic induction pumps basing on 3-phase linear flat or cylindrical inductors. The estimations of parameters of powerful pumps (such as overall dimensions of the active magnetic system, power of motor needed for pump drive, the efficiency of pump) for mercury for the developed by pump pressure heads in the range up to 10.0 bar and provided flow rates in the range up to 20 litres per second are demonstrated. (author)

  9. An integrated systems biology approach identifies positive cofactor 4 as a factor that increases reprogramming efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Junghyun; Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Hyung Joon; Hong, Soomin; Lee, Jeoung Eun; Lee, Sung-Geum; Baek, Ahmi; Han, Heonjong; Lee, Jin Il; Lee, Insuk; Lee, Dong Ryul

    2016-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) can spontaneously dedifferentiate into embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like cells, which are designated as multipotent SSCs (mSSCs), without ectopic expression of reprogramming factors. Interestingly, SSCs express key pluripotency genes such as Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and Myc. Therefore, molecular dissection of mSSC reprogramming may provide clues about novel endogenous reprogramming or pluripotency regulatory factors. Our comparative transcriptome analysis of mSSCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) suggests that they have similar pluripotency states but are reprogrammed via different transcriptional pathways. We identified 53 genes as putative pluripotency regulatory factors using an integrated systems biology approach. We demonstrated a selected candidate, Positive cofactor 4 (Pc4), can enhance the efficiency of somatic cell reprogramming by promoting and maintaining transcriptional activity of the key reprograming factors. These results suggest that Pc4 has an important role in inducing spontaneous somatic cell reprogramming via up-regulation of key pluripotency genes. PMID:26740582

  10. A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogeboom-Pot, Kathleen M.; Hernandez-Charpak, Jorge N.; Gu, Xiaokun; Frazer, Travis D.; Anderson, Erik H.; Chao, Weilun; Falcone, Roger W.; Yang, Ronggui; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Nardi, Damiano

    2015-03-23

    Understanding thermal transport from nanoscale heat sources is important for a fundamental description of energy flow in materials, as well as for many technological applications including thermal management in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics, thermoelectric devices, nanoenhanced photovoltaics, and nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapies. Thermal transport at the nanoscale is fundamentally different from that at the macroscale and is determined by the distribution of carrier mean free paths and energy dispersion in a material, the length scales of the heat sources, and the distance over which heat is transported. Past work has shown that Fourier’s law for heat conduction dramatically overpredicts the rate of heat dissipation from heat sources with dimensions smaller than the mean free path of the dominant heat-carrying phonons. In this work, we uncover a new regime of nanoscale thermal transport that dominates when the separation between nanoscale heat sources is small compared with the dominant phonon mean free paths. Surprisingly, the interaction of phonons originating from neighboring heat sources enables more efficient diffusive-like heat dissipation, even from nanoscale heat sources much smaller than the dominant phonon mean free paths. This finding suggests that thermal management in nanoscale systems including integrated circuits might not be as challenging as previously projected. In conclusion, we demonstrate a unique capability to extract differential conductivity as a function of phonon mean free path in materials, allowing the first (to our knowledge) experimental validation of predictions from the recently developed first-principles calculations.

  11. Design of monocular head-mounted displays for increased indoor firefighting safety and efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Joel; Steingart, Dan; Romero, Russell; Reynolds, Jessica; Mellers, Eric; Redfern, Andrew; Lim, Lloyd; Watts, William; Patton, Colin; Baker, Jessica; Wright, Paul

    2005-05-01

    Four monocular Head-Mounted Display (HMD) prototypes from the Fire Information and Rescue Equipment (FIRE) project at UC Berkeley are presented. The FIRE project aims to give firefighters a system of information technology tools for safer and more efficient firefighting in large buildings. The paper begins by describing the FIRE project and its use of a custom wireless sensor network (WSN) called SmokeNet for personnel tracking. The project aims to address urban/industrial firefighting procedures in need of improvement. Two "user-needs" studies with the Chicago and Berkeley Fire Departments are briefly presented. The FIRE project"s initial HMD prototype designs are then discussed with regard to feedback from the user-needs studies. These prototypes are evaluated in their potential costs and benefits to firefighters and found to need improvement. Next, some currently available commercial HMDs are reviewed and compared in their cost, performance, and potential for use by firefighters. Feedback from the Berkeley Fire Department user-needs study, in which the initial prototypes were demonstrated, is compiled into a concept selection matrix for the next prototypes. This matrix is used to evaluate a variety of HMDs, including some of the commercial units presented, and to select the best design options. Finally, the current prototypes of the two best design options are presented and discussed.

  12. A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hoogeboom-Pot, Kathleen M.; Hernandez-Charpak, Jorge N.; Gu, Xiaokun; Frazer, Travis D.; Anderson, Erik H.; Chao, Weilun; Falcone, Roger W.; Yang, Ronggui; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Nardi, Damiano

    2015-01-01

    Understanding thermal transport from nanoscale heat sources is important for a fundamental description of energy flow in materials, as well as for many technological applications including thermal management in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics, thermoelectric devices, nanoenhanced photovoltaics, and nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapies. Thermal transport at the nanoscale is fundamentally different from that at the macroscale and is determined by the distribution of carrier mean free paths and energy dispersion in a material, the length scales of the heat sources, and the distance over which heat is transported. Past work has shown that Fourier’s law for heat conduction dramatically overpredicts the rate of heat dissipation from heat sources with dimensions smaller than the mean free path of the dominant heat-carrying phonons. In this work, we uncover a new regime of nanoscale thermal transport that dominates when the separation between nanoscale heat sources is small compared with the dominant phonon mean free paths. Surprisingly, the interaction of phonons originating from neighboring heat sources enables more efficient diffusive-like heat dissipation, even from nanoscale heat sources much smaller than the dominant phonon mean free paths. This finding suggests that thermal management in nanoscale systems including integrated circuits might not be as challenging as previously projected. Finally, we demonstrate a unique capability to extract differential conductivity as a function of phonon mean free path in materials, allowing the first (to our knowledge) experimental validation of predictions from the recently developed first-principles calculations. PMID:25831491

  13. A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency

    DOE PAGES

    Hoogeboom-Pot, Kathleen M.; Hernandez-Charpak, Jorge N.; Gu, Xiaokun; Frazer, Travis D.; Anderson, Erik H.; Chao, Weilun; Falcone, Roger W.; Yang, Ronggui; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; et al

    2015-03-23

    Understanding thermal transport from nanoscale heat sources is important for a fundamental description of energy flow in materials, as well as for many technological applications including thermal management in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics, thermoelectric devices, nanoenhanced photovoltaics, and nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapies. Thermal transport at the nanoscale is fundamentally different from that at the macroscale and is determined by the distribution of carrier mean free paths and energy dispersion in a material, the length scales of the heat sources, and the distance over which heat is transported. Past work has shown that Fourier’s law for heat conduction dramatically overpredicts the rate ofmore » heat dissipation from heat sources with dimensions smaller than the mean free path of the dominant heat-carrying phonons. In this work, we uncover a new regime of nanoscale thermal transport that dominates when the separation between nanoscale heat sources is small compared with the dominant phonon mean free paths. Surprisingly, the interaction of phonons originating from neighboring heat sources enables more efficient diffusive-like heat dissipation, even from nanoscale heat sources much smaller than the dominant phonon mean free paths. This finding suggests that thermal management in nanoscale systems including integrated circuits might not be as challenging as previously projected. In conclusion, we demonstrate a unique capability to extract differential conductivity as a function of phonon mean free path in materials, allowing the first (to our knowledge) experimental validation of predictions from the recently developed first-principles calculations.« less

  14. Policy options for the split incentive: Increasing energy efficiency for low-income renters

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Stephen; Hernández, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The split incentive problem concerns the lack of appropriate incentives to implement energy efficiency measures. In particular, low income tenants face a phenomenon of energy poverty in which they allocate significantly more of their household income to energy expenditures than other renters. This problem is substantial, affecting 1.89% of all United States' energy use. If effectively addressed, it would create a range of savings between 4 and 11 billion dollars per year for many of the nation's poorest residents. We argue that a carefully designed program of incentives for participants (including landlords) in conjunction with a unique type of utility-managed on-bill financing mechanism has significant potential to solve many of the complications. We focus on three kinds of split incentives, five concerns inherent to addressing split incentive problems (scale, endurance, incentives, savings, political disfavor), and provide a detailed policy proposal designed to surpass those problems, with a particular focus on low-income tenants in a U.S. context. PMID:27053828

  15. Increasing Efficiency in Evaluation of Chronic Cough: A Multidisciplinary, Collaborative Approach.

    PubMed

    Patton, Cynthia M; Lim, Kaiser G; Ramlow, Luke W; White, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic cough is the most common reason for medical office visits in the United States. The typical patient has coughed more than 8 years and seen many specialists. This quality improvement project is an ambulatory clinic redesign to deliver efficient, patient-centered care with interspecialty collaboration. Methodology included the Institute for Healthcare Improvement collaborative model focused on Lean/Six Sigma and ADKAR (Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability, Reinforcement) Change Management. Interventions targeted education to referring providers, implementation of software changes, building a collaborative interdepartmental scheduling decision tree, and an interclinic dashboard enhancing communication and decision support. Outcome measures compare group resource utilization, evidenced by the total number of specialist referrals for same indication of chronic cough (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision: 786.2), and length of time to complete evaluation. A retrospective review of 165 medical records yielded 2 groups, "current care" (n = 67) and "intervention" (n = 68). The number of specialist referrals per patient was reduced in the intervention group (M = 1.22, SD = 0.48) compared with the current care group (M = 3.33, SD = 1.02). Length of itinerary was reduced in the intervention group (M = 11.90, SD = 12.13, GM = 6.82) compared with the current care group (M = 126.93, SD = 158.13, GM = 54.8). Multidisciplinary collaboration, communication, coordinating diagnosis, and management of multifactorial conditions, such as chronic cough, are associated with lower costs and decreased utilization of health care resources.

  16. A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hoogeboom-Pot, Kathleen M; Hernandez-Charpak, Jorge N; Gu, Xiaokun; Frazer, Travis D; Anderson, Erik H; Chao, Weilun; Falcone, Roger W; Yang, Ronggui; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Nardi, Damiano

    2015-04-21

    Understanding thermal transport from nanoscale heat sources is important for a fundamental description of energy flow in materials, as well as for many technological applications including thermal management in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics, thermoelectric devices, nanoenhanced photovoltaics, and nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapies. Thermal transport at the nanoscale is fundamentally different from that at the macroscale and is determined by the distribution of carrier mean free paths and energy dispersion in a material, the length scales of the heat sources, and the distance over which heat is transported. Past work has shown that Fourier's law for heat conduction dramatically overpredicts the rate of heat dissipation from heat sources with dimensions smaller than the mean free path of the dominant heat-carrying phonons. In this work, we uncover a new regime of nanoscale thermal transport that dominates when the separation between nanoscale heat sources is small compared with the dominant phonon mean free paths. Surprisingly, the interaction of phonons originating from neighboring heat sources enables more efficient diffusive-like heat dissipation, even from nanoscale heat sources much smaller than the dominant phonon mean free paths. This finding suggests that thermal management in nanoscale systems including integrated circuits might not be as challenging as previously projected. Finally, we demonstrate a unique capability to extract differential conductivity as a function of phonon mean free path in materials, allowing the first (to our knowledge) experimental validation of predictions from the recently developed first-principles calculations. PMID:25831491

  17. Increasing Efficiency in Evaluation of Chronic Cough: A Multidisciplinary, Collaborative Approach.

    PubMed

    Patton, Cynthia M; Lim, Kaiser G; Ramlow, Luke W; White, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic cough is the most common reason for medical office visits in the United States. The typical patient has coughed more than 8 years and seen many specialists. This quality improvement project is an ambulatory clinic redesign to deliver efficient, patient-centered care with interspecialty collaboration. Methodology included the Institute for Healthcare Improvement collaborative model focused on Lean/Six Sigma and ADKAR (Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability, Reinforcement) Change Management. Interventions targeted education to referring providers, implementation of software changes, building a collaborative interdepartmental scheduling decision tree, and an interclinic dashboard enhancing communication and decision support. Outcome measures compare group resource utilization, evidenced by the total number of specialist referrals for same indication of chronic cough (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision: 786.2), and length of time to complete evaluation. A retrospective review of 165 medical records yielded 2 groups, "current care" (n = 67) and "intervention" (n = 68). The number of specialist referrals per patient was reduced in the intervention group (M = 1.22, SD = 0.48) compared with the current care group (M = 3.33, SD = 1.02). Length of itinerary was reduced in the intervention group (M = 11.90, SD = 12.13, GM = 6.82) compared with the current care group (M = 126.93, SD = 158.13, GM = 54.8). Multidisciplinary collaboration, communication, coordinating diagnosis, and management of multifactorial conditions, such as chronic cough, are associated with lower costs and decreased utilization of health care resources. PMID:26426318

  18. Efficiency of Intergeneric Recombinants Between Bacillus Thuringiensis and Bacillus Subtilis for Increasing Mortality Rate in Cotten Leaf Worm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlOtaibi, Saad Aied

    2012-12-01

    In this study , two strains of Bacillus belonging to two serotypes and four of their transconjugants were screened with respect to their toxicity against lepidopterous cotton pest. . Bacterial transconjugants isolated from conjugation between both strains were evaluated for their transconjugant efficiency caused mortality in Spodoptera littoralis larvae . Two groups of bioinsecticides ; crystals , crystals and spores have been isolated from Bacillusstrains and their transconjugants . Insecticidal crystal protein ( ICP ) was specific for lepidopteran insects because of the toxin sufficient both for insect specificity and toxicity . The toxicities of these two groups against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis was expressed as transconjugant efficiency , which related to the mean number of larvae died expressed as mortality percentage . The results showed transconjugant efficiency in reducing the mean number of Spodoptera littoralis larvae feeding on leaves of Ricinus communis sprayed with bioinsecticides of Bt transconjugants. Most values of positive transconjugant efficiency related to increasing mortality percentage are due to toxicological effects appeared in response to the treatments with crystals + endospores than that of crystals alone .This indicated that crystals + endospores was more effective for increasing mortality percentage than that resulted by crystals . Higher positive transconjugant efficiency in relation to the mid parents and better parent was appeared at 168 h of treatment . The results indicated that recombinant Bacillus thuringiensis are important control agents for lepidopteran pests , as well as , susceptibility decreased with larval development . The results also suggested a potential for the deployment of these recominant entomopathogens in the management of Spodoptera. littoralis larvae .

  19. Increased frequency of visits improves the efficiency of surgical global health initiatives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Uganda Hearing Project is a non-profit program assisting with teaching of ear surgery in Uganda. The project started with cadaveric temporal bone courses in 2003 and 2005, including donation of operating microscopes and ear instruments. In 2006, three surgical groups started regular surgical teaching visits. Methods A retrospective chart review of all cases of middle ear surgery performed in Uganda from 2003 to 2009. Surgeries by local surgeons without foreign presence were coded as ‘local’ and those performed with assistance of visiting surgeons were coded as ‘visitors’. Results In 2005, two middle ear surgeries using the operating microscope were done in the Ugandan teaching hospitals by Ugandan Otolaryngologists alone. From the onset of surgical visits in 2006, a total of 193 middle ear surgeries were performed - 115 tympanomastoidectomies, 77 tympanoplasties, and 1 cochlear implant. In 2006 (one surgical teaching visit), 6 middle ear surgeries were performed with visiting surgeon presence and 2 surgeries were performed by the local team alone. This increased in 2007 (2 visits) and again in 2008 (3 visits) to 34 cases with visiting surgeon presence and 48 local cases. Conclusions The temporal bone courses and donation of operating microscopes to Ugandan hospitals have revolutionized middle ear surgery in Uganda. The surgical visits by the Uganda Hearing Project have led to a 24-fold increase in annual middle ear surgeries performed with the operating microscope by Ugandan Otolaryngologists. Increased frequency of surgical visits was correlated with an increase in local surgical output, hopefully resulting in improved care for Ugandans with ear disorders. PMID:23787093

  20. Family of airfoil shapes for rotating blades. [for increased power efficiency and blade stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, K. W. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An airfoil which has particular application to the blade or blades of rotor aircraft such as helicopters and aircraft propellers is described. The airfoil thickness distribution and camber are shaped to maintain a near zero pitching moment coefficient over a wide range of lift coefficients and provide a zero pitching moment coefficient at section Mach numbers near 0.80 and to increase the drag divergence Mach number resulting in superior aircraft performance.

  1. Cost and efficiency lead to increased value for the patient and bottom line for the practice.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Owen J

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how much it costs to provide a service is a basic premise of any business. In addition, healthcare is in need of improved processes to provide and increase value to the patient. This can be accomplished by the application of principles called Six Sigma and Lean Management. Today's medical practice leader must be aware of the costs of doing business and be able to apply proven management principles to the processes involved in providing patient care.

  2. Redox nanoparticle increases the chemotherapeutic efficiency of pioglitazone and suppresses its toxic side effects.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, Sindhu; Yoshitomi, Toru; Sakharkar, Meena Kishore; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2016-08-01

    Pioglitazone is a widely used anti-diabetic drug that induces cytotoxicity in cancer cells; however, its clinical use is questioned due to its associated liver toxicity caused by increased oxidative stress. We therefore employed nitroxide-radical containing nanoparticle, termed redox nanoparticle (RNP(N)) which is an effective scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a drug carrier. RNP(N) encapsulation increased pioglitazone solubility, thus increasing cellular uptake of encapsulated pioglitazone which reduced the dose required to induce toxicity in prostate cancer cell lines. Investigation of in vitro molecular mechanism of pioglitazone revealed that both apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were involved in tumor cell death. In addition, intravenously administered pioglitazone-loaded RNP(N) produced significant tumor volume reduction in vivo due to enhanced permeation and retention effect. Most importantly, oxidative damage caused by pioglitazone in the liver was significantly suppressed by pioglitazone-loaded RNP(N) due to the presence of nitroxide radicals. It is interesting to note that oral administration of encapsulated pioglitazone, and co-administration of RNP(N) and pioglitazone, i.e., no encapsulation of pioglitazone in RNP(N) also significantly contributed to suppression of the liver injury. Therefore, use of RNP(N) either as an adjuvant or as a carrier for drugs with severe side effects is a promising chemotherapeutic strategy. PMID:27235996

  3. Increased efficiency of ion acceleration by using femtosecond laser pulses at higher harmonic frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Psikal, J.; Klimo, O.; Weber, S.; Margarone, D.

    2014-07-15

    The influence of laser frequency on laser-driven ion acceleration is investigated by means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. When ultrashort intense laser pulse at higher harmonic frequency irradiates a thin solid foil, the target may become re lativistically transparent for significantly lower laser pulse intensity compared with irradiation at fundamental laser frequency. The relativistically induced transparency results in an enhanced heating of hot electrons as well as increased maximum energies of accelerated ions and their numbers. Our simulation results have shown the increase in maximum proton energy and increase in the number of high-energy protons by a factor of 2 after the interaction of an ultrashort laser pulse of maximum intensity 7 × 10{sup 21 }W/cm{sup 2} with a fully ionized plastic foil of realistic density and of optimal thickness between 100 nm and 200 nm when switching from the fundamental frequency to the third harmonics.

  4. Benefits and Costs of Brine Extraction for Increasing Injection Efficiency In geologic CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Casie L.; Watson, David J.; Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2014-12-31

    Pressure increases attendant with CO2 injection into the subsurface drive many of the risk factors associated with commercial-scale CCS projects, impacting project costs and liabilities in a number of ways. The area of elevated pressure defines the area that must be characterized and monitored; pressure drives fluid flow out of the storage reservoir along higher-permeability pathways that might exist through the caprock into overlying aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs; and pressure drives geomechanical changes that could potentially impact subsurface infrastructure or the integrity of the storage system itself. Pressure also limits injectivity, which can increase capital costs associated with installing additional wells to meet a given target injection rate. The ability to mitigate pressure increases in storage reservoirs could have significant value to a CCS project, but these benefits are offset by the costs of the pressure mitigation technique itself. Of particular interest for CO2 storage operators is the lifetime cost of implementing brine extraction at a CCS project site, and the relative value of benefits derived from the extraction process. This is expected to vary from site to site and from one implementation scenario to the next. Indeed, quantifying benefits against costs could allow operators to optimize their return on project investment by calculating the most effective scenario for pressure mitigation. This work builds on research recently submitted for publication by the authors examining the costs and benefits of brine extraction across operational scenarios to evaluate the effects of fluid extraction on injection rate to assess the cost effectiveness of several options for reducing the number of injection wells required. Modeling suggests that extracting at 90% of the volumetric equivalent of injection rate resulted in a 1.8% improvement in rate over a non-extraction base case; a four-fold increase in extraction rate results in a 7.6% increase in

  5. Benefits and Costs of Brine Extraction for Increasing Injection Efficiency In geologic CO2 Sequestration

    DOE PAGES

    Davidson, Casie L.; Watson, David J.; Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2014-12-31

    Pressure increases attendant with CO2 injection into the subsurface drive many of the risk factors associated with commercial-scale CCS projects, impacting project costs and liabilities in a number of ways. The area of elevated pressure defines the area that must be characterized and monitored; pressure drives fluid flow out of the storage reservoir along higher-permeability pathways that might exist through the caprock into overlying aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs; and pressure drives geomechanical changes that could potentially impact subsurface infrastructure or the integrity of the storage system itself. Pressure also limits injectivity, which can increase capital costs associated with installing additionalmore » wells to meet a given target injection rate. The ability to mitigate pressure increases in storage reservoirs could have significant value to a CCS project, but these benefits are offset by the costs of the pressure mitigation technique itself. Of particular interest for CO2 storage operators is the lifetime cost of implementing brine extraction at a CCS project site, and the relative value of benefits derived from the extraction process. This is expected to vary from site to site and from one implementation scenario to the next. Indeed, quantifying benefits against costs could allow operators to optimize their return on project investment by calculating the most effective scenario for pressure mitigation. This work builds on research recently submitted for publication by the authors examining the costs and benefits of brine extraction across operational scenarios to evaluate the effects of fluid extraction on injection rate to assess the cost effectiveness of several options for reducing the number of injection wells required. Modeling suggests that extracting at 90% of the volumetric equivalent of injection rate resulted in a 1.8% improvement in rate over a non-extraction base case; a four-fold increase in extraction rate results in a 7

  6. Optimization of embryo culture conditions for increasing efficiency of cloning in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and generation of transgenic embryos via cloning.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Neerja; Kunj, Neetu; Tiwari, Shuchita; Saraiya, Megha; Majumdar, Subeer S

    2009-09-01

    Cloning in bovine species is marred by low efficiency of blastocyst formation. Any increase in the efficiency of blastocyst formation upon nuclear transfer will greatly enhance the efficiency of cloning. In the present study, the effect of various media, protein sources, and growth factors on the development of cloned buffalo embryos was evaluated. Among various combinations tested, culture of cloned embryos in TCM-199 media on the feeder layer of Buffalo Oviductal Epithelial Cells (BOEC) in the presence of bovine serum albumin-free fatty acid (BSA-FFA) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) provided most suitable environment for efficient development of cloned blastocysts. Under these conditions, we achieved a blastocyst formation rate of 43%, which is better than those reported previously. Because preimplantation embryonic development, in vivo, occurs in an environment of oviductal cells, the blastocysts generated by this method may presumably be more suitable for implantation and further development. Additionally, we generated green blastocysts from enucleated oocytes by transfer of nuclei from cells transfected with EGFP transgene, showing possibility of transgenesis via cloning in this species. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the production of transgenic cloned buffalo embryos and their developmental competence with respect to various media, cocultures, and supplements.

  7. PSI-LHCI of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Increasing the absorption cross section without losing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Le Quiniou, Clotilde; Tian, Lijin; Drop, Bartlomiej; Wientjes, Emilie; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; van Oort, Bart; Croce, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem I (PSI) is an essential component of photosynthetic membranes. Despite the high sequence and structural homologies, its absorption properties differ substantially in algae, plants and cyanobacteria. In particular it is characterized by the presence of low-energy chlorophylls (red forms), the number and the energy of which vary in different organisms. The PSI-LHCI (PSI-light harvesting complex I) complex of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C.r.) is significantly larger than that of plants, containing five additional light-harvesting complexes (together binding≈65 chlorophylls), and contains red forms with higher energy than plants. To understand how these differences influence excitation energy transfer and trapping in the system, we studied two PSI-LHCI C.r. particles, differing in antenna size and red-form content, using time-resolved fluorescence and compared them to plant PSI-LHCI. The excited state kinetics in C.r. shows the same average lifetime (50 ps) as in plants suggesting that the effect of antenna enlargement is compensated by higher energy red forms. The system equilibrates very fast, indicating that all Lhcas are well-connected, despite their long distance to the core. The differences between C.r. PSI-LHCI with and without Lhca2 and Lhca9 show that these Lhcas bind red forms, although not the red-most. The red-most forms are in (or functionally close to) other Lhcas and slow down the trapping, but hardly affect the quantum efficiency, which remains as high as 97% even in a complex that contains 235 chlorophylls. PMID:25681242

  8. Quantitative shape analysis with weighted covariance estimates for increased statistical efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The introduction and statistical formalisation of landmark-based methods for analysing biological shape has made a major impact on comparative morphometric analyses. However, a satisfactory solution for including information from 2D/3D shapes represented by ‘semi-landmarks’ alongside well-defined landmarks into the analyses is still missing. Also, there has not been an integration of a statistical treatment of measurement error in the current approaches. Results We propose a procedure based upon the description of landmarks with measurement covariance, which extends statistical linear modelling processes to semi-landmarks for further analysis. Our formulation is based upon a self consistent approach to the construction of likelihood-based parameter estimation and includes corrections for parameter bias, induced by the degrees of freedom within the linear model. The method has been implemented and tested on measurements from 2D fly wing, 2D mouse mandible and 3D mouse skull data. We use these data to explore possible advantages and disadvantages over the use of standard Procrustes/PCA analysis via a combination of Monte-Carlo studies and quantitative statistical tests. In the process we show how appropriate weighting provides not only greater stability but also more efficient use of the available landmark data. The set of new landmarks generated in our procedure (‘ghost points’) can then be used in any further downstream statistical analysis. Conclusions Our approach provides a consistent way of including different forms of landmarks into an analysis and reduces instabilities due to poorly defined points. Our results suggest that the method has the potential to be utilised for the analysis of 2D/3D data, and in particular, for the inclusion of information from surfaces represented by multiple landmark points. PMID:23548043

  9. PSI-LHCI of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Increasing the absorption cross section without losing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Le Quiniou, Clotilde; Tian, Lijin; Drop, Bartlomiej; Wientjes, Emilie; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; van Oort, Bart; Croce, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem I (PSI) is an essential component of photosynthetic membranes. Despite the high sequence and structural homologies, its absorption properties differ substantially in algae, plants and cyanobacteria. In particular it is characterized by the presence of low-energy chlorophylls (red forms), the number and the energy of which vary in different organisms. The PSI-LHCI (PSI-light harvesting complex I) complex of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C.r.) is significantly larger than that of plants, containing five additional light-harvesting complexes (together binding≈65 chlorophylls), and contains red forms with higher energy than plants. To understand how these differences influence excitation energy transfer and trapping in the system, we studied two PSI-LHCI C.r. particles, differing in antenna size and red-form content, using time-resolved fluorescence and compared them to plant PSI-LHCI. The excited state kinetics in C.r. shows the same average lifetime (50 ps) as in plants suggesting that the effect of antenna enlargement is compensated by higher energy red forms. The system equilibrates very fast, indicating that all Lhcas are well-connected, despite their long distance to the core. The differences between C.r. PSI-LHCI with and without Lhca2 and Lhca9 show that these Lhcas bind red forms, although not the red-most. The red-most forms are in (or functionally close to) other Lhcas and slow down the trapping, but hardly affect the quantum efficiency, which remains as high as 97% even in a complex that contains 235 chlorophylls.

  10. Nitrogen response efficiency increased monotonically with decreasing soil resource availability: a case study from a semiarid grassland in northern China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhi-You; Li, Ling-Hao; Han, Xing-Guo; Chen, Shi-Ping; Wang, Zheng-Wen; Chen, Quan-Sheng; Bai, Wen-Ming

    2006-07-01

    The concept of nutrient use efficiency is central to understanding ecosystem functioning because it is the step in which plants can influence the return of nutrients to the soil pool and the quality of the litter. Theory suggests that nutrient efficiency increases unimodally with declining soil resources, but this has not been tested empirically for N and water in grassland ecosystems, where plant growth in these ecosystems is generally thought to be limited by soil N and moisture. In this paper, we tested the N uptake and the N use efficiency (NUE) of two Stipa species (S. grandis and S. krylovii) from 20 sites in the Inner Mongolia grassland by measuring the N content of net primary productivity (NPP). NUE is defined as the total net primary production per unit N absorbed. We further distinguished NUE from N response efficiency (NRE; production per unit N available). We found that NPP increased with soil N and water availability. Efficiency of whole-plant N use, uptake, and response increased monotonically with decreasing soil N and water, being higher on infertile (dry) habitats than on fertile (wet) habitats. We further considered NUE as the product of the N productivity (NP the rate of biomass increase per unit N in the plant) and the mean residence time (MRT; the ratio between the average N pool and the annual N uptake or loss). The NP and NUE of S. grandis growing usually in dry and N-poor habitats exceeded those of S. krylovii abundant in wet and N-rich habitats. NUE differed among sites, and was often affected by the evolutionary trade-off between NP and MRT, where plants and communities had adapted in a way to maximize either NP or MRT, but not both concurrently. Soil N availability and moisture influenced the community-level N uptake efficiency and ultimately the NRE, though the response to N was dependent on the plant community examined. These results show that soil N and water had exerted a great impact on the N efficiency in Stipa species. The

  11. Increased Host Investment in Extrafloral Nectar (EFN) Improves the Efficiency of a Mutualistic Defensive Service

    PubMed Central

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Silva Bueno, Juan Carlos; Heil, Martin; Boland, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Extrafloral nectar (EFN) plays an important role as plant indirect defence through the attraction of defending ants. Like all rewards produced in the context of a mutualism, however, EFN is in danger of being exploited by non-ant consumers that do not defend the plant against herbivores. Here we asked whether plants, by investing more in EFN, can improve their indirect defence, or rather increase the risk of losing this investment to EFN thieves. We used the obligate plant-ant Acacia-Pseudomyrmex system and examined experimentally in the field during the dry and the rainy seasons how variations in EFN secretion are related to (i) ant activity, to (ii) the ant-mediated defence against herbivores and (iii) the exploitation of EFN by non-ant consumers. Extrafloral investment enhanced ant recruitment and was positively related to the ant mediated defence against herbivores. The ant-mediated protection from exploiters also increased in proportion to the nectar sugar concentration. Although the daily peak of EFN production coincided with the highest activity of EFN thieves, Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus ants protected this resource effectively from exploiters. Nevertheless, the defensive effects by ants differed among seasons. During the dry season, plants grew slower and secreted more EFN than in the rainy season, and thus, experienced a higher level of ant-mediated indirect defence. Our results show that an increased plant investment in an indirect defence trait can improve the resulting defensive service against both herbivores and exploiters. EFN secretion by obligate ant-plants represents a defensive trait for which the level of investment correlates positively with the beneficial effects obtained. PMID:23056362

  12. Increased host investment in extrafloral nectar (EFN) improves the efficiency of a mutualistic defensive service.

    PubMed

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Silva Bueno, Juan Carlos; Heil, Martin; Boland, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Extrafloral nectar (EFN) plays an important role as plant indirect defence through the attraction of defending ants. Like all rewards produced in the context of a mutualism, however, EFN is in danger of being exploited by non-ant consumers that do not defend the plant against herbivores. Here we asked whether plants, by investing more in EFN, can improve their indirect defence, or rather increase the risk of losing this investment to EFN thieves. We used the obligate plant-ant Acacia-Pseudomyrmex system and examined experimentally in the field during the dry and the rainy seasons how variations in EFN secretion are related to (i) ant activity, to (ii) the ant-mediated defence against herbivores and (iii) the exploitation of EFN by non-ant consumers. Extrafloral investment enhanced ant recruitment and was positively related to the ant mediated defence against herbivores. The ant-mediated protection from exploiters also increased in proportion to the nectar sugar concentration. Although the daily peak of EFN production coincided with the highest activity of EFN thieves, Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus ants protected this resource effectively from exploiters. Nevertheless, the defensive effects by ants differed among seasons. During the dry season, plants grew slower and secreted more EFN than in the rainy season, and thus, experienced a higher level of ant-mediated indirect defence. Our results show that an increased plant investment in an indirect defence trait can improve the resulting defensive service against both herbivores and exploiters. EFN secretion by obligate ant-plants represents a defensive trait for which the level of investment correlates positively with the beneficial effects obtained.

  13. Window performance and building energy use: Some technical options for increasing energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    1985-11-01

    Window system design and operation has a major impact on energy use in buildings as well as on occupants' thermal and visual comfort. Window performance will be a function of optical and thermal properties, window management strategies, climate and orientation, and building type and occupancy. In residences, heat loss control is a primary concern, followed by sun control in more southerly climates. In commercial buildings, the daylight provided by windows may be the major energy benefits but solar gain must be controlled so that increased cooling loads do not exceed daylighting savings. Reductions in peak electrical demand and HVAC system size may also be possible in well-designed daylighted buildings.

  14. The updated RGD Pathway Portal utilizes increased curation efficiency and provides expanded pathway information.

    PubMed

    Hayman, G Thomas; Jayaraman, Pushkala; Petri, Victoria; Tutaj, Marek; Liu, Weisong; De Pons, Jeff; Dwinell, Melinda R; Shimoyama, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The RGD Pathway Portal provides pathway annotations for rat, human and mouse genes and pathway diagrams and suites, all interconnected via the pathway ontology. Diagram pages present the diagram and description, with diagram objects linked to additional resources. A newly-developed dual-functionality web application composes the diagram page. Curators input the description, diagram, references and additional pathway objects. The application combines these with tables of rat, human and mouse pathway genes, including genetic information, analysis tool and reference links, and disease, phenotype and other pathway annotations to pathway genes. The application increases the information content of diagram pages while expediting publication.

  15. NREL Works to Increase Electric Vehicle Efficiency Through Enhanced Thermal Management (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    Researchers at NREL are providing new insight into how heating and cooling systems affect the distance that electric vehicles can travel on a single charge. Electric vehicle range can be reduced by as much as 68% per charge because of climate-control demands. NREL engineers are investigating opportunities to change this dynamic and increase driving range by improving vehicle thermal management. NREL experts are collaborating with automotive industry partners to investigate promising thermal management technologies and strategies, including zone-based cabin temperature controls, advanced heating and air conditioning controls, seat-based climate controls, vehicle thermal preconditioning, and thermal load reduction technologies.

  16. Surprising increase in photostability of organic amorphous materials by efficient molecular packing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yue; Antony, Lucas; de Pablo, Juan; Ediger, Mark

    Photochemically robust materials are desired for organic electronics. Previous work has demonstrated that crystal packing can strongly influence photochemical reactivity. In amorphous materials, however, similar efforts to tune photostability have not been successful. In this work, we show that organic glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition can be highly stable against photo-isomerization. Disperse orange 37 (DO37), an azobenzene derivative, is studied as a model molecule. The thickness and molecular orientation of DO37 thin films can be altered by the photo-isomerization reaction. We use spectroscopic ellipsometry to measure sample thickness and molecular orientation during light irradiation. By changing the substrate temperature during the deposition, photostability can increase 2 to 3 orders of magnitude relative to the liquid-cooled glass. We find that photostability correlates with density of packing, with density increases of up to 1.3%. Simulations also show that glasses with higher density can be significantly more photo-stable. These results show for the first time that photostability of glasses can be significantly modulated by molecular packing. And they may provide insight in designing organic photovoltaics and light emission devices with longer lifetimes.

  17. Water dispersible cross-linked magnetic chitosan beads for increasing the antimicrobial efficiency of aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Holban, Alina Maria; Ficai, Anton; Ficai, Denisa; Voicu, Georgeta; Grumezescu, Valentina; Balaure, Paul Cătălin; Chifiriuc, Carmen Mariana

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this study was to obtain a nano-active system to improve antibiotic activity of certain drugs by controlling their release. Magnetic composite nanomaterials based on magnetite core and cross-linked chitosan shell were synthesized via the co-precipitation method and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), infrared microscopy (IRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The prepared magnetic composite nanomaterials exhibit a significant potentiating effect on the activity of two cationic (kanamycin and neomycin) drugs, reducing the amount of antibiotics necessary for the antimicrobial effect. The increase in the antimicrobial activity was explained by the fact that the obtained nanosystems provide higher surface area to volume ratio, resulting into higher surface charge density thus increasing affinity to microbial cell and also by controlling their release. In addition to the nano-effect, the positive zeta potential of the synthesized magnetite/cross-linked chitosan core/shell magnetic nanoparticles allows for a more favorable interaction with the usually negatively charged cell wall of bacteria. The novelty of the present contribution is just the revealing of this synergistic effect exhibited by the synthesized water dispersible magnetic nanocomposites on the activity of different antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The results obtained in this study recommend these magnetic water dispersible nanocomposite materials for applications in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:23830944

  18. Non-homologous DNA increases gene disruption efficiency by altering DNA repair outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, C. D.; Ray, G. J.; Bray, N. L.; Corn, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cas9 endonuclease can be targeted to genomic sequences by programming the sequence of an associated single guide RNA (sgRNA). For unknown reasons, the activity of these Cas9–sgRNA combinations varies widely at different genomic loci and in different cell types. Thus, disrupting genes in polyploid cell lines or when using poorly performing sgRNAs can require extensive downstream screening to identify homozygous clones. Here we find that non-homologous single-stranded DNA greatly stimulates Cas9-mediated gene disruption in the absence of homology-directed repair. This stimulation increases the frequency of clones with homozygous gene disruptions and rescues otherwise ineffective sgRNAs. The molecular outcome of enhanced gene disruption depends upon cellular context, stimulating deletion of genomic sequence or insertion of non-homologous DNA at the edited locus in a cell line specific manner. Non-homologous DNA appears to divert cells towards error-prone instead of error-free repair pathways, dramatically increasing the frequency of gene disruption. PMID:27530320

  19. Water dispersible cross-linked magnetic chitosan beads for increasing the antimicrobial efficiency of aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Holban, Alina Maria; Ficai, Anton; Ficai, Denisa; Voicu, Georgeta; Grumezescu, Valentina; Balaure, Paul Cătălin; Chifiriuc, Carmen Mariana

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this study was to obtain a nano-active system to improve antibiotic activity of certain drugs by controlling their release. Magnetic composite nanomaterials based on magnetite core and cross-linked chitosan shell were synthesized via the co-precipitation method and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), infrared microscopy (IRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The prepared magnetic composite nanomaterials exhibit a significant potentiating effect on the activity of two cationic (kanamycin and neomycin) drugs, reducing the amount of antibiotics necessary for the antimicrobial effect. The increase in the antimicrobial activity was explained by the fact that the obtained nanosystems provide higher surface area to volume ratio, resulting into higher surface charge density thus increasing affinity to microbial cell and also by controlling their release. In addition to the nano-effect, the positive zeta potential of the synthesized magnetite/cross-linked chitosan core/shell magnetic nanoparticles allows for a more favorable interaction with the usually negatively charged cell wall of bacteria. The novelty of the present contribution is just the revealing of this synergistic effect exhibited by the synthesized water dispersible magnetic nanocomposites on the activity of different antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The results obtained in this study recommend these magnetic water dispersible nanocomposite materials for applications in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.

  20. Application of timeout from positive reinforcement for increasing the efficiency of speech training.

    PubMed

    McReynolds, L V

    1969-01-01

    Language training procedures, which involved positive reinforcement for verbal imitation, were applied to increase the appropriate verbal behavior of an almost non-verbal, brain damaged, 5-yr-old boy. Two experiments assessed the effectiveness of timeout from positive reinforcement as a training procedure viewed as having potential punishing and negatively reinforcing functions. In both experiments, timein, termination of timeout and resumption of training, was arranged to have reinforcing properties in that it presented an opportunity to receive positive reinforcers. In Exp. I, the procedure consisted of temporarily halting language training (timeout) following verbal jargon and resuming it (timein) contingent upon the boy sitting quietly in his chair for approximately 30 sec. The jargon declined to almost zero for an extended period each time the procedure was employed. In Exp. II, the procedure consisted of halting language training (timeout) after emission of undesired verbal responses which previously had been reinforced as the desired approximation to the target verbal behavior. Resumption of training (timein) was made contingent upon the emission of the then-desired approximation of the target verbal behavior. In each experiment, the contingent timeout and timein of the language training that involved positive reinforcement effectively reduced the undesired and increased the desired responses.

  1. Application of timeout from positive reinforcement for increasing the efficiency of speech training1

    PubMed Central

    McReynolds, Leija V.

    1969-01-01

    Language training procedures, which involved positive reinforcement for verbal imitation, were applied to increase the appropriate verbal behavior of an almost non-verbal, brain damaged, 5-yr-old boy. Two experiments assessed the effectiveness of timeout from positive reinforcement as a training procedure viewed as having potential punishing and negatively reinforcing functions. In both experiments, timein, termination of timeout and resumption of training, was arranged to have reinforcing properties in that it presented an opportunity to receive positive reinforcers. In Exp. I, the procedure consisted of temporarily halting language training (timeout) following verbal jargon and resuming it (timein) contingent upon the boy sitting quietly in his chair for approximately 30 sec. The jargon declined to almost zero for an extended period each time the procedure was employed. In Exp. II, the procedure consisted of halting language training (timeout) after emission of undesired verbal responses which previously had been reinforced as the desired approximation to the target verbal behavior. Resumption of training (timein) was made contingent upon the emission of the then-desired approximation of the target verbal behavior. In each experiment, the contingent timeout and timein of the language training that involved positive reinforcement effectively reduced the undesired and increased the desired responses. PMID:16795220

  2. Non-homologous DNA increases gene disruption efficiency by altering DNA repair outcomes.

    PubMed

    Richardson, C D; Ray, G J; Bray, N L; Corn, J E

    2016-01-01

    The Cas9 endonuclease can be targeted to genomic sequences by programming the sequence of an associated single guide RNA (sgRNA). For unknown reasons, the activity of these Cas9-sgRNA combinations varies widely at different genomic loci and in different cell types. Thus, disrupting genes in polyploid cell lines or when using poorly performing sgRNAs can require extensive downstream screening to identify homozygous clones. Here we find that non-homologous single-stranded DNA greatly stimulates Cas9-mediated gene disruption in the absence of homology-directed repair. This stimulation increases the frequency of clones with homozygous gene disruptions and rescues otherwise ineffective sgRNAs. The molecular outcome of enhanced gene disruption depends upon cellular context, stimulating deletion of genomic sequence or insertion of non-homologous DNA at the edited locus in a cell line specific manner. Non-homologous DNA appears to divert cells towards error-prone instead of error-free repair pathways, dramatically increasing the frequency of gene disruption. PMID:27530320

  3. GM trees with increased resistance to herbivores: trait efficiency and their potential to promote tree growth

    PubMed Central

    Hjältén, Joakim; Axelsson, E. Petter

    2015-01-01

    Climate change, as well as a more intensive forestry, is expected to increase the risk of damage by pests and pathogens on trees, which can already be a severe problem in tree plantations. Recent development of biotechnology theoretically allows for resistance enhancement that could help reduce these risks but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of benefits and tradeoffs with pest resistant GM (genetically modified) trees. We synthesized the current knowledge on the effectiveness of GM forest trees with increased resistance to herbivores. There is ample evidence that induction of exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis genes reduce performance of target pests whereas upregulation of endogenous resistance traits e.g., phenolics, generates variable results. Our review identified very few studies estimating the realized benefits in tree growth of GM trees in the field. This is concerning as the realized benefit with insect resistant GM plants seems to be context-dependent and likely manifested only if herbivore pressure is sufficiently high. Future studies of secondary pest species and resistance evolution in pest to GM trees should be prioritized. But most importantly we need more long-term field tests to evaluate the benefits and risks with pest resistant GM trees. PMID:25983736

  4. Indium-gallium-zinc-oxide layer used to increase light transmittance efficiency of adhesive layer for stacked-type multijunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshidomi, Shinya; Kimura, Shunsuke; Hasumi, Masahiko; Sameshima, Toshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    We report the increase in transmittance efficiency of the intermediate layer for multijunction solar cells caused by the indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) layer used as the antireflection layer. Si substrates coated with a 200-nm-thick IGZO layer with a refractive index of 1.85 were prepared. The resistivity of the IGZO layer was increased from 0.0069 (as-deposited) to 0.032 Ω cm by heat treatment at 350 °C for 1 h to prevent free-carrier optical absorption. Samples with the Si/IGZO/adhesive/IGZO/Si structure were fabricated. The average transmissivity for wavelengths between 1200 and 1600 nm was 49%, which was close to 55% of single-crystal silicon substrates. A high effective transmittance efficiency of 89% was experimentally achieved. The numerical calculation showed in an effective transmittance efficiency of 99% for 170-nm-thick antireflection layers with a resistivity of 0.6 Ω cm and a refractive index of 2.1.

  5. Increasing reticle inspection efficiency and reducing wafer print-checks using automated defect classification and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Sung Jae; Lim, Sung Taek; Vacca, Anthony; Fiekowsky, Peter; Fiekowsky, Dan

    2013-09-01

    IC fabs inspect critical masks on a regular basis to ensure high wafer yields. These requalification inspections are costly for many reasons including the capital equipment, system maintenance, and labor costs. In addition, masks typically remain in the "requal" phase for extended, non-productive periods of time. The overall "requal" cycle time in which reticles remain non-productive is challenging to control. Shipping schedules can slip when wafer lots are put on hold until the master critical layer reticle is returned to production. Unfortunately, substituting backup critical layer reticles can significantly reduce an otherwise tightly controlled process window adversely affecting wafer yields. One major requal cycle time component is the disposition process of mask inspections containing hundreds of defects. Not only is precious non-productive time extended by reviewing hundreds of potentially yield-limiting detections, each additional classification increases the risk of manual review techniques accidentally passing real yield limiting defects. Even assuming all defects of interest are flagged by operators, how can any person's judgment be confident regarding lithographic impact of such defects? The time reticles spend away from scanners combined with potential yield loss due to lithographic uncertainty presents significant cycle time loss and increased production costs. Fortunately, a software program has been developed which automates defect classification with simulated printability measurement greatly reducing requal cycle time and improving overall disposition accuracy. This product, called ADAS (Auto Defect Analysis System), has been tested in both engineering and high-volume production environments with very successful results. In this paper, data is presented supporting significant reduction for costly wafer print checks, improved inspection area productivity, and minimized risk of misclassified yield limiting defects.

  6. The concept of increasing energy efficiency of low-rise construction in the context of technical regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaev, N.; Filushina, K.; Jarova, E.

    2015-01-01

    Intensive development of low-rise construction and modern trends directed at enhancing energy efficient construction considering regulatory requirements determine the necessity to develop the concept based on variable control models managing the processes of low-rise construction. However effective process management cannot be performed without correlation of sectoral planning documents of federal and regional level also considering the technical regulations requirements. Development of concept to increase energy efficiency of low-rise construction on the basis of governmental housing policy should be built within integrated and system approach. This approach should take into account the factors and objectives of social and economic regional development and its peculiar features, as well as complex urban planning, transport and engineering conditions of low rise housing development. The program and goal-oriented approach used in the present study enables to provide integrity and interrelation with the technical requirements of energy efficiency.

  7. PEPFAR's past and future efforts to cut costs, improve efficiency, and increase the impact of global HIV programs.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Charles B; Blandford, John M; Sangrujee, Nalinee; Stewart, Scott R; DuBois, Amy; Smith, Tyler R; Martin, Julia C; Gavaghan, Ann; Ryan, Caroline A; Goosby, Eric P

    2012-07-01

    Amid the global economic crisis, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and other organizations have been pressed to do more with constrained resources to meet unmet needs in the worldwide HIV/AIDS pandemic. PEPFAR has approached this challenge through the development of an Impact and Efficiency Acceleration Plan, which includes improving the collection and use of economic and financial data, increasing the efficiency of HIV/AIDS program implementation, and collaborating with governments and multilateral organizations to maximize the impact of the resources provided by the United States. For example, by linking financial data with program outputs, PEPFAR was able to help its implementing partners in Mozambique reduce mean unit expenditures for people receiving antiretroviral treatment by 45 percent, from $265 to $145 per person, between 2009 and 2011. This article describes the plan's elements, provides examples of progress and challenges to its implementation, and assesses the prospects for further improvements in efficiency and impact. PMID:22778345

  8. Rapamycin increases mitochondrial efficiency by mtDNA-dependent reprogramming of mitochondrial metabolism in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Villa-Cuesta, Eugenia; Holmbeck, Marissa A; Rand, David M

    2014-05-15

    Downregulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway by its inhibitor rapamycin is emerging as a potential pharmacological intervention that mimics the beneficial effects of dietary restriction. Modulation of mTOR has diverse effects on mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis, but the role of the mitochondrial genotype in mediating these effects remains unknown. Here, we use novel mitochondrial genome replacement strains in Drosophila to test the hypothesis that genes encoded in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) influence the mTOR pathway. We show that rapamycin increases mitochondrial respiration and succinate dehydrogenase activity, decreases H2O2 production and generates distinct shifts in the metabolite profiles of isolated mitochondria versus whole Drosophila. These effects are disabled when divergent mitochondrial genomes from D. simulans are placed into a common nuclear background, demonstrating that the benefits of rapamycin to mitochondrial metabolism depend on genes encoded in the mtDNA. Rapamycin is able to enhance mitochondrial respiration when succinate dehydrogenase activity is blocked, suggesting that the beneficial effects of rapamycin on these two processes are independent. Overall, this study provides the first evidence for a link between mitochondrial genotype and the effects of rapamycin on mitochondrial metabolic pathways. PMID:24610944

  9. Salt tolerance of Beta macrocarpa is associated with efficient osmotic adjustment and increased apoplastic water content.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, I; Badri, M; Mejri, M; Cruz, C; Siddique, K H M; Hessini, K

    2016-05-01

    The chenopod Beta macrocarpa Guss (wild Swiss chard) is known for its salt tolerance, but the mechanisms involved are still debated. In order to elucidate the processes involved, we grew wild Swiss chard exposed to three salinity levels (0, 100 and 200 mm NaCl) for 45 days, and determined several physiological parameters at the end of this time. All plants survived despite reductions in growth, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in plants exposed to salinity (100 and 200 mm NaCl). As expected, the negative effects of salinity were more pronounced at 200 mm than at 100 mm NaCl: (i) leaf apoplastic water content was maintained or increased despite a significant reduction in leaf water potential, revealing the halophytic character of B. macrocarpa; (ii) osmotic adjustment occurred, which presumably enhanced the driving force for water extraction from soil, and avoided toxic build up of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the mesophyll apoplast of leaves. Osmotic adjustment mainly occurred through accumulation of inorganic ions and to a lesser extent soluble sugars; proline was not implicated in osmotic adjustment. Overall, two important mechanisms of salt tolerance in B. macrocarpa were identified: osmotic and apoplastic water adjustment. PMID:26588061

  10. Application of lower aliphatic alcohols as reducing agents for increasing efficiency of the LCLD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenok, Dmitrii

    2014-05-01

    A method is described that is promising for application metal conductors on ceramic substrates during printed-circuit boards (PCBs) production without masking plate. The main idea of laser-induced metal deposition from solution (LCLD) consists of implementation of chemical micro reactor by using a focused laser beam. In this reactor the red/ox reaction would be initiated due to heating of a reaction medium. We used a 532 nm DPSS laser (power: 2100 mW) and water solutions of organic alcohols with low molecular weight, ethanol and isopropanol as reductants. The results of deposition were studied using the SEM, EDX methods and impedance spectroscopy. The equivalent resistance-capacitance circuit of copper tracks was constructed. The experiments showed that increasing the rate of deposition of nanostructured copper tracks up to 50 μm/s with electrical resistivity 5 Ohm/cm is possible by replacing the well-known reductants such as formaldehyde and D-sorbitol with iso-propanol.

  11. Increased reward in ankle robotics training enhances motor control and cortical efficiency in stroke.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Ronald N; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Roy, Anindo; Jung, Brian C; Diaz, Jason; Macko, Richard F; Forrester, Larry W

    2014-01-01

    Robotics is rapidly emerging as a viable approach to enhance motor recovery after disabling stroke. Current principles of cognitive motor learning recognize a positive relationship between reward and motor learning. Yet no prior studies have established explicitly whether reward improves the rate or efficacy of robotics-assisted rehabilitation or produces neurophysiologic adaptations associated with motor learning. We conducted a 3 wk, 9-session clinical pilot with 10 people with chronic hemiparetic stroke, randomly assigned to train with an impedance-controlled ankle robot (anklebot) under either high reward (HR) or low reward conditions. The 1 h training sessions entailed playing a seated video game by moving the paretic ankle to hit moving onscreen targets with the anklebot only providing assistance as needed. Assessments included paretic ankle motor control, learning curves, electroencephalograpy (EEG) coherence and spectral power during unassisted trials, and gait function. While both groups exhibited changes in EEG, the HR group had faster learning curves (p = 0.05), smoother movements (p increase in nonparetic step length (p = 0.05) in the HR group only. These results suggest that combining explicit rewards with novel anklebot training may accelerate motor learning for restoring mobility.

  12. Modern maize hybrids in Northeast China exhibit increased yield potential and resource use efficiency despite adverse climate change.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochao; Chen, Fanjun; Chen, Yanling; Gao, Qiang; Yang, Xiaoli; Yuan, Lixing; Zhang, Fusuo; Mi, Guohua

    2013-03-01

    The impact of global changes on food security is of serious concern. Breeding novel crop cultivars adaptable to climate change is one potential solution, but this approach requires an understanding of complex adaptive traits for climate-change conditions. In this study, plant growth, nitrogen (N) uptake, and yield in relation to climatic resource use efficiency of nine representative maize cultivars released between 1973 and 2000 in China were investigated in a 2-year field experiment under three N applications. The Hybrid-Maize model was used to simulate maize yield potential in the period from 1973 to 2011. During the past four decades, the total thermal time (growing degree days) increased whereas the total precipitation and sunshine hours decreased. This climate change led to a reduction of maize potential yield by an average of 12.9% across different hybrids. However, the potential yield of individual hybrids increased by 118.5 kg ha(-1)  yr(-1) with increasing year of release. From 1973 to 2000, the use efficiency of sunshine hours, thermal time, and precipitation resources increased by 37%, 40%, and 41%, respectively. The late developed hybrids showed less reduction in yield potential in current climate conditions than old cultivars, indicating some adaptation to new conditions. Since the mid-1990s, however, the yield impact of climate change exhibited little change, and even a slight worsening for new cultivars. Modern breeding increased ear fertility and grain-filling rate, and delayed leaf senescence without modification in net photosynthetic rate. The trade-off associated with delayed leaf senescence was decreased grain N concentration rather than increased plant N uptake, therefore N agronomic efficiency increased simultaneously. It is concluded that modern maize hybrids tolerate the climatic changes mainly by constitutively optimizing plant productivity. Maize breeding programs in the future should pay more attention to cope with the limiting

  13. BIX-01294 increases pig cloning efficiency by improving epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Hongyong; Yao, Jing; Qin, Guosong; Wang, Feng; Wang, Xianlong; Luo, Ailing; Zheng, Qiantao; Cao, Chunwei; Zhao, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that faulty epigenetic reprogramming leads to the abnormal development of cloned embryos and results in the low success rates observed in all mammals produced through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The aberrant methylation status of H3K9me and H3K9me2 has been reported in cloned mouse embryos. To explore the role of H3K9me2 and H3K9me in the porcine somatic cell nuclear reprogramming, BIX-01294, known as a specific inhibitor of G9A (histone-lysine methyltransferase of H3K9), was used to treat the nuclear-transferred (NT) oocytes for 14-16 h after activation. The results showed that the developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos was significantly enhanced both in vitro (blastocyst rate 16.4% vs 23.2%, P<0.05) and in vivo (cloning rate 1.59% vs 2.96%) after 50 nm BIX-01294 treatment. BIX-01294 treatment significantly decreased the levels of H3K9me2 and H3K9me at the 2- and 4-cell stages, which are associated with embryo genetic activation, and increased the transcriptional expression of the pluripotency genes SOX2, NANOG and OCT4 in cloned blastocysts. Furthermore, the histone acetylation levels of H3K9, H4K8 and H4K12 in cloned embryos were decreased after BIX-01294 treatment. However, co-treatment of activated NT oocytes with BIX-01294 and Scriptaid rescued donor nuclear chromatin from decreased histone acetylation of H4K8 that resulted from exposure to BIX-01294 only and consequently improved the preimplantation development of SCNT embryos (blastocyst formation rates of 23.7% vs 21.5%). These results indicated that treatment with BIX-01294 enhanced the developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos through improvements in epigenetic reprogramming and gene expression.

  14. Microstructured porous ZnO thin film for increased light scattering and improved efficiency in inverted organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Amoolya; Kyaw, Aung Ko Ko; Sun, Xiao Wei; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2014-10-20

    Microstructured porous zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film was developed and demonstrated as an electron selective layer for enhancing light scattering and efficiency in inverted organic photovoltaics. High degree of porosity was induced and controlled in the ZnO layer by incorporation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) organic template. Scanning electron microscopy, contact angle and absorption measurements prove that the ZnO:PEG ratio of 4:1 is optimal for the best performance of porous ZnO. Ensuring sufficient pore-filling, the use of porous ZnO leads to a marked improvement in device performance compared to non-porous ZnO, with 35% increase in current density and 30% increase in efficiency. Haze factor studies indicate that the performance improvement can be primarily attributed to the improved light scattering enabled by such a highly porous structure.

  15. [Nutrient use efficiency and yield-increasing effect of single basal application of rice specific controlled release fertilizer].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiansheng; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Zhang, Fabao; Xie, Chunsheng

    2005-10-01

    A series of pot and field experiments and field demonstrations showed that in comparing with the commonly used specific-fertilizers containing same amounts of nutrients, single basal application of rice-specific controlled release fertilizer could increase the use efficiency of N and P by 12.2% - 22.7% and 7.0% - 35.0%, respectively in pot experiment, and the use efficiency of N by 17.1% in field experiment. In 167 field demonstrations successively conducted for 3 years in various rice production areas of Guangdong Province, single basal application of the fertilizer saved the application rate of N and P by 22.1% and 21.8%, respectively, and increased the yield by 8.2%, compared with normal split fertilization. PMID:16422505

  16. [Nutrient use efficiency and yield-increasing effect of single basal application of rice specific controlled release fertilizer].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiansheng; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Zhang, Fabao; Xie, Chunsheng

    2005-10-01

    A series of pot and field experiments and field demonstrations showed that in comparing with the commonly used specific-fertilizers containing same amounts of nutrients, single basal application of rice-specific controlled release fertilizer could increase the use efficiency of N and P by 12.2% - 22.7% and 7.0% - 35.0%, respectively in pot experiment, and the use efficiency of N by 17.1% in field experiment. In 167 field demonstrations successively conducted for 3 years in various rice production areas of Guangdong Province, single basal application of the fertilizer saved the application rate of N and P by 22.1% and 21.8%, respectively, and increased the yield by 8.2%, compared with normal split fertilization.

  17. Long-term increase in forest water-use efficiency observed across ecosystem carbon flux networks (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, T. F.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Bohrer, G.; Dragoni, D.; Munger, J. W.; Schmid, H. E.; Richardson, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere through photo- synthesis, a process that is accompanied by the loss of water vapour from leaves. The ratio of water loss to carbon gain, or water-use efficiency, is a key characteristic of ecosystem function that is central to the global cycles of water, energy and carbon. Here we analyse direct, long-term measurements of whole-ecosystem carbon and water exchange. We find a substantial increase in water-use efficiency in temperate and boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere over the past two decades. We systematically assess various competing hypotheses to explain this trend, and find that the observed increase is most consistent with a strong CO2 fertilization effect. The results suggest a partial closure of stomata - small pores on the leaf surface that regulate gas exchange - to maintain a near- constant concentration of CO2 inside the leaf even under continually increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. The observed increase in forest water-use efficiency is larger than that predicted by existing theory and 13 terrestrial biosphere models. The increase is associated with trends of increasing ecosystem-level photosynthesis and net carbon uptake, and decreasing evapotranspiration. Our findings demonstrate the utility of maintaining long-term eddy-covariance flux measurement sites. The results suggest a shift in the carbon- and water-based economics of terrestrial vegetation, which may require a reassessment of the role of stomatal control in regulating interactions between forests and climate change, and a re-evaluation of coupled vegetation-climate models.

  18. Increasing Efficiency of Water Use in Agriculture through Management of Soil Water Repellency to Optimize Soil and Water Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Demie; Kostka, Stan; McMillan, Mica; Gadd, Nick

    2010-05-01

    Water's ability to infiltrate and disperse in soils, and soil's ability to receive, transport, retain, filter and release water are important factors in the efficient use of water in agriculture. Deteriorating soil conditions, including development of soil water repellency, negatively impact hydrological processes and, consequently, the efficiency of rainfall and irrigation. Soil water repellency is increasingly being identified in diverse soils and cropping systems. Recently research has been conducted on the use of novel soil surfactants (co-formulations of alkyl polyglycoside and block copolymer surfactants) to avoid or overcome soil water repellency and enhance water distribution in soils. Results indicate that this is an effective and affordable approach to maintaining or restoring soil and water productivity in irrigated cropping systems. Results from studies conducted in Australia and the United States to determine how this technology modifies soil hydrological behavior and crop yields will be presented. A range of soils and various crops, including potatoes, corn, apples and grapes, were included. Several rates were compared to controls for effect on soil moisture levels, soil water distribution, and crop yield. An economic analysis was also conducted in some trials. Treatments improved rootzone water status, significantly increased crop yield and quality, and in some cases allowed significant reductions in water requirements. Where assessed, a positive economic return was generated. This technology holds promise as a strategy for increasing efficiency of water use in agriculture.

  19. Does plasticity in plant physiological traits explain the rapid increase in water use efficiency? An ecohydrological modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrotheodoros, Theodoros; Fatichi, Simone; Pappas, Christoforos; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The rise of atmospheric CO2 concentration is expected to stimulate plant productivity by enhancing photosynthesis and reducing stomatal conductance and thus increasing plant water use efficiency (WUE) worldwide. An analysis of eddy covariance flux tower data from 21 forested ecosystems across the north hemisphere detected an unexpectedly large increase in WUE (Keenan et al, 2013), which was six times larger than the increase found by most previous studies based on controlled experiments (e.g., FACE), leaf-scale analyses, and numerical modelling. This increase could be solely attributed to the increase in atmospheric CO2 since other confounding factors were ruled out. Here, we investigate the potential contribution of plant plasticity, reflected in the temporal adjustment of major plant physiological traits, on changes in WUE using the ecohydrological model Tethys and Chloris (T&C). We hypothesize that the increase in WUE can be attributed to small variations in plant physiological traits, undetectable through observations, eventually triggered by the atmospheric CO2 increase. Data from the 21 sites in the above mentioned study are used to force the model. Simulation results with and without plasticity in the physiological traits (i.e., model parameters in our numerical experiments) are compared with the observed trends in WUE. We test several plant adaptation strategies in being effective in explaining the observed increase in WUE using a multifactorial numerical experiment in which we perturb in a systematic way selected plant parameters. Keenan, T. F., Hollinger, D. Y., Bohrer, G., Dragoni, D., Munger, J. W., Schmid, H. P., and Richardson, A. D. (2013). Increase in forest water-use efficiency as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise. Nature, 499(7458), 324-7.

  20. Increased Efficiency of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator through Optimization of NdFeB Magnet Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazdozian, Helena; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2014-03-01

    The United States is currently dependent on fossil fuels for the majority of its energy needs, which has many negative consequences such as climate change. Wind turbines present a viable alternative, with the highest energy return on investment among even fossil fuel generation. Traditional commercial wind turbines use an induction generator for energy conversion. However, induction generators require a gearbox to increase the rotational speed of the drive shaft. These gearboxes increase the overall cost of the wind turbine and account for about 35 percent of reported wind turbine failures. Direct drive permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs) offer an alternative to induction generators which eliminate the need for a gearbox. Yet, PMSGs can be more expensive than induction generators at large power output due to their size and weight. To increase the efficiency of PMSGs, the geometry and configuration of NdFeB permanent magnets were investigated using finite element techniques. The optimized design of the PMSG increases flux density and minimizes cogging torque with NdFeB permanent magnets of a reduced volume. These factors serve to increase the efficiency and reduce the overall cost of the PMSG. This work is supported by a National Science Foundation IGERT fellowship and the Barbara and James Palmer Endowment at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Iowa State University.

  1. Lightweighting Automotive Materials for Increased Fuel Efficiency and Delivering Advanced Modeling and Simulation Capabilities to U.S. Manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Steve

    2013-09-11

    Abstract The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), to bring together research and development (R&D) collaborations to develop and accelerate the knowledgebase and infrastructure for lightweighting materials and manufacturing processes for their use in structural and applications in the automotive sector. The purpose/importance of this DOE program: • 2016 CAFÉ standards. • Automotive industry technology that shall adopt the insertion of lightweighting material concepts towards manufacturing of production vehicles. • Development and manufacture of advanced research tools for modeling and simulation (M&S) applications to reduce manufacturing and material costs. • U.S. competitiveness that will help drive the development and manufacture of the next generation of materials. NCMS established a focused portfolio of applied R&D projects utilizing lightweighting materials for manufacture into automotive structures and components. Areas that were targeted in this program: • Functionality of new lightweighting materials to meet present safety requirements. • Manufacturability using new lightweighting materials. • Cost reduction for the development and use of new lightweighting materials. The automotive industry’s future continuously evolves through innovation, and lightweight materials are key in achieving a new era of lighter, more efficient vehicles. Lightweight materials are among the technical advances needed to achieve fuel/energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions: • Establish design criteria methodology to identify the best materials for lightweighting. • Employ state-of-the-art design tools for optimum material development for their specific applications. • Match new manufacturing technology to production volume. • Address new process variability with new production-ready processes.

  2. RNAi Knock-Down of LHCBM1, 2 and 3 Increases Photosynthetic H2 Production Efficiency of the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Oey, Melanie; Ross, Ian L.; Stephens, Evan; Steinbeck, Janina; Wolf, Juliane; Radzun, Khairul Adzfa; Kügler, Johannes; Ringsmuth, Andrew K.; Kruse, Olaf; Hankamer, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Single cell green algae (microalgae) are rapidly emerging as a platform for the production of sustainable fuels. Solar-driven H2 production from H2O theoretically provides the highest-efficiency route to fuel production in microalgae. This is because the H2-producing hydrogenase (HYDA) is directly coupled to the photosynthetic electron transport chain, thereby eliminating downstream energetic losses associated with the synthesis of carbohydrate and oils (feedstocks for methane, ethanol and oil-based fuels). Here we report the simultaneous knock-down of three light-harvesting complex proteins (LHCMB1, 2 and 3) in the high H2-producing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant Stm6Glc4 using an RNAi triple knock-down strategy. The resultant Stm6Glc4L01 mutant exhibited a light green phenotype, reduced expression of LHCBM1 (20.6% ±0.27%), LHCBM2 (81.2% ±0.037%) and LHCBM3 (41.4% ±0.05%) compared to 100% control levels, and improved light to H2 (180%) and biomass (165%) conversion efficiencies. The improved H2 production efficiency was achieved at increased solar flux densities (450 instead of ∼100 µE m−2 s−1) and high cell densities which are best suited for microalgae production as light is ideally the limiting factor. Our data suggests that the overall improved photon-to-H2 conversion efficiency is due to: 1) reduced loss of absorbed energy by non-photochemical quenching (fluorescence and heat losses) near the photobioreactor surface; 2) improved light distribution in the reactor; 3) reduced photoinhibition; 4) early onset of HYDA expression and 5) reduction of O2-induced inhibition of HYDA. The Stm6Glc4L01 phenotype therefore provides important insights for the development of high-efficiency photobiological H2 production systems. PMID:23613840

  3. RNAi knock-down of LHCBM1, 2 and 3 increases photosynthetic H2 production efficiency of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Oey, Melanie; Ross, Ian L; Stephens, Evan; Steinbeck, Janina; Wolf, Juliane; Radzun, Khairul Adzfa; Kügler, Johannes; Ringsmuth, Andrew K; Kruse, Olaf; Hankamer, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Single cell green algae (microalgae) are rapidly emerging as a platform for the production of sustainable fuels. Solar-driven H2 production from H2O theoretically provides the highest-efficiency route to fuel production in microalgae. This is because the H2-producing hydrogenase (HYDA) is directly coupled to the photosynthetic electron transport chain, thereby eliminating downstream energetic losses associated with the synthesis of carbohydrate and oils (feedstocks for methane, ethanol and oil-based fuels). Here we report the simultaneous knock-down of three light-harvesting complex proteins (LHCMB1, 2 and 3) in the high H2-producing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant Stm6Glc4 using an RNAi triple knock-down strategy. The resultant Stm6Glc4L01 mutant exhibited a light green phenotype, reduced expression of LHCBM1 (20.6% ±0.27%), LHCBM2 (81.2% ±0.037%) and LHCBM3 (41.4% ±0.05%) compared to 100% control levels, and improved light to H2 (180%) and biomass (165%) conversion efficiencies. The improved H2 production efficiency was achieved at increased solar flux densities (450 instead of ∼100 µE m(-2) s(-1)) and high cell densities which are best suited for microalgae production as light is ideally the limiting factor. Our data suggests that the overall improved photon-to-H2 conversion efficiency is due to: 1) reduced loss of absorbed energy by non-photochemical quenching (fluorescence and heat losses) near the photobioreactor surface; 2) improved light distribution in the reactor; 3) reduced photoinhibition; 4) early onset of HYDA expression and 5) reduction of O2-induced inhibition of HYDA. The Stm6Glc4L01 phenotype therefore provides important insights for the development of high-efficiency photobiological H2 production systems. PMID:23613840

  4. Increased water use efficiency but contrasting tree growth patterns in Fitzroya cupressoides forests of southern Chile during recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Jalabert, Rocío.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Barichivich, Jonathan; Lara, Antonio; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Rodríguez, Carmen Gloria; Cuq, Emilio

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about how old-growth and massive forests are responding to environmental change. We investigated tree-ring growth and carbon isotopes of the long-lived and high biomass Fitzroya cupressoides in two stands growing in contrasting environmental conditions in the Coastal Range (~300 years old) and Andean Cordilleras (>1500 years old) of southern Chile. The interannual variability in δ13C was assessed for the period 1800-2010, and changes in discrimination and intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) were evaluated in relation to changes in climate and tree-ring growth during the last century. 13C discrimination has significantly decreased, and iWUE has increased since the 1900s in both sites. However, these trends in isotopic composition have been accompanied by different growth patterns: decreasing growth rates in the Coastal Range since the 1970s and increasing growth rates in the Andes since the 1900s. Trees growing in the Coastal Range have become more efficient in their use of water, probably due to reduced stomatal conductance caused by increases in CO2 and warming. Trees growing in the Andes have also become more water use efficient, but this has been likely due to increased photosynthetic rates. Fitzroya forests, including particularly old-growth stands, are responding to recent environmental changes, and their response has been site dependent. The growth of forests under a more Mediterranean climate influence and restrictive soil conditions in the Coastal Range has been more negatively affected by current warming and drying; while the growth of old stands in the wet Andes has been positively affected by changes in climate (decreasing cloudiness) and increasing CO2. Permanent monitoring of these endangered forests under ongoing environmental changes is needed in order to reassure the long-term preservation of this millennial-aged species.

  5. Increased Efficiency LED

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio O. (Inventor); Rogowski, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    In an LED a large portion of the light produced is lost due to total internal reflection at the air-semiconductor interface. A reverse taper of the semiconductor is used to change the angle at which light strikes the interface so that a greater portion of the light is transmitted.

  6. [An increase in efficiency of adaptations and a weakening of organism protective reactions in the process of biological evolution].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, K P

    2014-01-01

    The main direction of evolution of living organisms is development of the central nervous system and sense organ, an increase of energy exchange development of homoiothermia, development of the more and more complex forms of behavior, an increase in energy expenditure in connection with an increase of the organism activity, and development of adaptation to the habitat. Such fundamental processes were subjected and have been subjected to numerous studies and discussions. However, in different animals there exist different species peculiarities of evolution of physiological functions, from which finally formed are fundamental evolutionary processes. We studied some of these specific processes by dividing them into two categories. The first category is "Increase of efficiency of adaptation" in development of biological evolution. By this term we mean development of amazing by perfection specific physiological mechanisms of adaptive character. The second category is "Weakening of protective organism reactions". By this we understand disturbance of protective mechanisms of the organism immune system, discoordination of movement of leukocytes along microvessels, the absence of efficient collateral circulation in brain and in heart, etc.

  7. Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

    2004-12-21

    Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy and energy efficiency identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but this paper touches on just one potential benefit: displacement of gas-fired electricity generation, which reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE and EE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE and EE. This paper summarizes recent studies that have evaluated the gas-price-reduction effect of RE and EE deployment, analyzes the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, reviews the reasonableness of the effect as portrayed in modeling studies, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE and EE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model. Key findings are summarized.

  8. In pursuit of virtual lead optimization: Pruning ensembles of receptor structures for increased efficiency and accuracy during docking

    PubMed Central

    Bolstad, Erin S. D.; Anderson, Amy C.

    2008-01-01

    Representing receptors as ensembles of protein conformations during docking is a powerful method to approximate protein flexibility and increase the accuracy of the resulting ranked list of compounds. Unfortunately, docking compounds against a large number of ensemble members can increase computational cost and time investment. In this manuscript, we present an efficient method to evaluate and select the most contributive ensemble members prior to docking for targets with a conserved core of residues that bind a ligand moiety. We observed that ensemble members that preserve the geometry of the active site core are most likely to place ligands in the active site with a conserved orientation, generally rank ligands correctly and increase interactions with the receptor. A relative distance approach is used to quantify the preservation of the three-dimensional interatomic distances of the conserved ligand-binding atoms and prune large ensembles quickly. In this study, we investigate dihydrofolate reductase as an example of a protein with a conserved core; however, this method for accurately selecting relevant ensemble members a priori can be applied to any system with a conserved ligand-binding core, including HIV-1 protease, kinases and acetylcholinesterase. Representing a drug target as a pruned ensemble during in silico screening should increase the accuracy and efficiency of high throughput analyses of lead analogs. PMID:18781587

  9. Growth efficiency increases as relative growth rate increases in shoots and roots of Eucalyptus globulus deprived of nitrogen or treated with salt.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Craig; Hansen, Lee D; Edwards, Justine; White, Donald A; Adams, Mark A

    2005-05-01

    We used calorimetry to test whether there is a single general relationship between growth and respiration in shoots and roots of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. seedlings when stressed, irrespective of the type or severity of stress. We found that nitrogen (N) deprivation and salt treatment had no effect on the relationship between growth and respiration and little effect on absolute rates of respiration. Carbon-conversion efficiency (epsilonC) ranged from 0.7 to 0.9 for specific growth rates (R(SG)) greater than 0.3 day(-1). Above an R(SG) of 0.1 day(-1), epsilonC decreased gradually with decreasing R(SG) and between an R(SG) of 0- 0.1 day(-1), epsilonC decreased rapidly. We conclude that the relationship between epsilonC and R(SG) is not greatly affected by salt or N-deprivation stresses. Relationships between gross productivity and epsilonC may be generally applicable, in which case they could improve on the "flat-tax" approach to modeling net primary productivity from gross productivity while avoiding the complexity of more explicit models of plant respiration. However, the relationship between gross productivity and epsilonC was sensitive to temperature and the effect of temperature on epsilonC thus requires further investigation. Nitrogen deprivation caused large decreases in leaf area and shoot to root ratio, and mature leaves of N-deprived plants had lower intrinsic water-use efficiencies than leaves of plants well supplied with nutrients. Nitrogen deprivation increased apical dominance and most of the reduction in leaf area was the result of fewer secondary branches, although leaf size was also reduced. Our results suggest that N deprivation reduces productivity primarily by reducing sink size, rather than sink activity, and that apical dominance may be an important mechanism for maintaining adequate epsilonC in resource-limited conditions.

  10. Growth efficiency increases as relative growth rate increases in shoots and roots of Eucalyptus globulus deprived of nitrogen or treated with salt.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Craig; Hansen, Lee D; Edwards, Justine; White, Donald A; Adams, Mark A

    2005-05-01

    We used calorimetry to test whether there is a single general relationship between growth and respiration in shoots and roots of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. seedlings when stressed, irrespective of the type or severity of stress. We found that nitrogen (N) deprivation and salt treatment had no effect on the relationship between growth and respiration and little effect on absolute rates of respiration. Carbon-conversion efficiency (epsilonC) ranged from 0.7 to 0.9 for specific growth rates (R(SG)) greater than 0.3 day(-1). Above an R(SG) of 0.1 day(-1), epsilonC decreased gradually with decreasing R(SG) and between an R(SG) of 0- 0.1 day(-1), epsilonC decreased rapidly. We conclude that the relationship between epsilonC and R(SG) is not greatly affected by salt or N-deprivation stresses. Relationships between gross productivity and epsilonC may be generally applicable, in which case they could improve on the "flat-tax" approach to modeling net primary productivity from gross productivity while avoiding the complexity of more explicit models of plant respiration. However, the relationship between gross productivity and epsilonC was sensitive to temperature and the effect of temperature on epsilonC thus requires further investigation. Nitrogen deprivation caused large decreases in leaf area and shoot to root ratio, and mature leaves of N-deprived plants had lower intrinsic water-use efficiencies than leaves of plants well supplied with nutrients. Nitrogen deprivation increased apical dominance and most of the reduction in leaf area was the result of fewer secondary branches, although leaf size was also reduced. Our results suggest that N deprivation reduces productivity primarily by reducing sink size, rather than sink activity, and that apical dominance may be an important mechanism for maintaining adequate epsilonC in resource-limited conditions. PMID:15741150

  11. Genetically Enhanced Sorghum and Sugarcane: Engineering Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis and Storage together with Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency into the Saccharinae

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-15

    PETRO Project: UIUC is working to convert sugarcane and sorghum—already 2 of the most productive crops in the world—into dedicated bio-oil crop systems. Three components will be engineered to produce new crops that have a 50% higher yield, produce easily extractable oils, and have a wider growing range across the U.S. This will be achieved by modifying the crop canopy to better distribute sunlight and increase its cold tolerance. By directly producing oil in the shoots of these plants, these biofuels could be easily extracted with the conventional crushing techniques used today to extract sugar.

  12. Analysis of an Increase in the Efficiency of a Spark Ignition Engine Through the Application of an Automotive Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Galant, Marta; Siedlecki, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    We have analyzed the increase of the overall efficiency of a spark ignition engine through energy recovery following the application of an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG) of our own design. The design of the generator was developed following emission investigations during vehicle driving under city traffic conditions. The measurement points were defined by actual operation conditions (engine speed and load), subsequently reproduced on an engine dynamometer. Both the vehicle used in the on-road tests and the engine dynamometer were fit with the same, downsized spark ignition engine (with high effective power-to-displacement ratio). The thermodynamic parameters of the exhaust gases (temperature and exhaust gas mass flow) were measured on the engine testbed, along with the fuel consumption and electric current generated by the thermoelectric modules. On this basis, the power of the ATEG and its impact on overall engine efficiency were determined.

  13. Increasing dust-absorbing equipment operation efficiency using the automatic laser instrument for solid particle concentration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privalov, Vadim V.; Shemanin, Valery G.; Charty, Pavel V.

    2003-06-01

    The technological process of cement production, which side effect is dust generating and its exhausting to atmosphere, is not stopped as a rule when some faults were origin in dust-absorbing equipment (DAE). The analysis in reference one shows that longtime conducting of the technological process at DAE refusal or fault leads to its working efficiency reduction, which reveals itself in significant excess of nominal values of the dust output concentrations. The number of the most typical refusals and damages and algorithms of their searching were analyzed in work in reference 2 for the most wide-spread dust-absorber types: blanch and electrostatic filters. This work goal are the estimation of DAE working efficiency and choosing of the optimum way of its increasing with using of the automatic laser instrument for aerosol particles concentration measuring in the dust-air flows.

  14. Increasing the sampling efficiency of protein conformational transition using velocity-scaling optimized hybrid explicit/implicit solvent REMD simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yuqi; Wang, Jinan; Shao, Qiang E-mail: Jiye.Shi@ucb.com Zhu, Weiliang E-mail: Jiye.Shi@ucb.com; Shi, Jiye E-mail: Jiye.Shi@ucb.com

    2015-03-28

    The application of temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulation on protein motion is limited by its huge requirement of computational resource, particularly when explicit solvent model is implemented. In the previous study, we developed a velocity-scaling optimized hybrid explicit/implicit solvent REMD method with the hope to reduce the temperature (replica) number on the premise of maintaining high sampling efficiency. In this study, we utilized this method to characterize and energetically identify the conformational transition pathway of a protein model, the N-terminal domain of calmodulin. In comparison to the standard explicit solvent REMD simulation, the hybrid REMD is much less computationally expensive but, meanwhile, gives accurate evaluation of the structural and thermodynamic properties of the conformational transition which are in well agreement with the standard REMD simulation. Therefore, the hybrid REMD could highly increase the computational efficiency and thus expand the application of REMD simulation to larger-size protein systems.

  15. Enhanced assimilation rate and water use efficiency with latitude through increased photosynthetic capacity and internal conductance in balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.).

    PubMed

    Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Guy, Robert D; Silim, Salim N; Drewes, Eric C; Schroeder, William R

    2009-12-01

    In outdoor common gardens, high latitude populations of deciduous tree species often display higher assimilation rates (A) than low latitude populations, but they accomplish less height. To test whether trends in A reflect adaptation to growing season length or, alternatively, are garden growth artefacts, we examined variation in height increment and ecophysiological traits in a range-wide collection of Populus balsamifera L. populations from 21 provenances, during unconstrained growth in a greenhouse. Rooted cuttings, maintained without resource limitation under 21 h photoperiod for 90 d, displayed increasing height growth, A, leaf mass per area and leaf N per area with latitude whereas stomatal conductance (g(s)) showed no pattern. Water-use efficiency as indicated by both gas exchange and delta(13)C increased with latitude, whereas photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency decreased. Differences in delta(13)C were less than expected based on A/g(s), suggesting coextensive variation in internal conductance (g(m)). Analysis of A-C(i) curves on a subset of populations showed that high latitude genotypes had greater g(m) than low-latitude genotypes. We conclude that higher peak rates of height growth in high latitude genotypes of balsam poplar are supported by higher A, achieved partly through higher g(m), to help compensate for a shorter growing season.

  16. Increase in joint stability at the expense of energy efficiency correlates with force variability during a fatiguing task.

    PubMed

    Cashaback, Joshua G A; Cluff, Tyler

    2015-02-26

    Empirical evidence suggests that our nervous system considers many objectives when performing various tasks. With the progression of fatigue, researchers have noted increase in both joint moment variability and muscular cocontraction during isometric force production tasks. Muscular cocontraction increases joint stability, but is metabolically costly. Thus, our nervous system must select a compromise between joint stability and energy efficiency. Interestingly, the continuous increase in cocontraction with fatigue suggests there may be a shift in the relative weighting of these objectives. Here we test the notion of dynamic objective weightings. Using multi-objective optimization, we found a shift in objective weighting that favoured joint stability at the expense of energy efficiency during fatigue. This shift was highly correlated with muscular cocontraction (R(2)=0.78, p<0.001) and elbow moment variability in the time (R(2)=0.56, p<0.01) and frequency (R(2)=0.57, p<0.01) domains. By considering a dynamic objective weighting we obtained strong correlations with predicted and collected muscle activity (R(2)=0.94, p<0.001).

  17. No growth stimulation of tropical trees by 150 years of CO2 fertilization but water-use efficiency increased

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sleen, Peter; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; Anten, Niels P. R.; Boom, Arnoud; Bongers, Frans; Pons, Thijs L.; Terburg, Gideon; Zuidema, Pieter A.

    2015-01-01

    The biomass of undisturbed tropical forests has likely increased in the past few decades, probably as a result of accelerated tree growth. Higher CO2 levels are expected to raise plant photosynthetic rates and enhance water-use efficiency, that is, the ratio of carbon assimilation through photosynthesis to water loss through transpiration. However, there is no evidence that these physiological responses do indeed stimulate tree growth in tropical forests. Here we present measurements of stable carbon isotopes and growth rings in the wood of 1,100 trees from Bolivia, Cameroon and Thailand. Measurements of carbon isotope fractions in the wood indicate that intrinsic water-use efficiency in both understorey and canopy trees increased by 30-35% over the past 150 years as atmospheric CO2 concentrations increased. However, we found no evidence for the suggested concurrent acceleration of individual tree growth when analysing the width of growth rings. We conclude that the widespread assumption of a CO2-induced stimulation of tropical tree growth may not be valid.

  18. Continent-wide increase of water-use efficiency in vegetation during severe droughts of the recent decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Wouter; van der Velde, Ivar; Miller, John. B.; Tans, Pieter P.; Vaughn, Bruce; White, James W. C.

    2015-04-01

    Recent severe droughts in Europe, Russia, China, and North America have caused widespread decline of agricultural yield and reduction of forest carbon uptake during the past decade. During droughts plants limit their water-loss at the expense of carbon uptake by partially closing their stomata, which increases the intrinsic water-use efficiency defined as the ratio of gross primary production to stomatal conductance. Here we present new evidence on this drought response of terrestrial vegetation derived from year-to-year changes in the 13C:12C stable isotope ratio in atmospheric CO2 (δ13C). Observations from more than 50,000 flask samples from a global monitoring network show a strong increase in water-use efficiency over continent-wide scales during severe droughts in Europe (2003, 2006), Russia (2010), and the United States (2002). This large-scale area-integrated vegetation drought response can not be measured from laboratory experiments or local-scale field studies and the atmospheric δ13C record thus offers a unique perspective on large-scale vegetation drought dynamics. Independent evidence from multiple eddy-covariance sites supports our inverse model interpretation of the observed global atmospheric δ13C record. With the parameterized stomatal conductance and soil moisture response used in our study, as well as many current climate models, our vegetation model underestimates this increase in water-use efficiency during severe droughts. We therefore suggest minor modifications to better reproduce the observations. We conclude that the global δ13C record provides a new opportunity to test and improve interannual drought dynamics in coupled biosphere-atmosphere models for CO2.

  19. Web-based oil immersion whole slide imaging increases efficiency and clinical team satisfaction in hematopathology tumor board

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhongchuan Will; Kohan, Jessica; Perkins, Sherrie L.; Hussong, Jerry W.; Salama, Mohamed E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whole slide imaging (WSI) is widely used for education and research, but is increasingly being used to streamline clinical workflow. We present our experience with regard to satisfaction and time utilization using oil immersion WSI for presentation of blood/marrow aspirate smears, core biopsies, and tissue sections in hematology/oncology tumor board/treatment planning conferences (TPC). Methods: Lymph nodes and bone marrow core biopsies were scanned at ×20 magnification and blood/marrow smears at 83X under oil immersion and uploaded to an online library with areas of interest to be displayed annotated digitally via web browser. Pathologist time required to prepare slides for scanning was compared to that required to prepare for microscope projection (MP). Time required to present cases during TPC was also compared. A 10-point evaluation survey was used to assess clinician satisfaction with each presentation method. Results: There was no significant difference in hematopathologist preparation time between WSI and MP. However, presentation time was significantly less for WSI compared to MP as selection and annotation of slides was done prior to TPC with WSI, enabling more efficient use of TPC presentation time. Survey results showed a significant increase in satisfaction by clinical attendees with regard to image quality, efficiency of presentation of pertinent findings, aid in clinical decision-making, and overall satisfaction regarding pathology presentation. A majority of respondents also noted decreased motion sickness with WSI. Conclusions: Whole slide imaging, particularly with the ability to use oil scanning, provides higher quality images compared to MP and significantly increases clinician satisfaction. WSI streamlines preparation for TPC by permitting prior slide selection, resulting in greater efficiency during TPC presentation. PMID:25379347

  20. Light-induced V{sub oc} increase and decrease in high-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stuckelberger, M. Riesen, Y.; Despeisse, M.; Schüttauf, J.-W.; Haug, F.-J.; Ballif, C.

    2014-09-07

    High-efficiency amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells were deposited with different thicknesses of the p-type amorphous silicon carbide layer on substrates of varying roughness. We observed a light-induced open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) increase upon light soaking for thin p-layers, but a decrease for thick p-layers. Further, the V{sub oc} increase is enhanced with increasing substrate roughness. After correction of the p-layer thickness for the increased surface area of rough substrates, we can exclude varying the effective p-layer thickness as the cause of the substrate roughness dependence. Instead, we explain the observations by an increase of the dangling-bond density in both the p-layer—causing a V{sub oc} increase—and in the intrinsic absorber layer, causing a V{sub oc} decrease. We present a mechanism for the light-induced increase and decrease, justified by the investigation of light-induced changes of the p-layer and supported by Advanced Semiconductor Analysis simulation. We conclude that a shift of the electron quasi-Fermi level towards the conduction band is the reason for the observed V{sub oc} enhancements, and poor amorphous silicon quality on rough substrates enhances this effect.

  1. Design principles for innovative workspaces to increase efficiency in pharmaceutical R&D: lessons learned from the Novartis campus.

    PubMed

    Zoller, Frank A; Boutellier, Roman

    2013-04-01

    When managing R&D departments for increased efficiency and effectiveness the focus has often been on organizational structure. Space is, however, of outstanding importance in an environment of large task uncertainty, which is the case in pharmaceutical R&D. Based on case studies about the Novartis campus in Basel, Switzerland, we propose some design principles for laboratory and office workspace to support the strong and weak ties of scientist networks. We address the diversity of technologies and specialization, as well as the pressure on time-to-market, as major challenges in pharmaceutical R&D. PMID:23318251

  2. Design principles for innovative workspaces to increase efficiency in pharmaceutical R&D: lessons learned from the Novartis campus.

    PubMed

    Zoller, Frank A; Boutellier, Roman

    2013-04-01

    When managing R&D departments for increased efficiency and effectiveness the focus has often been on organizational structure. Space is, however, of outstanding importance in an environment of large task uncertainty, which is the case in pharmaceutical R&D. Based on case studies about the Novartis campus in Basel, Switzerland, we propose some design principles for laboratory and office workspace to support the strong and weak ties of scientist networks. We address the diversity of technologies and specialization, as well as the pressure on time-to-market, as major challenges in pharmaceutical R&D.

  3. The Value of Extracurricular Support in Increased Student Achievement: An Assessment of a Pupil Personnel Model Including School Counselors and School Psychologists Concerning Student Achievement as Measured by an Academic Performance Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Greg S.; Young, I. Phillip

    2006-01-01

    This study examined two models of extra-curricular support for enhancing the academic achievement of students as measured by state mandated test scores. One management model includes the use of school counselors as enhancers of the educational process while the other model addresses the contribution of school psychologists. To differentiate…

  4. Increased Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and rooting efficiencies in canola (Brassica napus L.) from hypocotyl segment explants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardoza, V.; Stewart, C. N.

    2003-01-01

    An efficient protocol for the production of transgenic Brassica napus cv. Westar plants was developed by optimizing two important parameters: preconditioning time and co-cultivation time. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was performed using hypocotyls as explant tissue. Two variants of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encoding gene--mGFP5-ER and eGFP--both under the constitutive expression of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, were used for the experiments. Optimizing the preconditioning time to 72 h and co-cultivation time with Agrobacterium to 48 h provided the increase in the transformation efficiency from a baseline of 4% to 25%. With mGFP5-ER, the transformation rate was 17% and with eGFP it was 25%. Transgenic shoots were selected on 200 mg/l kanamycin. Rooting efficiency was 100% on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with 10 g/l sucrose and 0.5 mg/l indole butyric acid in the presence of kanamycin.

  5. Self-Assembled Monolayers of n-Alkanethiols Suppress Hydrogen Evolution and Increase the Efficiency of Rechargeable Iron Battery Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Manohar, AK; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-01-09

    Iron-based rechargeable batteries, because of their low cost, eco-friendliness, and durability, are extremely attractive for large-scale energy storage. A principal challenge in the deployment of these batteries is their relatively low electrical efficiency. The low efficiency is due to parasitic hydrogen evolution that occurs on the iron electrode during charging and idle stand. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that linear alkanethiols are very effective in suppressing hydrogen evolution on alkaline iron battery electrodes. The alkanethiols form self-assembled monolayers on the iron electrodes. The degree of suppression of hydrogen evolution by the alkanethiols was found to be greater than 90%, and the effectiveness of the alkanethiol increased with the chain length. Through steady-state potentiostatic polarization studies and impedance measurements on high-purity iron disk electrodes, we show that the self-assembly of alkanethiols suppressed the parasitic reaction by reducing the interfacial area available for the electrochemical reaction. We have modeled the effect of chain length of the alkanethiol on the surface coverage, charge-transfer resistance, and double-layer capacitance of the interface using a simple model that also yields a value for the interchain interaction energy. We have verified the improvement in charging efficiency resulting from the use of the alkanethiols in practical rechargeable iron battery electrodes. The results of battery tests indicate that alkanethiols yield among the highest faradaic efficiencies reported for the rechargeable iron electrodes, enabling the prospect of a large-scale energy storage solution based on low-cost iron-based rechargeable batteries.

  6. Keeping Middle Grades Students on the Path to Success in High School: Increasing Engagement and Achievement in SREB States. Challenge to Lead Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Marilyn; Collins, Crystal

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the stall of progress in middle grades reading and math achievement. It analyzes results on state assessments and the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) and indicates steps that will help states regain progress in achievement. It also lays out five specific strategies states can use to keep middle grades…

  7. Increase in spin injection efficiency of a CoFe/MgO(100) tunnel spin injector with thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, R.; Jiang, X.; Shelby, R.M.; Macfarlane, R.M.; Parkin, S.S.P.; Bank, S.R.; Harris, J.S.

    2005-01-31

    Postgrowth thermal annealing of a CoFe/MgO(100) tunnel spin injector grown on aGaAs/AlGaAs quantum well structure results in a significantly increased spin injection efficiency as inferred from the polarization of heavy-hole electroluminescence from a quantum well optical detector. The as-deposited sample displayed an initial polarization at 100 K of 43%, which was increased to 52% after a 1 h anneal at 300 deg. C, and finally to 55% after a second 1 h anneal at 340 deg. C. The polarization remained unchanged upon further annealing to temperatures as high as 400 deg. C. These results show that tunnel spin injectors based on CoFe/MgO are robust with high thermal stability, making them useful for device applications.

  8. Modeling an increase in the lift and aerodynamic efficiency of a thick Göttingen airfoil with optimum arrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, S. A.; Sudakov, A. G.; Usachov, A. E.; Kharchenko, V. B.

    2015-06-01

    The Reynolds equations closed using the Menter shear-stress-transfer model modified with allowance for the curvature of flow line have been numerically solved jointly with the energy equation. The obtained solution has been used to calculate subsonic flow (at M = 0.05 and 5° angle of attack) past a thick (24% chord) Göttingen airfoil with variable arrangement of a small-sized (about 10% chord) circular vortex cell with fixed distributed suction Cq = 0.007 from the surface of a central body. It is established that the optimum arrangement of the vortex cell provides a twofold decrease in the bow drag coefficient Cx, a threefold increase in the lift coefficient Cy, and an about fivefold increase in the aerodynamic efficiency at Re = 105 in comparison to the smooth airfoil.

  9. Employing Si solar cell technology to increase efficiency of ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Vermang, Bart; Wätjen, Jörn Timo; Fjällström, Viktor; Rostvall, Fredrik; Edoff, Marika; Kotipalli, Ratan; Henry, Frederic; Flandre, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Reducing absorber layer thickness below 500 nm in regular Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells decreases cell efficiency considerably, as both short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage are reduced because of incomplete absorption and high Mo/CIGS rear interface recombination. In this work, an innovative rear cell design is developed to avoid both effects: a highly reflective rear surface passivation layer with nano-sized local point contact openings is employed to enhance rear internal reflection and decrease the rear surface recombination velocity significantly, as compared with a standard Mo/CIGS rear interface. The formation of nano-sphere shaped precipitates in chemical bath deposition of CdS is used to generate nano-sized point contact openings. Evaporation of MgF2 coated with a thin atomic layer deposited Al2O3 layer, or direct current magnetron sputtering of Al2O3 are used as rear surface passivation layers. Rear internal reflection is enhanced substantially by the increased thickness of the passivation layer, and also the rear surface recombination velocity is reduced at the Al2O3/CIGS rear interface. (MgF2/)Al2O3 rear surface passivated ultra-thin CIGS solar cells are fabricated, showing an increase in short circuit current and open circuit voltage compared to unpassivated reference cells with equivalent CIGS thickness. Accordingly, average solar cell efficiencies of 13.5% are realized for 385 nm thick CIGS absorber layers, compared with 9.1% efficiency for the corresponding unpassivated reference cells. PMID:26300619

  10. Reduced efficiency, but increased fat oxidation, in mitochondria from human skeletal muscle after 24-h ultraendurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Fernström, Maria; Bakkman, Linda; Tonkonogi, Michail; Shabalina, Irina G; Rozhdestvenskaya, Zinaida; Mattsson, C Mikael; Enqvist, Jonas K; Ekblom, Björn; Sahlin, Kent

    2007-05-01

    The hypothesis that ultraendurance exercise influences muscle mitochondrial function has been investigated. Athletes in ultraendurance performance performed running, kayaking, and cycling at 60% of their peak O(2) consumption for 24 h. Muscle biopsies were taken preexercise (Pre-Ex), postexercise (Post-Ex), and after 28 h of recovery (Rec). Respiration was analyzed in isolated mitochondria during state 3 (coupled to ATP synthesis) and state 4 (noncoupled respiration), with fatty acids alone [palmitoyl carnitine (PC)] or together with pyruvate (Pyr). Electron transport chain activity was measured with NADH in permeabilized mitochondria. State 3 respiration with PC increased Post-Ex by 39 and 41% (P < 0.05) when related to mitochondrial protein and to electron transport chain activity, respectively. State 3 respiration with Pyr was not changed (P > 0.05). State 4 respiration with PC increased Post-Ex but was lower than Pre-Ex at Rec (P < 0.05 vs. Pre-Ex). Mitochondrial efficiency [amount of added ADP divided by oxygen consumed during state 3 (P/O ratio)] decreased Post-Ex by 9 and 6% (P < 0.05) with PC and PC + Pyr, respectively. P/O ratio remained reduced at Rec. Muscle uncoupling protein 3, measured with Western blotting, was not changed Post-Ex but tended to decrease at Rec (P = 0.07 vs. Pre-Ex). In conclusion, extreme endurance exercise decreases mitochondrial efficiency. This will increase oxygen demand and may partly explain the observed elevation in whole body oxygen consumption during standardized exercise (+13%). The increased mitochondrial capacity for PC oxidation indicates plasticity in substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level, which may be of advantage during prolonged exercise.

  11. Increased Heating Efficiency and Selective Thermal Ablation of Malignant Tissue with DNA-Encased Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles, including multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), strongly absorb near-infrared (nIR) radiation and efficiently convert absorbed energy to released heat which can be used for localized hyperthermia applications. We demonstrate for the first time that DNA-encasement increases heat emission following nIR irradiation of MWNTs, and DNA-encased MWNTs can be used to safely eradicate a tumor mass in vivo. Upon irradiation of DNA-encased MWNTs, heat is generated with a linear dependence on irradiation time and laser power. DNA-encasement resulted in a 3-fold reduction in the concentration of MWNTs required to impart a 10 °C temperature increase in bulk solution temperature. A single treatment consisting of intratumoral injection of MWNTs (100 μL of a 500 μg/mL solution) followed by laser irradiation at 1064 nm, 2.5 W/cm2 completely eradicated PC3 xenograft tumors in 8/8 (100%) of nude mice. Tumors that received only MWNT injection or laser irradiation showed growth rates indistinguishable from nontreated control tumors. Nonmalignant tissues displayed no long-term damage from treatment. The results demonstrate that DNA-encased MWNTs are more efficient at converting nIR irradiation into heat compared to nonencased MWNTs and that DNA-encased MWNTs can be used safely and effectively for the selective thermal ablation of malignant tissue in vivo. PMID:19655728

  12. Efficiency of CCR5 coreceptor utilization by the HIV quasispecies increases over time, but is not associated with disease progression.

    PubMed

    Redd, Andrew D; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Kong, Xiangrong; Kiwanuka, Noah; Lutalo, Tom; Huang, Wei; Gray, Ronald H; Wawer, Maria J; Serwadda, David; Eshleman, Susan H; Quinn, Thomas C

    2012-03-01

    CCR5 is the primary coreceptor for HIV entry. Early after infection, the HIV viral population diversifies rapidly into a quasispecies. It is not known whether the initial efficiency of the viral quasispecies to utilize CCR5 is associated with HIV disease progression or if it changes in an infected individual over time. The CCR5 and CXCR4 utilization efficiencies (R5-UE and X4-UE) of the HIV quasispecies were examined using a pseudovirus, single-round infection assay for samples obtained from known seroconverters from Rakai district, Uganda (n=88). Initial and longitudinal R5-UE values were examined to assess the association of R5-UE with HIV disease progression using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Longitudinal samples were analyzed for 35 seroconverters who had samples available from multiple time points. There was no association between initial or longitudinal changes in R5-UE and the hazard of HIV disease progression (p=0.225 and p=0.942, respectively). In addition, R5-UE increased significantly over time after HIV seroconversion (p<0.001), regardless of HIV subtype or the emergence of CXCR4-tropic virus. These data demonstrate that the R5-UE of the viral quasispecies early in HIV infection is not associated with disease progression, and that R5-UE levels increase in HIV-infected individuals over time.

  13. Increasing The Efficiency of Silicon Solar Cells via an Anti-reflecting Nano-porous Surface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coskuner, Ahmet; Gokce, Aisha; Altunay, Omer; Skarlatos, Yani; Ozatay, Ozhan

    2015-03-01

    Electrochemical etching of silicon in a controlled environment results in a porous surface that has many application areas from drug delivery to optoluminescent devices. There is vast interest in implementing porous silicon in silicon solar cells to increase light absorption and therefore the efficiency. Here we demonstrate successful formation of a nano-porous surface on mono-crystalline Si wafers as well as doped Si solar cells. Our results show that pre-cleaning and post-drying is crucial to acquire a smooth, non-cracked topography. We also find that under similar conditions, smaller pores in a denser arrangement and with shorter depths form in p-n junction type Si wafers compared to n-type or p-type Si. In ITO coated porous Si solar cells with Al back contacts, the measured efficiency increase is almost 50% of those without a porous surface. This is a promising result to further enhance the performance of Si solar cell devices.

  14. Long-term CO2 rise has increased photosynthetic efficiency and water use efficiency but did not stimulate diameter growth of tropical trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenendijk, P.; Zuidema, P.; Sleen, P. V. D.; Vlam, M.; Ehlers, I.; Schleucher, J.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forests are a crucial component of the global carbon cycle, and their responses to atmospheric changes may shift carbon cycling and climate systems. Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are the major tools to simulate tropical forest responses to climate change. One of the main determinants of these simulated responses is the effect of CO2 on tropical tree physiology and growth, the 'CO2 fertilization effect'. The paucity of CO2 enrichment experiments in the tropics importantly limits insights into the CO2 fertilization effect as well as the validation of DGVMs. However, use can be made of the 40% rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration since the onset of the Industrial Revolution. The effects of the historical CO2 rise on tree physiology and growth can be obtained from stable isotopes, isotopomers and tree diameter increments obtained in tree-ring studies. We studied the physiological and growth responses of 12 tree species in Bolivia, Cameroon and Thailand to 150 years of CO2 enrichment. Analyses of 13C of wood cellulose revealed strong, long-term increases in leaf intercellular CO2 concentrations for all study species and a marked improvement of intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE). For a subset of one species per site, we studied the Deuterium isotopomers (isomers with isotopic atoms) of glucose in wood to obtain a direct estimate of the photorespiration-to-photosynthesis ratio. We found that this ratio consistently and strongly decreased over the past century, thus increasing the effeciency and rate of photosynthesis. In spite of these strong physiological responses to increased CO2levels, we did not find evidence for increased tree diameter growth for any of the sites, or for sites combined. Possible reasons for the lack of a growth stimulation include increased (leaf) temperature, insufficient availability of nutrients or a shift in biomass investment in trees. Our results suggest that the strong CO2 fertilization of tropical tree growth often

  15. Increased efficiency of short-pulse laser-generated proton beams from novel flat-top cone targets

    SciTech Connect

    Flippo, K. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Kline, J. L.; Albright, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Letzring, S.; Shimada, T.; Fernandez, J. C.; Hegelich, B. M.; D'Humieres, E.; Rassuchine, J.; Bakeman, M.; Renard-LeGalloudec, N.; Sentoku, Y.; Cowan, T. E.; Gaillard, S. A.; Schollmeier, M.; Nuernberg, F.; Harres, K.; Roth, M.

    2008-05-15

    Ion-driven fast ignition (IFI) may have significant advantages over electron-driven FI due to the potentially large reduction in the amount of energy required for the ignition beam and the laser driver. Recent experiments at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Trident facility employing novel Au flat-top cone targets have produced a fourfold increase in laser-energy to ion-energy efficiency, a 13-fold increase in the number of ions above 10 MeV, and a few times increase in the maximum ion energy compared to Au flat-foil targets. Compared to recently published scaling laws, these gains are even greater. If the efficiency scales with intensity in accordance to flat-foil scaling, then, with little modification, these targets can be used to generate the pulse of ions needed to ignite thermonuclear fusion in the fast ignitor scheme. A proton energy of at least 30 MeV was measured from the flat-top cone targets, and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations show that the maximum cutoff energy may be as high as 40-45 MeV at modest intensity of 1x10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} with 20 J in 600 fs. Simulations indicate that the observed energy and efficiency increase can be attributed to the cone target's ability to guide laser light into the neck to produce hot electrons and transport these electrons to the flat-top of the cone where they can be heated to much higher temperatures, creating a hotter, denser sheath. The PIC simulations also elucidate the critical parameters for obtaining superior proton acceleration such as the dependence on laser contrast/plasma prefill, as well as longitudinal and transverse laser pointing, and cone geometry. These novel cones have the potential to revolutionize inertial confinement fusion target design and fabrication via their ability to be mass produced. In addition, they could have an impact on the general physics community studying basic electron and radiation transport phenomena or as better sources of particle beams to study equations of state

  16. Primary care: an increasingly important contributor to effectiveness, equity, and efficiency of health services. SESPAS report 2012.

    PubMed

    Starfield, Barbara

    2012-03-01

    As of 2005, the literature on the benefits of primary care oriented health systems was consistent in showing greater effectiveness, greater efficiency, and greater equity. In the ensuing five years, nothing changed that conclusion, but there is now greater understanding of the mechanisms by which the benefits of primary care are achieved. We now know that, within certain bounds, neither the wealth of a country nor the total number of health personnel are related to health levels. What counts is the existence of key features of health policy (Primary Health Care): universal financial coverage under government control or regulation, attempts to distribute resources equitably, comprehensiveness of services, and low or no copayments for primary care services. All of these, in combination, produce better primary care: greater first contact access and use, more person-focused care over time, greater range of services available and provided when needed, and coordination of care. The evidence is no longer confined mainly to industrialized countries, as new studies show it to be the case in middle and lower income countries. The endorsements of the World Health Organization (in the form of the reports of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health and the World Health Report of 2008, as well a number of other international commissions, reflect the widespread acceptance of the importance of primary health care. Primary health care can now be measured and assessed; all innovations and enhancements in it must serve its essential features in order to be useful.

  17. How to increase treatment effectiveness and efficiency in psychiatry: creative psychopharmacotherapy - part 1: definition, fundamental principles and higher effectiveness polypharmacy.

    PubMed

    Jakovljević, Miro

    2013-09-01

    Psychopharmacotherapy is a fascinating field that can be understood in many different ways. It is both a science and an art of communication with a heavily subjective dimension. The advent of a significant number of the effective and well tolerated mental health medicines during and after 1990s decade of the brain has increased our possibilities to treat major mental disorders in more successful ways with much better treatment outcome including full recovery. However, there is a huge gap between our possibilities for achieving high treatment effectiveness and not satisfying results in day-to-day clinical practice. Creative approach to psychopharmacotherapy could advance everyday clinical practice and bridge the gap. Creative psychopharmacotherapy is a concept that incorporates creativity as its fundamental tool. Creativity involves the intention and ability to transcend limiting traditional ideas, rules, patterns and relationships and to create meaningful new ideas, interpretations, contexts and methods in clinical psychopharmacology.

  18. How Many Letters Should Preschoolers in Public Programs Know? The Diagnostic Efficiency of Various Preschool Letter-Naming Benchmarks for Predicting First-Grade Literacy Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Petscher, Yaacov; Justice, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Review of current federal and state standards indicates little consensus or empirical justification regarding appropriate goals, often referred to as benchmarks, for preschool letter-name learning. The present study investigated the diagnostic efficiency of various letter-naming benchmarks using a longitudinal database of 371 children who attended publicly funded preschools. Children’s uppercase and lowercase letter-naming abilities were assessed at the end of preschool, and their literacy achievement on 3 standardized measures was assessed at the end of 1st grade. Diagnostic indices (sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive power) were generated to examine the extent to which attainment of various preschool letter-naming benchmarks was associated with later risk for literacy difficulties. Results indicated generally high negative predictive power for benchmarks requiring children to know 10 or more letter names by the end of preschool. Balancing across all diagnostic indices, optimal benchmarks of 18 uppercase and 15 lowercase letter names were identified. These findings are discussed in terms of educational implications, limitations, and future directions. PMID:26346643

  19. Human-centered sensor-based Bayesian control: Increased energy efficiency and user satisfaction in commercial lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granderson, Jessica Ann

    2007-12-01

    The need for sustainable, efficient energy systems is the motivation that drove this research, which targeted the design of an intelligent commercial lighting system. Lighting in commercial buildings consumes approximately 13% of all the electricity generated in the US. Advanced lighting controls1 intended for use in commercial office spaces have proven to save up to 45% in electricity consumption. However, they currently comprise only a fraction of the market share, resulting in a missed opportunity to conserve energy. The research goals driving this dissertation relate directly to barriers hindering widespread adoption---increase user satisfaction, and provide increased energy savings through more sophisticated control. To satisfy these goals an influence diagram was developed to perform daylighting actuation. This algorithm was designed to balance the potentially conflicting lighting preferences of building occupants, with the efficiency desires of building facilities management. A supervisory control policy was designed to implement load shedding under a demand response tariff. Such tariffs offer incentives for customers to reduce their consumption during periods of peak demand, trough price reductions. In developing the value function occupant user testing was conducted to determine that computer and paper tasks require different illuminance levels, and that user preferences are sufficiently consistent to attain statistical significance. Approximately ten facilities managers were also interviewed and surveyed to isolate their lighting preferences with respect to measures of lighting quality and energy savings. Results from both simulation and physical implementation and user testing indicate that the intelligent controller can increase occupant satisfaction, efficiency, cost savings, and management satisfaction, with respect to existing commercial daylighting systems. Several important contributions were realized by satisfying the research goals. A general

  20. Andrographolide attenuates skeletal muscle dystrophy in mdx mice and increases efficiency of cell therapy by reducing fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by the absence of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, muscle wasting, increased transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-β) signaling, and fibrosis. At the present time, the only clinically validated treatments for DMD are glucocorticoids. These drugs prolong muscle strength and ambulation of patients for a short term only and have severe adverse effects. Andrographolide, a bicyclic diterpenoid lactone, has traditionally been used for the treatment of colds, fever, laryngitis, and other infections with no or minimal side effects. We determined whether andrographolide treatment of mdx mice, an animal model for DMD, affects muscle damage, physiology, fibrosis, and efficiency of cell therapy. Methods mdx mice were treated with andrographolide for three months and skeletal muscle histology, creatine kinase activity, and permeability of muscle fibers were evaluated. Fibrosis and TGF-β signaling were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses. Muscle strength was determined in isolated skeletal muscles and by a running test. Efficiency of cell therapy was determined by grafting isolated skeletal muscle satellite cells onto the tibialis anterior of mdx mice. Results mdx mice treated with andrographolide exhibited less severe muscular dystrophy than untreated dystrophic mice. They performed better in an exercise endurance test and had improved muscle strength in isolated muscles, reduced skeletal muscle impairment, diminished fibrosis and a significant reduction in TGF-β signaling. Moreover, andrographolide treatment of mdx mice improved grafting efficiency upon intramuscular injection of dystrophin-positive satellite cells. Conclusions These results suggest that andrographolide could be used to improve quality of life in individuals with DMD. PMID:24655808