Science.gov

Sample records for achieve increased efficiency

  1. Benefits of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion to Achieve 4x Increase in Cruise Efficiency for a VTOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J.; Moore, Mark D.; Busan, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Electric propulsion enables radical new vehicle concepts, particularly for Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft because of their significant mismatch between takeoff and cruise power conditions. However, electric propulsion does not merely provide the ability to normalize the power required across the phases of flight, in the way that automobiles also use hybrid electric technologies. The ability to distribute the thrust across the airframe, without mechanical complexity and with a scale-free propulsion system, is a new degree of freedom for aircraft designers. Electric propulsion is scale-free in terms of being able to achieve highly similar levels of motor power to weight and efficiency across a dramatic scaling range. Applying these combined principles of electric propulsion across a VTOL aircraft permits an improvement in aerodynamic efficiency that is approximately four times the state of the art of conventional helicopter configurations. Helicopters typically achieve a lift to drag ratio (L/D) of between 4 and 5, while the VTOL aircraft designed and developed in this research were designed to achieve an L/D of approximately 20. Fundamentally, the ability to eliminate the problem of advancing and retreating rotor blades is shown, without resorting to unacceptable prior solutions such as tail-sitters. This combination of concept and technology also enables a four times increase in range and endurance while maintaining the full VTOL and hover capability provided by a helicopter. Also important is the ability to achieve low disc-loading for low ground impingement velocities, low noise and hover power minimization (thus reducing energy consumption in VTOL phases). This combination of low noise and electric propulsion (i.e. zero emissions) will produce a much more community-friendly class of vehicles. This research provides a review of the concept brainstorming, configuration aerodynamic and mission analysis, as well as subscale prototype construction and

  2. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  3. Increasing Math Achievement through Use of Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant-Jones, Marian; Shimmins, Kymberley J.; Vega, Jill D.

    This report describes a program for increasing math achievement through the use of musical interventions including repeated exposure to Mozart classical music and School House Rock, and introduction to teacher-made songs that introduce mathematical concepts in the music classroom. The students of the targeted second and fourth grade classes…

  4. Heterostructure optimization for increasing LED efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Oleg; Legotin, Sergey; Didenko, Sergey; Yakimov, Evgeniy; Osipov, Yuriy; Fedorchenko, Irina

    2016-05-01

    Computer simulations were performed to increase the quantum efficiency of LED by optimizing the nanoheterostructure (NH). Furthermore, the InGaN and AlGaP NHs for LEDs were optimized. On the basis of the optimum NH, ways to further increase the efficiency and the influence of impurities and indium atoms doped into barriers between quantum wells were investigated. The optimum impurity and indium atom concentrations to achieve higher flux were determined.

  5. Achieving energy efficiency during collective communications

    SciTech Connect

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav; Sosonkina, Masha; Zhang, Zhao

    2012-09-13

    Energy consumption has become a major design constraint in modern computing systems. With the advent of petaflops architectures, power-efficient software stacks have become imperative for scalability. Techniques such as dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (called DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (called throttling) are often used to reduce the power consumption of the compute nodes. To avoid significant performance losses, these techniques should be used judiciously during parallel application execution. For example, its communication phases may be good candidates to apply the DVFS and CPU throttling without incurring a considerable performance loss. They are often considered as indivisible operations although little attention is being devoted to the energy saving potential of their algorithmic steps. In this work, two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather, are investigated as to their augmentation with energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. The experiments prove the viability of such a fine-grain approach. They also validate a theoretical power consumption estimate for multicore nodes proposed here. While keeping the performance loss low, the obtained energy savings were always significantly higher than those achieved when DVFS or throttling were switched on across the entire application run

  6. Achieving Energy Efficiency Through Real-Time Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, Ronald J.

    2011-09-01

    Through the careful implementation of simple behavior change measures, opportunities exist to achieve strategic gains, including greater operational efficiencies, energy cost savings, greater tenant health and ensuing productivity and an improved brand value through sustainability messaging and achievement.

  7. Using the network to achieve energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Giglio, M.

    1995-12-01

    Novell, the third largest software company in the world, has developed Netware Embedded Systems Technology (NEST). NEST will take the network deeper into non-traditional computing environments and will imbed networking into more intelligent devices. Ultimately, this will lead to energy efficiencies in the office. NEST can make point-of-sale terminals, alarm systems, televisions, traffic controls, printers, lights, fax machines, copiers, HVAC controls, PBX machines, etc., either intelligent or more intelligent than they are currently. The mission statement for this particular group is to integrate over 30 million new intelligent devices into the workplace and the home with Novell networks by 1997. Computing trends have progressed from mainframes in the 1960s to keys, security systems, and airplanes in the year 2000. In fact, the new Boeing 777 has NEST in it, and it also has network servers on board. NEST enables the embedded network with the ability to put intelligence into devices. This gives one more control of the devices from wherever one is. For example, the pharmaceutical industry could use NEST to coordinate what the consumer is buying, what is in the warehouse, what the manufacturing plant is tooled for, and so on. Through NEST technology, the pharmaceutical industry now uses a camera that takes pictures of the pills. It can see whether an {open_quotes}overdose{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}underdose{close_quotes} of a particular type of pill is being manufactured. The plant can be shut down and corrections made immediately.

  8. The ways of SOFC systems efficiency increasing

    SciTech Connect

    Demin, A.K.; Timofeyeva, N.

    1996-04-01

    The efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is described. This paper considers methods to lift the fuel utilization and/or the average cell voltage with the goal of increasing the cell efficiency by improved cell designs.

  9. Using Manipulative Materials to Increase Student Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lett, Steven W.

    2007-01-01

    This is an action research project to test a null hypothesis, which states that the use of manipulative materials within the context of mathematics instruction will not yield a significant increase in student achievement. Based on the research, using manipulative materials should have a positive impact on student achievement. Allowing students to…

  10. Upside-Down Solar Cell Achieves Record Efficiencies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    The inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cell is an exercise in efficient innovation - literally, as the technology boasted the highest demonstrated efficiency for converting sunlight into electrical energy at its debut in 2005. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) inverted the conventional photovoltaic (PV) structure to revolutionary effect, achieving solar conversion efficiencies of 33.8% and 40.8% under one-sun and concentrated conditions, respectively.

  11. Educating Girls: Strategies To Increase Access, Persistence, and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tietjen, Karen; Prather, Cynthia, Ed.

    This document reviews the interventions, such as policies, programs, and projects, that have been implemented by governments, donors, and other institutions to increase girls' access, persistence, and achievement at the primary school level. It examines both the formal system of primary education and nontraditional, alternative approaches to reach…

  12. A Guide to Mathematics Coaching: Processes for Increasing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Ted H.; Balka, Don S.; Miles, Ruth Harbin

    2010-01-01

    Math coaches play a vital role in strengthening math instruction and learning in schools. However, without a collegial relationship with the teachers they are trying to help, it is difficult to foster productive collaborations that lead to better teaching practice and increased student achievement. This resource helps coaches confidently clarify,…

  13. Using Positive Student Engagement to Increase Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Teachers and school-based administrators alike have searched to find ways to increase student achievement in their schools. Several widely known and discussed strategies include: (1) using data to drive instruction; (2) employing highly qualified teachers; and (3) improving school leadership. Additionally, positive student engagement in the…

  14. Conscientiousness increases efficiency of multicomponent behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Many everyday situations require the flexible interruption and changing of different actions to achieve a goal. Several strategies can be applied to do so, but those requiring high levels of cognitive control seem to confer an efficiency (speed) advantage in situations requiring multi-component behavior. However, it is elusive in how far personality traits affect performance in such situations. Given that top-down control is an important aspect of personality and furthermore correlates with conscientiousness, N = 163 participants completed the NEO-FFI and performed an experimental (stop-change) paradigm assessing multicomponent behavior. Applying mathematical constraints to the behavioral data, we estimated the processing strategy of each individual. The results show that multicomponent behavior is selectively affected by conscientiousness which explained approximately 19% of the measured inter-individual behavioral variance. Conscientiousness should hence be seen as a major personality dimension modulating multicomponent behavior. Highly conscientious people showed a more effective, step-by-step processing strategy of different actions necessary to achieve a goal. In situations with simultaneous requirements, this strategy equipped them with an efficiency (speed) advantage towards individuals with lower conscientiousness. In sum, the results show that strategies and the efficiency with which people cope with situations requiring multicomponent behavior are strongly influenced by their personality. PMID:26503352

  15. Increasing Efficiency: A Process-Oriented Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbour, Jerry L.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of the need to increase efficiency focuses on a process-oriented approach for systematically identifying and minimizing non-value-adding process steps to analyze and improve tasks, services, and production. Highlights include a historical perspective, a discussion of wasted efforts, and a case study. (Contains 16 references.) (LRW)

  16. Wind increases leaf water use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani

    2016-07-01

    A widespread perception is that, with increasing wind speed, transpiration from plant leaves increases. However, evidence suggests that increasing wind speed enhances carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake while reducing transpiration because of more efficient convective cooling (under high solar radiation loads). We provide theoretical and experimental evidence that leaf water use efficiency (WUE, carbon uptake per water transpired) commonly increases with increasing wind speed, thus improving plants' ability to conserve water during photosynthesis. Our leaf-scale analysis suggests that the observed global decrease in near-surface wind speeds could have reduced WUE at a magnitude similar to the increase in WUE attributed to global rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is indication that the effect of long-term trends in wind speed on leaf gas exchange may be compensated for by the concurrent reduction in mean leaf sizes. These unintuitive feedbacks between wind, leaf size and water use efficiency call for re-evaluation of the role of wind in plant water relations and potential re-interpretation of temporal and geographic trends in leaf sizes. PMID:26714739

  17. Building aggressively duty-cycled platforms to achieve energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Yuvraj

    Managing power consumption and improving energy efficiency is a key driver in the design of computing devices today. This is true for both battery-powered mobile devices as well as mains-powered desktop PCs and servers. In case of mobile devices, the focus of optimization is on energy efficiency to maximize battery lifetime. In case of mains-powered devices, we seek to optimize power consumption to reduce energy costs, thermal and environmental concerns. Traditionally, there are two main mechanisms to improve energy efficiency in systems: slowdown techniques that seek to reduce processor speed or radio power against the rate of work done, and shutdown techniques that seek to shut down specific components or subsystems -- such as processor, radio, memory -- to reduce power used by these components when not in use. The adverse effect of using these techniques is either reduced performance (e.g., increase in latency) and/or usability or loss of functionality. The thesis behind this dissertation is that improved energy efficiency can be achieved through system architectures that seek to design and exploit "collaboration" among heterogeneous but functionally similar subsystems. For instance, multiple radio interfaces with different power/performance characteristics can collaborate to provide an energy-efficient wireless communication subsystem. Furthermore, we show that in systems where such heterogeneity is not naturally present, we can introduce heterogeneous components to improve overall energy efficiency. We show that using collaboration, individual subsystems and even entire platforms can be shut down more aggressively to reduce energy consumption, while reducing adverse impacts on performance or usability. We have used collaboration to do energy efficient operation in several contexts. For battery powered mobile devices we show that wireless radios are the dominant power consumers, and then describe several techniques that use various heterogeneous radios present

  18. Increasing market efficiency in the stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jae-Suk; Kwak, Wooseop; Kaizoji, Taisei; Kim, In-Mook

    2008-01-01

    We study the temporal evolutions of three stock markets; Standard and Poor's 500 index, Nikkei 225 Stock Average, and the Korea Composite Stock Price Index. We observe that the probability density function of the log-return has a fat tail but the tail index has been increasing continuously in recent years. We have also found that the variance of the autocorrelation function, the scaling exponent of the standard deviation, and the statistical complexity decrease, but that the entropy density increases as time goes over time. We introduce a modified microscopic spin model and simulate the model to confirm such increasing and decreasing tendencies in statistical quantities. These findings indicate that these three stock markets are becoming more efficient.

  19. Composites for Increased Wear Resistance: Current Achievements and Future Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    The various ways in which reductions in wear and/or friction can be achieved by the use of composite materials are reviewed. Reinforced plastics are emphasized and it is shown that fillers and fibers reduce wear via several mechanisms additional to their role of increasing overall mechanical strength, preferential transfer, counter face abrasion, preferential load support, or third-body formation on either the composite or its counterface. Examples are given from recent work on thin layer composites of the type widely used as dry bearings in aircraft flight control mechanisms. Developments in metal based composites and carbon-carbon composites for high energy brakes are discussed. The aspects which could benefit by increased fundamental understanding identified and the types of composites which appear to have greatest potential for further growth are indicated.

  20. An apparent contradiction: increasing variability to achieve greater precision?

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Noah J; Hurt, Christopher P; Latash, Mark L; Grabiner, Mark D

    2014-02-01

    To understand the relationship between variability of foot placement in the frontal plane and stability of gait patterns, we explored how constraining mediolateral foot placement during walking affects the structure of kinematic variance in the lower-limb configuration space during the swing phase of gait. Ten young subjects walked under three conditions: (1) unconstrained (normal walking), (2) constrained (walking overground with visual guides for foot placement to achieve the measured unconstrained step width) and, (3) beam (walking on elevated beams spaced to achieve the measured unconstrained step width). The uncontrolled manifold analysis of the joint configuration variance was used to quantify two variance components, one that did not affect the mediolateral trajectory of the foot in the frontal plane ("good variance") and one that affected this trajectory ("bad variance"). Based on recent studies, we hypothesized that across conditions (1) the index of the synergy stabilizing the mediolateral trajectory of the foot (the normalized difference between the "good variance" and "bad variance") would systematically increase and (2) the changes in the synergy index would be associated with a disproportionate increase in the "good variance." Both hypotheses were confirmed. We conclude that an increase in the "good variance" component of the joint configuration variance may be an effective method of ensuring high stability of gait patterns during conditions requiring increased control of foot placement, particularly if a postural threat is present. Ultimately, designing interventions that encourage a larger amount of "good variance" may be a promising method of improving stability of gait patterns in populations such as older adults and neurological patients. PMID:24162866

  1. Increasing efficiency in production of cloned piglets.

    PubMed

    Callesen, Henrik; Liu, Ying; Pedersen, Hanne S; Li, Rong; Schmidt, Mette

    2014-12-01

    The low efficiency in obtaining piglets after production of cloned embryos was challenged in two steps-first by performing in vitro culture for 5-6 days after cloning to obtain later-stage embryos for more precise selection for transfer, and second by reducing the number of embryos transferred per recipient sow. The data set consisted of combined results from a 4-year period where cloning was performed to produce piglets that were transgenic for important human diseases. For this, different transgenes and cell types were used, and the cloning work was performed by several persons using oocytes from different pig breeds, but following a standardized and optimized protocol. Results showed that in vitro culture is possible with a relatively stable rate of transferable embryos around 41% and a pregnancy rate around 90%. Furthermore, a reduction from around 80 embryos to 40 embryos transferred per recipient was possible without changing the efficiency of around 14% (piglets born out of embryos transferred). It was concluded that this approach can increase the efficiency in obtaining piglets by means of in vitro culture and selection of high-quality embryos with subsequent transfer into more recipients. Such changes can also reduce the need for personnel, time, and material when working with this technology. PMID:25333333

  2. Modular vaccine packaging increases packing efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Bryan A.; Rajgopal, Jayant; Lim, Jung; Gorham, Katrin; Haidari, Leila; Brown, Shawn T.; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background Within a typical vaccine supply chain, vaccines are packaged into individual cylindrical vials (each containing one or more doses) that are bundled together in rectangular “inner packs” for transport via even larger groupings such as cold boxes and vaccine carriers. The variability of vaccine inner pack and vial size may hinder efficient vaccine distribution because it constrains packing of cold boxes and vaccine carriers to quantities that are often inappropriate or suboptimal in the context of country-specific vaccination guidelines. Methods We developed in Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) a spreadsheet model that evaluated the impact of different packing schemes for the Benin routine regimen plus the introduction of the Rotarix vaccine. Specifically, we used the model to compare the current packing scheme to that of a proposed modular packing scheme. Results Conventional packing of a Dometic RCW25 that aims to maximize fully-immunized children (FICs) results in 123 FICs and a packing efficiency of 81.93% compared to a maximum of 155 FICs and 94.1% efficiency for an alternative modular packaging system. Conclusions Our analysis suggests that modular packaging systems could offer significant advantages over conventional vaccine packaging systems with respect to space efficiency and potential FICs, when they are stored in standard vaccine carrying devices. This allows for more vaccines to be stored within the same volume while also simplifying the procedures used by field workers to pack storage devices. Ultimately, modular packaging systems could be a simple way to help increase vaccine coverage worldwide. PMID:25957666

  3. Increasing the efficiency of solar thermal panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Latinović, T.; Dobrnjac, S.; Živković, P.

    2016-08-01

    The popularity of solar heating systems is increasing for several reasons. These systems are reliable, adaptable and pollution-free, because the renewable solar energy is used. There are many variants of solar systems in the market mainly constructed with copper pipes and absorbers with different quality of absorption surface. Taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing solutions, in order to increase efficiency and improve the design of solar panel, the innovative solution has been done. This new solar panel presents connection of an attractive design and the use of constructive appropriate materials with special geometric shapes. Hydraulic and thermotechnical tests that have been performed on this panel showed high hydraulic and structural stability. Further development of the solar panel will be done in the future in order to improve some noticed disadvantages.

  4. Is yield increase sufficient to achieve food security in China?

    PubMed

    Wei, Xing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Peijun; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yi; Song, Xiao; Tao, Fulu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food, driven by unprecedented population growth and increasing consumption, will keep challenging food security in China. Although cereal yields have substantially improved during the last three decades, whether it will keep thriving to meet the increasing demand is not known yet. Thus, an integrated analysis on the trends of crop yield and cultivated area is essential to better understand current state of food security in China, especially on county scale. So far, yield stagnation has extensively dominated the main cereal-growing areas across China. Rice yield is facing the most severe stagnation that 53.9% counties tracked in the study have stagnated significantly, followed by maize (42.4%) and wheat (41.9%). As another important element for production sustainability, but often neglected is the planted area patterns. It has been further demonstrated that the loss in productive arable land for rice and wheat have dramatically increased the pressure on achieving food security. Not only a great deal of the planted areas have stagnated since 1980, but also collapsed. 48.4% and 54.4% of rice- and wheat-growing counties have lost their cropland areas to varying degrees. Besides, 27.6% and 35.8% of them have retrograded below the level of the 1980s. The combined influence (both loss in yield and area) has determined the crop sustainable production in China to be pessimistic for rice and wheat, and consequently no surprise to find that more than half of counties rank a lower level of production sustainability. Therefore, given the potential yield increase in wheat and maize, as well as substantial area loss of rice and wheat, the possible targeted adaptation measures for both yield and cropping area is required at county scale. Moreover, policies on food trade, alongside advocation of low calorie diets, reducing food loss and waste can help to enhance food security. PMID:25680193

  5. Is Yield Increase Sufficient to Achieve Food Security in China?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Peijun; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yi; Song, Xiao; Tao, Fulu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food, driven by unprecedented population growth and increasing consumption, will keep challenging food security in China. Although cereal yields have substantially improved during the last three decades, whether it will keep thriving to meet the increasing demand is not known yet. Thus, an integrated analysis on the trends of crop yield and cultivated area is essential to better understand current state of food security in China, especially on county scale. So far, yield stagnation has extensively dominated the main cereal-growing areas across China. Rice yield is facing the most severe stagnation that 53.9% counties tracked in the study have stagnated significantly, followed by maize (42.4%) and wheat (41.9%). As another important element for production sustainability, but often neglected is the planted area patterns. It has been further demonstrated that the loss in productive arable land for rice and wheat have dramatically increased the pressure on achieving food security. Not only a great deal of the planted areas have stagnated since 1980, but also collapsed. 48.4% and 54.4% of rice- and wheat-growing counties have lost their cropland areas to varying degrees. Besides, 27.6% and 35.8% of them have retrograded below the level of the 1980s. The combined influence (both loss in yield and area) has determined the crop sustainable production in China to be pessimistic for rice and wheat, and consequently no surprise to find that more than half of counties rank a lower level of production sustainability. Therefore, given the potential yield increase in wheat and maize, as well as substantial area loss of rice and wheat, the possible targeted adaptation measures for both yield and cropping area is required at county scale. Moreover, policies on food trade, alongside advocation of low calorie diets, reducing food loss and waste can help to enhance food security. PMID:25680193

  6. Reshaping Light-Emitting Diodes To Increase External Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, Robert; Egalon, Claudio

    1995-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) reshaped, according to proposal, increasing amount of light emitted by decreasing fraction of light trapped via total internal reflection. Results in greater luminous output power for same electrical input power; greater external efficiency. Furthermore, light emitted by reshaped LEDs more nearly collimated (less diffuse). Concept potentially advantageous for conventional red-emitting LEDs. More advantageous for new "blue" LEDs, because luminous outputs and efficiencies of these devices very low. Another advantage, proposed conical shapes achieved relatively easily by chemical etching of semiconductor surfaces.

  7. Some methods for achieving more efficient performance of fuel assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltenko, E. A.

    2014-07-01

    More efficient operation of reactor plant fuel assemblies can be achieved through the use of new technical solutions aimed at obtaining more uniform distribution of coolant over the fuel assembly section, more intense heat removal on convex heat-transfer surfaces, and higher values of departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR). Technical solutions using which it is possible to obtain more intense heat removal on convex heat-transfer surfaces and higher DNBR values in reactor plant fuel assemblies are considered. An alternative heat removal arrangement is described using which it is possible to obtain a significantly higher power density in a reactor plant and essentially lower maximal fuel rod temperature.

  8. New York: Expanding Time, Increasing Opportunities for Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tiffany D.

    2014-01-01

    New York is poised to take an important step to improve student achievement by expanding learning time for students attending high-poverty, low-performing schools. Recent district- and state-level investments in expanded learning time--a promising strategy to close achievement and opportunity gaps--will give students more time to learn core…

  9. Realizing the Dream: Using Data to Increase Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John; Sawtell, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Presented at the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) School Summit in San Antonio, TX in July 2008. This presentation explores the participation and performance of African American students in the SAT and AP programs and use data to inform ways to better support and encourage achievment and college success.

  10. Effective Teaching Results in Increased Science Achievement for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.; Kahle, Jane Butler; Fargo, Jamison D.

    2007-01-01

    This study of teacher effectiveness and student achievement in science demonstrated that effective teachers positively impact student learning. A general linear mixed model was used to assess change in student scores on the Discovery Inquiry Test as a function of time, race, teacher effectiveness, gender, and impact of teacher effectiveness in…

  11. Pricing for scarcity? An efficiency analysis of increasing block tariffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Henrique; Roseta-Palma, Catarina

    2011-06-01

    Water pricing schedules often contain significant nonlinearities, such as the increasing block tariff (IBT) structure that is abundantly applied for residential users. The IBT is frequently supported as a good tool for achieving the goals of equity, water conservation, and revenue neutrality but seldom has been grounded on efficiency justifications. In particular, existing literature on water pricing establishes that although efficient schedules will depend on demand and supply characteristics, IBT cannot usually be recommended. In this paper, we consider whether the explicit inclusion of scarcity considerations can strengthen the appeal of IBT. Results show that when both demand and costs react to climate factors, increasing marginal prices may come about as a response to a combination of water scarcity and customer heterogeneity. We derive testable conditions and then illustrate their application through an estimation of Portuguese residential water demand. We show that the recommended tariff schedule hinges crucially on the choice of functional form for demand.

  12. Algorithmic Processes for Increasing Design Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, William R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the role of algorithmic processes as a supplementary method for producing cost-effective and efficient instructional materials. Examines three approaches to problem solving in the context of developing training materials for the Naval Training Command: application of algorithms, quasi-algorithms, and heuristics. (EAO)

  13. Liquid Cooling Technology Increases Exercise Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    To keep astronauts' airtight spacesuits from becoming hot and humid, Ames Research Center developed liquid cooling garments that were integrated into each suit's long underwear. Vasper Systems, in San Jose, California, is using the technology in its liquid-cooled compression cuffs, which help people exercise more efficiently by concentrating lactic acid in their muscles.

  14. Software Cuts Homebuilding Costs, Increases Energy Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    To sort out the best combinations of technologies for a crewed mission to Mars, NASA Headquarters awarded grants to MIT's Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics to develop an algorithm-based software tool that highlights the most reliable and cost-effective options. Utilizing the software, Professor Edward Crawley founded Cambridge, Massachussetts-based Ekotrope, which helps homebuilders choose cost- and energy-efficient floor plans and materials.

  15. Teacher Research Experience Programs = Increase in Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, J.

    2010-12-01

    Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers (SRP), founded in 1990, is one of the largest, best known university-based professional development programs for science teachers in the U.S. The program’s basic premise is simple: teachers cannot effectively teach science if they have not experienced it firsthand. For eight weeks in each of two consecutive summers, teachers participate as a member of a research team, led by a member of Columbia University’s research faculty. In addition to the laboratory experience, all teachers meet as a group one day each week during the summer for a series of pedagogical activities. A unique quality of the Summer Research Program is its focus on objective assessment of its impact on attitudes and instructional practices of participating teachers, on the performance of these teachers in their mentors’ laboratories, and most importantly, on the impact of their participation in the program on student interest and performance in science. SRP uses pass rate on the New York State Regents standardized science examinations as an objective measure of student achievement. SRP's data is the first scientific evidence of a connection between a research experience for teachers program and gains in student achievement. As a result of the research, findings were published in Science Magazine. The author will present an overview of Columbia's teacher research program and the results of the published program evaluation.

  16. The Cope startup: Methods to increase efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    Cope Unit 1 is a coal-fired electric generating facility with a minimum net electric generating capacity of 385 MW. The plant is located in Orangeburg County, South Carolina, near the town of Cope, and is owned by the South Carolina Electric and Gas Company. Duke/Fluor Daniel is responsible for environmental permitting, engineering, procurement, construction and start-up. The facility includes an ABB-CE tangentially-fired furnace designed for pulverized coal and natural gas firing, a General Electric turbine-generator, ABB/ES dry scrubber and baghouse, and a Foxboro I/A Distributed Control System. At the time of this writing (9/17/95) Construction is about 92% complete and Start-Up is 82% complete. We are blowing the main steam lines at this time. While contractually required to achieve continuous operation by May of `96, we are currently ahead of schedule and plan to be in performance testing during December of `95.

  17. Increasing Student Achievement through Brain-Based Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pociask, Amanda; Settles, Jeri

    2007-01-01

    The students targeted were third and fourth grade students with learning-disabilities and seventh-eighth grade science students who exhibited poor test scores, motivation, and behaviors that negatively impacted their learning. The objective of this study was to change the level of student engagement in order to increase their academic achievement…

  18. Strategies for Increasing Academic Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Julene; Woods, Amelia Mays

    2014-01-01

    Higher education today faces unique challenges. Decreasing student engagement, increasing diversity, and limited resources all contribute to the issues being faced by students, educators, and administrators alike. The unique characteristics and expectations that students bring to their professional programs require new methods of addressing…

  19. Reading Their Way: A Balanced Approach that Increases Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donat, Dorothy J.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing demand for improved student performance in the context of significant time constraints places considerable stress on educators and administrators to develop innovative strategies that promote literacy acquisition. This article describes the procedures and outlines the evaluative data for Reading Their Way, a literacy acquisition…

  20. A modular modulation method for achieving increases in metabolite production.

    PubMed

    Acerenza, Luis; Monzon, Pablo; Ortega, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the production of overproducing strains represents a great challenge. Here, we develop a modular modulation method to determine the key steps for genetic manipulation to increase metabolite production. The method consists of three steps: (i) modularization of the metabolic network into two modules connected by linking metabolites, (ii) change in the activity of the modules using auxiliary rates producing or consuming the linking metabolites in appropriate proportions and (iii) determination of the key modules and steps to increase production. The mathematical formulation of the method in matrix form shows that it may be applied to metabolic networks of any structure and size, with reactions showing any kind of rate laws. The results are valid for any type of conservation relationships in the metabolite concentrations or interactions between modules. The activity of the module may, in principle, be changed by any large factor. The method may be applied recursively or combined with other methods devised to perform fine searches in smaller regions. In practice, it is implemented by integrating to the producer strain heterologous reactions or synthetic pathways producing or consuming the linking metabolites. The new procedure may contribute to develop metabolic engineering into a more systematic practice. PMID:25683235

  1. Increasing Efficiency in Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S.; Turner, J.

    2002-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production promises to be a renewable, clean, and efficient way of storing the sun's energy for use in hydrogen-powered fuel cells. We use p-type Ga.51In.49P semiconductor (henceforth as GaInP2) to absorb solar energy and produce a photocurrent. When the semiconductor is immersed in water, the photocurrent can break down water into hydrogen and oxygen. However, before the GaInP2 can produce hydrogen and oxygen, the conduction band and the Fermi level of the semiconductor must overlap the water redox potentials. In an unmodified system, the conduction band and Fermi level of GaInP2 do not overlap the water redox potentials. When light shines on the semiconductor, electrons build up on the surface, shifting the bandedges and Fermi level further away from overlap of the water redox potentials. We report on surface treatments with metallated porphyrins and transition metals that suppress bandedge migration and allow bandedge overlap to occur. Coating ruthenium octaethylporphyrin carbonyl (RuOEP CO) on the GaInP2 surface shifted bandedges in the positive direction by 270 mV on average, allowing the bandedges to frequently overlap the water redox potentials. Coating the GaInP2 surface with RuCl3 catalyzed charge transfer from the semiconductor to the water, lessening bandedge migration under light irradiation. Future work will focus on the long-term surface stability of these new treatments and quantitative applications of porphyrins.

  2. Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Air Force’s Air Mobility Command (AMC) is changing the way it does business. It is saving energy and money through an aircraft fleet fuel-efficiency program inspired by private industry best practices and ideas resulting from the empowered fuel savings culture.

  3. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  4. Achieving improved cycle efficiency via pressure gain combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmen, R.S.; Janus, M.C.; Richards, G.A.; Norton, T.S.; Rogers, W.A.

    1995-04-01

    As part of the Department of Energy`s Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Program, an investigation is being performed to evaluate ``pressure gain`` combustion systems for gas turbine applications. This paper presents experimental pressure gain and pollutant emission data from such combustion systems. Numerical predictions for certain combustor geometries are also presented. It is reported that for suitable aerovalved pulse combustor geometries studied experimentally, an overall combustor pressure gain of nearly 1 percent can be achieved. It is also shown that for one combustion system operating under typical gas turbine conditions, NO{sub x} and CO emmissions, are about 30 ppmv and 8 ppmv, respectively.

  5. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.7 Water used to achieve energy efficiency....

  6. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.7 Water used to achieve energy efficiency....

  7. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND... achieve energy efficiency....

  8. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.7 Water used to achieve energy efficiency....

  9. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND... achieve energy efficiency....

  10. Barriers to Achieving Textbook Multigrid Efficiency (TME) in CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, Achi

    1998-01-01

    As a guide to attaining this optimal performance for general CFD problems, the table below lists every foreseen kind of computational difficulty for achieving that goal, together with the possible ways for resolving that difficulty, their current state of development, and references. Included in the table are staggered and nonstaggered, conservative and nonconservative discretizations of viscous and inviscid, incompressible and compressible flows at various Mach numbers, as well as a simple (algebraic) turbulence model and comments on chemically reacting flows. The listing of associated computational barriers involves: non-alignment of streamlines or sonic characteristics with the grids; recirculating flows; stagnation points; discretization and relaxation on and near shocks and boundaries; far-field artificial boundary conditions; small-scale singularities (meaning important features, such as the complete airplane, which are not visible on some of the coarse grids); large grid aspect ratios; boundary layer resolution; and grid adaption.

  11. Does deficit irrigation of field crops increase water use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deficit irrigation is often proposed as a method to stretch limited irrigation water supply and increase water use efficiency. A field study of field crops in the high plains shows that water use efficiency, in terms of irrigation water applied, often increases with deficit irrigation. However, in t...

  12. Fast Reactor Subassembly Design Modifications for Increasing Electricity Generation Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; K. Hamman

    2009-09-01

    Suggested for Track 7: Advances in Reactor Core Design and In-Core Management _____________________________________________________________________________________ Fast Reactor Subassembly Design Modifications for Increasing Electricity Generation Efficiency R. Wigeland and K. Hamman Idaho National Laboratory Given the ability of fast reactors to effectively transmute the transuranic elements as are present in spent nuclear fuel, fast reactors are being considered as one element of future nuclear power systems to enable continued use and growth of nuclear power by limiting high-level waste generation. However, a key issue for fast reactors is higher electricity cost relative to other forms of nuclear energy generation. The economics of the fast reactor are affected by the amount of electric power that can be produced from a reactor, i.e., the thermal efficiency for electricity generation. The present study is examining the potential for fast reactor subassembly design changes to improve the thermal efficiency by increasing the average coolant outlet temperature without increasing peak temperatures within the subassembly, i.e., to make better use of current technology. Sodium-cooled fast reactors operate at temperatures far below the coolant boiling point, so that the maximum coolant outlet temperature is limited by the acceptable peak temperatures for the reactor fuel and cladding. Fast reactor fuel subassemblies have historically been constructed using a large number of small diameter fuel pins contained within a tube of hexagonal cross-section, or hexcan. Due to this design, there is a larger coolant flow area next to the hexcan wall as compared to flow area in the interior of the subassembly. This results in a higher flow rate near the hexcan wall, overcooling the fuel pins next to the wall, and a non-uniform coolant temperature distribution. It has been recognized for many years that this difference in sodium coolant temperature was detrimental to achieving

  13. Method of increasing the efficiency of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, H.

    1986-02-11

    This patent describes a method of increasing the efficiency of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. The method consists of the steps of repeatedly and alternately subjecting the fuel to a magnetic field and to radioactive rays.

  14. Achieving palliative care research efficiency through defining and benchmarking performance metrics

    PubMed Central

    Lodato, Jordan E.; Aziz, Noreen; Bennett, Rachael E.; Abernethy, Amy P.; Kutner, Jean S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review Research efficiency is gaining increasing attention in the research enterprise, including palliative care research. The importance of generating meaningful findings and translating these scientific advances to improved patient care creates urgency in the field to address well-documented system inefficiencies. The Palliative Care Research Cooperative Group (PCRC) provides useful examples for ensuring research efficiency in palliative care. Recent Findings Literature on maximizing research efficiency focuses on the importance of clearly delineated process maps, working instructions, and standard operating procedures (SOPs) in creating synchronicity in expectations across research sites. Examples from the PCRC support these objectives and suggest that early creation and employment of performance metrics aligned with these processes are essential to generate clear expectations and identify benchmarks. These benchmarks are critical in effective monitoring and ultimately the generation of high quality findings that are translatable to clinical populations. Prioritization of measurable goals and tasks to ensure that activities align with programmatic aims is critical. Summary Examples from the PCRC affirm and expand the existing literature on research efficiency, providing a palliative care focus. Operating procedures, performance metrics, prioritization, and monitoring for success should all be informed by and inform the process map to achieve maximum research efficiency. PMID:23080309

  15. Energy efficiency enhancements for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software achieved in cool silicon cluster project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinger, Frank; Mikolajick, Thomas; Fettweis, Gerhard; Hentschel, Dieter; Kolodinski, Sabine; Warnecke, Helmut; Reppe, Thomas; Tzschoppe, Christoph; Dohl, Jan; Carta, Corrado; Fritsche, David; Tretter, Gregor; Wiatr, Maciej; Detlef Kronholz, Stefan; Mikalo, Ricardo Pablo; Heinrich, Harald; Paulo, Robert; Wolf, Robert; Hübner, Johannes; Waltsgott, Johannes; Meißner, Klaus; Richter, Robert; Michler, Oliver; Bausinger, Markus; Mehlich, Heiko; Hahmann, Martin; Möller, Henning; Wiemer, Maik; Holland, Hans-Jürgen; Gärtner, Roberto; Schubert, Stefan; Richter, Alexander; Strobel, Axel; Fehske, Albrecht; Cech, Sebastian; Aßmann, Uwe; Pawlak, Andreas; Schröter, Michael; Finger, Wolfgang; Schumann, Stefan; Höppner, Sebastian; Walter, Dennis; Eisenreich, Holger; Schüffny, René

    2013-07-01

    An overview about the German cluster project Cool Silicon aiming at increasing the energy efficiency for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software is presented. Examples for achievements are: 1000 times reduced gate leakage in transistors using high-fc (HKMG) materials compared to conventional poly-gate (SiON) devices at the same technology node; 700 V transistors integrated in standard 0.35 μm CMOS; solar cell efficiencies above 19% at < 200 W/m2 irradiation; 0.99 power factor, 87% efficiency and 0.088 distortion factor for dc supplies; 1 ns synchronization resolution via Ethernet; database accelerators allowing 85% energy savings for servers; adaptive software yielding energy reduction of 73% for e-Commerce applications; processors and corresponding data links with 40% and 70% energy savings, respectively, by adaption of clock frequency and supply voltage in less than 20 ns; clock generator chip with tunable frequency from 83-666 MHz and 0.62-1.6 mW dc power; 90 Gb/s on-chip link over 6 mm and efficiency of 174 fJ/mm; dynamic biasing system doubling efficiency in power amplifiers; 60 GHz BiCMOS frontends with dc power to bandwidth ratio of 0.17 mW/MHz; driver assistance systems reducing energy consumption by 10% in cars Contribution to the Topical Issue “International Semiconductor Conference Dresden-Grenoble - ISCDG 2012”, Edited by Gérard Ghibaudo, Francis Balestra and Simon Deleonibus.

  16. Unwrapping Academic Standards to Increase the Achievement of Students With Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joseph John; Brown, Nancy Beyers; Hsiao, Yun-Ju; Howerter, Catherine; Juniel, Pamela; Sedano, Lidia; Castillo, Wendie Lappin

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, students with disabilities have been included in the general education environment at markedly higher rates; however, their achievement is not increasing at the same pace. One reason for this lack of increased achievement may be that academic standards lay the foundation for instruction in this environment, but standards…

  17. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  18. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  19. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  20. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  1. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  2. Increasing efficiency in intermediate band solar cells with overlapping absorptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Akshay; Krich, Jacob J.

    2016-07-01

    Intermediate band (IB) materials are promising candidates for realizing high efficiency solar cells. In IB photovoltaics, photons are absorbed in one of three possible electronic transitions—valence to conduction band, valence to intermediate band, or intermediate to conduction band. With fully concentrated sunlight, when the band gaps have been chosen appropriately, the highest efficiency IB solar cells require that these three absorptions be non-overlapping, so absorbed photons of fixed energy contribute to only one transition. The realistic case of overlapping absorptions, where the transitions compete for photons, is generally considered to be a source of loss. We show that overlapping absorptions can in fact lead to significant improvements in IB solar cell efficiencies, especially for IB that are near the middle of the band gap. At low to moderate concentration, the highest efficiency requires overlapping absorptions. We use the detailed-balance method and indicate how much overlap of the absorptions is required to achieve efficiency improvements, comparing with some known cases. These results substantially broaden the set of materials that can be suitable for high-efficiency IB solar cells.

  3. Gratings for Increasing Solid-State Laser Gain and Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Erlandson, A C; Britten, J A; Bonlie, J D

    2010-04-16

    We introduce new concepts for increasing the efficiency of solid state lasers by using gratings deposited on laser slabs or disks. The gratings improve efficiency in two ways: (1) by coupling out of the slab deleterious amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and (2) by increasing the absorption efficiency of pump light. The gratings also serve as antireflective coatings for the extracting laser beam. To evaluate the potential for such coatings to improve laser performance, we calculated optical properties of a 2500 groove/mm, tantala-silica grating on a 1cm x 4cm x 8cm titanium-doped sapphire slab and performed ray-trace calculations for ASE and pump light. Our calculations show substantial improvements in efficiency due to grating ASE-coupling properties. For example, the gratings reduce pump energy required to produce a 0.6/cm gain coefficient by 9%, 20% and 35% for pump pulse durations of 0.5 {micro}s, 1{micro}s and 3{micro}s, respectively. Gratings also increase 532-nm pump-light absorption efficiency, particularly when the product slab overall absorption is small. For example, when the single-pass absorption is 1 neper, absorption efficiency increases from 66%, without gratings, to 86%, when gratings are used.

  4. Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, B. A.; Harringa, J. L.; Russel, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by an Ames-led project team under a 4-year DOE-ITP sponsored project titled, 'Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency.' The Report serves as the project deliverable for the CPS agreement number 15015. The purpose of this project was to develop and commercialize a family of lightweight, bulk composite materials that are highly resistant to degradation by erosive and abrasive wear. These materials, based on AlMgB{sub 14}, are projected to save over 30 TBtu of energy per year when fully implemented in industrial applications, with the associated environmental benefits of eliminating the burning of 1.5 M tons/yr of coal and averting the release of 4.2 M tons/yr of CO{sub 2} into the air. This program targeted applications in the mining, drilling, machining, and dry erosion applications as key platforms for initial commercialization, which includes some of the most severe wear conditions in industry. Production-scale manufacturing of this technology has begun through a start-up company, NewTech Ceramics (NTC). This project included providing technical support to NTC in order to facilitate cost-effective mass production of the wear-resistant boride components. Resolution of issues related to processing scale-up, reduction in energy intensity during processing, and improving the quality and performance of the composites, without adding to the cost of processing were among the primary technical focus areas of this program. Compositional refinements were also investigated in order to achieve the maximum wear resistance. In addition, synthesis of large-scale, single-phase AlMgB{sub 14} powder was conducted for use as PVD sputtering targets for nanocoating applications.

  5. U.S. Public Administration Programs: Increasing Academic Achievement by Identifying and Utilizing Student Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Lorenda A; Wooldridge, Blue; Lyles, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Global economic shifts are forcing universities to become more competitive and operationally efficient. As a result, universities emphasize access, affordability, and achievement. More specifically, U.S. universities have responded by emphasizing course assessment, retention rates, and graduation rates. Both university administrators and faculty…

  6. Does Lengthening the School Day Increase Students' Academic Achievement? Results from a Natural Experiment in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellei, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    This study (an impact evaluation of the Chilean full school day program) uses difference-in-differences to estimate the effect of a large increase in instructional time on high school students' academic achievement. The main findings are (i) the program had a positive effect on students' achievement in both mathematics and language; (ii) the…

  7. Using the Theory of Multiple Intelligences to Increase Fourth-Grade Students' Academic Achievement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This applied dissertation was designed to increase the academic achievement of 4th-grade students in science. The problem to be solved was that 4th-grade students in a rural elementary school exhibited low academic achievement in science. The researcher utilized the multiple intelligences (MI) theory and brain-based learning to develop the IMPACT…

  8. Gaining Retention and Achievement for Students Program (GRASP): A Faculty Development Program To Increase Student Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShannon, Judith

    This study investigated the effects of a faculty development program offered to increase positive interactions between students and faculty and the effects of these interactions on student achievement and retention. The Gaining Retention and Achievement for Students (GRASP) program supports the accreditation process of the Accreditation Board of…

  9. An IRB Transformation: Increasing Quality and Efficiency Using Existing Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Joseph E., Jr.; Moore, J. Brian; Means, Paula; Weinberg, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to increase review-quality and efficiency, research administration at Wake Forest School of Medicine initiated a change in the operational structure of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) via a reconfiguring of the boards and rescheduling of the convened meetings. The number of IRB Panels was doubled and each panel/board began…

  10. Advanced Nano-Composites for Increased Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to increase energy efficiency and operating lifetime of wear-intensive industrial components and systems by developing and commercializing a family of ceramic-based monolithic composites that have shown remarkable resistance to wear in laboratory tests.

  11. Semiconductor technology for reducing emissions and increasing efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Duffin, B.; Frank, R.

    1997-12-31

    The cooperation and support of all industries are required to significantly impact a worldwide reduction in gaseous emissions that may contribute to climate change. Each industry also is striving to more efficiently utilize the resources that it consumes since this is both conservation for good citizenship and an intelligent approach to business. The semiconductor industry is also extremely concerned with these issues. However, semiconductor manufacturer`s products provide solutions for reduced emissions and increased efficiency in their industry, other industries and areas that can realize significant improvements through control technology. This paper will focus on semiconductor technologies of digital control, power switching and sensing to improve efficiency and reduce emissions in automotive, industrial, and office/home applications. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  12. Increasing NTM Stabilization Efficiency Using Modulated ECCD In ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Manini, A.; Maraschek, M.; Yu, Q.; Guenter, S.; Leuterer, F.; Zohm, H.; Gantenbein, G.

    2007-09-28

    This paper reports on the experimental studies, performed in the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade, for increasing the efficiency in generating a helical current within magnetic islands with the purpose of suppressing neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) by electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). It is shown that the efficiency of generating this current by continuous CD in a rotating island drops drastically as the width 2d of the co-ECCD driven current becomes larger than the islands size W. However, by modulating the co-ECCD in phase with the island's O-point, the efficiency is recovered. The results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations taking into account the equilibration of the externally driven current on the island flux surfaces. The result is especially important for large next-step fusion devices, such as ITER, where 2d>W is expected to be unavoidable during NTM suppression, indicating that modulation capability should be foreseen.

  13. High efficiency supercharger increases engine output, reduces fuel consumption through computer control

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, S.; Nakamura, N.; Kato, K.; Ohnaka, H.

    1986-01-01

    Efficiency of a supercharger mainly depends on the clearances between the rotors and the housing, but it has hitherto proved impossible to reduce the clearances without a strong possibility of seizure. A two lobe Roots type supercharger has been developed which overcomes this problem by means of a special resin coating on the rotors. As a result, an increase of 18% in volumetric efficiency of the supercharger is achieved. Engine torque is increased by 30%. Drive power loss resulting from the operation of a supercharger at partial load when boost was not required caused fuel consumption to increase by about 10%.

  14. New ferritic steels increase the thermal efficiency of steam turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, K.H.; Bakker, W.T.

    1996-12-31

    The further development of ferritic high-temperature-resistant 9--11%Cr steels has paved the way for fossil-fired power stations to be operated at turbine steam inlet temperatures of up to around 600 C and high supercritical steam pressures with a distinct improvement in thermal efficiency, a significant contribution towards reducing the environmental impact of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions and to a more economical utilization of fossil fuels. Advances in the development of these steels are primarily attributable to joint research projects undertaken by the manufacturers and operators of power stations in Japan (EPDC), in the USA (EPRI) and in Europe (COST 501). The report gives details on the results achieved under EPRI Research Project RP 140 3-15/23 on the creep behavior of modified 9%CrMo cast steel used in the manufacture of steam turbines for coal-fired power plants. The modified 9%CrMo cast steel also offers great benefits as regards improving the useful life and thermal efficiency of existing power plants.

  15. Contribution of Increased Extraction Efficiency to Increased Photo-Luminescence in Strained Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Jui; Yang, Arnold Chang-Mou; Hsu, Jui-Hung; White, Jonathon D.

    2011-03-01

    Potential applications of Luminescent Conjugated Polymers in thin film diodes, solar cells and flat panel displays have been limited by low efficiency. Craze formation in MEH-PPV/polystyrene thin films leads to a factor of 2 or 3 increase in collected photo-luminescence (PL) due to a combination of factors such as MEH-PPV chain conformation and increased extraction efficiency of PL. In order to determine the contribution of the latter effect, we used Monte Carlo based Ray Tracing to analyze the trajectory of photons generated in the thin film under different strain conditions. Our results indicate that increased PL extraction due to the existence of crazes contributes ~ 50 % of the observed increase in PL, the majority of this being due to light emitted near the craze edges.

  16. Contribution of Increased Extraction Efficiency to Increased Photo-Luminescence in Strained Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Jui; Chang-Mou Yang, Arnold; Hsu, Jui-Hung; White, Jonathon D.

    2012-02-01

    Potential applications of Luminescent Conjugated Polymers in thin film diodes, solar cells and flat panel displays have been limited by low efficiency. Craze formation in MEH-PPV/polystyrene thin film leads to a factor of 2 or 3 increase in collected photo-luminescence (PL) due to a combination of factors such as MEH-PPV chain conformation and increased extraction efficiency of PL. In order to determine the contribution of the latter effect, we used Monte Carlo based Ray Tracing to analyze the trajectory of photons generated in the thin film under different strain conditions. Our results indicate that increased PL extraction due to the existence of crazes contributes ˜15% of the observed increase in PL, the majority of this being due to light emitted near the craze edges.

  17. Light Increases Energy Transfer Efficiency in a Boreal Stream

    PubMed Central

    Lesutienė, Jūratė; Gorokhova, Elena; Stankevičienė, Daiva; Bergman, Eva; Greenberg, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Periphyton communities of a boreal stream were exposed to different light and nutrient levels to estimate energy transfer efficiency from primary to secondary producers using labeling with inorganic 13C. In a one-day field experiment, periphyton grown in fast-flow conditions and dominated by opportunistic green algae were exposed to light levels corresponding to sub-saturating (forest shade) and saturating (open stream section) irradiances, and to N and P nutrient additions. In a two-week laboratory experiment, periphyton grown in low-flow conditions and dominated by slowly growing diatoms were incubated under two sub-saturating light and nutrient enrichment levels as well as grazed and non-grazed conditions. Light had significant positive effect on 13C uptake by periphyton. In the field experiment, P addition had a positive effect on 13C uptake but only at sub-saturating light levels, whereas in the laboratory experiment nutrient additions had no effect on the periphyton biomass, 13C uptake, biovolume and community composition. In the laboratory experiment, the grazer (caddisfly) effect on periphyton biomass specific 13C uptake and nutrient content was much stronger than the effects of light and nutrients. In particular, grazers significantly reduced periphyton biomass and increased biomass specific 13C uptake and C:nutrient ratios. The energy transfer efficiency, estimated as a ratio between 13C uptake by caddisfly and periphyton, was positively affected by light conditions, whereas the nutrient effect was not significant. We suggest that the observed effects on energy transfer were related to the increased diet contribution of highly palatable green algae, stimulated by higher light levels. Also, high heterotrophic microbial activity under low light levels would facilitate energy loss through respiration and decrease overall trophic transfer efficiency. These findings suggest that even a small increase in light intensity could result in community-wide effects on

  18. Towards MRI T2 contrast agents of increased efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branca, Marlène; Marciello, Marzia; Ciuculescu-Pradines, Diana; Respaud, Marc; Morales, Maria del Puerto; Serra, Raphael; Casanove, Marie-José; Amiens, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles can be efficient contrast agents for T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after tuning of some key parameters such as size, surface state, colloidal stability and magnetization, thus motivating the development of new synthetic pathways. In this paper we report the effects of surface coating on the efficiency of two different types of iron based nanoparticles (NPs) as MRI contrast agents. Starting from well-defined hydrophobic iron oxide nanospheres and iron nanocubes of 13 nm size, we have used three methods to increase their hydrophilicity and transfer them into water: surface ligand modification, ligand exchange or encapsulation. The NPs obtained have been characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, and the relaxivities of their stable colloidal solutions in water have been determined. Among all samples prepared, iron nanocubes coated by silica display the highest relaxivity (r2) value: 628 s-1 mM-1.

  19. Estimates of achievable potential for electricity efficiency improvements in U.S. residences

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard

    1993-05-01

    This paper investigates the potential for public policies to achieve electricity efficiency improvements in US residences. This estimate of achievable potential builds upon a database of energy-efficient technologies developed for a previous study estimating the technical potential for electricity savings. The savings potential and cost for each efficiency measure in the database is modified to reflect the expected results of policies implemented between 1990 and 2010. Factors included in these modifications are: the market penetration of efficiency measures, the costs of administering policies, and adjustments to the technical potential measures to reflect the actual energy savings and cost experienced in the past. When all adjustment factors are considered, this study estimates that policies can achieve approximately 45% of the technical potential savings during the period from 1990 to 2010. Thus, policies can potentially avoid 18% of the annual frozen-efficiency baseline electricity consumption forecast for the year 2010. This study also investigates the uncertainty in best estimate of achievable potential by estimating two alternative scenarios -- a

  20. Increasing the Cost-efficiency of the DSN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, Joseph I.; Berner, Jeff B.

    2008-01-01

    JPL has operated the Deep Space Network (DSN) on behalf of NASA since the 1960's. Over the last two decades, the DSN budget has generally declined in real-year dollars while the aging assets required more attention, and the missions became more complex. As a result, the budget has been increasingly consumed by Operations and Maintenance (O and M), significantly reducing the funding wedge available for technology investment and for enhancing the DSN capability and capacity. Responding to this budget squeeze, the DSN launched an effort to improve the cost-efficiency of the O and M. In this paper we: Analyze the components of O&M. We note for example that, for the DSN, less than 20% of the staff engage in the traditional human-in-front-a-console role, so any effort to increase the cost efficiency must go beyond reducing the number of "Real-time operators." Explain the underlying organizational and cultural structures. Any cost-efficiency activities changes either accept, or carefully modify these structures. For example, the DSN O&M is based on the concept that there are three nearly identical antenna complexes separated by approximately 1200 in latitude and that each antenna complex is operated by a different contractor (driven by international agreements). Explore planned changes in the customer interface, e.g. web-based automated scheduling, and the processes required for a transition. Changes have to be evaluated in the larger end-to-end context, e.g. do the changes provide a net cost-efficiency for the DSN and the missions, or do they merely shift cost from the DSN to the missions. Consider possible significant changes in real-time pass management, e.g. full-remoting of operations, and lights-dim operations, while maintaining (or improving) the performance metrics of the DSN. Investigate how procedural and administrative changes could increase cost-efficiency, in conjunction with changes in the customer interfaces and real-time pass management. Examples would be

  1. Increasing Women's Aspirations and Achievement in Science: The Effect of Role Models on Implicit Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Julie E.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the role of implicit science beliefs in the gender gap in science aspirations and achievement, with the goal of testing identification with a female role model as a potential intervention strategy for increasing women's representation in science careers. At Time 1, women's implicit science stereotyping (i.e., associating…

  2. Robotics as Means to Increase Achievement Scores in an Informal Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bradley S.; Ansorge, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study that examined the use of a science and technology curriculum based on robotics to increase the achievement scores of youth ages 9-11 in an after school program. The study examined and compared the pretest and posttest scores of youth in the robotics intervention with youth in a control group. The results…

  3. Coteachers' Attitudes and Perceptions of Coteaching Strategies on Increasing Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohaya, Ngozi Chidinma

    2014-01-01

    Meeting the goal of increasing academic achievement for students with disabilities in general education classes remains a challenge in the research district's high schools. Coteachers need to know if the teaching strategies of Project Instruction, Collaboration, and Environment, known as Project ICE, are effective in addressing the problem of poor…

  4. Curriculum-Based Measurement: A Proven Tool to Increase Achievement. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This ERS "Focus On" discusses curriculum-based measurement (CBM), the most widely used research-based method for student progress monitoring, which is required in Response to Intervention (RTI) approaches. CBM is supported by nearly 30 years of empirical evidence of its effectiveness in monitoring student progress to increase achievement. Teachers…

  5. Trends in increasing gas-turbine units efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. S.; Kostennikov, S. V.

    2008-06-01

    A review of the latest models of gas-turbine units (GTUs) manufactured by leading firms of the world is given. With the example of units made by General Electric, Siemens, and Alstom, modern approaches to the problem of increasing the efficiency of gas-turbine units are dealt with. Basic principles of designing of moderate-size capacity gas turbine units are discussed, and comparison between characteristics of foreign-made GTUs belonging to this class and the advanced domestic GTE-65 unit is made.

  6. Increased SERS detection efficiency for characterizing rare events in flow.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Kevin T; Schultz, Zachary D

    2015-08-18

    Improved surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements of a flowing aqueous sample are accomplished by combining line focus optics with sheath-flow SERS detection. The straightforward introduction of a cylindrical lens into the optical path of the Raman excitation laser increases the efficiency of SERS detection and the reproducibility of SERS signals at low concentrations. The width of the line focus is matched to the width of the sample capillary from which the analyte elutes under hydrodynamic focusing conditions, allowing for increased collection across the SERS substrate while maintaining the power density below the damage threshold at any specific point. We show that a 4× increase in power spread across the line increases the signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 2 for a variety of analytes, such as rhodamine 6G, amino acids, and lipid vesicles, without any detectable photodamage. COMSOL simulations and Raman maps elucidate the hydrodynamic focusing properties of the flow cell, providing a clearer picture of the confinement effects at the surface where the sample exits the capillary. The lipid vesicle results suggest that the combination of hydrodynamic focusing and increased optical collection enables the reproducible detection of rare events, in this case individual lipid vesicles. PMID:26168151

  7. Enhanced Aromatic Sequons Increase Oligosaccharyltransferase Glycosylation Efficiency and Glycan Homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Murray, Amber N; Chen, Wentao; Antonopoulos, Aristotelis; Hanson, Sarah R; Wiseman, R Luke; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart M; Powers, David L; Powers, Evan T; Kelly, Jeffery W

    2015-08-20

    N-Glycosylation plays an important role in protein folding and function. Previous studies demonstrate that a phenylalanine residue introduced at the n-2 position relative to an Asn-Xxx-Thr/Ser N-glycosylation sequon increases the glycan occupancy of the sequon in insect cells. Here, we show that any aromatic residue at n-2 increases glycan occupancy in human cells and that this effect is dependent upon oligosaccharyltransferase substrate preferences rather than differences in other cellular processing events such as degradation or trafficking. Moreover, aromatic residues at n-2 alter glycan processing in the Golgi, producing proteins with less complex N-glycan structures. These results demonstrate that manipulating the sequence space surrounding N-glycosylation sequons is useful both for controlling glycosylation efficiency, thus enhancing glycan occupancy, and for influencing the N-glycan structures produced. PMID:26190824

  8. Increasing Z-pinch vacuum hohlraum capsule coupling efficiency.

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, Debbie; Vesey, Roger Alan; Cochrane, Kyle Robert; Nikroo, A.; Bennett, Guy R.; Schroen, Diana Grace; Ruggles, Laurence E.; Porter, John L.; Streit, Jon; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Cuneo, Michael Edward

    2004-11-01

    Symmetric capsule implosions in the double-ended vacuum hohlraum (DEH) on Z have demonstrated convergence ratios of 14-21 for 2.15-mm plastic ablator capsules absorbing 5-7 kJ of x-rays, based on backlit images of the compressed ablator remaining at peak convergence [1]. Experiments with DD-filled 3.3-mm diameter capsules designed to absorb 14 kJ of x-rays have begun as an integrated test of drive temperature and symmetry, complementary to thin-shell symmetry diagnostic capsules. These capsule implosions are characterized by excellent control of symmetry (< 3% time-integrated), but low hohlraum efficiency (< 2%). Possible methods to increase the capsule absorbed energy in the DEH include mixed-component hohlraums, large diameter foam ablator capsules, transmissive shine shields between the z-pinch and capsule, higher spoke electrode x-ray transmission, a double-sided power feed, and smaller initial radius z-pinch wire arrays. Simulations will explore the potential for each of these modifications to increase the capsule coupling efficiency for near-term experiments on Z and ZR.

  9. Thermodynamic and achievable efficiencies for solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Meenesh R.; Clark, Ezra L.; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-11-01

    Thermodynamic, achievable, and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven electrochemical conversion of water and carbon dioxide to fuels are investigated as functions of light-absorber composition and configuration, and catalyst composition. The maximum thermodynamic efficiency at 1-sun illumination for adiabatic electrochemical synthesis of various solar fuels is in the range of 32-42%. Single-, double-, and triple-junction light absorbers are found to be optimal for electrochemical load ranges of 0-0.9 V, 0.9-1.95 V, and 1.95-3.5 V, respectively. Achievable solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies are determined using ideal double- and triple-junction light absorbers and the electrochemical load curves for CO2 reduction on silver and copper cathodes, and water oxidation kinetics over iridium oxide. The maximum achievable STF efficiencies for synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and Hythane (H2 and CH4) are 18.4% and 20.3%, respectively. Whereas the realistic STF efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) can be as low as 0.8%, tandem PECs and photovoltaic (PV)-electrolyzers can operate at 7.2% under identical operating conditions. We show that the composition and energy content of solar fuels can also be adjusted by tuning the band-gaps of triple-junction light absorbers and/or the ratio of catalyst-to-PV area, and that the synthesis of liquid products and C2H4 have high profitability indices.

  10. Thermodynamic and achievable efficiencies for solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenesh R; Clark, Ezra L; Bell, Alexis T

    2015-11-10

    Thermodynamic, achievable, and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven electrochemical conversion of water and carbon dioxide to fuels are investigated as functions of light-absorber composition and configuration, and catalyst composition. The maximum thermodynamic efficiency at 1-sun illumination for adiabatic electrochemical synthesis of various solar fuels is in the range of 32-42%. Single-, double-, and triple-junction light absorbers are found to be optimal for electrochemical load ranges of 0-0.9 V, 0.9-1.95 V, and 1.95-3.5 V, respectively. Achievable solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies are determined using ideal double- and triple-junction light absorbers and the electrochemical load curves for CO2 reduction on silver and copper cathodes, and water oxidation kinetics over iridium oxide. The maximum achievable STF efficiencies for synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and Hythane (H2 and CH4) are 18.4% and 20.3%, respectively. Whereas the realistic STF efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) can be as low as 0.8%, tandem PECs and photovoltaic (PV)-electrolyzers can operate at 7.2% under identical operating conditions. We show that the composition and energy content of solar fuels can also be adjusted by tuning the band-gaps of triple-junction light absorbers and/or the ratio of catalyst-to-PV area, and that the synthesis of liquid products and C2H4 have high profitability indices. PMID:26504215

  11. Thermodynamic and achievable efficiencies for solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Meenesh R.; Clark, Ezra L.; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic, achievable, and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven electrochemical conversion of water and carbon dioxide to fuels are investigated as functions of light-absorber composition and configuration, and catalyst composition. The maximum thermodynamic efficiency at 1-sun illumination for adiabatic electrochemical synthesis of various solar fuels is in the range of 32–42%. Single-, double-, and triple-junction light absorbers are found to be optimal for electrochemical load ranges of 0–0.9 V, 0.9–1.95 V, and 1.95–3.5 V, respectively. Achievable solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies are determined using ideal double- and triple-junction light absorbers and the electrochemical load curves for CO2 reduction on silver and copper cathodes, and water oxidation kinetics over iridium oxide. The maximum achievable STF efficiencies for synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and Hythane (H2 and CH4) are 18.4% and 20.3%, respectively. Whereas the realistic STF efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) can be as low as 0.8%, tandem PECs and photovoltaic (PV)-electrolyzers can operate at 7.2% under identical operating conditions. We show that the composition and energy content of solar fuels can also be adjusted by tuning the band-gaps of triple-junction light absorbers and/or the ratio of catalyst-to-PV area, and that the synthesis of liquid products and C2H4 have high profitability indices. PMID:26504215

  12. Thyroid hormone increases bulk histones expression by enhancing translational efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Alberto; García-Carpizo, Verónica; Villamuera, Raquel; Aranda, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The expression of canonical histones is normally coupled to DNA synthesis during the S phase of the cell cycle. Replication-dependent histone mRNAs do not contain a poly(A) tail at their 3' terminus, but instead possess a stem-loop motif, the binding site for the stem-loop binding protein (SLBP), which regulates mRNA processing, stability, and relocation to polysomes. Here we show that the thyroid hormone can increase the levels of canonical histones independent of DNA replication. Incubation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with T3 increases the total levels of histones, and expression of the thyroid hormone receptor β induces a further increase. This is not restricted to mouse embryonic fibroblasts, because T3 also raises histone expression in other cell lines. T3 does not increase histone mRNA or SLBP levels, suggesting that T3 regulates histone expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism. Indeed, T3 enhanced translational efficiency, inducing relocation of histone mRNA to heavy polysomes. Increased translation was associated with augmented transcription of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 γ2 (EIF4G2). T3 induced EIF4G2 protein and mRNA levels and the thyroid hormone receptor bound to the promoter region of the Eif4g2 gene. Induction of EIF4G2 was essential for T3-dependent histone induction, because depletion of this factor abolished histone increase. These results point out the importance of the thyroid hormones on the posttranscriptional regulation of histone biosynthesis in a cell cycle-independent manner and also suggest the potential regulation of eukaryotic translation by the modulation of the initiation factor EIF4G2, which also operates in the translation of canonical mRNAs. PMID:25422881

  13. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  14. Increasing Mathematics and Science Achievement for Culturally Diverse Students through Teaching Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahon, Lee

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal was to field test and evaluate a Teacher Training program that would prepare teachers to increase the motivation and achievement of culturally diverse students in the areas of science and mathematics. Designed as a three year program, this report covers the first two years of the training program at the Ronald McNair School in the Ravenswood School district, using the resources of the NASA Ames Research Center and the California Framework for Mathematics and Science.

  15. Adaptation improves neural coding efficiency despite increasing correlations in variability.

    PubMed

    Adibi, Mehdi; McDonald, James S; Clifford, Colin W G; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2013-01-30

    Exposure of cortical cells to sustained sensory stimuli results in changes in the neuronal response function. This phenomenon, known as adaptation, is a common feature across sensory modalities. Here, we quantified the functional effect of adaptation on the ensemble activity of cortical neurons in the rat whisker-barrel system. A multishank array of electrodes was used to allow simultaneous sampling of neuronal activity. We characterized the response of neurons to sinusoidal whisker vibrations of varying amplitude in three states of adaptation. The adaptors produced a systematic rightward shift in the neuronal response function. Consistently, mutual information revealed that peak discrimination performance was not aligned to the adaptor but to test amplitudes 3-9 μm higher. Stimulus presentation reduced single neuron trial-to-trial response variability (captured by Fano factor) and correlations in the population response variability (noise correlation). We found that these two types of variability were inversely proportional to the average firing rate regardless of the adaptation state. Adaptation transferred the neuronal operating regime to lower rates with higher Fano factor and noise correlations. Noise correlations were positive and in the direction of signal, and thus detrimental to coding efficiency. Interestingly, across all population sizes, the net effect of adaptation was to increase the total information despite increasing the noise correlation between neurons. PMID:23365247

  16. On the Achievable Efficiency-Fairness Tradeoff in Utility-Optimal MAC Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jang-Won; Chiang, Mung; Calderbank, A. Robert

    We use the network utility maximization (NUM) framework to create an efficient and fair medium access control (MAC) protocol for wireless networks. By adjusting the parameters in the utility objective functions of NUM problems, we control the tradeoff between efficiency and fairness of radio resource allocation through a rigorous and systematic design. In this paper, we propose a scheduling-based MAC protocol. Since it provides an upper-bound on the achievable performance, it establishes the optimality benchmarks for comparison with other algorithms in related work.

  17. Increasing computational efficiency of cochlear models using boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhairy, Samiya A.; Shera, Christopher A.

    2015-12-01

    Our goal is to develop methods to improve the efficiency of computational models of the cochlea for applications that require the solution accurately only within a basal region of interest, specifically by decreasing the number of spatial sections needed for simulation of the problem with good accuracy. We design algebraic spatial and parametric transformations to computational models of the cochlea. These transformations are applied after the basal region of interest and allow for spatial preservation, driven by the natural characteristics of approximate spatial causality of cochlear models. The project is of foundational nature and hence the goal is to design, characterize and develop an understanding and framework rather than optimization and globalization. Our scope is as follows: designing the transformations; understanding the mechanisms by which computational load is decreased for each transformation; development of performance criteria; characterization of the results of applying each transformation to a specific physical model and discretization and solution schemes. In this manuscript, we introduce one of the proposed methods (complex spatial transformation) for a case study physical model that is a linear, passive, transmission line model in which the various abstraction layers (electric parameters, filter parameters, wave parameters) are clearer than other models. This is conducted in the frequency domain for multiple frequencies using a second order finite difference scheme for discretization and direct elimination for solving the discrete system of equations. The performance is evaluated using two developed simulative criteria for each of the transformations. In conclusion, the developed methods serve to increase efficiency of a computational traveling wave cochlear model when spatial preservation can hold, while maintaining good correspondence with the solution of interest and good accuracy, for applications in which the interest is in the solution

  18. From Guide to Practice: Improving Your After School Science Program to Increase Student Academic Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous science organizations, such as NASA, offer educational outreach activities geared towards after school. For some programs, the primary goal is to grow students' love of science. For others, the programs are also intended to increase academic achievement. For those programs looking to support student learning in out-of-school time environments, aligning the program with learning during the classroom day can be a challenge. The Institute for Education Sciences, What Works Clearinghouse, put together a 'Practice Guide' for maximizing learning time beyond the regular school day. These practice guides provide concrete recommendations for educators supported by research. While this guide is not specific to any content or subject-area, the recommendations provided align very well with science education. After school science is often viewed as a fun, dynamic environment for students. Indeed, one of the recommendations to ensure time is structured according to students' needs is to provide relevant and interesting experiences. Given that our after school programs provide such creative environments for students, what other components are needed to promote increased academic achievement? The recommendations provided to academic achievement, include: 1. Align Instruction, 2. Maximize Attendance and Participation, 3. Adapt Instruction, 4. Provide Engaging Experiences, and 5. Evaluate Program. In this session we will examine these five recommendations presented in the Practice Guide, discuss how these strategies align with science programs, and examine what questions each program should address in order to provide experiences that lend themselves to maximizing instruction. Roadblocks and solutions for overcoming challenges in each of the five areas will be presented. Jessica Taylor will present this research based on her role as an author on the Practice Guide, 'Improving Academic Achievement in Out-of-School Time' and her experience working in various informal science

  19. Bilingual communication methods, text versus video, to increase parent involvement and science fair project student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clevenson, Rhonda Suzanne

    This research examined the responses of families to bilingual communication methods, text versus video, designed to facilitate school to home communication to increase parent involvement and seventh grade student achievement in the science fair project. Using an experimental design, 161 families were randomly selected to receive either a two part informational text or video series during the science fair unit taught at a culturally diverse urban middle school. The bilingual informational materials were created and produced by the staff at the research site. Measures were taken to make sure all families could access the informational materials and innovations such as a special travel envelope and reminding procedures aided data collection. Surveys measuring variables on a Likert scale with spaces for comments were collected from the parents and students. An interrater reliability study was completed to measure the agreement of the two teachers who used a grading checklist to score science fair project achievement. Quantitative methods including ANOVA and MLR were used to examine the data in terms of student achievement and the communication method (text or video), audience (students and parents), and the anticipated outcome (parent help). Nonparametric and qualitative data analyses were used to explore how families used and responded to the informational materials. Significant results were that the video communication method was positively associated with student achievement on the science fair project. Significant main effects were observed for the student characteristics, educational services (general and special education, and English as a Second Language), and previous achievement in science, and the parent characteristics, previous experience with science fair projects, primary viewing language (English or Spanish), and expectations for student achievement. Student achievement was not significantly related to the amount or usefulness of parent help. The amount

  20. Innovative strategy with potential to increase hemodialysis efficiency and safety.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Mai, Fu-Der; Liu, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Chun-Mao; Chang, Chun-Chao; Tsai, Hui-Yen; Yang, Chih-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Uremic toxins are mainly represented by blood urine nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Crea) whose removal is critically important in hemodialysis (HD) for kidney disease. Patients undergoing HD have a complex illness, resulting from: inadequate removal of organic waste, dialysis-induced oxidative stress and membrane-induced inflammation. Here we report innovative breakthroughs for efficient and safe HD by using a plasmon-induced dialysate comprising Au nanoparticles (NPs)-treated (AuNT) water that is distinguishable from conventional deionized (DI) water. The diffusion coefficient of K3Fe(CN)6 in saline solution can be significantly increased from 2.76, to 4.62 × 10(-6) cm s(-1), by using AuNT water prepared under illumination by green light-emitting diodes (LED). In vitro HD experiments suggest that the treatment times for the removals of 70% BUN and Crea are reduced by 47 and 59%, respectively, using AuNT water instead of DI water in dialysate, while additionally suppressing NO release from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cells. PMID:24651843

  1. Increased efficiency of topping cycle PCFB power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W.; Horazak, D.

    1996-05-01

    Pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) power plants offer the power industry significantly increased efficiencies with reduced costs of electricity and lower emissions. When topping combustion is incorporated in the plant, these advantages are enhanced. In the plant, coal is fed to a pressurized carbonizer that produces a low-Btu fuel gas and char. After passing through a cyclone and ceramic barrier filter to remove gas-entrained particulates and a packed bed of emathelite pellets to remove alkali vapors. the fuel gas is burned in a topping combustor to produce the energy required to drive a gas turbine. The gas turbine drives a generator combustor, and a fluidized bed heat exchanger (FBHE). The carbonizer char is burned in the PCFB and the exhaust gas passes through its own cyclone, ceramic barrier filter, and alkali getter and supports combustion of the fuel gas in the topping combustor. Steam generated in a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) downstream of the gas turbine and in the FBHE associated with the PCFB drives the steam turbine generator that furnishes the balance of electric power delivered by the plant.

  2. Innovative strategy with potential to increase hemodialysis efficiency and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Mai, Fu-Der; Liu, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Chun-Mao; Chang, Chun-Chao; Tsai, Hui-Yen; Yang, Chih-Ping

    2014-03-01

    Uremic toxins are mainly represented by blood urine nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Crea) whose removal is critically important in hemodialysis (HD) for kidney disease. Patients undergoing HD have a complex illness, resulting from: inadequate removal of organic waste, dialysis-induced oxidative stress and membrane-induced inflammation. Here we report innovative breakthroughs for efficient and safe HD by using a plasmon-induced dialysate comprising Au nanoparticles (NPs)-treated (AuNT) water that is distinguishable from conventional deionized (DI) water. The diffusion coefficient of K3Fe(CN)6 in saline solution can be significantly increased from 2.76, to 4.62 × 10-6 cm s-1, by using AuNT water prepared under illumination by green light-emitting diodes (LED). In vitro HD experiments suggest that the treatment times for the removals of 70% BUN and Crea are reduced by 47 and 59%, respectively, using AuNT water instead of DI water in dialysate, while additionally suppressing NO release from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cells.

  3. Increasing Transport Efficiencies of Polymer Based Solar Cells by Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Terrence

    2011-03-01

    Organic polymer photovoltaic (PV) cells are an active area of Applied Physics research because of four unique characteristics: (1) relatively inexpensive costs, (2) transparent properties, (3) flexibility, and (4) ease of mass production. We are studying the effects of incorporating single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNs) into a mixture of poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), to test the affects on transport characteristics. The experiment will be segregated into parallel trials, with fixed volume ratios of P3HT:SWCNs to test the effects of (1) random orientation of SWCNs or the control, and (2) an aligned orientation of SWCNs. An electrophoresis-based technique, similar to gel electrophoresis, used to separate DNA fragments of variable masses, is used for partial alignment of the SWCN. Fixed geometry metalized substrates in a four striped copper patternare used for the transport studies and the P3HT:SWCN film's resistivity is monitored in-situ. The oriented films show enhanced conductivity, indicating this plays a major role in the increased efficiencies found in P3HT:SWCN based polymer solar cells.

  4. Increasing Transport Efficiencies of Polymer Based Solar Cells by Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Terrence

    2010-10-01

    Organic polymer photovoltaic (PV) cells are an active area of Applied Physics research because of four unique characteristics: (1) relatively inexpensive costs, (2) transparent properties, (3) flexibility, and (4) ease of mass production. We are studying the effects of incorporating single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNs) into a mixture of poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), to test the affects on transport characteristics. The experiment will be segregated into parallel trials, with fixed volume ratios of P3HT:SWCNs to test the effects of (1) random orientation of SWCNs or the control, and (2) an aligned orientation of SWCNs. An electrophoresis-based technique, similar to gel electrophoresis, used to separate DNA fragments of variable masses, is used for partial alignment of the SWCN. Fixed geometry metalized substrates in a four striped copper patternare used for the transport studies and the P3HT:SWCN film's resistivity is monitored in-situ. The oriented films show enhanced conductivity, indicating this plays a major role in the increased efficiencies found in P3HT:SWCN based polymer solar cells.

  5. Device engineering of perovskite solar cells to achieve near ideal efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Sumanshu E-mail: prnair@ee.iitb.ac.in; Nair, Pradeep R. E-mail: prnair@ee.iitb.ac.in

    2015-09-21

    Despite the exciting recent research on perovskite based solar cells, the design space for further optimization and the practical limits of efficiency are not well known in the community. In this letter, we address these aspects through theoretical calculations and detailed numerical simulations. Here, we first provide the detailed balance limit efficiency in the presence of radiative and Auger recombination. Then, using coupled optical and carrier transport simulations, we identify the physical mechanisms that contribute towards bias dependent carrier collection, and hence low fill factors of current perovskite based solar cells. Our detailed simulations indicate that it is indeed possible to achieve efficiencies and fill factors greater than 25% and 85%, respectively, with near ideal super-position characteristics even in the presence of Auger recombination.

  6. III-V photocathode with nitrogen doping for increased quantum efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, L. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An increase in the quantum efficiency of a 3-5 photocathode is achieved by doping its semiconductor material with an acceptor and nitrogen, a column-5 isoelectronic element, that introduces a spatially localized energy level just below the conduction band similar to a donor level to which optical transitions can occur. This increases the absorption coefficient, alpha without compensation of the acceptor dopant. A layer of a suitable 1-5, 1-6 or 1-7 compound is included as an activation layer on the electron emission side to lower the work function of the photocathode.

  7. Tuning charge balance in PHOLEDs with ambipolar host materials to achieve high efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Koech, Phillip K.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Chopra, Neetu; So, Franky; Sapochak, Linda S.; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2009-08-27

    The efficiency and stability of blue organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) continue to be a primary roadblock to developing organic solid state white lighting. For OLEDs to meet the high power conversion efficiency goal, they will require both close to 100% internal quantum efficiency and low operating voltage in a white light emitting device.1 It is generally accepted that such high quantum efficiency, can only be achieved with the use of organometallic phosphor doped OLEDs. Blue OLEDs are particularly important for solid state lighting. The simplest (and therefore likely the lowest cost) method of generating white light is to down convert part of the emission from a blue light source with a system of external phosphors.2 A second method of generating white light requires the superposition of the light from red, green and blue OLEDs in the correct ratio. Either of these two methods (and indeed any method of generating white light with a high color rendering index) critically depends on a high efficiency blue light component.3 A simple OLED generally consists of a hole-injecting anode, a preferentially hole transporting organic layer (HTL), an emissive layer that contains the recombination zone and ideally transports both holes and electrons, a preferentially electron-transporting layer (ETL) and an electron-injecting cathode. Color in state-of-the-art OLEDs is generated by an organometallic phosphor incorporated by co-sublimation into the emissive layer (EML).4 New materials functioning as hosts, emitters, charge transporting, and charge blocking layers have been developed along with device architectures leading to electrophosphorescent based OLEDs with high quantum efficiencies near the theoretical limit. However, the layers added to the device architecture to enable high quantum efficiencies lead to higher operating voltages and correspondingly lower power efficiencies. Achievement of target luminance power efficiencies will require new strategies for lowering

  8. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve Advances in Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hollomon, Brad

    2003-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Defense Logistics Agency, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently conducted a technology procurement to increase the availability of energy-efficient, packaged unitary ''rooftop'' air conditioners. The procurement encouraged air conditioner manufacturers to produce equipment that exceeded US energy efficiency standards by at least 25% at a lower life-cycle cost. An outgrowth of the project, a web-based cost estimator tool is now available to help consumers determine the cost-effectiveness of purchasing energy-efficient air conditioners based on climate conditions and other factors at their own locations.

  9. Historical perspective of barriers to achieving high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindmayer, J.

    1985-01-01

    Early silicon solar cells were made of metallurgical-grade silicon with very low efficiency. The single-crystal silicon introduced in the mid-50's increased the efficiency to the 5% to 10% region. Throughout the 1960s the technology of the 2 x 2 cm or 2 x 4 cm space solar cell with 10% efficiency was established. In the early 1970s work related to the violet cell upset the status quo and space solar cells and cells in general became more efficient. The rest of the decade became characterized by establishing a terrestrial photovoltaic technology to support the development of a new industry. Costs per watt became the dominant consideration and frequently the efficiency was compromised. The introduction of materials and other forms of silicon dropped the efficiency and it is now a state of mine that accomplishing 10% efficiency with some alternative combination is regarded as success. Silicon solar cells are capable of delivering efficiences much greater than 10%.

  10. Proportion of corn silage in diets of feedlot steers fed to achieve stepwise increases in growth.

    PubMed

    Rossi, J E; Loerch, S C

    2001-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of proportion of dietary corn silage during periods of feed restriction on performance of steers. In Exp. 1, Simmental x Angus steer calves (n = 107; initial BW = 273 +/- 3.8 kg) were allotted to 12 pens with eight or nine steers/pen and four pens/treatment. Periods of growth were 273 to 366 kg BW (Period 1), 367 to 501 kg BW (Period 2), and 502 to 564 kg BW (Period 3). In two of the dietary regimens, steers were given ad libitum access to feed throughout the experiment and were fed either a 15% corn silage diet in each period or an 85, 50, and 15% corn silage diet in Periods 1, 2, and 3; respectively. In the third feeding regimen, a programmed intake feeding regimen was used. Steers were fed a 15% corn silage diet in each period. However, feed intake was restricted to achieve a predicted gain of 1.13 kg/d in Period 1 and 1.36 kg/d in Period 2, and feed was offered for ad libitum consumption in Period 3. For the entire experiment, ADG was similar (P = 0.41) among treatments and feed efficiency was lower (P < 0.10) for steers in the corn silage regimen than for steers in the programmed intake and ad libitum regimens. In Exp. 2, Simmental x Angus steer calves (n = 106; initial BW = 233 +/- 2 kg) were allotted by BW to 12 pens (three pens/treatment) and fed in three periods similar to those described in Exp. 1. Four feeding regimens were investigated: 1) AL; steers were offered a 15% corn silage diet for ad libitum consumption in all three periods; 2) PI; DMI was programmed to achieve gains as described in Exp. 1; 3) CS-HLL; programmed intake as described above except diets contained 85, 15, and 15% corn silage in Periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and 4) CS-HIL; same feeding regimens as CS-HLL, except diets contained 85, 50, and 15% corn silage in Periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Steers were given ad libitum access to feed in Period 3. Overall ADG was lower (P < 0.05) for steers in the CS-HLL and CS

  11. Ion-beam sputtering increases solar-cell efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, D. E.; Dubow, J. B.; Sites, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Ion-beam sputtering, fabrication of oxide-semiconductor-on-silicon (OSOS) solar cells, results in cells of 12% efficiency. Ion-beam sputtering technique is compatible with low-cost continuous fabrication and requires no high-temperature processing.

  12. Increasing the volumetric efficiency of Diesel engines by intake pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    List, Hans

    1933-01-01

    Development of a method for calculating the volumetric efficiency of piston engines with intake pipes. Application of this method to the scavenging pumps of two-stroke-cycle engines with crankcase scavenging and to four-stroke-cycle engines. The utility of the method is demonstrated by volumetric-efficiency tests of the two-stroke-cycle engines with crankcase scavenging. Its practical application to the calculation of intake pipes is illustrated by example.

  13. Achievement-Relevant Personality: Relations with the Big Five and Validation of an Efficient Instrument.

    PubMed

    Briley, Daniel A; Domiteaux, Matthew; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2014-05-01

    Many achievement-relevant personality measures (APMs) have been developed, but the interrelations among APMs or associations with the broader personality landscape are not well-known. In Study 1, 214 participants were measured on 36 APMs and a measure of the Big Five. Factor analytic results supported the convergent and discriminant validity of five latent dimensions: performance, mastery, self-doubt, effort, and intellectual investment. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience had the most consistent associations with APMs. We constructed a more efficient scale- the Multidimensional Achievement-Relevant Personality Scale (MAPS). In Study 2, we replicated the factor structure and external correlates of the MAPS in a sample of 359 individuals. Finally, we validated the MAPS with four indicators of academic performance and demonstrated incremental validity. PMID:24839374

  14. Achievement-Relevant Personality: Relations with the Big Five and Validation of an Efficient Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Briley, Daniel A.; Domiteaux, Matthew; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2014-01-01

    Many achievement-relevant personality measures (APMs) have been developed, but the interrelations among APMs or associations with the broader personality landscape are not well-known. In Study 1, 214 participants were measured on 36 APMs and a measure of the Big Five. Factor analytic results supported the convergent and discriminant validity of five latent dimensions: performance, mastery, self-doubt, effort, and intellectual investment. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience had the most consistent associations with APMs. We constructed a more efficient scale– the Multidimensional Achievement-Relevant Personality Scale (MAPS). In Study 2, we replicated the factor structure and external correlates of the MAPS in a sample of 359 individuals. Finally, we validated the MAPS with four indicators of academic performance and demonstrated incremental validity. PMID:24839374

  15. Increasing Biomass Conversion Efficiencies to Ethanol by Engineering Energy Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Government has targeted aggressive development of bioethanol as one route for decreasing oil dependence and lowering greenhouse gas emissions. Achieving future production targets depends on expanding feedstock sources beyond corn and towards lignocellulose. This is expected to in...

  16. Spitzer Observatory Operations -- Increasing Efficiency in Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Charles P.; Kahr, Bolinda E.; Sarrel, Marc A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the how's and why's of the Spitzer Mission Operations System's (MOS) success, efficiency, and affordability in comparison to other observatory-class missions. MOS exploits today's flight, ground, and operations capabilities, embraces automation, and balances both risk and cost. With operational efficiency as the primary goal, MOS maintains a strong control process by translating lessons learned into efficiency improvements, thereby enabling the MOS processes, teams, and procedures to rapidly evolve from concept (through thorough validation) into in-flight implementation. Operational teaming, planning, and execution are designed to enable re-use. Mission changes, unforeseen events, and continuous improvement have often times forced us to learn to fly anew. Collaborative spacecraft operations and remote science and instrument teams have become well integrated, and worked together to improve and optimize each human, machine, and software-system element.

  17. Highly efficient industrial large-area black silicon solar cells achieved by surface nanostructured modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping; Wei, Yi; Zhao, Zengchao; Tan, Xin; Bian, Jiming; Wang, Yuxuan; Lu, Chunxi; Liu, Aimin

    2015-12-01

    Traditional black silicon solar cells show relatively low efficiencies due to the high surface recombination occurring at the front surfaces. In this paper, we present a surface modification process to suppress surface recombination and fabricate highly efficient industrial black silicon solar cells. The Ag-nanoparticle-assisted etching is applied to realize front surface nanostructures on silicon wafers in order to reduce the surface reflectance. Through a further tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) treatment, the carrier recombination at and near the surface is greatly suppressed, due to a lower surface dopant concentration after the surface modification. This modified surface presents a low reflectivity in a range of 350-1100 nm. Large-area solar cells with an average conversion efficiency of 19.03% are achieved by using the TMAH treatment of 30 s. This efficiency is 0.18% higher than that of standard silicon solar cells with pyramidal surfaces, and also a remarkable improvement compared with black silicon solar cells without TMAH modifications.

  18. New Operational Modes to Increase Energy Efficiency in Capacitive Deionization Systems.

    PubMed

    García-Quismondo, Enrique; Santos, Cleis; Soria, Jorge; Palma, Jesús; Anderson, Marc A

    2016-06-01

    In order for capacitive deionization (CDI) as a water treatment technology to achieve commercial success, substantial improvements in the operational aspects of the system should be improved in order to efficiently recover the energy stored during the deionization step. In the present work, to increase the energy efficiency of the adsorption-desorption processes, we propose a new operational procedure that utilizes a concentrated brine stream as a washing solution during regeneration. Using this approach, we demonstrate that by replacing the electrolyte during regeneration for a solution with higher conductivity, it is possible to substantially increase round-trip energy efficiency. This procedure was experimentally verified in a flow cell reactor using a pair of carbon electrodes (10(2) cm geometric area) and NaCl solutions having concentrations between 50 and 350 mmol·L(-1). According to experimental data, this new operational mode allows for a better utilization of the three-dimensional structure of the porous material. This increases the energetic efficiency of the global CDI process to above 80% when deionization/regeneration currents ratio are optimized for brackish water treatment. PMID:27167689

  19. Increasing the Efficiency of the One Room School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Paul

    The one room school is a challenging educational setting for both teacher and student. Isolation of the school, limited availability of educational resources, and the demanding role of the school as the only formal educational institution within the community are conditions which make classroom efficiency an important consideration for the…

  20. Efficiency increased in new solar cell: A Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchby, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Graded band-gap cell should be able to convert solar radiation into electrical energy more efficiently than any solar cell currently available. Thickness of band-gap region should be chosen to maximize both quantity of light absorbed in region and fraction of photogenerated charge carriers collect at junction.

  1. Raising yield potential in wheat: increasing photosynthesis capacity and efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing wheat yields to help to ensure food security is a major challenge. Meeting this challenge requires a quantum improvement in the yield potential of wheat. Past increases in yield potential have largely resulted from improvements in harvest index not through increased biomass. Further large...

  2. Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1977-02-15

    A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

  3. Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Chao, B.T.; Rabl, A.

    1975-06-27

    A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

  4. Spitzer observatory operations: increasing efficiency in mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Charles P.; Kahr, Bolinda E.; Sarrel, Marc A.

    2006-06-01

    This paper explores the how's and why's of the Spitzer Mission Operations System's (MOS) success, efficiency, and affordability in comparison to other observatory-class missions. MOS exploits today's flight, ground, and operations capabilities, embraces automation, and balances both risk and cost. With operational efficiency as the primary goal, MOS maintains a strong control process by translating lessons learned into efficiency improvements, thereby enabling the MOS processes, teams, and procedures to rapidly evolve from concept (through thorough validation) into in-flight implementation. Operational teaming, planning, and execution are designed to enable re-use. Mission changes, unforeseen events, and continuous improvement have often times forced us to learn to fly anew. Collaborative spacecraft operations and remote science and instrument teams have become well integrated, and worked together to improve and optimize each human, machine, and software-system element. Adaptation to tighter spacecraft margins has facilitated continuous operational improvements via automated and autonomous software coupled with improved human analysis. Based upon what we now know and what we need to improve, adapt, or fix, the projected mission lifetime continues to grow - as does the opportunity for numerous scientific discoveries.

  5. Methods for increased computational efficiency of multibody simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epple, Alexander

    This thesis is concerned with the efficient numerical simulation of finite element based flexible multibody systems. Scaling operations are systematically applied to the governing index-3 differential algebraic equations in order to solve the problem of ill conditioning for small time step sizes. The importance of augmented Lagrangian terms is demonstrated. The use of fast sparse solvers is justified for the solution of the linearized equations of motion resulting in significant savings of computational costs. Three time stepping schemes for the integration of the governing equations of flexible multibody systems are discussed in detail. These schemes are the two-stage Radau IIA scheme, the energy decaying scheme, and the generalized-a method. Their formulations are adapted to the specific structure of the governing equations of flexible multibody systems. The efficiency of the time integration schemes is comprehensively evaluated on a series of test problems. Formulations for structural and constraint elements are reviewed and the problem of interpolation of finite rotations in geometrically exact structural elements is revisited. This results in the development of a new improved interpolation algorithm, which preserves the objectivity of the strain field and guarantees stable simulations in the presence of arbitrarily large rotations. Finally, strategies for the spatial discretization of beams in the presence of steep variations in cross-sectional properties are developed. These strategies reduce the number of degrees of freedom needed to accurately analyze beams with discontinuous properties, resulting in improved computational efficiency.

  6. Increased Efficiencies in the INEEL SAR/TSR/USQ Process

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.E.

    2002-05-16

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has implemented a number of efficiencies to reduce the time and cost of preparing safety basis documents. The INEEL is continuing to look at other aspects of the safety basis process to identify other efficiencies that can be implemented and remain in compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 830. A six-sigma approach is used to identify areas to improve efficiencies and develop the action plan for implementation of the new process, as applicable. Three improvement processes have been implemented: The first was the development of standardized Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and technical safety requirement (TSR) documents that all nuclear facilities use, by adding facility-specific details. The second is a material procurement process, which is based on safety systems specified in the individual safety basis documents. The third is a restructuring of the entire safety basis preparation and approval process. Significant savings in time to prepare safety basis document, cost of materials, and total cost of the documents are currently being realized.

  7. Increased Efficiencies in the INEEL SAR/TSR/USQ Process

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Norman Edward

    2002-06-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has implemented a number of efficiencies to reduce the time and cost of preparing safety basis documents. The INEEL is continuing to look at other aspects of the safety basis process to identify other efficiencies that can be implemented and remain in compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 830. A six-sigma approach is used to identify areas to improve efficiencies and develop the action plan for implementation of the new process, as applicable. Three improvement processes have been implemented: The first was the development of standardized Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and technical safety requirement (TSR) documents that all nuclear facilities use, by adding facility-specific details. The second is a material procurement process, which is based on safety systems specified in the individual safety basis documents. The third is a restructuring of the entire safety basis preparation and approval process. Significant savings in time to prepare safety basis document, cost of materials, and total cost of the documents are currently being realized.

  8. Efficient and Anonymous Two-Factor User Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks: Achieving User Anonymity with Lightweight Sensor Computation

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks). PMID:25849359

  9. Efficient and anonymous two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks: achieving user anonymity with lightweight sensor computation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks). PMID:25849359

  10. ABB`s LEBS technologies: Practical solutions for controlling air emissions and increasing efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Hein, R.J. von; Wesnor, J.D.

    1997-07-01

    When evaluating candidate technologies for controlling air emissions and increasing thermal efficiency the main criteria used by most utility and industrial decision makers are: (1) total installed cost of the system and (2) the impact the system may have on O&M costs, on unit forced outage rate/availability and on unit efficiency. Generally speaking, simpler is better. Designs which have fewer and simpler process steps and components will almost always have lower first cost, reduced maintenance cost, reduced operating labor cost, and fewer forced outages/higher availability. This paper describes technologies developed for the control of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions and for increased efficiency in the designs prepared by the ABB team for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project titled {open_quote}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quote} (LEBS). The primary objectives of the LEBS project are to reduce emissions to approximately one-fifth of current new source performance standards and to increase efficiency, all without increasing the cost of electricity. The project encompasses the use of Pulverized coal combustion and development of near-term technologies. The team selected an advanced low-NO{sub x} firing system and an advanced dry scrubber system to meet the emissions objectives and a Kalina cycle to achieve the efficiency and cost of electricity objectives. The development and design of these technologies, witch are suited to new or retrofit applications, are described in the paper.

  11. Increasing the electric efficiency of a fuel cell system by recirculating the anodic offgas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzel, A.; Roes, J.; Brandt, H.

    The University of Duisburg-Essen and the Center for Fuel Cell Technology (ZBT Duisburg GmbH) have developed a compact multi-fuel steam reformer suitable for natural gas, propane and butane. Fuel processor prototypes based on this concept were built up in the power range from 2.5 to 12.5 kW thermal hydrogen power for different applications and different industrial partners. The fuel processor concept contains all the necessary elements, a prereformer step, a primary reformer, water gas shift reactors, a steam generator, internal heat exchangers, in order to achieve an optimised heat integration and an external burner for heat supply as well as a preferential oxidation step (PrOx) as CO purification. One of the built fuel processors is designed to deliver a thermal hydrogen power output of 2.5 kW according to a PEM fuel cell stack providing about 1 kW electrical power and achieves a thermal efficiency of about 75% (LHV basis after PrOx), while the CO content of the product gas is below 20 ppm. This steam reformer has been combined with a 1 kW PEM fuel cell. Recirculating the anodic offgas results in a significant efficiency increase for the fuel processor. The gross efficiency of the combined system was already clearly above 30% during the first tests. Further improvements are currently investigated and developed at the ZBT.

  12. A Study For Efficiently Solving Optimisation Problems With An Increasing Number Of Design Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Trichon, S.; Ponthot, J.-P.; Bonte, M. H. A.; Boogaard, A. H. van den

    2007-05-17

    Coupling optimisation algorithms to Finite Element Methods (FEM) is a very promising way to achieve optimal metal forming processes. However, many optimisation algorithms exist and it is not clear which of these algorithms to use. This paper investigates the sensitivity of a Sequential Approximate Optimisation algorithm (SAO) proposed to an increasing number of design variables and compares it with two other algorithms: an Evolutionary Strategy (ES) and an Evolutionary version of the SAO (ESAO). In addition, it observes the influence of different Designs Of Experiments used with the SAO. It is concluded that the SAO is very capable and efficient and its combination with an ES is not beneficial. Moreover, the use of SAO with Fractional Factorial Design is the most efficient method, rather than Full Factorial Design as proposed.

  13. Heterostructures for Increased Quantum Efficiency in Nitride LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Robert F.

    2010-09-30

    Task 1. Development of an advanced LED simulator useful for the design of efficient nitride-based devices. Simulator will contain graphical interface software that can be used to specify the device structure, the material parameters, the operating conditions and the desired output results. Task 2. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence on the microstructure, defect concentration, mechanical stress and strain and IQE of controlled changes in the chemistry and process route of deposition of the buffer layer underlying the active region of nitride-based blue- and greenemitting LEDs. Task 3. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence on the physical properties including polarization and IQE of controlled changes in the geometry, chemistry, defect density, and microstructure of components in the active region of nitride-based blue- and green-emitting LEDs. Task 4. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence on IQE of novel heterostructure designs to funnel carriers into the active region for enhanced recombination efficiency and elimination of diffusion beyond this region. Task 5. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence of enhanced p-type doping on the chemical, electrical, and microstructural characteristics of the acceptor-doped layers, the hole injection levels at Ohmic contacts, the specific contact resistivity and the IQE of nitride-based blue- and green-emitting LEDs. Development and optical and electrical characterization of reflective Ohmic contacts to n- and p-type GaN films.

  14. Physiological geroscience: targeting function to increase healthspan and achieve optimal longevity.

    PubMed

    Seals, Douglas R; Justice, Jamie N; LaRocca, Thomas J

    2016-04-15

    Most nations of the world are undergoing rapid and dramatic population ageing, which presents great socio-economic challenges, as well as opportunities, for individuals, families, governments and societies. The prevailing biomedical strategy for reducing the healthcare impact of population ageing has been 'compression of morbidity' and, more recently, to increase healthspan, both of which seek to extend the healthy period of life and delay the development of chronic diseases and disability until a brief period at the end of life. Indeed, a recently established field within biological ageing research, 'geroscience', is focused on healthspan extension. Superimposed on this background are new attitudes and demand for 'optimal longevity' - living long, but with good health and quality of life. A key obstacle to achieving optimal longevity is the progressive decline in physiological function that occurs with ageing, which causes functional limitations (e.g. reduced mobility) and increases the risk of chronic diseases, disability and mortality. Current efforts to increase healthspan centre on slowing the fundamental biological processes of ageing such as inflammation/oxidative stress, increased senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired proteostasis and reduced stress resistance. We propose that optimization of physiological function throughout the lifespan should be a major emphasis of any contemporary biomedical policy addressing global ageing. Effective strategies should delay, reduce in magnitude or abolish reductions in function with ageing (primary prevention) and/or improve function or slow further declines in older adults with already impaired function (secondary prevention). Healthy lifestyle practices featuring regular physical activity and ideal energy intake/diet composition represent first-line function-preserving strategies, with pharmacological agents, including existing and new pharmaceuticals and novel 'nutraceutical' compounds, serving as potential

  15. Achieving high performance polymer optoelectronic devices for high efficiency, long lifetime and low fabrication cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinsong

    This thesis described three types of organic optoelectronic devices: polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), polymer photovoltaic solar cell, and organic photo detector. The research in this work focuses improving their performance including device efficiency, operation lifetime simplifying fabrication process. With further understanding in PLED device physics, we come up new device operation model and improved device architecture design. This new method is closely related to understanding of the science and physics at organic/metal oxide and metal oxide/metal interface. In our new device design, both material and interface are considered in order to confine and balance all injected carriers, which has been demonstrated very be successful in increasing device efficiency. We created two world records in device efficiency: 18 lm/W for white emission fluorescence PLED, 22 lm/W for red emission phosphorescence PLED. Slow solvent drying process has been demonstrated to significantly increase device efficiency in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixture polymer solar cell. From the mobility study by time of flight, the increase of efficiency can be well correlated to the improved carrier transport property due to P3HT crystallization during slow solvent drying. And it is found that, similar to PLED, balanced carrier mobility is essential in high efficient polymer solar cell. There is also a revolution in our device fabrication method. A unique device fabrication method is presented by an electronic glue based lamination process combined with interface modification as a one-step polymer solar cell fabrication process. It can completely skip the thermal evaporation process, and benefit device lifetime by several merits: no air reactive. The device obtained is metal free, semi-transparent, flexible, self-encapsulated, and comparable efficiency with that by regular method. We found the photomultiplication (PM) phenomenon in C

  16. ERAP1-ERAP2 dimerization increases peptide-trimming efficiency.

    PubMed

    Evnouchidou, Irini; Weimershaus, Mirjana; Saveanu, Loredana; van Endert, Peter

    2014-07-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases (ERAP)1 and ERAP2 play a critical role in the production of final epitopes presented by MHC class I molecules. Formation of heterodimers by ERAP1 and ERAP2 has been proposed to facilitate trimming of epitope precursor peptides, but the effects of dimerization on ERAP function remain unknown. In this study, we produced stabilized ERAP1-ERAP2 heterodimers and found that they produced several mature epitopes more efficiently than a mix of the two enzymes unable to dimerize. Physical interaction with ERAP2 changes basic enzymatic parameters of ERAP1 and improves its substrate-binding affinity. Thus, by bringing the two enzymes in proximity and by producing allosteric effects on ERAP1, dimerization of ERAP1/2 creates complexes with superior peptide-trimming efficacy. Such complexes are likely to enhance Ag presentation by cells displaying coordinated expression of the two enzymes. PMID:24928998

  17. Increasing Postsecondary Education Access and Success: Raising Achievement through Outreach Programs. Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broton, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Closing the achievement gap depends on highly effective public schools, strong community support, and family involvement. Raising the overall rates of achievement in Minnesota is a vital part of this goal. Research has shown that pre-college outreach programs improve college access for underrepresented groups, including low-income,…

  18. What Effective Principals Do to Improve Instruction and Increase Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Elizabeth Anne

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this mixed method study were to (a) Examine the relationships among principal effectiveness, principal instructional leadership, and student achievement; (b) examine the differences among principal effectiveness, principal instructional leadership and student achievement; and (c) investigate what effective principals do to improve…

  19. Implementation of Comprehensive School Reform and Its Impact on Increases in Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Fashola, Olatokunbo; Shkolnik, Jamie; Boyle, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the implementation of comprehensive school reform (CSR) and changes in reading and math achievement from 1999 until 2003. Survey data about CSR implementation and school-level achievement data were collected for multiple years from a sample of CSR schools and compared with a sample of matched comparison…

  20. Answering the Question that Matters Most: Has Student Achievement Increased since No Child Left Behind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Since 2002, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) has spurred far-reaching changes in elementary and secondary education, all aimed at accomplishing the same fundamental goal--to improve students' academic achievement. As the Congress prepares to reauthorize the Act, two related questions matter most: (1) Has student achievement in reading and…

  1. The increasing efficiency of tornado days in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, James B.; Elsner, Svetoslava C.; Jagger, Thomas H.

    2015-08-01

    The authors analyze the historical record of tornado reports in the United States and find evidence for changes in tornado climatology possibly related to global warming. They do this by examining the annual number of days with many tornadoes and the ratio of these days to days with at least one tornado and by examining the annual proportion of tornadoes occurring on days with many tornadoes. Additional evidence of a changing tornado climate is presented by considering tornadoes in geographic clusters and by analyzing the density of tornadoes within the clusters. There is a consistent decrease in the number of days with at least one tornado at the same time as an increase in the number of days with many tornadoes. These changes are interpreted as an increasing proportion of tornadoes occurring on days with many tornadoes. Coincident with these temporal changes are increases in tornado density as defined by the number of tornadoes per area. Trends are insensitive to the begin year of the analysis. The bottom line is that the risk of big tornado days featuring densely concentrated tornado outbreaks is on the rise. The results are broadly consistent with numerical modeling studies that project increases in convective energy within the tornado environment.

  2. Template-based breast IMRT planning for increased workload efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To be less resource intensive, we developed a template-based breast IMRT technique (TB-IMRT). This study aims to compare resources and dose distribution between TB-IMRT and conventional breast radiation (CBR). Methods Twenty patients with early stage breast cancer were planned using CBR and TB-IMRT. Time to plan, coverage of volumes, dose to critical structures and treatment times were evaluated for CBR and TB-IMRT. Two sided-paired t tests were used. Results TB-IMRT planning time was less than CBR (14.0 vs 39.0 min, p < 0.001). Fifteen patients with CBR needed 18 MV, and 11 of these were planned successfully with TB-IMRT using 6 MV. TB-IMRT provided better homogeneity index (0.096 vs 0.124, p < 0.001) and conformity index (0.68 vs 0.59, p = 0.003). Dose to critical structures were comparable between TB-IMRT and CBR, and treatment times were also similar (6.0 vs 7.8 min, p = 0.13). Conclusions TB- IMRT provides reduction of planning time and minimizes the use of high energy beams, while providing similar treatment times and equal plans compared to CBR. This technique permits efficient use of resources with a low learning curve, and can be done with existing equipment and personnel. PMID:23514439

  3. Chicken Farming in Grassland Increases Environmental Sustainability and Economic Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meizhen; Wang, Bingxue; Osborne, Colin P.; Jiang, Gaoming

    2013-01-01

    Background Grassland degradation caused by overgrazing poses a threat to both animal husbandry and environmental sustainability in most semi-arid areas especially north China. Although the Chinese Government has made huge efforts to restore degraded grasslands, a considerable attempt has unfortunately failed due to an inadequate consideration of economic benefits to local communities. Methodology/Principal Findings A controlled field experiment was conducted to test our hypothesis that utilizing natural grasslands as both habitat and feed resources for chickens and replacing the traditional husbandry system with chicken farming would increase environmental sustainability and raise income. Aboveground plant biomass elevated from 25 g m−2 for grazing sheep to 84 g m−2 for chicken farming. In contrast to the fenced (unstocked) grassland, chicken farming did not significantly decrease aboveground plant biomass, but did increase the root biomass by 60% (p<0.01). Compared with traditional sheep grazing, chicken farming significantly improved soil surface water content (0–10 cm), from 5% to 15%. Chicken farming did not affect the soil bulk density, while the traditional sheep grazing increased the soil bulk density in the 0–10 cm soil layer by 35% of the control (p<0.05). Most importantly, the economic income of local herdsmen has been raised about six times compared with the traditional practice of raising sheep. Ecologically, such an innovative solution allowed large degraded grasslands to naturally regenerate. Grasslands also provided a high quality organic poultry product which could be marketed in big cities. Conclusion/Significance Chicken farming is an innovative alternative strategy for increasing environmental sustainability and economic income, rather than a challenge to the traditional nomadic pastoral system. Our approach might be technically applicable to other large degraded grasslands of the world, especially in China. PMID:23372678

  4. Calibration of STUD+ parameters to achieve optimally efficient broadband adiabatic decoupling in a single transient

    PubMed

    Bendall; Skinner

    1998-10-01

    for a single sech/tanh pulse. Residual splitting of the centerband, normally associated with incomplete or inefficient decoupling, is not seen in sech/tanh decoupling and therefore cannot be used as a measure of adiabatic decoupling efficiency. The calibrated experimental performance levels achieved in this study are within 20% of theoretical performance levels derived previously for ideal sech/tanh decoupling at high power, indicating a small scope for further improvement at practical RF power levels. The optimization procedures employed here will be generally applicable to any good combination of adiabatic inversion pulse and phase cycle. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9761708

  5. 75 FR 27341 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Software May 7, 2010. Take notice that Commission staff will convene technical conferences on the following dates to discuss increasing market and planning efficiency through improved software. ] The development... Energy Regulatory Commission Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software;...

  6. Supervillin Reorganizes the Actin Cytoskeleton and Increases Invadopodial Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Jessica L.; Smith, Tara C.; Fang, Zhiyou; Takizawa, Norio

    2009-01-01

    Tumor cells use actin-rich protrusions called invadopodia to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) and invade tissues; related structures, termed podosomes, are sites of dynamic ECM interaction. We show here that supervillin (SV), a peripheral membrane protein that binds F-actin and myosin II, reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton and potentiates invadopodial function. Overexpressed SV induces redistribution of lamellipodial cortactin and lamellipodin/RAPH1/PREL1 away from the cell periphery to internal sites and concomitantly increases the numbers of F-actin punctae. Most punctae are highly dynamic and colocalize with the podosome/invadopodial proteins, cortactin, Tks5, and cdc42. Cortactin binds SV sequences in vitro and contributes to the formation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-SV induced punctae. SV localizes to the cores of Src-generated podosomes in COS-7 cells and with invadopodia in MDA-MB-231 cells. EGFP-SV overexpression increases average numbers of ECM holes per cell; RNA interference-mediated knockdown of SV decreases these numbers. Although SV knockdown alone has no effect, simultaneous down-regulation of SV and the closely related protein gelsolin reduces invasion through ECM. Together, our results show that SV is a component of podosomes and invadopodia and that SV plays a role in invadopodial function, perhaps as a mediator of cortactin localization, activation state, and/or dynamics of metalloproteinases at the ventral cell surface. PMID:19109420

  7. Correlated neuronal discharges that increase coding efficiency during perceptual discrimination.

    PubMed

    Romo, Ranulfo; Hernández, Adrián; Zainos, Antonio; Salinas, Emilio

    2003-05-22

    During a sensory discrimination task, the responses of multiple sensory neurons must be combined to generate a choice. The optimal combination of responses is determined both by their dependence on the sensory stimulus and by their cofluctuations across trials-that is, the noise correlations. Positively correlated noise is considered deleterious, because it limits the coding accuracy of populations of similarly tuned neurons. However, positively correlated fluctuations between differently tuned neurons actually increase coding accuracy, because they allow the common noise to be subtracted without signal loss. This is demonstrated with data recorded from the secondary somatosensory cortex of monkeys performing a vibrotactile discrimination task. The results indicate that positive correlations are not always harmful and may be exploited by cortical networks to enhance the neural representation of features to be discriminated. PMID:12765615

  8. Dynamic ocean management increases the efficiency and efficacy of fisheries management.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Daniel C; Maxwell, Sara M; Boustany, Andre M; Halpin, Patrick N

    2016-01-19

    In response to the inherent dynamic nature of the oceans and continuing difficulty in managing ecosystem impacts of fisheries, interest in the concept of dynamic ocean management, or real-time management of ocean resources, has accelerated in the last several years. However, scientists have yet to quantitatively assess the efficiency of dynamic management over static management. Of particular interest is how scale influences effectiveness, both in terms of how it reflects underlying ecological processes and how this relates to potential efficiency gains. Here, we address the empirical evidence gap and further the ecological theory underpinning dynamic management. We illustrate, through the simulation of closures across a range of spatiotemporal scales, that dynamic ocean management can address previously intractable problems at scales associated with coactive and social patterns (e.g., competition, predation, niche partitioning, parasitism, and social aggregations). Furthermore, it can significantly improve the efficiency of management: as the resolution of the closures used increases (i.e., as the closures become more targeted), the percentage of target catch forgone or displaced decreases, the reduction ratio (bycatch/catch) increases, and the total time-area required to achieve the desired bycatch reduction decreases. In the scenario examined, coarser scale management measures (annual time-area closures and monthly full-fishery closures) would displace up to four to five times the target catch and require 100-200 times more square kilometer-days of closure than dynamic measures (grid-based closures and move-on rules). To achieve similar reductions in juvenile bycatch, the fishery would forgo or displace between USD 15-52 million in landings using a static approach over a dynamic management approach. PMID:26729885

  9. Dynamic ocean management increases the efficiency and efficacy of fisheries management

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Sara M.; Halpin, Patrick N.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the inherent dynamic nature of the oceans and continuing difficulty in managing ecosystem impacts of fisheries, interest in the concept of dynamic ocean management, or real-time management of ocean resources, has accelerated in the last several years. However, scientists have yet to quantitatively assess the efficiency of dynamic management over static management. Of particular interest is how scale influences effectiveness, both in terms of how it reflects underlying ecological processes and how this relates to potential efficiency gains. Here, we address the empirical evidence gap and further the ecological theory underpinning dynamic management. We illustrate, through the simulation of closures across a range of spatiotemporal scales, that dynamic ocean management can address previously intractable problems at scales associated with coactive and social patterns (e.g., competition, predation, niche partitioning, parasitism, and social aggregations). Furthermore, it can significantly improve the efficiency of management: as the resolution of the closures used increases (i.e., as the closures become more targeted), the percentage of target catch forgone or displaced decreases, the reduction ratio (bycatch/catch) increases, and the total time–area required to achieve the desired bycatch reduction decreases. In the scenario examined, coarser scale management measures (annual time–area closures and monthly full-fishery closures) would displace up to four to five times the target catch and require 100–200 times more square kilometer-days of closure than dynamic measures (grid-based closures and move-on rules). To achieve similar reductions in juvenile bycatch, the fishery would forgo or displace between USD 15–52 million in landings using a static approach over a dynamic management approach. PMID:26729885

  10. [Clinical efficacy and achievement of a complete remission in depression: increasing interest in treatment with escitalopram].

    PubMed

    Favré, P

    2012-02-01

    Such a prevalent disease as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), associated with prominent impairment in physical and social functioning, implies as well an increased morbidity and mortality. Long-term treatments are required due to the frequent occurrence of relapses. Patient compliance is a core factor in both acute and continuation treatment, closely related to tolerability issues. We have partially reviewed the literature published on PubMed since 2004 which assess the relative antidepressant efficacy of escitalopram and comparator antidepressants in adult patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). Clinically important differences exist between commonly prescribed antidepressants. These analyses are in favor of a superior efficacy and tolerability of long-term escitalopram treatment (10 to 20mg/day) compared with active controls, including selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (paroxetine, citalopram, bupropion, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline), serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (venlafaxine, milnacipran and duloxetine) and noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs) (mirtazapine). Cipriani et al. (2009) have performed a network meta-analysis of 12 new generation antidepressants. They have shown that clinically important differences exist between commonly prescribed antidepressants for both efficacy and acceptability in favor of escitalopram and sertraline in acute treatment, defined as 8-week treatment. Kasper et al. (2009) conducted a post-hoc pooled analysis of data from two 6-month randomized controlled trials that revealed superior efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram when compared with paroxetine. The pooled analysis of four randomized, double-blind, active comparator, 6-month trials in MDD, by Wade et al. (2009), showed that short-term outcomes may predict long-term treatment compliance and outcomes. A higher probability of achieving remission was associated with responding

  11. Mathematics Achievement Gaps between Suburban Students and Their Rural and Urban Peers Increase over Time. Issue Brief No. 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Suzanne E.; Provost, Lauren E.

    2012-01-01

    In this brief, authors Suzanne Graham and Lauren Provost examine whether attending a school in a rural, urban, or suburban community is related to children's mathematics achievement in kindergarten, and whether increases in mathematics achievement between kindergarten and eighth grade differ for children in rural, urban, and suburban schools. They…

  12. Strategies Employed by Middle School Principals Successful in Increasing and Sustaining the Mathematics Achievement of African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study approaches the problem of African American mathematics achievement from a strength-based perspective, identifying practices implemented by middle school principals successful in increasing and sustaining the mathematics achievement of African American students. The study was designed to answer questions regarding both school-wide…

  13. Reading for Success: The Effectiveness of Literacy Interventions for Increasing Student Achievement in Core Academic Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to utilize quantitative and qualitative data to measure the effects of Tier 2 and Tier 3 literacy interventions as they affect student achievement in the secondary school setting. The research questions addressed performance of students who were enrolled in Reading for Success as compared to a cohort…

  14. Using Computer-Managed Instructional Software to Increase Motivation and Achievement in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steve; Rendulic, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the results of a comparative study of elementary school students based on Cognitive Evaluation Theory that provides evidence that the use of computer-managed instructional feedback can have a positive effect on student motivation and achievement. Use of the Children's Academic Intrinsic Motivation Inventory is explained. (Author/LRW)

  15. Supporting Instructional Improvement in Low-Performing Schools to Increase Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellei, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    This is an impact evaluation of the Technical Support to Failing Schools Program, a Chilean compensatory program that provided 4-year in-school technical assistance to low-performing schools to improve students' academic achievement. The author implemented a quasi-experimental design by using difference-in-differences estimation combined with…

  16. Learning Objectives: Posting & Communicating Daily Learning Objectives to Increase Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Sarah E.; Linde, Kristen J.; Mason, John D.; Nagel, Ninja M.; O'Reilly, Katie A.

    2007-01-01

    This research project was conducted at a high school in a suburban metropolitan area in the Midwest from August 21, 2006 through October 26, 2006. The purpose of the research was to improve student achievement and motivation through the posting and communicating of daily learning objectives. The research participants included 150 students and five…

  17. Increasing Math and Science Achievement: The Best and Worst of the East and West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yong

    2005-01-01

    The East Asian countries are known for their high scores on international comparisons of math and science achievement. This does not necessarily mean that the U.S. should rush to adopt their practices and abandon its own strengths. Yong Zhao examines education reforms in math and science from an international perspective and discusses implications…

  18. Strategies for Success: Links to Increased Mathematics Achievement Scores of English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pray, Lisa; Ilieva, Vessela

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the link between mathematic teachers' use of English-language learner (ELL) strategies and the mathematics achievement of their students who are ELLs. Interviews and observations of mathematic teachers who taught ELLs were used to document instructional strategies use. The findings from the interviews and observations…

  19. Blending Academic, Career/Technical and Fine Arts Instruction to Increase Achievement and Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Teachers who work together to blend academic and career/technical (CT) instruction have found a key to motivating students to complete high school and prepare for college, advanced training and careers. This newsletter highlights key strategies schools are using to join academic and technical studies to advance student motivation and achievement.…

  20. Increasing Equity and Achievement in Fifth Grade Mathematics: The Contribution of Content Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottmar, Erin R.; Konold, Timothy R.; Berry, Robert Q.; Grissmer, David W.; Cameron, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    This study uses a large nationally representative data set (ECLS-K) of 5,181 students to examine the extent to which exposure to content and instructional practice contributes to mathematics achievement in fifth grade. Using hierarchical linear modeling, results suggest that more exposure to content beyond numbers and operations (i.e., geometry,…

  1. Improving Teaching Capacity to Increase Student Achievement: The Key Role of Data Interpretation by School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, David; Smith, Richard; Provost, Steven; Madden, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper argues that in a well-organised school with strong leadership and vision coupled with a concerted effort to improve the teaching performance of each teacher, student achievement can be enhanced. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that while macro-effect sizes such as "whole of school" metrics are useful for…

  2. Increasing Access to Higher Education among Low-Income Students: The Washington State Achievers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carrie B.; Brown, Doreen E.; Pavel, D. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how a comprehensive precollege intervention and developmental program among low-income high school students contributed to college enrollment outcomes measured in 2006. Our focus was on the Fifth Cohort of the Washington State Achievers (WSA) Program, which provides financial, academic, and college…

  3. Pairing New Science Curriculum with Professional Learning Increases Student Achievement. Lessons from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen

    2016-01-01

    A randomized trial study, conducted over two school years in 18 high schools in Washington, finds that "An Inquiry Approach," a three-year, educative curriculum for high school science, has a positive impact on student achievement, teacher practice, and fidelity of implementation of the curriculum when the curriculum is paired with…

  4. An Effective Model to Increase Student Attitude and Achievement: Narrative Including Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkuzu, Nalan; Akcay, Husamettin

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the analogical models and narratives used to introduce and teach Grade 9 chemical covalent compounds which are relatively abstract and difficult for students. We explained each model's development during the lessons and analyzed understanding students derived from these learning materials. In this context, achievement,…

  5. GUIDELINES FOR INDUSTRIAL BOILER PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT. (BOILER ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURES TO MINIMIZE AIR POLLUTION AND TO ACHIEVE EFFICIENT USE OF FUEL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommended procedures for improving industrial boiler performance to minimize air pollution and to achieve efficient use of fuel are given. It is intended for use by industrial boiler operators to perform an efficiency and emissions tune-up on boilers firing gas, oil, or coal. P...

  6. Evidence-Based Instruction Is Not Enough: Strategies for Increasing Instructional Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Moira; Helf, Shawnna; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2011-01-01

    Even evidence-based instructional methods may not be sufficient for closing achievement gaps. If teachers are not maximizing instructional time, achievement gaps are likely to widen over time; therefore, instruction need not only be effective but efficient as well. The purposes of this article are to (a) provide practitioners with a broad…

  7. Analyzing the possibility of achieving more efficient cooling of water in the evaporative cooling towers of the Armenian NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, V. G.; Yeghoyan, E. A.

    2015-10-01

    The specific features of the service cooling water system used at the Armenian NPP and modifications made in the arrangement for supplying water to the water coolers in order to achieve more efficient cooling are presented. The mathematical model applied in carrying out the analyses is described, the use of which makes it possible to investigate the operation of parallel-connected cooling towers having different hydraulic and thermal loads. When the third standby cooling tower is put into operation (with the same flow rate of water supplied to the water coolers), the cooled water temperature is decreased by around 2-3°C in the range of atmospheric air temperatures 0-35°C. However, the introduced water distribution arrangement with a decreased spraying density has limitation on its use at negative outdoor air temperatures due to the hazard intense freezing of the fill in the cooling tower peripheral zone. The availability of standby cooling towers in the shutdown Armenian NPP power unit along with the planned full replacement of the cooling tower process equipment create good possibilities for achieving a deeper water cooling extent and better efficiency of the NPP. The present work was carried out with the aim of achieving maximally efficient use of existing possibilities and for elaborating the optimal cooling tower modernization version. Individual specific heat-andmass transfer processes in the chimney-type evaporative cooling towers are analyzed. An improved arrangement for distributing cooled water over the cooling tower spraying area (during its operation with a decreased flow rate) is proposed with the aim of cooling water to a deeper extent and preserving the possibility of using the cooling towers in winter. The main idea behind improving the existing arrangement is to exclude certain zones of the cooling tower featuring inefficient cooling from operation. The effectiveness of introducing the proposed design is proven by calculations (taking as an

  8. Optimizing effort: increased efficiency of motor memory with time away from practice

    PubMed Central

    Shadmehr, Reza

    2014-01-01

    In motor tasks, efficiency can be measured via the commands that are produced to accomplish a goal. To maximize efficiency, the nervous system should produce task-relevant motor commands while avoiding behaviors that are task-irrelevant. The current view is that this is achieved through training, i.e., the optimum motor commands are learned by trial and error. However, in contrast to this view, there are numerous examples in which during an experiment, task-irrelevant commands are continuously produced. To address this, we trained human volunteers to reach in a force field. With practice, they learned to produce forces that compensated for the field, generating task-relevant commands that were necessary to achieve success. As expected, training also resulted in generalization, the transfer of learning to other movements. We designed the task so that any forces produced as a result of generalization were unnecessary and therefore task-irrelevant. Importantly, there were no explicit cues to indicate that production of these forces was task-irrelevant. Rather, the only indicator was effort itself. Could this inefficiency of the motor commands be reduced? We found that even with extensive practice, the production of task-irrelevant forces persisted. However, if subjects were given sufficient time away from practice (6 or 24 h but not 3 or 30 min), they spontaneously reduced production of the task-irrelevant forces. Therefore, practice alone was insufficient to allow for increased efficiency of motor output. Time away from practice was a required element for optimization of effort. PMID:25355964

  9. Increased efficiency for beyond line-of-sight in airborne ISR operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frayter, Slava; Willems, Koen

    2013-05-01

    Airborne platforms are increasingly being used as vehicles to capture intelligence data for defense, state and civil applications. The aerial vehicles are equipped with technology for both video and sensor data collection; the data is then sent to a ground mission control center for further processing. When the airborne platform is outside the reach of direct data relay due to distance or environment, satellite communications is used for Beyond Line of Sight (BLoS) communication. It is a key requirement for the satellite link in ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance) operations to get as much data and video as possible through the available bandwidth. The satellite link also needs to be available at all times during operations to insure mission critical communications and not endanger ground operations. Only by using robust satellite technology can the demand for more data and highest efficiency be satisfied while keeping OPEX costs under control. This paper will highlight both technical and practical challenges of operators in the airborne ISR missions, going from technical requirements to efficiency-driven solutions. It will also look at what the final results in the field are when transmitting ISR data and video from the airborne platform over satellite in highly adaptive environments. The existing qualified and deployed BLoS airborne solution already achieves over 20Mbps from the aircraft to the ground in active operations, but requirements and capabilities continue to increase as more comprehensive ISR data is being transmitted.

  10. The honeymoon effect in job performance - Temporal increases in the predictive power of achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Sawin, Linda L.; Carsrud, Alan L.

    1986-01-01

    Correlations between a job performance criterion and personality measures reflecting achievement motivation and an interpersonal orientation were examined at three points in time after completion of job training for a sample of airline reservations agents. Although correlations between the personality predictors and performance were small and nonsignificant for the 3-month period after beginning the job, by the end of six and eight months a number of significant relationships had emerged. Implications for the utility of personality measures in selection and performance prediction are discussed.

  11. Learning Increases the Survival of Newborn Neurons Provided that Learning Is Difficult to Achieve and Successful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curlik, Daniel M., II; Shors, Tracey J.

    2011-01-01

    Learning increases neurogenesis by increasing the survival of new cells generated in the adult hippocampal formation [Shors, T. J. Saving new brain cells. "Scientific American," 300, 46-52, 2009]. However, only some types of learning are effective. Recent studies demonstrate that animals that learn the conditioned response (CR) but require more…

  12. The Effect on Student Achievement of Increasing Kinetic Structure of Teachers' Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Tests O. R. Anderson's theory of kinetic structure of verbal communications by administering lectures on swine flu to high school biology students and then reteaching the lectures with increased commonality. Results weakly support Anderson's theory. Implications are made for training teachers to increase the commonality of their lectures. (CS)

  13. Increasing the efficiency of organic solar cells by photonic and electrostatic-field enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Nalwa, Kanwar

    2011-01-01

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology is an attractive solar-electric conversion paradigm due to the promise of low cost roll-to-roll production and amenability to flexible substrates. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeding 7% has recently been achieved. OPV cells suffer from low charge carrier mobilities of polymers, leading to recombination losses, higher series resistances and lower fill-factors. Thus, it is imperative to develop fabrication methodologies that can enable efficient optical absorption in films thinner than optical absorption length. Active layers conformally deposited on light-trapping, microscale textured, grating-type surfaces is one possible approach to achieve this objective. In this study, 40% theoretical increase in photonic absorption over flat OPVs is shown for devices with textured geometry by the simulation results. For verifying this theoretical result and improving the efficiency of OPVs by light trapping, OPVs were fabricated on grating-type textured substrates possessing t pitch and -coat PV active-layer on these textured substrates led to over filling of the valleys and shunts at the crest, which severely affected the performance of the resultant PV devices. Thus, it is established that although the optical design is important for OPV performance but the potential of light trapping can only be effectively tapped if the textures are amenable for realizing a conformal active layer. It is discovered that if the height of the underlying topographical features is reduced to sub-micron regime (e.g. 300 nm) and the pitch is increased to more than a micron (e.g. 2 μm), the textured surface becomes amenable to coating a conformal PV active-layer. The resultant PV cells showed 100% increase in average light absorption near the band edge due to trapping of higher wavelength photons, and 20% improvement in power conversion efficiency as compared with the flat PV cell. Another factor that severely limits the performance of OPVs is

  14. The Economy-Wide Benefits of Increasing the Proportion of Students Achieving Year 12 Equivalent Education: Modelling Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This study analyzed the economic benefits of an increase in the proportion of Australian students achieving a 12th-grade equivalent education. Earlier research examined the direct costs and benefits of a program that increased 12th grade equivalent education for the five-year cohort 2003-2007. This study built on that by incorporating the indirect…

  15. Improving the Understanding of Intake and Charge Effects for Increasing RCCI Engine Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Reitz, Rolf; Wissink, martin; DelVescovo, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The present experimental engine efficiency study explores the effects of intake pressure and temperature, and premixed and global equivalence ratios on gross thermal efficiency (GTE) using the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy. Experiments were conducted in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine at constant net load (IMEPn) of 8.45 bar, 1300 rev/min engine speed, with 0% EGR, and a 50% mass fraction burned combustion phasing (CA50) of 0.5 CA ATDC. The engine was port fueled with E85 for the low reactivity fuel and direct injected with 3.5% 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) doped into 91 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline for the high-reactivity fuel. The resulting reactivity of the enhanced fuel corresponds to an AKI of approximately 56 and a cetane number of approximately 28. The engine was operated with a wide range of intake pressures and temperatures, and the ratio of low- to high-reactivity fuel was adjusted to maintain a fixed speed-phasing-load condition. This allowed for the investigation of several combinations of intake temperature, intake pressure, and charge stratification at otherwise constant thermodynamic conditions. The results show that sources of engine inefficiency compete as functions of premixed and global equivalence ratios. Losses are minimized through proper balancing of intake pressure and temperature, such that the global equivalence ratio ( global) is as lean as possible without overly lean regions of the stratified charge causing an increase in incomplete combustion. The explored speed-load-phasing combination shows that losses are minimized at conditions where approximately 2/3 of the fuel is fully premixed. The results exhibit a pathway for achieving simultaneous increases in combustion and fuel efficiency through proper fuel reactivity and initial condition management.

  16. Progress toward achieving high power and high efficiency semipolar LEDs and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hong

    Performance of current commercially available wurtzite nitride based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), grown along the polar (0001) c-plane orientation, is limited by the presence of polarization-related electric fields inside multi-quantum wells (MQWs). The discontinuities in both spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization at the heterointerfaces result in internal electric fields in the quantum wells. These electric fields cause carrier separation [quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE)] and reduce the radiative recombination rate within the quantum wells. One approach to reduce and possibly eliminate the polarization-related effects is to grow III-nitride devices on crystal planes that are inclined with respect to the c-axis, i.e., on semipolar planes. In this dissertation, metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been employed for the homoepitaxial growth of GaN based LEDs on semipolar orientations. As a consequence of growing on high-quality bulk GaN substrates, the LEDs have significantly reduced threading dislocation and stacking fault densities, resulting in remarkable improvements in EQE and output power. High efficiency semipolar (1011) violet-blue and blue LEDs have been demonstrated without any intentional effort to enhance the light extraction from those devices. Optimizations of epitaxial structures have led to increased output power and external quantum efficiency. A silicone encapsulated single quantum well blue LED with peak wavelength of 444 nm with output power of 24.3 mW, external quantum efficiency of 43% and luminous efficacy of 75 lm/W (with phosphorescent coating) at 20 mA has been demonstrated. Polarization fields in strained (1011) and (112¯2) InGaN quantum wells have been experimentally determined through bias-dependent optical studies. Our results show that the polarization field flips its direction in semipolar InGaN quantum wells with large inclination angles (i.e. around 60°). This suggests that there exists a polarization

  17. Thinking Maps: An innovative way to increase sixth-grade student achievement in social studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Tamita

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the effect of Thinking Maps on the achievement of 6th-grade social studies students in order to determine its effectiveness. The population of this study came from a suburban middle school in the state of Georgia. The quantitative data included a pretest and posttest. The study was designed to find (a) whether there is a significant difference between the mean posttest scores on the benchmark test of 6th-grade students who are taught with either Thinking Maps or traditional social studies methods, (b) whether there is a significant difference between the mean posttest scores on the benchmark test of 6th-grade male versus female social studies students, and (c) whether there is a significant interaction between 6th-grade students' type of social studies class and gender as to differentially affect their mean posttest scores on the benchmark test. To answer these questions, students' pretest and posttest were compared to determine if there was a statistically significant difference after Thinking Maps were implemented with the treatment group for 9 weeks. The results indicate that there was no significant difference in the test scores between the students who were taught with Thinking Maps and the students who were taught without Thinking Maps. However, the students taught with Thinking Maps had the higher adjusted posttest scores.

  18. The Effect of Increasing Conceptual Challenge in Primary Science Lessons on Pupils' Achievement and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mant, Jenny; Wilson, Helen; Coates, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports research into the effect on 11-year-old pupils of introducing more cognitively challenging, practical, and interactive science lessons. Our hypothesis was that such lessons would increase the children's enthusiasm for science and their engagement with the scientific process, thereby improving educational performance. Schools in…

  19. Increasing Underrepresented High School Students' College Transitions and Achievements: TRIO Educational Opportunity Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan Pitre, Charisse; Pitre, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The American education agenda suggests a clear commitment to the development of programs and practices to increase equitable participation in higher education. During a time when equity-based policy initiatives are under attack in the United States, governmental TRIO Programs remain one proven pathway for ensuring college preparedness and access…

  20. Increasing Young Children's Contact with Print during Shared Reading: Longitudinal Effects on Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; McGinty, Anita S.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal results for a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) assessing the impact of increasing preschoolers' attention to print during reading are reported. Four-year-old children (N = 550) in 85 classrooms experienced a 30-week shared reading program implemented by their teachers. Children in experimental classrooms experienced shared-book…

  1. What Counts Is How the Game Is Scored: One Way to Increase Achievement in Learning Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Layman E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Studies the extent to which the effectiveness of instructional gaming in learning specific mathematical ideas can be increased by incorporating devices that channel learners' attention upon those ideas. In particular, the effect of channeling attention by changing the method of scoring is explored. (Author/CMV)

  2. Increasing Achievement of At-Risk Students through the Use of Metacognitive Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidgus, Cathy; Vassos, Sophia

    A metacognition instructional strategy was employed to increase class participation and motivation in 21 seventh grade "at-risk" students at 2 schools in the context of the national problem of meeting the needs of "at-risk" students. A survey of the students' content area teachers and of the students themselves found evidence of the students'…

  3. Increasing Student Academic Achievement through the Use of Single and Mixed Gender Cooperative Grouping Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klebosits, Pia; Perrone, Beth

    This report describes a program for implementing specific cooperative grouping patterns in order to increase students' academic performance. The targeted population consisted of junior high and high school students located in the northwest and southwest suburbs of a large metropolitan area. An instructional strategy in which both like-gender and…

  4. Significant Increase in Ecosystem C Can Be Achieved with Sustainable Forest Management in Subtropical Plantation Forests

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500–2500 trees ha−1. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir – Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr−1, offsetting 1.9% of China’s annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber

  5. Active optimal control strategies for increasing the efficiency of photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljoaba, Sharif Zidan Ahmad

    Energy consumption has increased drastically during the last century. Currently, the worldwide energy consumption is about 17.4 TW and is predicted to reach 25 TW by 2035. Solar energy has emerged as one of the potential renewable energy sources. Since its first physical recognition in 1887 by Adams and Day till nowadays, research in solar energy is continuously developing. This has lead to many achievements and milestones that introduced it as one of the most reliable and sustainable energy sources. Recently, the International Energy Agency declared that solar energy is predicted to be one of the major electricity production energy sources by 2035. Enhancing the efficiency and lifecycle of photovoltaic (PV) modules leads to significant cost reduction. Reducing the temperature of the PV module improves its efficiency and enhances its lifecycle. To better understand the PV module performance, it is important to study the interaction between the output power and the temperature. A model that is capable of predicting the PV module temperature and its effects on the output power considering the individual contribution of the solar spectrum wavelengths significantly advances the PV module edsigns toward higher efficiency. In this work, a thermoelectrical model is developed to predict the effects of the solar spectrum wavelengths on the PV module performance. The model is characterized and validated under real meteorological conditions where experimental temperature and output power of the PV module measurements are shown to agree with the predicted results. The model is used to validate the concept of active optical filtering. Since this model is wavelength-based, it is used to design an active optical filter for PV applications. Applying this filter to the PV module is expected to increase the output power of the module by filtering the spectrum wavelengths. The active filter performance is optimized, where different cutoff wavelengths are used to maximize the module

  6. Achieving increased spent fuel storage capacity at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, D.H.; Chang, S.J.; Dabs, R.D.; Freels, J.D.; Morgan, K.A.; Rothrock, R.B.; Griess, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    The HFIR facility was originally designed to store approximately 25 spent cores, sufficient to allow for operational contingencies and for cooling prior to off-site shipment for reprocessing. The original capacity has now been increased to 60 positions, of which 53 are currently filled (September 1994). Additional spent cores are produced at a rate of about 10 or 11 per year. Continued HFIR operation, therefore, depends on a significant near-term expansion of the pool storage capacity, as well as on a future capability of reprocessing or other storage alternatives once the practical capacity of the pool is reached. To store the much larger inventory of spent fuel that may remain on-site under various future scenarios, the pool capacity is being increased in a phased manner through installation of a new multi-tier spent fuel rack design for higher density storage. A total of 143 positions was used for this paper as the maximum practical pool capacity without impacting operations; however, greater ultimate capacities were addressed in the supporting analyses and approval documents. This paper addresses issues related to the pool storage expansion including (1) seismic effects on the three-tier storage arrays, (2) thermal performance of the new arrays, (3) spent fuel cladding corrosion concerns related to the longer period of pool storage, and (4) impacts of increased spent fuel inventory on the pool water quality, water treatment systems, and LLLW volume.

  7. Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, Larry

    2012-03-01

    This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

  8. Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.

    2012-03-01

    This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

  9. Live births achieved via IVF are increased by improvements in air quality and laboratory environment

    PubMed Central

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Hill, Micah J; James, Aidita N; Schimmel, Tim; Segars, James H; Csokmay, John M; Cohen, Jacques; Payson, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common disease, which causes many couples to seek treatment with assisted reproduction techniques. Many factors contribute to successful assisted reproduction technique outcomes. One important factor is laboratory environment and air quality. Our facility had the unique opportunity to compare consecutively used, but separate assisted reproduction technique laboratories, as a result of a required move. Environmental conditions were improved by strategic engineering designs. All other aspects of the IVF laboratory, including equipment, physicians, embryologists, nursing staff and protocols, were kept constant between facilities. Air quality testing showed improved air quality at the new IVF site. Embryo implantation (32.4% versus 24.3%; P < 0.01) and live birth (39.3% versus 31.8%, P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the new facility compared with the old facility. More patients met clinical criteria and underwent mandatory single embryo transfer on day 5 leading to both a reduction in multiple gestation pregnancies and increased numbers of vitrified embryos per patient with supernumerary embryos available. Improvements in IVF laboratory conditions and air quality had profound positive effects on laboratory measures and patient outcomes. This study further strengthens the importance of the laboratory environment and air quality in the success of an IVF programme. PMID:26194882

  10. Application of sorption heat pumps for increasing of new power sources efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, L.; Filatova, O.; Tsitovich, A.

    2010-07-01

    In the 21st century the way to increase the efficiency of new sources of energy is directly related with extended exploration of renewable energy. This modern tendency ensures the fuel economy needs to be realized with nature protection. The increasing of new power sources efficiency (cogeneration, trigeneration systems, fuel cells, photovoltaic systems) can be performed by application of solid sorption heat pumps, regrigerators, heat and cold accumulators, heat transformers, natural gas and hydrogen storage systems and efficient heat exchangers.

  11. 76 FR 41790 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice Establishing Date for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice... discuss opportunities for increasing real-time and day- ahead market efficiency through improved software... improved software, 76 Fed. Reg. 28,022 (2011). Parties wishing to submit written comments regarding...

  12. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Increasing Academic Learning Time for College Undergraduate Students' Achievement in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shammari, Zaid; Mohammad, Anwar; Al-Shammari, Bandar

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of increasing ALT for college students' achievement in Kuwait. In Phase 1, 37 students participated (22, experimental; 15, control); in Phase 2, 19 students participated (8, sub-experimental; 11, sub-control). Several experimental research methods used in conducting this study, including development of a…

  13. Practices to reduce nitrate leaching and increase nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quemada, Miguel; Baranski, Marcin; Nobel de Lange, Majimcha; Vallejo, Antonio; Cooper, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Despite the large body of research in irrigated agriculture, it is still not clear which practices most effectively reduce nitrate leaching (NL) while maintaining crop yield. A meta-analysis (MA) of published experimental results from agricultural irrigated systems was conducted to identify those agricultural practices that have proven effective at reducing NL and to quantify the scale of reduction that can be achieved. Forty-four scientific articles were identified which investigated four main strategies (water and fertilizer management, use of cover crops and fertilizer technology) creating a database with 279 observations on NL and 166 on crop yield. Management practices that adjust water application to crop needs reduced NL by a mean of 80% without a reduction in crop yield. Improved fertilizer management reduced NL by 40%, and the best relationship between yield and NL was obtained when applying the recommended N fertilizer rate. Applications above the recommended rate increased leaching without enhancing yield. Replacing a fallow with a non-legume cover crop (CC) reduced NL by 50% while using a legume CC did not have any effect on NL. Legume CC increased yield and N use efficiency while yields following non-legume CC were not different from the fallow. Improved fertilizer technology also decreased NL but was the least effective of the selected strategies. The risk of nitrate leaching from irrigated systems is high, but optimum management practices may mitigate this risk and maintain crop yields while enhancing environmental sustainability.

  14. The Effect of Curriculum for Developing Efficient Studying Skills on Academic Achievements and Studying Skills of Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Semra; Kilinc, Mehmet; Dogan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to examine the effect of "Development of Efficient Studying Skills Curriculum" on academic achievements and studying skills of 7th grade primary school students. In this study, pre-test post-test from experiment models and semi-experimental model with control group were preferred. The reason for the preference is…

  15. O&M Best Practices - A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency (Release 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Gregory P.; Pugh, Ray; Melendez, Aldo P.; Hunt, W. D.

    2004-07-31

    This guide, sponsored by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program, highlights operations and maintenance (O&M) programs targeting energy efficiency that are estimated to save 5% to 20% on energy bills without a significant capital investment. The purpose of this guide is to provide the federal O&M energy manager and practitioner with useful information about O&M management, technologies, energy efficiency and cost-reduction approaches.

  16. Bandwidth efficient coding: Theoretical limits and real achievements. Error control techniques for satellite and space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, Daniel J., Jr.; Courturier, Servanne; Levy, Yannick; Mills, Diane G.; Perez, Lance C.; Wang, Fu-Quan

    1993-01-01

    In his seminal 1948 paper 'The Mathematical Theory of Communication,' Claude E. Shannon derived the 'channel coding theorem' which has an explicit upper bound, called the channel capacity, on the rate at which 'information' could be transmitted reliably on a given communication channel. Shannon's result was an existence theorem and did not give specific codes to achieve the bound. Some skeptics have claimed that the dramatic performance improvements predicted by Shannon are not achievable in practice. The advances made in the area of coded modulation in the past decade have made communications engineers optimistic about the possibility of achieving or at least coming close to channel capacity. Here we consider the possibility in the light of current research results.

  17. Effects of Using Channelling Devices to Increase Efficiency of Hydrokinetic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnacs, A.; Kalnacs, J.; Mutule, A.; Entins, V.

    2015-04-01

    In the rivers of Latvia and of many other countries the flow velocity in the places that are most suitable for installation of hydrokinetic devices is 0.4 to 0.9 m/s. In a stream or a river the hydrokinetic devices can reach full efficiency starting from about twice higher flow velocities. It is advisable to at least double this velocity thus increasing the efficiency and power output of the hydrokinetic devices installed in such places. Since Latvia has abundance of slow rivers and almost none are fast, research in this field is of high importance. Diversified technical methods are known that allow increasing substantially the efficiency of hydrokinetic devices. These methods include the use of diffusers, concentrators, different types of other channelling devices and means of flow control. Desirable effects are achieved through changing the cross-section and/or direction of a flow, its pressure, minimizing the turbulence, etc. This work substantiates the use of such devices for increasing the efficiency of hydrokinetic devices. A method is proposed for evaluation of the effects on power output gained owing to the use of channelling devices. Results show that the efficiency of hydrokinetic devices can be increased by at least 110%. Kā rāda pētījumi, Latvijā upju vietās, kuras ir piemērotas hidrokinētisko HES ierīkošanai, straumes ātrums pārsvarā ir robežās 0,4 līdz 0,9 m/s. Būtu izdevīgi vismaz dubultot šo ātrumu, līdz ar to būtiski palielinot šādās vietās izvietojamo iekārtu efektivitāti un jaudu. Sakarā ar to, ka Latvijā ir daudz tieši lēni plūstošu upju, minēto tēmu izpēte un iekārtu izmantošana Latvijai ir sevišķi aktuāla. Ir zināmi dažādi tehniskie paņēmieni, kas dod iespējas būtiski palielināt hidrokinētisko iekārtu efektivitāti. Šādas iespējas dod koncentratori, difuzori, dažādi plūsmas virzītāji un citi speciāli plūsmas vadības paņēmieni. Šīs ierīces maina straumes šķērsgriezumu un

  18. Student Achievement and Efficiency in Missouri Schools and the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primont, Diane F.; Domazlicky, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    The 2001 No Child Left Behind Act requires that schools make ''annual yearly progress'' in raising student achievement, or face possible sanctions. The No Child Left Behind Act places added emphasis on test scores, such as scores from the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP), to evaluate the performance of schools. In this paper, we investigate…

  19. A Thorough and Efficient Education: School Funding, Student Achievement and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlgrim, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    Many school districts are facing stagnant or reduced funding (input) concurrent with demands for improved student achievement (output). In other words, there is pressure for all schools, even those schools with student populations of low socioeconomic status, to improve academic results (accountability for output) without a directly proportionate…

  20. Inorganic Nutrients Increase Humification Efficiency and C-Sequestration in an Annually Cropped Soil

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Alan E.; Wade, Len J.; Conyers, Mark; Kirkegaard, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and storing the carbon (C) in resistant soil organic matter (SOM) is a global priority to restore soil fertility and help mitigate climate change. Although it is widely assumed that retaining rather than removing or burning crop residues will increase SOM levels, many studies have failed to demonstrate this. We hypothesised that the microbial nature of resistant SOM provides a predictable nutrient stoichiometry (C:nitrogen, C:phosphorus and C:sulphur–C:N:P:S) to target using supplementary nutrients when incorporating C-rich crop residues into soil. An improvement in the humification efficiency of the soil microbiome as a whole, and thereby C-sequestration, was predicted. In a field study over 5 years, soil organic-C (SOC) stocks to 1.6 m soil depth were increased by 5.5 t C ha-1 where supplementary nutrients were applied with incorporated crop residues, but were reduced by 3.2 t C ha-1 without nutrient addition, with 2.9 t C ha-1 being lost from the 0–10 cm layer. A net difference of 8.7 t C ha-1 was thus achieved in a cropping soil over a 5 year period, despite the same level of C addition. Despite shallow incorporation (0.15 m), more than 50% of the SOC increase occurred below 0.3 m, and as predicted by the stoichiometry, increases in resistant SOC were accompanied by increases in soil NPS at all depths. Interestingly the C:N, C:P and C:S ratios decreased significantly with depth possibly as a consequence of differences in fungi to bacteria ratio. Our results demonstrate that irrespective of the C-input, it is essential to balance the nutrient stoichiometry of added C to better match that of resistant SOM to increase SOC sequestration. This has implications for global practices and policies aimed at increasing SOC sequestration and specifically highlight the need to consider the hidden cost and availability of associated nutrients in building soil-C. PMID:27144282

  1. Inorganic Nutrients Increase Humification Efficiency and C-Sequestration in an Annually Cropped Soil.

    PubMed

    Kirkby, Clive A; Richardson, Alan E; Wade, Len J; Conyers, Mark; Kirkegaard, John A

    2016-01-01

    Removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and storing the carbon (C) in resistant soil organic matter (SOM) is a global priority to restore soil fertility and help mitigate climate change. Although it is widely assumed that retaining rather than removing or burning crop residues will increase SOM levels, many studies have failed to demonstrate this. We hypothesised that the microbial nature of resistant SOM provides a predictable nutrient stoichiometry (C:nitrogen, C:phosphorus and C:sulphur-C:N:P:S) to target using supplementary nutrients when incorporating C-rich crop residues into soil. An improvement in the humification efficiency of the soil microbiome as a whole, and thereby C-sequestration, was predicted. In a field study over 5 years, soil organic-C (SOC) stocks to 1.6 m soil depth were increased by 5.5 t C ha-1 where supplementary nutrients were applied with incorporated crop residues, but were reduced by 3.2 t C ha-1 without nutrient addition, with 2.9 t C ha-1 being lost from the 0-10 cm layer. A net difference of 8.7 t C ha-1 was thus achieved in a cropping soil over a 5 year period, despite the same level of C addition. Despite shallow incorporation (0.15 m), more than 50% of the SOC increase occurred below 0.3 m, and as predicted by the stoichiometry, increases in resistant SOC were accompanied by increases in soil NPS at all depths. Interestingly the C:N, C:P and C:S ratios decreased significantly with depth possibly as a consequence of differences in fungi to bacteria ratio. Our results demonstrate that irrespective of the C-input, it is essential to balance the nutrient stoichiometry of added C to better match that of resistant SOM to increase SOC sequestration. This has implications for global practices and policies aimed at increasing SOC sequestration and specifically highlight the need to consider the hidden cost and availability of associated nutrients in building soil-C. PMID:27144282

  2. A Strategy to Achieve High-Efficiency Organolead Trihalide Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andalibi, Shabnam; Rostami, Ali; Darvish, Gafar; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem

    2016-07-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental reports have shown that organometal lead halide perovskite solar cells have attracted attention as a low-cost photovoltaic technology offering high power conversion efficiency. However, the photovoltaic efficiency of these materials is still limited by poor chemical and structural stability in the case of methylammonium lead triiodide and by large bandgap in the case of methylammonium lead tribromide or trichloride. To obtain high-performance devices, we have investigated the computationally optimal efficiency for these materials using the detailed-balance method and present optimal intermediate-band perovskite solar cells with high open-circuit voltage. We model different halide perovskites using density function theory calculations and study their bandgap and absorption coefficient. Based on calculation results, surprisingly Hg doping in different halide perovskites introduces a narrow partially filled intermediate band in the forbidden bandgap. We investigate electrical and optical properties of MAPb0.97Hg0.03I3, MAPb0.96Hg0.04Br3, and MAPb0.96Hg0.04Cl3 and calculate the high absorption efficiency of the different perovskite structures to create thin films suitable for photovoltaic devices.

  3. Achieving strategic cost advantages by focusing on back-office efficiency.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Jim

    2010-06-01

    A study of more than 270 hospitals over a four-year period highlighted a number of investments that can reduce hospitals' costs and improve efficiency, including the following: E-procurement systems. Electronic exchange of invoices and payments (and electronic receipt of payments). Human resources IT systems that reduce the need for manual entry of data. Shared services deployment. PMID:20533684

  4. Carrots and Sticks: A Comprehensive Business Model for the Successful Achievement of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards Environmental Energy Technologies DivisionMarch 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Satchwell, Andrew; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2011-03-22

    Energy efficiency resource standards (EERS) are a prominent strategy to potentially achieve rapid and aggressive energy savings goals in the U.S. As of December 2010, twenty-six U.S. states had some form of an EERS with savings goals applicable to energy efficiency (EE) programs paid for by utility customers. The European Union has initiated a similar type of savings goal, the Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive, where it is being implemented in some countries through direct partnership with regulated electric utilities. U.S. utilities face significant financial disincentives under traditional regulation which affects the interest of shareholders and managers in aggressively pursuing cost-effective energy efficiency. Regulators are considering some combination of mandated goals ('sticks') and alternative utility business model components ('carrots' such as performance incentives) to align the utility's business and financial interests with state and federal energy efficiency public policy goals. European countries that have directed their utilities to administer EE programs have generally relied on non-binding mandates and targets; in the U.S., most state regulators have increasingly viewed 'carrots' as a necessary condition for successful achievement of energy efficiency goals and targets. In this paper, we analyze the financial impacts of an EERS on a large electric utility in the State of Arizona using a pro-forma utility financial model, including impacts on utility earnings, customer bills and rates. We demonstrate how a viable business model can be designed to improve the business case while retaining sizable ratepayer benefits. Quantifying these concerns and identifying ways they can be addressed are crucial steps in gaining the support of major stakeholder groups - lessons that can apply to other countries looking to significantly increase savings targets that can be achieved from their own utility-administered EE programs.

  5. 76 FR 28022 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice... Software Take notice that Commission staff will convene a technical conference on June 28-30, 2011, from 8... efficiency through improved software. This conference will bring together diverse experts from ISOs/RTOs,...

  6. 78 FR 31916 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Supplemental Agenda Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software... improved software. A detailed agenda with the list of times for the selected speakers and presentation... diverse experts from public utilities, the software industry, government, research centers and...

  7. Identification of Energy Efficiency Opportunities through Building Data Analysis and Achieving Energy Savings through Improved Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Koran, Bill

    2014-09-04

    This chapter will highlight analysis techniques to identify energy efficiency opportunities to improve operations and controls. A free tool, Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM), will be used to assist in the analysis of whole-building, sub-metered, and/or data from the building automation system (BAS). Appendix A describes the features of ECAM in more depth, and also provide instructions for downloading ECAM and all resources pertaining to using ECAM.

  8. SIU-based modification in Kelley's measure of skewness to achieve gains in efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibullah, Saleha Naghmi; Shan-E-Fatima, Syeda

    2015-02-01

    The importance of accurate modeling of life-lengths of components and systems cannot be over-emphasized. Some well-known distributions such as the Birnbaum Saunders distribution extensively used in Reliability Theory are known to fulfill the self-inversion property, the term `Self-Inverse at Unity' (`SIU') implying that, for a random variable X, the distribution of 1/ X is identical to the distribution of X. Very recently, it has been demonstrated the advantage that can be drawn from the SIU property by proposing a modification to the well-known formula of the empirical cumulative distribution function to obtain an estimator of the cumulative distribution function that is more efficient than the empirical cumulative distribution function in situations where the parent population can be assumed to be SIU. Subsequently, a number of papers have appeared proposing SIU-based modifications to the formulae of well-known estimators of central tendency, dispersion and kurtosis that are likely to yield gains in efficiency on account of an approach very similar to the one adopted for the modification of the formula of the empirical cumulative distribution function. In this paper, we propose SIU-based modification to Kelley's Measure of Skewness and, through a simulation study, demonstrate the potential of the proposed formula in improving the efficiency of the estimation process which, obviously, has important implications for accurate modeling of life-data encountered in various branches of engineering.

  9. Optimal thickness of silicon membranes to achieve maximum thermoelectric efficiency: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, Claudia; Neogi, Sanghamitra; Donadio, Davide

    2016-08-01

    Silicon nanostructures with reduced dimensionality, such as nanowires, membranes, and thin films, are promising thermoelectric materials, as they exhibit considerably reduced thermal conductivity. Here, we utilize density functional theory and Boltzmann transport equation to compute the electronic properties of ultra-thin crystalline silicon membranes with thickness between 1 and 12 nm. We predict that an optimal thickness of ˜7 nm maximizes the thermoelectric figure of merit of membranes with native oxide surface layers. Further thinning of the membranes, although attainable in experiments, reduces the electrical conductivity and worsens the thermoelectric efficiency.

  10. The effectiveness of personal response systems at increasing the engagement and achievement of students in a science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilson, Renee L.

    Student engagement and immediate assessment of learning is crucial for students to successfully master the rigorous chemistry curriculum set forth under the Michigan Merit Curriculum. It has been my observation that students who are actively engaged and involved in the classroom discussion achieve greater success than students who aren't. The use of iClickers to increase every student's engagement and achievement in a non college prep chemistry course was evaluated. Specifically, students were evaluated on pretests and posttests and their results compared using a paired t test in two sections of a unit in the ChemCom curriculum. During the first section students regularly used the iClickers and during the second section they did not use them at all. Both student engagement and achievement improved with the use of the iClickers as reported on student surveys and compared through pre- and posttest data. Students expressed that they liked using the iClickers and that the immediate feedback helped them better understand their mistakes. Student performance increased on all compared questions and the results of a paired t test showed significant p values for six out of the eight questions compared.

  11. Efficient Method of Achieving Agreements between Individuals and Organizations about RFID Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Shi-Cho

    This work presents novel technical and legal approaches that address privacy concerns for personal data in RFID systems. In recent years, to minimize the conflict between convenience and the privacy risk of RFID systems, organizations have been requested to disclose their policies regarding RFID activities, obtain customer consent, and adopt appropriate mechanisms to enforce these policies. However, current research on RFID typically focuses on enforcement mechanisms to protect personal data stored in RFID tags and prevent organizations from tracking user activity through information emitted by specific RFID tags. A missing piece is how organizations can obtain customers' consent efficiently and flexibly. This study recommends that organizations obtain licenses automatically or semi-automatically before collecting personal data via RFID technologies rather than deal with written consents. Such digitalized and standard licenses can be checked automatically to ensure that collection and use of personal data is based on user consent. While individuals can easily control who has licenses and license content, the proposed framework provides an efficient and flexible way to overcome the deficiencies in current privacy protection technologies for RFID systems.

  12. Achieving Internet-based efficiencies in a rural IDS: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bacus, R; Zunke, R

    2001-09-01

    After suffering payment cuts resulting from the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, Colorado-Fayette Medical Center (CFMC), a not-for-profit, rural integrated delivery system in Texas, wanted to reduce costs by gaining systemwide Internet access for its internal information system at a reasonable price. An application service provider affiliated with the Texas Hospital Association, helped CFMC achieve its goals for the project by performing a needs assessment, installing a wide-area network (WAN) with Internet access, and training staff. The new WAN enabled CFMC to improve its Web presence, allow radiologic image viewing at all sites, negotiate more favorable prices from vendors, implement electronic communication for staff members, and take advantage of on-line education opportunities. CFMC has found that the monthly fee paid to THN is offset by savings on long-distance calls, Internet service provider fees, and marketing and advertising costs. PMID:11552587

  13. Metering Best Practices, A Guide to Achieving Utility Resource Efficiency, Release 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Greg; Hunt, W. D.; Pugh, Ray; Sandusky, William F.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Boyd, Brian K.

    2011-08-31

    This release is an update and expansion of the information provided in Release 1.0 of the Metering Best Practice Guide that was issued in October 2007. This release, as was the previous release, was developed under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The mission of FEMP is to facilitate the Federal Government's implementation of sound cost-effective energy management and investment practices to enhance the nation's energy security and environmental stewardship. Each of these activities is directly related to achieving requirements set forth in the Energy Policy Acts of 1992 and 2005, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, and the goals that have been established in Executive Orders 13423 and 13514 - and also those practices that are inherent in sound management of Federal financial and personnel resources.

  14. Application of ITO/Al reflectors for increasing the efficiency of single-crystal silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kopach, V. R.; Kirichenko, M. V. Khrypunov, G. S.; Zaitsev, R. V.

    2010-06-15

    It is shown that an increase in the efficiency and manufacturability of single-junction single-crystal silicon photoelectric converters of solar energy requires the use of a back-surface reflector based on conductive transparent indium-tin oxide (ITO) 0.25-2 {mu}m thick. To increase the efficiency and reduce the sensitivity to the angle of light incidence on the photoreceiving surface of multijunction photoelectric converters with vertical diode cells based on single-crystal silicon, ITO/Al reflectors with an ITO layer >1 {mu}m thick along vertical boundaries of diode cells should be fabricated. The experimental study of multijunction photoelectric converters with ITO/Al reflectors at diode cell boundaries shows the necessity of modernizing the used technology of ITO layers to achieve their theoretically calculated thickness.

  15. Achieving 100% Efficient Postcolumn Hydride Generation for As Speciation Analysis by Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marschner, Karel; Musil, Stanislav; Dědina, Jiří

    2016-04-01

    An experimental setup consisting of a flow injection hydride generator coupled to an atomic fluorescence spectrometer was optimized in order to generate arsanes from tri- and pentavalent inorganic arsenic species (iAs(III), iAs(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MAs(V)), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAs(V)) with 100% efficiency with the use of only HCl and NaBH4 as the reagents. The optimal concentration of HCl was 2 mol L(-1); the optimal concentration of NaBH4 was 2.5% (m/v), and the volume of the reaction coil was 8.9 mL. To prevent excessive signal noise due to fluctuations of hydride supply to an atomizer, a new design of a gas-liquid separator was implemented. The optimized experimental setup was subsequently interfaced to HPLC and employed for speciation analysis of arsenic. Two chromatography columns were tested: (i) ion-pair chromatography and (ii) ion exchange chromatography. The latter offered much better results for human urine samples without a need for sample dilution. Due to the equal hydride generation efficiency (and thus the sensitivities) of all As species, a single species standardization by DMAs(V) standard was feasible. The limits of detection for iAs(III), iAs(V), MAs(V), and DMAs(V) were 40, 97, 57, and 55 pg mL(-1), respectively. Accuracy of the method was tested by the analysis of the standard reference material (human urine NIST 2669), and the method was also verified by the comparative analyses of human urine samples collected from five individuals with an independent reference method. PMID:26938848

  16. Operations & Maintenance Best Practices - A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency (Release 3)

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Greg; Pugh, Ray; Melendez, Aldo P.; Hunt, W. D.

    2010-08-04

    This guide highlights operations and maintenance programs targeting energy and water efficiency that are estimated to save 5% to 20% on energy bills without a significant capital investment. The purpose of this guide is to provide you, the Operations and Maintenance (O&M)/Energy manager and practitioner, with useful information about O&M management, technologies, energy and water efficiency, and cost-reduction approaches. To make this guide useful and to reflect your needs and concerns, the authors met with O&M and Energy managers via Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) workshops. In addition, the authors conducted extensive literature searches and contacted numerous vendors and industry experts. The information and case studies that appear in this guide resulted from these activities. It needs to be stated at the outset that this guide is designed to provide information on effective O&M as it applies to systems and equipment typically found at Federal facilities. This guide is not designed to provide the reader with step-by-step procedures for performing O&M on any specific piece of equipment. Rather, this guide first directs the user to the manufacturer's specifications and recommendations. In no way should the recommendations in this guide be used in place of manufacturer's recommendations. The recommendations in this guide are designed to supplement those of the manufacturer, or, as is all too often the case, provide guidance for systems and equipment for which all technical documentation has been lost. As a rule, this guide will first defer to the manufacturer's recommendations on equipment operation and maintenance.

  17. Design of a reluctance motor with increased efficiency and power factor for widespread industrial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen-Goos, P.; Pieper, W.

    1981-09-01

    The motors were designed in the range of 0.6-4 kW with 4-pole windings. An increase of nominal power by approximately 100%, and an increase of quality factor by approximately 50% are reported. The efficiency is equal to asynchronous motors of the same IEC size.

  18. Hyaluronidase and collagenase increase the transfection efficiency of gene electrotransfer in various murine tumors.

    PubMed

    Cemazar, Maja; Golzio, Muriel; Sersa, Gregor; Escoffre, Jean-Michel; Coer, Andrej; Vidic, Suzana; Teissie, Justin

    2012-01-01

    One of the applications of electroporation/electropulsation in biomedicine is gene electrotransfer, the wider use of which is hindered by low transfection efficiency in vivo compared with viral vectors. The aim of our study was to determine whether modulation of the extracellular matrix in solid tumors, using collagenase and hyaluronidase, could increase the transfection efficiency of gene electrotransfer in histologically different solid subcutaneous tumors in mice. Tumors were treated with enzymes before electrotransfer of plasmid DNA encoding either green fluorescent protein or luciferase. Transfection efficiency was determined 3, 9, and 15 days posttransfection. We demonstrated that pretreatment of tumors with a combination of enzymes significantly increased the transfection efficiency of electrotransfer in tumors with a high extracellular matrix area (LPB fibrosarcoma). In tumors with a smaller extracellular matrix area and less organized collagen lattice, the increase was not so pronounced (SA-1 fibrosarcoma and EAT carcinoma), whereas in B16 melanoma, in which only traces of collagen are present, pretreatment of tumors with hyaluronidase alone was more efficient than pretreatment with both enzymes. In conclusion, our results suggest that modification of the extracellular matrix could improve distribution of plasmid DNA in solid subcutaneous tumors, demonstrated by an increase in transfection efficiency, and thus have important clinical implications for electrogene therapy. PMID:21797718

  19. The Roles of Collective Efficacy of Teachers and Fiscal Efficiency in Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cybulski, Timothy G.; Hoy, Wayne K.; Sweetland, Scott R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Public schools in the USA face increased pressures for more accountability and improved performance. The objective of this study was to wed two previously separated theoretical strands of educational research--economic theory and organizational theory--by using variables from each theory base to develop, compare, and test a series of…

  20. Learner Characteristics and Motivation: How to Achieve Efficient and Effective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Catherine Marie Fraser

    2015-01-01

    During the Society for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Conference 2014, a workshop was held three consecutive times as part of the Pedagogical Speed Dating sessions to introduce experienced college/university faculty and instructional designers to an approach to instructional design that is based on increasing motivation. The purpose of…

  1. The use of ECDIS equipment to achieve an optimum value for energy efficiency operation index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acomi, N.; Acomi, O. C.; Stanca, C.

    2015-11-01

    To reduce air pollution produced by ships, the International Maritime Organization has developed a set of technical, operational and management measures. The subject of our research addresses the operational measures for minimizing CO2 air emissions and the way how the emission value could be influenced by external factors regardless of ship-owners’ will. This study aims to analyse the air emissions for a loaded voyage leg performed by an oil tanker. The formula that allows us to calculate the predicted Energy Efficiency Operational Index involves the estimation of distance and fuel consumption, while the quantity of cargo is known. The electronic chart display and information system, ECDIS Simulation Software, will be used for adjusting the passage plan in real time, given the predicted severe environmental conditions. The distance will be determined using ECDIS, while the prediction of the fuel consumption will consider the sea trial and the vessel experience records. That way it will be possible to compare the estimated EEOI value in the case of great circle navigation in adverse weather condition with the estimated EEOI value for weather navigation.

  2. Effectiveness of increasing the frequency of posaconazole syrup administration to achieve optimal plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Park, Wan Beom; Cho, Joo-Youn; Park, Sang-In; Kim, Eun Jung; Yoon, Seonghae; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Youngil; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Eu Suk; Bang, Su Mi; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Inho; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Sang Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Few data are available on whether adjusting the dose of posaconazole syrup is effective in patients receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the impact of increasing the frequency of posaconazole administration on optimal plasma concentrations in adult patients with haematological malignancy. A total of 133 adult patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received posaconazole syrup 200 mg three times daily for fungal prophylaxis were enrolled in this study. Drug trough levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In 20.2% of patients (23/114) the steady-state concentration of posaconazole was suboptimal (<500 ng/mL) on Day 8. In these patients, the frequency of posaconazole administration was increased to 200 mg four times daily. On Day 15, the median posaconazole concentration was significantly increased from 368 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 247-403 ng/mL] to 548 ng/mL (IQR, 424-887 ng/mL) (P = 0.0003). The median increase in posaconazole concentration was 251 ng/mL (IQR, 93-517 ng/mL). Among the patients with initially suboptimal levels, 79% achieved the optimal level unless the steady-state level was <200 ng/mL. This study shows that increasing the administration frequency of posaconazole syrup is effective for achieving optimal levels in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:27234674

  3. Depth Filters Containing Diatomite Achieve More Efficient Particle Retention than Filters Solely Containing Cellulose Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Buyel, Johannes F.; Gruchow, Hannah M.; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The clarification of biological feed stocks during the production of biopharmaceutical proteins is challenging when large quantities of particles must be removed, e.g., when processing crude plant extracts. Single-use depth filters are often preferred for clarification because they are simple to integrate and have a good safety profile. However, the combination of filter layers must be optimized in terms of nominal retention ratings to account for the unique particle size distribution in each feed stock. We have recently shown that predictive models can facilitate filter screening and the selection of appropriate filter layers. Here we expand our previous study by testing several filters with different retention ratings. The filters typically contain diatomite to facilitate the removal of fine particles. However, diatomite can interfere with the recovery of large biopharmaceutical molecules such as virus-like particles and aggregated proteins. Therefore, we also tested filtration devices composed solely of cellulose fibers and cohesive resin. The capacities of both filter types varied from 10 to 50 L m−2 when challenged with tobacco leaf extracts, but the filtrate turbidity was ~500-fold lower (~3.5 NTU) when diatomite filters were used. We also tested pre–coat filtration with dispersed diatomite, which achieved capacities of up to 120 L m−2 with turbidities of ~100 NTU using bulk plant extracts, and in contrast to the other depth filters did not require an upstream bag filter. Single pre-coat filtration devices can thus replace combinations of bag and depth filters to simplify the processing of plant extracts, potentially saving on time, labor and consumables. The protein concentrations of TSP, DsRed and antibody 2G12 were not affected by pre-coat filtration, indicating its general applicability during the manufacture of plant-derived biopharmaceutical proteins. PMID:26734037

  4. Teacher Research Programs: An Effective Form of Professional Development to Increase Student Achievement and Benefit the Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, J.

    2008-12-01

    U.S. high school students perform markedly less well in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) than students in other economically advanced countries. This low level of STEM performance endangers our democracy and economy. The President's Council of Advisors in Science and Technology's 2004 report attributed the shortfall of students attracted to the sciences is a result of the dearth of teachers sufficiently conversant with science and scientists to enable them to communicate to their students the excitement of scientific exploration and discovery, and the opportunities science provides for highly rewarding and remunerative careers. Nonetheless, the United States has made little progress in correcting these deficiencies. Studies have shown that high-quality teaching matters more to student achievement than anything else schools do. This belief is buttressed by evidence from Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers (SRP) that highly motivated, in-service science teachers require professional development to enable them and their students to perform up to their potential. Columbia's Summer Research Program is based on the premise that to teach science effectively requires experience in using the tools of contemporary science to answer unsolved questions. From its inception, SRP's goal has been to enhance interest and improve performance in science of students. It seeks to achieve this goal by increasing the professional competence of teachers. The reports of Elmore, Sanders and Rivers, and our own studies, show that professional development is a "key lever for improving student outcomes." While most middle and high school science teachers have taken college science courses that include cookbook laboratory exercises, the vast majority of them have never attempted to answer an unsolved question. Just as student learning depends on the expertise of teachers, the expertise of teachers depends on the quality of their professional

  5. Efficiency increase of hard rock destruction with the use of eccentric pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushmin, P.; Romanov, G.

    2015-11-01

    The increase of efficiency of expendable well-drilling directly depends on the mechanism of rock destruction. The depth of hole coverage should be at the maximum possible value and equal along the whole contact area. The design features of performing rock- destruction tool in rotary drilling prevent the cutters, located on different distance from rotation axis, from working with equal intensity. The application of the shock pulses to a boring tool increases the mechanical drilling speed and sinking per revolution. One of the techniques for the efficiency increase is the application of impactor machines. On the other hand, the high values of mechanical drilling speed require the high values of impact energy which results in high power inputs energy consumption. The use of eccentric impact loading instead of central one can provide the enhancement of rock destruction efficiency, lower the power inputs, and decrease the risk of borehole deviation.

  6. Processing speed training increases the efficiency of attentional resource allocation in young adults.

    PubMed

    Burge, Wesley K; Ross, Lesley A; Amthor, Franklin R; Mitchell, William G; Zotov, Alexander; Visscher, Kristina M

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive training has been shown to improve performance on a range of tasks. However, the mechanisms underlying these improvements are still unclear. Given the wide range of transfer effects, it is likely that these effects are due to a factor common to a wide range of tasks. One such factor is a participant's efficiency in allocating limited cognitive resources. The impact of a cognitive training program, Processing Speed Training (PST), on the allocation of resources to a set of visual tasks was measured using pupillometry in 10 young adults as compared to a control group of a 10 young adults (n = 20). PST is a well-studied computerized training program that involves identifying simultaneously presented central and peripheral stimuli. As training progresses, the task becomes increasingly more difficult, by including peripheral distracting stimuli and decreasing the duration of stimulus presentation. Analysis of baseline data confirmed that pupil diameter reflected cognitive effort. After training, participants randomized to PST used fewer attentional resources to perform complex visual tasks as compared to the control group. These pupil diameter data indicated that PST appears to increase the efficiency of attentional resource allocation. Increases in cognitive efficiency have been hypothesized to underlie improvements following experience with action video games, and improved cognitive efficiency has been hypothesized to underlie the benefits of PST in older adults. These data reveal that these training schemes may share a common underlying mechanism of increasing cognitive efficiency in younger adults. PMID:24151461

  7. Increased Efficiency in Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells Through the Use of a 56-π Electron Acceptor - Methano Indene Fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, James W.; Matsuo, Yutaka

    2015-02-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) offer the possibility of harnessing the sun's ubiquitous energy in a low-cost, environmentally friendly and renewable manner. OSCs based on small molecule semiconductors (SMOSCs) - have made a substantial improvement in recent years and are now achieving power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) that match those achieved for polymer:fullerene OSCs. To date, all efficient SMOSCs have relied on the same fullerene acceptor, PCBM, in order to achieve high performance. The use of PCBM however, is unfavourable due to its low lying LUMO level, which limits the open-circuit voltage (VOC). Alternative fullerene derivatives with higher lying LUMOs are thus required to improve the VOC. The challenge, however, is to prevent the typical concomitant decrease in the short circuit current density (JSC) when using a higher LUMO fullerene. In this communication, we address the issue by applying methano indene fullerene, MIF, a bis-functionalised C60 fullerene that has a LUMO level 140 mV higher than PCBM, in solution processed SMOSCs with a well known small molecule donor, DPP(TBFu)2. MIF-based devices show an improved VOC of 140 mV over PC61BM and only a small decrease in the JSC, with the PCE increasing to 5.1% (vs. 4.5% for PC61BM).

  8. Titanate cathodes with enhanced electrical properties achieved via growing surface Ni particles toward efficient carbon dioxide electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lizhen; Ye, Lingting; Tao, Shanwen; Xie, Kui

    2016-01-28

    Ionic conduction in perovskite oxide is commonly tailored by element doping in lattices to create charge carriers, while few studies have been focused on ionic conduction enhancement through tailoring microstructures. In this work, remarkable enhancement of ionic conduction in titanate has been achieved via in situ growing active nickel nanoparticles on an oxide surface by controlling the oxide material nonstoichiometry. The combined use of XRD, SEM, XPS and EDS indicates that the exsolution/dissolution of the nickel nanoparticles is completely reversible in redox cycles. With the synergetic effect of enhanced ionic conduction of titanate and the presence of catalytic active Ni nanocatalysts, significant improvement of electrocatalytic performances of the titanate cathode is demonstrated. A current density of 0.3 A cm(-2) with a Faradic efficiency of 90% has been achieved for direct carbon dioxide electrolysis in a 2 mm-thick YSZ-supported solid oxide electrolyzer with the modified titanate cathode at 2 V and 1073 K. PMID:26743799

  9. Study on structural characteristics of pillared clay modified phosphate fertilizers and its increase efficiency mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ping-xiao; Liao, Zong-wen

    2005-01-01

    Three types of new high-efficiency phosphate fertilizers were made when pillared clays at certain proportions were added into ground phosphate rock. Chemical analyses showed that their soluble phosphorus content decreased more than that of superphosphate. Pot experiment showed that, under equal weights, the new fertilizers increased their efficiency by a large margin over that of superphosphate. Researches on their structures by means of XRD, IR and EPR spectrum revealed that their crystal structures changed considerably, improving their activity and preventing the fixation of available phosphorus in the soil, and consequently, greatly improved the bioavailability and became the main cause of the increase of biomass. PMID:15682504

  10. Achieving Extreme Utilization of Excitons by an Efficient Sandwich-Type Emissive Layer Architecture for Reduced Efficiency Roll-Off and Improved Operational Stability in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongbin; Sun, Ning; Zhu, Liping; Sun, Hengda; Wang, Jiaxiu; Yang, Dezhi; Qiao, Xianfeng; Chen, Jiangshan; Alshehri, Saad M; Ahamad, Tansir; Ma, Dongge

    2016-02-10

    It has been demonstrated that the efficiency roll-off is generally caused by the accumulation of excitons or charge carriers, which is intimately related to the emissive layer (EML) architecture in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this article, an efficient sandwich-type EML structure with a mixed-host EML sandwiched between two single-host EMLs was designed to eliminate this accumulation, thus simultaneously achieving high efficiency, low efficiency roll-off and good operational stability in the resulting OLEDs. The devices show excellent electroluminescence performances, realizing a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 24.6% with a maximum power efficiency of 105.6 lm W(-1) and a maximum current efficiency of 93.5 cd A(-1). At the high brightness of 5,000 cd m(-2), they still remain as high as 23.3%, 71.1 lm W(-1), and 88.3 cd A(-1), respectively. And, the device lifetime is up to 2000 h at initial luminance of 1000 cd m(-2), which is significantly higher than that of compared devices with conventional EML structures. The improvement mechanism is systematically studied by the dependence of the exciton distribution in EML and the exciton quenching processes. It can be seen that the utilization of the efficient sandwich-type EML broadens the recombination zone width, thus greatly reducing the exciton quenching and increasing the probability of the exciton recombination. It is believed that the design concept provides a new avenue for us to achieve high-performance OLEDs. PMID:26828128

  11. Increasing efficiency of BEAMnrc-simulated Co-60 beams using directional source biasing

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, B. R. B.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: This study describes the implementation of a directional source biasing (DSB) scheme for efficiently simulating Cobalt-60 treatment heads using the BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code. Previous simulation of Co-60 beams with BEAMnrc was impractical because of the time required to track photons not directed into the treatment field and to simulate secondary charged particles. Methods: In DSB, efficiency is increased by splitting each photon emitted by the Co-60 source a user-defined number of times. Only those split primary photons directed into a user-defined splitting field (encompassing the treatment field) are sampled, yielding many low-weight photons directed into the field. Efficiency can be further increased by taking advantage of radial symmetry at the top of the treatment head to reduce the number of split primary photons tracked in this portion. There is also an option to generate contaminant electrons in DSB. Results: The DSB scheme in BEAMnrc increases the photon fluence calculation efficiency in a 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} Co-60 beam by a factor of 1800 with a concurrent increase in contaminant electron fluence calculation efficiency by a factor of 1200. Implementation of DSB in beampp, a C++ code for accelerator simulations based on EGSnrc and the C++ class library, egspp, increases photon fluence efficiency by a factor of 2800 and contaminant electron fluence efficiency by a factor of 1600. Optimum splitting numbers are in the range of 20 000–40 000. For dose calculations in a water phantom (0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 cm{sup 3} voxels) this translates into a factor of ∼400 increase in dose calculation efficiency (all doses > 0.5 × D{sub max}). An example calculation of the ratio of dose to water to dose to chamber (the basis of the beam quality correction factor) to within 0.2% in a realistic chamber using a full simulation of a Co-60 treatment head as a source indicates the practicality of Co-60 simulations with DSB. Conclusions: The efficiency improvement

  12. Evaluation of pollutants removal efficiency to achieve successful urban river restoration.

    PubMed

    Cha, Sung Min; Ham, Young Sik; Ki, Seo Jin; Lee, Seung Won; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Park, Yongeun; Kim, Joon Ha

    2009-01-01

    Greater efforts to provide alternative scenarios are key to successful urban stream restoration planning. In this study, we discuss two different aspects of water quality management schemes, biodegradation and human health, which are incorporated in the restoration project of original, pristine condition of urban stream at the Gwangju (GJ) Stream, Korea. For this study, monthly monitoring of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) data were obtained from 2003 to 2008 and for 2008, respectively, and these were evaluated to explore pollutant magnitude and variation with respect to space and time window. Ideal scenarios to reduce target pollutants were determined based on their seasonal characteristics and correlations between the concentrations at a water intake and discharge point, where we suggested an increase of environmental flow and wetland as pollutants reduction drawing for BOD(5) and FIB, respectively. The scenarios were separately examined by the Qual2E model and hypothetically (but planned) constructed wetland, respectively. The results revealed that while controlling of the water quality at the intake point guaranteed the lower pollution level of BOD(5) in the GJ Stream, a wetland constructed at the discharge point may be a promising strategy to mitigate mass loads of FIB. Overall, this study suggests that a combination of the two can be plausible scenarios not only to support sustainable urban water resources management, but to enhance a quality of urban stream restoration assignment. PMID:19494448

  13. Adaptation and information in ontogenesis and phylogenesis. Increase of complexity and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Azzone, G F

    1997-01-01

    Adaptations during phylogenesis or ontogenesis can occur either by maintaining constant or by increasing the informational content of the organism. In the former case the increasing adaptations to external perturbation are achieved by increasing the rate of genome replication; the increased amount of DNA reflects an increase of total but not of law informational content. In the latter case the adaptations are achieved by either istructionist or evolutionary mechanism or a combination of both. Evolutionary adaptations occur during ontogenesis mainly in the brain-mind, immunological and receptor systems and involve a repertoire of receptors that are., clonally distributed, genome-conditioned and amplified by somatic mutation. Specificity and intensity of responses are achieved a posteriori as a result of natural selection of the clones. The major adaptations during phylogenesis are accompanied by increased complexity. They have been attributed to shifts, short in time and space, against the entropic drive and thus occur notwithstanding the entropic drive and the second law of thermodynamics. The alternative view, is that the generation of complexity is due to the second law of thermodynamics in its extended formulation which includes Prigogine's theorem of minimum entropy production. This view requires however that natural selection provides the biological system with structures that bring the reactions within Onsager's range. The hierarchical organization of the natural world thus reflects a stratified thermodynamic stability. As the evolutionary adaptations generate new information they may be assimilated to Maxwell demon type of processes. PMID:9646724

  14. Controlled surface oxidation of multi-layered graphene anode to increase hole injection efficiency in organic electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tae-Hee; Kwon, Sung-Joo; Seo, Hong-Kyu; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-03-01

    Ultraviolet ozone (UVO) surface treatment of graphene changes its sp2-hybridized carbons to sp3-bonded carbons, and introduces oxygen-containing components. Oxidized graphene has a finite energy band gap, so UVO modification of the surface of a four-layered graphene anode increases its surface ionization potential up to ∼5.2 eV and improves the hole injection efficiency (η) in organic electronic devices by reducing the energy barrier between the graphene anode and overlying organic layers. By controlling the conditions of the UVO treatment, the electrical properties of the graphene can be tuned to improve η. This controlled surface modification of the graphene will provide a way to achieve efficient and stable flexible displays and solid-state lighting.

  15. Increasing round trip efficiency of hybrid Li-air battery with bifunctional catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K; Li, YF; Xing, YC

    2013-07-30

    Previously it was shown that Pt as cathode catalyst ha's a large overpotential during charge in rechargeable hybrid Li-air battery with sulfuric acid catholyte. This article demonstrates that a bifunctional catalyst composed of Pt and IrO2 supported on carbon nanotubes can address this problem. The specially designed and synthesized bifunctional catalyst showed significant overpotential reduction and achieved a round trip energy efficiency of 81% after 10 cycles, higher than many achieved in aprotic Li-O-2 batteries. The hybrid Li-air battery was discharged and recharged for 20 cycles at 0.2 mA/cm(2), showing a fairly stable cell performance. A specific capacity of 306 mAh/g and a specific energy of 1110 Wh/kg were obtained for the hybrid Li-air battery in terms of acid weight. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acquired Phototrophy through Retention of Functional Chloroplasts Increases Growth Efficiency of the Sea Slug Elysia viridis

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Finn A.; Pavia, Henrik; Toth, Gunilla B.

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a fundamental process sustaining heterotrophic organisms at all trophic levels. Some mixotrophs can retain functional chloroplasts from food (kleptoplasty), and it is hypothesized that carbon acquired through kleptoplasty may enhance trophic energy transfer through increased host growth efficiency. Sacoglossan sea slugs are the only known metazoans capable of kleptoplasty, but the relative fitness contributions of heterotrophy through grazing, and phototrophy via kleptoplasts, are not well understood. Fitness benefits (i.e. increased survival or growth) of kleptoplasty in sacoglossans are commonly studied in ecologically unrealistic conditions under extended periods of complete darkness and/or starvation. We compared the growth efficiency of the sacoglossan Elysia viridis with access to algal diets providing kleptoplasts of differing functionality under ecologically relevant light conditions. Individuals fed Codium fragile, which provide highly functional kleptoplasts, nearly doubled their growth efficiency under high compared to low light. In contrast, individuals fed Cladophora rupestris, which provided kleptoplasts of limited functionality, showed no difference in growth efficiency between light treatments. Slugs feeding on Codium, but not on Cladophora, showed higher relative electron transport rates (rETR) in high compared to low light. Furthermore, there were no differences in the consumption rates of the slugs between different light treatments, and only small differences in nutritional traits of algal diets, indicating that the increased growth efficiency of E. viridis feeding on Codium was due to retention of functional kleptoplasts. Our results show that functional kleptoplasts from Codium can provide sacoglossan sea slugs with fitness advantages through photosynthesis. PMID:25830355

  17. Increased Efficiency in SI Engine with Air Replaced by Oxygen in Argon Mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Killingsworth, N J; Rapp, V H; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M; Chen, J; Dibble, R

    2010-01-13

    Basic engine thermodynamics predicts that spark ignited engine efficiency is a function of both the compression ratio of the engine and the specific heat ratio of the working fluid. In practice the compression ratio of the engine is often limited due to knock. Both higher specific heat ratio and higher compression ratio lead to higher end gas temperatures and increase the likelihood of knock. In actual engine cycles, heat transfer losses increase at higher compression ratios and limit efficiency even when the knock limit is not reached. In this paper we investigate the role of both the compression ratio and the specific heat ratio on engine efficiency by conducting experiments comparing operation of a single-cylinder variable-compression-ratio engine with both hydrogen-air and hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures. For low load operation it is found that the hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures result in higher indicated thermal efficiencies. Peak efficiency for the hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures is found at compression ratio 5.5 whereas for the hydrogen-air mixture with an equivalence ratio of 0.24 the peak efficiency is found at compression ratio 13. We apply a three-zone model to help explain the effects of specific heat ratio and compression ratio on efficiency. Operation with hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures at low loads is more efficient because the lower compression ratio results in a substantially larger portion of the gas to reside in the adiabatic core rather than in the boundary layer and in the crevices, leading to less heat transfer and more complete combustion.

  18. Using Equivalence-Based Instruction to Increase Efficiency in Teaching Neuroanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Pytte, Carolyn L.; Fienup, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    A goal of all instruction is to efficiently allocate time spent teaching -- balancing redundancy that enhances learning with redundancy that is irrelevant to increasing student understanding. Efficient allocation of time allows the instructor to present additional material and go into more detail about the information being presented. Here we borrow laboratory research on concept formation and apply these formal principles in teaching introductory neuroanatomy within a lecture course on Behavioral Neuroscience. Concept formation is taught by pairing multiple stimuli, for instance brain name, location, and function, in such a way that novel associations within a category emerge without direct training. This study demonstrates that careful selection of associations by the instructor can encourage the spontaneous emergence of novel associations within a concept or category, thereby increasing efficiency of teaching and by extension, the depth of material that can be taught. PMID:23504446

  19. Increasing pumping efficiency in a micro throttle pump by enhancing displacement amplification in an elastomeric substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, T.; Johnston, I. D.; Tracey, M. C.; Tan, C. K. L.

    2010-06-01

    Fluid transport is accomplished in a micro throttle pump (MTP) by alternating deformation of a micro channel cast into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomeric substrate. The active deformation is achieved using a bimorph PZT piezoelectric disc actuator bonded to a glass diaphragm. The bimorph PZT deflects the diaphragm as well as alternately pushing and pulling the elastomer layer providing displacement amplification in the PDMS directly surrounding the micro channel. In order to improve pumping rates we have embedded a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) ring into the PMDS substrate which increases the magnitude of the displacement amplification achieved. FEM simulation of the elastomeric substrate deformation predicts that the inclusion of the PMMA ring should increase the channel deformation. We experimentally demonstrate that inclusion of a PMMA ring, having a diameter equal to that of the circular node of the PZT/glass/PDMS composite, increases in the throttle resistance ratio by 40% and the maximum pumping rate by 90% compared to an MTP with no ring.

  20. MANAGEMENT TOOLS TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF WINTER WHEAT-STOCKER ENTERPRISES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 23 million acres of winter wheat are planted in the southern Great Plains each year, and serves as the major feed resource used by regional stocker cattle enterprises. To increase the efficiency and productivity of winter wheat stocker enterprises, two constraints must be removed. First, length...

  1. Increasing Efficiency in Academia: The Use of a Weaning Model in Fundraising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniaci, Vincent M.; Poole, Rob

    2005-01-01

    The authors discuss a method to increase institutional efficiency and financial stability through strategic planning, by gradually reallocating funds raised for annual operations to quasi-endowment over a period of years using a weaning model. The weaning model is offered as a tactic to address issues of financial vulnerability developed in…

  2. Rising ozone concentrations decrease soybean evapotranspiration and water use efficiency while increasing canopy temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effects of increasing [O3] on soybean canopy scale fluxes of heat and water vapor as well as water use efficiency (WUE) at the Soybean Free Air Concentration Enrichment (SoyFACE) facility. Micrometeorological measurements were made to determine the net radiation (Rn) sensible hea...

  3. 78 FR 18974 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... including electric system operators, software developers, government, research centers and academia for the... Energy Regulatory Commission Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice... Software Take notice that Commission staff will convene a technical conference on June 24, 25, and 26,...

  4. Increasing the heme-dependent respiratory efficiency of Lactococcus lactis by inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Arioli, Stefania; Zambelli, Daniele; Guglielmetti, Simone; De Noni, Ivano; Pedersen, Martin B; Pedersen, Per Dedenroth; Dal Bello, Fabio; Mora, Diego

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of heme-induced respiration in Lactococcus lactis has radically improved the industrial processes used for the biomass production of this species. Here, we show that inhibition of the lactate dehydrogenase activity of L. lactis during growth under respiration-permissive conditions can stimulate aerobic respiration, thereby increasing not only growth efficiency but also the robustness of this organism. PMID:23064338

  5. Increasing the Efficiency of Data Collection with a Research Participation Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilb, Angela; Herzig, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Data collection can be a frustrating experience for student researchers due to difficulty in scheduling appointments with participants. To increase the efficiency of research project data collection, we organized a Research Participation Night in which volunteers were incentivized to participate in as many experiments as time allowed. By offering…

  6. Mammary stem cells: Novel markers and novel approaches to increase lactation efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue r...

  7. 77 FR 19280 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice... Software Take notice that Commission staff will convene a technical conference on June 25, 26, and 27, 2012... software. A detailed agenda with the list of and times for the selected speakers will be published on...

  8. 75 FR 45623 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice Establishing Date for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Software, 75 FR 27,341 (2010). June 2-3 Enhanced Unit-Commitment Models. June 9-10 Enhanced Wide-Area... Energy Regulatory Commission Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice... conferences regarding models and software related to wholesale electricity markets and planning: \\1\\...

  9. Extension Master Gardener Intranet: Automating Administration, Motivating Volunteers, Increasing Efficiency, and Facilitating Impact Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Lucy K.; Cook, Jonneen; Cook, Chris

    2011-01-01

    North Carolina State University has incorporated many aspects of volunteer program administration and reporting into an on-line solution that integrates impact reporting into daily program management. The Extension Master Gardener Intranet automates many of the administrative tasks associated with volunteer management, increasing efficiency, and…

  10. Fractal-like receiver geometries and features for increased light trapping and thermal efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Clifford K.; Christian, Joshua M.; Yellowhair, Julius; Ortega, Jesus; Andraka, Charles

    2016-05-01

    Novel designs to increase light trapping and thermal efficiency of concentrating solar receivers at multiple length scales have been conceived and tested. The fractal-like geometries and features are introduced at both macro (meters) and meso (millimeters to centimeters) scales. Advantages include increased solar absorptance, reduced thermal emittance, and increased thermal efficiency. Radial and linear structures at the meso (tube shape and geometry) and macro (total receiver geometry and configuration) scales redirect reflected solar radiation toward the interior of the receiver for increased absorptance. Hotter regions within the interior of the receiver can reduce thermal emittance due to reduced local view factors to the environment, and higher concentration ratios can be employed with similar surface irradiances to reduce the effective optical aperture, footprint, and thermal losses. Coupled optical/fluid/thermal models have been developed to evaluate the performance of these designs relative to conventional designs, and meso-scale tests have been performed. Results show that fractal-like structures and geometries can increase the thermal efficiency by several percentage points at both the meso and macro scales, depending on factors such as intrinsic absorptance. The impact was more pronounced for materials with lower intrinsic solar absorptances (<0.9). The goal of this work is to increase the effective solar absorptance of oxidized substrate materials from ~0.9 to 0.95 or greater using these fractal-like geometries without the need for coatings.

  11. Dual daughter strand incision is processive and increases the efficiency of DNA mismatch repair.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Nicolaas; Laffeber, Charlie; Cristovão, Michele; Artola-Borán, Mariela; Mardenborough, Yannicka; Ikpa, Pauline; Jaddoe, Aruna; Winterwerp, Herrie H K; Wyman, Claire; Jiricny, Josef; Kanaar, Roland; Friedhoff, Peter; Lebbink, Joyce H G

    2016-08-19

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is an evolutionarily-conserved process responsible for the repair of replication errors. In Escherichia coli, MMR is initiated by MutS and MutL, which activate MutH to incise transiently-hemimethylated GATC sites. MMR efficiency depends on the distribution of these GATC sites. To understand which molecular events determine repair efficiency, we quantitatively studied the effect of strand incision on unwinding and excision activity. The distance between mismatch and GATC site did not influence the strand incision rate, and an increase in the number of sites enhanced incision only to a minor extent. Two GATC sites were incised by the same activated MMR complex in a processive manner, with MutS, the closed form of MutL and MutH displaying different roles. Unwinding and strand excision were more efficient on a substrate with two nicks flanking the mismatch, as compared to substrates containing a single nick or two nicks on the same side of the mismatch. Introduction of multiple nicks by the human MutLα endonuclease also contributed to increased repair efficiency. Our data support a general model of prokaryotic and eukaryotic MMR in which, despite mechanistic differences, mismatch-activated complexes facilitate efficient repair by creating multiple daughter strand nicks. PMID:27174933

  12. You need this done by when '': Increasing your efficiency with the SAS reg sign system

    SciTech Connect

    DeHaan, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The SAS Institute publication -- SAS Programming Tips: A Guide to Efficient SAS Processing defines efficiency as obtaining more results from fewer computer or human resources.'' While this publication contains many very useful tips, it seems to concentrate mostly on computer efficiency. This paper will focus on ways of increasing your efficiency in developing, writing, and debugging SAS programs, i.e. increasing human efficiency. In my job as a consulting statistician, my programs are usually one-run programs. That is, I develop and test a program, then I run them once to get the results I need, and the program is typically never used again. Even for multiple run jobs, the greatest expense by far is the time used to develop a program, and any CPU/hardware expense'' is relatively insignificant. I believe that this is true for most SAS system users and that not enough attention has been given to this aspect of cost''. While most of these tips and techniques were developed under the PC platform, nearly all are applicable and useful under all SAS supported platforms. Some of the tips the experienced SAS programmer may already be familiar with, but many should be new and useful to both novice and veteran users.

  13. ``You need this done by when?``: Increasing your efficiency with the SAS{reg_sign} system

    SciTech Connect

    DeHaan, M.S.

    1992-08-01

    The SAS Institute publication -- SAS Programming Tips: A Guide to Efficient SAS Processing defines efficiency as ``obtaining more results from fewer computer or human resources.`` While this publication contains many very useful tips, it seems to concentrate mostly on computer efficiency. This paper will focus on ways of increasing your efficiency in developing, writing, and debugging SAS programs, i.e. increasing human efficiency. In my job as a consulting statistician, my programs are usually one-run programs. That is, I develop and test a program, then I run them once to get the results I need, and the program is typically never used again. Even for multiple run jobs, the greatest expense by far is the time used to develop a program, and any CPU/hardware ``expense`` is relatively insignificant. I believe that this is true for most SAS system users and that not enough attention has been given to this aspect of ``cost``. While most of these tips and techniques were developed under the PC platform, nearly all are applicable and useful under all SAS supported platforms. Some of the tips the experienced SAS programmer may already be familiar with, but many should be new and useful to both novice and veteran users.

  14. Automatic control of negative emotions: Evidence that structured practice increases the efficiency of emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Christou-Champi, Spyros; Farrow, Tom F. D.; Webb, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) is vital to everyday functioning. However, the effortful nature of many forms of ER may lead to regulation being inefficient and potentially ineffective. The present research examined whether structured practice could increase the efficiency of ER. During three training sessions, comprising a total of 150 training trials, participants were presented with negatively valenced images and asked either to “attend” (control condition) or “reappraise” (ER condition). A further group of participants did not participate in training but only completed follow-up measures. Practice increased the efficiency of ER as indexed by decreased time required to regulate emotions and increased heart rate variability (HRV). Furthermore, participants in the ER condition spontaneously regulated their negative emotions two weeks later and reported being more habitual in their use of ER. These findings indicate that structured practice can facilitate the automatic control of negative emotions and that these effects persist beyond training. PMID:24678930

  15. Internal 6-methyladenine residues increase the in vitro translation efficiency of dihydrofolate reductase messenger RNA.

    PubMed

    Heilman, K L; Leach, R A; Tuck, M T

    1996-07-01

    N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) is found internally in a number of mRNA molecules from higher eucaryotic cells. In these investigations, it was found that the presence of m6A residues increase the in vitro translation efficiency of capped T7 transcripts of mouse dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) mRNA. Using an in vitro rabbit reticulocyte translation system, the formation of internal m6A residues in the DHFR transcripts resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in translated DHFR compared to transcripts void of internal m6A residues. Translation in a wheat germ system, however, resulted in no increase in translation efficiency upon m6A formation, suggesting that the mechanism may be species-specific. PMID:8925412

  16. The Superintendent Beliefs and Leadership Practices in a School District that Has Successfully Increased the Achievement of Traditionally Marginalized Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks-Schutz, Jo-Ellen M.

    2010-01-01

    Superintendent leadership can influence student achievement and with the alarming gap between the academic achievement of traditionally marginalized students and their peers, superintendents have an ethical duty to lead their districts in closing these achievement gaps. Spillane, Halverson, and Diamond (2001) suggested that to have a more complete…

  17. Increased project efficiency using telemetry technology as part of an integrated data management system

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Until recently, the use of telemetry in the environmental consulting industry has generally been limited to large scale projects and the occasional collection of equipment or field instrumentation data from environmental remediation hardware. With today`s ever increasing personal computer processing power and decreasing prices, telemetry based management is feasible for smaller scale projects. With the increased focus on cost reduction within the environmental industry, successful project managers will take advantage of increased efficiencies available through the use of telemetry. Like any tool though, those that use it must understand how to make use of telemetry technology from raw data collection through data reduction and analysis to production of the final report.

  18. Binding of DNA with Abf2p Increases Efficiency of DNA Uptake by Isolated Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Samoilova, E O; Krasheninnikov, I A; Vinogradova, E N; Kamenski, P A; Levitskii, S A

    2016-07-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial DNA often lead to severe hereditary diseases that are virtually resistant to symptomatic treatment. During the recent decades, many efforts were made to develop gene therapy approaches for treatment of such diseases using nucleic acid delivery into the organelles. The possibility of DNA import into mitochondria has been shown, but this process has low efficiency. In the present work, we demonstrate that the efficiency of DNA import can be significantly increased by preforming its complex with a mitochondria-targeted protein nonspecifically binding with DNA. As a model protein, we used the yeast protein Abf2p. In addition, we measured the length of the DNA site for binding this protein and the dissociation constant of the corresponding DNA-protein complex. Our data can serve as a basis for development of novel, highly efficient approaches for suppressing mutations in the mitochondrial genome. PMID:27449618

  19. Increased cell seeding efficiency in bioplotted three-dimensional PEOT/PBT scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Leferink, A M; Hendrikson, W J; Rouwkema, J; Karperien, M; van Blitterswijk, C A; Moroni, L

    2016-08-01

    In regenerative medicine studies, cell seeding efficiency is not only optimized by changing the chemistry of the biomaterials used as cell culture substrates, but also by altering scaffold geometry, culture and seeding conditions. In this study, the importance of seeding parameters, such as initial cell number, seeding volume, seeding concentration and seeding condition is shown. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were seeded into cylindrically shaped 4 × 3 mm polymeric scaffolds, fabricated by fused deposition modelling. The initial cell number ranged from 5 × 10(4) to 8 × 10(5) cells, in volumes varying from 50 µl to 400 µl. To study the effect of seeding conditions, a dynamic system, by means of an agitation plate, was compared with static culture for both scaffolds placed in a well plate or in a confined agarose moulded well. Cell seeding efficiency decreased when seeded with high initial cell numbers, whereas 2 × 10(5) cells seemed to be an optimal initial cell number in the scaffolds used here. The influence of seeding volume was shown to be dependent on the initial cell number used. By optimizing seeding parameters for each specific culture system, a more efficient use of donor cells can be achieved. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24668928

  20. Enhanced charge efficiency and reduced energy use in capacitive deionization by increasing the discharge voltage.

    PubMed

    Kim, T; Dykstra, J E; Porada, S; van der Wal, A; Yoon, J; Biesheuvel, P M

    2015-05-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an electrochemical method for water desalination using porous carbon electrodes. A key parameter in CDI is the charge efficiency, Λ, which is the ratio of salt adsorption over charge in a CDI-cycle. Values for Λ in CDI are typically around 0.5-0.8, significantly less than the theoretical maximum of unity, due to the fact that not only counterions are adsorbed into the pores of the carbon electrodes, but at the same time coions are released. To enhance Λ, ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) can be implemented. With membranes, Λ can be close to unity because the membranes only allow passage for the counterions. Enhancing the value of Λ is advantageous as this implies a lower electrical current and (at a fixed charging voltage) a reduced energy use. We demonstrate how, without the need to include IEMs, the charge efficiency can be increased to values close to the theoretical maximum of unity, by increasing the cell voltage during discharge, with only a small loss of salt adsorption capacity per cycle. In separate constant-current CDI experiments, where after some time the effluent salt concentration reaches a stable value, this value is reached earlier with increased discharge voltage. We compare the experimental results with predictions of porous electrode theory which includes an equilibrium Donnan electrical double layer model for salt adsorption in carbon micropores. Our results highlight the potential of modified operational schemes in CDI to increase charge efficiency and reduce energy use of water desalination. PMID:25278271

  1. Polymerase ribozyme efficiency increased by G/T-rich DNA oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chengguo; Müller, Ulrich F.

    2011-01-01

    The RNA world hypothesis states that the early evolution of life went through a stage where RNA served as genome and as catalyst. The replication of RNA world organisms would have been facilitated by ribozymes that catalyze RNA polymerization. To recapitulate an RNA world in the laboratory, a series of RNA polymerase ribozymes was developed previously. However, these ribozymes have a polymerization efficiency that is too low for self-replication, and the most efficient ribozymes prefer one specific template sequence. The limiting factor for polymerization efficiency is the weak sequence-independent binding to its primer/template substrate. Most of the known polymerase ribozymes bind an RNA heptanucleotide to form the P2 duplex on the ribozyme. By modifying this heptanucleotide, we were able to significantly increase polymerization efficiency. Truncations at the 3′-terminus of this heptanucleotide increased full-length primer extension by 10-fold, on a specific template sequence. In contrast, polymerization on several different template sequences was improved dramatically by replacing the RNA heptanucleotide with DNA oligomers containing randomized sequences of 15 nt. The presence of G and T in the random sequences was sufficient for this effect, with an optimal composition of 60% G and 40% T. Our results indicate that these DNA sequences function by establishing many weak and nonspecific base-pairing interactions to the single-stranded portion of the template. Such low-specificity interactions could have had important functions in an RNA world. PMID:21622900

  2. Increase of the fuel cell system efficiency - Modular testing, analysis and development environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, P.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.

    The main issue in preparing fuel cell systems for the future market is system reliability and efficiency. Apart from successful field test trials, any type of stationary, in general automotive or portable fuel cell systems are at the development stage. One task to deal with is to increase the component and system efficiencies by facilitating the system construction or eliminating parasitic components.With newly established effective standardised system and component tests, linked with a flexible modelling and simulation environment, the development process and the determination of the system efficiencies as well as the inaccessible system values can be accelerated.In this work a modular model-aided system analysis and development environment is presented which has been evaluated and validated at the IWE. The tool, a combination of standardised testing, modelling and simulation, has been applied to different types of fuel cell systems showing the tool flexibility, modularity and accuracy. In the presented case the tool was used for system analysis and studies on efficiency increase of a complex prototype stationary PEMFC system.

  3. Deep learning as a tool for increased accuracy and efficiency of histopathological diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litjens, Geert; Sánchez, Clara I.; Timofeeva, Nadya; Hermsen, Meyke; Nagtegaal, Iris; Kovacs, Iringo; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina; Bult, Peter; van Ginneken, Bram; van der Laak, Jeroen

    2016-05-01

    Pathologists face a substantial increase in workload and complexity of histopathologic cancer diagnosis due to the advent of personalized medicine. Therefore, diagnostic protocols have to focus equally on efficiency and accuracy. In this paper we introduce ‘deep learning’ as a technique to improve the objectivity and efficiency of histopathologic slide analysis. Through two examples, prostate cancer identification in biopsy specimens and breast cancer metastasis detection in sentinel lymph nodes, we show the potential of this new methodology to reduce the workload for pathologists, while at the same time increasing objectivity of diagnoses. We found that all slides containing prostate cancer and micro- and macro-metastases of breast cancer could be identified automatically while 30–40% of the slides containing benign and normal tissue could be excluded without the use of any additional immunohistochemical markers or human intervention. We conclude that ‘deep learning’ holds great promise to improve the efficacy of prostate cancer diagnosis and breast cancer staging.

  4. Deep learning as a tool for increased accuracy and efficiency of histopathological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Litjens, Geert; Sánchez, Clara I; Timofeeva, Nadya; Hermsen, Meyke; Nagtegaal, Iris; Kovacs, Iringo; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina; Bult, Peter; van Ginneken, Bram; van der Laak, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Pathologists face a substantial increase in workload and complexity of histopathologic cancer diagnosis due to the advent of personalized medicine. Therefore, diagnostic protocols have to focus equally on efficiency and accuracy. In this paper we introduce 'deep learning' as a technique to improve the objectivity and efficiency of histopathologic slide analysis. Through two examples, prostate cancer identification in biopsy specimens and breast cancer metastasis detection in sentinel lymph nodes, we show the potential of this new methodology to reduce the workload for pathologists, while at the same time increasing objectivity of diagnoses. We found that all slides containing prostate cancer and micro- and macro-metastases of breast cancer could be identified automatically while 30-40% of the slides containing benign and normal tissue could be excluded without the use of any additional immunohistochemical markers or human intervention. We conclude that 'deep learning' holds great promise to improve the efficacy of prostate cancer diagnosis and breast cancer staging. PMID:27212078

  5. Babesia and its hosts: adaptation to long-lasting interactions as a way to achieve efficient transmission

    PubMed Central

    Chauvin, Alain; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Bonnet, Sarah; Plantard, Olivier; Malandrin, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Babesia, the causal agent of babesiosis, are tick-borne apicomplexan protozoa. True babesiae (Babesia genus sensu stricto) are biologically characterized by direct development in erythrocytes and by transovarial transmission in the tick. A large number of true Babesia species have been described in various vertebrate and tick hosts. This review presents the genus then discusses specific adaptations of Babesia spp. to their hosts to achieve efficient transmission. The main adaptations lead to long-lasting interactions which result in the induction of two reservoirs: in the vertebrate host during low long-term parasitemia and throughout the life cycle of the tick host as a result of transovarial and transstadial transmission. The molecular bases of these adaptations in vertebrate hosts are partially known but few of the tick-host interaction mechanisms have been elucidated. PMID:19379662

  6. Increasing the efficiency of a targeted methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening program.

    PubMed

    Goldsack, Jennifer C; DeRitter, Christine; Power, Michelle; Spencer, Amy; Taylor, Cynthia L; Manta, Christine J; Kirk, Ryan; Drees, Marci L

    2016-01-01

    An interdisciplinary team implemented a screening program targeting patients with a history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), to reduce unnecessary contact isolation. After converting from a 2-step culture-based protocol to single polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, we increased the efficiency of the screening program from 77% to 100%. Despite the higher cost of PCR-based testing, this program remained cost-saving. PMID:26769283

  7. Diffuse radiation increases global ecosystem-level water-use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, A. M.; Reichstein, M.; Cescatti, A.; Knohl, A.; Zaehle, S.

    2012-12-01

    Current environmental changes lead not only to rising atmospheric CO2 levels and air temperature but also to changes in air pollution and thus the light quality of the solar radiation reaching the land-surface. While rising CO2 levels are thought to enhance photosynthesis and closure of stomata, thus leading to relative water savings, the effect of diffuse radiation on transpiration by plants is less clear. It has been speculated that the stimulation of photosynthesis by increased levels of diffuse light may be counteracted by higher transpiration and consequently water depletion and drought stress. Ultimately, in water co-limited systems, the overall effect of diffuse radiation will depend on the sensitivity of canopy transpiration versus photosynthesis to diffuse light, i.e. whether water-use efficiency changes with relative levels of diffuse light. Our study shows that water-use efficiency increases significantly with higher fractions of diffuse light. It uses the ecosystem-atmosphere gas-exchange observations obtained with the eddy covariance method at 29 flux tower sites. In contrast to previous global studies, the analysis is based directly on measurements of diffuse radiation. Its effect on water-use efficiency was derived by analyzing the multivariate response of carbon and water fluxes to radiation and air humidity using a purely empirical approach based on artificial neural networks. We infer that per unit change of diffuse fraction the water-use efficiency increases up to 40% depending on diffuse fraction levels and ecosystem type. Hence, in regions with increasing diffuse radiation positive effects on primary production are expected even under conditions where water is co-limiting productivity.

  8. Some programming techniques for increasing program versatility and efficiency on CDC equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiffany, S. H.; Newsom, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Five programming techniques used to decrease core and increase program versatility and efficiency are explained. The techniques are: (1) dynamic storage allocation, (2) automatic core-sizing and core-resizing, (3) matrix partitioning, (4) free field alphanumeric reads, and (5) incorporation of a data complex. The advantages of these techniques and the basic methods for employing them are explained and illustrated. Several actual program applications which utilize these techniques are described as examples.

  9. More crop per drop - Increasing input efficiency in sprinkler irrigated potatoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostka, Stan; Fang, Lisa; Ren, Haiqin; Glucksman, Robert; Gadd, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Water scarcity, climate change, and population growth are significant global challenges for producing sufficient food, fiber, and fuel in the 21st century. Feeding an increasingly hungry world necessitates innovative strategies and technologies to maximize crop production outputs while simultaneously increasing crop water productivity. In the 20th century, major advances in precision irrigation enabled producers to increase productivity while more efficiently applying water to crops. While pressurized irrigation systems can deliver water effectively to the soil surface, the efficiency of rootzone delivery may be compromised by intrinsic heterogeneities in soil wetting characteristics related to organic matter, biofilms, and hydrophobic coatings on soil particles and aggregates. Efficiently delivering applied irrigation water throughout the soil matrix is critical to increasing crop productivity. We propose that management of soil water access by surfactants is a viable management option to maintain or increase yields under deficit irrigation. Potato yield and tuber quality under sprinkler irrigation were evaluated under standard production practices or with the inclusion of an aqueous nonionic surfactant formulation (10 wt% alkoxylated polyols and 7% glucoethers) applied at 10L ha-1 between emergence and tuberization. Crop responses from multi-year evaluations conducted on irrigated potatoes in Idaho (USA) were compared to multi-year on farm grower evaluations in Australia and China. Surfactant treatment resulted in statistically significant increases in yield (+5%) and US No. 1 grades (+8%) while reducing culls (-10%) in trials conducted in Idaho, USA. Similar responses were observed in commercial grower evaluations conducted in Australia (+8% total yield, +18% mean tuber weight) and in China in 2011 (+8% total yield and +18% premium, -12% culls). Under diverse production conditions, a single application of the surfactant formulation improved crop water

  10. Long-term increase in forest water-use efficiency observed across ecosystem carbon flux networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Trevor; Bohrer, Gil; Dragoni, Danilo; Hollinger, David; Munger, James W.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Richardson, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere through photo- synthesis, a process that is accompanied by the loss of water vapour from leaves. The ratio of water loss to carbon gain, or water-use efficiency, is a key characteristic of ecosystem function that is central to the global cycles of water, energy and carbon. Here we analyse direct, long-term measurements of whole-ecosystem carbon and water exchange. We find a substantial increase in water-use efficiency in temperate and boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere over the past two decades. We systematically assess various competing hypotheses to explain this trend, and find that the observed increase is most consistent with a strong CO2 fertilization effect. The results suggest a partial closure of stomata - small pores on the leaf surface that regulate gas exchange - to maintain a near- constant concentration of CO2 inside the leaf even under continually increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. The observed increase in forest water-use efficiency is larger than that predicted by existing theory and 13 terrestrial biosphere models. The increase is associated with trends of increasing ecosystem-level photosynthesis and net carbon uptake, and decreasing evapotranspiration. Our findings demonstrate the utility of maintaining long-term eddy-covariance flux measurement sites. The results suggest a shift in the carbon- and water-based economics of terrestrial vegetation, which may require a reassessment of the role of stomatal control in regulating interactions between forests and climate change, and a re-evaluation of coupled vegetation-climate models.

  11. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): −0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. PMID:26193310

  12. Possibility of increasing the efficiency of laser-induced tattoo removal by optical skin clearing

    SciTech Connect

    Genina, E A; Bashkatov, A N; Tuchin, V V; Yaroslavskii, I V; Altshuler, G B

    2008-06-30

    The possibility of selective laser photothermolysis improvement for the removal of tattoo pigments due to the optical clearing of human skin is investigated. It is shown experimentally that the optical skin clearing increases the tattoo image contrast. Computer Monte Carlo simulations show that by decreasing the laser beam scattering in upper skin layers, it is possible to reduce the radiation power required for tattoo removal by 30%-40% and, therefore, to increase the the photothermolysis efficiency. (special issue devoted to application of laser technologies in biophotonics and biomedical studies)

  13. Appropriate Teacher Strategies to Increase the Participation of Low-Achieving Youths in Art Activities in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, William B.

    A study was initiated to determine effective teaching strategies for the art education of low achieving students. A review of literature on academic drive yielded five mechanistic models that provided explanations for low-achievement drive. The key factors in these models were avoidance, time gradients, extraneous stimuli, prolonged deprivations,…

  14. Mechanisms that increase the growth efficiency of diatoms in low light.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Nerissa L; Halsey, Kimberly H

    2016-08-01

    Photoacclimation was studied in Thalassiosira pseudonana to help understand mechanisms underlying the success of diatoms in low-light environments, such as coastal and deep mixing ecosystems. Light harvesting and other cell characteristics were combined with oxygen and carbon production measurements to assess the water-splitting reaction at PSII ([Formula: see text]) and intermediate steps leading to net carbon production (NPPC). These measurements revealed that T. pseudonana is remarkably efficient at converting harvested light energy into biomass, with at least 57 % of [Formula: see text] retained as NPPC across all light-limited growth rates examined. Evidence for upregulation of ATP generation pathways that circumvent carbon fixation indicated that high growth efficiency at low light levels was at least partly due to increases in the efficiency of ATP production. Growth rate-dependent demands for ATP and NADPH were reflected in carbon composition and in unexpected shifts in the light-limited slope (α) of photosynthesis-irradiance relationships generated from chlorophyll-specific (14)C-uptake. Overall, these results suggest that pathway gating of carbon and energy flow depends on light availability and is a key factor promoting the efficiency of diatom growth at low light intensities. PMID:27312336

  15. New method to increase the energy conversion efficiency of thermoacoustic engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kido, Aiko; Sakamoto, Shin-ichi; Taga, Kazusa; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2015-10-01

    Many researches have been reported to improve an energy conversion efficiency of thermoacoustic engine. Proposed improvement methods by our group were a phase adjuster (PA) and expanding phase adjuster (EPA) devices. They act as the amplifier and stabilizer of the system oscillation. However, there are some problems for these devices. Because of the solidified device and located in the thermoacoustic tube, it is difficult to tune and move them to the best setting position during system operation. Therefore, it is necessary to find more easy methods that produce the same amplifier and stabilizer effects of the PA and EPA. In this report, we propose the local heating method. Experiments are carried out using the loop-tube-type thermoacoustic system. Two electric heaters are set on the system, one is for the PM stack and the other is for the proposed heater HPA. The setting position of the HPA is easily changed, and then the HPA is moved to the various positions from the PM stack along the system. Resonant mode was changed depending on the setting position of HPA. As the result of the change of resonant mode, energy conversion efficiency is also changed. Especially the resonant mode is realized in the single wavelength mode, it is confirmed that, the energy conversion efficiency in substantially increased compare with the system without the HPA. These observed phenomena are similar to the behavior of EPA. Therefore, the presented method can be performed as an easier method to perform a high efficiency and stable oscillation.

  16. Strategies for increasing the efficiency of heterojunction organic solar cells: material selection and device architecture.

    PubMed

    Heremans, Paul; Cheyns, David; Rand, Barry P

    2009-11-17

    Thin-film blends or bilayers of donor- and acceptor-type organic semiconductors form the core of heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells. Researchers measure the quality of photovoltaic cells based on their power conversion efficiency, the ratio of the electrical power that can be generated versus the power of incident solar radiation. The efficiency of organic solar cells has increased steadily in the last decade, currently reaching up to 6%. Understanding and combating the various loss mechanisms that occur in processes from optical excitation to charge collection should lead to efficiencies on the order of 10% in the near future. In organic heterojunction solar cells, the generation of photocurrent is a cascade of four steps: generation of excitons (electrically neutral bound electron-hole pairs) by photon absorption, diffusion of excitons to the heterojunction, dissociation of the excitons into free charge carriers, and transport of these carriers to the contacts. In this Account, we review our recent contributions to the understanding of the mechanisms that govern these steps. Starting from archetype donor-acceptor systems of planar small-molecule heterojunctions and solution-processed bulk heterojunctions, we outline our search for alternative materials and device architectures. We show that non-planar phthalocynanines have appealing absorption characteristics but also have reduced charge carrier transport. As a result, the donor layer needs to be ultrathin, and all layers of the device have to be tuned to account for optical interference effects. Using these optimization techniques, we illustrate cells with 3.1% efficiency for the non-planar chloroboron subphthalocyanine donor. Molecules offering a better compromise between absorption and carrier mobility should allow for further improvements. We also propose a method for increasing the exciton diffusion length by converting singlet excitons into long-lived triplets. By doping a polymer with a

  17. CO2 and greening observations indicate increasing light use efficiency in northern terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rebecca; Prentice, Iain Colin; Graven, Heather; Fisher, Joshua; Huang, Maoyi; Huntzinger, Deborah; Ito, Akihiko; Jacobson, Andy; Jain, Atul; Mao, Jiafu; Michalak, Anna; Peng, Shushi; Poulter, Ben; Ricciuto, Daniel; Shi, Xiaoying; Schwalm, Christopher; Tian, Hanqin; Zeng, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Observations show an increasing amplitude in the seasonal cycle of CO2 (SCA) north of 45° N of 56±9.8% over the last 50 years and an increase in vegetation greenness of 7.5-15% in high northern latitudes since the 1980's. However the causes of these changes remain uncertain. Historical simulations from terrestrial biosphere models in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Inter-comparison Project (MsTMIP) are compared to these observations, using the TM3 atmospheric transport model to translate surface fluxes into CO2 concentrations. We find that models underestimate the absolute change in SCA by 47-105% but capture the mean greening trend. Modelled increases in greenness are driven by warming, whereas SCA changes are driven by increasing CO2. We suggest that a key factor contributing to observed SCA increase is increased vegetation light use efficiency (LUE), and that LUE is likely to have increased more strongly than simulated in current models over 1960-2010. We highlight several mechanisms, not adequately simulated by current models, that could be responsible for this LUE increase.

  18. High-efficiency acceleration in the laser wakefield by a linearly increasing plasma density

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Kegong; Wu, Yuchi; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Zhimeng; Zhao, Zongqing; Zhou, Weimin; Hong, Wei; Cao, Leifeng; Gu, Yuqiu

    2014-12-15

    The acceleration length and the peak energy of the electron beam are limited by the dephasing effect in the laser wakefield acceleration with uniform plasma density. Based on 2D-3V particle in cell simulations, the effects of a linearly increasing plasma density on the electron acceleration are investigated broadly. Comparing with the uniform plasma density, because of the prolongation of the acceleration length and the gradually increasing accelerating field due to the increasing plasma density, the electron beam energy is twice higher in moderate nonlinear wakefield regime. Because of the lower plasma density, the linearly increasing plasma density can also avoid the dark current caused by additional injection. At the optimal acceleration length, the electron energy can be increased from 350 MeV (uniform) to 760 MeV (linearly increasing) with the energy spread of 1.8%, the beam duration is 5 fs and the beam waist is 1.25 μm. This linearly increasing plasma density distribution can be achieved by a capillary with special gas-filled structure, and is much more suitable for experiment.

  19. SirT1 gain-of-function increases energy efficiency and prevents diabetes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Alexander S.; Kon, Ning; Knight, Colette; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Gutiérrez-Juárez, Roger; Rossetti, Luciano; Gu, Wei; Accili, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Summary In yeast, worms and flies, an extra copy of the gene encoding the Sirtuin Sir2 increases metabolic efficiency, as does administration of polyphenols like resveratrol, thought to act through Sirtuins. But evidence that Sirtuin gain-of-function results in increased metabolic efficiency in mammals is limited. We generated transgenic mice with moderate overexpression of SirT1, designed to mimic the Sirtuin gain-of-function that improves metabolism in C.elegans. These mice exhibit normal insulin sensitivity, but decreased food intake and locomotor activity, resulting in decreased energy expenditure. However, in various models of insulin resistance and diabetes, SirT1 transgenics display improved glucose tolerance due to decreased hepatic glucose production and increased adiponectin levels, without changes in body weight or composition. We conclude that SirT1 gain-of-function primes the organism for metabolic adaptation to insulin resistance, increasing hepatic insulin sensitivity and decreasing whole-body energy requirements. These findings have important implications for Sirtuin-based therapies in humans. PMID:18840364

  20. Altered Physiological Function, Not Structure, Drives Increased Radiation-Use Efficiency of Soybean Grown at Elevated CO2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies of elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) on crop canopies have found that radiation-use efficiency is increased more than radiation-interception efficiency. It is assumed that increased radiation-use efficiency is due to changes in leaf-level physiology; however, canopy stru...

  1. Plasmids for Increased Efficiency of Vector Construction and Genetic Engineering in Filamentous Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Schoberle, Taylor J.; Nguyen-Coleman, C. Kim; May, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Fungal species are continuously being studied to not only understand disease in humans and plants but also to identify novel antibiotics and other metabolites of industrial importance. Genetic manipulations, such as gene deletion, gene complementation, and gene over-expression, are common techniques to investigate fungal gene functions. Although advances in transformation efficiency and promoter usage have improved genetic studies, some basic steps in vector construction are still laborious and time-consuming. Gateway cloning technology solves this problem by increasing the efficiency of vector construction through the use of λ phage integrase proteins and att recombination sites. We developed a series of Gateway-compatible vectors for use in genetic studies in a range of fungal species. They contain nutritional and drug-resistance markers and can be utilized to manipulate different filamentous fungal genomes. PMID:23867711

  2. Increasing the Efficiency of the Multi-mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holgate, Tim C.; Bennett, Russell; Hammel, Tom; Caillat, Thierry; Keyser, Steve; Sievers, Bob

    2015-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Mars Science Laboratory terrestrial rover, Curiosity, has recently completed its first Martian year (687 Earth days) during which it has provided a wealth of information and insight into the red planet's atmosphere and geology. The success of this mission was made possible in part by the reliable electrical power provided by its onboard thermoelectric power source—the multi-mission radioisotope thermoelectric generator (MMRTG). In an effort to increase the output power and efficiency of these generators, a newly designed enhanced MMRTG (eMMRTG) that will utilize the more efficient skutterudite-based thermoelectric materials has been conceptualized and modeled, and is now being developed. A discussion of the motivations, modeling results and key design factors are presented and discussed.

  3. Natural dyes as sensitizers to increase the efficiency in sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerda, Bayron; Sivakumar, R.; Paulraj, M.

    2016-05-01

    A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a sandwich type solar cell consisting of a photoelectrode, a counter electrode and a liquid electrolyte. The photo electrode comprises of a titanium dioxide semiconducting thin film grown over a glass substrate which in-turn has a transparent thin conducting layer of tin oxide film doped with fluorine (FTO) coated over it. The aim of this work is to develop photoelectrodes with different dyes to increase the efficiency of this type of solar cells. Dyes obtained from fresh sources of maqui, black myrtle, spinach and a dye mixture of spinach and spinach-maqui-myrtle were used. The technique used for the extraction of the dyes was maceration for one day, in methanol. Colourants and photoelectrodes were studied using, UV-vis spectrophotometer for their spectral properties. Their photovoltaic properties such as efficiency, fill factor, open circuit voltage and short circuit current were studied using a solar simulator and source meter unit.

  4. Increasing RO efficiency by chemical-free ion-exchange and Donnan dialysis: Principles and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Vanoppen, Marjolein; Stoffels, Griet; Demuytere, Célestin; Bleyaert, Wouter; Verliefde, Arne R D

    2015-09-01

    Ion-exchange (IEX) and Donnan dialysis (DD) are techniques which can selectively remove cations, limiting scaling in reverse osmosis (RO). If the RO concentrate could be recycled for regeneration of these pre-treatment techniques, RO recovery could be largely increased without the need for chemical addition or additional technologies. In this study, two different RO feed streams (treated industrial waste water and simple tap water) were tested in the envisioned IEX-RO and DD-RO hybrids including RO concentrate recycling. The efficiency of multivalent cation removal depends mainly on the ratio of monovalent to multivalent cations in the feed stream, influencing the ion-exchange efficiency in both IEX and DD. Since the mono-to-multivalent ratio was very high in the waste water, the RO recovery could potentially be increased to 92%. For the tap water, these high RO recoveries could only be reached by adding additional NaCl, because of the low initial monovalent to multivalent ratio in the feed. In both cases, the IEX-RO hybrid proved to be most cost-efficient, due to the high current cost of the membranes used in DD. The membrane cost would have to decrease from ±300 €/m² to 10-30 €/m² - comparable to current reverse osmosis membranes - to achieve a comparable cost. In conclusion, the recycling of RO concentrate to regenerate ion exchange pre-treatment techniques for RO is an interesting option to increase RO recovery without addition of chemicals, but only at high monovalent/multivalent cation-ratios in the feed stream. PMID:25996753

  5. Production and food web efficiency decrease as fishing activity increases in a coastal ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anh, Pham Viet; Everaert, Gert; Goethals, Peter; Vinh, Chu Tien; De Laender, Frederik

    2015-11-01

    Fishing effort in the Vietnamese coastal ecosystem has rapidly increased from the 1990s to the 2000s, with unknown consequences for local ecosystem structure and functioning. Using ecosystem models that integrate fisheries and food webs we found profound differences in the production of six functional groups, the food web efficiency, and eight functional food web indices between the 1990s (low fishing intensity) and the 2000s (high fishing intensity). The functional attributes (e.g. consumption) of high trophic levels (e.g. predators) were lower in the 2000s than in the 1990s while primary production did not vary, causing food web efficiency to decrease up to 40% with time for these groups. The opposite was found for lower trophic levels (e.g. zooplankton): the functional attributes and food web efficiency increased with time (22 and 10% for the functional attributes and food web efficiency, respectively). Total system throughput, a functional food web index, was about 10% higher in the 1990s than in the 2000s, indicating a reduction of the system size and activity with time. The network analyses further indicated that the Vietnamese coastal ecosystem in the 1990s was more developed (higher ascendancy and capacity), more stable (higher overhead) and more mature (higher ratio of ascendancy and capacity) than in the 2000s. In the 1990s the recovery time of the ecosystem was shorter than in 2000s, as indicated by a higher Finn's cycling index in the 1990s (7.8 and 6.5% in 1990s and 2000s, respectively). Overall, our results demonstrate that the Vietnamese coastal ecosystem has experienced profound changes between the 1990s and 2000s, and emphasise the need for a closer inspection of the ecological impact of fishing.

  6. Achieving high power efficiency and low roll-off OLEDs based on energy transfer from thermally activated delayed excitons to fluorescent dopants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shipan; Zhang, Yuewei; Chen, Weiping; Wei, Jinbei; Liu, Yu; Wang, Yue

    2015-08-01

    Achieving high power efficiencies at high-brightness levels is still an important issue for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on the thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism. Herein, enhanced electroluminescence efficiencies were achieved in fluorescent OLEDs using a TADF molecule, (4s,6s)-2,4,5,6-tetra(9H-carbazol-9-yl)isophthalonitrile (4CzIPN), as a host and quinacridone derivatives (QA) as fluorescent dopants. PMID:26120606

  7. Test results of a steam injected gas turbine to increase power and thermal efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Messerlie, R.L.; Tischler, A.O.

    1983-08-01

    The desire to increase both power and thermal efficiency of the gas turbine (Brayton cycle) engine has been pursued for a number of years and has involved many approaches. The use of steam in the cycle to improve performance has been proposed by various investigators. This was most recently proposed by International Power Technology, Inc. (IPT) and has been tested by Detroit Diesel Allison (DDA), Division of General Motors. This approach, identified as the Cheng dual-fluid cycle (Cheng/DFC), includes the generation of steam using heat from the exhaust, and injecting this steam into the engine combustion chamber. Test results on an Allison 501-KB engine have demonstrated that use of this concept will increase the thermal efficiency of the engine by 30% and the output power by 60% with no increase in turbine inlet temperature. These results will be discussed, as will the impact of steam rate, location of steam injection, turbine temperature, and engine operational characteristics on the performance of the Cheng/DFC.

  8. Light-induced Voc increase and decrease in high-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuckelberger, M.; Riesen, Y.; Despeisse, M.; Schüttauf, J.-W.; Haug, F.-J.; Ballif, C.

    2014-09-01

    High-efficiency amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells were deposited with different thicknesses of the p-type amorphous silicon carbide layer on substrates of varying roughness. We observed a light-induced open-circuit voltage (Voc) increase upon light soaking for thin p-layers, but a decrease for thick p-layers. Further, the Voc increase is enhanced with increasing substrate roughness. After correction of the p-layer thickness for the increased surface area of rough substrates, we can exclude varying the effective p-layer thickness as the cause of the substrate roughness dependence. Instead, we explain the observations by an increase of the dangling-bond density in both the p-layer—causing a Voc increase—and in the intrinsic absorber layer, causing a Voc decrease. We present a mechanism for the light-induced increase and decrease, justified by the investigation of light-induced changes of the p-layer and supported by Advanced Semiconductor Analysis simulation. We conclude that a shift of the electron quasi-Fermi level towards the conduction band is the reason for the observed Voc enhancements, and poor amorphous silicon quality on rough substrates enhances this effect.

  9. Hands-On, Demonstration, and Videotape Laboratories for Non-Science Majors in a Food Science Course: Achievement, Attitude, and Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, H. L.; Trout, B. L.; Brekke, C. J.; Luedecke, L. O.

    2004-01-01

    Student achievement, attitude, and instructional efficiency were determined for hands-on and for live and videotape demonstration laboratories for nonscience majors. Each of 3 laboratory sections experienced 3 different teaching methods for one 4-wk unit. No significant difference in achievement was found among the laboratory methods. An attitude…

  10. The Impact Of Increased Stability And Efficiency Through Automatic Control System For A Steam Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion Marian, Popescu

    2015-09-01

    This paper shows necessity for a new dynamic evolution of a energy goup in the context of, in the energy system, the wind and photovoltaic energy have priority. The actual automatic control systems, already implemented, allow analysis of more than 5,000 measuring points in real time, but also very consistent evolutionary history. In this context it is proposed and analysis solution, based on closed loop modeling, which can lead to knowledge of this complex process. Knowing with a high degree of accuracy of this process can lead to redesigning the control algorithms in the direction of increasing the stability and efficiency.

  11. The use of pressure-retarded osmosis for increasing the solar pond efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Bemporad, G.A. )

    1992-01-01

    In this study a new solar pond (SP) energy conversion scheme is proposed. A pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) process recovers the additional energy generated by the mixing of water bodies of different salinities, typical to SP operation. This study shows that by coupling a PRO permeator to the SP it is possible to increase significantly its mechanical efficiency. The authors' recover part of the energy lost for evaporation in the SP through the PRO process; it can be shown that a portion of this energy is usually sufficient to recirculate the SP flowing thermal layers.

  12. Efficient dye regeneration at low driving force achieved in triphenylamine dye LEG4 and TEMPO redox mediator based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenxing; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hao, Yan; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2015-06-28

    Minimizing the driving force required for the regeneration of oxidized dyes using redox mediators in an electrolyte is essential to further improve the open-circuit voltage and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Appropriate combinations of redox mediators and dye molecules should be explored to achieve this goal. Herein, we present a triphenylamine dye, LEG4, in combination with a TEMPO-based electrolyte in acetonitrile (E(0) = 0.89 V vs. NHE), reaching an efficiency of up to 5.4% under one sun illumination and 40% performance improvement compared to the previously and widely used indoline dye D149. The origin of this improvement was found to be the increased dye regeneration efficiency of LEG4 using the TEMPO redox mediator, which regenerated more than 80% of the oxidized dye with a driving force of only ∼0.2 eV. Detailed mechanistic studies further revealed that in addition to electron recombination to oxidized dyes, recombination of electrons from the conducting substrate and the mesoporous TiO2 film to the TEMPO(+) redox species in the electrolyte accounts for the reduced short circuit current, compared to the state-of-the-art cobalt tris(bipyridine) electrolyte system. The diffusion length of the TEMPO-electrolyte based DSSCs was determined to be ∼0.5 μm, which is smaller than the ∼2.8 μm found for cobalt-electrolyte based DSSCs. These results show the advantages of using LEG4 as a sensitizer, compared to previously record indoline dyes, in combination with a TEMPO-based electrolyte. The low driving force for efficient dye regeneration presented by these results shows the potential to further improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSCs by utilizing redox couples and dyes with a minimal need of driving force for high regeneration yields. PMID:26016854

  13. Highly Functional TNTs with Superb Photocatalytic, Optical, and Electronic Performance Achieving Record PV Efficiency of 10.1% for 1D-Based DSSCs.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Li, Yuewen; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Sun, Kyung Chul; Mengal, Naveed; Memon, Anam Ali; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    Different nanostructures of TiO2 play an important role in the photocatalytic and photoelectronic applications. TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) have received increasing attention for these applications due to their unique physicochemical properties. Focusing on highly functional TNTs (HF-TNTs) for photocatalytic and photoelectronic applications, this study describes the facile hydrothermal synthesis of HF-TNTs by using commercial and cheaper materials for cost-effective manufacturing. To prove the functionality and applicability, these TNTs are used as scattering structure in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Photocatalytic, optical, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), electrochemical impedance spectrum, incident-photon-to-current efficiency, and intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy/intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy characterizations are proving the functionality of HF-TNTs for DSSCs. HF-TNTs show 50% higher photocatalytic degradation rate and also 68% higher dye loading ability than conventional TNTs (C-TNTs). The DSSCs having HF-TNT and its composite-based multifunctional overlayer show effective light absorption, outstanding light scattering, lower interfacial resistance, longer electron lifetime, rapid electron transfer, and improved diffusion length, and consequently, J SC , quantum efficiency, and record photoconversion efficiency of 10.1% using commercial N-719 dye is achieved, for 1D-based DSSCs. These new and highly functional TNTs will be a concrete fundamental background toward the development of more functional applications in fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, Li-ion batteries, photocatalysis process, ion-exchange/adsorption process, and photoelectrochemical devices. PMID:27432775

  14. Impact of 5-aminolevulinic acid with iron supplementation on exercise efficiency and home-based walking training achievement in older women

    PubMed Central

    Masuki, Shizue; Morita, Atsumi; Kamijo, Yoshi-ichiro; Ikegawa, Shigeki; Kataoka, Yufuko; Ogawa, Yu; Sumiyoshi, Eri; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Tanaka, Tohru; Nakajima, Motowo

    2015-01-01

    A reduction in exercise efficiency with aging limits daily living activities. We examined whether 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) increased exercise efficiency and voluntary achievement of interval walking training (IWT) in older women. Ten women [65 ± 3(SD) yr] who had performed IWT for >12 mo and were currently performing IWT participated in this study. The study was conducted in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover design. All subjects underwent two trials for 7 days each in which they performed IWT with ALA+SFC (100 and 115 mg/day, respectively) or placebo supplement intake (CNT), intermittently with a 2-wk washout period. Before and after each trial, subjects underwent a graded cycling test at 27.0°C atmospheric temperature and 50% relative humidity, and oxygen consumption rate, carbon dioxide production rate, and lactate concentration in plasma were measured. Furthermore, for the first 6 days of each trial, exercise intensity for IWT was measured by accelerometry. We found that, in the ALA+SFC trial, oxygen consumption rate and carbon dioxide production rate during graded cycling decreased by 12% (P < 0.001) and 11% (P = 0.001) at every workload, respectively, accompanied by a 16% reduction in lactate concentration in plasma (P < 0.001), although all remained unchanged in the CNT trial (P > 0.2). All of the reductions were significantly greater in the ALA+SFC than the CNT trial (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the training days, impulse, and time at fast walking were 42% (P = 0.028), 102% (P = 0.027), and 69% (P = 0.039) higher during the ALA+SFC than the CNT intake period, respectively. Thus ALA+SFC supplementation augmented exercise efficiency and thereby improved IWT achievement in older women. PMID:26514619

  15. Impact of 5-aminolevulinic acid with iron supplementation on exercise efficiency and home-based walking training achievement in older women.

    PubMed

    Masuki, Shizue; Morita, Atsumi; Kamijo, Yoshi-ichiro; Ikegawa, Shigeki; Kataoka, Yufuko; Ogawa, Yu; Sumiyoshi, Eri; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Tanaka, Tohru; Nakajima, Motowo; Nose, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in exercise efficiency with aging limits daily living activities. We examined whether 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) increased exercise efficiency and voluntary achievement of interval walking training (IWT) in older women. Ten women [65 ± 3(SD) yr] who had performed IWT for >12 mo and were currently performing IWT participated in this study. The study was conducted in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover design. All subjects underwent two trials for 7 days each in which they performed IWT with ALA+SFC (100 and 115 mg/day, respectively) or placebo supplement intake (CNT), intermittently with a 2-wk washout period. Before and after each trial, subjects underwent a graded cycling test at 27.0 °C atmospheric temperature and 50% relative humidity, and oxygen consumption rate, carbon dioxide production rate, and lactate concentration in plasma were measured. Furthermore, for the first 6 days of each trial, exercise intensity for IWT was measured by accelerometry. We found that, in the ALA+SFC trial, oxygen consumption rate and carbon dioxide production rate during graded cycling decreased by 12% (P < 0.001) and 11% (P = 0.001) at every workload, respectively, accompanied by a 16% reduction in lactate concentration in plasma (P < 0.001), although all remained unchanged in the CNT trial (P > 0.2). All of the reductions were significantly greater in the ALA+SFC than the CNT trial (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the training days, impulse, and time at fast walking were 42% (P = 0.028), 102% (P = 0.027), and 69% (P = 0.039) higher during the ALA+SFC than the CNT intake period, respectively. Thus ALA+SFC supplementation augmented exercise efficiency and thereby improved IWT achievement in older women. PMID:26514619

  16. CD44 increases the efficiency of distant metastasis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Suzanne; Coulter, Jonathan A; Tibbits, Paul; O'Grady, Anthony; McFarlane, Cheryl; Montgomery, Nicola; Hill, Ashleigh; McCarthy, Helen O; Young, Leonie S; Kay, Elaine W; Isacke, Clare M; Waugh, David J J

    2015-05-10

    Metastasis is the predominant cause of death from cancer yet we have few biomarkers to predict patients at increased risk of metastasis and are unable to effectively treat disseminated disease. Analysis of 448 primary breast tumors determined that expression of the hylauronan receptor CD44 associated with high grade (p = 0.046), ER- (p = 0.001) and PR-negative tumors (p = 0.029), and correlated with increased distant recurrence and reduced disease-free survival in patients with lymph-node positive or large tumors. To determine its functional role in distant metastasis, CD44 was knocked-down in MDA-MB-231 cells using two independent shRNA sequences. Loss of CD44 attenuated tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cells and reduced cell invasion but did not affect proliferation in vitro. To verify the importance of CD44 to post-intravasation events, tumor formation was assessed by quantitative in vivo imaging and post-mortem tissue analysis following an intra-cardiac injection of transfected cells. CD44 knock-down increased survival and decreased overall tumor burden at multiple sites, including the skeleton in vivo. We conclude that elevated CD44 expression on tumour cells within the systemic circulation increases the efficiency of post-intravasation events and distant metastasis in vivo, consistent with its association with increased distant recurrence and reduced disease-free survival in patients. PMID:25888636

  17. Elevated atmospheric CO2 increases water use efficiency in Florida scrub oak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, B. G.; Hayek, L. C.; Johnson, D. P.; Li, J.; Powell, T. L.

    2009-12-01

    Plants are expected to have higher rates of photosynthesis and reduced transpiration as atmospheric CO2 (Ca) continues to rise. But will higher Ca reduce water loss, and increase water use efficiency and soil water in native ecosystems? We tested this question using large (3.0m by 2.8m) open top chambers to expose Florida scrub oak on Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge, Kennedy Space Center, FL, from May 1996 to June 2007 to elevated levels of atmospheric CO2, (Ce = Ca + 350ppm) compared to ambient Ca. Although Ce stimulated total shoot biomass 68% by the end of the study, the effect of Ce on annual growth declined each year (Seiler et al. 2009, Global Change Biology15, 356-367). Compared with the effects of Ca, Ce increased net ecosystem CO2 exchange approximately 70% on average for the entire study, increased leaf area index (LAI) seasonally, reduced evapotranspiration except during mid-summer of some years, and, depending on the relative effect of Ce on LAI, increased volumetric soil water content.. These results are consistent with the observation that continental river discharge has increased as Ca has risen throughout the past 50 years (Gedney et al., Nature, Vol. 439, 16 February 2006).

  18. The development of skin immersion clearing method for increasing of laser exposure efficiency on subcutaneous objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozina, Alexandra M.; Genina, Elina A.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Terentyuk, Artem G.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we have studied effect of a hyperosmotic optical clearing agent (OCA), such as polyethylene glycol, on the fluorescence intensity from a target located in subcutaneous area in the model experiments. As a fluorescence agent the nanocomposite including gold nanorods with hematophorphyrin was used. The remitted fluorescent signal traveling to the tissue surface was monitored over time as the tissue was treated with the OCA. The detected fluorescent signal increased as the scattering in tissue samples was substantially reduced. The study has shown how OCA can be used to improve the detected signal at localization of subcutaneous target tissue at the photothermal or photodynamic therapy. Immersion clearing of skin can be also useful for improvement of laser exposure efficiency due to the increasing of light penetration depth.

  19. Mediterranean agriculture: More efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in future irrigation water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, Marianela; Shi, Sinan; von Bloh, Werner; Bondeau, Alberte; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. Our research shows that, at present, Mediterranean region could save 35% of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops (1). Also under climate change, more efficient irrigation is of vital importance for counteracting increases in irrigation water requirements. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4% and 18% from climate change alone by the end of the century if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved. Population growth increases these numbers to 22% and 74%, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and population growth. Both subregions would need around 35% more water than today if they could afford some degree of modernization of irrigation and conveyance systems and benefit from the CO2-fertilization effect (1). However, in some scenarios (in this case as combinations of climate change, irrigation technology, influence of population growth and CO2-fertilization effect) water scarcity may constrain the supply of the irrigation water needed in future in Algeria, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain (1). In this study, vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL ("Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land") after a

  20. Efficient Consistency Achievement of Federated Identity and Access Management Based on a Novel Self-Adaptable Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Shi-Cho; Chang, Hsiang-Meng

    Federated identity and access management (FIAM) systems enable a user to access services provided by various organizations seamlessly. In FIAM systems, service providers normally stipulate that their users show assertions issued by allied parties to use their services as well as determine user privileges based on attributes in the assertions. However, the integrity of the attributes is important under certain circumstances. In such a circumstance, all released assertions should reflect modifications made to user attributes. Despite the ability to adopt conventional certification revocation technologies, including CRL or OCSP, to revoke an assertion and request the corresponding user to obtain a new assertion, re-issuing an entirely new assertion if only one attribute, such as user location or other environmental information, is changed would be inefficient. Therefore, this work presents a self-adaptive framework to achieve consistency in federated identity and access management systems (SAFIAM). In SAFIAM, an identity provider (IdP), which authenticates users and provides user attributes, should monitor access probabilities according to user attributes. The IdP can then adopt the most efficient means of ensuring data integrity of attributes based on related access probabilities. While Internet-based services emerge daily that have various access probabilities with respect to their user attributes, the proposed self-adaptive framework significantly contributes to efforts to streamline the use of FIAM systems.

  1. Biochar-induced concomitant decrease in ammonia volatilization and increase in nitrogen use efficiency by wheat.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sanchita; Thangarajan, Ramya; Bolan, Nanthi S; Sarkar, Binoy; Khan, Naser; Ok, Yong Sik; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization is a major nitrogen (N) loss from the soil, especially under tropical conditions, NH3 volatilization results in low N use efficiency by crops. Incubation experiments were conducted using five soils (pH 5.5-9.0), three N sources such as, urea, di-ammonium phosphate (DAP), and poultry manure (PM) and two biochars such as, poultry litter biochar (PL-BC) and macadamia nut shell biochar (MS-BC). Ammonia volatilization was higher at soil with higher pH (pH exceeding 8) due to the increased hydroxyl ions. Among the N sources, urea recorded the highest NH3 volatilization (151.6 mg kg(-1)soil) followed by PM (124.2 mg kg(-1)soil) and DAP (99 mg kg(-1)soil). Ammonia volatilization was reduced by approximately 70% with PL-BC and MS-BC. The decreased NH3 volatilization with biochars is attributed to multiple mechanisms such as NH3 adsorption/immobilization, and nitrification. Moreover, biochar increased wheat dry weight and N uptake as high as by 24.24% and 76.11%, respectively. This study unravels the immense potential of biochar in decreasing N volatilization from soils and simultaneously improving use efficiency by wheat. PMID:25959224

  2. Increased efficiency of Campylobacter jejuni N-oligosaccharyltransferase PglB by structure-guided engineering.

    PubMed

    Ihssen, Julian; Haas, Jürgen; Kowarik, Michael; Wiesli, Luzia; Wacker, Michael; Schwede, Torsten; Thöny-Meyer, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Conjugate vaccines belong to the most efficient preventive measures against life-threatening bacterial infections. Functional expression of N-oligosaccharyltransferase (N-OST) PglB of Campylobacter jejuni in Escherichia coli enables a simplified production of glycoconjugate vaccines in prokaryotic cells. Polysaccharide antigens of pathogenic bacteria can be covalently coupled to immunogenic acceptor proteins bearing engineered glycosylation sites. Transfer efficiency of PglBCj is low for certain heterologous polysaccharide substrates. In this study, we increased glycosylation rates for Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium LT2 O antigen (which lacks N-acetyl sugars) and Staphylococcus aureus CP5 polysaccharides by structure-guided engineering of PglB. A three-dimensional homology model of membrane-associated PglBCj, docked to the natural C. jejuni N-glycan attached to the acceptor peptide, was used to identify potential sugar-interacting residues as targets for mutagenesis. Saturation mutagenesis of an active site residue yielded the enhancing mutation N311V, which facilitated fivefold to 11-fold increased in vivo glycosylation rates as determined by glycoprotein-specific ELISA. Further rounds of in vitro evolution led to a triple mutant S80R-Q287P-N311V enabling a yield improvement of S. enterica LT2 glycoconjugates by a factor of 16. Our results demonstrate that bacterial N-OST can be tailored to specific polysaccharide substrates by structure-guided protein engineering. PMID:25833378

  3. Increased efficiency of Campylobacter jejuni N-oligosaccharyltransferase PglB by structure-guided engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ihssen, Julian; Haas, Jürgen; Kowarik, Michael; Wiesli, Luzia; Wacker, Michael; Schwede, Torsten; Thöny-Meyer, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Conjugate vaccines belong to the most efficient preventive measures against life-threatening bacterial infections. Functional expression of N-oligosaccharyltransferase (N-OST) PglB of Campylobacter jejuni in Escherichia coli enables a simplified production of glycoconjugate vaccines in prokaryotic cells. Polysaccharide antigens of pathogenic bacteria can be covalently coupled to immunogenic acceptor proteins bearing engineered glycosylation sites. Transfer efficiency of PglBCj is low for certain heterologous polysaccharide substrates. In this study, we increased glycosylation rates for Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium LT2 O antigen (which lacks N-acetyl sugars) and Staphylococcus aureus CP5 polysaccharides by structure-guided engineering of PglB. A three-dimensional homology model of membrane-associated PglBCj, docked to the natural C. jejuni N-glycan attached to the acceptor peptide, was used to identify potential sugar-interacting residues as targets for mutagenesis. Saturation mutagenesis of an active site residue yielded the enhancing mutation N311V, which facilitated fivefold to 11-fold increased in vivo glycosylation rates as determined by glycoprotein-specific ELISA. Further rounds of in vitro evolution led to a triple mutant S80R-Q287P-N311V enabling a yield improvement of S. enterica LT2 glycoconjugates by a factor of 16. Our results demonstrate that bacterial N-OST can be tailored to specific polysaccharide substrates by structure-guided protein engineering. PMID:25833378

  4. Poisson Green's function method for increased computational efficiency in numerical calculations of Coulomb coupling elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Anke; Kuhn, Sandra; Richter, Marten

    2016-01-01

    Often, the calculation of Coulomb coupling elements for quantum dynamical treatments, e.g., in cluster or correlation expansion schemes, requires the evaluation of a six dimensional spatial integral. Therefore, it represents a significant limiting factor in quantum mechanical calculations. If the size or the complexity of the investigated system increases, many coupling elements need to be determined. The resulting computational constraints require an efficient method for a fast numerical calculation of the Coulomb coupling. We present a computational method to reduce the numerical complexity by decreasing the number of spatial integrals for arbitrary geometries. We use a Green's function formulation of the Coulomb coupling and introduce a generalized scalar potential as solution of a generalized Poisson equation with a generalized charge density as the inhomogeneity. That enables a fast calculation of Coulomb coupling elements and, additionally, a straightforward inclusion of boundary conditions and arbitrarily spatially dependent dielectrics through the Coulomb Green's function. Particularly, if many coupling elements are included, the presented method, which is not restricted to specific symmetries of the model, presents a promising approach for increasing the efficiency of numerical calculations of the Coulomb interaction. To demonstrate the wide range of applications, we calculate internanostructure couplings, such as the Förster coupling, and illustrate the inclusion of symmetry considerations in the method for the Coulomb coupling between bound quantum dot states and unbound continuum states.

  5. Deep learning as a tool for increased accuracy and efficiency of histopathological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Litjens, Geert; Sánchez, Clara I.; Timofeeva, Nadya; Hermsen, Meyke; Nagtegaal, Iris; Kovacs, Iringo; Hulsbergen - van de Kaa, Christina; Bult, Peter; van Ginneken, Bram; van der Laak, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Pathologists face a substantial increase in workload and complexity of histopathologic cancer diagnosis due to the advent of personalized medicine. Therefore, diagnostic protocols have to focus equally on efficiency and accuracy. In this paper we introduce ‘deep learning’ as a technique to improve the objectivity and efficiency of histopathologic slide analysis. Through two examples, prostate cancer identification in biopsy specimens and breast cancer metastasis detection in sentinel lymph nodes, we show the potential of this new methodology to reduce the workload for pathologists, while at the same time increasing objectivity of diagnoses. We found that all slides containing prostate cancer and micro- and macro-metastases of breast cancer could be identified automatically while 30–40% of the slides containing benign and normal tissue could be excluded without the use of any additional immunohistochemical markers or human intervention. We conclude that ‘deep learning’ holds great promise to improve the efficacy of prostate cancer diagnosis and breast cancer staging. PMID:27212078

  6. Deletion of the DNA Ligase IV Gene in Candida glabrata Significantly Increases Gene-Targeting Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Yuke; Fiori, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Candida glabrata is reported as the second most prevalent human opportunistic fungal pathogen in the United States. Over the last decades, its incidence increased, whereas that of Candida albicans decreased slightly. One of the main reasons for this shift is attributed to the inherent tolerance of C. glabrata toward the commonly used azole antifungal drugs. Despite a close phylogenetic distance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homologous recombination works with poor efficiency in C. glabrata compared to baker's yeast, in fact limiting targeted genetic alterations of the pathogen's genome. It has been shown that nonhomologous DNA end joining is dominant over specific gene targeting in C. glabrata. To improve the homologous recombination efficiency, we have generated a strain in which the LIG4 gene has been deleted, which resulted in a significant increase in correct gene targeting. The very specific function of Lig4 in mediating nonhomologous end joining is the reason for the absence of clear side effects, some of which affect the ku80 mutant, another mutant with reduced nonhomologous end joining. We also generated a LIG4 reintegration cassette. Our results show that the lig4 mutant strain may be a valuable tool for the C. glabrata research community. PMID:26048009

  7. Lipid-based Transfection Reagents Exhibit Cryo-induced Increase in Transfection Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Sork, Helena; Nordin, Joel Z; Turunen, Janne J; Wiklander, Oscar Pb; Bestas, Burcu; Zaghloul, Eman M; Margus, Helerin; Padari, Kärt; Duru, Adil D; Corso, Giulia; Bost, Jeremy; Vader, Pieter; Pooga, Margus; Smith, Ci Edvard; Wood, Matthew Ja; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Hällbrink, Mattias; Andaloussi, Samir El

    2016-01-01

    The advantages of lipid-based transfection reagents have permitted their widespread use in molecular biology and gene therapy. This study outlines the effect of cryo-manipulation of a cationic lipid-based formulation, Lipofectamine 2000, which, after being frozen and thawed, showed orders of magnitude higher plasmid delivery efficiency throughout eight different cell lines, without compromising cell viability. Increased transfection efficiency with the freeze-thawed reagent was also seen with 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate oligonucleotide delivery and in a splice-correction assay. Most importantly, a log-scale improvement in gene delivery using the freeze-thawed reagent was seen in vivo. Using three different methods, we detected considerable differences in the polydispersity of the different nucleic acid complexes as well as observed a clear difference in their surface spreading and sedimentation, with the freeze-thawed ones displaying substantially higher rate of dispersion and deposition on the glass surface. This hitherto overlooked elevated potency of the freeze-thawed reagent facilitates the targeting of hard-to-transfect cells, accomplishes higher transfection rates, and decreases the overall amount of reagent needed for delivery. Additionally, as we also saw a slight increase in plasmid delivery using other freeze-thawed transfection reagents, we postulate that freeze-thawing might prove to be useful for an even wider variety of transfection reagents. PMID:27111416

  8. Novel benzimidazole derivatives as electron-transporting type host to achieve highly efficient sky-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PHOLED) device.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jau-Jiun; Leung, Man-Kit; Chiu, Tien-Lung; Chuang, Ya-Ting; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hung, Yu-Hsiang

    2014-10-17

    The development of benzimidazole substituted biphenyls as electron-transporting hosts for bis[2-(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridinato-C(2),N](picolinato)iridium(III) is reported. Under the optimized conditions, the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) achieves the maximum current efficiency of 57.2 cd/A, power efficiency of 50.4 lm/W, and external quantum efficiency 25.7%. PMID:25296531

  9. Code RED (Remediation and Enrichment Days): The Complex Journey of a School and University Partnership's Process to Increase Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Patricia S.; Dockery, Kim; Jamieson, Spencer; Ross, Julie

    2007-01-01

    This study examined a focused remediation and enrichment effort among school and university faculty to affect the mathematics achievement of a group of third-grade students in a Title I elementary school. A total of 87 students participated in the Code RED (Remediation and Enrichment Days) Project. During the Code RED Project, student assessment…

  10. LinguaFolio Goal Setting Intervention and Academic Achievement: Increasing Student Capacity for Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Oxana D.

    2013-01-01

    In the last few decades there has been a shift from thinking less about teaching and more about learning. Such a paradigm shift from teacher-centered to student-centered instruction requires students to think about their own learning and to monitor their own learning development and language achievement. Researchers have identified goal setting…

  11. Daily Practices Elementary Principals Utilize to Increase Student Reading Achievement: A Case Study of Successful Michigan Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined three K-5 schools, one 3-5 school, and two K-2 schools that implemented Michigan's Behavior and Learning Support Initiative (MiBLSi) and showed improvement trends in third grade reading achievement as measured by MEAP results over four years. Each of the six schools completed the three years of MiBLSi training and are…

  12. Does Minority Status Increase the Effect of Disability Status on Elementary Schoolchildren's Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Qiong; Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether children's reading and mathematics growth trajectories from kindergarten to fifth grade inter-related, and to what extent disability and minority status interacted to predict their achievement trajectories. We conducted secondary data analysis based on a nationally representative sample of 6,446 U.S. schoolchildren…

  13. Schools and Districts Use Resources Wisely to Increase Achievement and Graduate More Students. High Schools That Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2011

    2011-01-01

    In a time of reduced funding, schools are meeting the challenge to continue improving classroom practices, student achievement and graduation rates. Many schools and teachers are forming networks to exchange information via the Internet as they tap into free electronic resources. Career/technical (CT) instructors are teaching students about…

  14. IDENTIFICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL DATABASE FOR BINARY AND MULTICOMPONENT MIXTURES WITH POTENTIAL FOR INCREASING OVERALL CYCLE EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen M Bajorek; J. Schnelle

    2002-05-01

    This report describes an experimental investigation designed to identify binary and multicomponent mixture systems that may be for increasing the overall efficiency of a coal fired unit by extracting heat from flue gases. While ammonia-water mixtures have shown promise for increasing cycle efficiencies in a Kalina cycle, the costs and associated range of thermal conditions involved in a heat recovery system may prohibit its use in a relatively low temperature heat recovery system. This investigation considered commercially available non-azeotropic binary mixtures with a boiling range applicable to a flue gas initially at 477.6 K (400 F) and developed an experimental database of boiling heat transfer coefficients for those mixtures. In addition to their potential as working fluids for increasing cycle efficiency, cost, ease of handling, toxicity, and environmental concerns were considered in selection of the mixture systems to be examined experimentally. Based on this review, water-glycol systems were identified as good candidates. However, previous investigations of mixture boiling have focused on aqueous hydrocarbon mixtures, where water is the heaviest component. There have been few studies of water-glycol systems, and those that do exist have investigated boiling on plain surfaces only. In water-glycol systems, water is the light component, which makes these systems unique compared to those that have been previously examined. This report examines several water-glycol systems, and documents a database of experimental heat transfer coefficients for these systems. In addition, this investigation also examines the effect of an enhanced surface on pool boiling in water-glycol mixtures, by comparing boiling on a smooth surface to boiling on a Turbo IIIB. The experimental apparatus, test sections, and the experimental procedures are described. The mixture systems tested included water-propylene glycol, water-ethylene glycol, and water-diethylene glycol. All

  15. Rising ozone concentrations decrease soybean evapotranspiration and water use efficiency whilst increasing canopy temperature.

    PubMed

    VanLoocke, Andy; Betzelberger, Amy M; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J

    2012-07-01

    • Here, we investigated the effects of increasing concentrations of ozone ([O(3)]) on soybean canopy-scale fluxes of heat and water vapor, as well as water use efficiency (WUE), at the Soybean Free Air Concentration Enrichment (SoyFACE) facility. • Micrometeorological measurements were made to determine the net radiation (R(n)), sensible heat flux (H), soil heat flux (G(0)) and latent heat flux (λET) of a commercial soybean (Glycine max) cultivar (Pioneer 93B15), exposed to a gradient of eight daytime average ozone concentrations ranging from approximately current (c. 40 ppb) to three times current (c. 120 ppb) levels. • As [O(3)] increased, soybean canopy fluxes of λET decreased and H increased, whereas R(n) and G(0) were not altered significantly. Exposure to increased [O(3)] also resulted in warmer canopies, especially during the day. The lower λET decreased season total evapotranspiration (ET) by c. 26%. The [O(3)]-induced relative decline in ET was half that of the relative decline in seed yield, driving a 50% reduction in seasonal WUE. • These results suggest that rising [O(3)] will alter the canopy energy fluxes that drive regional climate and hydrology, and have a negative impact on productivity and WUE, key ecosystem services. PMID:22524697

  16. Increasing orthodontic and orthognathic surgery treatment efficiency with a modified surgery-first approach.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Flavio; Agarwal, Sachin; Shafer, David; Nanda, Ravindra

    2015-11-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a 33-year-old white man who had a skeletal Class III and dental Class II subdivision malocclusion caused by a retrognathic maxilla, with severe maxillary crowding, a highly placed maxillary left canine, mild mandibular crowding, and a bilateral posterior crossbite. Treatment was performed with a modified surgery-first approach, which included a short presurgical alignment phase for the correction of the significant maxillary crowding while controlling the incisal angulation, followed by LeFort I maxillary advancement surgery. The short presurgical orthodontic phase aimed at eliminating the anterior dental interferences before the maxillary advancement, and the use of the inherent increased bone turnover in the postsurgical phase helped to reduce the total orthodontic treatment time to 12 months. Pleasing esthetic results and a good functional occlusion were achieved. PMID:26522045

  17. Ionic liquids increase the catalytic efficiency of a lipase (Lip1) from an antarctic thermophilic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Patricio A; Correa-Llantén, Daniela N; Blamey, Jenny M

    2015-01-01

    Lipases catalyze the hydrolysis and synthesis of triglycerides and their reactions are widely used in industry. The use of ionic liquids has been explored in order to improve their catalytic properties. However, the effect of these compounds on kinetic parameters of lipases has been poorly understood. A study of the kinetic parameters of Lip1, the most thermostable lipase from the supernatant of the strain ID17, a thermophilic bacterium isolated from Deception Island, Antarctica, and a member of the genus Geobacillus is presented. Kinetic parameters of Lip1 were modulated by the use of ionic liquids BmimPF6 and BmimBF4. The maximum reaction rate of Lip1 was improved in the presence of both salts. The highest effect was observed when BmimPF6 was added in the reaction mix, resulting in a higher hydrolytic activity and in a modulation of the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. However, the catalytic efficiency did not change in the presence of BmimBF4. The increase of the reaction rates of Lip1 promoted by these ionic liquids could be related to possible changes in the Lip1 structure. This effect was measured by quenching of tryptophan fluorescence of the enzyme, when it was incubated with each liquid salt. In conclusion, the hydrolytic activity of Lip1 is modulated by the ionic liquids BmimBF4 and BmimPF6, improving the reaction rate and the catalytic efficiency of this enzyme when BmimPF6 was used. This effect is probably due to changes in the structure of Lip1 induced by the presence of these ionic liquids, stimulating its catalytic activity. PMID:25425150

  18. Induced overexpression of OCT4A in human embryonic stem cells increases cloning efficiency.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Steven C; Chang, David F; Hong, Chang-Mu; Xia, Ping; Senadheera, Dinithi; Trump, Lisa; Mishra, Suparna; Lutzko, Carolyn

    2014-06-15

    Our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying human embryonic stem cell (hESC) self-renewal and differentiation is incomplete. The level of octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), a critical regulator of pluripotency, is precisely controlled in mouse embryonic stem cells. However, studies of human OCT4 are often confounded by the presence of three isoforms and six expressed pseudogenes, which has complicated the interpretation of results. Using an inducible lentiviral overexpression and knockdown system to manipulate OCT4A above or below physiological levels, we specifically examine the functional role of the OCT4A isoform in hESC. (We also designed and generated a comparable series of vectors, which were not functional, for the overexpression and knockdown of OCT4B.) We show that specific knockdown of OCT4A results in hESC differentiation, as indicated by morphology changes, cell surface antigen expression, and upregulation of ectodermal genes. In contrast, inducible overexpression of OCT4A in hESC leads to a transient instability of the hESC phenotype, as indicated by changes in morphology, cell surface antigen expression, and transcriptional profile, that returns to baseline within 5 days. Interestingly, sustained expression of OCT4A past 5 days enhances hESC cloning efficiency, suggesting that higher levels of OCT4A can support self-renewal. Overall, our results indicate that high levels of OCT4A increase hESC cloning efficiency and do not induce differentiation (whereas OCT4B expression cannot be induced in hESC), highlighting the importance of isoform-specific studies in a stable and inducible expression system for human OCT4. Additionally, we demonstrate the utility of an efficient method for conditional gene expression in hESC. PMID:24627557

  19. Revolutionary Method for Increasing the Efficiency of White Light Quantum Dot LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E; Bennett, Charlee J C; Sabau, Adrian S; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Boudreaux, Philip R; Walker, Steven C; Ott, Ronald D

    2011-01-01

    Covering a light-emitting diode (LED) with quantum dots (QDs) can produce a broad spectrum of white light. However, current techniques for applying QDs to LEDs suffer from a high density of defects and a non-uniform distribution of QDs, which respec-tively diminish the efficiency and quality of emitted light. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has the unique capability to thermally anneal QD structures at extremely high power densities for very short durations. This process, called pulse thermal proc-essing (PTP), reduces the number of point defects while main-taining the size and shape of the original QD nanostructure. Therefore, the efficiency of the QD wavelength conversion layer is improved without altering the emission spectrum defined by the size distribution of the quantum dot nanoparticles. The cur-rent research uses a thermal model to predict annealing tempera-tures during PTP and demonstrates up to a 300% increase in pho-toluminescence for QDs on passive substrates

  20. Efficient Bayesian mixed model analysis increases association power in large cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Po-Ru; Tucker, George; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan K; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Finucane, Hilary K; Salem, Rany M; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Neale, Benjamin M; Berger, Bonnie; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L

    2014-01-01

    Linear mixed models are a powerful statistical tool for identifying genetic associations and avoiding confounding. However, existing methods are computationally intractable in large cohorts, and may not optimize power. All existing methods require time cost O(MN2) (where N = #samples and M = #SNPs) and implicitly assume an infinitesimal genetic architecture in which effect sizes are normally distributed, which can limit power. Here, we present a far more efficient mixed model association method, BOLT-LMM, which requires only a small number of O(MN)-time iterations and increases power by modeling more realistic, non-infinitesimal genetic architectures via a Bayesian mixture prior on marker effect sizes. We applied BOLT-LMM to nine quantitative traits in 23,294 samples from the Women’s Genome Health Study (WGHS) and observed significant increases in power, consistent with simulations. Theory and simulations show that the boost in power increases with cohort size, making BOLT-LMM appealing for GWAS in large cohorts. PMID:25642633

  1. Increasing water-use efficiency directly through genetic manipulation of stomatal density.

    PubMed

    Franks, Peter J; W Doheny-Adams, Timothy; Britton-Harper, Zoe J; Gray, Julie E

    2015-07-01

    Improvement in crop water-use efficiency (WUE) is a critical priority for regions facing increased drought or diminished groundwater resources. Despite new tools for the manipulation of stomatal development, the engineering of plants with high WUE remains a challenge. We used Arabidopsis epidermal patterning factor (EPF) mutants exhibiting altered stomatal density to test whether WUE could be improved directly by manipulation of the genes controlling stomatal density. Specifically, we tested whether constitutive overexpression of EPF2 reduced stomatal density and maximum stomatal conductance (gw(max) ) sufficiently to increase WUE. We found that a reduction in gw(max) via reduced stomatal density in EPF2-overexpressing plants (EPF2OE) increased both instantaneous and long-term WUE without altering significantly the photosynthetic capacity. Conversely, plants lacking both EPF1 and EPF2 expression (epf1epf2) exhibited higher stomatal density, higher gw(max) and lower instantaneous WUE, as well as lower (but not significantly so) long-term WUE. Targeted genetic modification of stomatal conductance, such as in EPF2OE, is a viable approach for the engineering of higher WUE in crops, particularly in future high-carbon-dioxide (CO2 ) atmospheres. PMID:25754246

  2. Joint aperture detection for speckle reduction and increased collection efficiency in ophthalmic MHz OCT

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Thomas; André, Raphael; Wieser, Wolfgang; Pfeiffer, Tom; Huber, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Joint-aperture optical coherence tomography (JA-OCT) is an angle-resolved OCT method, in which illumination from an active channel is simultaneously probed by several passive channels. JA-OCT increases the collection efficiency and effective sensitivity of the OCT system without increasing the power on the sample. Additionally, JA-OCT provides angular scattering information about the sample in a single acquisition, so the OCT imaging speed is not reduced. Thus, JA-OCT is especially suitable for ultra high speed in-vivo imaging. JA-OCT is compared to other angle-resolved techniques, and the relation between joint aperture imaging, adaptive optics, coherent and incoherent compounding is discussed. We present angle-resolved imaging of the human retina at an axial scan rate of 1.68 MHz, and demonstrate the benefits of JA-OCT: Speckle reduction, signal increase and suppression of specular and parasitic reflections. Moreover, in the future JA-OCT may allow for the reconstruction of the full Doppler vector and tissue discrimination by analysis of the angular scattering dependence. PMID:23577296

  3. Effects of temperature and UV radiation increases on the photosynthetic efficiency in four scleractinian coral species.

    PubMed

    Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Richard, Cécile; Forcioli, Didier; Allemand, Denis; Pichon, Michel; Shick, J Malcolm

    2007-08-01

    Experiments were performed on coral species containing clade A (Stylophora pistillata, Montipora aequituberculata) or clade C (Acropora sp., Pavona cactus) zooxanthellae. The photosynthetic efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) of the corals was first assessed during a short-term increase in temperature (from 27 degrees C to 29 degrees C, 32 degrees C, and 34 degrees C) and acute exposure to UV radiation (20.5 W m(-2) UVA and 1.2 W m(-2) UVB) alone or in combination. Increasing temperature to 34 degrees C significantly decreased the F(v)/F(m) in S. pistillata and M. aequituberculata. Increased UV radiation alone significantly decreased the F(v)/F(m) of all coral species, even at 27 degrees C. There was a combined effect of temperature and UV radiation, which reduced F(v)/F(m) in all corals by 25% to 40%. During a long-term exposure to UV radiation (17 days) the F(v)/F(m) was significantly reduced after 3 days' exposure in all species, which did not recover their initial values, even after 17 days. By this time, all corals had synthesized mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). The concentration and diversity of MAAs differed among species, being higher for corals containing clade A zooxanthellae. Prolonged exposure to UV radiation at the nonstressful temperature of 27 degrees C conferred protection against independent, thermally induced photoinhibition in all four species. PMID:17679722

  4. Protease inhibitors decrease IgG shedding from Staphylococcus aureus, increasing complement activation and phagocytosis efficiency.

    PubMed

    Fernandez Falcon, Maria F; Echague, Charlene G; Hair, Pamela S; Nyalwidhe, Julius O; Cunnion, Kenji M

    2011-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen for immunologically intact humans and its pathogenesis is a model system for evasion of host defences. Antibodies and complement are essential elements of the humoral immune system for prevention and control of S. aureus infections. The specific hypothesis for the proposed research is that S. aureus modifies humoral host defences by cleaving IgG that has bound to the bacterial surface, thereby inhibiting opsonophagocytosis. S. aureus was coated with pooled, purified human IgG and assayed for the shedding of cleaved IgG fragments using ELISA and Western blot analysis. Surface-bound IgG was shed efficiently from S. aureus in the absence of host blood proteins. Broad-spectrum protease inhibitors prevented cleavage of IgG from the S. aureus surface, suggesting that staphylococcal proteases are responsible for IgG cleavage. Serine protease inhibitors and cysteine protease inhibitors decreased the cleavage of surface-bound IgG; however, a metalloprotease inhibitor had no effect. Using protease inhibitors to prevent the cleavage of surface-bound IgG increased the binding of complement C3 fragments on the surface of S. aureus, increased the association with human neutrophils and increased phagocytosis by human neutrophils. PMID:21636671

  5. Consolidation of silicon nitride without additives. [for gas turbine engine efficiency increase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikora, P. F.; Yeh, H. C.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ceramics for gas turbine engine construction might make it possible to increase engine efficiency by raising operational temperatures to values beyond those which can be tolerated by metallic alloys. The most promising ceramics being investigated in this connection are Si3N4 and SiC. A description is presented of a study which had the objective to produce dense Si3N4. The two most common methods of consolidating Si3N4 currently being used include hot pressing and reaction sintering. The feasibility was explored of producing a sound, dense Si3N4 body without additives by means of conventional gas hot isostatic pressing techniques and an uncommon hydraulic hot isostatic pressing technique. It was found that Si3N4 can be densified without additions to a density which exceeds 95% of the theoretical value

  6. Survey on methods of increasing the efficiency of extended state disturbance observers.

    PubMed

    Madoński, R; Herman, P

    2015-05-01

    This survey presents various methods of improving the overall estimation quality in the class of extended state observers (ESO), which estimate not only the conventional states of the system, but the acting disturbance as well. This type of observers is crucial in forming the active disturbance rejection control structure (ADRC), where the precision of online perturbation reconstruction and cancellation directly influences the robustness of the closed-loop control system. Various aspects of the observer-based disturbance estimation/rejection loop are covered by this work and divided into three categories, related with observer: structure, tuning, and working conditions. The survey is dedicated to researchers and practitioners who are interested in increasing the efficiency of their ADRC-based governing schemes. PMID:25702045

  7. Stratified storage economically increases capacity and efficiency of campus chilled water system

    SciTech Connect

    Bahnfleth, W.P.; Joyce, W.S.

    1995-03-01

    This article describes how the addition of stratified chilled water storage to the Cornell University campus chilled water system has increased its capacity and efficiency and reduced its operating costs for less than the cost of a conventional chilled water plant expansion. While chilled water storage is not appropriate for all chilled water systems, the experience at Cornell indicates that it can be very cost effective when favorable conditions exist. It should receive serious consideration by owners of large systems who are investigating alternatives for system expansion. The benefits of variable speed chiller operation were found to be considerable. It is hoped that this successful application will stimulate further interest in the development and application of variable speed drive chillers.

  8. Improved Design of Motors for Increased Efficiency in Residential Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Pragasen Pillay

    2008-12-31

    Research progress on understanding magnetic steel core losses is presented in this report. Three major aspects have been thoroughly investigated: 1, experimental characterization of core losses, 2, fundamental physical understanding of core losses and development of core loss formulas, and 3, design of more efficient machine based on the new formulations. Considerable progress has been achieved during the four years of research and the main achievements are summarized in the following: For the experimental characterization, a specially designed advanced commercial test bench was commissioned in addition to the development of a laboratory system with advanced capabilities. The measured properties are core losses at low and higher frequencies, with sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal excitations, at different temperatures, with different measurement apparatus (Toroids, Epstein etc). An engineering-based core loss formula has been developed which considers skin effect. The formula can predict core losses for both sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal flux densities and frequencies up to 4000 Hz. The formula is further tested in electric machines. The formula error range is 1.1% - 7.6% while the standard formulas can have % errors between -8.5% {-+} 44.7%. Two general core loss formulas, valid for different frequencies and thickness, have been developed by analytically and numerically solving Maxwell's equations based on a physical investigation of the dynamic hysteresis effects of magnetic materials. To our knowledge, they are the first models that can offer accurate core loss prediction over a wide range of operating frequencies and lamination thicknesses without a massive experimental database of core losses. The engineering core loss formula has been used with commercial software. The formula performs better than the modified Steinmetz and Bertotti's model used in Cedrat/Magsoft Flux 2D/3D. The new formula shows good correlation with measured results under both sinusoidal and

  9. Manipulating tillage to increase stored soil water and manipulating plant geometry to increase water-use efficiency in dryland areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper briefly summarizes some of the practices being used in the semiarid U.S. Great Plains to grow crops without irrigation. Fallow periods are commonly used to increase the amount of plant-available water in the soil profile at the time of seeding a crop because growing-season precipitation i...

  10. Between-country collaboration and consideration of costs increase conservation planning efficiency in the Mediterranean Basin.

    PubMed

    Kark, Salit; Levin, Noam; Grantham, Hedley S; Possingham, Hugh P

    2009-09-01

    The importance of global and regional coordination in conservation is growing, although currently, the majority of conservation programs are applied at national and subnational scales. Nevertheless, multinational programs incur transaction costs and resources beyond what is required in national programs. Given the need to maximize returns on investment within limited conservation budgets, it is crucial to quantify how much more biodiversity can be protected by coordinating multinational conservation efforts when resources are fungible. Previous studies that compared different scales of conservation decision-making mostly ignored spatial variability in biodiversity threats and the cost of actions. Here, we developed a simple integrating metric, taking into account both the cost of conservation and threats to biodiversity. We examined the Mediterranean Basin biodiversity hotspot, which encompasses over 20 countries. We discovered that for vertebrates to achieve similar conservation benefits, one would need substantially more money and area if each country were to act independently as compared to fully coordinated action across the Basin. A fully coordinated conservation plan is expected to save approximately US$67 billion, 45% of total cost, compared with the uncoordinated plan; and if implemented over a 10-year period, the plan would cost approximately 0.1% of the gross national income of all European Union (EU) countries annually. The initiative declared in the recent Paris Summit for the Mediterranean provides a political basis for such complex coordination. Surprisingly, because many conservation priority areas selected are located in EU countries, a partly coordinated solution incorporating only EU-Mediterranean countries is almost as efficient as the fully coordinated scenario. PMID:19717457

  11. Between-country collaboration and consideration of costs increase conservation planning efficiency in the Mediterranean Basin

    PubMed Central

    Kark, Salit; Levin, Noam; Grantham, Hedley S.; Possingham, Hugh P.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of global and regional coordination in conservation is growing, although currently, the majority of conservation programs are applied at national and subnational scales. Nevertheless, multinational programs incur transaction costs and resources beyond what is required in national programs. Given the need to maximize returns on investment within limited conservation budgets, it is crucial to quantify how much more biodiversity can be protected by coordinating multinational conservation efforts when resources are fungible. Previous studies that compared different scales of conservation decision-making mostly ignored spatial variability in biodiversity threats and the cost of actions. Here, we developed a simple integrating metric, taking into account both the cost of conservation and threats to biodiversity. We examined the Mediterranean Basin biodiversity hotspot, which encompasses over 20 countries. We discovered that for vertebrates to achieve similar conservation benefits, one would need substantially more money and area if each country were to act independently as compared to fully coordinated action across the Basin. A fully coordinated conservation plan is expected to save approximately US$67 billion, 45% of total cost, compared with the uncoordinated plan; and if implemented over a 10-year period, the plan would cost ≈0.1% of the gross national income of all European Union (EU) countries annually. The initiative declared in the recent Paris Summit for the Mediterranean provides a political basis for such complex coordination. Surprisingly, because many conservation priority areas selected are located in EU countries, a partly coordinated solution incorporating only EU-Mediterranean countries is almost as efficient as the fully coordinated scenario. PMID:19717457

  12. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunqi; Zhang, Yinghua; Ji, Wei; Yu, Peng; Wang, Bin; Li, Jinpeng; Han, Meikun; Xu, Xuexin; Wang, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage), one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation) and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis) conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure stands under W0, those for W1 and W2 were 80% and 85%, respectively. Over 75% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments got greater biomass than the mean of the pure stands under the three irrigation conditions. Cultivar mixture cropping cost more water than pure stands under W0 and W1, whereas the water consumption under W2 decreased by 5.9%–6.8% as compared with pure stands. Approximately 90% of cultivar mixtures showed an increase of 5.4%–34.5% in WUE as compared with the mean of the pure stands, and about 75% of cultivar mixtures had 0.8%–28.5% higher WUE than the better pure stands under W0. Similarly, there were a majority of mixture cropping treatments with higher WUE than the mean and the better one of the pure stands under W1 and W2. On the whole, proper cultivar mixture cropping could increase yield and WUE, and a higher increase in WUE occurred under limited irrigation condition. PMID:27362563

  13. Increases in efficiency and enhancements to the Mars Observer non-stored commanding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Robert N., Jr.; Torgerson, J. Leigh

    1994-01-01

    The Mars Observer team was, until the untimely loss of the spacecraft on August 21, 1993, performing flight operations with greater efficiency and speed than any previous JPL mission of its size. This level of through-put was made possible by a mission operations system which was composed of skilled personnel using sophisticated sequencing and commanding tools. During cruise flight operations, however, it was realized by the project that this commanding level was not going to be sufficient to support the activities planned for mapping operations. The project had committed to providing the science instrument principle investigators with a much higher level of commanding during mapping. Thus, the project began taking steps to enhance the capabilities of the flight team. One mechanism used by project management was a tool available from total quality management (TQM). This tool is known as a process action team (PAT). The Mars Observer PAT was tasked to increase the capacity of the flight team's nonstored commanding process by fifty percent with no increase in staffing and a minimal increase in risk. The outcome of this effort was, in fact, to increase the capacity by a factor of 2.5 rather than the desired fifty percent and actually reduce risk. The majority of these improvements came from the automation of the existing command process. These results required very few changes to the existing mission operations system. Rather, the PAT was able to take advantage of automation capabilities inherent in the existing system and make changes to the existing flight team procedures.

  14. Preincubation of t-SNAREs with Complexin I Increases Content-Mixing Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaewook; Zhu, Yicheng; Shin, Yeon-Kyun

    2016-07-01

    Complexin (Cpx) is a major regulator for Ca(2+)-triggered fast neuroexocytosis which underlies neuronal communication. Many psychiatric and neurological disorders accompany changes in the Cpx expression level, suggesting that abnormal Cpx levels may elicit aberrant cognitive symptoms. To comprehend how the changes in the Cpx level might affect neuronal communication, we investigated Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis at various Cpx concentrations. Ca(2+)-triggered content-mixing between a single proteoliposome of t-SNARE and another single proteoliposome of v-SNARE plus Ca(2+)-sensor synaptotagmin 1 was examined with total internal reflection microscopy. We find that Cpx enhances Ca(2+)-triggered vesicle fusion with the yield changing from approximately 10% to 70% upon increasing Cpx from 0 to 100 nM. Unexpectedly, however, the fusion efficiency becomes reduced when Cpx is increased further, dropping to 20% in the micromolar range, revealing a bell-shaped dose-response curve. Intriguingly, we find that the rate of vesicle fusion is nearly invariant through the entire range of Cpx concentrations studied, suggesting that a reevaluation of the current Cpx clamping mechanism is necessary. Thus, our results provide insights into how delicately Cpx fine-tunes neuronal communication. PMID:27286417

  15. Low intensity ultrasound increases the fermentation efficiency of Lactobacillus casei subsp.casei ATTC 39392.

    PubMed

    Dahroud, Behnaz Dahri; Mokarram, Reza Rezai; Khiabani, Mahmoud Sowti; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Yousefi, Mehdi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi

    2016-05-01

    l-Lactic acid (L-LA) is one of the microbial products with several applications and its production efficiency is so important. In the present study, we have been exploring application of low intensity ultrasound technology to improve the metabolic activity for l-lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei in different mediums. L-LA, biomass production and substrate (protein) consumption were measured as parameters of fermentation yield. L-LA and protein contents were determined using the titratable acidity and the biuret method respectively. Spectrophotometry (OD600nm) was used for measuring cell growths. L-LA, biomass production and protein consumption considered as dependent variables, but the amplitude of waves (20%, 40% and 60%), waves duration (15, 30, 45s) and add of peptone (2, 6 and 10g/l) as independent variables. The results showed that L-LA, biomass production and substrate consumption significantly increased (≈25%). Optimum conditions for biomass production was amplitude of 60%, 15s exposure time and 10g/l peptone, while for acid lactic production and substrate consumption was 40%, 30s and 6g/l peptone, respectively. Flowcytometry analysis also showed that sonication led to increasing cell membrane permeability. This observation shows low intensity ultrasound as a potential parameter in the improvement of metabolic activity of L. casei. PMID:26836618

  16. Use of Rasch Rating Scale Modeling to Develop and Validate a Measure of District-Level Characteristics and Practices Identified to Improve Instruction and Increase Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soska, Paul J., III

    2012-01-01

    Increasing qualitative evidence in the literature supports specific characteristics and practices, presented from a distributed leadership perspective, to be prevalent in school districts that demonstrate significant increases in student achievement. Quantitative evidence linking these identified district-level characteristics and practices to…

  17. Feeding on prey increases photosynthetic efficiency in the carnivorous sundew Drosera capensis

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovič, Andrej; Krausko, Miroslav; Libiaková, Michaela; Adamec, Lubomír

    2014-01-01

    Backround and Aims It has been suggested that the rate of net photosynthesis (AN) of carnivorous plants increases in response to prey capture and nutrient uptake; however, data confirming the benefit from carnivory in terms of increased AN are scarce and unclear. The principal aim of our study was to investigate the photosynthetic benefit from prey capture in the carnivorous sundew Drosera capensis. Methods Prey attraction experiments were performed, with measurements and visualization of enzyme activities, elemental analysis and pigment quantification together with simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence in D. capensis in response to feeding with fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). Key Results Red coloration of tentacles did not act as a signal to attract fruit flies onto the traps. Phosphatase, phophodiesterase and protease activities were induced 24 h after prey capture. These activities are consistent with the depletion of phosphorus and nitrogen from digested prey and a significant increase in their content in leaf tissue after 10 weeks. Mechanical stimulation of tentacle glands alone was not sufficient to induce proteolytic activity. Activities of β-D-glucosidases and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidases in the tentacle mucilage were not detected. The uptake of phosphorus from prey was more efficient than that of nitrogen and caused the foliar N:P ratio to decrease; the contents of other elements (K, Ca, Mg) decreased slightly in fed plants. Increased foliar N and P contents resulted in a significant increase in the aboveground plant biomass, the number of leaves and chlorophyll content as well as AN, maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII). Conclusions According to the stoichiometric relationships among different nutrients, the growth of unfed D. capensis plants was P-limited. This P-limitation was markedly alleviated by feeding on fruit flies and resulted in improved

  18. Increased Catalytic Efficiency Following Gene Fusion of Bifunctional Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase Enzymes from Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baowei; Markillie, Lye Meng; Xiong, Yijia; Mayer, M. Uljana; Squier, Thomas C.

    2007-11-11

    Methionine sulfoxide reductase enzymes MsrA and MsrB have complementary stereospecificies that respectively reduce the S- and R-stereoisomers of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO), and together function as critical antioxidant enzymes. In some pathogenic and metal reducing bacteria these genes are fused to form a bifunctional methionine sulfoxide reductase (i.e., MsrBA) enzyme. To investigate the impact of gene fusion on the substrate specificity and catalytic activities of Msr, we have cloned and expressed the MsrBA enzyme from Shewanella oneidensis, a metal reducing bacterium and fish pathogen. For comparison, we also cloned and expressed the wild-type MsrA enzyme and a genetically engineered MsrB protein. We report that MsrBA is able to completely reduce (i.e., repair) MetSO in the calcium regulatory protein calmodulin; in comparison only partial repair is observed using both MsrA and MsrB enzymes together at 25 °C. MsrBA has a twenty-fold enhanced rate of repair for MetSO in proteins in comparison with the individual MsrA or MsrB enzymes alone and respective 14- and 50-fold increases in catalytic efficiency (i.e., kcat/KM). In comparison, MsrBA and MsrA have similar catalytic efficiencies when free MetSO is used as a substrate. These results indicate that the individual domains within bifunctional MsrBA work cooperatively to selectively recognize and reduce MetSO in highly oxidized proteins. The enhanced catalytic activity of MsrBA against oxidized proteins and its common expression in bacterial pathogens is consistent with an important role for this enzyme activity in promoting bacterial survival under highly oxidizing conditions associated with pathogenesis or bioremediation.

  19. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in irrigation water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2015-08-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are accounted for, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL after a large development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitude of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, being the increases most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (2 °C global warming combined with full CO2-fertilization effect, and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and

  20. Using interlayer step-wise triplet transfer to achieve an efficient white organic light-emitting diode with high color-stability

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qi; Ma, Dongge Ding, Junqiao; Wang, Lixiang; Leo, Karl; Qiao, Qiquan; Jia, Huiping; Gnade, Bruce E.

    2014-05-12

    An efficient phosphorescent white organic light emitting-diode with a red-green-blue tri-emitting-layer structure is reported. The host of the red dopant possesses a lower triplet-energy than the green dye. An interlayer step-wise triplet transfer via blue dye → green dye → red host → red dye is achieved. This mechanism allows an efficient triplet harvesting by the three dopants, thus maintaining a balanced white light and reducing energy loss. Moreover, the color stability of the device is improved significantly. The white device not only achieves a peak external quantum efficiency of 21.1 ± 0.8% and power efficiency of 37.5 ± 1.4 lm/W but shows no color shift over a wide range of voltages.

  1. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  2. Enhanced Conversion Efficiencies in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Achieved through Self-Assembled Platinum(II) Metallacages

    PubMed Central

    He, Zuoli; Hou, Zhiqiang; Xing, Yonglei; Liu, Xiaobin; Yin, Xingtian; Que, Meidan; Shao, Jinyou; Que, Wenxiu; Stang, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes with particular photo-physical property, wherein unique donors are combined with a single metal acceptor, can be utilized for many applications including in photo-devices. In this communication, we described the synthesis and characterization of two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) bearing triazine and porphyrin faces with promising light-harvesting properties. These complexes were obtained from the self-assembly of a 90° Pt(II) acceptor with 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPyT) or 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (TPyP). The greatly improved conversion efficiencies of the dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells were 6.79 and 6.08 respectively, while these SCCs were introduced into the TiO2 nanoparticle film photoanodes. In addition, the open circuit voltage (Voc) of dye-sensitized solar cells was also increased to 0.769 and 0.768 V, which could be ascribed to the inhibited interfacial charge recombination due to the addition of SCCs. PMID:27404912

  3. Enhanced Conversion Efficiencies in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Achieved through Self-Assembled Platinum(II) Metallacages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zuoli; Hou, Zhiqiang; Xing, Yonglei; Liu, Xiaobin; Yin, Xingtian; Que, Meidan; Shao, Jinyou; Que, Wenxiu; Stang, Peter J.

    2016-07-01

    Two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes with particular photo-physical property, wherein unique donors are combined with a single metal acceptor, can be utilized for many applications including in photo-devices. In this communication, we described the synthesis and characterization of two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) bearing triazine and porphyrin faces with promising light-harvesting properties. These complexes were obtained from the self-assembly of a 90° Pt(II) acceptor with 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPyT) or 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (TPyP). The greatly improved conversion efficiencies of the dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells were 6.79 and 6.08 respectively, while these SCCs were introduced into the TiO2 nanoparticle film photoanodes. In addition, the open circuit voltage (Voc) of dye-sensitized solar cells was also increased to 0.769 and 0.768 V, which could be ascribed to the inhibited interfacial charge recombination due to the addition of SCCs.

  4. Enhanced Conversion Efficiencies in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Achieved through Self-Assembled Platinum(II) Metallacages.

    PubMed

    He, Zuoli; Hou, Zhiqiang; Xing, Yonglei; Liu, Xiaobin; Yin, Xingtian; Que, Meidan; Shao, Jinyou; Que, Wenxiu; Stang, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes with particular photo-physical property, wherein unique donors are combined with a single metal acceptor, can be utilized for many applications including in photo-devices. In this communication, we described the synthesis and characterization of two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) bearing triazine and porphyrin faces with promising light-harvesting properties. These complexes were obtained from the self-assembly of a 90° Pt(II) acceptor with 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPyT) or 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (TPyP). The greatly improved conversion efficiencies of the dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells were 6.79 and 6.08 respectively, while these SCCs were introduced into the TiO2 nanoparticle film photoanodes. In addition, the open circuit voltage (Voc) of dye-sensitized solar cells was also increased to 0.769 and 0.768 V, which could be ascribed to the inhibited interfacial charge recombination due to the addition of SCCs. PMID:27404912

  5. Multibeam Bathymetry Data Value and Increased Efficiency Through Improved Data Access and Reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, D. J.; Fischman, D.; Varner, J. D.; McLean, S. J.; Henderson, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    The costs associated with geophysical data collection are ever increasing, and efficiencies created by data reuse have never been more important. Multibeam sonar bathymetry, collected by specialized research vessels in challenging oceanic environments, is an example data type that has experienced steady increases in acquisition costs. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) in partnership with the Academic Fleet Rolling deck To Repository (R2R) program provides streamlined delivery of multibeam bathymetric data from ship to shore to user. By ensuring long term archive and easy access to these data, we foster the innovative reuse of data to produce additional products to serve multiple needs beyond the original intent of collection. Archived data are made widely accessible to the scientific community and the public via Web technologies that also support a "whole ocean" approach to management and planning, leveraging limited resources, and maximizing the benefit of the original investment in data collection. Currently, the public has access to more than 461,000 multibeam bathymetry files from the NGDC website through various Web based tools (ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/bathymetry/). Data are discoverable through geospatial maps and text search options. Once data are identified, users can download individual files, bundled data, or create custom grids. This paper takes a closer look at the multibeam data downloaded from the NGDC website and attempts to quantify the value of providing data for reuse. Using the number of surveys downloaded, an average cost to collect and steward multibeam data, and computing the ship hours required to acquire these data, we can estimate the value of the data freely available through R2R and NGDC. We will show that the value of long term stewardship, sharing, and reuse of these data provides a significant return on the initial investment. Proper data stewardship by NOAA's National Data

  6. A Comparison of Secondary Principals' Use of Data Systems to Increase Student Achievement in Mathematics as Measured by Standardized Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The pressure to meet the demands of "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) Act coupled with poor results by secondary students on national assessments in mathematics have forced school principals to develop skill sets in the use of data in efforts to increase student performance on standardized assessments. The effective use of data by school principals…

  7. Special Enrichment Strategies Greatly Increase the Efficiency of Missing Proteins Identification from Regular Proteome Samples.

    PubMed

    Su, Na; Zhang, Chengpu; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Fan, Fengxu; Zhao, Mingzhi; Wu, Feilin; Gao, Yuan; Li, Yanchang; Chen, Lingsheng; Tian, Miaomiao; Zhang, Tao; Wen, Bo; Sensang, Na; Xiong, Zhi; Wu, Songfeng; Liu, Siqi; Yang, Pengyuan; Zhen, Bei; Zhu, Yunping; He, Fuchu; Xu, Ping

    2015-09-01

    As part of the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) mission, laboratories all over the world have tried to map the entire missing proteins (MPs) since 2012. On the basis of the first and second Chinese Chromosome Proteome Database (CCPD 1.0 and 2.0) studies, we developed systematic enrichment strategies to identify MPs that fell into four classes: (1) low molecular weight (LMW) proteins, (2) membrane proteins, (3) proteins that contained various post-translational modifications (PTMs), and (4) nucleic acid-associated proteins. Of 8845 proteins identified in 7 data sets, 79 proteins were classified as MPs. Among data sets derived from different enrichment strategies, data sets for LMW and PTM yielded the most novel MPs. In addition, we found that some MPs were identified in multiple-data sets, which implied that tandem enrichments methods might improve the ability to identify MPs. Moreover, low expression at the transcription level was the major cause of the "missing" of these MPs; however, MPs with higher expression level also evaded identification, most likely due to other characteristics such as LMW, high hydrophobicity and PTM. By combining a stringent manual check of the MS2 spectra with peptides synthesis verification, we confirmed 30 MPs (neXtProt PE2 ∼ PE4) and 6 potential MPs (neXtProt PE5) with authentic MS evidence. By integrating our large-scale data sets of CCPD 2.0, the number of identified proteins has increased considerably beyond simulation saturation. Here, we show that special enrichment strategies can break through the data saturation bottleneck, which could increase the efficiency of MP identification in future C-HPP studies. All 7 data sets have been uploaded to ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD002255. PMID:26144840

  8. Synergy between social and private information increases foraging efficiency in ants.

    PubMed

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Grüter, Christoph; Jones, Sam M; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2011-08-23

    Insect societies integrate many information sources to organize collective activities such as foraging. Many ants use trail pheromones to guide foragers to food sources, but foragers can also use memories to find familiar locations of stable food sources. Route memories are often more accurate than trail pheromones in guiding ants, and are often followed in preference to trail pheromones when the two conflict. Why then does the system expend effort in producing and acquiring seemingly redundant and low-quality information, such as trail pheromones, when route memory is available? Here we show that, in the ant Lasius niger, trail pheromones and route memory act synergistically during foraging; increasing walking speed and straightness by 25 and 30 per cent, respectively, and maintaining trail pheromone deposition, but only when used together. Our results demonstrate a previously undescribed major role of trail pheromones: to complement memory by allowing higher confidence in route memory. This highlights the importance of multiple interacting information sources in the efficient running of complex adaptive systems. PMID:21325309

  9. Increased enzyme binding to substrate is not necessary for more efficient cellulose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dahai; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Sethi, Anurag; Balan, Venkatesh; Gnanakaran, S; Dale, Bruce E

    2013-07-01

    Substrate binding is typically one of the rate-limiting steps preceding enzyme catalytic action during homogeneous reactions. However, interfacial-based enzyme catalysis on insoluble crystalline substrates, like cellulose, has additional bottlenecks of individual biopolymer chain decrystallization from the substrate interface followed by its processive depolymerization to soluble sugars. This additional decrystallization step has ramifications on the role of enzyme-substrate binding and its relationship to overall catalytic efficiency. We found that altering the crystalline structure of cellulose from its native allomorph I(β) to III(I) results in 40-50% lower binding partition coefficient for fungal cellulases, but surprisingly, it enhanced hydrolytic activity on the latter allomorph. We developed a comprehensive kinetic model for processive cellulases acting on insoluble substrates to explain this anomalous finding. Our model predicts that a reduction in the effective binding affinity to the substrate coupled with an increase in the decrystallization procession rate of individual cellulose chains from the substrate surface into the enzyme active site can reproduce our anomalous experimental findings. PMID:23784776

  10. Observational evidence for an increase in the efficiency of precipitation in a warmer climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondanelli, R.; Lindzen, R. S.

    2006-05-01

    Using data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMM-PR) over oceanic regions between 20°N and 20°S and data from the ground based radar at Kwajalein (Marshall Islands), we study the dependence of the fraction of convective (cumuliform) to total precipitation in tropical convective systems. We regard the fraction of convective to total precipitation as a proxy for the efficiency of the precipitation processes within active cumulus towers. We find that the fraction of convective precipitation increases over the range of temperatures between 24°C to 30°C in about 7 to 15 %K. Also the area of stratiform rainfall by unit of total precipitation decreases by about 20%K. The results are quantitatively similar to the original data analysis in support of the iris hypothesis, despite the methodological differences. They are also consistent with independent research (Del Genio et al. 2005) when the detrainment is properly normalized. Also, these results roughly follow simple conceptual models of the dependence of cloud microphysics on the specific humidity of the sort used by Sun and Lindzen (1993) and Del Genio et al. (2005). The picture that emerges from the results is that when properly normalized, the total area of detrainment in oceanic mesoscale convective systems decreases with sea surface temperature consistent with the iris hypothesis.

  11. Increasing the efficiency of digitization workflows for herbarium specimens.

    PubMed

    Tulig, Melissa; Tarnowsky, Nicole; Bevans, Michael; Anthony Kirchgessner; Thiers, Barbara M

    2012-01-01

    The New York Botanical Garden Herbarium has been databasing and imaging its estimated 7.3 million plant specimens for the past 17 years. Due to the size of the collection, we have been selectively digitizing fundable subsets of specimens, making successive passes through the herbarium with each new grant. With this strategy, the average rate for databasing complete records has been 10 specimens per hour. With 1.3 million specimens databased, this effort has taken about 130,000 hours of staff time. At this rate, to complete the herbarium and digitize the remaining 6 million specimens, another 600,000 hours would be needed. Given the current biodiversity and economic crises, there is neither the time nor money to complete the collection at this rate.Through a combination of grants over the last few years, The New York Botanical Garden has been testing new protocols and tactics for increasing the rate of digitization through combinations of data collaboration, field book digitization, partial data entry and imaging, and optical character recognition (OCR) of specimen images. With the launch of the National Science Foundation's new Advancing Digitization of Biological Collections program, we hope to move forward with larger, more efficient digitization projects, capturing data from larger portions of the herbarium at a fraction of the cost and time. PMID:22859882

  12. Increasing the efficiency of digitization workflows for herbarium specimens

    PubMed Central

    Tulig, Melissa; Tarnowsky, Nicole; Bevans, Michael; Anthony Kirchgessner; Thiers,  Barbara M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The New York Botanical Garden Herbarium has been databasing and imaging its estimated 7.3 million plant specimens for the past 17 years. Due to the size of the collection, we have been selectively digitizing fundable subsets of specimens, making successive passes through the herbarium with each new grant. With this strategy, the average rate for databasing complete records has been 10 specimens per hour. With 1.3 million specimens databased, this effort has taken about 130,000 hours of staff time. At this rate, to complete the herbarium and digitize the remaining 6 million specimens, another 600,000 hours would be needed. Given the current biodiversity and economic crises, there is neither the time nor money to complete the collection at this rate. Through a combination of grants over the last few years, The New York Botanical Garden has been testing new protocols and tactics for increasing the rate of digitization through combinations of data collaboration, field book digitization, partial data entry and imaging, and optical character recognition (OCR) of specimen images. With the launch of the National Science Foundation’s new Advancing Digitization of Biological Collections program, we hope to move forward with larger, more efficient digitization projects, capturing data from larger portions of the herbarium at a fraction of the cost and time. PMID:22859882

  13. Directly incorporating fluorochromes into DNA probes by PCR increases the efficience of fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Dittmer, Joy

    1996-05-01

    The object of this study was to produce a directly labeled whole chromosome probe in a Degenerative Oligonucleotide Primed-Polymerase Chain Reaction (DOP-PCR) that will identify chromosome breaks, deletions, inversions and translocations caused by radiation damage. In this study we amplified flow sorted chromosome 19 using DOP-PCR. The product was then subjected to a secondary DOP PCR amplification, After the secondary amplification the DOP-PCR product was directly labeled in a tertiary PCR reaction with rhodamine conjugated with dUTP (FluoroRed) to produce a DNA fluorescent probe. The probe was then hybridized to human metaphase lymphocytes on slides, washed and counterstained with 4{prime},6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). The signal of the FluoroRed probe was then compared to a signal of a probe labeled with biotin and stained with avidin fluorescein isothio cynate (FITC) and anti-avidin FITC. The results show that the probe labeled with FluoroRed gave signals as bright as the probe with biotin labeling. The FluoroRed probe had less noise than the biotin labeled probe. Therefore, a directly labeled probe has been successfully produced in a DOP-PCR reaction. In future a probe labeled with FluoroRed will be produced instead of a probe labeled with biotin to increase efficiency.

  14. Soil Segregation technology: reducing uncertainty and increasing efficiency during radiological decommissioning - a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, A.J.; Orthen, R.F.; Shonka, J.J.; Scott, L.M.

    2007-07-01

    the segregation system and the as-left configuration of the refilled excavation, the end state model of the site was prepared with substantially reduced uncertainty. The major projected benefits of this approach are reviewed as well as the performance of the segregation system and lessons learned including: 1) Total, first-attempt data discovery brought about by simultaneously conducted characterization and final status surveys, 2) Lowered project costs stemming from efficient analysis and abstraction of impacted material and reduced offsite waste disposal volume, 3) Lowered project costs due to increased remediation/construction efficiency and decreased survey and radio-analytical expenses, and 4) Improving the decommissioning experience with new regulatory guidance. (authors)

  15. Implementation of a compressive sampling scheme for wireless sensors to achieve energy efficiency in a structural health monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Sean M.; Lynch, Jerome P.; Gilbert, Anna C.

    2013-04-01

    Wireless sensors have emerged to offer low-cost sensors with impressive functionality (e.g., data acquisition, computing, and communication) and modular installations. Such advantages enable higher nodal densities than tethered systems resulting in increased spatial resolution of the monitoring system. However, high nodal density comes at a cost as huge amounts of data are generated, weighing heavy on power sources, transmission bandwidth, and data management requirements, often making data compression necessary. The traditional compression paradigm consists of high rate (>Nyquist) uniform sampling and storage of the entire target signal followed by some desired compression scheme prior to transmission. The recently proposed compressed sensing (CS) framework combines the acquisition and compression stage together, thus removing the need for storage and operation of the full target signal prior to transmission. The effectiveness of the CS approach hinges on the presence of a sparse representation of the target signal in a known basis, similarly exploited by several traditional compressive sensing applications today (e.g., imaging, MRI). Field implementations of CS schemes in wireless SHM systems have been challenging due to the lack of commercially available sensing units capable of sampling methods (e.g., random) consistent with the compressed sensing framework, often moving evaluation of CS techniques to simulation and post-processing. The research presented here describes implementation of a CS sampling scheme to the Narada wireless sensing node and the energy efficiencies observed in the deployed sensors. Of interest in this study is the compressibility of acceleration response signals collected from a multi-girder steel-concrete composite bridge. The study shows the benefit of CS in reducing data requirements while ensuring data analysis on compressed data remain accurate.

  16. Small Businesses Save Big: A Borrower's Guide To Increase the Bottom Line Using Energy Efficiency (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides a guide for small businesses to find the resources to increase the energy efficiency of their buildings.

  17. On use of time-dependent microwave fields to increase an FEL oscillator efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    1995-12-31

    Various schemes of a high efficiency FEL oscillator with time-dependent accelerating (or decelerating) microwave field in interaction region are proposed. All the, schemes are based on standard accelerating structure and undulator technology. Feasibility of the proposed schemes is confirmed by results of numerical simulations. Realistic examples of FEL oscillators of infrared and visible wavelength ranges with efficiency about 20 % are presented.

  18. Achieving Peak Flow and Sediment Loading Reductions through Increased Water Storage in the Le Sueur Watershed, Minnesota: A Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, N. A.; Gran, K. B.; Cho, S. J.; Dalzell, B. J.; Kumarasamy, K.

    2015-12-01

    A combination of factors including climate change, land clearing, and artificial drainage have increased many agricultural regions' stream flows and rates at which channel banks and bluffs are eroded. Increasing erosion rates within the Minnesota River Basin have contributed to higher sediment-loading rates, excess turbidity levels, and increases in sedimentation rates in Lake Pepin further downstream. Water storage sites (e.g., wetlands) have been discussed as a means to address these issues. This study uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess a range of water retention site (WRS) implementation scenarios in the Le Sueur watershed in south-central Minnesota, a subwatershed of the Minnesota River Basin. Sediment loading from bluffs was assessed through an empirical relationship developed from gauging data. Sites were delineated as topographic depressions with specific land uses, minimum areas (3000 m2), and high compound topographic index values. Contributing areas for the WRS were manually measured and used with different site characteristics to create 210 initial WRS scenarios. A generalized relationship between WRS area and contributing area was identified from measurements, and this relationship was used with different site characteristics (e.g., depth, hydraulic conductivity (K), and placement) to create 225 generalized WRS scenarios. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates are generally maximized by placing site with high K values in the upper half of the watershed. High K values allow sites to lose more water through seepage, emptying their storages between precipitation events and preventing frequent overflowing. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates also level off at high WRS extents due to the decreasing frequencies of high-magnitude events. The generalized WRS scenarios were also used to create a simplified empirical model capable of generating peak flows and sediment-loading rates from near

  19. Redesign of Process Map to Increase Efficiency: Reducing Procedure Time 1 in Cervical-Cancer Brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Damato, Antonio L.; Cormack, Robert A.; Bhagwat, Mandar S.; Buzurovic, Ivan; Finucane, Susan; Hansen, Jorgen L.; O’Farrell, Desmond A.; Offiong, Alecia; Randall, Una; Friesen, Scott; Lee, Larissa J.; Viswanathan, Akila N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To increase intra-procedural efficiency in the use of clinical resources and to decrease planning time for cervical-cancer brachytherapy treatments through redesign of the procedure’s process map. Methods and Materials A multi-disciplinary team identified all tasks and associated resources involved in cervical-cancer brachytherapy in our institution, and arranged them in a process map. A redesign of the treatment planning component of the process map was conducted with the goal of minimizing planning time. Planning time was measured on 20 consecutive insertions, of which 10 were performed with standard procedures and 10 with the redesigned process map, and results compared. Statistical significance (p <0.05) was measured with a 2-tailed T-test. Results Twelve tasks involved in cervical-cancer brachytherapy treatments were identified. The process map showed that in standard procedures, the treatment planning tasks were performed sequentially. The process map was redesigned to specify that contouring and some planning tasks are performed concomitantly. Some quality assurance (QA) tasks were reorganized to minimize adverse effects of a possible error on procedure time. Test “dry runs” followed by live implementation confirmed the applicability of the new process map to clinical conditions. A 29% reduction in planning time (p <0.01) was observed with the introduction of the redesigned process map. Conclusions A process map for cervical-cancer brachytherapy was generated. The treatment planning component of the process map was redesigned, resulting in a 29% decrease in planning time and a streamlining of the QA process. PMID:25572438

  20. Simple combination of oxidants with zero-valent-iron (ZVI) achieved very rapid and highly efficient removal of heavy metals from water.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuejun; Yang, Zhe; Dong, Haiyang; Guan, Xiaohong; Ren, Qidong; Lv, Xiaofang; Jin, Xin

    2016-01-01

    This study, for the first time, demonstrated a continuously accelerated Fe(0) corrosion driven by common oxidants (i.e., NaClO, KMnO4 or H2O2) and thereby the rapid and efficient removal of heavy metals (HMs) by zero-valent iron (ZVI) under the experimental conditions of jar tests and column running. ZVI simply coupled with NaClO, KMnO4 or H2O2 (0.5 mM) resulted in almost complete As(V) removal within only 10 min with 1000 μg/L of initial As(V) at initial pH of 7.5(±0.1) and liquid solid ratio of 200:1. Simultaneous removal of 200 μg/L of initial Cd(II) and Hg(II) to 2.4-4.4 μg/L for Cd(II) and to 4.0-5.0 μg/L for Hg(II) were achieved within 30 min. No deterioration of HM removal was observed during the ten recycles of jar tests. The ZVI columns activated by 0.1 mM of oxidants had stably treated 40,200 (NaClO), 20,295 (KMnO4) and 40,200 (H2O2) bed volumes (BV) of HM-contaminated drinking water, but with no any indication of As breakthrough (<10 μg/L) even at short empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 8.0 min. The high efficiency of HMs removal from both the jar tests and column running implied a continuous and stable activation (overcoming of iron passivation) of Fe(0) surface by the oxidants. Via the proper increase in oxidant dosing, the ZVI/oxidant combination was applicable to treat highly As(V)-contaminated wastewater. During Fe(0) surface corrosion accelerated by oxidants, a large amount of fresh and reactive iron oxides and oxyhydroxides were continuously generated, which were responsible for the rapid and efficient removal of HMs through multiple mechanisms including adsorption and co-precipitation. A steady state of Fe(0) surface activation and HM removal enabled this simply coupled system to remove HMs with high speed, efficiency and perdurability. PMID:26575476

  1. On the increase of ultraviolet radiation detection efficiency in nuclear particle detectors with the help of transparent wavelength shifter films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorin, A. M.; Kakauridze, G. D.; Peresypkin, A. I.; Polyakov, V. A.; Rykalin, V. I.; Tzhadadze, E. G.

    1986-11-01

    The performance of transparent wavelength shifters (WLS) on the base of polymethylmethacrylate and organic luminophors has been studied. Measurements have been carried out in the near and far ultraviolet. Using multicomponent WLS covering the photomultiplier (PM) window, the maximum quantum efficiency of the PM photocathode was increased up to 30%. Due to the use of WLS in the gas Cherenkov counter (radiator Fr-12) a photoelectric efficiency 2.3 times higher than for FEU-110 has been obtained. Now the FEU-110 photoelectric efficiency equals to photoelectric efficiency of the 56DUVP PM.

  2. Education Reform in the Trenches: Increased Academic Course Taking in High Schools with Lower Achieving Students in States with Higher Graduation Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clune, William H.; White, Paula A.

    1992-01-01

    Transcript data were analyzed to determine changes in course taking among graduates of high schools including mostly lower achieving students in California, Florida, Missouri, and Pennsylvania, which adopted high graduation requirements in the 1980s. Average credits per student increased in all academic subjects, as did the courses' difficulty…

  3. Influence of College Clubs in Increasing Students' Interest and Achievement in Nigerian Post-Primary Schools as Perceived by Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwankwo, Madeleine C.; Okoye, K. R. E.

    2015-01-01

    The perceived influence of college club in increasing students' interest and achievement in Nigerian post-primary schools in Anambra State was studied using a survey research design. The population of the study comprised all senior secondary school science students in Anambra State totaling 9322 as at 2007. From this population, a sample of 140…

  4. Increasing the Academic Achievement of Middle School Students Exposed to Domestic Violence through Interpersonal-Cognitive Group Counseling and Parenting Education (Project REAL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Deborah

    Project REAL (Relationship skills, Education on violence prevention, Academics, Leadership and decision-making skills) was a practicum designed to increase the academic achievement of middle school students exposed to domestic violence. Eleven students and their parents participated in a 12-week interpersonal-cognitive counseling group and its…

  5. Industry Stakeholder Recommendations for DOE's RD&D for Increasing Energy Efficiency in Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Plympton, P.; Dagher, L.; Zwack, B.

    2007-06-01

    This technical report documents feedback for Industry Stakeholders on the direction of future U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research and development in the area of improving energy efficiency in existing residential buildings.

  6. Increase of Efficiency of Gyrotron by Optimizing Conditions of RF-field Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Kuklin, V. M.; Lapshin, V. I.; Puzyrkov, S. Yu

    2006-01-15

    Dependence of efficiency and output power on parameter which is equal to ratio of total emission power to accumulated energy is considered in simplified model of gyrotron. It is shown that this parameter changes with changing of emission conditions at the generator output, which leads to the change of field distribution inside of gyrotron as well. Behavior of efficiency and output power is introduced in the vicinity of their maximal values.

  7. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance

  8. Operational efficiency increase in a copper vapor laser due to the replacement of vacuum jacket brewster windows with flat windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Lee; Witherspoon, Ned; Holloway, John; Price, Brian; Miller, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The vacuum integrity of the discharge tube of a copper vapor laser (CVL) is normally protected by Brewster angled windows. In an attempt to increase the operating efficiency of the CVL, flat windows were used to replace the Brewster windows. Experimental data confirm that the overall efficiency of the CVL does increase when such windows are used. The experimental results are discussed in terms of a computer model found in the literature. The cause of the efficiency increase appears due to a double optical cavity set up by the flat windows. However, the variation of the efficiency due to changes in the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and buffer gas pressure are less well understood.

  9. Achievement of an efficient 1053 nm Nd:YLF polarized laser based on different thermal lensing effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yong; Xu, Shan; Huang, Chenghui; Chen, Weidong; Zhuang, Fengjiang; Huang, Lingxiong; Chen, Zhenqiang; Zhang, Ge

    2012-09-01

    The negative and positive thermal focal lengths for 1047 nm and 1053 nm were respectively demonstrated through analyzing different thermal lensing effects along the π- and σ-polarizations in a plane-parallel resonator. A compact and efficient diode-end-pumped 1053 nm Nd:YLF polarized laser is presented. As high as 11.2 W output power of the polarized 1053 nm laser has been obtained at an absorbed pump power of 22.3 W with an optical-optical efficiency of 50% and a slope efficiency of 53%. With the aid of a ray propagation matrix and a λ/4 wave plate, different thermal lensing effects for the π- and σ-polarizations have been theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified.

  10. Rod Visual Pigment Optimizes Active State to Achieve Efficient G Protein Activation as Compared with Cone Visual Pigments*

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Keiichi; Imamoto, Yasushi; Maeda, Ryo; Yamashita, Takahiro; Shichida, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Most vertebrate retinas contain two types of photoreceptor cells, rods and cones, which show different photoresponses to mediate scotopic and photopic vision, respectively. These cells contain different types of visual pigments, rhodopsin and cone visual pigments, respectively, but little is known about the molecular properties of cone visual pigments under physiological conditions, making it difficult to link the molecular properties of rhodopsin and cone visual pigments with the differences in photoresponse between rods and cones. Here we prepared bovine and mouse rhodopsin (bvRh and mRh) and chicken and mouse green-sensitive cone visual pigments (cG and mG) embedded in nanodiscs and applied time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy to compare their Gt activation efficiencies. Rhodopsin exhibited greater Gt activation efficiencies than cone visual pigments. Especially, the Gt activation efficiency of mRh was about 2.5-fold greater than that of mG at 37 °C, which is consistent with our previous electrophysiological data of knock-in mice. Although the active state (Meta-II) was in equilibrium with inactive states (Meta-I and Meta-III), quantitative determination of Meta-II in the equilibrium showed that the Gt activation efficiency per Meta-II of bvRh was also greater than those of cG and mG. These results indicated that efficient Gt activation by rhodopsin, resulting from an optimized active state of rhodopsin, is one of the causes of the high amplification efficiency of rods. PMID:24375403

  11. Increased Catalytic Efficiency Following Gene Fusion of Bifunctional Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase Enzymes from Shewanella oneidensis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Baowei; Markillie, Lye Meng; Xiong, Yijia; Mayer, M. Uljana; Squier, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductase enzymes MsrA and MsrB have complementary stereospecificies that respectively reduce the S- and R-stereoisomers of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO), and together function as critical antioxidant enzymes. In some pathogenic and metal -reducing bacteria these genes are fused to form a bifunctional methionine sulfoxide reductase (i.e., MsrBA) enzyme. To investigate how gene fusion affects the substrate specificity and catalytic activities of Msr, we have cloned and expressed the MsrBA enzyme from Shewanella oneidensis, a metal-reducing bacterium and fish pathogen. For comparison, we also cloned and expressed the wild-type MsrA enzyme from Shewanella oneidensis and a genetically engineered MsrB protein. MsrBA is able to completely reduce (i.e., repair) MetSO in the calcium regulatory protein calmodulin (CaM); while only partial repair is observed using both MsrA and MsrB enzymes together at 25 °C. A restoration of the normal protein fold is observed coincident with the repair of MetSO in oxidized CaM by MsrBA, as monitored by the time-dependent increases in the anisotropy associated with the rigidly bound multiuse affinity probe 4′5′-bis(1,3,2-dithoarsolan-2yl)fluorescein (FlAsH). Underlying the efficient repair of MetSO in oxidized CaM is the coordinate activity of the two catalytic domains in the MsrBA fusion protein, which results in an order of magnitude rate enhancement in comparison to the individual MsrA or MsrB enzymes alone. The coordinate binding of both domains of MsrBA permits the full repair of all MetSO in CaMox. The common expression of Msr fusion proteins in bacterial pathogens is consistent with an important role for this enzyme activity in the maintenance of protein function necessary for bacterial survival under highly oxidizing conditions associated with pathogenesis or bioremediation. PMID:17997579

  12. Use of combined steam-water and organic rankine cycles for achieving better efficiency of gas turbine units and internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotovskiy, M. A.; Grinman, M. I.; Fomin, V. I.; Aref'ev, V. K.; Grigor'ev, A. A.

    2012-03-01

    Innovative concepts of recovering waste heat using low-boiling working fluids, due to which the the efficiency can be increased to 28-30%, are presented. If distributed generation of electricity or combined production of heat and electricity is implemented, the electrical efficiency can reach 58-60% and the fuel heat utilization factor, 90%.

  13. Opportunities for increasing biomass conversion efficiencies to ethanol by engineering energy crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States government has targeted aggressive development of bioethanol as one route for decreasing oil dependence and lowering greenhouse gas emissions. Achieving future production targets depends on expanding feedstock sources beyond corn and towards lignocellulose. This is expected to in...

  14. Solar-to-hydrogen efficiency exceeding 2.5% achieved for overall water splitting with an all earth-abundant dual-photoelectrode.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chunmei; Qin, Wei; Wang, Nan; Liu, Guiji; Wang, Zhiliang; Yan, Pengli; Shi, Jingying; Li, Can

    2014-08-01

    The solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiency of a traditional mono-photoelectrode photoelectrochemical water splitting system has long been limited as large external bias is required. Herein, overall water splitting with STH efficiency exceeding 2.5% was achieved using a self-biased photoelectrochemical-photovoltaic coupled system consisting of an all earth-abundant photoanode and a Si-solar-cell-based photocathode connected in series under parallel illumination. We found that parallel irradiation mode shows higher efficiency than tandem illumination especially for photoanodes with a wide light absorption range, probably as the driving force for water splitting reaction is larger and the photovoltage loss is smaller in the former. This work essentially takes advantage of a tandem solar cell which can enhance the solar-to-electricity efficiency from another point of view. PMID:24956231

  15. Increasing Instructional Efficiency by Presenting Additional Stimuli in Learning Trials for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vladescu, Jason C.; Kodak, Tiffany M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the effectiveness and efficiency of presenting secondary targets within learning trials for 4 children with an autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, we compared 4 instructional conditions using a progressive prompt delay. In 3 conditions, we presented secondary targets in the antecedent or consequence portion of…

  16. The Pausing Principle: Increasing the Efficiency of Memory for Ongoing Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Vesta, Francis J.; Smith, Deborah A.

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of pausing for learning from lectures was investigated. Pause location and kind of activity conducted during the pause were varied. Free-recall and cued-recall tests were administered immediately after the lecture and two weeks later. Interspersed pauses coupled with group discussion was the most efficient procedure. (Author/RD)

  17. Compressed Air System Enhancement Increase Efficiency and Provides Energy Savings at a Circuit Board Manufacturer

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the circuit board manufacturer (Sanmina Plant) project.

  18. Single-Cell-State Culture of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Increases Transfection Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nii, Takenobu; Kohara, Hiroshi; Marumoto, Tomotoshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Tani, Kenzaburo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Efficient gene transfer into human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) holds great promise for regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical development. In the past decade, various methods were developed for gene transfer into hPSCs; however, hPSCs form tightly packed colonies, making gene transfer difficult. In this study, we established a stable culture method of hPSCs at a single-cell state to reduce cell density and investigated gene transfection efficiency followed by gene editing efficiency. hPSCs cultured in a single-cell state were transfected using nonliposomal transfection reagents with plasmid DNA or mRNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein. We found that most cells (DNA > 90%; mRNA > 99%) were transfected without the loss of undifferentiated PSC marker expression or pluripotency. Moreover, we demonstrated an efficient gene editing method using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) targeting the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Our new method may improve hPSC gene transfer techniques, thus facilitating their use for human regenerative medicine. PMID:27257519

  19. Single-Cell-State Culture of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Increases Transfection Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Nii, Takenobu; Kohara, Hiroshi; Marumoto, Tomotoshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Tani, Kenzaburo

    2016-01-01

    Efficient gene transfer into human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) holds great promise for regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical development. In the past decade, various methods were developed for gene transfer into hPSCs; however, hPSCs form tightly packed colonies, making gene transfer difficult. In this study, we established a stable culture method of hPSCs at a single-cell state to reduce cell density and investigated gene transfection efficiency followed by gene editing efficiency. hPSCs cultured in a single-cell state were transfected using nonliposomal transfection reagents with plasmid DNA or mRNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein. We found that most cells (DNA > 90%; mRNA > 99%) were transfected without the loss of undifferentiated PSC marker expression or pluripotency. Moreover, we demonstrated an efficient gene editing method using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) targeting the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Our new method may improve hPSC gene transfer techniques, thus facilitating their use for human regenerative medicine. PMID:27257519

  20. Techniques for Increasing the Efficiency of Automation Systems in School Library Media Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffarella, Edward P.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses methods of managing queues (waiting lines) to optimize the use of student computer stations in school library media centers and to make searches more efficient and effective. The three major factors in queue management are arrival interval of the patrons, service time, and number of stations. (Author/LRW)

  1. On increasing the efficiency of the modified method of S-approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, I. E.; Raevskiy, D. N.; Shchepetilov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    An advanced method for solving the system of linear algebraic equations (SLAE) based on the application of Chebyshev polynomials is described. The modified S-approximations of the elements of gravity field are found by the efficient approaches applied to the solution of SLAE that describes the geophysically informative problem. The results of the mathematical experiment are presented.

  2. Firearm Injury Prevention Skills: Increasing the Efficiency of Training with Peer Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jostad, Candice M.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2004-01-01

    Gun play results in hundreds of childhood injuries and deaths each year in the United States. Behavioral Skills Training (BST) is used to teach children the skills needed to resist gun play when finding a firearm. Although effective, existing BST programs are time and resource intensive and therefore lack the efficiency required to be widely…

  3. Online decision support based on modeling with the aim of increased irrigation efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dövényi-Nagy, Tamás; Bakó, Károly; Molnár, Krisztina; Rácz, Csaba; Vasvári, Gyula; Nagy, János; Dobos, Attila

    2015-04-01

    The significant changes in the structure of ownership and control of irrigation infrastructure in the past decades resultted in the decrease of total irrigable and irrigated area (Szilárd, 1999). In this paper, the development of a model-based online service is described whose aim is to aid reasonable irrigation practice and increase water use efficiency. In order to establish a scientific background for irrigation, an agrometeorological station network has been built up by the Agrometeorological and Agroecological Monitoring Centre. A website has been launched in order to provide direct access for local agricultural producers to both the measured weather parameters and results of model based calculations. The public site provides information for general use, registered partners get a handy model based toolkit for decision support at the plot level concerning irrigation, plant protection or frost forecast. The agrometeorological reference station network was established in the recent years by the Agrometeorological and Agroecological Monitoring Centre and is distributed to cover most of the irrigated cropland areas of Hungary. From the spatial aspect, the stations have been deployed mainly in Eastern Hungary with concentrated irrigation infrastructure. The meteorological stations' locations have been carefully chosen to represent their environment in terms of soil, climatic and topographic factors, thereby assuring relevant and up-to-date input data for the models. The measured parameters range from classic meteorological data (air temperature, relative humidity, solar irradiation, wind speed etc.) to specific data which are not available from other services in the region, such as soil temperature, soil water content in multiple depths and leaf wetness. In addition to the basic grid of reference stations, specific stations under irrigated conditions have been deployed to calibrate and validate the models. A specific modeling framework (MetAgro) has been developed

  4. THz generation at 1.55 µm excitation: six-fold increase in THz conversion efficiency by separated photoconductive and trapping regions.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Roman J B; Gerhard, Marina; Stanze, Dennis; Koch, Martin; Sartorius, Bernd; Schell, Martin

    2011-12-19

    We present first results on photoconductive THz emitters for 1.55µm excitation. The emitters are based on MBE grown In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As multilayer heterostructures (MLHS) with high carrier mobility. The high mobility is achieved by spatial separation of photoconductive and trapping regions. Photoconductive antennas made of these MLHS are evaluated as THz emitters in a THz time domain spectrometer (THz TDS). The high carrier mobility and effective absorption significantly increases the optical-to-THz conversion efficiency with THz bandwidth in excess of 3 THz. PMID:22274179

  5. Low-cost and no-cost practice to achieve energy efficiency of government office buildings: A case study in federal territory of Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Ibrahim, Amlus

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the findings of a case study to achieve energy-efficient performance of conventional office buildings in Malaysia. Two multi-storey office buildings in Federal Territory of Malaysia have been selected. The aim is to study building energy saving potential then to highlight the appropriate measures that can be implemented. Data was collected using benchmarking method by comparing the measured consumption to other similar office buildings and a series of preliminary audit which involves interviews, a brief review of utility and operating data as well as a walkthrough in the buildings. Additionally, in order to get a better understanding of major energy consumption in the selected buildings, general audit have been conducted to collect more detailed information about building operation. In the end, this study emphasized low-cost and no-cost practice to achieve energy efficiency with significant results in some cases.

  6. Application of X-Y Separable 2-D Array Beamforming for Increased Frame Rate and Energy Efficiency in Handheld Devices

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Kevin; Fuller, Michael I.; Hossack, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays present significant beamforming computational challenges because of their high channel count and data rate. These challenges are even more stringent when incorporating a 2-D transducer array into a battery-powered hand-held device, placing significant demands on power efficiency. Previous work in sonar and ultrasound indicates that 2-D array beamforming can be decomposed into two separable line-array beamforming operations. This has been used in conjunction with frequency-domain phase-based focusing to achieve fast volume imaging. In this paper, we analyze the imaging and computational performance of approximate near-field separable beamforming for high-quality delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming and for a low-cost, phaserotation-only beamforming method known as direct-sampled in-phase quadrature (DSIQ) beamforming. We show that when high-quality time-delay interpolation is used, separable DAS focusing introduces no noticeable imaging degradation under practical conditions. Similar results for DSIQ focusing are observed. In addition, a slight modification to the DSIQ focusing method greatly increases imaging contrast, making it comparable to that of DAS, despite having a wider main lobe and higher side lobes resulting from the limitations of phase-only time-delay interpolation. Compared with non-separable 2-D imaging, up to a 20-fold increase in frame rate is possible with the separable method. When implemented on a smart-phone-oriented processor to focus data from a 60 × 60 channel array using a 40 × 40 aperture, the frame rate per C-mode volume slice increases from 16 to 255 Hz for DAS, and from 11 to 193 Hz for DSIQ. Energy usage per frame is similarly reduced from 75 to 4.8 mJ/ frame for DAS, and from 107 to 6.3 mJ/frame for DSIQ. We also show that the separable method outperforms 2-D FFT-based focusing by a factor of 1.64 at these data sizes. This data indicates that with the optimal design choices, separable 2-D beamforming can

  7. Application of X-Y separable 2-D array beamforming for increased frame rate and energy efficiency in handheld devices.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kevin; Fuller, Michael; Hossack, John

    2012-07-01

    Two-dimensional arrays present significant beamforming computational challenges because of their high channel count and data rate. These challenges are even more stringent when incorporating a 2-D transducer array into a battery-powered hand-held device, placing significant demands on power efficiency. Previous work in sonar and ultrasound indicates that 2-D array beamforming can be decomposed into two separable line-array beamforming operations. This has been used in conjunction with frequency-domain phase-based focusing to achieve fast volume imaging. In this paper, we analyze the imaging and computational performance of approximate near-field separable beamforming for high-quality delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming and for a low-cost, phase-rotation-only beamforming method known as direct-sampled in-phase quadrature (DSIQ) beamforming. We show that when high-quality time-delay interpolation is used, separable DAS focusing introduces no noticeable imaging degradation under practical conditions. Similar results for DSIQ focusing are observed. In addition, a slight modification to the DSIQ focusing method greatly increases imaging contrast, making it comparable to that of DAS, despite having a wider main lobe and higher side lobes resulting from the limitations of phase-only time-delay interpolation. Compared with non-separable 2-D imaging, up to a 20-fold increase in frame rate is possible with the separable method. When implemented on a smart-phone-oriented processor to focus data from a 60 x 60 channel array using a 40 x 40 aperture, the frame rate per C-mode volume slice increases from 16 to 255 Hz for DAS, and from 11 to 193 Hz for DSIQ. Energy usage per frame is similarly reduced from 75 to 4.8 mJ/ frame for DAS, and from 107 to 6.3 mJ/frame for DSIQ. We also show that the separable method outperforms 2-D FFT-based focusing by a factor of 1.64 at these data sizes. This data indicates that with the optimal design choices, separable 2-D beamforming can

  8. Increased efficiency of rf-induced evaporative cooling by utilizing gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinner, Julian; Wolke, Matthias; Hemmerich, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    We report on an efficient rf-induced forced evaporative cooling of an ensemble of Rb87 atoms in state |F=2,mF=2> magnetically trapped in a quadrupole-Ioffe configuration trap. The cigar-shaped trap is oriented with its weak confining axis along the direction of gravity leading to, first, a significant separation of the trapping positions for low-field-seeking atoms with different mF value and, second, a reduced resonance volume for rf-induced evaporation confined to a small region around the lower tip of the cigar-shaped ensemble. This results in an enhancement of the evaporation efficiency α≡dlnT/(dlnN) due to either reduced or completely vanishing scattering events between cooled and evaporated atoms. We present data illustrating this effect.

  9. Increased efficiency of rf-induced evaporative cooling by utilizing gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Klinner, Julian; Wolke, Matthias; Hemmerich, Andreas

    2010-04-15

    We report on an efficient rf-induced forced evaporative cooling of an ensemble of {sup 87}Rb atoms in state |F=2,m{sub F}=2> magnetically trapped in a quadrupole-Ioffe configuration trap. The cigar-shaped trap is oriented with its weak confining axis along the direction of gravity leading to, first, a significant separation of the trapping positions for low-field-seeking atoms with different m{sub F} value and, second, a reduced resonance volume for rf-induced evaporation confined to a small region around the lower tip of the cigar-shaped ensemble. This results in an enhancement of the evaporation efficiency {alpha}{identical_to}dlnT/(dlnN) due to either reduced or completely vanishing scattering events between cooled and evaporated atoms. We present data illustrating this effect.

  10. Modifications in trypsin digestion protocol for increasing the efficiency and coverage.

    PubMed

    Syal, Kirtimaan; Tadala, Raghu

    2015-01-01

    Standard trypsin digestion protocol of proteins followed by MALDI-MS analysis has been realized as an important tool for the identification and characterization of proteins. In this article, we proposed the elimination of the step of 'staining/de-staining of gel pieces' in in-gel digestion protocol in order to improve the efficiency of trypsin digestion. Coomassie dye is known to interfere with digestion of proteins by trypsin and the procedure of staining-de-staining could result in loss of photoaffinity probe, post translational modifications and catalytic activities of enzymes. Further, we studied parameters like hydrophobicity and isoelectric point, and attempted to quantitatively relate it to the efficiency of trypsin digestion. We suggest that properties of proteins should be considered and trypsin digestion protocol should be appropriately modified as per sequence and other information. PMID:25813035

  11. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  12. Brighter Light Sources from Black Metal: Significant Increase in Emission Efficiency of Incandescent Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyev, A. Y.; Makin, V. S.; Guo, Chunlei

    2009-06-01

    By applying the femtosecond laser blackening technique directly to a tungsten incandescent lamp filament, we dramatically brighten the tungsten lamp and enhance its emission efficiency to approach 100%. A comparison study of emission and absorption for the structured metal surfaces shows that Kirchhoff’s law is applicable for the black metal. Furthermore, we demonstrate that we can even obtain partially polarized light as well as control the spectral range of the optimal light emission from the laser-blackened tungsten lamp.

  13. Brighter light sources from black metal: significant increase in emission efficiency of incandescent light sources.

    PubMed

    Vorobyev, A Y; Makin, V S; Guo, Chunlei

    2009-06-12

    By applying the femtosecond laser blackening technique directly to a tungsten incandescent lamp filament, we dramatically brighten the tungsten lamp and enhance its emission efficiency to approach 100%. A comparison study of emission and absorption for the structured metal surfaces shows that Kirchhoff's law is applicable for the black metal. Furthermore, we demonstrate that we can even obtain partially polarized light as well as control the spectral range of the optimal light emission from the laser-blackened tungsten lamp. PMID:19658938

  14. Industry perspectives on increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Torrens, I.M.; Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-12-31

    Independent power producers will build a substantial fraction of expected new coal-fired power generation in developing countries over the coming decades. To reduce perceived risk and obtain financing for their projects, they are currently building and plan to continue to build subcritical coal-fired plants with generating efficiency below 40%. Up-to-date engineering assessment leads to the conclusion that supercritical generating technology, capable of efficiencies of up to 45%, can produce electricity at a lower total cost than conventional plants. If such plants were built in Asia over the coming decades, the savings in carbon dioxide emissions over their lifetime would be measured in billions of tons. IPPs perceive supercritical technology as riskier and higher cost than conventional technology. The truth needs to be confirmed by discussions with additional experienced power engineering companies. Better communication among the interested parties could help to overcome the IPP perception issue. Governments working together with industry might be able to identify creative financing arrangements which can encourage the use of more efficient pulverized clean coal technologies, while awaiting the commercialization of advanced clean coal technologies like gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  15. Increased efficiency of DSC coupled to one-dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colodrero, Silvia; Míguez, Hernán

    2010-05-01

    The optimization of the conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells (DSC) has become a key issue nowadays due to the search for alternative energy resources. Different approaches based on the optical absorption enhancement can be realized in this type of solar devices by modifying the optical design of the cell. In this respect, novel porous and highly reflecting one-dimensional photonic crystals (1DPC) have been recently implemented in DSC due to their great potential for the manipulation of light propagation. The periodic structure is built by alternating layers made of different types of nanoparticles that allow us to obtain a wide and intense Bragg reflection peak. The photonic crystal, with a thickness of just half-micron, is able to efficiently localize incident light within the nc-dyed TiO2 electrode in a targeted wavelength range. So, significant optical absorption amplification in a wide spectral range occurs in these structures that combine the presence of a highly reflecting photonic crystal and a layer of absorbing material, being therefore enhanced the photogenerated current. Average power conversion efficiencies are improved between 15% and 30% with respect to the reference value attained for standard electrodes with no photonic crystal coupled.

  16. Increase in the DSSC efficiency when using metal-coated carbon nanowall counter electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangjoon; Choi, Won Seok; Lim, Dong-Gun; Choi, Eun Chang; Hong, Byungyou

    2014-08-01

    This research was conducted to improve the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using metal-layer-coated carbon nanowalls (CNWs) as counter electrodes. The CNWs were synthesized on a fluorine-doped tin-oxide (FTO) glass substrate in a microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system using methane (CH4), and the CNWS were sputter-coated with metal films several times by using an RF magnetron sputtering system and four-inch metal targets (Cu, W and Ni, separately). Then, the metal-layer-coated CNWs were used as counter electrodes for manufacturing the DSCCs. The vertical and the surface conditions of the metal-coated CNWs used as the DSCC electrodes were characterized by their electrical variations through field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Hall measurements. Their optical characteristics were analyzed using UV-Vis equipment, and the energy conversion efficiencies of the DSSCs manufactured using the metal-layer-coated CNWs as the counter electrodes were measured. The results confirmed that the efficiency improved when the W-coated CNW was used as the counter electrode.

  17. Limits on Achievable Dimensional and Photon Efficiencies with Intensity-Modulation and Photon-Counting Due to Non-Ideal Photon-Counter Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Erkmen, Baris I.; Farr, William; Dolinar, Samuel J.; Birnbaum, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    An ideal intensity-modulated photon-counting channel can achieve unbounded photon information efficiencies (PIEs). However, a number of limitations of a physical system limit the practically achievable PIE. In this paper, we discuss several of these limitations and illustrate their impact on the channel. We show that, for the Poisson channel, noise does not strictly bound PIE, although there is an effective limit, as the dimensional information efficiency goes as e[overline] e PIE beyond a threshold PIE. Since the Holevo limit is bounded in the presence of noise, this illustrates that the Poisson approximation is invalid at large PIE for any number of noise modes. We show that a finite transmitter extinction ratio bounds the achievable PIE to a maximum that is logarithmic in the extinction ratio. We show how detector jitter limits the ability to mitigate noise in the PPM signaling framework. We illustrate a method to model detector blocking when the number of detectors is large, and illustrate mitigation of blocking with spatial spreading and altering. Finally, we illustrate the design of a high photon efficiency system using state-of-the-art photo-detectors and taking all these effects into account.

  18. Increasing the efficiency of CO/sub 2/ transverse electric atmospheric lasers by use of low ionization potential additives

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, C.H.B.; Fragnito, H.L.

    1981-02-01

    A method for increasing the efficiency of conventional CO/sub 2/ transverse electric atmospheric lasers is presented. We take advantage of the fact that by strongly doping the usual CO/sub 2/:N/sub 2/:He gas mixture with a low ionization potential additive, the plasma sustaining field can be suitably reduced to attain a value optimum for the excitation of the upper laser level of CO/sub 2/. We observed field reductions to as little as 20% of the reported value for the nondoped mixture. This permitted us to increase the CO/sub 2/ excitation efficiency by a factor of 2. We also observed that the laser operating efficiency was increased by reducing the helium concentration in the gas mixture.

  19. Increased Efficiency in Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells Through the Use of a 56-π Electron Acceptor – Methano Indene Fullerene

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, James W.; Matsuo, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) offer the possibility of harnessing the sun's ubiquitous energy in a low-cost, environmentally friendly and renewable manner. OSCs based on small molecule semiconductors (SMOSCs) – have made a substantial improvement in recent years and are now achieving power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) that match those achieved for polymer:fullerene OSCs. To date, all efficient SMOSCs have relied on the same fullerene acceptor, PCBM, in order to achieve high performance. The use of PCBM however, is unfavourable due to its low lying LUMO level, which limits the open-circuit voltage (VOC). Alternative fullerene derivatives with higher lying LUMOs are thus required to improve the VOC. The challenge, however, is to prevent the typical concomitant decrease in the short circuit current density (JSC) when using a higher LUMO fullerene. In this communication, we address the issue by applying methano indene fullerene, MIF, a bis-functionalised C60 fullerene that has a LUMO level 140 mV higher than PCBM, in solution processed SMOSCs with a well known small molecule donor, DPP(TBFu)2. MIF-based devices show an improved VOC of 140 mV over PC61BM and only a small decrease in the JSC, with the PCE increasing to 5.1% (vs. 4.5% for PC61BM). PMID:25661976

  20. Lead-acid battery with improved cycle life and increased efficiency for lead leveling application and electric road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsel, A.; Schulz, J.; Guetlich, K. F.

    1983-11-01

    Lifetime and efficiency of lead acid batteries are discussed. A gas lift pump was used to prevent acid stratification and to reduce the charging factor (down to 1.03 to 1.05). A re-expansion method was applied and an expander depot and a compound separation were built in. Cycle life is increased from 700 cycles to 1690 cycles. Efficiency is increased by energy and time saving due to the reduced charging factor and by the use of a recombination stopper and a charge indicator with remote control. It is suggested that the lead acid system is still one of the best possibilities for electric road vehicle applications.

  1. Chitosan nanoparticles for siRNA delivery: optimizing formulation to increase stability and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Ragelle, H; Riva, R; Vandermeulen, G; Naeye, B; Pourcelle, V; Le Duff, C S; D'Haese, C; Nysten, B; Braeckmans, K; De Smedt, S C; Jérôme, C; Préat, V

    2014-02-28

    This study aims at developing chitosan-based nanoparticles suitable for an intravenous administration of small interfering RNA (siRNA) able to achieve (i) high gene silencing without cytotoxicity and (ii) stability in biological media including blood. Therefore, the influence of chitosan/tripolyphosphate ratio, chitosan physicochemical properties, PEGylation of chitosan as well as the addition of an endosomal disrupting agent and a negatively charged polymer was assessed. The gene silencing activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated on B16 melanoma cells expressing luciferase. We monitored the integrity and the size behavior of siRNA nanoparticles in human plasma using fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy and single particle tracking respectively. The presence of PEGylated chitosan and poly(ethylene imine) was essential for high levels of gene silencing in vitro. Chitosan nanoparticles immediately released siRNA in plasma while the inclusion of hyaluronic acid and high amount of poly(ethylene glycol) in the formulation improved the stability of the particles. The developed formulations of PEGylated chitosan-based nanoparticles that achieve high gene silencing in vitro, low cytotoxicity and high stability in plasma could be promising for intravenous delivery of siRNA. PMID:24389132

  2. Intracolonial genetic diversity in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies increases pollen foraging efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple mating by honey bee queens results in colonies of genotypically diverse workers. Recent studies have demonstrated that increased genetic diversity within a honey bee colony increases the variation in the frequency of tasks performed by workers. We show that genotypically diverse colonies, ...

  3. Emerging and established technologies to increase nitrogen use efficiency of cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizers are expensive inputs; additionally, loss of N increases costs, contributes to soil acidification, and causes off-site pollution of air, groundwater and waterways. This study reviews current knowledge about technologies for N fertilization with potential to increase N use eff...

  4. Increasing instructional efficiency by presenting additional stimuli in learning trials for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Vladescu, Jason C; Kodak, Tiffany M

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined the effectiveness and efficiency of presenting secondary targets within learning trials for 4 children with an autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, we compared 4 instructional conditions using a progressive prompt delay. In 3 conditions, we presented secondary targets in the antecedent or consequence portion of learning trials, or in the absence of prompts and reinforcement. In the fourth condition (control), we did not include secondary targets in learning trials. Results replicate and extend previous research by demonstrating that the majority of participants acquired secondary targets presented in the antecedent and consequent events of learning trials. PMID:24114346

  5. A new framework to increase the efficiency of large-scale solar power plants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimohammadi, Shahrouz; Kleissl, Jan P.

    2015-11-01

    A new framework to estimate the spatio-temporal behavior of solar power is introduced, which predicts the statistical behavior of power output at utility scale Photo-Voltaic (PV) power plants. The framework is based on spatio-temporal Gaussian Processes Regression (Kriging) models, which incorporates satellite data with the UCSD version of the Weather and Research Forecasting model. This framework is designed to improve the efficiency of the large-scale solar power plants. The results are also validated from measurements of the local pyranometer sensors, and some improvements in different scenarios are observed. Solar energy.

  6. Eco-efficient approaches to land management: a case for increased integration of crop and animal production systems.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, R J

    2008-02-12

    Eco-efficiency is concerned with the efficient and sustainable use of resources in farm production and land management. It can be increased either by altering the management of individual crop and livestock enterprises or by altering the land-use system. This paper concentrates on the effects of crop sequence and rotation on soil fertility and nutrient use efficiency. The potential importance of mixed farming involving both crops and livestock is stressed, particularly when the systems incorporate biological nitrogen fixation and manure recycling. There is, however, little evidence that the trend in developed countries to farm-level specialization is being reduced. In some circumstances legislation to restrict diffuse pollution may provide incentives for more diverse eco-efficient farming and in other circumstances price premia for produce from eco-efficient systems, such as organic farming, and subsidies for the provision of environmental services may provide economic incentives for the adoption of such systems. However, change is likely to be most rapid where the present systems lead to obvious reductions in the productive potential of the land, such as in areas experiencing salinization. In other situations, there is promise that eco-efficiency could be increased on an area-wide basis by the establishment of linkages between farms of contrasting type, particularly between specialist crop and livestock farms, with contracts for the transfer of manures and, to a lesser extent, feeds. PMID:17652073

  7. China's growing CO2 emissions--a race between increasing consumption and efficiency gains.

    PubMed

    Peters, Glen P; Weber, Christopher L; Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2007-09-01

    China's rapidly growing economy and energy consumption are creating serious environmental problems on both local and global scales. Understanding the key drivers behind China's growing energy consumption and the associated CO2 emissions is critical for the development of global climate policies and provides insight into how other emerging economies may develop a low emissions future. Using recently released Chinese economic input-output data and structural decomposition analysis we analyze how changes in China's technology, economic structure, urbanization, and lifestyles affect CO2 emissions. We find that infrastructure construction and urban household consumption, both in turn driven by urbanization and lifestyle changes, have outpaced efficiency improvements in the growth of CO2 emissions. Net trade had a small effect on total emissions due to equal, but significant, growth in emissions from the production of exports and emissions avoided by imports. Technology and efficiency improvements have only partially offset consumption growth, but there remains considerable untapped potential to reduce emissions by improving both production and consumption systems. As China continues to rapidly develop there is an opportunity to further implement and extend policies, such as the Circular Economy, that will help China avoid the high emissions path taken by today's developed countries. PMID:17937264

  8. Modeling of a water vapor selective membrane unit to increase the energy efficiency of humidity harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmair, D.; Metz, S. J.; de Lange, H. C.; van Steenhoven, A. A.

    2012-11-01

    Air humidity is a promising source of clean and safe drinking water. However, in conventional systems a lot of energy is wasted on the production of cold air, rather than the condensation of water vapor. This study examines the possibility of using a hollow fiber membrane module to make this process more energy efficient, by separating the vapor from other gases, prior to the cooling process with the help of selective membranes. The water vapor concentration within a fiber has been modeled using a random walker approach, and the membrane permeability has been implemented as a re-bounce probability for simulation particles interacting with the membrane. Considering the additional work requirement for driving a feed flow through the membrane section and the computed water vapor permeation it could be shown that the energy demand per unit water is lowest for slow flow speeds and favors short and thin fibers. The total energy requirement was estimated to be less than half of the conventional one. Comparison with other CFD simulations and a real life module has shown a good level of agreement, indicating that a membrane section could improve the energy efficiency of humidity harvesting significantly.

  9. REVERSAL OF FORTUNE: INCREASED STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCIES IN THE EARLY HISTORIES OF DWARF GALAXIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Madau, Piero; Weisz, Daniel R.; Conroy, Charlie

    2014-08-01

    On dwarf galaxy scales, the different shapes of the galaxy stellar mass function and the dark halo mass function require a star-formation efficiency (SFE) in these systems that is currently more than 1 dex lower than that of Milky Way-size halos. Here, we argue that this trend may actually be reversed at high redshift. Specifically, by combining the resolved star-formation histories of nearby isolated dwarfs with the simulated mass-growth rates of dark matter halos, we show that the assembly of these systems occurs in two phases: (1) an early, fast halo accretion phase with a rapidly deepening potential well, characterized by a high SFE; and (2) a late, slow halo accretion phase where, perhaps as a consequence of reionization, the SFE is low. Nearby dwarfs have more old stars than predicted by assuming a constant or decreasing SFE with redshift, a behavior that appears to deviate qualitatively from the trends seen among more massive systems. Taken at face value, the data suggest that at sufficiently early epochs, dwarf galaxy halos above the atomic cooling mass limit can be among the most efficient sites of star formation in the universe.

  10. China's growing CO{sub 2} emissions - a race between increasing consumption and efficiency gains

    SciTech Connect

    Glen P. Peters; Christopher L. Weber; Dabo Guan; Klaus Hubacek

    2007-09-15

    China's rapidly growing economy and energy consumption are creating serious environmental problems on both local and global scales. Understanding the key drivers behind China's growing energy consumption and the associated CO{sub 2} emissions is critical for the development of global climate policies and provides insight into how other emerging economies may develop a low emissions future. Using recently released Chinese economic input-output data and structural decomposition analysis we analyze how changes in China's technology, economic structure, urbanization, and lifestyles affect CO{sub 2} emissions. We find that infrastructure construction and urban household consumption, both in turn driven by urbanization and lifestyle changes, have outpaced efficiency improvements in the growth of CO{sub 2} emissions. Net trade had a small effect on total emissions due to equal, but significant, growth in emissions from the production of exports and emissions avoided by imports. Technology and efficiency improvements have only partially offset consumption growth, but there remains considerable untapped potential to reduce emissions by improving both production and consumption systems. As China continues to rapidly develop there is an opportunity to further implement and extend policies, such as the Circular Economy, that will help China avoid the high emissions path taken by today's developed countries. 65 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A critical combination of operating parameters can significantly increase the electrotransformation efficiency of a gram-positive Dietzia strain.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shelian; Nie, Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Xiong, Guangming; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2014-08-01

    Dietzia spp. have broad potential applications in industries. However, genetic manipulation of these species is obstructed by their low transformation efficiency, which is in the range of 10(4)colony-forming units (CFU)μg(-1) exogenous DNA. In this study, both single-factor and orthogonal experiments were conducted to test the effects of competent cell concentration (parameter A), electroporation time (B), and field strength (C), as well as the concentrations of glycine (D), isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH, E), Tween 80 (F), and penicillin G (G) on the electrotransformation efficiency of Dietzia sp. DQ12-45-1b. The order in which the parameters contributed to electrotransformation efficiency was C>D>F>G>B>A>E, suggesting that field strength, glycine, and Tween 80 each had a greater capability to increase electrotransformation efficiency than the other parameters tested. Using the optimized protocol deduced from the results of the orthogonal experiments, the electrotransformation efficiency of Dietzia sp. DQ12-45-1b reached 2.51×10(7)CFUμg(-1) plasmid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest transformation efficiency that has been reported for Dietzia bacteria to date. Thus, we present a method that combines the transformation factors to obtain the optimal transformation efficiency for a target bacterium. PMID:24892513

  12. Efficiency of incentives to jointly increase carbon sequestration and species conservation on a landscape

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Erik; Polasky, Stephen; Lewis, David J.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Lonsdorf, Eric; White, Denis; Bael, David; Lawler, Joshua J.

    2008-01-01

    We develop an integrated model to predict private land-use decisions in response to policy incentives designed to increase the provision of carbon sequestration and species conservation across heterogeneous landscapes. Using data from the Willamette Basin, Oregon, we compare the provision of carbon sequestration and species conservation under five simple policies that offer payments for conservation. We evaluate policy performance compared with the maximum feasible combinations of carbon sequestration and species conservation on the landscape for various conservation budgets. None of the conservation payment policies produce increases in carbon sequestration and species conservation that approach the maximum potential gains on the landscape. Our results show that policies aimed at increasing the provision of carbon sequestration do not necessarily increase species conservation and that highly targeted policies do not necessarily do as well as more general policies. PMID:18621703

  13. Translation efficiency of mRNAs is increased by antisense oligonucleotides targeting upstream open reading frames.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Shen, Wen; Sun, Hong; Migawa, Michael T; Vickers, Timothy A; Crooke, Stanley T

    2016-08-01

    Increasing the levels of therapeutic proteins in vivo remains challenging. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are often used to downregulate gene expression or to modify RNA splicing, but antisense technology has not previously been used to directly increase the production of selected proteins. Here we used a class of modified ASOs that bind to mRNA sequences in upstream open reading frames (uORFs) to specifically increase the amounts of protein translated from a downstream primary ORF (pORF). Using ASO treatment, we increased the amount of proteins expressed from four genes by 30-150% in a dose-dependent manner in both human and mouse cells. Notably, systemic treatment of mice with ASO resulted in an ∼80% protein increase of LRPPRC. The ASO-mediated increase in protein expression was sequence-specific, occurred at the level of translation and was dependent on helicase activity. We also found that the type of RNA modification and the position of modified nucleotides in ASOs affected translation of a pORF. ASOs are a useful class of therapeutic agents with broad utility. PMID:27398791

  14. How endogenous plant cell-wall degradation mechanisms can help achieve higher efficiency in saccharification of biomass.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Eveline Q P; De Souza, Amanda P; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-07-01

    Cell-wall recalcitrance to hydrolysis still represents one of the major bottlenecks for second-generation bioethanol production. This occurs despite the development of pre-treatments, the prospect of new enzymes, and the production of transgenic plants with less-recalcitrant cell walls. Recalcitrance, which is the intrinsic resistance to breakdown imposed by polymer assembly, is the result of inherent limitations in its three domains. These consist of: (i) porosity, associated with a pectin matrix impairing trafficking through the wall; (ii) the glycomic code, which refers to the fine-structural emergent complexity of cell-wall polymers that are unique to cells, tissues, and species; and (iii) cellulose crystallinity, which refers to the organization in micro- and/or macrofibrils. One way to circumvent recalcitrance could be by following cell-wall hydrolysis strategies underlying plant endogenous mechanisms that are optimized to precisely modify cell walls in planta. Thus, the cell-wall degradation that occurs during fruit ripening, abscission, storage cell-wall mobilization, and aerenchyma formation are reviewed in order to highlight how plants deal with recalcitrance and which are the routes to couple prospective enzymes and cocktail designs with cell-wall features. The manipulation of key enzyme levels in planta can help achieving biologically pre-treated walls (i.e. less recalcitrant) before plants are harvested for bioethanol production. This may be helpful in decreasing the costs associated with producing bioethanol from biomass. PMID:25922489

  15. Helper-dependent adenovirus achieve more efficient and persistent liver transgene expression in non-human primates under immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Unzu, C; Melero, I; Hervás-Stubbs, S; Sampedro, A; Mancheño, U; Morales-Kastresana, A; Serrano-Mendioroz, I; de Salamanca, R E; Benito, A; Fontanellas, A

    2015-11-01

    Helper-dependent adenoviral (HDA) vectors constitute excellent gene therapy tools for metabolic liver diseases. We have previously shown that an HDA vector encoding human porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) corrects acute intermittent porphyria mice. Now, six non-human primates were injected in the left hepatic lobe with the PBGD-encoding HDA vector to study levels and persistence of transgene expression. Intrahepatic administration of 5 × 10(12) viral particles kg(-1) (10(10) infective units kg(-1)) of HDA only resulted in transient (≈14 weeks) transgene expression in one out of three individuals. In contrast, a more prolonged 90-day immunosuppressive regimen (tacrolimus, mycophenolate, rituximab and steroids) extended meaningful transgene expression for over 76 weeks in two out of two cases. Transgene expression under immunosuppression (IS) reached maximum levels 6 weeks after HDA administration and gradually declined reaching a stable plateau within the therapeutic range for acute porphyria. The non-injected liver lobes also expressed the transgene because of vector circulation. IS controlled anticapsid T-cell responses and decreased the induction of neutralizing antibodies. Re-administration of HDA-hPBGD at week +78 achieved therapeutically meaningful transgene expression only in those animals receiving IS again at the time of this second vector exposure. Overall, immunity against adenoviral capsids poses serious hurdles for long-term HDA-mediated liver transduction, which can be partially circumvented by pharmacological IS. PMID:26125605

  16. Metal and Glass Manufactures Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in Process Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2004-05-01

    Process heating plays a key role in producing steel, aluminum, and glass and in manufacturing products made from these materials. Faced with regulatory and competitive pressures to control emissions and reduce operating costs, metal and glass manufacturers are considering a variety of options for reducing overall energy consumption. As 38% of the energy used in U.S. industrial plants is consumed for process heating applications, metal and glass manufacturers are discovering that process heating technologies provide significant opportunities for improving industrial productivity, energy efficiency, and global competitiveness. This fact sheet is the first in a series to describe such opportunities that can be realized in industrial systems by conducting plant-wide assessments (PWA).

  17. Increasing prototype airfoil fabrication efficiency through the use of sectional molds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karges, Adam T.

    Airfoil development has always been important in the aeronautics industry. Current airfoil development techniques are being applied to design larger and more efficient wind turbine blades. To verify simulation results, a prototype blade must be built and tested. Current wing or blade structures are fabricated using traditional molding techniques. These large molds, particularly those used for wind turbine blades, can be fabricated from composite materials formed over a master shape. This process can be time and material intensive. This project develops techniques and methodology to build cavity molds using sectional pieces directly fabricated by computer numerically controlled (CNC) milling. A mold cavity was machined into tooling foam using CNC milling. This process allowed for mold creation without fabricating a master airfoil. Employment of several mold sections makes the machining process much easier and allows machine shops to produce larger, previously unfeasible, airfoil molds using limited machining length.

  18. Standardized workflows for increasing efficiency and productivity in discovery stage bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Kevin P; Cohen, Lucinda; Emary, Bart; Pucci, Vincenzo

    2013-07-01

    Merck consolidated discovery stage bioanalytical functions into the Department of Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics & Drug Metabolism in 2007. Since then procedures and equipment used to provide important quantitative data to project teams have been harmonized and in many cases standardized. This approach has enabled movement of work across the network of laboratories and has resulted in a lean, flexible and efficient organization. The overall goal was to reduce time and resources spent on routine activities while creating time to perform research in new areas and technologies to support future scientific needs. The current state of discovery bioanalysis at Merck is discussed, including hardware and software platforms, workflow procedures and performance metrics. Examples of improved processes will be discussed for compound tuning, LC method development, analytical acceptance criteria, automated sample preparation, sample analysis platforms, data processing and data reporting. PMID:23862710

  19. Joint System Prognostics For Increased Efficiency And Risk Mitigation In Advanced Nuclear Reactor Instrumentation and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Tuan Q. Tran; Ronald L. Boring; Bruce P. Hallbert

    2006-08-01

    The science of prognostics is analogous to a doctor who, based on a set of symptoms and patient tests, assesses a probable cause, the risk to the patient, and a course of action for recovery. While traditional prognostics research has focused on the aspect of hydraulic and mechanical systems and associated failures, this project will take a joint view in focusing not only on the digital I&C aspect of reliability and risk, but also on the risks associated with the human element. Model development will not only include an approximation of the control system physical degradation but also on human performance degradation. Thus the goal of the prognostic system is to evaluate control room operation; to identify and potentially take action when performance degradation reduces plant efficiency, reliability or safety.

  20. Increasing the efficiency of bacterial transcription simulations: When to exclude the genome without loss of accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Iafolla, Marco AJ; Dong, Guang Qiang; McMillen, David R

    2008-01-01

    Background Simulating the major molecular events inside an Escherichia coli cell can lead to a very large number of reactions that compose its overall behaviour. Not only should the model be accurate, but it is imperative for the experimenter to create an efficient model to obtain the results in a timely fashion. Here, we show that for many parameter regimes, the effect of the host cell genome on the transcription of a gene from a plasmid-borne promoter is negligible, allowing one to simulate the system more efficiently by removing the computational load associated with representing the presence of the rest of the genome. The key parameter is the on-rate of RNAP binding to the promoter (k_on), and we compare the total number of transcripts produced from a plasmid vector generated as a function of this rate constant, for two versions of our gene expression model, one incorporating the host cell genome and one excluding it. By sweeping parameters, we identify the k_on range for which the difference between the genome and no-genome models drops below 5%, over a wide range of doubling times, mRNA degradation rates, plasmid copy numbers, and gene lengths. Results We assess the effect of the simulating the presence of the genome over a four-dimensional parameter space, considering: 24 min <= bacterial doubling time <= 100 min; 10 <= plasmid copy number <= 1000; 2 min <= mRNA half-life <= 14 min; and 10 bp <= gene length <= 10000 bp. A simple MATLAB user interface generates an interpolated k_on threshold for any point in this range; this rate can be compared to the ones used in other transcription studies to assess the need for including the genome. Conclusion Exclusion of the genome is shown to yield less than 5% difference in transcript numbers over wide ranges of values, and computational speed is improved by two to 24 times by excluding explicit representation of the genome. PMID:18789148

  1. How to use the world's scarce selenium resources efficiently to increase the selenium concentration in food.

    PubMed

    Haug, Anna; Graham, Robin D; Christophersen, Olav A; Lyons, Graham H

    2007-12-01

    The world's rare selenium resources need to be managed carefully. Selenium is extracted as a by-product of copper mining and there are no deposits that can be mined for selenium alone. Selenium has unique properties as a semi-conductor, making it of special value to industry, but it is also an essential nutrient for humans and animals and may promote plant growth and quality. Selenium deficiency is regarded as a major health problem for 0.5 to 1 billion people worldwide, while an even larger number may consume less selenium than required for optimal protection against cancer, cardiovascular diseases and severe infectious diseases including HIV disease. Efficient recycling of selenium is difficult. Selenium is added in some commercial fertilizers, but only a small proportion is taken up by plants and much of the remainder is lost for future utilization. Large biofortification programmes with selenium added to commercial fertilizers may therefore be a fortification method that is too wasteful to be applied to large areas of our planet. Direct addition of selenium compounds to food (process fortification) can be undertaken by the food industry. If selenomethionine is added directly to food, however, oxidation due to heat processing needs to be avoided. New ways to biofortify food products are needed, and it is generally observed that there is less wastage if selenium is added late in the production chain rather than early. On these bases we have proposed adding selenium-enriched, sprouted cereal grain during food processing as an efficient way to introduce this nutrient into deficient diets. Selenium is a non-renewable resource. There is now an enormous wastage of selenium associated with large-scale mining and industrial processing. We recommend that this must be changed and that much of the selenium that is extracted should be stockpiled for use as a nutrient by future generations. PMID:18833333

  2. How to use the world's scarce selenium resources efficiently to increase the selenium concentration in food

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Anna; Graham, Robin D.; Christophersen, Olav A.; Lyons, Graham H.

    2007-01-01

    The world's rare selenium resources need to be managed carefully. Selenium is extracted as a by-product of copper mining and there are no deposits that can be mined for selenium alone. Selenium has unique properties as a semi-conductor, making it of special value to industry, but it is also an essential nutrient for humans and animals and may promote plant growth and quality. Selenium deficiency is regarded as a major health problem for 0.5 to 1 billion people worldwide, while an even larger number may consume less selenium than required for optimal protection against cancer, cardiovascular diseases and severe infectious diseases including HIV disease. Efficient recycling of selenium is difficult. Selenium is added in some commercial fertilizers, but only a small proportion is taken up by plants and much of the remainder is lost for future utilization. Large biofortification programmes with selenium added to commercial fertilizers may therefore be a fortification method that is too wasteful to be applied to large areas of our planet. Direct addition of selenium compounds to food (process fortification) can be undertaken by the food industry. If selenomethionine is added directly to food, however, oxidation due to heat processing needs to be avoided. New ways to biofortify food products are needed, and it is generally observed that there is less wastage if selenium is added late in the production chain rather than early. On these bases we have proposed adding selenium-enriched, sprouted cereal grain during food processing as an efficient way to introduce this nutrient into deficient diets. Selenium is a non-renewable resource. There is now an enormous wastage of selenium associated with large-scale mining and industrial processing. We recommend that this must be changed and that much of the selenium that is extracted should be stockpiled for use as a nutrient by future generations. PMID:18833333

  3. Increased efficiency of evolved group I intron spliceozymes by decreased side product formation

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Zhaleh N.; Müller, Ulrich F.

    2015-01-01

    The group I intron ribozyme from Tetrahymena was recently reengineered into a trans-splicing variant that is able to remove 100-nt introns from pre-mRNA, analogous to the spliceosome. These spliceozymes were improved in this study by 10 rounds of evolution in Escherichia coli cells. One clone with increased activity in E. coli cells was analyzed in detail. Three of its 10 necessary mutations extended the substrate binding duplexes, which led to increased product formation and reduced cleavage at the 5′-splice site. One mutation in the conserved core of the spliceozyme led to a further reduction of cleavage at the 5′-splice site but an increase in cleavage side products at the 3′-splice site. The latter was partially reduced by six additional mutations. Together, the mutations increased product formation while reducing activity at the 5′-splice site and increasing activity at the 3′-splice site. These results show the adaptation of a ribozyme that evolved in nature for cis-splicing to trans-splicing, and they highlight the interdependent function of nucleotides within group I intron ribozymes. Implications for the possible use of spliceozymes as tools in research and therapy, and as a model for the evolution of the spliceosome, are discussed. PMID:26106216

  4. Altered physiological function, not structure, drives increased radiation-use efficiency of soybean grown at elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Rascher, Uwe; Biskup, Bernhard; Leakey, Andrew D B; McGrath, Justin M; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies of elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]) on crop canopies have found that radiation-use efficiency is increased more than radiation-interception efficiency. It is assumed that increased radiation-use efficiency is due to changes in leaf-level physiology; however, canopy structure can affect radiation-use efficiency if leaves are displayed in a manner that optimizes their physiological capacity, even though the canopy intercepts the same amount of light. In order to determine the contributions of physiology and canopy structure to radiation-use and radiation-interception efficiency, this study relates leaf-level physiology and leaf display to photosynthetic rate of the outer canopy. We used a new imaging approach that delivers three-dimensional maps of the outer canopy during the growing season. The 3D data were used to model leaf orientation and mean photosynthetic electron transport of the outer canopy to show that leaf orientation changes did not contribute to increased radiation-use; i.e. leaves of the outer canopy showed similar diurnal leaf movements and leaf orientation in both treatments. Elevated [CO(2)] resulted in an increased maximum electron transport rate (ETR(max)) of light reactions of photosynthesis. Modeling of canopy light interception showed that stimulated leaf-level electron transport at elevated [CO(2)], and not alterations in leaf orientation, was associated with stimulated radiation-use efficiency and biomass production in elevated [CO(2)]. This study provides proof of concept of methodology to quantify structure-function relationships in combination, allowing a quantitative estimate of the contribution of both effects to canopy energy conversion under elevated [CO(2)]. PMID:20407832

  5. Marine mixotrophy increases trophic transfer efficiency, mean organism size, and vertical carbon flux.

    PubMed

    Ward, Ben A; Follows, Michael J

    2016-03-15

    Mixotrophic plankton, which combine the uptake of inorganic resources and the ingestion of living prey, are ubiquitous in marine ecosystems, but their integrated biogeochemical impacts remain unclear. We address this issue by removing the strict distinction between phytoplankton and zooplankton from a global model of the marine plankton food web. This simplification allows the emergence of a realistic trophic network with increased fidelity to empirical estimates of plankton community structure and elemental stoichiometry, relative to a system in which autotrophy and heterotrophy are mutually exclusive. Mixotrophy enhances the transfer of biomass to larger sizes classes further up the food chain, leading to an approximately threefold increase in global mean organism size and an ∼35% increase in sinking carbon flux. PMID:26831076

  6. Improved efficiency of photoconductive THz emitters by increasing the effective contact length of electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Abhishek; Surdi, Harshad; Nikesh, V. V.; Prabhu, S. S.; Döhler, G. H.

    2013-12-15

    We study the effect of a surface modification at the interface between metallic electrodes and semiconducting substrate in Semi-Insulating GaAs (SI-GaAs) based photoconductive emitters (PCE) on the emission of Tera-Hertz (THz) radiation. We partially etch out a 500 nm thick layer of SI-GaAs in grating like pattern with various periods before the contact deposition. By depositing the electrodes on the patterned surface, the electrodes follow the contour of the grating period. This increases the effective contact length of the electrodes per unit area of the active regions on the PCE. The maxima of the electric field amplitude of the THz pulses emitted from the patterned surface are enhanced by up to more than a factor 2 as compared to an un-patterned surface. We attribute this increase to the increase of the effective contact length of the electrode due to surface patterning.

  7. The Endless Pursuit of Efficiency: The International Movement To Increase Accountability and Performance in Higher Education. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, F. King

    This paper examines the trend toward demanding increased accountability and efficiency by institutions of higher education in the United States and Europe and its implications for the relationship between government and the college or university. It notes that such factors as limited state resources, rising educational costs, and the growing…

  8. Strategies for reconciling environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector: Analytic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    The project is motivated by recommendations that were made by industry in a number of different forums: the Industry Workshop of the White House Conference on Climate Change, and more recently, industry consultations for EPAct Section 131(c) and Section 160(b). These recommendations were related to reconciling conflicts in environmental goals, productivity improvements and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector.

  9. Using Supplementary Video in Multimedia Instruction as a Teaching Tool to Increase Efficiency of Learning and Quality of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljubojevic, Milos; Vaskovic, Vojkan; Stankovic, Srecko; Vaskovic, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to investigate efficiency of use of supplementary video content in multimedia teaching. Integrating video clips in multimedia lecture presentations may increase students' perception of important information and motivation for learning. Because of that, students can better understand and remember key…

  10. PROJECT MODELS--A FACILITATIVE ENVIRONMENT FOR INCREASING EFFICIENCY OF PUPIL LEARNING AND FOR CONDUCTING EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAUSMEIER, HERBERT J.; AND OTHERS

    PROJECT MODELS IS A COOPERATIVE PROJECT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN R/D CENTER ON COGNITIVE LEARNING, LOCAL SCHOOL SYSTEMS, AND THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT. THE PROJECT'S AIM IS TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF STUDENT LEARNING AND TO FACILITATE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES BY REORGANIZING THE STRUCTURE OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL INTO…

  11. Engineering WT1-Encoding mRNA to Increase Translational Efficiency in Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Benteyn, Daphné; Heirman, Carlo; Thielemans, Kris; Bonehill, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the orchestrators of the immune system and are frequently used in clinical trials in order to boost the immune system in cancer patients. Among several available techniques for DC modification, mRNA electroporation is an interesting technique due to the favorable characteristics of mRNA. Antigen expression level and duration can be increased by multiple optimizations of an antigen-encoding mRNA template. Here, we describe different molecular modifications to a WT1-encoding mRNA construct in order to increase antigen expression and the subsequent introduction of mRNA into DCs. PMID:27236795

  12. Increase in C3 plant water-use efficiency and biomass over Glacial to present C02 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Policy, H. Wayne; Johnson, Hyrum B.; Marinot, Bruno D.; Mayeux, Herman S.

    1993-01-01

    ATMOSPHERIC CO2 concentration was 160 to 200 μmol mol-1 during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; about 18,000 years ago)1, rose to about 275 (μmol mol-1 10,000 years ago2,3, and has increased to about 350 μmol mol-1 since 1800 (ref. 4). Here we present data indicating that this increase in CO2 has enhanced biospheric carbon fixation and altered species abundances by increasing the water-use efficiency of biomass production of C3 plants, the bulk of the Earth's vegetation. We grew oats (Avena sativa), wild mustard (Brassica kaber) and wheat (Triticum aes-tivum cv. Seri M82 and Yaqui 54), all C3 annuals, and selected C4 grasses along daytime gradients of Glacial to present atmospheric CO2 concentrations in a 38-m-long chamber. We calculated parameters related to leaf photosynthesis and water-use efficiency from stable carbon isotope ratios (13C/12C) of whole leaves. Leaf water-use efficiency and above-ground biomass/plant of C3 species increased linearly and nearly proportionally with increasing CO2 concentrations. Direct effects of increasing CO2 on plants must be considered when modelling the global carbon cycle and effects of climate change on vegetation.

  13. Conservation cropping systems: Increasing water use efficiency and lowering production costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As of the 2007 Census of Agriculture, irrigated acres were only found on 4.4% of agricultural operations in Alabama. To increase irrigated acres, the Alabama Legislature passed the Irrigation Incentives Bill in 2012 to provide a state income tax credit of 20 percent of the costs of the purchase and ...

  14. Increasing Completion Rates in Norwegian Doctoral Training: Multiple Causes for Efficiency Improvements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein; Olsen, Terje Bruen

    2014-01-01

    This article examines changes in completion rates and time-to-degree in Norwegian doctoral training over the last 30 years. A steadily increasing share of doctoral candidates holding a fellowship have been awarded their doctoral degree within five years; from 30% of those admitted in 1980 to 60% of those admitted 25 years later. Furthermore, the…

  15. A survey on breeding strategies and selection objectives for increased feed efficiency and decreased methane emission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combined effects of world population growth, rising incomes and dietary changes have resulted in an increasing international demand for dairy and meat products. However, livestock can have negative impacts on the environment and the greater awareness of climate change has placed pressure on the ...

  16. Down regulation of Akirin-2 increases chemosensitivity in human glioblastomas more efficiently than Twist-1.

    PubMed

    Krossa, Sebastian; Schmitt, Anne Dorothée; Hattermann, Kirsten; Fritsch, Jürgen; Scheidig, Axel J; Mehdorn, Hubertus Maximilian; Held-Feindt, Janka

    2015-08-28

    The Twist-1 transcription factor and its interacting protein Akirin-2 regulate apoptosis. We found that in glioblastomas, highly malignant brain tumors, Akirin-2 and Twist-1 were expressed in glial fibrillary acidic protein positive tumor regions as well as in tumor endothelial cells and infiltrating macrophages / microglia. Temozolomide (TMZ) induced the expression of both molecules, partly shifting their nuclear to cytosolic localization. The knock-down (kd) of Akirin-2 increased the activity of cleaved (c)Caspase-3/-7, the amounts of cCaspases-3, -7 and cPARP-1 and resulted in an increased number of apoptotic cells after TMZ exposure. Glioblastoma cells containing decreased amounts of Akirin-2 after kd contained increased amounts of cCaspase-3 as determined by the ImageStreamx Mark II technology. For Twist-1, similar results were obtained with the exception that the combination of TMZ treatment and Twist-1 kd failed to significantly reduce chemoresistance compared with controls. This could be attributed to a cell population containing only slightly increased cCaspase-3 together with decreased Twist-1 levels, which was clearly larger than the respective population observed under Akirin-2 kd. Our results showed that, compared with Twist-1, Akirin-2 is the more promising target for RNAi strategies antagonizing Twist-1/Akirin-2 facilitated glioblastoma cell survival. PMID:26036627

  17. Down regulation of Akirin-2 increases chemosensitivity in human glioblastomas more efficiently than Twist-1

    PubMed Central

    Krossa, Sebastian; Schmitt, Anne Dorothée; Hattermann, Kirsten; Fritsch, Jürgen; Scheidig, Axel J.; Mehdorn, Hubertus Maximilian; Held-Feindt, Janka

    2015-01-01

    The Twist-1 transcription factor and its interacting protein Akirin-2 regulate apoptosis. We found that in glioblastomas, highly malignant brain tumors, Akirin-2 and Twist-1 were expressed in glial fibrillary acidic protein positive tumor regions as well as in tumor endothelial cells and infiltrating macrophages / microglia. Temozolomide (TMZ) induced the expression of both molecules, partly shifting their nuclear to cytosolic localization. The knock-down (kd) of Akirin-2 increased the activity of cleaved (c)Caspase-3/-7, the amounts of cCaspases-3, -7 and cPARP-1 and resulted in an increased number of apoptotic cells after TMZ exposure. Glioblastoma cells containing decreased amounts of Akirin-2 after kd contained increased amounts of cCaspase-3 as determined by the ImageStreamx Mark II technology. For Twist-1, similar results were obtained with the exception that the combination of TMZ treatment and Twist-1 kd failed to significantly reduce chemoresistance compared with controls. This could be attributed to a cell population containing only slightly increased cCaspase-3 together with decreased Twist-1 levels, which was clearly larger than the respective population observed under Akirin-2 kd. Our results showed that, compared with Twist-1, Akirin-2 is the more promising target for RNAi strategies antagonizing Twist-1/Akirin-2 facilitated glioblastoma cell survival. PMID:26036627

  18. Increasing Efficiency at the NTF by Optimizing Model AoA Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Bradley L.; Spells, Courtney

    2006-01-01

    The National Transonic Facility (NTF) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is a national resource for aeronautical research and development. The government, military and private industries rely on the capability of this facility for realistic flight data. Reducing the operation costs and keeping the NTF affordable is essential for aeronautics research. The NTF is undertaking an effort to reduce the time between data points during a pitch polar. This reduction is being driven by the operating costs of a cryogenic facility. If the time per data point can be reduced, a substantial cost savings can be realized from a reduction in liquid nitrogen (LN2) consumption. It is known that angle-of-attack (AoA) positioning is the longest lead-time item between points. In January 2005 a test was conducted at the NTF to determine the cause of the long lead-time so that an effort could be made to improve efficiency. The AoA signal at the NTF originates from onboard instrumentation then travels through a number of different systems including the signal conditioner, digital voltmeter, and the data system where the AoA angle is calculated. It is then fed into a closed loop control system that sets the model position. Each process along this path adds to the time per data point affecting the efficiency of the data taking process. Due to the nature of the closed loop feed back AoA control and the signal path, it takes approximately 18 seconds to take one pitch pause point with a typical AoA increment. Options are being investigated to reduce the time delay between points by modifying the signal path. These options include: reduced signal filtering, using analog channels instead of a digital volt meter (DVM), re-routing the signal directly to the AoA control computer and implementing new control algorithms. Each of these has potential to reduce the positioning time and together the savings could be significant. These timesaving efforts are essential but must be weighed against

  19. Supplementing Vitamin E to the Ration of Beef Cattle Increased the Utilization Efficiency of Dietary Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chen; Lin, Shixin; Wu, Jinlong; Zhao, Guangyong; Zhang, Tingting; Zheng, Wensi

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the trial were to investigate the effects of supplementing vitamin E (VE) on nutrient digestion, nitrogen (N) retention and plasma parameters of beef cattle in feedlot. Four growing Simmental bulls, fed with a total mixed ration composed of corn silage and concentrate mixture as basal ration, were used as the experimental animals. Four levels of VE product, i.e. 0, 150, 300, 600 mg/head/d (equivalent to 0, 75, 150, 300 IU VE/head/d), were supplemented to the basal ration (VE content 38 IU/kg dry matter) in a 4×4 Latin square design as experimental treatments I, II, III and IV, respectively. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, of which the first 12 days were for pretreatment and the last 3 days for sampling. The results showed that supplementing VE did not affect the nutrient digestibility (p>0.05) whereas decreased the urinary N excretion (p<0.01), increased the N retention (p<0.05) and tended to increase the microbial N supply estimated based on the total urinary purine derivatives (p = 0.057). Supplementing VE increased the plasma concentrations of VE, glucose and triglycerol (TG) (p<0.05) and tended to increase the plasma concentration of total protein (p = 0.096) whereas did not affect the plasma antioxidant indices and other parameters (p>0.05). It was concluded that supplementing VE up to 300 IU/head/d did not affect the nutrient digestibility whereas supplementing VE at 150 or 300 IU/head/d increased the N retention and the plasma concentrations of VE and TG (p<0.05) of beef cattle. PMID:26950868

  20. Supplementing Vitamin E to the Ration of Beef Cattle Increased the Utilization Efficiency of Dietary Nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chen; Lin, Shixin; Wu, Jinlong; Zhao, Guangyong; Zhang, Tingting; Zheng, Wensi

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the trial were to investigate the effects of supplementing vitamin E (VE) on nutrient digestion, nitrogen (N) retention and plasma parameters of beef cattle in feedlot. Four growing Simmental bulls, fed with a total mixed ration composed of corn silage and concentrate mixture as basal ration, were used as the experimental animals. Four levels of VE product, i.e. 0, 150, 300, 600 mg/head/d (equivalent to 0, 75, 150, 300 IU VE/head/d), were supplemented to the basal ration (VE content 38 IU/kg dry matter) in a 4×4 Latin square design as experimental treatments I, II, III and IV, respectively. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, of which the first 12 days were for pretreatment and the last 3 days for sampling. The results showed that supplementing VE did not affect the nutrient digestibility (p>0.05) whereas decreased the urinary N excretion (p<0.01), increased the N retention (p<0.05) and tended to increase the microbial N supply estimated based on the total urinary purine derivatives (p = 0.057). Supplementing VE increased the plasma concentrations of VE, glucose and triglycerol (TG) (p<0.05) and tended to increase the plasma concentration of total protein (p = 0.096) whereas did not affect the plasma antioxidant indices and other parameters (p>0.05). It was concluded that supplementing VE up to 300 IU/head/d did not affect the nutrient digestibility whereas supplementing VE at 150 or 300 IU/head/d increased the N retention and the plasma concentrations of VE and TG (p<0.05) of beef cattle. PMID:26950868

  1. Efficiency of Intergeneric Recombinants Between Bacillus Thuringiensis and Bacillus Subtilis for Increasing Mortality Rate in Cotten Leaf Worm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlOtaibi, Saad Aied

    2012-12-01

    In this study , two strains of Bacillus belonging to two serotypes and four of their transconjugants were screened with respect to their toxicity against lepidopterous cotton pest. . Bacterial transconjugants isolated from conjugation between both strains were evaluated for their transconjugant efficiency caused mortality in Spodoptera littoralis larvae . Two groups of bioinsecticides ; crystals , crystals and spores have been isolated from Bacillusstrains and their transconjugants . Insecticidal crystal protein ( ICP ) was specific for lepidopteran insects because of the toxin sufficient both for insect specificity and toxicity . The toxicities of these two groups against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis was expressed as transconjugant efficiency , which related to the mean number of larvae died expressed as mortality percentage . The results showed transconjugant efficiency in reducing the mean number of Spodoptera littoralis larvae feeding on leaves of Ricinus communis sprayed with bioinsecticides of Bt transconjugants. Most values of positive transconjugant efficiency related to increasing mortality percentage are due to toxicological effects appeared in response to the treatments with crystals + endospores than that of crystals alone .This indicated that crystals + endospores was more effective for increasing mortality percentage than that resulted by crystals . Higher positive transconjugant efficiency in relation to the mid parents and better parent was appeared at 168 h of treatment . The results indicated that recombinant Bacillus thuringiensis are important control agents for lepidopteran pests , as well as , susceptibility decreased with larval development . The results also suggested a potential for the deployment of these recominant entomopathogens in the management of Spodoptera. littoralis larvae .

  2. An integrated systems biology approach identifies positive cofactor 4 as a factor that increases reprogramming efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Junghyun; Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Hyung Joon; Hong, Soomin; Lee, Jeoung Eun; Lee, Sung-Geum; Baek, Ahmi; Han, Heonjong; Lee, Jin Il; Lee, Insuk; Lee, Dong Ryul

    2016-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) can spontaneously dedifferentiate into embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like cells, which are designated as multipotent SSCs (mSSCs), without ectopic expression of reprogramming factors. Interestingly, SSCs express key pluripotency genes such as Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and Myc. Therefore, molecular dissection of mSSC reprogramming may provide clues about novel endogenous reprogramming or pluripotency regulatory factors. Our comparative transcriptome analysis of mSSCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) suggests that they have similar pluripotency states but are reprogrammed via different transcriptional pathways. We identified 53 genes as putative pluripotency regulatory factors using an integrated systems biology approach. We demonstrated a selected candidate, Positive cofactor 4 (Pc4), can enhance the efficiency of somatic cell reprogramming by promoting and maintaining transcriptional activity of the key reprograming factors. These results suggest that Pc4 has an important role in inducing spontaneous somatic cell reprogramming via up-regulation of key pluripotency genes. PMID:26740582

  3. Evaluating light attraction to increase trap efficiency for Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Duehl, A J; Cohnstaedt, L W; Arbogast, R T; Teal, P E A

    2011-08-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a major coleopteran pest in flour mills and storage facilities. An aggregation pheromone has been identified for this pest; however, the pheromone is of limited value for population monitoring. To develop more efficient methods to monitor this pest, experiments were conducted to determine whether light functioned as an attractant for the red flour beetle. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) of various wavelengths were examined as light sources because they produce bright, narrow light spectra. A comparison of responses to light spectra across the visible and UV regions of the electromagnetic spectrum indicated that the beetle was most attracted to near UV LED at a 390 nm dominant wavelength. The use of LEDs in competitive laboratory experiments resulted in a 20% capture of released beetles, compared with a 1% capture with the aggregation pheromone alone. Even more beetles were captured with a combination of LEDs and commercially available chemical lures in traps. LEDs can easily be added onto existing trap designs or new traps can be designed to take full advantage of positive phototaxis. PMID:21882713

  4. A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hoogeboom-Pot, Kathleen M.; Hernandez-Charpak, Jorge N.; Gu, Xiaokun; Frazer, Travis D.; Anderson, Erik H.; Chao, Weilun; Falcone, Roger W.; Yang, Ronggui; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Nardi, Damiano

    2015-01-01

    Understanding thermal transport from nanoscale heat sources is important for a fundamental description of energy flow in materials, as well as for many technological applications including thermal management in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics, thermoelectric devices, nanoenhanced photovoltaics, and nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapies. Thermal transport at the nanoscale is fundamentally different from that at the macroscale and is determined by the distribution of carrier mean free paths and energy dispersion in a material, the length scales of the heat sources, and the distance over which heat is transported. Past work has shown that Fourier’s law for heat conduction dramatically overpredicts the rate of heat dissipation from heat sources with dimensions smaller than the mean free path of the dominant heat-carrying phonons. In this work, we uncover a new regime of nanoscale thermal transport that dominates when the separation between nanoscale heat sources is small compared with the dominant phonon mean free paths. Surprisingly, the interaction of phonons originating from neighboring heat sources enables more efficient diffusive-like heat dissipation, even from nanoscale heat sources much smaller than the dominant phonon mean free paths. This finding suggests that thermal management in nanoscale systems including integrated circuits might not be as challenging as previously projected. Finally, we demonstrate a unique capability to extract differential conductivity as a function of phonon mean free path in materials, allowing the first (to our knowledge) experimental validation of predictions from the recently developed first-principles calculations. PMID:25831491

  5. A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hoogeboom-Pot, Kathleen M.; Hernandez-Charpak, Jorge N.; Gu, Xiaokun; Frazer, Travis D.; Anderson, Erik H.; Chao, Weilun; Falcone, Roger W.; Yang, Ronggui; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; et al

    2015-03-23

    Understanding thermal transport from nanoscale heat sources is important for a fundamental description of energy flow in materials, as well as for many technological applications including thermal management in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics, thermoelectric devices, nanoenhanced photovoltaics, and nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapies. Thermal transport at the nanoscale is fundamentally different from that at the macroscale and is determined by the distribution of carrier mean free paths and energy dispersion in a material, the length scales of the heat sources, and the distance over which heat is transported. Past work has shown that Fourier’s law for heat conduction dramatically overpredicts the rate ofmore » heat dissipation from heat sources with dimensions smaller than the mean free path of the dominant heat-carrying phonons. In this work, we uncover a new regime of nanoscale thermal transport that dominates when the separation between nanoscale heat sources is small compared with the dominant phonon mean free paths. Surprisingly, the interaction of phonons originating from neighboring heat sources enables more efficient diffusive-like heat dissipation, even from nanoscale heat sources much smaller than the dominant phonon mean free paths. This finding suggests that thermal management in nanoscale systems including integrated circuits might not be as challenging as previously projected. In conclusion, we demonstrate a unique capability to extract differential conductivity as a function of phonon mean free path in materials, allowing the first (to our knowledge) experimental validation of predictions from the recently developed first-principles calculations.« less

  6. Perspectives of Increasing Efficiency and Productivity of Electromagnetic Induction Pumps for Mercury Basing on Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Bucenieks, I.

    2006-07-01

    In the next generation neutron sources the HLM (heavy liquid metals) such as lead, lead based eutectic alloys and mercury will be used both as spallation target material and simultaneously as the cooling liquid. In this aspect the design of safe and effective pumps for HLM recirculation at high pressure heads and big flow rates becomes important. For this purpose electromagnetic inductions pumps having no problems of hydraulic seals being in contact with liquid metal (electromagnetic forces in the liquid metal are induced by magnetic system located outside of the channel of pump) are more perspective from the point of view of their safety for operation at high temperature and radiation conditions in comparison with mechanical pumps. At the Institute of Physics of University of Latvia (IPUL) the design concept of electromagnetic induction pumps basing on the principle of rotating permanent magnets (PMP) have been developed. Such design concept of electromagnetic induction pumps has many advantages in comparison with traditionally used electromagnetic induction pumps basing on 3-phase linear flat or cylindrical inductors. The estimations of parameters of powerful pumps (such as overall dimensions of the active magnetic system, power of motor needed for pump drive, the efficiency of pump) for mercury for the developed by pump pressure heads in the range up to 10.0 bar and provided flow rates in the range up to 20 litres per second are demonstrated. (author)

  7. A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hoogeboom-Pot, Kathleen M; Hernandez-Charpak, Jorge N; Gu, Xiaokun; Frazer, Travis D; Anderson, Erik H; Chao, Weilun; Falcone, Roger W; Yang, Ronggui; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Nardi, Damiano

    2015-04-21

    Understanding thermal transport from nanoscale heat sources is important for a fundamental description of energy flow in materials, as well as for many technological applications including thermal management in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics, thermoelectric devices, nanoenhanced photovoltaics, and nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapies. Thermal transport at the nanoscale is fundamentally different from that at the macroscale and is determined by the distribution of carrier mean free paths and energy dispersion in a material, the length scales of the heat sources, and the distance over which heat is transported. Past work has shown that Fourier's law for heat conduction dramatically overpredicts the rate of heat dissipation from heat sources with dimensions smaller than the mean free path of the dominant heat-carrying phonons. In this work, we uncover a new regime of nanoscale thermal transport that dominates when the separation between nanoscale heat sources is small compared with the dominant phonon mean free paths. Surprisingly, the interaction of phonons originating from neighboring heat sources enables more efficient diffusive-like heat dissipation, even from nanoscale heat sources much smaller than the dominant phonon mean free paths. This finding suggests that thermal management in nanoscale systems including integrated circuits might not be as challenging as previously projected. Finally, we demonstrate a unique capability to extract differential conductivity as a function of phonon mean free path in materials, allowing the first (to our knowledge) experimental validation of predictions from the recently developed first-principles calculations. PMID:25831491

  8. Utilizing Diffuse Reflection to Increase the Efficiency of Luminescent Solar Concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowser, Seth; Weible, Seth; Solomon, Joel; Schrecengost, Jonathan; Wittmershaus, Bruce

    A luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) consists of a high index solid plate containing a fluorescent material that converts sunlight into fluorescence. Utilizing total internal reflection, the LSC collects and concentrates the fluorescence at the plate's edges where it is converted into electricity via photovoltaic solar cells. The lower production costs of LSCs make them an attractive alternative to photovoltaic solar cells. To optimize an LSC's efficiency, a white diffusive surface (background) is positioned behind it. The background allows sunlight transmitted in the first pass to be reflected back through the LSC providing a second chance for absorption. Our research examines how the LSC's performance is affected by changing the distance between the white background and the LSC. An automated linear motion apparatus was engineered to precisely measure this distance and the LSC's electrical current, simultaneously. LSC plates, with and without the presence of fluorescent material and in an isolated environment, showed a maximum current at a distance greater than zero. Further experimentation has proved that the optimal distance results from the background's optical properties and how the reflected light enters the LSC. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number NSF-ECCS-1306157.

  9. Policy options for the split incentive: Increasing energy efficiency for low-income renters

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Stephen; Hernández, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The split incentive problem concerns the lack of appropriate incentives to implement energy efficiency measures. In particular, low income tenants face a phenomenon of energy poverty in which they allocate significantly more of their household income to energy expenditures than other renters. This problem is substantial, affecting 1.89% of all United States' energy use. If effectively addressed, it would create a range of savings between 4 and 11 billion dollars per year for many of the nation's poorest residents. We argue that a carefully designed program of incentives for participants (including landlords) in conjunction with a unique type of utility-managed on-bill financing mechanism has significant potential to solve many of the complications. We focus on three kinds of split incentives, five concerns inherent to addressing split incentive problems (scale, endurance, incentives, savings, political disfavor), and provide a detailed policy proposal designed to surpass those problems, with a particular focus on low-income tenants in a U.S. context. PMID:27053828

  10. Increasing Efficiency in Evaluation of Chronic Cough: A Multidisciplinary, Collaborative Approach.

    PubMed

    Patton, Cynthia M; Lim, Kaiser G; Ramlow, Luke W; White, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic cough is the most common reason for medical office visits in the United States. The typical patient has coughed more than 8 years and seen many specialists. This quality improvement project is an ambulatory clinic redesign to deliver efficient, patient-centered care with interspecialty collaboration. Methodology included the Institute for Healthcare Improvement collaborative model focused on Lean/Six Sigma and ADKAR (Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability, Reinforcement) Change Management. Interventions targeted education to referring providers, implementation of software changes, building a collaborative interdepartmental scheduling decision tree, and an interclinic dashboard enhancing communication and decision support. Outcome measures compare group resource utilization, evidenced by the total number of specialist referrals for same indication of chronic cough (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision: 786.2), and length of time to complete evaluation. A retrospective review of 165 medical records yielded 2 groups, "current care" (n = 67) and "intervention" (n = 68). The number of specialist referrals per patient was reduced in the intervention group (M = 1.22, SD = 0.48) compared with the current care group (M = 3.33, SD = 1.02). Length of itinerary was reduced in the intervention group (M = 11.90, SD = 12.13, GM = 6.82) compared with the current care group (M = 126.93, SD = 158.13, GM = 54.8). Multidisciplinary collaboration, communication, coordinating diagnosis, and management of multifactorial conditions, such as chronic cough, are associated with lower costs and decreased utilization of health care resources. PMID:26426318

  11. A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogeboom-Pot, Kathleen M.; Hernandez-Charpak, Jorge N.; Gu, Xiaokun; Frazer, Travis D.; Anderson, Erik H.; Chao, Weilun; Falcone, Roger W.; Yang, Ronggui; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Nardi, Damiano

    2015-03-23

    Understanding thermal transport from nanoscale heat sources is important for a fundamental description of energy flow in materials, as well as for many technological applications including thermal management in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics, thermoelectric devices, nanoenhanced photovoltaics, and nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapies. Thermal transport at the nanoscale is fundamentally different from that at the macroscale and is determined by the distribution of carrier mean free paths and energy dispersion in a material, the length scales of the heat sources, and the distance over which heat is transported. Past work has shown that Fourier’s law for heat conduction dramatically overpredicts the rate of heat dissipation from heat sources with dimensions smaller than the mean free path of the dominant heat-carrying phonons. In this work, we uncover a new regime of nanoscale thermal transport that dominates when the separation between nanoscale heat sources is small compared with the dominant phonon mean free paths. Surprisingly, the interaction of phonons originating from neighboring heat sources enables more efficient diffusive-like heat dissipation, even from nanoscale heat sources much smaller than the dominant phonon mean free paths. This finding suggests that thermal management in nanoscale systems including integrated circuits might not be as challenging as previously projected. In conclusion, we demonstrate a unique capability to extract differential conductivity as a function of phonon mean free path in materials, allowing the first (to our knowledge) experimental validation of predictions from the recently developed first-principles calculations.

  12. The BH3 mimetic ABT-737 increases treatment efficiency of paclitaxel against hepatoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The primary goal of current chemotherapy in hepatoblastoma (HB) is reduction of tumour volume and vitality to enable complete surgical resection and reduce risk of recurrence or metastatic disease. Drug resistance remains a major challenge for HB treatment. In some malignancies inhibition of anti-apoptotic pathways using small BH3 mimetic molecules like ABT-737 shows synergistic effects in combination with cystotoxic agents in vitro. Now we analysed toxicology and synergistic effects of this approach in HB cells and HB xenografts. Methods Viability was monitored in HB cells (HUH6 and HepT1) and fibroblasts treated with paclitaxel, ABT-737 and a combination of both in a MTT assay. HUH6 xenotransplants in NOD/LtSz-scid IL2Rγnull mice (NSG) were treated accordingly. Tumour volume and body weight were monitored. Xenografted tumours were analysed by histology and immunohistochemistry (Ki-67 and TUNEL assay). Results ABT-737 reduced viability in HUH6 and HepT1 cells cultures at concentrations above 1 μM and also enhanced the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel when used in combination. Thereby paclitaxel could be reduced tenfold to achieve similar reduction of viability of tumour cells. In contrast no toxicity in fibroblasts was observed at the same regiments. Subcutaneous HB (HUH6) treated with paclitaxel (12 mg/kg body weight, n = 7) led to delayed tumour growth in the beginning of the experiment. However, tumour volume was similar to controls (n = 5) at day 25. Combination treatment with paclitaxel and ABT-737 (100 mg/kg, n = 8) revealed significantly 10 fold lower relative tumour volumes compared to control and paclitaxel groups. Paclitaxel dependent toxicity was observed in this mice strain. Conclusions Our results demonstrate enhancement of chemotherapy by using modulators of apoptosis. Further analyses should include improved pharmacological formulations of paclitaxel and BH3 mimetics in order to reduce toxicological effects. Sensitising HB to apoptosis

  13. Family of airfoil shapes for rotating blades. [for increased power efficiency and blade stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, K. W. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An airfoil which has particular application to the blade or blades of rotor aircraft such as helicopters and aircraft propellers is described. The airfoil thickness distribution and camber are shaped to maintain a near zero pitching moment coefficient over a wide range of lift coefficients and provide a zero pitching moment coefficient at section Mach numbers near 0.80 and to increase the drag divergence Mach number resulting in superior aircraft performance.

  14. Cost and efficiency lead to increased value for the patient and bottom line for the practice.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Owen J

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how much it costs to provide a service is a basic premise of any business. In addition, healthcare is in need of improved processes to provide and increase value to the patient. This can be accomplished by the application of principles called Six Sigma and Lean Management. Today's medical practice leader must be aware of the costs of doing business and be able to apply proven management principles to the processes involved in providing patient care. PMID:19911540

  15. Redox nanoparticle increases the chemotherapeutic efficiency of pioglitazone and suppresses its toxic side effects.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, Sindhu; Yoshitomi, Toru; Sakharkar, Meena Kishore; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2016-08-01

    Pioglitazone is a widely used anti-diabetic drug that induces cytotoxicity in cancer cells; however, its clinical use is questioned due to its associated liver toxicity caused by increased oxidative stress. We therefore employed nitroxide-radical containing nanoparticle, termed redox nanoparticle (RNP(N)) which is an effective scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a drug carrier. RNP(N) encapsulation increased pioglitazone solubility, thus increasing cellular uptake of encapsulated pioglitazone which reduced the dose required to induce toxicity in prostate cancer cell lines. Investigation of in vitro molecular mechanism of pioglitazone revealed that both apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were involved in tumor cell death. In addition, intravenously administered pioglitazone-loaded RNP(N) produced significant tumor volume reduction in vivo due to enhanced permeation and retention effect. Most importantly, oxidative damage caused by pioglitazone in the liver was significantly suppressed by pioglitazone-loaded RNP(N) due to the presence of nitroxide radicals. It is interesting to note that oral administration of encapsulated pioglitazone, and co-administration of RNP(N) and pioglitazone, i.e., no encapsulation of pioglitazone in RNP(N) also significantly contributed to suppression of the liver injury. Therefore, use of RNP(N) either as an adjuvant or as a carrier for drugs with severe side effects is a promising chemotherapeutic strategy. PMID:27235996

  16. Increased efficiency of ion acceleration by using femtosecond laser pulses at higher harmonic frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Psikal, J.; Klimo, O.; Weber, S.; Margarone, D.

    2014-07-15

    The influence of laser frequency on laser-driven ion acceleration is investigated by means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. When ultrashort intense laser pulse at higher harmonic frequency irradiates a thin solid foil, the target may become re lativistically transparent for significantly lower laser pulse intensity compared with irradiation at fundamental laser frequency. The relativistically induced transparency results in an enhanced heating of hot electrons as well as increased maximum energies of accelerated ions and their numbers. Our simulation results have shown the increase in maximum proton energy and increase in the number of high-energy protons by a factor of 2 after the interaction of an ultrashort laser pulse of maximum intensity 7 × 10{sup 21 }W/cm{sup 2} with a fully ionized plastic foil of realistic density and of optimal thickness between 100 nm and 200 nm when switching from the fundamental frequency to the third harmonics.

  17. Trophic assimilation efficiency markedly increases at higher trophic levels in four-level host-parasitoid food chain.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Dirk; Moser, Andrea; Newton, Jason; van Veen, F J Frank

    2016-03-16

    Trophic assimilation efficiency (conversion of resource biomass into consumer biomass) is thought to be a limiting factor for food chain length in natural communities. In host-parasitoid systems, which account for the majority of terrestrial consumer interactions, a high trophic assimilation efficiency may be expected at higher trophic levels because of the close match of resource composition of host tissue and the consumer's resource requirements, which would allow for longer food chains. We measured efficiency of biomass transfer along an aphid-primary-secondary-tertiary parasitoid food chain and used stable isotope analysis to confirm trophic levels. We show high efficiency in biomass transfer along the food chain. From the third to the fourth trophic level, the proportion of host biomass transferred was 45%, 65% and 73%, respectively, for three secondary parasitoid species. For two parasitoid species that can act at the fourth and fifth trophic levels, we show markedly increased trophic assimilation efficiencies at the higher trophic level, which increased from 45 to 63% and 73 to 93%, respectively. In common with other food chains, δ(15)N increased with trophic level, with trophic discrimination factors (Δ(15)N) 1.34 and 1.49‰ from primary parasitoids to endoparasitic and ectoparasitic secondary parasitoids, respectively, and 0.78‰ from secondary to tertiary parasitoids. Owing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of hyperparasitoids, cryptic higher trophic levels may exist in host-parasitoid communities, which could alter our understanding of the dynamics and drivers of community structure of these important systems. PMID:26962141

  18. Trophic assimilation efficiency markedly increases at higher trophic levels in four-level host–parasitoid food chain

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Andrea; van Veen, F. J. Frank

    2016-01-01

    Trophic assimilation efficiency (conversion of resource biomass into consumer biomass) is thought to be a limiting factor for food chain length in natural communities. In host–parasitoid systems, which account for the majority of terrestrial consumer interactions, a high trophic assimilation efficiency may be expected at higher trophic levels because of the close match of resource composition of host tissue and the consumer's resource requirements, which would allow for longer food chains. We measured efficiency of biomass transfer along an aphid-primary–secondary–tertiary parasitoid food chain and used stable isotope analysis to confirm trophic levels. We show high efficiency in biomass transfer along the food chain. From the third to the fourth trophic level, the proportion of host biomass transferred was 45%, 65% and 73%, respectively, for three secondary parasitoid species. For two parasitoid species that can act at the fourth and fifth trophic levels, we show markedly increased trophic assimilation efficiencies at the higher trophic level, which increased from 45 to 63% and 73 to 93%, respectively. In common with other food chains, δ15N increased with trophic level, with trophic discrimination factors (Δ15N) 1.34 and 1.49‰ from primary parasitoids to endoparasitic and ectoparasitic secondary parasitoids, respectively, and 0.78‰ from secondary to tertiary parasitoids. Owing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of hyperparasitoids, cryptic higher trophic levels may exist in host–parasitoid communities, which could alter our understanding of the dynamics and drivers of community structure of these important systems. PMID:26962141

  19. Benefits and Costs of Brine Extraction for Increasing Injection Efficiency In geologic CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Casie L.; Watson, David J.; Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2014-12-31

    Pressure increases attendant with CO2 injection into the subsurface drive many of the risk factors associated with commercial-scale CCS projects, impacting project costs and liabilities in a number of ways. The area of elevated pressure defines the area that must be characterized and monitored; pressure drives fluid flow out of the storage reservoir along higher-permeability pathways that might exist through the caprock into overlying aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs; and pressure drives geomechanical changes that could potentially impact subsurface infrastructure or the integrity of the storage system itself. Pressure also limits injectivity, which can increase capital costs associated with installing additional wells to meet a given target injection rate. The ability to mitigate pressure increases in storage reservoirs could have significant value to a CCS project, but these benefits are offset by the costs of the pressure mitigation technique itself. Of particular interest for CO2 storage operators is the lifetime cost of implementing brine extraction at a CCS project site, and the relative value of benefits derived from the extraction process. This is expected to vary from site to site and from one implementation scenario to the next. Indeed, quantifying benefits against costs could allow operators to optimize their return on project investment by calculating the most effective scenario for pressure mitigation. This work builds on research recently submitted for publication by the authors examining the costs and benefits of brine extraction across operational scenarios to evaluate the effects of fluid extraction on injection rate to assess the cost effectiveness of several options for reducing the number of injection wells required. Modeling suggests that extracting at 90% of the volumetric equivalent of injection rate resulted in a 1.8% improvement in rate over a non-extraction base case; a four-fold increase in extraction rate results in a 7.6% increase in

  20. Benefits and Costs of Brine Extraction for Increasing Injection Efficiency In geologic CO2 Sequestration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Davidson, Casie L.; Watson, David J.; Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2014-12-31

    Pressure increases attendant with CO2 injection into the subsurface drive many of the risk factors associated with commercial-scale CCS projects, impacting project costs and liabilities in a number of ways. The area of elevated pressure defines the area that must be characterized and monitored; pressure drives fluid flow out of the storage reservoir along higher-permeability pathways that might exist through the caprock into overlying aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs; and pressure drives geomechanical changes that could potentially impact subsurface infrastructure or the integrity of the storage system itself. Pressure also limits injectivity, which can increase capital costs associated with installing additionalmore » wells to meet a given target injection rate. The ability to mitigate pressure increases in storage reservoirs could have significant value to a CCS project, but these benefits are offset by the costs of the pressure mitigation technique itself. Of particular interest for CO2 storage operators is the lifetime cost of implementing brine extraction at a CCS project site, and the relative value of benefits derived from the extraction process. This is expected to vary from site to site and from one implementation scenario to the next. Indeed, quantifying benefits against costs could allow operators to optimize their return on project investment by calculating the most effective scenario for pressure mitigation. This work builds on research recently submitted for publication by the authors examining the costs and benefits of brine extraction across operational scenarios to evaluate the effects of fluid extraction on injection rate to assess the cost effectiveness of several options for reducing the number of injection wells required. Modeling suggests that extracting at 90% of the volumetric equivalent of injection rate resulted in a 1.8% improvement in rate over a non-extraction base case; a four-fold increase in extraction rate results in a 7

  1. Increased Host Investment in Extrafloral Nectar (EFN) Improves the Efficiency of a Mutualistic Defensive Service

    PubMed Central

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Silva Bueno, Juan Carlos; Heil, Martin; Boland, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Extrafloral nectar (EFN) plays an important role as plant indirect defence through the attraction of defending ants. Like all rewards produced in the context of a mutualism, however, EFN is in danger of being exploited by non-ant consumers that do not defend the plant against herbivores. Here we asked whether plants, by investing more in EFN, can improve their indirect defence, or rather increase the risk of losing this investment to EFN thieves. We used the obligate plant-ant Acacia-Pseudomyrmex system and examined experimentally in the field during the dry and the rainy seasons how variations in EFN secretion are related to (i) ant activity, to (ii) the ant-mediated defence against herbivores and (iii) the exploitation of EFN by non-ant consumers. Extrafloral investment enhanced ant recruitment and was positively related to the ant mediated defence against herbivores. The ant-mediated protection from exploiters also increased in proportion to the nectar sugar concentration. Although the daily peak of EFN production coincided with the highest activity of EFN thieves, Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus ants protected this resource effectively from exploiters. Nevertheless, the defensive effects by ants differed among seasons. During the dry season, plants grew slower and secreted more EFN than in the rainy season, and thus, experienced a higher level of ant-mediated indirect defence. Our results show that an increased plant investment in an indirect defence trait can improve the resulting defensive service against both herbivores and exploiters. EFN secretion by obligate ant-plants represents a defensive trait for which the level of investment correlates positively with the beneficial effects obtained. PMID:23056362

  2. NREL Works to Increase Electric Vehicle Efficiency Through Enhanced Thermal Management (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    Researchers at NREL are providing new insight into how heating and cooling systems affect the distance that electric vehicles can travel on a single charge. Electric vehicle range can be reduced by as much as 68% per charge because of climate-control demands. NREL engineers are investigating opportunities to change this dynamic and increase driving range by improving vehicle thermal management. NREL experts are collaborating with automotive industry partners to investigate promising thermal management technologies and strategies, including zone-based cabin temperature controls, advanced heating and air conditioning controls, seat-based climate controls, vehicle thermal preconditioning, and thermal load reduction technologies.

  3. Window performance and building energy use: Some technical options for increasing energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    1985-11-01

    Window system design and operation has a major impact on energy use in buildings as well as on occupants' thermal and visual comfort. Window performance will be a function of optical and thermal properties, window management strategies, climate and orientation, and building type and occupancy. In residences, heat loss control is a primary concern, followed by sun control in more southerly climates. In commercial buildings, the daylight provided by windows may be the major energy benefits but solar gain must be controlled so that increased cooling loads do not exceed daylighting savings. Reductions in peak electrical demand and HVAC system size may also be possible in well-designed daylighted buildings.

  4. Indium-gallium-zinc-oxide layer used to increase light transmittance efficiency of adhesive layer for stacked-type multijunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshidomi, Shinya; Kimura, Shunsuke; Hasumi, Masahiko; Sameshima, Toshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    We report the increase in transmittance efficiency of the intermediate layer for multijunction solar cells caused by the indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) layer used as the antireflection layer. Si substrates coated with a 200-nm-thick IGZO layer with a refractive index of 1.85 were prepared. The resistivity of the IGZO layer was increased from 0.0069 (as-deposited) to 0.032 Ω cm by heat treatment at 350 °C for 1 h to prevent free-carrier optical absorption. Samples with the Si/IGZO/adhesive/IGZO/Si structure were fabricated. The average transmissivity for wavelengths between 1200 and 1600 nm was 49%, which was close to 55% of single-crystal silicon substrates. A high effective transmittance efficiency of 89% was experimentally achieved. The numerical calculation showed in an effective transmittance efficiency of 99% for 170-nm-thick antireflection layers with a resistivity of 0.6 Ω cm and a refractive index of 2.1.

  5. GM trees with increased resistance to herbivores: trait efficiency and their potential to promote tree growth

    PubMed Central

    Hjältén, Joakim; Axelsson, E. Petter

    2015-01-01

    Climate change, as well as a more intensive forestry, is expected to increase the risk of damage by pests and pathogens on trees, which can already be a severe problem in tree plantations. Recent development of biotechnology theoretically allows for resistance enhancement that could help reduce these risks but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of benefits and tradeoffs with pest resistant GM (genetically modified) trees. We synthesized the current knowledge on the effectiveness of GM forest trees with increased resistance to herbivores. There is ample evidence that induction of exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis genes reduce performance of target pests whereas upregulation of endogenous resistance traits e.g., phenolics, generates variable results. Our review identified very few studies estimating the realized benefits in tree growth of GM trees in the field. This is concerning as the realized benefit with insect resistant GM plants seems to be context-dependent and likely manifested only if herbivore pressure is sufficiently high. Future studies of secondary pest species and resistance evolution in pest to GM trees should be prioritized. But most importantly we need more long-term field tests to evaluate the benefits and risks with pest resistant GM trees. PMID:25983736

  6. Surprising increase in photostability of organic amorphous materials by efficient molecular packing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yue; Antony, Lucas; de Pablo, Juan; Ediger, Mark

    Photochemically robust materials are desired for organic electronics. Previous work has demonstrated that crystal packing can strongly influence photochemical reactivity. In amorphous materials, however, similar efforts to tune photostability have not been successful. In this work, we show that organic glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition can be highly stable against photo-isomerization. Disperse orange 37 (DO37), an azobenzene derivative, is studied as a model molecule. The thickness and molecular orientation of DO37 thin films can be altered by the photo-isomerization reaction. We use spectroscopic ellipsometry to measure sample thickness and molecular orientation during light irradiation. By changing the substrate temperature during the deposition, photostability can increase 2 to 3 orders of magnitude relative to the liquid-cooled glass. We find that photostability correlates with density of packing, with density increases of up to 1.3%. Simulations also show that glasses with higher density can be significantly more photo-stable. These results show for the first time that photostability of glasses can be significantly modulated by molecular packing. And they may provide insight in designing organic photovoltaics and light emission devices with longer lifetimes.

  7. Non-homologous DNA increases gene disruption efficiency by altering DNA repair outcomes.

    PubMed

    Richardson, C D; Ray, G J; Bray, N L; Corn, J E

    2016-01-01

    The Cas9 endonuclease can be targeted to genomic sequences by programming the sequence of an associated single guide RNA (sgRNA). For unknown reasons, the activity of these Cas9-sgRNA combinations varies widely at different genomic loci and in different cell types. Thus, disrupting genes in polyploid cell lines or when using poorly performing sgRNAs can require extensive downstream screening to identify homozygous clones. Here we find that non-homologous single-stranded DNA greatly stimulates Cas9-mediated gene disruption in the absence of homology-directed repair. This stimulation increases the frequency of clones with homozygous gene disruptions and rescues otherwise ineffective sgRNAs. The molecular outcome of enhanced gene disruption depends upon cellular context, stimulating deletion of genomic sequence or insertion of non-homologous DNA at the edited locus in a cell line specific manner. Non-homologous DNA appears to divert cells towards error-prone instead of error-free repair pathways, dramatically increasing the frequency of gene disruption. PMID:27530320

  8. Non-homologous DNA increases gene disruption efficiency by altering DNA repair outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, C. D.; Ray, G. J.; Bray, N. L.; Corn, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cas9 endonuclease can be targeted to genomic sequences by programming the sequence of an associated single guide RNA (sgRNA). For unknown reasons, the activity of these Cas9–sgRNA combinations varies widely at different genomic loci and in different cell types. Thus, disrupting genes in polyploid cell lines or when using poorly performing sgRNAs can require extensive downstream screening to identify homozygous clones. Here we find that non-homologous single-stranded DNA greatly stimulates Cas9-mediated gene disruption in the absence of homology-directed repair. This stimulation increases the frequency of clones with homozygous gene disruptions and rescues otherwise ineffective sgRNAs. The molecular outcome of enhanced gene disruption depends upon cellular context, stimulating deletion of genomic sequence or insertion of non-homologous DNA at the edited locus in a cell line specific manner. Non-homologous DNA appears to divert cells towards error-prone instead of error-free repair pathways, dramatically increasing the frequency of gene disruption. PMID:27530320

  9. Achieving high levels of color uniformity and optical efficiency for a wedge-shaped waveguide head-mounted display using a photopolymer.

    PubMed

    Piao, Mei-Lan; Kim, Nam

    2014-04-01

    We developed a head-mounted display (HMD) that achieved high levels of color uniformity and optical efficiency. The full-color holographic volume grating (HVG) attached on the specially designed wedge-shaped waveguide HMD system provided a 17° horizontal field of view (FOV). Theoretical analyses showed that the proposed waveguide resolved the problems of thickness and limited FOV. In this system, the HVG was recorded using a special sequential recording process on single photopolymer unit with 633, 532, and 473 nm wavelengths. The results confirm that the designed and fabricated waveguide can be employed in future commercial HMS. PMID:24787179

  10. The concept of increasing energy efficiency of low-rise construction in the context of technical regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaev, N.; Filushina, K.; Jarova, E.

    2015-01-01

    Intensive development of low-rise construction and modern trends directed at enhancing energy efficient construction considering regulatory requirements determine the necessity to develop the concept based on variable control models managing the processes of low-rise construction. However effective process management cannot be performed without correlation of sectoral planning documents of federal and regional level also considering the technical regulations requirements. Development of concept to increase energy efficiency of low-rise construction on the basis of governmental housing policy should be built within integrated and system approach. This approach should take into account the factors and objectives of social and economic regional development and its peculiar features, as well as complex urban planning, transport and engineering conditions of low rise housing development. The program and goal-oriented approach used in the present study enables to provide integrity and interrelation with the technical requirements of energy efficiency.

  11. [Increased efficiency of recombinant proteins production in plants due to optimized translation of RNA of viral vector].

    PubMed

    Mardanova, E S; Kotliarov, R Iu; Ravin, N V

    2009-01-01

    One of the most efficient methods for fast and efficient production of the target proteins in plants is based on the use of self-replicating recombinant viral vectors. We constructed phytoviral vector based on the genome of potato X virus containing the sequence of 5'-untranslated region of RNA 4 of alfalfa mosaic virus immediately upstream of the target gene. We demonstrated that incorporation of this sequence into the viral vector results in 3-4 fold elevation of the level of production of the target protein in plant due to increased efficiency of translation of viral subgenomic RNA comprising the target gene. The new vector may be used for production of recombinant proteins in plants. PMID:19548543

  12. Increasing reticle inspection efficiency and reducing wafer print-checks using automated defect classification and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Sung Jae; Lim, Sung Taek; Vacca, Anthony; Fiekowsky, Peter; Fiekowsky, Dan

    2013-09-01

    IC fabs inspect critical masks on a regular basis to ensure high wafer yields. These requalification inspections are costly for many reasons including the capital equipment, system maintenance, and labor costs. In addition, masks typically remain in the "requal" phase for extended, non-productive periods of time. The overall "requal" cycle time in which reticles remain non-productive is challenging to control. Shipping schedules can slip when wafer lots are put on hold until the master critical layer reticle is returned to production. Unfortunately, substituting backup critical layer reticles can significantly reduce an otherwise tightly controlled process window adversely affecting wafer yields. One major requal cycle time component is the disposition process of mask inspections containing hundreds of defects. Not only is precious non-productive time extended by reviewing hundreds of potentially yield-limiting detections, each additional classification increases the risk of manual review techniques accidentally passing real yield limiting defects. Even assuming all defects of interest are flagged by operators, how can any person's judgment be confident regarding lithographic impact of such defects? The time reticles spend away from scanners combined with potential yield loss due to lithographic uncertainty presents significant cycle time loss and increased production costs. Fortunately, a software program has been developed which automates defect classification with simulated printability measurement greatly reducing requal cycle time and improving overall disposition accuracy. This product, called ADAS (Auto Defect Analysis System), has been tested in both engineering and high-volume production environments with very successful results. In this paper, data is presented supporting significant reduction for costly wafer print checks, improved inspection area productivity, and minimized risk of misclassified yield limiting defects.

  13. Detailed evaluation of different (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators: an attempt toward achieving efficient (68)Ga radiopharmacy.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Ram, Ramu; Vatsa, Rakhee; Bhusari, Priya; Shukla, Jaya; Mittal, B R; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-03-01

    The present study is aimed at carrying out a comparative performance evaluation of different types of (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators to identify the best choice for use in (68)Ga-radiopharmacy. Over the 1 year period of evaluation, the elution yields from the CeO2-based and SiO2-based (68)Ge/(68) Ga generators remained almost consistent, in contrast to the sharp decrease observed in the elution yields from TiO2 and SnO2-based generators. The level of (68)Ge impurity in (68)Ga eluates from the CeO2 and SiO2-based (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator was always <10(-3)%, while this level increased from 10(-3)% to 10(-1)% in case of TiO2 and SnO2-based generators. The level of chemical impurities in (68)Ga eluates from CeO2 and SiO2-based (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators was negligibly low (<0.1 ppm) in contrast to the significantly higher level (1-20 ppm) of such impurities in eluates from other two generators. As demonstrated by radiolabeling studies carried out using DOTA-coupled dimeric cyclic RGD peptide derivative (DOTA-RGD2), CeO2-PAN and SiO2-based generators are directly amenable for radiopharmaceutical preparation, whereas the other generators can be only used after post-elution purification of (68)Ga eluates. Clinically relevant dose of (68)Ga-DOTA-RGD2 was prepared in a hospital radiopharmacy for non-invasive visualization of tumors in breast cancer patients using positron emission tomography. PMID:26833686

  14. On the increased efficiency in InGaN-based multiple quantum wells emitting at 530-590 nm with AlGaN interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleske, D. D.; Fischer, A. J.; Bryant, B. N.; Kotula, P. G.; Wierer, J. J.

    2015-04-01

    InGaN/AlGaN/GaN-based multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with AlGaN interlayers (ILs) are investigated, specifically to examine the fundamental mechanisms behind their increased radiative efficiency at wavelengths of 530-590 nm. The AlzGa1-zN (z~0.38) IL is ~1-2 nm thick, and is grown after and at the same growth temperature as the ~3 nm thick InGaN quantum well (QW). This is followed by an increase in temperature for the growth of a ~10 nm thick GaN barrier layer. The insertion of the AlGaN IL within the MQW provides various benefits. First, the AlGaN IL allows for growth of the InxGa1-xN QW well below typical growth temperatures to achieve higher x (up to~0.25). Second, annealing the IL capped QW prior to the GaN barrier growth improves the AlGaN IL smoothness as determined by atomic force microscopy, improves the InGaN/AlGaN/GaN interface quality as determined from scanning transmission electron microscope images and x-ray diffraction, and increases the radiative efficiency by reducing non-radiative defects as determined by time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. Finally, the AlGaN IL increases the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization induced electric fields acting on the InGaN QW, providing an additional red-shift to the emission wavelength as determined by Schrodinger-Poisson modeling and fitting to the experimental data. The relative impact of increased indium concentration and polarization fields on the radiative efficiency of MQWs with AlGaN ILs is explored along with implications to conventional longer wavelength emitters.

  15. Improving Campus Security with Increased Lighting Efficiency while Simultaneously Reducing Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, Andrew; Miller, Dan; Martell, Eric

    2008-04-01

    Many outdoor lighting fixtures fail to enhance the security of the assets they were designed to protect; moreover, they simultaneously increase the levels of light pollution for astronomers. The problem is simple: most lighting fixtures do not properly aim the light they produce downward. In fact, up to fifty percent of the light rays escape upward, thus wasting a significant amount of energy and severely degrading the environment in which to do astronomy. To resolve these problems, I first created a scale model of Millikin University's campus and took time exposures and photometer readings from the replicas of the existing light fixtures. I then fastened improved fixtures to the scaled lamps and retook the camera exposures and photometer readings for comparison. With this information I was able to take my work full scale and physically change one of the light fixtures on campus. Finally to wrap up my project I took my findings to safety and security to show the improvement that these new fixtures represented to Millikin's safety and to its astronomy equipment.

  16. Salt tolerance of Beta macrocarpa is associated with efficient osmotic adjustment and increased apoplastic water content.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, I; Badri, M; Mejri, M; Cruz, C; Siddique, K H M; Hessini, K

    2016-05-01

    The chenopod Beta macrocarpa Guss (wild Swiss chard) is known for its salt tolerance, but the mechanisms involved are still debated. In order to elucidate the processes involved, we grew wild Swiss chard exposed to three salinity levels (0, 100 and 200 mm NaCl) for 45 days, and determined several physiological parameters at the end of this time. All plants survived despite reductions in growth, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in plants exposed to salinity (100 and 200 mm NaCl). As expected, the negative effects of salinity were more pronounced at 200 mm than at 100 mm NaCl: (i) leaf apoplastic water content was maintained or increased despite a significant reduction in leaf water potential, revealing the halophytic character of B. macrocarpa; (ii) osmotic adjustment occurred, which presumably enhanced the driving force for water extraction from soil, and avoided toxic build up of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the mesophyll apoplast of leaves. Osmotic adjustment mainly occurred through accumulation of inorganic ions and to a lesser extent soluble sugars; proline was not implicated in osmotic adjustment. Overall, two important mechanisms of salt tolerance in B. macrocarpa were identified: osmotic and apoplastic water adjustment. PMID:26588061

  17. Highly efficient recombinant production and purification of streptococcal cysteine protease streptopain with increased enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Lane, Michael D; Seelig, Burckhard

    2016-05-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes produces the cysteine protease streptopain (SpeB) as a critical virulence factor for pathogenesis. Despite having first been described seventy years ago, this protease still holds mysteries which are being investigated today. Streptopain can cleave a wide range of human proteins, including immunoglobulins, the complement activation system, chemokines, and structural proteins. Due to the broad activity of streptopain, it has been challenging to elucidate the functional results of its action and precise mechanisms for its contribution to S. pyogenes pathogenesis. To better study streptopain, several expression and purification schemes have been developed. These methods originally involved isolation from S. pyogenes culture but were more recently expanded to include recombinant Escherichia coli expression systems. While substantially easier to implement, the latter recombinant approach can prove challenging to reproduce, often resulting in mostly insoluble protein and poor purification yields. After extensive optimization of a wide range of expression and purification conditions, we applied the autoinduction method of protein expression and developed a two-step column purification scheme that reliably produces large amounts of purified soluble and highly active streptopain. This method reproducibly yielded 3 mg of streptopain from 50 mL of expression culture at >95% purity, with an activity of 5306 ± 315 U/mg, and no remaining affinity tags or artifacts from recombinant expression. This improved method therefore enables the facile production of the important virulence factor streptopain at higher yields, with no purification scars that might bias functional studies, and with an 8.1-fold increased enzymatic activity compared to previously described procedures. PMID:26773742

  18. [Nutrient use efficiency and yield-increasing effect of single basal application of rice specific controlled release fertilizer].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiansheng; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Zhang, Fabao; Xie, Chunsheng

    2005-10-01

    A series of pot and field experiments and field demonstrations showed that in comparing with the commonly used specific-fertilizers containing same amounts of nutrients, single basal application of rice-specific controlled release fertilizer could increase the use efficiency of N and P by 12.2% - 22.7% and 7.0% - 35.0%, respectively in pot experiment, and the use efficiency of N by 17.1% in field experiment. In 167 field demonstrations successively conducted for 3 years in various rice production areas of Guangdong Province, single basal application of the fertilizer saved the application rate of N and P by 22.1% and 21.8%, respectively, and increased the yield by 8.2%, compared with normal split fertilization. PMID:16422505

  19. Long-term increase in forest water-use efficiency observed across ecosystem carbon flux networks (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, T. F.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Bohrer, G.; Dragoni, D.; Munger, J. W.; Schmid, H. E.; Richardson, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere through photo- synthesis, a process that is accompanied by the loss of water vapour from leaves. The ratio of water loss to carbon gain, or water-use efficiency, is a key characteristic of ecosystem function that is central to the global cycles of water, energy and carbon. Here we analyse direct, long-term measurements of whole-ecosystem carbon and water exchange. We find a substantial increase in water-use efficiency in temperate and boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere over the past two decades. We systematically assess various competing hypotheses to explain this trend, and find that the observed increase is most consistent with a strong CO2 fertilization effect. The results suggest a partial closure of stomata - small pores on the leaf surface that regulate gas exchange - to maintain a near- constant concentration of CO2 inside the leaf even under continually increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. The observed increase in forest water-use efficiency is larger than that predicted by existing theory and 13 terrestrial biosphere models. The increase is associated with trends of increasing ecosystem-level photosynthesis and net carbon uptake, and decreasing evapotranspiration. Our findings demonstrate the utility of maintaining long-term eddy-covariance flux measurement sites. The results suggest a shift in the carbon- and water-based economics of terrestrial vegetation, which may require a reassessment of the role of stomatal control in regulating interactions between forests and climate change, and a re-evaluation of coupled vegetation-climate models.

  20. Increasing Efficiency of Water Use in Agriculture through Management of Soil Water Repellency to Optimize Soil and Water Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Demie; Kostka, Stan; McMillan, Mica; Gadd, Nick

    2010-05-01

    Water's ability to infiltrate and disperse in soils, and soil's ability to receive, transport, retain, filter and release water are important factors in the efficient use of water in agriculture. Deteriorating soil conditions, including development of soil water repellency, negatively impact hydrological processes and, consequently, the efficiency of rainfall and irrigation. Soil water repellency is increasingly being identified in diverse soils and cropping systems. Recently research has been conducted on the use of novel soil surfactants (co-formulations of alkyl polyglycoside and block copolymer surfactants) to avoid or overcome soil water repellency and enhance water distribution in soils. Results indicate that this is an effective and affordable approach to maintaining or restoring soil and water productivity in irrigated cropping systems. Results from studies conducted in Australia and the United States to determine how this technology modifies soil hydrological behavior and crop yields will be presented. A range of soils and various crops, including potatoes, corn, apples and grapes, were included. Several rates were compared to controls for effect on soil moisture levels, soil water distribution, and crop yield. An economic analysis was also conducted in some trials. Treatments improved rootzone water status, significantly increased crop yield and quality, and in some cases allowed significant reductions in water requirements. Where assessed, a positive economic return was generated. This technology holds promise as a strategy for increasing efficiency of water use in agriculture.

  1. Does plasticity in plant physiological traits explain the rapid increase in water use efficiency? An ecohydrological modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrotheodoros, Theodoros; Fatichi, Simone; Pappas, Christoforos; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The rise of atmospheric CO2 concentration is expected to stimulate plant productivity by enhancing photosynthesis and reducing stomatal conductance and thus increasing plant water use efficiency (WUE) worldwide. An analysis of eddy covariance flux tower data from 21 forested ecosystems across the north hemisphere detected an unexpectedly large increase in WUE (Keenan et al, 2013), which was six times larger than the increase found by most previous studies based on controlled experiments (e.g., FACE), leaf-scale analyses, and numerical modelling. This increase could be solely attributed to the increase in atmospheric CO2 since other confounding factors were ruled out. Here, we investigate the potential contribution of plant plasticity, reflected in the temporal adjustment of major plant physiological traits, on changes in WUE using the ecohydrological model Tethys and Chloris (T&C). We hypothesize that the increase in WUE can be attributed to small variations in plant physiological traits, undetectable through observations, eventually triggered by the atmospheric CO2 increase. Data from the 21 sites in the above mentioned study are used to force the model. Simulation results with and without plasticity in the physiological traits (i.e., model parameters in our numerical experiments) are compared with the observed trends in WUE. We test several plant adaptation strategies in being effective in explaining the observed increase in WUE using a multifactorial numerical experiment in which we perturb in a systematic way selected plant parameters. Keenan, T. F., Hollinger, D. Y., Bohrer, G., Dragoni, D., Munger, J. W., Schmid, H. P., and Richardson, A. D. (2013). Increase in forest water-use efficiency as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise. Nature, 499(7458), 324-7.

  2. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Vorinostat (SAHA) Increases the Susceptibility of Uninfected CD4+ T Cells to HIV by Increasing the Kinetics and Efficiency of Postentry Viral Events

    PubMed Central

    Lucera, Mark B.; Tilton, Carisa A.; Mao, Hongxia; Dobrowolski, Curtis; Tabler, Caroline O.; Haqqani, Aiman A.; Karn, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Latently infected cells remain a primary barrier to eradication of HIV-1. Over the past decade, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which latency is established and maintained has led to the discovery of a number of compounds that selectively reactivate latent proviruses without inducing polyclonal T cell activation. Recently, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat has been demonstrated to induce HIV transcription from latently infected cells when administered to patients. While vorinostat will be given in the context of antiretroviral therapy (ART), infection of new cells by induced virus remains a clinical concern. Here, we demonstrate that vorinostat significantly increases the susceptibility of CD4+ T cells to infection by HIV in a dose- and time-dependent manner that is independent of receptor and coreceptor usage. Vorinostat does not enhance viral fusion with cells but rather enhances the kinetics and efficiency of postentry viral events, including reverse transcription, nuclear import, and integration, and enhances viral production in a spreading-infection assay. Selective inhibition of the cytoplasmic class IIb HDAC6 with tubacin recapitulated the effect of vorinostat. These findings reveal a previously unknown cytoplasmic effect of HDAC inhibitors promoting productive infection of CD4+ T cells that is distinct from their well-characterized effects on nuclear histone acetylation and long-terminal-repeat (LTR) transcription. Our results indicate that careful monitoring of patients and ART intensification are warranted during vorinostat treatment and indicate that HDAC inhibitors that selectively target nuclear class I HDACs could reactivate latent HIV without increasing the susceptibility of uninfected cells to HIV. IMPORTANCE HDAC inhibitors, particularly vorinostat, are currently being investigated clinically as part of a “shock-and-kill” strategy to purge latent reservoirs of HIV. We demonstrate here that

  3. Increased Efficiency of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator through Optimization of NdFeB Magnet Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazdozian, Helena; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2014-03-01

    The United States is currently dependent on fossil fuels for the majority of its energy needs, which has many negative consequences such as climate change. Wind turbines present a viable alternative, with the highest energy return on investment among even fossil fuel generation. Traditional commercial wind turbines use an induction generator for energy conversion. However, induction generators require a gearbox to increase the rotational speed of the drive shaft. These gearboxes increase the overall cost of the wind turbine and account for about 35 percent of reported wind turbine failures. Direct drive permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs) offer an alternative to induction generators which eliminate the need for a gearbox. Yet, PMSGs can be more expensive than induction generators at large power output due to their size and weight. To increase the efficiency of PMSGs, the geometry and configuration of NdFeB permanent magnets were investigated using finite element techniques. The optimized design of the PMSG increases flux density and minimizes cogging torque with NdFeB permanent magnets of a reduced volume. These factors serve to increase the efficiency and reduce the overall cost of the PMSG. This work is supported by a National Science Foundation IGERT fellowship and the Barbara and James Palmer Endowment at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Iowa State University.

  4. Lightweighting Automotive Materials for Increased Fuel Efficiency and Delivering Advanced Modeling and Simulation Capabilities to U.S. Manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Steve

    2013-09-11

    Abstract The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), to bring together research and development (R&D) collaborations to develop and accelerate the knowledgebase and infrastructure for lightweighting materials and manufacturing processes for their use in structural and applications in the automotive sector. The purpose/importance of this DOE program: • 2016 CAFÉ standards. • Automotive industry technology that shall adopt the insertion of lightweighting material concepts towards manufacturing of production vehicles. • Development and manufacture of advanced research tools for modeling and simulation (M&S) applications to reduce manufacturing and material costs. • U.S. competitiveness that will help drive the development and manufacture of the next generation of materials. NCMS established a focused portfolio of applied R&D projects utilizing lightweighting materials for manufacture into automotive structures and components. Areas that were targeted in this program: • Functionality of new lightweighting materials to meet present safety requirements. • Manufacturability using new lightweighting materials. • Cost reduction for the development and use of new lightweighting materials. The automotive industry’s future continuously evolves through innovation, and lightweight materials are key in achieving a new era of lighter, more efficient vehicles. Lightweight materials are among the technical advances needed to achieve fuel/energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions: • Establish design criteria methodology to identify the best materials for lightweighting. • Employ state-of-the-art design tools for optimum material development for their specific applications. • Match new manufacturing technology to production volume. • Address new process variability with new production-ready processes.

  5. RNAi Knock-Down of LHCBM1, 2 and 3 Increases Photosynthetic H2 Production Efficiency of the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Oey, Melanie; Ross, Ian L.; Stephens, Evan; Steinbeck, Janina; Wolf, Juliane; Radzun, Khairul Adzfa; Kügler, Johannes; Ringsmuth, Andrew K.; Kruse, Olaf; Hankamer, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Single cell green algae (microalgae) are rapidly emerging as a platform for the production of sustainable fuels. Solar-driven H2 production from H2O theoretically provides the highest-efficiency route to fuel production in microalgae. This is because the H2-producing hydrogenase (HYDA) is directly coupled to the photosynthetic electron transport chain, thereby eliminating downstream energetic losses associated with the synthesis of carbohydrate and oils (feedstocks for methane, ethanol and oil-based fuels). Here we report the simultaneous knock-down of three light-harvesting complex proteins (LHCMB1, 2 and 3) in the high H2-producing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant Stm6Glc4 using an RNAi triple knock-down strategy. The resultant Stm6Glc4L01 mutant exhibited a light green phenotype, reduced expression of LHCBM1 (20.6% ±0.27%), LHCBM2 (81.2% ±0.037%) and LHCBM3 (41.4% ±0.05%) compared to 100% control levels, and improved light to H2 (180%) and biomass (165%) conversion efficiencies. The improved H2 production efficiency was achieved at increased solar flux densities (450 instead of ∼100 µE m−2 s−1) and high cell densities which are best suited for microalgae production as light is ideally the limiting factor. Our data suggests that the overall improved photon-to-H2 conversion efficiency is due to: 1) reduced loss of absorbed energy by non-photochemical quenching (fluorescence and heat losses) near the photobioreactor surface; 2) improved light distribution in the reactor; 3) reduced photoinhibition; 4) early onset of HYDA expression and 5) reduction of O2-induced inhibition of HYDA. The Stm6Glc4L01 phenotype therefore provides important insights for the development of high-efficiency photobiological H2 production systems. PMID:23613840

  6. RNAi knock-down of LHCBM1, 2 and 3 increases photosynthetic H2 production efficiency of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Oey, Melanie; Ross, Ian L; Stephens, Evan; Steinbeck, Janina; Wolf, Juliane; Radzun, Khairul Adzfa; Kügler, Johannes; Ringsmuth, Andrew K; Kruse, Olaf; Hankamer, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Single cell green algae (microalgae) are rapidly emerging as a platform for the production of sustainable fuels. Solar-driven H2 production from H2O theoretically provides the highest-efficiency route to fuel production in microalgae. This is because the H2-producing hydrogenase (HYDA) is directly coupled to the photosynthetic electron transport chain, thereby eliminating downstream energetic losses associated with the synthesis of carbohydrate and oils (feedstocks for methane, ethanol and oil-based fuels). Here we report the simultaneous knock-down of three light-harvesting complex proteins (LHCMB1, 2 and 3) in the high H2-producing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant Stm6Glc4 using an RNAi triple knock-down strategy. The resultant Stm6Glc4L01 mutant exhibited a light green phenotype, reduced expression of LHCBM1 (20.6% ±0.27%), LHCBM2 (81.2% ±0.037%) and LHCBM3 (41.4% ±0.05%) compared to 100% control levels, and improved light to H2 (180%) and biomass (165%) conversion efficiencies. The improved H2 production efficiency was achieved at increased solar flux densities (450 instead of ∼100 µE m(-2) s(-1)) and high cell densities which are best suited for microalgae production as light is ideally the limiting factor. Our data suggests that the overall improved photon-to-H2 conversion efficiency is due to: 1) reduced loss of absorbed energy by non-photochemical quenching (fluorescence and heat losses) near the photobioreactor surface; 2) improved light distribution in the reactor; 3) reduced photoinhibition; 4) early onset of HYDA expression and 5) reduction of O2-induced inhibition of HYDA. The Stm6Glc4L01 phenotype therefore provides important insights for the development of high-efficiency photobiological H2 production systems. PMID:23613840

  7. Increased water use efficiency but contrasting tree growth patterns in Fitzroya cupressoides forests of southern Chile during recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Jalabert, Rocío.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Barichivich, Jonathan; Lara, Antonio; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Rodríguez, Carmen Gloria; Cuq, Emilio

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about how old-growth and massive forests are responding to environmental change. We investigated tree-ring growth and carbon isotopes of the long-lived and high biomass Fitzroya cupressoides in two stands growing in contrasting environmental conditions in the Coastal Range (~300 years old) and Andean Cordilleras (>1500 years old) of southern Chile. The interannual variability in δ13C was assessed for the period 1800-2010, and changes in discrimination and intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) were evaluated in relation to changes in climate and tree-ring growth during the last century. 13C discrimination has significantly decreased, and iWUE has increased since the 1900s in both sites. However, these trends in isotopic composition have been accompanied by different growth patterns: decreasing growth rates in the Coastal Range since the 1970s and increasing growth rates in the Andes since the 1900s. Trees growing in the Coastal Range have become more efficient in their use of water, probably due to reduced stomatal conductance caused by increases in CO2 and warming. Trees growing in the Andes have also become more water use efficient, but this has been likely due to increased photosynthetic rates. Fitzroya forests, including particularly old-growth stands, are responding to recent environmental changes, and their response has been site dependent. The growth of forests under a more Mediterranean climate influence and restrictive soil conditions in the Coastal Range has been more negatively affected by current warming and drying; while the growth of old stands in the wet Andes has been positively affected by changes in climate (decreasing cloudiness) and increasing CO2. Permanent monitoring of these endangered forests under ongoing environmental changes is needed in order to reassure the long-term preservation of this millennial-aged species.

  8. Lithium-doping inverts the nanoscale electric field at the grain boundaries in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 and increases photovoltaic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Xin, H; Vorpahl, S M; Collord, A D; Braly, I L; Uhl, A R; Krueger, B W; Ginger, D S; Hillhouse, H W

    2015-10-01

    Passive grain boundaries (GBs) are essential for polycrystalline solar cells to reach high efficiency. However, the GBs in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 have less favorable defect chemistry compared to CuInGaSe2. Here, using scanning probe microscopy we show that lithium doping of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 changes the polarity of the electric field at the GB such that minority carrier electrons are repelled from the GB. Solar cells with lithium-doping show improved performance and yield a new efficiency record of 11.8% for hydrazine-free solution-processed Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4. We propose that lithium competes for copper vacancies (forming benign isoelectronic LiCu defects) decreasing the concentration of ZnCu donors and competes for zinc vacancies (forming a LiZn acceptor that is likely shallower than CuZn). Both phenomena may explain the order of magnitude increase in conductivity. Further, the effects of lithium doping reported here establish that extrinsic species are able to alter the nanoscale electric fields near the GBs in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4. This will be essential for this low-cost Earth abundant element semiconductor to achieve efficiencies that compete with CuInGaSe2 and CdTe. PMID:26302694

  9. Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

    2004-12-21

    Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy and energy efficiency identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but this paper touches on just one potential benefit: displacement of gas-fired electricity generation, which reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE and EE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE and EE. This paper summarizes recent studies that have evaluated the gas-price-reduction effect of RE and EE deployment, analyzes the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, reviews the reasonableness of the effect as portrayed in modeling studies, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE and EE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model. Key findings are summarized.

  10. In pursuit of virtual lead optimization: Pruning ensembles of receptor structures for increased efficiency and accuracy during docking

    PubMed Central

    Bolstad, Erin S. D.; Anderson, Amy C.

    2008-01-01

    Representing receptors as ensembles of protein conformations during docking is a powerful method to approximate protein flexibility and increase the accuracy of the resulting ranked list of compounds. Unfortunately, docking compounds against a large number of ensemble members can increase computational cost and time investment. In this manuscript, we present an efficient method to evaluate and select the most contributive ensemble members prior to docking for targets with a conserved core of residues that bind a ligand moiety. We observed that ensemble members that preserve the geometry of the active site core are most likely to place ligands in the active site with a conserved orientation, generally rank ligands correctly and increase interactions with the receptor. A relative distance approach is used to quantify the preservation of the three-dimensional interatomic distances of the conserved ligand-binding atoms and prune large ensembles quickly. In this study, we investigate dihydrofolate reductase as an example of a protein with a conserved core; however, this method for accurately selecting relevant ensemble members a priori can be applied to any system with a conserved ligand-binding core, including HIV-1 protease, kinases and acetylcholinesterase. Representing a drug target as a pruned ensemble during in silico screening should increase the accuracy and efficiency of high throughput analyses of lead analogs. PMID:18781587

  11. Increased Efficiency LED

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio O. (Inventor); Rogowski, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    In an LED a large portion of the light produced is lost due to total internal reflection at the air-semiconductor interface. A reverse taper of the semiconductor is used to change the angle at which light strikes the interface so that a greater portion of the light is transmitted.

  12. Increased Efficiency of Short-Pulse Laser Generated Proton Beams from Novel Flat-Top Cone Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flippo, Kirk

    2007-11-01

    Ion-driven Fast Ignition (IFI) may have significant advantages over electron-driven FI (EFI) due to a large reduction in the ignitor beam and laser driver energy requirements. Recent experiments at the LANL Trident facility, using novel flat-top cones made by Nanolabz in Reno Nevada, have yielded a 4 fold increase in laser-ion conversion efficiency, a 13 fold increase in the number of ions above 10 MeV, and a two fold increase in the maximum proton energy as compared to Au flat-foil targets. If efficiencies scale with intensity, in accordance with flat-foils, then IFI would have an even bigger advantage over EFI. At a modest intensity of 10^19 W/cm^2 with 20 Joules in 600 fs protons with at least 30 MeV were observed from the cone targets. Particle in Cell (PIC) simulations show that the maximum cutoff energy could have been as high as 40 MeV. The simulations indicate that the observed energy and efficiency increase can be attributed to the cone's ability guide and focus the laser, allowing more laser-light to be absorbed into the electrons. The cone's geometry then funnels the electrons to the flat-top. The small size also limits the number of electrons, allowing more to be heated to high temperatures, creating a hotter, denser sheath. The PIC simulations elucidate the critical parameters in obtaining superior proton acceleration such as the dependence on laser contrast/preplasma-fill and longitudinal and transverse laser pointing. In addition, these cones have the potential to revolutionize ICF target design and fabrication via mass production.

  13. Genetically Enhanced Sorghum and Sugarcane: Engineering Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis and Storage together with Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency into the Saccharinae

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-15

    PETRO Project: UIUC is working to convert sugarcane and sorghum—already 2 of the most productive crops in the world—into dedicated bio-oil crop systems. Three components will be engineered to produce new crops that have a 50% higher yield, produce easily extractable oils, and have a wider growing range across the U.S. This will be achieved by modifying the crop canopy to better distribute sunlight and increase its cold tolerance. By directly producing oil in the shoots of these plants, these biofuels could be easily extracted with the conventional crushing techniques used today to extract sugar.

  14. Possibilities of increasing the pumping efficiency of solid active medium laser generators by optimizing the pumping cavity profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dontu, O.; Ganatsios, S.; Alexandrescu, N.

    2008-03-01

    The paper presents some design elements concerning the optical pumping cavities of the laser generators with active solid medium, as well as the way of increasing their performance. We start from the fact that the laser cavity is a closed optical system, where the active laser medium and the pumping source are conjugated, in order to achieve a maximum concentration of the light flux of the pumping source towards the active medium. We discuss the simple elliptical section laser pumping cavities (with one pumping lamp) and triple elliptical (with three lamps), also presenting a series on calculus nomograms, very useful to those who design the laser generation optical pumping cavities.

  15. Analysis of an Increase in the Efficiency of a Spark Ignition Engine Through the Application of an Automotive Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Galant, Marta; Siedlecki, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    We have analyzed the increase of the overall efficiency of a spark ignition engine through energy recovery following the application of an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG) of our own design. The design of the generator was developed following emission investigations during vehicle driving under city traffic conditions. The measurement points were defined by actual operation conditions (engine speed and load), subsequently reproduced on an engine dynamometer. Both the vehicle used in the on-road tests and the engine dynamometer were fit with the same, downsized spark ignition engine (with high effective power-to-displacement ratio). The thermodynamic parameters of the exhaust gases (temperature and exhaust gas mass flow) were measured on the engine testbed, along with the fuel consumption and electric current generated by the thermoelectric modules. On this basis, the power of the ATEG and its impact on overall engine efficiency were determined.

  16. Increasing dust-absorbing equipment operation efficiency using the automatic laser instrument for solid particle concentration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privalov, Vadim V.; Shemanin, Valery G.; Charty, Pavel V.

    2003-06-01

    The technological process of cement production, which side effect is dust generating and its exhausting to atmosphere, is not stopped as a rule when some faults were origin in dust-absorbing equipment (DAE). The analysis in reference one shows that longtime conducting of the technological process at DAE refusal or fault leads to its working efficiency reduction, which reveals itself in significant excess of nominal values of the dust output concentrations. The number of the most typical refusals and damages and algorithms of their searching were analyzed in work in reference 2 for the most wide-spread dust-absorber types: blanch and electrostatic filters. This work goal are the estimation of DAE working efficiency and choosing of the optimum way of its increasing with using of the automatic laser instrument for aerosol particles concentration measuring in the dust-air flows.

  17. In mice the efficiency of immunization with Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis virus TC-83 is transiently increased by dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Negrette, B; Bonilla, E; Valero, N; Giraldoth, D; Medina-Leendertz, S; Añez, F

    2001-12-01

    To determine whether treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) improves the efficiency of immunization against the Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus, mice were vaccinated with the TC-83 VEE virus. DHEA (10 mg/kg) was administered in a single dose, 4 hours before vaccination. IgM antibody titers were determined at days 7, 14 and 21 post-immunization. Treatment with DHEA increased antibody titers at day 14 after immunization. Mice were challenged with live VEE virus at day 21, and viral titers were plaque assayed in chicken embryo fibroblasts from days 2 to 5 post-infection. After the challenge, viremia decreased on day 2 and brain virus levels were reduced at day 4 in mice treated with DHEA. These results suggest that DHEA treatment could enhance the efficiency of immunization against VEE virus in mice. PMID:11787268

  18. Analysis of an Increase in the Efficiency of a Spark Ignition Engine Through the Application of an Automotive Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Galant, Marta; Siedlecki, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    We have analyzed the increase of the overall efficiency of a spark ignition engine through energy recovery following the application of an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG) of our own design. The design of the generator was developed following emission investigations during vehicle driving under city traffic conditions. The measurement points were defined by actual operation conditions (engine speed and load), subsequently reproduced on an engine dynamometer. Both the vehicle used in the on-road tests and the engine dynamometer were fit with the same, downsized spark ignition engine (with high effective power-to-displacement ratio). The thermodynamic parameters of the exhaust gases (temperature and exhaust gas mass flow) were measured on the engine testbed, along with the fuel consumption and electric current generated by the thermoelectric modules. On this basis, the power of the ATEG and its impact on overall engine efficiency were determined.

  19. Increasing the sampling efficiency of protein conformational transition using velocity-scaling optimized hybrid explicit/implicit solvent REMD simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yuqi; Wang, Jinan; Shao, Qiang E-mail: Jiye.Shi@ucb.com Zhu, Weiliang E-mail: Jiye.Shi@ucb.com; Shi, Jiye E-mail: Jiye.Shi@ucb.com

    2015-03-28

    The application of temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulation on protein motion is limited by its huge requirement of computational resource, particularly when explicit solvent model is implemented. In the previous study, we developed a velocity-scaling optimized hybrid explicit/implicit solvent REMD method with the hope to reduce the temperature (replica) number on the premise of maintaining high sampling efficiency. In this study, we utilized this method to characterize and energetically identify the conformational transition pathway of a protein model, the N-terminal domain of calmodulin. In comparison to the standard explicit solvent REMD simulation, the hybrid REMD is much less computationally expensive but, meanwhile, gives accurate evaluation of the structural and thermodynamic properties of the conformational transition which are in well agreement with the standard REMD simulation. Therefore, the hybrid REMD could highly increase the computational efficiency and thus expand the application of REMD simulation to larger-size protein systems.

  20. Increasing the sampling efficiency of protein conformational transition using velocity-scaling optimized hybrid explicit/implicit solvent REMD simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yuqi; Wang, Jinan; Shao, Qiang; Shi, Jiye; Zhu, Weiliang

    2015-03-01

    The application of temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulation on protein motion is limited by its huge requirement of computational resource, particularly when explicit solvent model is implemented. In the previous study, we developed a velocity-scaling optimized hybrid explicit/implicit solvent REMD method with the hope to reduce the temperature (replica) number on the premise of maintaining high sampling efficiency. In this study, we utilized this method to characterize and energetically identify the conformational transition pathway of a protein model, the N-terminal domain of calmodulin. In comparison to the standard explicit solvent REMD simulation, the hybrid REMD is much less computationally expensive but, meanwhile, gives accurate evaluation of the structural and thermodynamic properties of the conformational transition which are in well agreement with the standard REMD simulation. Therefore, the hybrid REMD could highly increase the computational efficiency and thus expand the application of REMD simulation to larger-size protein systems.