Science.gov

Sample records for achieve increased performance

  1. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  2. Supporting Instructional Improvement in Low-Performing Schools to Increase Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellei, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    This is an impact evaluation of the Technical Support to Failing Schools Program, a Chilean compensatory program that provided 4-year in-school technical assistance to low-performing schools to improve students' academic achievement. The author implemented a quasi-experimental design by using difference-in-differences estimation combined with…

  3. The honeymoon effect in job performance - Temporal increases in the predictive power of achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Sawin, Linda L.; Carsrud, Alan L.

    1986-01-01

    Correlations between a job performance criterion and personality measures reflecting achievement motivation and an interpersonal orientation were examined at three points in time after completion of job training for a sample of airline reservations agents. Although correlations between the personality predictors and performance were small and nonsignificant for the 3-month period after beginning the job, by the end of six and eight months a number of significant relationships had emerged. Implications for the utility of personality measures in selection and performance prediction are discussed.

  4. Increasing Math Achievement through Use of Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant-Jones, Marian; Shimmins, Kymberley J.; Vega, Jill D.

    This report describes a program for increasing math achievement through the use of musical interventions including repeated exposure to Mozart classical music and School House Rock, and introduction to teacher-made songs that introduce mathematical concepts in the music classroom. The students of the targeted second and fourth grade classes…

  5. Teacher Research Programs = Increased Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, J.

    2011-12-01

    Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers (SRP), founded in 1990, is one of the largest, best known university professional development programs for science teachers in the U.S. For eight weeks in each of two consecutive summers, teachers participate as a member of a research team, led by a member of Columbia University's research faculty. In addition to the laboratory experience, all teachers meet weekly during the summer for a series of pedagogical activities to assist them in transferring the experience to their classrooms. The primary goal of the program is to provide K-12 science teachers with opportunities to work at the cutting edge of science and engineering, and thus to revitalize their teaching and help them to appreciate the use of inquiry-based methods in their classroom instruction. The secondary goals of the program are to give the pre-college teacher the ability to guide their students toward careers in science and engineering, to develop new teaching strategies, and to foster long-term scholarly collaborations. The last is especially important as it leads to a model of the teacher as active in science yet committed to the pre-college classroom. Since its inception, SRP has focused on an objective assessment of the program's impact on attitudes and instructional practices of participating teachers, on the performance of these teachers in their mentors' laboratories, and most importantly, on the impact of their participation in the program has on student interest and performance in science. Our research resulted in a paper published in the journal Science. SRP also facilitates a multi-site survey-based evaluation of other teacher research programs around the country. The author will present the findings of both studies.

  6. The Value of Extracurricular Support in Increased Student Achievement: An Assessment of a Pupil Personnel Model Including School Counselors and School Psychologists Concerning Student Achievement as Measured by an Academic Performance Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Greg S.; Young, I. Phillip

    2006-01-01

    This study examined two models of extra-curricular support for enhancing the academic achievement of students as measured by state mandated test scores. One management model includes the use of school counselors as enhancers of the educational process while the other model addresses the contribution of school psychologists. To differentiate…

  7. Type A Performance Standards and Goal Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Clay H.

    Achievement striving is a central dimension of the Type A behavior pattern. To investigate the relationship between Type A behavior pattern, personal performance goals, and goal achievement on two general information tests, 126 undergraduates participated in a two-phase study. First, behavior patterns were assessed using the Framingham Type A…

  8. Achievement Goals in a Presentation Task: Performance Expectancy, Achievement Goals, State Anxiety, and Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Ayumi; Takehara, Takuma; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu

    2006-01-01

    The aims of the study were to test the linkages between achievement goals to task performance, as mediated by state anxiety arousal. Performance expectancy was also examined as antecedents of achievement goals. A presentation task in a computer practice class was used as achievement task. Fifty-three undergraduates (37 females and 16 males) were…

  9. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Instrumental Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Siw Graabraek

    2008-01-01

    The current study is a survey of the achievement goals of music students and the manner in which their strategies and instrumental performance relate to these goals. In the context of advanced instrumental learning, the rationale for the present study was to contribute to the literature on motivation in music students, and thereby, help teachers…

  10. New York: Expanding Time, Increasing Opportunities for Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tiffany D.

    2014-01-01

    New York is poised to take an important step to improve student achievement by expanding learning time for students attending high-poverty, low-performing schools. Recent district- and state-level investments in expanded learning time--a promising strategy to close achievement and opportunity gaps--will give students more time to learn core…

  11. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  12. Using Manipulative Materials to Increase Student Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lett, Steven W.

    2007-01-01

    This is an action research project to test a null hypothesis, which states that the use of manipulative materials within the context of mathematics instruction will not yield a significant increase in student achievement. Based on the research, using manipulative materials should have a positive impact on student achievement. Allowing students to…

  13. Achieving high performance on the Intel Paragon

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, D.S.; Maccabe, B.; Riesen, R.; Wheat, S.; Womble, D.

    1993-11-01

    When presented with a new supercomputer most users will first ask {open_quotes}How much faster will my applications run?{close_quotes} and then add a fearful {open_quotes}How much effort will it take me to convert to the new machine?{close_quotes} This paper describes some lessons learned at Sandia while asking these questions about the new 1800+ node Intel Paragon. The authors conclude that the operating system is crucial to both achieving high performance and allowing easy conversion from previous parallel implementations to a new machine. Using the Sandia/UNM Operating System (SUNMOS) they were able to port a LU factorization of dense matrices from the nCUBE2 to the Paragon and achieve 92% scaled speed-up on 1024 nodes. Thus on a 44,000 by 44,000 matrix which had required over 10 hours on the previous machine, they completed in less than 1/2 hour at a rate of over 40 GFLOPS. Two keys to achieving such high performance were the small size of SUNMOS (less than 256 kbytes) and the ability to send large messages with very low overhead.

  14. Realizing the Dream: Using Data to Increase Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John; Sawtell, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Presented at the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) School Summit in San Antonio, TX in July 2008. This presentation explores the participation and performance of African American students in the SAT and AP programs and use data to inform ways to better support and encourage achievment and college success.

  15. Educating Girls: Strategies To Increase Access, Persistence, and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tietjen, Karen; Prather, Cynthia, Ed.

    This document reviews the interventions, such as policies, programs, and projects, that have been implemented by governments, donors, and other institutions to increase girls' access, persistence, and achievement at the primary school level. It examines both the formal system of primary education and nontraditional, alternative approaches to reach…

  16. A Guide to Mathematics Coaching: Processes for Increasing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Ted H.; Balka, Don S.; Miles, Ruth Harbin

    2010-01-01

    Math coaches play a vital role in strengthening math instruction and learning in schools. However, without a collegial relationship with the teachers they are trying to help, it is difficult to foster productive collaborations that lead to better teaching practice and increased student achievement. This resource helps coaches confidently clarify,…

  17. Using Positive Student Engagement to Increase Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Teachers and school-based administrators alike have searched to find ways to increase student achievement in their schools. Several widely known and discussed strategies include: (1) using data to drive instruction; (2) employing highly qualified teachers; and (3) improving school leadership. Additionally, positive student engagement in the…

  18. Teacher Research Experience Programs = Increase in Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, J.

    2010-12-01

    Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers (SRP), founded in 1990, is one of the largest, best known university-based professional development programs for science teachers in the U.S. The program’s basic premise is simple: teachers cannot effectively teach science if they have not experienced it firsthand. For eight weeks in each of two consecutive summers, teachers participate as a member of a research team, led by a member of Columbia University’s research faculty. In addition to the laboratory experience, all teachers meet as a group one day each week during the summer for a series of pedagogical activities. A unique quality of the Summer Research Program is its focus on objective assessment of its impact on attitudes and instructional practices of participating teachers, on the performance of these teachers in their mentors’ laboratories, and most importantly, on the impact of their participation in the program on student interest and performance in science. SRP uses pass rate on the New York State Regents standardized science examinations as an objective measure of student achievement. SRP's data is the first scientific evidence of a connection between a research experience for teachers program and gains in student achievement. As a result of the research, findings were published in Science Magazine. The author will present an overview of Columbia's teacher research program and the results of the published program evaluation.

  19. Reading Their Way: A Balanced Approach that Increases Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donat, Dorothy J.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing demand for improved student performance in the context of significant time constraints places considerable stress on educators and administrators to develop innovative strategies that promote literacy acquisition. This article describes the procedures and outlines the evaluative data for Reading Their Way, a literacy acquisition…

  20. Composites for Increased Wear Resistance: Current Achievements and Future Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    The various ways in which reductions in wear and/or friction can be achieved by the use of composite materials are reviewed. Reinforced plastics are emphasized and it is shown that fillers and fibers reduce wear via several mechanisms additional to their role of increasing overall mechanical strength, preferential transfer, counter face abrasion, preferential load support, or third-body formation on either the composite or its counterface. Examples are given from recent work on thin layer composites of the type widely used as dry bearings in aircraft flight control mechanisms. Developments in metal based composites and carbon-carbon composites for high energy brakes are discussed. The aspects which could benefit by increased fundamental understanding identified and the types of composites which appear to have greatest potential for further growth are indicated.

  1. An apparent contradiction: increasing variability to achieve greater precision?

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Noah J; Hurt, Christopher P; Latash, Mark L; Grabiner, Mark D

    2014-02-01

    To understand the relationship between variability of foot placement in the frontal plane and stability of gait patterns, we explored how constraining mediolateral foot placement during walking affects the structure of kinematic variance in the lower-limb configuration space during the swing phase of gait. Ten young subjects walked under three conditions: (1) unconstrained (normal walking), (2) constrained (walking overground with visual guides for foot placement to achieve the measured unconstrained step width) and, (3) beam (walking on elevated beams spaced to achieve the measured unconstrained step width). The uncontrolled manifold analysis of the joint configuration variance was used to quantify two variance components, one that did not affect the mediolateral trajectory of the foot in the frontal plane ("good variance") and one that affected this trajectory ("bad variance"). Based on recent studies, we hypothesized that across conditions (1) the index of the synergy stabilizing the mediolateral trajectory of the foot (the normalized difference between the "good variance" and "bad variance") would systematically increase and (2) the changes in the synergy index would be associated with a disproportionate increase in the "good variance." Both hypotheses were confirmed. We conclude that an increase in the "good variance" component of the joint configuration variance may be an effective method of ensuring high stability of gait patterns during conditions requiring increased control of foot placement, particularly if a postural threat is present. Ultimately, designing interventions that encourage a larger amount of "good variance" may be a promising method of improving stability of gait patterns in populations such as older adults and neurological patients. PMID:24162866

  2. Is yield increase sufficient to achieve food security in China?

    PubMed

    Wei, Xing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Peijun; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yi; Song, Xiao; Tao, Fulu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food, driven by unprecedented population growth and increasing consumption, will keep challenging food security in China. Although cereal yields have substantially improved during the last three decades, whether it will keep thriving to meet the increasing demand is not known yet. Thus, an integrated analysis on the trends of crop yield and cultivated area is essential to better understand current state of food security in China, especially on county scale. So far, yield stagnation has extensively dominated the main cereal-growing areas across China. Rice yield is facing the most severe stagnation that 53.9% counties tracked in the study have stagnated significantly, followed by maize (42.4%) and wheat (41.9%). As another important element for production sustainability, but often neglected is the planted area patterns. It has been further demonstrated that the loss in productive arable land for rice and wheat have dramatically increased the pressure on achieving food security. Not only a great deal of the planted areas have stagnated since 1980, but also collapsed. 48.4% and 54.4% of rice- and wheat-growing counties have lost their cropland areas to varying degrees. Besides, 27.6% and 35.8% of them have retrograded below the level of the 1980s. The combined influence (both loss in yield and area) has determined the crop sustainable production in China to be pessimistic for rice and wheat, and consequently no surprise to find that more than half of counties rank a lower level of production sustainability. Therefore, given the potential yield increase in wheat and maize, as well as substantial area loss of rice and wheat, the possible targeted adaptation measures for both yield and cropping area is required at county scale. Moreover, policies on food trade, alongside advocation of low calorie diets, reducing food loss and waste can help to enhance food security. PMID:25680193

  3. Is Yield Increase Sufficient to Achieve Food Security in China?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Peijun; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yi; Song, Xiao; Tao, Fulu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food, driven by unprecedented population growth and increasing consumption, will keep challenging food security in China. Although cereal yields have substantially improved during the last three decades, whether it will keep thriving to meet the increasing demand is not known yet. Thus, an integrated analysis on the trends of crop yield and cultivated area is essential to better understand current state of food security in China, especially on county scale. So far, yield stagnation has extensively dominated the main cereal-growing areas across China. Rice yield is facing the most severe stagnation that 53.9% counties tracked in the study have stagnated significantly, followed by maize (42.4%) and wheat (41.9%). As another important element for production sustainability, but often neglected is the planted area patterns. It has been further demonstrated that the loss in productive arable land for rice and wheat have dramatically increased the pressure on achieving food security. Not only a great deal of the planted areas have stagnated since 1980, but also collapsed. 48.4% and 54.4% of rice- and wheat-growing counties have lost their cropland areas to varying degrees. Besides, 27.6% and 35.8% of them have retrograded below the level of the 1980s. The combined influence (both loss in yield and area) has determined the crop sustainable production in China to be pessimistic for rice and wheat, and consequently no surprise to find that more than half of counties rank a lower level of production sustainability. Therefore, given the potential yield increase in wheat and maize, as well as substantial area loss of rice and wheat, the possible targeted adaptation measures for both yield and cropping area is required at county scale. Moreover, policies on food trade, alongside advocation of low calorie diets, reducing food loss and waste can help to enhance food security. PMID:25680193

  4. A modular modulation method for achieving increases in metabolite production.

    PubMed

    Acerenza, Luis; Monzon, Pablo; Ortega, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the production of overproducing strains represents a great challenge. Here, we develop a modular modulation method to determine the key steps for genetic manipulation to increase metabolite production. The method consists of three steps: (i) modularization of the metabolic network into two modules connected by linking metabolites, (ii) change in the activity of the modules using auxiliary rates producing or consuming the linking metabolites in appropriate proportions and (iii) determination of the key modules and steps to increase production. The mathematical formulation of the method in matrix form shows that it may be applied to metabolic networks of any structure and size, with reactions showing any kind of rate laws. The results are valid for any type of conservation relationships in the metabolite concentrations or interactions between modules. The activity of the module may, in principle, be changed by any large factor. The method may be applied recursively or combined with other methods devised to perform fine searches in smaller regions. In practice, it is implemented by integrating to the producer strain heterologous reactions or synthetic pathways producing or consuming the linking metabolites. The new procedure may contribute to develop metabolic engineering into a more systematic practice. PMID:25683235

  5. Using the 2 x 2 Framework of Achievement Goals to Predict Achievement Emotions and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David W.; Sander, Paul; Larkin, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has established how achievement emotions are related to the trichotomous model of achievement goals, and how they predict academic performance. In our study we examine relations using an additional, mastery-avoidance goal, and whether outcome-focused emotions are predicted by mastery as well as performance goals. Results showed that…

  6. Effective Teaching Results in Increased Science Achievement for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.; Kahle, Jane Butler; Fargo, Jamison D.

    2007-01-01

    This study of teacher effectiveness and student achievement in science demonstrated that effective teachers positively impact student learning. A general linear mixed model was used to assess change in student scores on the Discovery Inquiry Test as a function of time, race, teacher effectiveness, gender, and impact of teacher effectiveness in…

  7. Classroom Environment, Achievement Goals and Maths Performance: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was assessed as…

  8. A Model of Statistics Performance Based on Achievement Goal Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandalos, Deborah L.; Finney, Sara J.; Geske, Jenenne A.

    2003-01-01

    Tests a model of statistics performance based on achievement goal theory. Both learning and performance goals affected achievement indirectly through study strategies, self-efficacy, and test anxiety. Implications of these findings for teaching and learning statistics are discussed. (Contains 47 references, 3 tables, 3 figures, and 1 appendix.)…

  9. Increasing Student Achievement through Brain-Based Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pociask, Amanda; Settles, Jeri

    2007-01-01

    The students targeted were third and fourth grade students with learning-disabilities and seventh-eighth grade science students who exhibited poor test scores, motivation, and behaviors that negatively impacted their learning. The objective of this study was to change the level of student engagement in order to increase their academic achievement…

  10. Strategies for Increasing Academic Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Julene; Woods, Amelia Mays

    2014-01-01

    Higher education today faces unique challenges. Decreasing student engagement, increasing diversity, and limited resources all contribute to the issues being faced by students, educators, and administrators alike. The unique characteristics and expectations that students bring to their professional programs require new methods of addressing…

  11. Conservation and Achievement Test Performance among Fifth-Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliphant, Virginia M.; Cox, David L.

    The relationship between conservation and achievement is examined on specific tests and test items on the Stanford Achievement Test Battery used in the elementary years. Specifically, performance on two tests (Word Meaning and Arithmetic Concepts) were analyzed according to subjects level of thinking (concrete or formal) for total score,…

  12. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agencies are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.

  13. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agenciesmore » are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.« less

  14. Raising the Achievement of Low-Performing Students. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Bryan

    This brief synthesizes seven papers commissioned for a series of meetings convened by Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning to discuss raising the achievement of low-performing students. The purpose of the brief is to identify some causes of the low performance of marginalized students, and then offer research-based solutions for what…

  15. Achieving fast timing performance with multiplexed SiPMs.

    PubMed

    Bieniosek, M F; Cates, J W; Levin, C S

    2016-04-01

    Using time of flight (ToF) measurements for positron emission tomography (PET) is an attractive avenue for increasing the signal to noise (SNR) ratio of PET images. However, achieving excellent time resolution required for high SNR gain using silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) requires many resource heavy high bandwidth readout channels. A method of multiplexing many SiPM signals into a single electronic channel would greatly simplify ToF PET systems. However, multiplexing SiPMs degrades time resolution because of added dark counts and signal shaping. In this work the relative contribution of dark counts and signal shaping to timing degradation is simulated and a baseline correction technique to mitigate the effect of multiplexing on the time resolution of analog SiPMs is simulated and experimentally verified. A charge sharing network for multiplexing is proposed and tested. Results show a full width at half maximum (FWHM) coincidence time resolution of [Formula: see text] ps for a single 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LYSO scintillation crystals coupled to an array of sixteen 3 mm  ×  3 mm SiPMs that are multiplexed to a single timing channel (in addition to 4 position channels). A [Formula: see text] array of 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LFS crystals showed an average FWHM coincidence time resolution of [Formula: see text] ps using the same timing scheme. All experiments were performed at room temperature with no thermal regulation. These results show that excellent time resolution for ToF can be achieved with a highly multiplexed analog SiPM readout. PMID:26987898

  16. Achieving fast timing performance with multiplexed SiPMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, M. F.; Cates, J. W.; Levin, C. S.

    2016-04-01

    Using time of flight (ToF) measurements for positron emission tomography (PET) is an attractive avenue for increasing the signal to noise (SNR) ratio of PET images. However, achieving excellent time resolution required for high SNR gain using silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) requires many resource heavy high bandwidth readout channels. A method of multiplexing many SiPM signals into a single electronic channel would greatly simplify ToF PET systems. However, multiplexing SiPMs degrades time resolution because of added dark counts and signal shaping. In this work the relative contribution of dark counts and signal shaping to timing degradation is simulated and a baseline correction technique to mitigate the effect of multiplexing on the time resolution of analog SiPMs is simulated and experimentally verified. A charge sharing network for multiplexing is proposed and tested. Results show a full width at half maximum (FWHM) coincidence time resolution of 232+/- 2 ps for a single 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LYSO scintillation crystals coupled to an array of sixteen 3 mm  ×  3 mm SiPMs that are multiplexed to a single timing channel (in addition to 4 position channels). A 4× 4 array of 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LFS crystals showed an average FWHM coincidence time resolution of 278+/- 7 ps using the same timing scheme. All experiments were performed at room temperature with no thermal regulation. These results show that excellent time resolution for ToF can be achieved with a highly multiplexed analog SiPM readout.

  17. School Performance Indicators, Accountability Ratings, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Shirley A.; Lunenburg, Fred C.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have been challenged to find school-level characteristics that make a difference in student achievement. This study focused on a diverse sample of 24 middle schools to examine differences between schools rated Exemplary, Recognized, Academically Acceptable, and Academically Unacceptable on four performance indicator dimensions:…

  18. Performance Achievement and Analysis of Teaching during Choral Rehearsals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Anita P.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates teaching sequences in high-school choral rehearsals to provide insight into the relationship between ensemble achievement and performance preparation. Indicates that teacher pace improvement is unrelated to ensemble maturity, teacher verbalization may not relate to success, and teacher assistance and instructions decrease with student…

  19. The Effect of Contiguity on Informational Achievement and Psychomotor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Donald W.

    Using a randomized block design and involving the participation of 73 fifth, sixth, and seventh grade pupils, this study sought to ascertain the relative effects of traditional, varied and integrated contiguity on the achievement of information content and the performance of a psychomotor task. The informational content selected for the study…

  20. Sex Differences in Item Performance on a Standardized Achievement Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald Ross

    Differential functioning of males and females on achievement test items was studied in a sample of 110,000 students in kindergarten through grade 12. First, item parameters and ability estimates for these parameters were obtained from LOGIST computer program runs for the entire group. Predicted performance for each item for each group was…

  1. Student Achievement and Education System Performance in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Hok, Ung Ngo; Tinon, Souer; Veasna, Meung; Nissay, Put

    2012-01-01

    The global spread of national assessment testing activities, and the growing pressure to move beyond basic measures of participation in educational monitoring, means that student achievement measures are likely to become increasingly relevant indicators of systemic progress in the developing world. Using data from the CESSP project in Cambodia,…

  2. Innovative Double Bypass Engine for Increased Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, Sanjivan

    Engines continue to grow in size to meet the current thrust requirements of the civil aerospace industry. Large engines pose significant transportation problems and require them to be split in order to be shipped. Thus, large amounts of time have been spent in researching methods to increase thrust capabilities while maintaining a reasonable engine size. Unfortunately, much of this research has been focused on increasing the performance and efficiencies of individual components while limited research has been done on innovative engine configurations. This thesis focuses on an innovative engine configuration, the High Double Bypass Engine, aimed at increasing fuel efficiency and thrust while maintaining a competitive fan diameter and engine length. The 1-D analysis was done in Excel and then compared to the results from Numerical Propulsion Simulation System (NPSS) software and were found to be within 4% error. Flow performance characteristics were also determined and validated against their criteria.

  3. Varying execution discipline to increase performance

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.L.; Maccabe, A.B.

    1993-12-22

    This research investigates the relationship between execution discipline and performance. The hypothesis has two parts: 1. Different execution disciplines exhibit different performance for different computations, and 2. These differences can be effectively predicted by heuristics. A machine model is developed that can vary its execution discipline. That is, the model can execute a given program using either the control-driven, data-driven or demand-driven execution discipline. This model is referred to as a ``variable-execution-discipline`` machine. The instruction set for the model is the Program Dependence Web (PDW). The first part of the hypothesis will be tested by simulating the execution of the machine model on a suite of computations, based on the Livermore Fortran Kernel (LFK) Test (a.k.a. the Livermore Loops), using all three execution disciplines. Heuristics are developed to predict relative performance. These heuristics predict (a) the execution time under each discipline for one iteration of each loop and (b) the number of iterations taken by that loop; then the heuristics use those predictions to develop a prediction for the execution of the entire loop. Similar calculations are performed for branch statements. The second part of the hypothesis will be tested by comparing the results of the simulated execution with the predictions produced by the heuristics. If the hypothesis is supported, then the door is open for the development of machines that can vary execution discipline to increase performance.

  4. Unwrapping Academic Standards to Increase the Achievement of Students With Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joseph John; Brown, Nancy Beyers; Hsiao, Yun-Ju; Howerter, Catherine; Juniel, Pamela; Sedano, Lidia; Castillo, Wendie Lappin

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, students with disabilities have been included in the general education environment at markedly higher rates; however, their achievement is not increasing at the same pace. One reason for this lack of increased achievement may be that academic standards lay the foundation for instruction in this environment, but standards…

  5. The Effects of the Classroom Performance System on Student Participation, Attendance, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Termos, Mohamad Hani

    2013-01-01

    The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology that increases student performance and promotes active learning. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes, where students' first spoken language is not…

  6. Achieving High Performance with FPGA-Based Computing

    PubMed Central

    Herbordt, Martin C.; VanCourt, Tom; Gu, Yongfeng; Sukhwani, Bharat; Conti, Al; Model, Josh; DiSabello, Doug

    2011-01-01

    Numerous application areas, including bioinformatics and computational biology, demand increasing amounts of processing capability. In many cases, the computation cores and data types are suited to field-programmable gate arrays. The challenge is identifying the design techniques that can extract high performance potential from the FPGA fabric. PMID:21603088

  7. Does Lengthening the School Day Increase Students' Academic Achievement? Results from a Natural Experiment in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellei, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    This study (an impact evaluation of the Chilean full school day program) uses difference-in-differences to estimate the effect of a large increase in instructional time on high school students' academic achievement. The main findings are (i) the program had a positive effect on students' achievement in both mathematics and language; (ii) the…

  8. Using the Theory of Multiple Intelligences to Increase Fourth-Grade Students' Academic Achievement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This applied dissertation was designed to increase the academic achievement of 4th-grade students in science. The problem to be solved was that 4th-grade students in a rural elementary school exhibited low academic achievement in science. The researcher utilized the multiple intelligences (MI) theory and brain-based learning to develop the IMPACT…

  9. Gaining Retention and Achievement for Students Program (GRASP): A Faculty Development Program To Increase Student Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShannon, Judith

    This study investigated the effects of a faculty development program offered to increase positive interactions between students and faculty and the effects of these interactions on student achievement and retention. The Gaining Retention and Achievement for Students (GRASP) program supports the accreditation process of the Accreditation Board of…

  10. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included…

  11. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-11-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included purposeful planning, inquiry science instruction, and contextually rich academic science vocabulary development. In combination, these instructional practices rapidly improved student-science learning outcomes and narrowed achievement gaps across diverse student populations.

  12. Reading for Success: The Effectiveness of Literacy Interventions for Increasing Student Achievement in Core Academic Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to utilize quantitative and qualitative data to measure the effects of Tier 2 and Tier 3 literacy interventions as they affect student achievement in the secondary school setting. The research questions addressed performance of students who were enrolled in Reading for Success as compared to a cohort…

  13. Improving Teaching Capacity to Increase Student Achievement: The Key Role of Data Interpretation by School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, David; Smith, Richard; Provost, Steven; Madden, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper argues that in a well-organised school with strong leadership and vision coupled with a concerted effort to improve the teaching performance of each teacher, student achievement can be enhanced. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that while macro-effect sizes such as "whole of school" metrics are useful for…

  14. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

  15. Increasing Women's Aspirations and Achievement in Science: The Effect of Role Models on Implicit Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Julie E.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the role of implicit science beliefs in the gender gap in science aspirations and achievement, with the goal of testing identification with a female role model as a potential intervention strategy for increasing women's representation in science careers. At Time 1, women's implicit science stereotyping (i.e., associating…

  16. Robotics as Means to Increase Achievement Scores in an Informal Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bradley S.; Ansorge, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study that examined the use of a science and technology curriculum based on robotics to increase the achievement scores of youth ages 9-11 in an after school program. The study examined and compared the pretest and posttest scores of youth in the robotics intervention with youth in a control group. The results…

  17. Coteachers' Attitudes and Perceptions of Coteaching Strategies on Increasing Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohaya, Ngozi Chidinma

    2014-01-01

    Meeting the goal of increasing academic achievement for students with disabilities in general education classes remains a challenge in the research district's high schools. Coteachers need to know if the teaching strategies of Project Instruction, Collaboration, and Environment, known as Project ICE, are effective in addressing the problem of poor…

  18. Curriculum-Based Measurement: A Proven Tool to Increase Achievement. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This ERS "Focus On" discusses curriculum-based measurement (CBM), the most widely used research-based method for student progress monitoring, which is required in Response to Intervention (RTI) approaches. CBM is supported by nearly 30 years of empirical evidence of its effectiveness in monitoring student progress to increase achievement. Teachers…

  19. A physical education trial improves adolescents' cognitive performance and academic achievement: the EDUFIT study.

    PubMed

    Ardoy, D N; Fernández-Rodríguez, J M; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Castillo, R; Ruiz, J R; Ortega, F B

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the effects of an intervention focused on increasing the time and intensity of Physical Education (PE), on adolescents' cognitive performance and academic achievement. A 4-month group-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 67 adolescents from South-East Spain, 2007. Three classes were randomly allocated into control group (CG), experimental group 1 (EG1) and experimental group 2 (EG2). CG received usual PE (two sessions/week), EG1 received four PE sessions/week and EG2 received four PE sessions/week of high intensity. Cognitive performance (non-verbal and verbal ability, abstract reasoning, spatial ability, verbal reasoning and numerical ability) was assessed by the Spanish Overall and Factorial Intelligence Test, and academic achievement by school grades. All the cognitive performance variables, except verbal reasoning, increased more in EG2 than in CG (all P < 0.05). Average school grades (e.g., mathematics) increased more in EG2 than in CG. Overall, EG2 improved more than EG1, without differences between EG1 and CG. Increased PE can benefit cognitive performance and academic achievement. This study contributes to the current knowledge by suggesting that the intensity of PE sessions might play a role in the positive effect of physical activity on cognition and academic success. Future studies involving larger sample sizes should confirm or contrast these preliminary findings. PMID:23826633

  20. Performance Increase Verification for a Bipropellant Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Leslie; Chapman, Jack; Wilson, Reed; Krismer, David; Lu, Frank; Wilson, Kim; Miller, Scott; England, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Component performance assessment testing for a, pressure-fed earth storable bipropellant rocket engine was successfully completed at Aerojet's Redmond test facility. The primary goal of the this development project is to increase the specific impulse of an apogee class bi-propellant engine to greater than 330 seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and monomethylhydrazine propellants and greater than 335 seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and hydrazine. The secondary goal of the project is to take greater advantage of the high temperature capabilities of iridium/rhenium chambers. In order to achieve these goals, the propellant feed pressures were increased to 400 psia, nominal, which in turn increased the chamber pressure and temperature, allowing for higher c*. The tests article used a 24-on-24 unlike doublet injector design coupled with a copper heat sink chamber to simulate a flight configuration combustion chamber. The injector is designed to produce a nominal 200 lbf of thrust with a specific impulse of 335 seconds (using hydrazine fuel). Effect of Chamber length on engine C* performance was evaluated with the use of modular, bolt-together test hardware and removable chamber inserts. Multiple short duration firings were performed to characterize injector performance across a range of thrust levels, 180 to 220 lbf, and mixture ratios, from 1.1 to 1.3. During firing, ignition transient, chamber pressure, and various temperatures were measured in order to evaluate the performance of the engine and characterize the thermal conditions. The tests successfully demonstrated the stable operation and performance potential of a full scale engine with a measured c* of XXXX ft/sec (XXXX m/s) under nominal operational conditions.

  1. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  2. Achieving intelligent performance in autonomous on-road driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlenoff, Craig I.; Evans, John M.; Barbera, Anthony J.; Albus, James S.; Messina, Elena R.; Balakirsky, Stephen B.

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes NIST"s efforts in evaluating what it will take to achieve autonomous human-level driving skills in terms of time and funding. NIST has approached this problem from several perspectives: considering the current state-of-the-art in autonomous navigation and extrapolating from there, decomposing the tasks identified by the Department of Transportation for on-road driving and comparing that with accomplishments to date, analyzing computing power requirements by comparison with the human brain, and conducting a Delphi Forecast using the expert researchers in the field of autonomous driving. A detailed description of each of these approaches is provided along with the major finding from each approach and an overall picture of what it will take to achieve human level driving skills in autonomous vehicles.

  3. Performance on large-scale science tests: Item attributes that may impact achievement scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Janet Victoria

    Significant differences in achievement among ethnic groups persist on the eighth-grade science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The WASL measures academic performance in science using both scenario and stand-alone question types. Previous research suggests that presenting target items connected to an authentic context, like scenario question types, can increase science achievement scores especially in underrepresented groups and thus help to close the achievement gap. The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in performance between gender and ethnic subgroups by question type on the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL. MANOVA and ANOVA were used to examine relationships between gender and ethnic subgroups as independent variables with achievement scores on scenario and stand-alone question types as dependent variables. MANOVA revealed no significant effects for gender, suggesting that the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL was gender neutral. However, there were significant effects for ethnicity. ANOVA revealed significant effects for ethnicity and ethnicity by gender interaction in both question types. Effect sizes were negligible for the ethnicity by gender interaction. Large effect sizes between ethnicities on scenario question types became moderate to small effect sizes on stand-alone question types. This indicates the score advantage the higher performing subgroups had over the lower performing subgroups was not as large on stand-alone question types compared to scenario question types. A further comparison examined performance on multiple-choice items only within both question types. Similar achievement patterns between ethnicities emerged; however, achievement patterns between genders changed in boys' favor. Scenario question types appeared to register differences between ethnic groups to a greater degree than stand-alone question types. These differences may be attributable to individual differences in cognition

  4. Some methods for achieving more efficient performance of fuel assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltenko, E. A.

    2014-07-01

    More efficient operation of reactor plant fuel assemblies can be achieved through the use of new technical solutions aimed at obtaining more uniform distribution of coolant over the fuel assembly section, more intense heat removal on convex heat-transfer surfaces, and higher values of departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR). Technical solutions using which it is possible to obtain more intense heat removal on convex heat-transfer surfaces and higher DNBR values in reactor plant fuel assemblies are considered. An alternative heat removal arrangement is described using which it is possible to obtain a significantly higher power density in a reactor plant and essentially lower maximal fuel rod temperature.

  5. Increasing Mathematics and Science Achievement for Culturally Diverse Students through Teaching Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahon, Lee

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal was to field test and evaluate a Teacher Training program that would prepare teachers to increase the motivation and achievement of culturally diverse students in the areas of science and mathematics. Designed as a three year program, this report covers the first two years of the training program at the Ronald McNair School in the Ravenswood School district, using the resources of the NASA Ames Research Center and the California Framework for Mathematics and Science.

  6. Orchestrating ACO success: how top performers achieve shared savings.

    PubMed

    Harris, John M; Elizondo, Idette; Brown, Amanda M

    2016-03-01

    Leaders of the top-performing accountable care organizations in the Medicare Shared Savings Program attribute the success of their organizations in large part to seven strategies: Seek action-oriented leadership. Transform primary care physician practices. Keep patients out of the emergency department. Ensure all transitions are smooth. Make effective use of available data. Share information on physician performance. Keep patients engaged. PMID:27183758

  7. Student Achievement Data Systems in High and Low Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowiak, Jeannie E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in how high and low performing elementary school districts use and analyze data to differentiate instruction, make changes to district/grade level curriculum, determine professional development needs, determine teacher effectiveness, and determine the use of school district…

  8. Teacher Performance and Pupil Achievement on Teacher-Made Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Chad D.; And Others

    This study investigated the predictive validity of the Teacher Performance Assessment Instruments (TPAI) using pupil gains on teacher-made tests (TMT) as a criterion. The TPAI and the TMT's were administered to 56 elementary and secondary classrooms in Georgia. Results supported the validity of the TPAI with a large number of correlations ranging…

  9. Achieving Transformational Materials Performance in a New Era of Science

    ScienceCinema

    John Sarrao

    2010-01-08

    The inability of current materials to meet performance requirements is a key stumbling block for addressing grand challenges in energy and national security. Fortunately, materials research is on the brink of a new era - a transition from observation and validation of materials properties to prediction and control of materials performance. In this talk, I describe the nature of the current challenge, the prospects for success, and a specific facility concept, MaRIE, that will provide the needed capabilities to meet these challenges, especially for materials in extreme environments. MaRIE, for Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes, is Los Alamos' concept to realize this vision of 21st century materials research. This vision will be realized through enhancements to the current LANSCE accelerator, development of a fourth-generation x-ray light source co-located with the proton accelerator, and a comprehensive synthesis and characterization facility focused on controlling complex materials and the defect/structure link to materials performance.

  10. From Guide to Practice: Improving Your After School Science Program to Increase Student Academic Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous science organizations, such as NASA, offer educational outreach activities geared towards after school. For some programs, the primary goal is to grow students' love of science. For others, the programs are also intended to increase academic achievement. For those programs looking to support student learning in out-of-school time environments, aligning the program with learning during the classroom day can be a challenge. The Institute for Education Sciences, What Works Clearinghouse, put together a 'Practice Guide' for maximizing learning time beyond the regular school day. These practice guides provide concrete recommendations for educators supported by research. While this guide is not specific to any content or subject-area, the recommendations provided align very well with science education. After school science is often viewed as a fun, dynamic environment for students. Indeed, one of the recommendations to ensure time is structured according to students' needs is to provide relevant and interesting experiences. Given that our after school programs provide such creative environments for students, what other components are needed to promote increased academic achievement? The recommendations provided to academic achievement, include: 1. Align Instruction, 2. Maximize Attendance and Participation, 3. Adapt Instruction, 4. Provide Engaging Experiences, and 5. Evaluate Program. In this session we will examine these five recommendations presented in the Practice Guide, discuss how these strategies align with science programs, and examine what questions each program should address in order to provide experiences that lend themselves to maximizing instruction. Roadblocks and solutions for overcoming challenges in each of the five areas will be presented. Jessica Taylor will present this research based on her role as an author on the Practice Guide, 'Improving Academic Achievement in Out-of-School Time' and her experience working in various informal science

  11. Bilingual communication methods, text versus video, to increase parent involvement and science fair project student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clevenson, Rhonda Suzanne

    This research examined the responses of families to bilingual communication methods, text versus video, designed to facilitate school to home communication to increase parent involvement and seventh grade student achievement in the science fair project. Using an experimental design, 161 families were randomly selected to receive either a two part informational text or video series during the science fair unit taught at a culturally diverse urban middle school. The bilingual informational materials were created and produced by the staff at the research site. Measures were taken to make sure all families could access the informational materials and innovations such as a special travel envelope and reminding procedures aided data collection. Surveys measuring variables on a Likert scale with spaces for comments were collected from the parents and students. An interrater reliability study was completed to measure the agreement of the two teachers who used a grading checklist to score science fair project achievement. Quantitative methods including ANOVA and MLR were used to examine the data in terms of student achievement and the communication method (text or video), audience (students and parents), and the anticipated outcome (parent help). Nonparametric and qualitative data analyses were used to explore how families used and responded to the informational materials. Significant results were that the video communication method was positively associated with student achievement on the science fair project. Significant main effects were observed for the student characteristics, educational services (general and special education, and English as a Second Language), and previous achievement in science, and the parent characteristics, previous experience with science fair projects, primary viewing language (English or Spanish), and expectations for student achievement. Student achievement was not significantly related to the amount or usefulness of parent help. The amount

  12. [Clinical efficacy and achievement of a complete remission in depression: increasing interest in treatment with escitalopram].

    PubMed

    Favré, P

    2012-02-01

    Such a prevalent disease as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), associated with prominent impairment in physical and social functioning, implies as well an increased morbidity and mortality. Long-term treatments are required due to the frequent occurrence of relapses. Patient compliance is a core factor in both acute and continuation treatment, closely related to tolerability issues. We have partially reviewed the literature published on PubMed since 2004 which assess the relative antidepressant efficacy of escitalopram and comparator antidepressants in adult patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). Clinically important differences exist between commonly prescribed antidepressants. These analyses are in favor of a superior efficacy and tolerability of long-term escitalopram treatment (10 to 20mg/day) compared with active controls, including selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (paroxetine, citalopram, bupropion, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline), serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (venlafaxine, milnacipran and duloxetine) and noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs) (mirtazapine). Cipriani et al. (2009) have performed a network meta-analysis of 12 new generation antidepressants. They have shown that clinically important differences exist between commonly prescribed antidepressants for both efficacy and acceptability in favor of escitalopram and sertraline in acute treatment, defined as 8-week treatment. Kasper et al. (2009) conducted a post-hoc pooled analysis of data from two 6-month randomized controlled trials that revealed superior efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram when compared with paroxetine. The pooled analysis of four randomized, double-blind, active comparator, 6-month trials in MDD, by Wade et al. (2009), showed that short-term outcomes may predict long-term treatment compliance and outcomes. A higher probability of achieving remission was associated with responding

  13. 39 CFR 3055.1 - Annual reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual reporting of service performance achievements. 3055.1 Section 3055.1 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.1 Annual reporting of service performance...

  14. Achieving high sustained performance in an unstructured mesh CFD application

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, D E; Anderson, W K; Gropp, W D; Kaushik, D K; Smith, B F

    1999-12-10

    This paper highlights a three-year project by an interdisciplinary team on a legacy F77 computational fluid dynamics code, with the aim of demonstrating that implicit unstructured grid simulations can execute at rates not far from those of explicit structured grid codes, provided attention is paid to data motion complexity and the reuse of data positioned at the levels of the memory hierarchy closest to the processor, in addition to traditional operation count complexity. The demonstration code is from NASA and the enabling parallel hardware and (freely available) software toolkit are from DOE, but the resulting methodology should be broadly applicable, and the hardware limitations exposed should allow programmers and vendors of parallel platforms to focus with greater encouragement on sparse codes with indirect addressing. This snapshot of ongoing work shows a performance of 15 microseconds per degree of freedom to steady-state convergence of Euler flow on a mesh with 2.8 million vertices using 3072 dual-processor nodes of ASCI Red, corresponding to a sustained floating-point rate of 0.227 Tflop/s.

  15. The Effect of Increasing Conceptual Challenge in Primary Science Lessons on Pupils' Achievement and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mant, Jenny; Wilson, Helen; Coates, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports research into the effect on 11-year-old pupils of introducing more cognitively challenging, practical, and interactive science lessons. Our hypothesis was that such lessons would increase the children's enthusiasm for science and their engagement with the scientific process, thereby improving educational performance. Schools in…

  16. Increasing Student Academic Achievement through the Use of Single and Mixed Gender Cooperative Grouping Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klebosits, Pia; Perrone, Beth

    This report describes a program for implementing specific cooperative grouping patterns in order to increase students' academic performance. The targeted population consisted of junior high and high school students located in the northwest and southwest suburbs of a large metropolitan area. An instructional strategy in which both like-gender and…

  17. 39 CFR 3055.30 - Periodic reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Periodic reporting of service performance achievements. 3055.30 Section 3055.30 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  18. 39 CFR 3055.2 - Contents of the annual report of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contents of the annual report of service performance achievements. 3055.2 Section 3055.2 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  19. 39 CFR 3055.30 - Periodic reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodic reporting of service performance achievements. 3055.30 Section 3055.30 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  20. 39 CFR 3055.1 - Annual reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual reporting of service performance achievements. 3055.1 Section 3055.1 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  1. 39 CFR 3055.30 - Periodic reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Periodic reporting of service performance achievements. 3055.30 Section 3055.30 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  2. 39 CFR 3055.30 - Periodic reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Periodic reporting of service performance achievements. 3055.30 Section 3055.30 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  3. 39 CFR 3055.2 - Contents of the annual report of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contents of the annual report of service performance achievements. 3055.2 Section 3055.2 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  4. 39 CFR 3055.1 - Annual reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual reporting of service performance achievements. 3055.1 Section 3055.1 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  5. 39 CFR 3055.1 - Annual reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual reporting of service performance achievements. 3055.1 Section 3055.1 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  6. 39 CFR 3055.2 - Contents of the annual report of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contents of the annual report of service performance achievements. 3055.2 Section 3055.2 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.2 Contents of the annual report...

  7. 39 CFR 3055.2 - Contents of the annual report of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Contents of the annual report of service performance achievements. 3055.2 Section 3055.2 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  8. Prescribed Active Learning Increases Performance in Introductory Biology

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Eileen; Parks, John W.; Cunningham, Matthew; Hurley, David; Haak, David; Dirks, Clarissa; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2007-01-01

    We tested five course designs that varied in the structure of daily and weekly active-learning exercises in an attempt to lower the traditionally high failure rate in a gateway course for biology majors. Students were given daily multiple-choice questions and answered with electronic response devices (clickers) or cards. Card responses were ungraded; clicker responses were graded for right/wrong answers or participation. Weekly practice exams were done as an individual or as part of a study group. Compared with previous versions of the same course taught by the same instructor, students in the new course designs performed better: There were significantly lower failure rates, higher total exam points, and higher scores on an identical midterm. Attendance was higher in the clicker versus cards section; attendance and course grade were positively correlated. Students did better on clicker questions if they were graded for right/wrong answers versus participation, although this improvement did not translate into increased scores on exams. In this course, achievement increases when students get regular practice via prescribed (graded) active-learning exercises. PMID:17548875

  9. Teacher Research Programs: An Effective Form of Professional Development to Increase Student Achievement and Benefit the Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, J.

    2008-12-01

    U.S. high school students perform markedly less well in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) than students in other economically advanced countries. This low level of STEM performance endangers our democracy and economy. The President's Council of Advisors in Science and Technology's 2004 report attributed the shortfall of students attracted to the sciences is a result of the dearth of teachers sufficiently conversant with science and scientists to enable them to communicate to their students the excitement of scientific exploration and discovery, and the opportunities science provides for highly rewarding and remunerative careers. Nonetheless, the United States has made little progress in correcting these deficiencies. Studies have shown that high-quality teaching matters more to student achievement than anything else schools do. This belief is buttressed by evidence from Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers (SRP) that highly motivated, in-service science teachers require professional development to enable them and their students to perform up to their potential. Columbia's Summer Research Program is based on the premise that to teach science effectively requires experience in using the tools of contemporary science to answer unsolved questions. From its inception, SRP's goal has been to enhance interest and improve performance in science of students. It seeks to achieve this goal by increasing the professional competence of teachers. The reports of Elmore, Sanders and Rivers, and our own studies, show that professional development is a "key lever for improving student outcomes." While most middle and high school science teachers have taken college science courses that include cookbook laboratory exercises, the vast majority of them have never attempted to answer an unsolved question. Just as student learning depends on the expertise of teachers, the expertise of teachers depends on the quality of their professional

  10. The effectiveness of personal response systems at increasing the engagement and achievement of students in a science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilson, Renee L.

    Student engagement and immediate assessment of learning is crucial for students to successfully master the rigorous chemistry curriculum set forth under the Michigan Merit Curriculum. It has been my observation that students who are actively engaged and involved in the classroom discussion achieve greater success than students who aren't. The use of iClickers to increase every student's engagement and achievement in a non college prep chemistry course was evaluated. Specifically, students were evaluated on pretests and posttests and their results compared using a paired t test in two sections of a unit in the ChemCom curriculum. During the first section students regularly used the iClickers and during the second section they did not use them at all. Both student engagement and achievement improved with the use of the iClickers as reported on student surveys and compared through pre- and posttest data. Students expressed that they liked using the iClickers and that the immediate feedback helped them better understand their mistakes. Student performance increased on all compared questions and the results of a paired t test showed significant p values for six out of the eight questions compared.

  11. Boredom in Achievement Settings: Exploring Control-Value Antecedents and Performance Outcomes of a Neglected Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Daniels, Lia M.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.

    2010-01-01

    The linkages of achievement-related boredom with students' appraisals and performance outcomes were examined in a series of 5 exploratory, cross-sectional, and predictive investigations. Studies 1 and 2 assessed students' boredom in a single achievement episode (i.e., state achievement boredom); Studies 3, 4, and 5 focused on their habitual…

  12. Relations among Motivation, Performance Achievement, and Music Experience Variables in Secondary Instrumental Music Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Charles P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1) reexamine academic achievement motivation orientations within the context of instrumental music, and (2) examine relations among achievement motivation orientations, self-concept in instrumental music, and attitude to band in relation to teachers' ratings of performance achievement and effort, and students'…

  13. Performance Trajectories and Performance Gaps as Achievement Effect-Size Benchmarks for Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Hill, Carolyn J.; Black, Alison Rebeck; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    Two complementary approaches to developing empirical benchmarks for achievement effect sizes in educational interventions are explored. The first approach characterizes the natural developmental progress in achievement made by students from one year to the next as effect sizes. Data for seven nationally standardized achievement tests show large…

  14. The effect of workshop groups on achievement goals and performance in biology: An outcome evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Wendi Kay

    This two-year quasi-experiment evaluated the effect of peer-led workshop groups on performance of minority and majority undergraduate biology students in a three-course series and investigated motivational explanations for performance differences. The workshop intervention used was modeled after a program pioneered by Treisman (1992) at the University of California. Majority volunteers randomly assigned to workshops (n = 61) performed between 1/2 and 1 standard deviation better than those assigned to the control group (n = 60; p < .05) in each quarter without spending more time studying. During Quarter 1, workshop minority students (n = 25) showed a pattern of increasing exam performance in comparison to historic control minority students (n = 21), who showed a decreasing pattern (p < .05). Although sex differences in biology performance were a focus of investigation, none were detected. Motivational predictions derived from the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation (Elliot & Church, 1997) were partially supported. Self-report survey measures of achievement goals, modeled after those used by Elliot and colleagues, were requested from all enrolled students. Volunteers (n = 121) reported higher average levels of approach and avoidance goals than nonvolunteers (n = 439; p < .05) and the relationship of goals to performance was moderated by volunteer status. Performance of volunteers was negatively related to avoidance of failure goals (r = .41, p < .01) and unrelated to performance approach goals. Performance of nonvolunteers was unrelated to avoidance of failure goals and positively related to performance approach goals (r = .28, p < .01). Mastery goals were unrelated to performance for all students. Results were inconsistent with Dweck and Leggett's (1988) theory of mastery vs. performance orientation, but were similar to results found by Elliot and colleagues. Contrary to hypotheses, motivational goals did not mediate performance for

  15. Performance as a Function of Resultant Achievement Motivation (Perceived Ability) and Perceived Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andy

    1974-01-01

    Data confirmed Kukla's attributional theory of performance. When a task is perceived to be difficult, high resultant achievers perform better than low resultant achievers, whereas the low motive group proves to be superior to the high group when the task is perceived as easy. (Author/RK)

  16. A Comparison of Low Performing Students' Achievements in Factoring Cubic Polynomials Using Three Different Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbonnaya, Ugorji I.; Mogari, David L.; Machisi, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In this study, repeated measures design was employed to compare low performing students' achievements in factoring cubic polynomials using three strategies. Twenty-five low-performing Grade 12 students from a secondary school in Limpopo province took part in the study. Data was collected using achievement test and was analysed using repeated…

  17. A Commentary on "Differentiating Low Performance of the Gifted Learner: Achieving, Underachieving, and Selective Consuming Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Lori J.; Ritchotte, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the authors' critique on "Differentiating Low Performance of the Gifted Learner: Achieving, Underachieving, and Selective Consuming Students" (Figg, Low, McCormick, & Rogers 2012). The authors of "Differentiating Low Performance of the Gifted Learner: Achieving, Underachieving, and Selective Consuming Students" endeavored to…

  18. Predicting Examination Performance Using an Expanded Integrated Hierarchical Model of Test Emotions and Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, Dave; Deveney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an expanded integrative hierarchical model of test emotions and achievement goal orientations in predicting the examination performance of undergraduate students. Achievement goals were theorised as mediating the relationship between test emotions and performance. 120 undergraduate students completed…

  19. Performance of Children with Autism on Selected Measures of Reading Achievement and Cognitive-Linguistic Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Vicky

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the performance of children with autism on selected measures of reading achievement and cognitive-linguistic ability. How children with autism performed on three reading achievement measures, Letter-Word Identification, Passage Comprehension, and Oral Reading Fluency, and two cognitive-linguistic measures, Rapid Letter Naming…

  20. Proportion of corn silage in diets of feedlot steers fed to achieve stepwise increases in growth.

    PubMed

    Rossi, J E; Loerch, S C

    2001-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of proportion of dietary corn silage during periods of feed restriction on performance of steers. In Exp. 1, Simmental x Angus steer calves (n = 107; initial BW = 273 +/- 3.8 kg) were allotted to 12 pens with eight or nine steers/pen and four pens/treatment. Periods of growth were 273 to 366 kg BW (Period 1), 367 to 501 kg BW (Period 2), and 502 to 564 kg BW (Period 3). In two of the dietary regimens, steers were given ad libitum access to feed throughout the experiment and were fed either a 15% corn silage diet in each period or an 85, 50, and 15% corn silage diet in Periods 1, 2, and 3; respectively. In the third feeding regimen, a programmed intake feeding regimen was used. Steers were fed a 15% corn silage diet in each period. However, feed intake was restricted to achieve a predicted gain of 1.13 kg/d in Period 1 and 1.36 kg/d in Period 2, and feed was offered for ad libitum consumption in Period 3. For the entire experiment, ADG was similar (P = 0.41) among treatments and feed efficiency was lower (P < 0.10) for steers in the corn silage regimen than for steers in the programmed intake and ad libitum regimens. In Exp. 2, Simmental x Angus steer calves (n = 106; initial BW = 233 +/- 2 kg) were allotted by BW to 12 pens (three pens/treatment) and fed in three periods similar to those described in Exp. 1. Four feeding regimens were investigated: 1) AL; steers were offered a 15% corn silage diet for ad libitum consumption in all three periods; 2) PI; DMI was programmed to achieve gains as described in Exp. 1; 3) CS-HLL; programmed intake as described above except diets contained 85, 15, and 15% corn silage in Periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and 4) CS-HIL; same feeding regimens as CS-HLL, except diets contained 85, 50, and 15% corn silage in Periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Steers were given ad libitum access to feed in Period 3. Overall ADG was lower (P < 0.05) for steers in the CS-HLL and CS

  1. Physiological geroscience: targeting function to increase healthspan and achieve optimal longevity.

    PubMed

    Seals, Douglas R; Justice, Jamie N; LaRocca, Thomas J

    2016-04-15

    Most nations of the world are undergoing rapid and dramatic population ageing, which presents great socio-economic challenges, as well as opportunities, for individuals, families, governments and societies. The prevailing biomedical strategy for reducing the healthcare impact of population ageing has been 'compression of morbidity' and, more recently, to increase healthspan, both of which seek to extend the healthy period of life and delay the development of chronic diseases and disability until a brief period at the end of life. Indeed, a recently established field within biological ageing research, 'geroscience', is focused on healthspan extension. Superimposed on this background are new attitudes and demand for 'optimal longevity' - living long, but with good health and quality of life. A key obstacle to achieving optimal longevity is the progressive decline in physiological function that occurs with ageing, which causes functional limitations (e.g. reduced mobility) and increases the risk of chronic diseases, disability and mortality. Current efforts to increase healthspan centre on slowing the fundamental biological processes of ageing such as inflammation/oxidative stress, increased senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired proteostasis and reduced stress resistance. We propose that optimization of physiological function throughout the lifespan should be a major emphasis of any contemporary biomedical policy addressing global ageing. Effective strategies should delay, reduce in magnitude or abolish reductions in function with ageing (primary prevention) and/or improve function or slow further declines in older adults with already impaired function (secondary prevention). Healthy lifestyle practices featuring regular physical activity and ideal energy intake/diet composition represent first-line function-preserving strategies, with pharmacological agents, including existing and new pharmaceuticals and novel 'nutraceutical' compounds, serving as potential

  2. Achieving increased spent fuel storage capacity at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, D.H.; Chang, S.J.; Dabs, R.D.; Freels, J.D.; Morgan, K.A.; Rothrock, R.B.; Griess, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    The HFIR facility was originally designed to store approximately 25 spent cores, sufficient to allow for operational contingencies and for cooling prior to off-site shipment for reprocessing. The original capacity has now been increased to 60 positions, of which 53 are currently filled (September 1994). Additional spent cores are produced at a rate of about 10 or 11 per year. Continued HFIR operation, therefore, depends on a significant near-term expansion of the pool storage capacity, as well as on a future capability of reprocessing or other storage alternatives once the practical capacity of the pool is reached. To store the much larger inventory of spent fuel that may remain on-site under various future scenarios, the pool capacity is being increased in a phased manner through installation of a new multi-tier spent fuel rack design for higher density storage. A total of 143 positions was used for this paper as the maximum practical pool capacity without impacting operations; however, greater ultimate capacities were addressed in the supporting analyses and approval documents. This paper addresses issues related to the pool storage expansion including (1) seismic effects on the three-tier storage arrays, (2) thermal performance of the new arrays, (3) spent fuel cladding corrosion concerns related to the longer period of pool storage, and (4) impacts of increased spent fuel inventory on the pool water quality, water treatment systems, and LLLW volume.

  3. Increasing Postsecondary Education Access and Success: Raising Achievement through Outreach Programs. Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broton, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Closing the achievement gap depends on highly effective public schools, strong community support, and family involvement. Raising the overall rates of achievement in Minnesota is a vital part of this goal. Research has shown that pre-college outreach programs improve college access for underrepresented groups, including low-income,…

  4. What Effective Principals Do to Improve Instruction and Increase Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Elizabeth Anne

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this mixed method study were to (a) Examine the relationships among principal effectiveness, principal instructional leadership, and student achievement; (b) examine the differences among principal effectiveness, principal instructional leadership and student achievement; and (c) investigate what effective principals do to improve…

  5. Implementation of Comprehensive School Reform and Its Impact on Increases in Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Fashola, Olatokunbo; Shkolnik, Jamie; Boyle, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the implementation of comprehensive school reform (CSR) and changes in reading and math achievement from 1999 until 2003. Survey data about CSR implementation and school-level achievement data were collected for multiple years from a sample of CSR schools and compared with a sample of matched comparison…

  6. Answering the Question that Matters Most: Has Student Achievement Increased since No Child Left Behind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Since 2002, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) has spurred far-reaching changes in elementary and secondary education, all aimed at accomplishing the same fundamental goal--to improve students' academic achievement. As the Congress prepares to reauthorize the Act, two related questions matter most: (1) Has student achievement in reading and…

  7. On the achievable performance using variable geometry active secondary suspension systems in commercial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, Willem-Jan; Besselink, Igo; Teerhuis, Arjan; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2011-10-01

    There is a need to further improve driver comfort in commercial vehicles. The variable geometry active suspension offers an interesting option to achieve this in an energy efficient way. However, the optimal control strategy and the overal performance potential remains unclear. The aim of this paper is to quantify the level of performance improvement that can theoretically be obtained by replacing a conventional air sprung cabin suspension design with a variable geometry active suspension. Furthermore, the difference between the use of a linear quadratic (LQ) optimal controller and a classic skyhook controller is investigated. Hereto, an elementary variable geometry actuator model and experimentally validated four degrees of freedom quarter truck model are adopted. The results show that the classic skyhook controller gives a relatively poor performance while a comfort increase of 17-28% can be obtained with the LQ optimal controller, depending on the chosen energy weighting. Furthermore, an additional 75% comfort increase and 77% energy cost reduction can be obtained, with respect to the fixed gain energy optimal controller, using condition-dependent control gains. So, it is concluded that the performance potential using condition-dependent controllers is huge, and that the use of the classic skyhook control strategy should, in general, be avoided when designing active secondary suspensions for commercial vehicles.

  8. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L.; Smith, Gregory M.; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today’s OLEDs in performance. PMID:27063414

  9. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L; Smith, Gregory M; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m(2) with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today's OLEDs in performance. PMID:27063414

  10. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L.; Smith, Gregory M.; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-04-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today’s OLEDs in performance.

  11. Utopia for Music Performance Graduates. Is It Achievable, and How Should It Be Defined?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    For the majority of undergraduate classical music performance students, "musotopia" is a place where performance ambitions are realised with an international performance career. However, given that so few musicians achieve this ambition, should this ideal be redefined? This paper investigates instrumental musicians' careers by exploring…

  12. Do Performance Goals Promote Learning? A Pattern Analysis of Singapore Students' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Paris, Scott G.; Hogan, David; Luo, Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how achievement goals are combined to affect students' learning. We used a multiple goals perspective, based on mastery (i.e., mastery approach) and performance (including both approach and avoidance components) goals, to examine the achievement goal patterns of 1697 Singapore Secondary 3 students in their math study. Four…

  13. Relationship of Achievement Test Scores and State Board Performance in a Diploma Nursing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Gail

    The relationship between the National League for Nursing (NLN) achievement test scores and performance on the State Board Test Pool Examination (SBTPE) was studied with 166 graduates of a diploma degree school of nursing between 1976 and 1978. It was found that NLN achievement test scores had a highly significant correlation with SBTPE results.…

  14. Positive Biases in Self-Assessment of Mathematics Competence, Achievement Goals, and Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupeyrat, Caroline; Escribe, Christian; Huet, Nathalie; Regner, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The study examined how biases in self-evaluations of math competence relate to achievement goals and progress in math achievement. It was expected that performance goals would be related to overestimation and mastery goals to accurate self-assessments. A sample of French high-school students completed a questionnaire measuring their math…

  15. Mathematics Achievement Gaps between Suburban Students and Their Rural and Urban Peers Increase over Time. Issue Brief No. 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Suzanne E.; Provost, Lauren E.

    2012-01-01

    In this brief, authors Suzanne Graham and Lauren Provost examine whether attending a school in a rural, urban, or suburban community is related to children's mathematics achievement in kindergarten, and whether increases in mathematics achievement between kindergarten and eighth grade differ for children in rural, urban, and suburban schools. They…

  16. Strategies Employed by Middle School Principals Successful in Increasing and Sustaining the Mathematics Achievement of African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study approaches the problem of African American mathematics achievement from a strength-based perspective, identifying practices implemented by middle school principals successful in increasing and sustaining the mathematics achievement of African American students. The study was designed to answer questions regarding both school-wide…

  17. A methodology to assess performance of human-robotic systems in achievement of collective tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Ayanna M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a methodology to assess system performance of human-robotic systems in achievement of collective tasks such as habitat construction, geological sampling, and space exploration.

  18. Neuropsychological and Academic Achievement Correlates of Abnormal WISC-R Verbal-Performance Discrepancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueger, Robert J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological and academic achievement correlates of statistically abnormal verbal-performance discrepancies on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised). Results indicated that abnormal discrepancies reflect specific aphasia deficits rather than generalized neuropsychological dysfunction and that academic achievement…

  19. Using Computer-Managed Instructional Software to Increase Motivation and Achievement in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steve; Rendulic, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the results of a comparative study of elementary school students based on Cognitive Evaluation Theory that provides evidence that the use of computer-managed instructional feedback can have a positive effect on student motivation and achievement. Use of the Children's Academic Intrinsic Motivation Inventory is explained. (Author/LRW)

  20. Learning Objectives: Posting & Communicating Daily Learning Objectives to Increase Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Sarah E.; Linde, Kristen J.; Mason, John D.; Nagel, Ninja M.; O'Reilly, Katie A.

    2007-01-01

    This research project was conducted at a high school in a suburban metropolitan area in the Midwest from August 21, 2006 through October 26, 2006. The purpose of the research was to improve student achievement and motivation through the posting and communicating of daily learning objectives. The research participants included 150 students and five…

  1. Increasing Math and Science Achievement: The Best and Worst of the East and West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yong

    2005-01-01

    The East Asian countries are known for their high scores on international comparisons of math and science achievement. This does not necessarily mean that the U.S. should rush to adopt their practices and abandon its own strengths. Yong Zhao examines education reforms in math and science from an international perspective and discusses implications…

  2. Strategies for Success: Links to Increased Mathematics Achievement Scores of English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pray, Lisa; Ilieva, Vessela

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the link between mathematic teachers' use of English-language learner (ELL) strategies and the mathematics achievement of their students who are ELLs. Interviews and observations of mathematic teachers who taught ELLs were used to document instructional strategies use. The findings from the interviews and observations…

  3. Blending Academic, Career/Technical and Fine Arts Instruction to Increase Achievement and Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Teachers who work together to blend academic and career/technical (CT) instruction have found a key to motivating students to complete high school and prepare for college, advanced training and careers. This newsletter highlights key strategies schools are using to join academic and technical studies to advance student motivation and achievement.…

  4. Increasing Equity and Achievement in Fifth Grade Mathematics: The Contribution of Content Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottmar, Erin R.; Konold, Timothy R.; Berry, Robert Q.; Grissmer, David W.; Cameron, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    This study uses a large nationally representative data set (ECLS-K) of 5,181 students to examine the extent to which exposure to content and instructional practice contributes to mathematics achievement in fifth grade. Using hierarchical linear modeling, results suggest that more exposure to content beyond numbers and operations (i.e., geometry,…

  5. Increasing Access to Higher Education among Low-Income Students: The Washington State Achievers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carrie B.; Brown, Doreen E.; Pavel, D. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how a comprehensive precollege intervention and developmental program among low-income high school students contributed to college enrollment outcomes measured in 2006. Our focus was on the Fifth Cohort of the Washington State Achievers (WSA) Program, which provides financial, academic, and college…

  6. U.S. Public Administration Programs: Increasing Academic Achievement by Identifying and Utilizing Student Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Lorenda A; Wooldridge, Blue; Lyles, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Global economic shifts are forcing universities to become more competitive and operationally efficient. As a result, universities emphasize access, affordability, and achievement. More specifically, U.S. universities have responded by emphasizing course assessment, retention rates, and graduation rates. Both university administrators and faculty…

  7. Pairing New Science Curriculum with Professional Learning Increases Student Achievement. Lessons from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen

    2016-01-01

    A randomized trial study, conducted over two school years in 18 high schools in Washington, finds that "An Inquiry Approach," a three-year, educative curriculum for high school science, has a positive impact on student achievement, teacher practice, and fidelity of implementation of the curriculum when the curriculum is paired with…

  8. An Effective Model to Increase Student Attitude and Achievement: Narrative Including Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkuzu, Nalan; Akcay, Husamettin

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the analogical models and narratives used to introduce and teach Grade 9 chemical covalent compounds which are relatively abstract and difficult for students. We explained each model's development during the lessons and analyzed understanding students derived from these learning materials. In this context, achievement,…

  9. Gamed by the System: Adequate Yearly Progress as an Indicator of Persistently Low-Achieving School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochbein, Craig; Mitchell, Amanda M.; Pollio, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The recent policy focus on the turnaround of persistently low-achieving schools has generated considerable debate about the reforms needed to dramatically and quickly increase school performance. The purpose of this article is not to focus on specific turnaround interventions, but rather on the identification of schools slated to receive these…

  10. Children's Achievement Expectations and Performance as a Function of Two Consecutive Reinforcement Experiences, Sex of Subject, and Sex of Experimenter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanelli, Dale Soderman; Hill, Kennedy T.

    1969-01-01

    Presents research patterned on two earlier studies by the Crandalls 1963, 1964 on the effects of praise, criticism, and nonreaction on 10-year-old children involved in a marble-dropping task. The subjects tended to increase in performance and decrease in achievement expectancy when criticized. Table, graphs, and bibliography. (RW)

  11. Tracking Student Achievement in Music Performance: Developing Student Learning Objectives for Growth Model Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesolowski, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Student achievement growth data are increasingly used for assessing teacher effectiveness and tracking student achievement in the classroom. Guided by the student learning objective (SLO) framework, music teachers are now responsible for collecting, tracking, and reporting student growth data. Often, the reported data do not accurately reflect the…

  12. Performance-Based Music Ensembles' Effects on Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Timothy Francis

    2013-01-01

    As increasing student achievement levels for all learners continues to drive the focus of education, identifying strategies and opportunities to accomplish this goal becomes progressively more important. This study explored the concepts of self-efficacy, self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, and self-efficacy for academic achievement in…

  13. Regulating Debilitating Emotions in the Context of Performance: Achievement Goal Orientations, Achievement-Elicited Emotions, and Socialization Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Diana F.; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Hill, Nancy E.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical framework that incorporates emotional responses and emotion regulation into achievement goal theory is proposed as an alternative view to understanding the inconsistent pattern of findings linking achievement goal orientations to academic outcomes. In this critical review and synthesis, the relation of achievement goal orientations…

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Self-Reported Achievement Goals and Nonself-Report Performance across Three Achievement Domains (Work, Sports, and Education)

    PubMed Central

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual’s drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports) are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not) generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG) measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that – overall – approach goals (either mastery or performance) were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance) were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of

  15. Prediction of intrinsic motivation and sports performance using 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiung-Huang; Chi, Likang; Yeh, Suh-Ruu; Guo, Kwei-Bin; Ou, Cheng-Tsung; Kao, Chun-Chieh

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 2 x 2 achievement goals on intrinsic motivation and performance in handball. Participants were 164 high school athletes. All completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport and the Intrinsic Motivation subscale of the Sport Motivation Scale; the coach for each team rated his athletes' overall sports performance. Using simultaneous-regression analyses, mastery-approach goals positively predicted both intrinsic motivation and performance in sports, whereas performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted sports performance. These results suggest that athletes who pursue task mastery and improvement of their competence perform well and enjoy their participation. In contrast, those who focus on avoiding normative incompetence perform poorly. PMID:21675576

  16. Performance Assessment: Looking at the "Real" Achievement of Middle Level Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aseltine, James M.

    1993-01-01

    Performance assessment may be the best vehicle for validating student achievement. Performance assessment, in theory and practice, is compatible with middle-school philosophy, stated mission, organizational structure, and instructional models. The challenge is to reexamine program outcomes and decide what middle-level students should know and be…

  17. Universal Factors of Student Achievement in High-Performing Eastern and Western Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether a common set of student attitudes and behavioral tendencies can account for academic achievement across different, especially high-performing, countries via analysis of the PISA 2009 international data set. The 13 countries examined are 5 of the top-performing Eastern countries/systems, namely Shanghai China, South…

  18. 39 CFR 3055.31 - Contents of the Quarterly Report of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contents of the Quarterly Report of service performance achievements. 3055.31 Section 3055.31 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service...

  19. 39 CFR 3055.31 - Contents of the Quarterly Report of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contents of the Quarterly Report of service performance achievements. 3055.31 Section 3055.31 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service...

  20. 39 CFR 3055.31 - Contents of the Quarterly Report of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Contents of the Quarterly Report of service performance achievements. 3055.31 Section 3055.31 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service...

  1. 39 CFR 3055.31 - Contents of the Quarterly Report of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contents of the Quarterly Report of service performance achievements. 3055.31 Section 3055.31 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service...

  2. Achieving realistic performance and decison-making capabilities in computer-generated air forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.; Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Zurita, Vincent B.; Benslay, James L., Jr.

    1997-07-01

    For a computer-generated force (CGF) system to be useful in training environments, it must be able to operate at multiple skill levels, exhibit competency at assigned missions, and comply with current doctrine. Because of the rapid rate of change in distributed interactive simulation (DIS) and the expanding set of performance objectives for any computer- generated force, the system must also be modifiable at reasonable cost and incorporate mechanisms for learning. Therefore, CGF applications must have adaptable decision mechanisms and behaviors and perform automated incorporation of past reasoning and experience into its decision process. The CGF must also possess multiple skill levels for classes of entities, gracefully degrade its reasoning capability in response to system stress, possess an expandable modular knowledge structure, and perform adaptive mission planning. Furthermore, correctly performing individual entity behaviors is not sufficient. Issues related to complex inter-entity behavioral interactions, such as the need to maintain formation and share information, must also be considered. The CGF must also be able to acceptably respond to unforeseen circumstances and be able to make decisions in spite of uncertain information. Because of the need for increased complexity in the virtual battlespace, the CGF should exhibit complex, realistic behavior patterns within the battlespace. To achieve these necessary capabilities, an extensible software architecture, an expandable knowledge base, and an adaptable decision making mechanism are required. Our lab has addressed these issues in detail. The resulting DIS-compliant system is called the automated wingman (AW). The AW is based on fuzzy logic, the common object database (CODB) software architecture, and a hierarchical knowledge structure. We describe the techniques we used to enable us to make progress toward a CGF entity that satisfies the requirements presented above. We present our design and

  3. Boasts are a boost: achievement prime self-reactivity predicts subsequent academic performance.

    PubMed

    Gramzow, Richard H; Johnson, Camille S; Willard, Greg

    2014-03-01

    The present research tests the hypothesis that self-reactivity following an achievement prime reflects the strength of achievement goals and is a predictor of future goal-relevant performance. In Studies 1-3, undergraduates reported their grade-point averages (GPAs) following either an achievement goal prime or a control prime. Academic exaggeration (higher self-reported than official GPA) was the indicator of self-reactivity to the prime. Study 1 involved a direct achievement goal prime, whereas Studies 2 and 3 involved indirect priming techniques. In all 3 experiments, greater academic exaggeration following the achievement goal prime (but not the control prime) predicted better academic performance a semester later (based on official records). Study 4 demonstrated that the magnitude of students' GPA goals mediated the association between academic exaggeration and subsequent performance (1 year later). The fact that self-reactivity to a single achievement goal prime in the lab predicted later performance in "real life" suggests that individual differences in reactivity to a specific prime can signal much broader motivational orientations related to the primed goal. PMID:24588092

  4. Learning Increases the Survival of Newborn Neurons Provided that Learning Is Difficult to Achieve and Successful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curlik, Daniel M., II; Shors, Tracey J.

    2011-01-01

    Learning increases neurogenesis by increasing the survival of new cells generated in the adult hippocampal formation [Shors, T. J. Saving new brain cells. "Scientific American," 300, 46-52, 2009]. However, only some types of learning are effective. Recent studies demonstrate that animals that learn the conditioned response (CR) but require more…

  5. The Effect on Student Achievement of Increasing Kinetic Structure of Teachers' Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Tests O. R. Anderson's theory of kinetic structure of verbal communications by administering lectures on swine flu to high school biology students and then reteaching the lectures with increased commonality. Results weakly support Anderson's theory. Implications are made for training teachers to increase the commonality of their lectures. (CS)

  6. The Economy-Wide Benefits of Increasing the Proportion of Students Achieving Year 12 Equivalent Education: Modelling Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This study analyzed the economic benefits of an increase in the proportion of Australian students achieving a 12th-grade equivalent education. Earlier research examined the direct costs and benefits of a program that increased 12th grade equivalent education for the five-year cohort 2003-2007. This study built on that by incorporating the indirect…

  7. Downsizing a database platform for increased performance and decreased costs

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.M.; Tolendino, L.F.

    1993-06-01

    Technological advances in the world of microcomputers have brought forth affordable systems and powerful software than can compete with the more traditional world of minicomputers. This paper describes an effort at Sandia National Laboratories to decrease operational and maintenance costs and increase performance by moving a database system from a minicomputer to a microcomputer.

  8. Providing Performance Feedback for Teachers to Increase Treatment Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormont, Melissa; Reinke, Wendy M.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviewed a method for increasing teachers' use of behavior-specific praise, which is especially important for students with emotional and behavioral disabilities. The use of performance feedback has been researched fairly extensively and has yielded positive outcomes when compared with other forms of consultation. This article…

  9. The impact of the achievement motive on athletic performance in adolescent football players.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Researchers largely agree that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and athletic performance, which is why the achievement motive is viewed as a potential criterion for talent. However, the underlying mechanism behind this relationship remains unclear. In talent and performance models, main effect, mediator and moderator models have been suggested. A longitudinal study was carried out among 140 13-year-old football talents, using structural equation modelling to determine which model best explains how hope for success (HS) and fear of failure (FF), which are the aspects of the achievement motive, motor skills and abilities that affect performance. Over a period of half a year, HS can to some extent explain athletic performance, but this relationship is not mediated by the volume of training, sport-specific skills or abilities, nor is the achievement motive a moderating variable. Contrary to expectations, FF does not explain any part of performance. Aside from HS, however, motor abilities and in particular skills also predict a significant part of performance. The study confirms the widespread assumption that the development of athletic performance in football depends on multiple factors, and in particular that HS is worth watching in the medium term as a predictor of talent. PMID:24041313

  10. Achieving palliative care research efficiency through defining and benchmarking performance metrics

    PubMed Central

    Lodato, Jordan E.; Aziz, Noreen; Bennett, Rachael E.; Abernethy, Amy P.; Kutner, Jean S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review Research efficiency is gaining increasing attention in the research enterprise, including palliative care research. The importance of generating meaningful findings and translating these scientific advances to improved patient care creates urgency in the field to address well-documented system inefficiencies. The Palliative Care Research Cooperative Group (PCRC) provides useful examples for ensuring research efficiency in palliative care. Recent Findings Literature on maximizing research efficiency focuses on the importance of clearly delineated process maps, working instructions, and standard operating procedures (SOPs) in creating synchronicity in expectations across research sites. Examples from the PCRC support these objectives and suggest that early creation and employment of performance metrics aligned with these processes are essential to generate clear expectations and identify benchmarks. These benchmarks are critical in effective monitoring and ultimately the generation of high quality findings that are translatable to clinical populations. Prioritization of measurable goals and tasks to ensure that activities align with programmatic aims is critical. Summary Examples from the PCRC affirm and expand the existing literature on research efficiency, providing a palliative care focus. Operating procedures, performance metrics, prioritization, and monitoring for success should all be informed by and inform the process map to achieve maximum research efficiency. PMID:23080309

  11. Student Achievement for Whom? High-Performing and Still "Playing the Game," the Meaning of School Achievement among High Achieving African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggan, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The preponderance of the research on African American students has generally focused on issues of school failure and underperformance. While the literature on high achieving Black students is sparse, very little is known about these students' school experiences and the meanings that they assign to achievement. Using student-based inquiry…

  12. Thinking Maps: An innovative way to increase sixth-grade student achievement in social studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Tamita

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the effect of Thinking Maps on the achievement of 6th-grade social studies students in order to determine its effectiveness. The population of this study came from a suburban middle school in the state of Georgia. The quantitative data included a pretest and posttest. The study was designed to find (a) whether there is a significant difference between the mean posttest scores on the benchmark test of 6th-grade students who are taught with either Thinking Maps or traditional social studies methods, (b) whether there is a significant difference between the mean posttest scores on the benchmark test of 6th-grade male versus female social studies students, and (c) whether there is a significant interaction between 6th-grade students' type of social studies class and gender as to differentially affect their mean posttest scores on the benchmark test. To answer these questions, students' pretest and posttest were compared to determine if there was a statistically significant difference after Thinking Maps were implemented with the treatment group for 9 weeks. The results indicate that there was no significant difference in the test scores between the students who were taught with Thinking Maps and the students who were taught without Thinking Maps. However, the students taught with Thinking Maps had the higher adjusted posttest scores.

  13. Performance-based alternative assessments as a means of eliminating gender achievement differences on science tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Norman Merrill

    1998-09-01

    Historically, researchers have reported an achievement difference between females and males on standardized science tests. These differences have been reported to be based upon science knowledge, abstract reasoning skills, mathematical abilities, and cultural and social phenomena. This research was designed to determine how mastery of specific science content from public school curricula might be evaluated with performance-based assessment models, without producing gender achievement differences. The assessment instruments used were Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement's GOALSsp°ler: A Performance-Based Measure of Achievement and the performance-based portion of the Stanford Achievement Testspcopyright, Ninth Edition. The identified independent variables were test, gender, ethnicity, and grade level. A 2 x 2 x 6 x 12 (test x gender x ethnicity x grade) factorial experimental design was used to organize the data. A stratified random sample (N = 2400) was selected from a national pool of norming data: N = 1200 from the GOALSsp°ler group and N = 1200 from the SAT9spcopyright group. The ANOVA analysis yielded mixed results. The factors of test, gender, ethnicity by grade, gender by grade, and gender by grade by ethnicity failed to produce significant results (alpha = 0.05). The factors yielding significant results were ethnicity, grade, and ethnicity by grade. Therefore, no significant differences were found between female and male achievement on these performance-based assessments.

  14. Increasing Underrepresented High School Students' College Transitions and Achievements: TRIO Educational Opportunity Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan Pitre, Charisse; Pitre, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The American education agenda suggests a clear commitment to the development of programs and practices to increase equitable participation in higher education. During a time when equity-based policy initiatives are under attack in the United States, governmental TRIO Programs remain one proven pathway for ensuring college preparedness and access…

  15. Increasing Young Children's Contact with Print during Shared Reading: Longitudinal Effects on Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; McGinty, Anita S.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal results for a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) assessing the impact of increasing preschoolers' attention to print during reading are reported. Four-year-old children (N = 550) in 85 classrooms experienced a 30-week shared reading program implemented by their teachers. Children in experimental classrooms experienced shared-book…

  16. What Counts Is How the Game Is Scored: One Way to Increase Achievement in Learning Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Layman E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Studies the extent to which the effectiveness of instructional gaming in learning specific mathematical ideas can be increased by incorporating devices that channel learners' attention upon those ideas. In particular, the effect of channeling attention by changing the method of scoring is explored. (Author/CMV)

  17. Increasing Achievement of At-Risk Students through the Use of Metacognitive Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidgus, Cathy; Vassos, Sophia

    A metacognition instructional strategy was employed to increase class participation and motivation in 21 seventh grade "at-risk" students at 2 schools in the context of the national problem of meeting the needs of "at-risk" students. A survey of the students' content area teachers and of the students themselves found evidence of the students'…

  18. Predicting subjective vitality and performance in sports: the role of passion and achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiung-Huang

    2010-06-01

    The major purpose of this study was to test the hypothesized paths from dualistic passions through achievement goals to subjective vitality and performance in sports. 645 high school athletes participated. The proposed structural equation model, with relationships between dualistic passions and subjective vitality and sports performance mediated by achievement goals, fit the data well, especially for mastery-approach and performance-approach goals. Harmonious and obsessive passions may lead athletes to high performance via the adoption of mastery-approach goals. However, these passions seem to have two paths influencing personal functioning: direct effects make players feel energetic, and indirect effects on subjective vitality through adoption of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals. PMID:20865990

  19. Significant Increase in Ecosystem C Can Be Achieved with Sustainable Forest Management in Subtropical Plantation Forests

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500–2500 trees ha−1. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir – Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr−1, offsetting 1.9% of China’s annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber

  20. Untapped opportunities for improving performance and increasing smelter production

    SciTech Connect

    Forberg, H.O.

    1996-10-01

    A review has been made of a large number of aluminum smelters concerning opportunities for improving performance and increasing production. Smelters have been grouped according to current efficiency. Opportunities for improvement of older and newer smelters are discussed. For older smelters to remain competitive and extend economic life, it is important to find new ways to increase production. These efforts have been going on for many years and the most successful producers have been able to stay viable. Opportunities are still available for many older facilities as further incremental increases of production wait to be harvested. Newer smelters are also interested in decreasing cost by increasing production. Even if the operating costs of newer plants are lower than those of older ones, it is important that newer plants make improvements that generate an acceptable rate of return on invested capital.

  1. Clonal integration in homogeneous environments increases performance of Alternanthera philoxeroides.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bi-Cheng; Alpert, Peter; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2015-10-01

    Physiological integration between connected ramets can increase the performance of clonal plants when ramets experience contrasting levels of resource availabilities in heterogeneous environments. It has generally been shown or assumed that clonal integration has little effect on clonal performance in homogeneous environments. However, a conceptual model suggests that integration could increase performance in a homogeneous environment when connected ramets differ in uptake ability and external resource supply is high. We tested this hypothesis in a greenhouse experiment with the amphibious plant Alternanthera philoxeroides. Ramets in clonal fragments containing three rooted and two unrooted ramets were either left connected or divided into a basal part with two rooted ramets and an apical part with the other ramets. To simulate realistic, homogeneous environments of the species with different levels of resource supply, plants were grown at 0, 20, or 40 cm of water depth. Water depth had a positive effect on most measures of growth, indicating that resource supply increased with depth. Connection had negative to neutral effects on total growth of fragments at a water depth of 0 cm, and neutral to positive effects at 20- and 40-cm depths; effects on the apical part were generally positive and larger at greater depth; effects on the basal part were generally negative and smaller at greater depth. Results largely supported the hypothesis and further suggest that clonal integration of allocation and reproduction may modify benefits of resource sharing in homogeneous environments. PMID:26009243

  2. Live births achieved via IVF are increased by improvements in air quality and laboratory environment

    PubMed Central

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Hill, Micah J; James, Aidita N; Schimmel, Tim; Segars, James H; Csokmay, John M; Cohen, Jacques; Payson, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common disease, which causes many couples to seek treatment with assisted reproduction techniques. Many factors contribute to successful assisted reproduction technique outcomes. One important factor is laboratory environment and air quality. Our facility had the unique opportunity to compare consecutively used, but separate assisted reproduction technique laboratories, as a result of a required move. Environmental conditions were improved by strategic engineering designs. All other aspects of the IVF laboratory, including equipment, physicians, embryologists, nursing staff and protocols, were kept constant between facilities. Air quality testing showed improved air quality at the new IVF site. Embryo implantation (32.4% versus 24.3%; P < 0.01) and live birth (39.3% versus 31.8%, P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the new facility compared with the old facility. More patients met clinical criteria and underwent mandatory single embryo transfer on day 5 leading to both a reduction in multiple gestation pregnancies and increased numbers of vitrified embryos per patient with supernumerary embryos available. Improvements in IVF laboratory conditions and air quality had profound positive effects on laboratory measures and patient outcomes. This study further strengthens the importance of the laboratory environment and air quality in the success of an IVF programme. PMID:26194882

  3. Quantitative Guidance for Stove Usage and Performance to Achieve Health and Environmental Targets

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ranyee A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Displacing the use of polluting and inefficient cookstoves in developing countries is necessary to achieve the potential health and environmental benefits sought through clean cooking solutions. Yet little quantitative context has been provided on how much displacement of traditional technologies is needed to achieve targets for household air pollutant concentrations or fuel savings. Objectives This paper provides instructive guidance on the usage of cooking technologies required to achieve health and environmental improvements. Methods We evaluated different scenarios of displacement of traditional stoves with use of higher performing technologies. The air quality and fuel consumption impacts were estimated for these scenarios using a single-zone box model of indoor air quality and ratios of thermal efficiency. Results Stove performance and usage should be considered together, as lower performing stoves can result in similar or greater benefits than a higher performing stove if the lower performing stove has considerably higher displacement of the baseline stove. Based on the indoor air quality model, there are multiple performance–usage scenarios for achieving modest indoor air quality improvements. To meet World Health Organization guidance levels, however, three-stone fire and basic charcoal stove usage must be nearly eliminated to achieve the particulate matter target (< 1–3 hr/week), and substantially limited to meet the carbon monoxide guideline (< 7–9 hr/week). Conclusions Moderate health gains may be achieved with various performance–usage scenarios. The greatest benefits are estimated to be achieved by near-complete displacement of traditional stoves with clean technologies, emphasizing the need to shift in the long term to near exclusive use of clean fuels and stoves. The performance–usage scenarios are also provided as a tool to guide technology selection and prioritize behavior change opportunities to maximize impact. Citation

  4. Vortex generators as a means for increasing rotor performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, R. D.; Savino, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Field tests on a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) have shown that Vortex Generators (VGs) can increase the efficiency of large propeller type (horizontal axis) wind turbines. VGs are devices which are attached to the surfaces of an aerodynamic body to influence the boundary layer behavior. It is pointed out that VGs were originally developed for delaying stall on aircraft wings. An investigation was conducted regarding the possibility to employ VGs also for the improvement of the performance of an intermediate size HAWT with a diameter in the range from 24 to 46 meters. This investigation included wind tunnel tests involving a rotor blade tip section, and field tests. The wind tunnel tests showed that VGs can improve the peak lift capabilities of the section while only slightly increasing the drag. The field tests showed that VGs can increase the rotor power in winds above 6 m/s.

  5. Factors Influencing Student Achievement at a High-Performing Title I Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeier, Charlann K.

    2012-01-01

    Schools in America are required to provide all students with a quality education regardless of race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background, demonstrated through test scores mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act. Knowledge about factors that influence students' academic performance and serve to reduce the achievement gap between Hispanic…

  6. Achievement Motivation Goals in Relation to Academic Performance in Traditional and Nontraditional College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppler, Marion; Harju, Beverly L.

    1997-01-01

    A study of the relationship between goal orientation and academic performance in 262 undergraduates, classified as traditional or nontraditional, found both groups rated themselves higher on learning goals than achievement goals, but nontraditional students endorsed learning goals more strongly. Goal orientations were a better predictor of…

  7. Performance-Approach Goal Effects on Achievement under Low versus High Challenge Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Durik, Amanda M.; Patel, Lily; Lovejoy, Chelsea M.; Valentiner, David

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the effects of university students' achievement goals on performance under low versus high challenge conditions. The first was a laboratory experiment in which participants were assigned goals to pursue on a novel mathematics task alleged to be simple or complex to use. The second was a survey study in which students set goals…

  8. A Study of the Relationships Between Test Order, Physiological Arousal, and Intelligence and Achievement Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nighswander, James K.; Beggs, Donald L.

    The relative predictive abilities of two indices of test anxiety were investigated. The galvanic skin response (GSR) and the Test Anxiety Scale for Children (TASC) were used as predictor variables for IQ and achievement test performance. The results of multiple linear regression analysis indicated that neither the TASC nor the GSR, combined over…

  9. Four Language Skills Performance, Academic Achievement, and Learning Strategy Use in Preservice Teacher Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad Fathy

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the differences in language learning strategies (LLS) use between preservice teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) and Arabic as a second language (ASL). It also examines the relationship between LLS use and language performance (academic achievement and four language skills) among ASL students. The study made use…

  10. Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K.J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

  11. Using Self-Correction to Improve the Spelling Performance of Low-Achieving Third Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirtz, Connie L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of two spelling strategies (traditional versus self-correction) on spelling performance of six low-achieving third-grade students found the self-correction procedure more effective than the traditional condition and also helped students maintain their ability to correctly spell previously learned words. (Author/DB)

  12. Teaching to the Tails: Teacher Performance Pay and the Distribution of Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyalka, Prashant; Sylvia, Sean; Liu, Chengfang; Chu, James; Rozelle, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that teachers in developing countries often have weak or misaligned incentives for improving student outcomes. In response, policymakers and researchers have proposed performance pay as a way to improve student outcomes by tying concrete measures like achievement scores to teacher pay. While evidence from randomized…

  13. Performance Concern, Contingent Self-Worth, and Responses to Repeated Achievement Failure in Second Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Patricia A.; Coulson, Sheri L.; Greene, Joelle K.; Bono, Katherine L.

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in emotion, cognitions, and task choice following achievement failure are found among four- to seven-year-olds. However, neither performance deterioration during failure nor generalization after failure--aspects of the helpless pattern in 10-year-olds--have been reliably demonstrated in this age group. In the present study,…

  14. Marked for Success: Secondary School Performance and University Achievement in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Keith; Broght, Erik; Sampson, Kaylene

    2011-01-01

    Building on Shulruf, Hattie and Tumen (2008), this work examines the capacity of various National Certificate in Educational Achievement (NCEA)-derived models to predict first-year performance in Biological Sciences at a New Zealand university. We compared three models: (1) the "best-80" indicator as used by several New Zealand…

  15. Improving Achievement in Low-Performing Schools: Key Results for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Randolph E.; Burke, Mary Ann

    2004-01-01

    As accountability in schools becomes more crucial, educators are looking for comprehensive and innovative management practices that respond to challenges and realities of student academic achievement. In order to improve academic performance and the quality of instruction, the entire school community needs to be involved. This book provides six…

  16. The Influence of Overt Practice, Achievement Level, and Explanatory Style on Calibration Accuracy and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bol, Linda; Hacker, Douglas J.; O'Shea, Patrick; Allen, Dwight

    2005-01-01

    The authors measured the influence of overt calibration practice, achievement level, and explanatory style on calibration accuracy and exam performance. Students (N = 356) were randomly assigned to either an overt practice or no-practice condition. Students in the overt practice condition made predictions and postdictions about their performance…

  17. Immigrant Children's Educational Achievement in Western Countries: Origin, Destination, and Community Effects on Mathematical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levels, Mark; Dronkers, Jaap; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which macro-level characteristics of destination countries, origin countries, and immigrant communities help explain differences in immigrant children's educational achievement. Using data from the 2003 PISA survey, we analyze the mathematical performance of 7,403 pupils from 35 different origin countries in 13…

  18. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Increasing Academic Learning Time for College Undergraduate Students' Achievement in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shammari, Zaid; Mohammad, Anwar; Al-Shammari, Bandar

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of increasing ALT for college students' achievement in Kuwait. In Phase 1, 37 students participated (22, experimental; 15, control); in Phase 2, 19 students participated (8, sub-experimental; 11, sub-control). Several experimental research methods used in conducting this study, including development of a…

  19. Piston designs keep pace with increased engine performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, P.

    1996-12-01

    Piston technology for medium-speed diesel engines is having to keep pace with steadily increasing engine performance criteria. Specific output of medium-speed diesel engines has increased some 50% since 1970, according to Walter Griffiths, chief engineer at the UK-based AE Geotze Special Products Ltd. To satisfy the higher performance now required, a two-piece piston has been developed and went into production in 1995. This type still uses an aluminum alloy forged body, but incorporates a steel crown. The composite piston can carry higher engine ratings and resists the abrasive deposits formed by heavy fuel operation. It has become well established for bore sizes above 300 mm and is becoming increasingly specified for engines down to 200 mm. The latest solution to the carbon deposits on the top of the piston that has gained widespread acceptance within the industry is to reduce the diameter of the bore above the top ring and cut back the top land to maintain the normal operating clearance. This requires an insert to be fitted into the liner after the piston has been assembled. The effect is to limit the carbon build-up on the top land to a specific diameter, which is always less than the bore diameter. Thus there is no possibility of top land contact with the bore over the effective stroke of the piston rings. 2 figs.

  20. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-06-10

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756

  1. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L.; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K.; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes—although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756

  2. Performance evaluation of iterative reconstruction algorithms for achieving CT radiation dose reduction - a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Cristina T; Tamm, Eric P; Cody, Dianna D; Liu, Xinming; Jensen, Corey T; Wei, Wei; Kundra, Vikas; Rong, John

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize image quality and dose performance with GE CT iterative reconstruction techniques, adaptive statistical iterative recon-struction (ASiR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), over a range of typical to low-dose intervals using the Catphan 600 and the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantoms. The scope of the project was to quantitatively describe the advantages and limitations of these approaches. The Catphan 600 phantom, supplemented with a fat-equivalent oval ring, was scanned using a GE Discovery HD750 scanner at 120 kVp, 0.8 s rotation time, and pitch factors of 0.516, 0.984, and 1.375. The mA was selected for each pitch factor to achieve CTDIvol values of 24, 18, 12, 6, 3, 2, and 1 mGy. Images were reconstructed at 2.5 mm thickness with filtered back-projection (FBP); 20%, 40%, and 70% ASiR; and MBIR. The potential for dose reduction and low-contrast detectability were evaluated from noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurements in the CTP 404 module of the Catphan. Hounsfield units (HUs) of several materials were evaluated from the cylinder inserts in the CTP 404 module, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated from the air insert. The results were con-firmed in the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantom at 6, 3, 2, and 1mGy. MBIR reduced noise levels five-fold and increased CNR by a factor of five compared to FBP below 6mGy CTDIvol, resulting in a substantial improvement in image quality. Compared to ASiR and FBP, HU in images reconstructed with MBIR were consistently lower, and this discrepancy was reversed by higher pitch factors in some materials. MBIR improved the conspicuity of the high-contrast spatial resolution bar pattern, and MTF quantification confirmed the superior spatial resolution performance of MBIR versus FBP and ASiR at higher dose levels. While ASiR and FBP were relatively insensitive to changes in dose and pitch, the spatial resolution for MBIR

  3. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    For many NASA missions, remote sensing is a critical application that supports activities such as environmental monitoring, planetary science, structural shape and health monitoring, non-destructive evaluation, etc. The utility of the remote sensing devices themselves is greatly increased if they are passive that is, they do not require any on-board power supply such as batteries and if they can be identified uniquely during the sensor interrogation process. Additional passive sensor characteristics that enable greater utilization in space applications are small size and weight, long read ranges with low interrogator power, ruggedness, and operability in extreme environments (vacuum, extreme high/low temperature, high radiation, etc.) In this paper, we consider one very promising passive sensor technology, called surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID), that satisfies all of these criteria. Although SAW RFID tags have great potential for use in numerous space-based remote sensing applications, the limited collision resolution capability of current generation tags limits the performance in a cluttered sensing environment. That is, as more SAW-based sensors are added to the environment, numerous tag responses are superimposed at the receiver and decoding all or even a subset of the telemetry becomes increasingly difficult. Background clutter generated by reflectors other than the sensors themselves is also a problem, as is multipath interference and signal distortion, but the limiting factor in many remote sensing applications can be expected to be tag mutual interference. This problem may be greatly mitigated by proper design of the SAW tag waveform, but that remains an open research problem, and in the meantime, several other related questions remain to be answered including: What are the fundamental relationships between tag parameters such as bit-rate, time-bandwidth-product, SNR, and achievable collision resolution? What are the

  4. Daily Online Testing in Large Classes: Boosting College Performance while Reducing Achievement Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Pennebaker, James W.; Gosling, Samuel D.; Ferrell, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    An in-class computer-based system, that included daily online testing, was introduced to two large university classes. We examined subsequent improvements in academic performance and reductions in the achievement gaps between lower- and upper-middle class students in academic performance. Students (N = 901) brought laptop computers to classes and took daily quizzes that provided immediate and personalized feedback. Student performance was compared with the same data for traditional classes taught previously by the same instructors (N = 935). Exam performance was approximately half a letter grade above previous semesters, based on comparisons of identical questions asked from earlier years. Students in the experimental classes performed better in other classes, both in the semester they took the course and in subsequent semester classes. The new system resulted in a 50% reduction in the achievement gap as measured by grades among students of different social classes. These findings suggest that frequent consequential quizzing should be used routinely in large lecture courses to improve performance in class and in other concurrent and subsequent courses. PMID:24278176

  5. The effects of achievement goals on performance, enjoyment, and practice of a novel motor task.

    PubMed

    Kavussanu, Maria; Morris, Rebecca L; Ring, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    We examined the effects of trichotomous achievement goals on performance, enjoyment, and practice of a golf-putting task. Male (n = 39) and female (n = 63) undergraduate students participated in the experiment in exchange for course credit. Participants were assigned to a mastery, performance-approach, or performance-avoidance goal condition and completed seven blocks of 10 trials (one for baseline, four for the experimental phase, and two for the transfer phase) of a golf-putting task. Distance from the target was measured and performance measures of accuracy and consistency were calculated. Self-reported enjoyment during the baseline and experimental phases and practice during a 5-min period before and following the experimental task were also assessed. Performance accuracy and consistency improved similarly among the three groups. Individuals in all three conditions reported enjoying the task to the same extent. Mastery participants practiced for longer than performance-approach participants during the practice period. Performance-avoidance participants did not differ significantly from the other two groups. The three goals were equally effective in promoting performance and enjoyment of the golf-putting task. The differential practice results for the two performance goals suggest that they should be considered separately. PMID:19735037

  6. Feature-based attention enhances performance by increasing response gain.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Katrin; Heeger, David J; Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-12-01

    Covert spatial attention can increase contrast sensitivity either by changes in contrast gain or by changes in response gain, depending on the size of the attention field and the size of the stimulus (Herrmann et al., 2010), as predicted by the normalization model of attention (Reynolds & Heeger, 2009). For feature-based attention, unlike spatial attention, the model predicts only changes in response gain, regardless of whether the featural extent of the attention field is small or large. To test this prediction, we measured the contrast dependence of feature-based attention. Observers performed an orientation-discrimination task on a spatial array of grating patches. The spatial locations of the gratings were varied randomly so that observers could not attend to specific locations. Feature-based attention was manipulated with a 75% valid and 25% invalid pre-cue, and the featural extent of the attention field was manipulated by introducing uncertainty about the upcoming grating orientation. Performance accuracy was better for valid than for invalid pre-cues, consistent with a change in response gain, when the featural extent of the attention field was small (low uncertainty) or when it was large (high uncertainty) relative to the featural extent of the stimulus. These results for feature-based attention clearly differ from results of analogous experiments with spatial attention, yet both support key predictions of the normalization model of attention. PMID:22580017

  7. Does finger training increase young children's numerical performance?

    PubMed

    Gracia-Bafalluy, Maria; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2008-04-01

    Butterworth (1999) suggested that fingers are important in representing numerosities. Furthermore, scores on a finger gnosis test are a better predictor of numerical performance up to 3 years later than intellectual measures (Marinthe et al., 2001; Noël, 2005). We hypothesised that training in finger differentiation would increase finger gnosis and might also improve numerical performance. Accordingly, 47 first-grade children were selected and divided into 3 groups: children with poor finger gnosis who followed the finger-differentiation training programme (G1), a control-intervention who were trained in story comprehension (G2), and a group with high finger gnosis scores who just continued with normal school lessons (G3). The finger training consisted of 2 weekly sessions of half an hour each, for 8 weeks. Before the training period, children in G3 performed better in finger gnosis and enumeration than children in the two other groups. After the training period this pattern remained for the children in G2 and G3, but the children in G1 were significantly better than those in G2 at finger gnosis, representation of numerosities with fingers, and quantification tasks; they also tended to be better at the processing of Arabic digits. These results indicate that improving finger gnosis in young children is possible and that it can provide a useful support to learning mathematics. Such an approach could be particularly appropriate for children with a developmental Gerstmann syndrome. Theoretically, these results are important because they suggest a functional link between finger gnosis and number skills. PMID:18387567

  8. Will the age of peak ultra-marathon performance increase with increasing race duration?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies found that the athlete’s age of the best ultra-marathon performance was higher than the athlete’s age of the best marathon performance and it seemed that the athlete’s age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased in distance-limited races with rising distance. Methods We investigated the athlete’s age of peak ultra-marathon performance in the fastest finishers in time-limited ultra-marathons from 6 hrs to 10 d. Running performance and athlete’s age of the fastest women and men competing in 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, 144 hrs (6 d) and 240 hrs (10 d) were analysed for races held between 1975 and 2012 using analysis of variance and multi-level regression analysis. Results The athlete’s ages of the ten fastest women ever in 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, 6 d and 10 d were 41 ± 9, 41 ± 6, 42 ± 5, 46 ± 5, 44 ± 6, 42 ± 4, and 37 ± 4 yrs, respectively. The athlete’s age of the ten fastest women was different between 48 hrs and 10 d. For men, the athlete’s ages were 35 ± 6, 37 ± 9, 39 ± 8, 44 ± 7, 48 ± 3, 48 ± 8 and 48 ± 6 yrs, respectively. The athlete’s age of the ten fastest men in 6 hrs and 12 hrs was lower than the athlete’s age of the ten fastest men in 72 hrs, 6 d and 10 d, respectively. Conclusion The athlete’s age of peak ultra-marathon performance did not increase with rising race duration in the best ultra-marathoners. For the fastest women ever in time-limited races, the athlete’s age was lowest in 10 d (~37 yrs) and highest in 48 hrs (~46 yrs). For men, the athlete’s age of the fastest ever in 6 hrs (~35 yrs) and 12 hrs (~37 yrs) was lower than the athlete’s age of the ten fastest in 72 hrs (~48 yrs), 6 d (~48 yrs) and 10 d (~48 yrs). The differences in the athlete’s age of peak performance between female and male ultra-marathoners for the different race durations need further

  9. Postural performance of vestibular loss patients under increased postural threat.

    PubMed

    Young, Laurence R; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Dumitrescu, Michel; Magnan, Jacques; Borel, Liliane; Lacour, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The effects of increasing postural task difficulty on balance control was investigated in 9 compensated vestibular loss patients whose results were compared to 11 healthy adults. Subjects were tested in static (stable support) and dynamic (sinusoidal translation of the support) conditions, both at floor level and at height (62 cm above the floor), and with and without vision, to create an additional postural threat. Wavelet analysis of the center of foot pressure displacement and motion analysis of the body segments were used to evaluate the postural performance. Evaluation questionnaires were used to examine the compensation level of the patients (DHI test), their general anxiety level (SAST), fear of height (subjective scale), and workload (NASA TLX test). (Vestibular loss patients rely more on vision and spend more energy maintaining balance than controls, but they use the same postural strategy as normals in both static and dynamic conditions.) Questionnaire data all showed differences in behavior and perceptions between the controls and the patients. However, at height and without vision, a whole body strategy leading to rigid posture replaces the head stabilization strategy found for standing at floor level. The effects of height on postural control can be attributable to an increase in postural threat and attention changes resulting from modifications in perception. PMID:23000612

  10. Jet Spreading Increase by Passive Control and Associated Performance Penalty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of 'screech', 'asymmetric nozzle shaping', 'tabs' and 'overexpansion' on the spreading of free jets. Corresponding thrust penalty for the tabs and overexpanded condition are also evaluated. The asymmetric shapes include rectangular ones with varying aspect ratio. Tabs investigated are triangular shaped 'delta-tabs' placed at the exit of a convergent circular nozzle. The effect of overexpansion is examined with circular convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzles. Tabs and overexpansion are found to yield the largest increase in jet spreading. Each, however, involves a performance penalty, i.e., a loss in thrust coefficient. Variation of the size of four delta-tabs show that there exists an optimum size for which the gain in jet spreading is the maximum per unit loss in thrust coefficient. With the C-D nozzles, the minimum in thrust coefficient is expected near the beginning of the overexpanded regime based on idealized flow calculations. The maximum increase in jet spreading, however, is found to occur at higher pressure ratios well into the overexpanded regime. The optimum benefit with the overexpanded flow, in terms of gain in spreading for unit penalty, is found to be comparable to the optimum tab case.

  11. Social jetlag, academic achievement and cognitive performance: Understanding gender/sex differences.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Morales, Juan F; Escribano, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents in high school suffer from circadian misalignment, undersleeping on weekdays and oversleeping on weekends. Since high schools usually impose early schedules, adolescents suffer from permanent social jetlag (SJL) and thus are a suitable population to study the effects of SJL on both academic and cognitive performance. In this study, 796 adolescents aged 12-16 years reported information about their sleep habits, morningness-eveningness (M-E), cognitive abilities and grade point average (GPA). Time in bed on both weekdays and weekends was not related to cognitive abilities, and only time in bed on weekdays was related to academic achievement. SJL was negatively related to academic achievement, cognitive abilities (except for vocabulary and verbal fluency abilities) and general cognitive ability (g), whereas M-E was slightly positively related to academic achievement and marginally negatively related to inductive reasoning. Results separated by sex/gender indicated that SJL may be more detrimental to girls' performance, as it was negatively related to a greater number of cognitive abilities and GPA. PMID:26061587

  12. Achieving performance breakthroughs in an HMO business process through quality planning.

    PubMed

    Hanan, K B

    1993-01-01

    Kaiser Permanente's Georgia Region commissioned a quality planning team to design a new process to improve payments to its suppliers and vendors. The result of the team's effort was a 73 percent reduction in cycle time. This team's experiences point to the advantages of process redesign as a quality planning model, as well as some general guidelines for its most effective use in teams. If quality planning project teams are carefully configured, sufficiently expert in the existing process, and properly supported by management, organizations can achieve potentially dramatic improvements in process performance using this approach. PMID:10130708

  13. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    current generation tags limits the performance in a cluttered sensing environment. That is, as more SAW-based sensors are added to the environment, numerous tag responses are superimposed at the receiver and decoding all or even a subset of the telemetry becomes increasingly difficult. Background clutter generated by reflectors other than the sensors themselves is also a problem, as is multipath interference and signal distortion, but the limiting factor in many remote sensing applications can be expected to be tag mutual interference. This problem may be greatly mitigated by proper design of the SAW tag waveform, but that remains an open research problem, and in the meantime, several other related questions remain to be answered including: (1) What are the fundamental relationships between tag parameters such as bit-rate, time-bandwidth-product, SNR, and achievable collision resolution? (2) What are the differences in optimal or near-optimal interrogator designs between noise-limited environments and interference-limited environments? (3) What are the performance characteristics of different interrogator designs in term of parameters such as transmitter power level, range, and number of interfering tags? In this paper, we will present the results of a research effort aimed at providing at least partial answers to all of these questions.

  14. Effectiveness of increasing the frequency of posaconazole syrup administration to achieve optimal plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Park, Wan Beom; Cho, Joo-Youn; Park, Sang-In; Kim, Eun Jung; Yoon, Seonghae; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Youngil; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Eu Suk; Bang, Su Mi; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Inho; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Sang Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Few data are available on whether adjusting the dose of posaconazole syrup is effective in patients receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the impact of increasing the frequency of posaconazole administration on optimal plasma concentrations in adult patients with haematological malignancy. A total of 133 adult patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received posaconazole syrup 200 mg three times daily for fungal prophylaxis were enrolled in this study. Drug trough levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In 20.2% of patients (23/114) the steady-state concentration of posaconazole was suboptimal (<500 ng/mL) on Day 8. In these patients, the frequency of posaconazole administration was increased to 200 mg four times daily. On Day 15, the median posaconazole concentration was significantly increased from 368 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 247-403 ng/mL] to 548 ng/mL (IQR, 424-887 ng/mL) (P = 0.0003). The median increase in posaconazole concentration was 251 ng/mL (IQR, 93-517 ng/mL). Among the patients with initially suboptimal levels, 79% achieved the optimal level unless the steady-state level was <200 ng/mL. This study shows that increasing the administration frequency of posaconazole syrup is effective for achieving optimal levels in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:27234674

  15. Benefits of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion to Achieve 4x Increase in Cruise Efficiency for a VTOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J.; Moore, Mark D.; Busan, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Electric propulsion enables radical new vehicle concepts, particularly for Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft because of their significant mismatch between takeoff and cruise power conditions. However, electric propulsion does not merely provide the ability to normalize the power required across the phases of flight, in the way that automobiles also use hybrid electric technologies. The ability to distribute the thrust across the airframe, without mechanical complexity and with a scale-free propulsion system, is a new degree of freedom for aircraft designers. Electric propulsion is scale-free in terms of being able to achieve highly similar levels of motor power to weight and efficiency across a dramatic scaling range. Applying these combined principles of electric propulsion across a VTOL aircraft permits an improvement in aerodynamic efficiency that is approximately four times the state of the art of conventional helicopter configurations. Helicopters typically achieve a lift to drag ratio (L/D) of between 4 and 5, while the VTOL aircraft designed and developed in this research were designed to achieve an L/D of approximately 20. Fundamentally, the ability to eliminate the problem of advancing and retreating rotor blades is shown, without resorting to unacceptable prior solutions such as tail-sitters. This combination of concept and technology also enables a four times increase in range and endurance while maintaining the full VTOL and hover capability provided by a helicopter. Also important is the ability to achieve low disc-loading for low ground impingement velocities, low noise and hover power minimization (thus reducing energy consumption in VTOL phases). This combination of low noise and electric propulsion (i.e. zero emissions) will produce a much more community-friendly class of vehicles. This research provides a review of the concept brainstorming, configuration aerodynamic and mission analysis, as well as subscale prototype construction and

  16. A Comparison of Secondary Principals' Use of Data Systems to Increase Student Achievement in Mathematics as Measured by Standardized Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The pressure to meet the demands of "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) Act coupled with poor results by secondary students on national assessments in mathematics have forced school principals to develop skill sets in the use of data in efforts to increase student performance on standardized assessments. The effective use of data by school principals…

  17. Wind/tornado design criteria, development to achieve required probabilistic performance goals

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, D.S.

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes the strategy for developing new design criteria for a critical facility to withstand loading induced by the wind/tornado hazard. The proposed design requirements for resisting wind/tornado loads are based on probabilistic performance goals. The proposed design criteria were prepared by a Working Group consisting of six experts in wind/tornado engineering and meteorology. Utilizing their best technical knowledge and judgment in the wind/tornado field, they met and discussed the methodologies and reviewed available data. A review of the available wind/tornado hazard model for the site, structural response evaluation methods, and conservative acceptance criteria lead to proposed design criteria that has a high probability of achieving the required performance goals.

  18. Performance Achievements and Challenges for FELs based on Energy Recovered Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2006-08-27

    During the past decade several groups have assembled free electron lasers based on energy recovered linacs (ERLs). Such arrangements have been built to obtain high average power electron and photon beams, by using high repetition rate beam pulses driving FEL oscillators. In this paper the performance of many existing and several proposed facilities from around the world are reviewed. Going forward, many questions must be addressed to achieve still better performance including: higher average current injectors, better optimized accelerating cavities, higher energy acceptance and lower loss beam recirculation systems, and better optical cavity designs for dealing with the optical beam power circulating in the ERL FELs. This paper presents some of the current thinking on each of these issues.

  19. The role of shaping in achieving high performance in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, E.A.; Hyatt, A.W.; Osborne, T.H.

    1994-10-01

    Experiments to study the effect of plasma shape on performance show that the high performance levels characteristic of VH-mode plasmas are only obtained for high triangularity ({delta}). A characteristic difference in central heating efficiency is observed when high and low {delta} plasmas are compared. The authors find this difference to correlate well with the attainment of Mercier stability. The core plasma for the high {delta} cases achieves Mercier stability when q{sub 0} rises above a critical value which depends on {delta}, providing direct access to the second-stable regime. Other attributes of the VH-mode commence after a delay. The rise in q{sub 0} is attributable to the radial gradients in the neutral beam and bootstrap current sources. Simulation indicates that such plasmas would persist for many seconds if the rise in density could be controlled, maintaining a centrally peaked neutral beam deposition profile.

  20. Sectionalizing interconnected transmission network to improve system performance and achieve fault current reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, B.

    1998-12-31

    An analysis was recently undertaken at Northern States Power Company (NSP) in an attempt to identify the advantages and disadvantages of sectionalizing Twin Cities metropolitan area transmission system. Five specific sectionalization schemes were developed to evaluate the transmission system performance associated with each scenario. These schemes were judged against the following performance characteristics: fault current level, severity of voltage depression during faults, NSP system losses, system through flow and contingency operation. Study results indicated that by careful application of the splitting scheme, sectionalization can provide significant performance improvements and still have economic feasibility. A comparison between sectionalization costs (increased system losses) and its benefits (improved performance) would help determine to what degree sectionalization is economically feasible and make the final decision. Of the five schemes tested, the contour that appeared the best in terms of reliability, performance and economics was chosen for implementation in NSP system during 1997 summer.

  1. A Comparison of Performance in Solving Arithmetical Word Problems by Children with Different Levels of Achievement in Mathematics and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikeras, Elin K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Performance in consistent arithmetical word problems was assessed in 941 pupils aged eight (N = 415), ten (N = 274), and thirteen (N = 252) classified in four achievement groups by standardised achievement tests: low achievement in both mathematics and reading (MLRL), in mathematics only (ML-only), in reading only (RL-only), and normal achievement…

  2. Efforts to achieve high-performance long-pulse operations in the EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Baonian; EAST Team; Collaborators

    2016-01-01

    To achieve long-pulse tokamak operation, sufficient current drive and self-generated current are required, with the challenges of the exhaust of the heat from the divertor plates. Experiments have proven that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) can broaden the divertor power footprint and cause the splitting of the strike point current and hence reduce the peak heat flux on the divertors. Edge localized mode (ELM) mitigation can be realized by supersonic molecule beam injection (SMBI), modulated LHCD, lithium granule and aerosol injection, as well as resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). Enhanced transport by an electrostatic edge coherent mode at the pedestal region is observed in the ELM mitigated plasmas by LHCD. Long-pulse H-mode plasmas in the small ELMy regime have been demonstrated by a combination of ELM mitigation techniques and the optimization of the plasma confinement performance. These newly achieved H-mode scenarios by using features of LHCD in the control of steady-state peak heat flux and transient heat flux due to ELMs may offer a promising regime for further EAST long-pulse high-performance operation and be applicable to ITER.

  3. An Examination of Secondary School Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course and Achievement Scores in Performance Assignments with Regard to Different Variables: A Boarding School Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Günaydin, Esra; Okur, Alperen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the academic achievement and performance tasks of students studying in a regional primary boarding school in science course with regard to different variables. The study was carried out via survey method and total 96 students, 57 of them boarding students and 39 of them non-boarding students studying in the 5th,…

  4. High-Achieving High School Students and Not so High-Achieving College Students: A Look at Lack of Self-Control, Academic Ability, and Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honken, Nora B.; Ralston, Patricia A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among lack of self-control, academic ability, and academic performance for a cohort of freshman engineering students who were, with a few exceptions, extremely high achievers in high school. Structural equation modeling analysis led to the conclusion that lack of self-control in high school, as measured by…

  5. Design and performance of tapered cubic anvil used for achieving higher pressure and larger sample cell.

    PubMed

    Han, Qi-Gang; Yang, Wen-Ke; Zhu, Pin-Wen; Ban, Qing-Chu; Yan, Ni; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-07-01

    In order to increase the maximum cell pressure of the cubic high pressure apparatus, we have developed a new structure of tungsten carbide cubic anvil (tapered cubic anvil), based on the principle of massive support and lateral support. Our results indicated that the tapered cubic anvil has some advantages. First, tapered cubic anvil can push the transfer rate of pressure well into the range above 36.37% compare to the conventional anvil. Second, the rate of failure crack decreases about 11.20% after the modification of the conventional anvil. Third, the limit of static high-pressure in the sample cell can be extended to 13 GPa, which can increase the maximum cell pressure about 73.3% than that of the conventional anvil. Fourth, the volume of sample cell compressed by tapered cubic anvils can be achieved to 14.13 mm(3) (3 mm diameter × 2 mm long), which is three and six orders of magnitude larger than that of double-stage apparatus and diamond anvil cell, respectively. This work represents a relatively simple method for achieving higher pressures and larger sample cell. PMID:23902079

  6. Mindful awareness of feelings increases neural performance monitoring.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Blair; Rodrigo, Achala H; Inzlicht, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Mindfulness has been associated with enhanced performance monitoring; however, little is known about the processes driving this apparent neurocognitive benefit. Here, we tested whether focusing present-moment awareness toward the nonjudgmental experience of emotion facilitates rapid neural responses to negative performance outcomes (i.e., mistakes). In particular, we compared whether directing present-moment awareness toward emotions or thoughts would enhance the neurophysiological correlates of performance monitoring: the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error positivity (Pe). Participants were randomly assigned to either a thought-focused or an emotion-focused group, and first they completed a preinduction go/no-go task. Subsequently, the groups followed inductions that promoted mindful attention toward either thoughts or emotions, before completing a final postinduction go/no-go session. The results indicated that emotion-focused participants demonstrated higher neural sensitivity to errors in the time course of the ERN, whereas focusing on thoughts had no effect on performance monitoring. In contrast, neither induction procedure altered the amplitude of the later Pe component. Although our manipulations also induced changes in behavior, the ERN effects remained significant after controlling for performance. Thus, our results suggest that mindfulness meditation boosts early neural performance monitoring (ERN amplitude), specifically through meditation's influence on affective processing. PMID:26350627

  7. A Study of Identification and Achievement Profiles of Performance Task-Identified Gifted Students over 6 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; Feng, Annie Xuemei; de Brux, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the trend of identification and achievement patterns of performance task-identified students over a span of 6 years (2000-2005), in comparison to profiles of students who were identified exclusively through traditional ability and achievement tests. The study findings suggested that the performance-based protocols were…

  8. WWC Quick Review of the Report "The Effect of Performance-Pay in Little Rock, Arkansas on Student Achievement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This review examined a study designed to evaluate whether the Achievement Challenge Pilot Project, a performance-pay program for teachers, improved the academic achievement of elementary school students. Study authors reported higher student test score gains for students in schools that implemented the performance- pay program than for students in…

  9. Increasing the performance of tritium analysis by electrolytic enrichment.

    PubMed

    Groning, M; Auer, R; Brummer, D; Jaklitsch, M; Sambandam, C; Tanweer, A; Tatzber, H

    2009-06-01

    Several improvements are described for the existing tritium enrichment system at the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory of the International Atomic Energy Agency for processing natural water samples. The improvements include a simple method for pretreatment of electrolytic cells to ensure a high tritium separation factor, an improved design of the exhaust system for explosive gases, and a vacuum distillation line for faster initial preparation of water samples for electrolytic enrichment and for tritium analysis. Achievements included the reduction of variation of individual enrichment parameters of all cells to less than 1% and an improvement of 50% of the stability of the background mean. It resulted in an improved detection limit of less than 0.4 TU (at 2s), important for application of tritium measurements in the future at low concentration levels, and resulted in measurement precisions of+/-0.2 TU and+/-0.15 TU for liquid scintillation counting and for gas proportional counting, respectively. PMID:20183225

  10. Mice and rats achieve similar levels of performance in an adaptive decision-making task

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Santiago; Zador, Anthony M.

    2014-01-01

    Two opposing constraints exist when choosing a model organism for studying the neural basis of adaptive decision-making: (1) experimental access and (2) behavioral complexity. Available molecular and genetic approaches for studying neural circuits in the mouse fulfill the first requirement. In contrast, it is still under debate if mice can perform cognitive tasks of sufficient complexity. Here we compare learning and performance of mice and rats, the preferred behavioral rodent model, during an acoustic flexible categorization two-alternative choice task. The task required animals to switch between two categorization definitions several times within a behavioral session. We found that both species achieved similarly high performance levels. On average, rats learned the task faster than mice, although some mice were as fast as the average rat. No major differences in subjective categorization boundaries or the speed of adaptation between the two species were found. Our results demonstrate that mice are an appropriate model for the study of the neural mechanisms underlying adaptive decision-making, and suggest they might be suitable for other cognitive tasks as well. PMID:25278849

  11. An initial assessment of the performance achieved by the Seasat-1 radar altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an initial on-orbit engineering assessment of the performance achieved by the radar altimeter system flown on SEASAT-1 are presented. Additionally, the general design characteristics of this system are discussed and illustrations of altimeter data product are provided. The instrument consists of a 13.5 GHz monostatic radar system that tracks in range only using a one meter parabolic antenna pointed at the satellite nadir. Two of its unique features are a linear FM transmitter with 320 MHz bandwidth which yields a 3.125 nanosecond time delay resolution, and microprocessor implemented closed loop range tracking, automatic gain control (AGC), and real time estimation of significant wave height (SWH). Results presented show that the altimeter generally performed in accordance with its orginal performance requirments of measuring altitude to a precision of less the 10 cm RMS, significant wave height to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 m or 10%, whichever is greater, and ocean backscatter coefficient to an accuracy of + or - 1 db, all over an SWH range of 1 to 20 meters.

  12. 5 CFR 9701.342 - Performance pay increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 9701.342 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.342... service in the uniformed services (as defined in 38 U.S.C. 4303 and 5 CFR 353.102) and returns through...

  13. 5 CFR 9701.342 - Performance pay increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 9701.342 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.342... service in the uniformed services (as defined in 38 U.S.C. 4303 and 5 CFR 353.102) and returns through...

  14. 5 CFR 9701.342 - Performance pay increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.342... service in the uniformed services (as defined in 38 U.S.C. 4303 and 5 CFR 353.102) and returns through the... Section 9701.342 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  15. 5 CFR 9701.342 - Performance pay increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.342... service in the uniformed services (as defined in 38 U.S.C. 4303 and 5 CFR 353.102) and returns through the... Section 9701.342 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  16. Quality of Education Predicts Performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading Subtest

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Dean, Andy C.; Thames, April D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature. PMID:25404004

  17. Quality of education predicts performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading subtest.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S; Dean, Andy C; Thames, April D

    2014-12-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature. PMID:25404004

  18. Repeated Training with Augmentative Vibrotactile Feedback Increases Object Manipulation Performance

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Cara E.; An, Qi; Matsuoka, Yoky

    2012-01-01

    Most users of prosthetic hands must rely on visual feedback alone, which requires visual attention and cognitive resources. Providing haptic feedback of variables relevant to manipulation, such as contact force, may thus improve the usability of prosthetic hands for tasks of daily living. Vibrotactile stimulation was explored as a feedback modality in ten unimpaired participants across eight sessions in a two-week period. Participants used their right index finger to perform a virtual object manipulation task with both visual and augmentative vibrotactile feedback related to force. Through repeated training, participants were able to learn to use the vibrotactile feedback to significantly improve object manipulation. Removal of vibrotactile feedback in session 8 significantly reduced task performance. These results suggest that vibrotactile feedback paired with training may enhance the manipulation ability of prosthetic hand users without the need for more invasive strategies. PMID:22384283

  19. Comparison of Performance Achievement Award Recognition With Primary Stroke Center Certification for Acute Ischemic Stroke Care

    PubMed Central

    Fonarow, Gregg C.; Liang, Li; Smith, Eric E.; Reeves, Mathew J.; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Xian, Ying; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Peterson, Eric D.; Schwamm, Lee H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hospital certification and recognition programs represent 2 independent but commonly used systems to distinguish hospitals, yet they have not been directly compared. This study assessed acute ischemic stroke quality of care measure conformity by hospitals receiving Primary Stroke Center (PSC) certification and those receiving the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines‐Stroke (GWTG‐Stroke) Performance Achievement Award (PAA) recognition. Methods and Results The patient and hospital characteristics as well as performance/quality measures for acute ischemic stroke from 1356 hospitals participating in the GWTG‐Stroke Program 2010–2012 were compared. Hospitals were classified as PAA+/PSC+ (hospitals n=410, patients n=169 302), PAA+/PSC− (n=415, n=129 454), PAA−/PSC+ (n=88, n=26 386), and PAA−/PSC− (n=443, n=75 565). A comprehensive set of stroke measures were compared with adjustment for patient and hospital characteristics. Patient characteristics were similar by PAA and PSC status but PAA−/PSC− hospitals were more likely to be smaller and nonteaching. Measure conformity was highest for PAA+/PSC+ and PAA+/PSC− hospitals, intermediate for PAA−/PSC+ hospitals, and lowest for PAA−/PSC− hospitals (all‐or‐none care measure 91.2%, 91.2%, 84.3%, and 76.9%, respectively). After adjustment for patient and hospital characteristics, PAA+/PSC+, PAA+/PSC−, and PAA−/PSC+ hospitals had 3.15 (95% CIs 2.86 to 3.47); 3.23 (2.93 to 3.56) and 1.72 (1.47 to 2.00), higher odds for providing all indicated stroke performance measures to patients compared with PAA−/PSC− hospitals. Conclusions While both PSC certification and GWTG‐Stroke PAA recognition identified hospitals providing higher conformity with care measures for patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke, PAA recognition was a more robust identifier of hospitals with better performance. PMID:24125846

  20. Does private tutoring increase students' academic performance? Evidence from Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberoğlu, Giray; Tansel, Aysit

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of private tutoring in Turkey. The authors introduce their study by providing some background information on the two major national examinations and three different kinds of tutoring. They then describe how they aimed to analyse whether attending private tutoring centres (PTCs) enhances Turkish students' academic performance. By way of multiple linear regression analysis, their study sought to evaluate whether the impact of private tutoring varies in different subject areas, taking into account several student-related characteristics such as family and academic backgrounds as well as interest in and perception of academic success. In terms of subject areas, the results indicate that while private tutoring does have a positive impact on academic performance in mathematics and Turkish language, this is not the case in natural sciences. However, as evidenced by the effect sizes, these impacts are rather small compared to the impacts of other variables such as interest in and perception of academic success, high school graduation fields of study, high school cumulative grade point average (CGPA), parental education and students' sociocultural background. While the authors point out that more research on the impact of further important variables needs to be done, their view is that school seems to be an important factor for determining students' academic performance.

  1. New strategies in sport nutrition to increase exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Close, G L; Hamilton, D L; Philp, A; Burke, L M; Morton, J P

    2016-09-01

    Despite over 50 years of research, the field of sports nutrition continues to grow at a rapid rate. Whilst the traditional research focus was one that centred on strategies to maximise competition performance, emerging data in the last decade has demonstrated how both macronutrient and micronutrient availability can play a prominent role in regulating those cell signalling pathways that modulate skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance and resistance training. Nonetheless, in the context of exercise performance, it is clear that carbohydrate (but not fat) still remains king and that carefully chosen ergogenic aids (e.g. caffeine, creatine, sodium bicarbonate, beta-alanine, nitrates) can all promote performance in the correct exercise setting. In relation to exercise training, however, it is now thought that strategic periods of reduced carbohydrate and elevated dietary protein intake may enhance training adaptations whereas high carbohydrate availability and antioxidant supplementation may actually attenuate training adaptation. Emerging evidence also suggests that vitamin D may play a regulatory role in muscle regeneration and subsequent hypertrophy following damaging forms of exercise. Finally, novel compounds (albeit largely examined in rodent models) such as epicatechins, nicotinamide riboside, resveratrol, β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, phosphatidic acid and ursolic acid may also promote or attenuate skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance and strength training. When taken together, it is clear that sports nutrition is very much at the heart of the Olympic motto, Citius, Altius, Fortius (faster, higher, stronger). PMID:26855422

  2. The Superintendent Beliefs and Leadership Practices in a School District that Has Successfully Increased the Achievement of Traditionally Marginalized Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks-Schutz, Jo-Ellen M.

    2010-01-01

    Superintendent leadership can influence student achievement and with the alarming gap between the academic achievement of traditionally marginalized students and their peers, superintendents have an ethical duty to lead their districts in closing these achievement gaps. Spillane, Halverson, and Diamond (2001) suggested that to have a more complete…

  3. Modified surface loading process for achieving improved performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Jin, Zhongxiu; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Yafeng; Zhou, Li; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    Achieving high surface coverage of the colloidal quantum dots (QDs) on TiO2 films has been challenging for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Herein, a general surface engineering approach was proposed to increase the loading of these QDs. It was found that S2- treatment/QD re-uptake process can significantly improve the attachment of the QDs on TiO2 films. Surface concentration of the QDs was improved by ∼60%, which in turn greatly enhances light absorption and decreases carrier recombination in QDSCs. Ensuing QDSCs with optimized QD loading exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 3.66%, 83% higher than those fabricated with standard procedures.

  4. Does 'altitude training' increase exercise performance in elite athletes?

    PubMed

    Lundby, Carsten; Robach, Paul

    2016-07-01

    What is the topic of this review? The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of various altitude training strategies as investigated within the last few years. What advances does it highlight? Based on the available literature, the foundation to recommend altitude training to athletes is weak. Athletes may use one of the various altitude training strategies to improve exercise performance. The scientific support for such strategies is, however, not as sound as one would perhaps imagine. The question addressed in this review is whether altitude training should be recommended to elite athletes or not. PMID:27173805

  5. Evidence-based surgical training in orthopaedics: how many arthroscopies of the knee are needed to achieve consultant level performance?

    PubMed

    Price, A J; Erturan, G; Akhtar, K; Judge, A; Alvand, A; Rees, J L

    2015-10-01

    Despite being one of the most common orthopaedic operations, it is still not known how many arthroscopies of the knee must be performed during training in order to develop the skills required to become a Consultant. A total of 54 subjects were divided into five groups according to clinical experience: Novices (n = 10), Junior trainees (n = 10), Registrars (n = 18), Fellows (n = 10) and Consultants (n = 6). After viewing an instructional presentation, each subject performed a simple diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee on a simulator with visualisation and probing of ten anatomical landmarks. Performance was assessed using a validated global rating scale (GRS). Comparisons were made against clinical experience measured by the number of arthroscopies which had been undertaken, and ROC curve analysis was used to determine the number of procedures needed to perform at the level of the Consultants. There were marked differences between the groups. There was significant improvement in performance with increasing experience (p < 0.05). ROC curve analysis identified that approximately 170 procedures were required to achieve the level of skills of a Consultant. We suggest that this approach to identify what represents the level of surgical skills of a Consultant should be used more widely so that standards of training are maintained through the development of an evidenced-based curriculum. PMID:26430003

  6. Buried structure for increasing fabrication performance of micromaterial by electromigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Yasuhiro; Saka, Masumi

    2016-06-01

    The electromigration (EM) technique is a physical synthetic growth method for micro/nanomaterials. EM causes atomic diffusion in a metal line by high-density electron flows. The intentional control of accumulation and relaxation of atoms by EM can lead to the fabrication of a micro/nanomaterial. TiN passivation has been utilized as a component of sample in the EM technique. Although TiN passivation can simplify the cumbersome processes for preparing the sample, the leakage of current naturally occurs because of the conductivity of TiN as a side effect and decreases the performance of micro/nanomaterial fabrication. In the present work, we propose a buried structure, which contributes to significantly decreasing the current for fabricating an Al micromaterial by confining the current flow in the EM technique. The fabrication performance was evaluated based on the threshold current for fabricating an Al micromaterial using the buried structure and the previous structure with the leakage of current.

  7. Performance Trajectories and Performance Gaps as Achievement Effect-Size Benchmarks for Educational Interventions. MDRC Working Papers on Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Hill, Carolyn J.; Black, Alison Rebeck; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores two complementary approaches to developing empirical benchmarks for achievement effect sizes in educational interventions. The first approach characterizes the natural developmental progress in achievement by students from one year to the next as effect sizes. Data for seven nationally standardized achievement tests show large…

  8. Increasing mathematical problem-solving performance through relaxation training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Conni; Coltharp, Hazel; Hurford, David; Cole, Amykay

    2000-04-01

    Two intact classes of 30 undergraduate students enrolled in the same general education mathematics course were each administered the IPSP Mathematics Problem Solving Test and the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale at the beginning and end of the semester. Both groups experienced the same syllabus, lectures, course requirements, and assessment techniques; however, one group received relaxation training during an initial class meeting and during the first 5 to 7 minutes of each subsequent class. The group which had received relaxation training had significantly lower mathematics anxiety and significantly higher mathematics performance at the end of the course. The results suggest that relaxation training may be a useful tool for treating anxiety in undergraduate general education mathematics students.

  9. Prosocial Bonuses Increase Employee Satisfaction and Team Performance

    PubMed Central

    Anik, Lalin; Aknin, Lara B.; Norton, Michael I.; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    In three field studies, we explore the impact of providing employees and teammates with prosocial bonuses, a novel type of bonus spent on others rather than on oneself. In Experiment 1, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of donations to charity lead to happier and more satisfied employees at an Australian bank. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of expenditures on teammates lead to better performance in both sports teams in Canada and pharmaceutical sales teams in Belgium. These results suggest that a minor adjustment to employee bonuses – shifting the focus from the self to others – can produce measurable benefits for employees and organizations. PMID:24058691

  10. Prosocial bonuses increase employee satisfaction and team performance.

    PubMed

    Anik, Lalin; Aknin, Lara B; Norton, Michael I; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    In three field studies, we explore the impact of providing employees and teammates with prosocial bonuses, a novel type of bonus spent on others rather than on oneself. In Experiment 1, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of donations to charity lead to happier and more satisfied employees at an Australian bank. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of expenditures on teammates lead to better performance in both sports teams in Canada and pharmaceutical sales teams in Belgium. These results suggest that a minor adjustment to employee bonuses--shifting the focus from the self to others--can produce measurable benefits for employees and organizations. PMID:24058691

  11. Paying for performance: Performance incentives increase desire for the reward object.

    PubMed

    Hur, Julia D; Nordgren, Loran F

    2016-09-01

    The current research examines how exposure to performance incentives affects one's desire for the reward object. We hypothesized that the flexible nature of performance incentives creates an attentional fixation on the reward object (e.g., money), which leads people to become more desirous of the rewards. Results from 5 laboratory experiments and 1 large-scale field study provide support for this prediction. When performance was incentivized with monetary rewards, participants reported being more desirous of money (Study 1), put in more effort to earn additional money in an ensuing task (Study 2), and were less willing to donate money to charity (Study 4). We replicated the result with nonmonetary rewards (Study 5). We also found that performance incentives increased attention to the reward object during the task, which in part explains the observed effects (Study 6). A large-scale field study replicated these findings in a real-world setting (Study 7). One laboratory experiment failed to replicate (Study 3). (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27414236

  12. "Standards"-based Mathematics Curricula and Secondary Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael R.; Post, Thomas R.; Maeda, Yukiko; Davis, Jon D.; Cutler, Arnold L.; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the mathematical achievement of high school students enrolled for 3 years in one of three NSF funded "Standards"-based curricula (IMP, CMIC, MMOW). The focus was on traditional topics in mathematics as measured by subtests of a standardized achievement test and a criterion-referenced test of mathematics achievement.…

  13. Measuring Emotions in Students' Learning and Performance: The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Barchfeld, Petra; Perry, Raymond P.

    2011-01-01

    Aside from test anxiety scales, measurement instruments assessing students' achievement emotions are largely lacking. This article reports on the construction, reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ) which is designed to assess various achievement emotions experienced by students in…

  14. Mathematics Achievement Level Testing as a Predictor of Academic Performance and Retention in Engineering Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durio, Helen F.; And Others

    Scholastic aptitude, mathematics achievement, and high school rank were used as college entry predictors of achievement in a foundation engineering curriculum for 1,779 freshmen enrolling in engineering at the University of Texas at Austin during the years 1974-77. Achievement in the foundation engineering curriculum was measured by taking…

  15. Significantly Increasing the Ductility of High Performance Polymer Semiconductors through Polymer Blending.

    PubMed

    Scott, Joshua I; Xue, Xiao; Wang, Ming; Kline, R Joseph; Hoffman, Benjamin C; Dougherty, Daniel; Zhou, Chuanzhen; Bazan, Guillermo; O'Connor, Brendan T

    2016-06-01

    Polymer semiconductors based on donor-acceptor monomers have recently resulted in significant gains in field effect mobility in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). These polymers incorporate fused aromatic rings and have been designed to have stiff planar backbones, resulting in strong intermolecular interactions, which subsequently result in stiff and brittle films. The complex synthesis typically required for these materials may also result in increased production costs. Thus, the development of methods to improve mechanical plasticity while lowering material consumption during fabrication will significantly improve opportunities for adoption in flexible and stretchable electronics. To achieve these goals, we consider blending a brittle donor-acceptor polymer, poly[4-(4,4-dihexadecyl-4H-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophen-2-yl)-alt-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine] (PCDTPT), with ductile poly(3-hexylthiophene). We found that the ductility of the blend films is significantly improved compared to that of neat PCDTPT films, and when the blend film is employed in an OTFT, the performance is largely maintained. The ability to maintain charge transport character is due to vertical segregation within the blend, while the improved ductility is due to intermixing of the polymers throughout the film thickness. Importantly, the application of large strains to the ductile films is shown to orient both polymers, which further increases charge carrier mobility. These results highlight a processing approach to achieve high performance polymer OTFTs that are electrically and mechanically optimized. PMID:27200458

  16. Monitoring the performance of community forestry to achieve REDD+ goals through geospatial methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, H.; Krishna Gautam, S.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Koju, U. A.; Uddin, K.; Karky, B.

    2014-11-01

    Measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) is included in the Cancun, Mexico, in 2010 under climate change agreements, as one of the most critical elements necessary for the successful implementation of any reducing of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) mechanism. Community forestry is recognised as a successful model for conserving forests, raising awareness among local people and decentralising the forest governance practices. In the world, Nepal is considered as a leader in community-based forest management. This study conducted in 16 community forests (2384.76 ha) of Kayar Khola watershed (8002 ha) of Chitwan district, Nepal. In this paper, satellite images IKONOS-2 (2002) and GeoEye-1 (2009 & 2012) were used which have 1 m and 0.5 m ground spatial distance (GSD) respectively. Geographic information system (GIS) participatory approach was embraced for the boundaries delineation of community forests. Geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) classification technique was performed and overall accuracy 94 % with 92.91 % producer's and 96.2 % user's accuracies. Through change matrix method, 25.49 ha and 1.08 ha area deforested while 179.84 ha and 33.24 ha reforested in two time periods 2002-2009 and 2009-2012 respectively. Overall within 16 community forests, "Close broadleaved to Open broadleaved" 4.42 ha and 4 ha area is transferred between 2002-2009 and 2009-2012 respectively. While "Open broadleaved to Close broadleaved" 29.25 ha and 31.1 ha area is converted in seven years (2002-2009) and in three years (2009-2012) respectively. Coefficient of determination (R2) 0.833 achieved through a line-intercept transect between number of segmented and observed tree crowns. Maximum numbers of the counted trees exist below 20 m2, which show the forest of the study area is not mature and has capacity to

  17. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): −0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. PMID:26193310

  18. On the Value of Intrinsic Rather than Traditional Achievement Goals for Performing Artists: A Short-Term Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacaille, Natalie; Koestner, Richard; Gaudreau, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Educational researchers have examined the effect of achievement goals on student performance, and suggest that both mastery goals and performance-approach goals are beneficial, whereas performance-avoidance goals are harmful. Recent research proposes that these results may not be generalized in the domain of music. The purpose of the present study…

  19. Measuring Metacognition and Reaction Time: Further Findings on the Performances of General Education, Low-Achieving, and Institutionally Raised Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Abdullah, Ahmad A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the picture format to examine in depth the metacognitive performances and reaction time in general education, low-achieving, and institutionally raised students. Results revealed that institutionally raised students, unlike low-achieving students, took significantly the longest reaction time to finish the test…

  20. A hydrological modeling framework for defining achievable performance standards for pesticides.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Alain N; Lafrance, Pierre; Lavigne, Martin-Pierre; Savary, Stéphane; Konan, Brou; Quilbé, Renaud; Jiapizian, Paul; Amrani, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a hydrological modeling framework to define achievable performance standards (APSs) for pesticides that could be attained after implementation of recommended management actions, agricultural practices, and available technologies (i.e., beneficial management practices [BMPs]). An integrated hydrological modeling system, Gestion Intégrée des Bassins versants à l'aide d'un Système Informatisé, was used to quantify APSs for six Canadian watersheds for eight pesticides: atrazine, carbofuran, dicamba, glyphosate, MCPB, MCPA, metolachlor, and 2,4-D. Outputs from simulation runs to predict pesticide concentration under current conditions and in response to implementation of two types of beneficial management practices (reduced pesticide application rate and 1- to 10-m-wide edge-of-field and/or riparian buffer strips, implemented singly or in combination) showed that APS values for scenarios with BMPs were less than those for current conditions. Moreover, APS values at the outlet of watersheds were usually less than ecological thresholds of good condition, when available. Upstream river reaches were at greater risk of having concentrations above a given ecological thresholds because of limited stream flows and overland loads of pesticides. Our integrated approach of "hydrological modeling-APS estimation-ecotoxicological significance" provides the most effective interpretation possible, for management and education purposes, of the potential biological impact of predicted pesticide concentrations in rivers. PMID:22218173

  1. A comprehensive approach to decipher biological computation to achieve next generation high-performance exascale computing.

    SciTech Connect

    James, Conrad D.; Schiess, Adrian B.; Howell, Jamie; Baca, Micheal J.; Partridge, L. Donald; Finnegan, Patrick Sean; Wolfley, Steven L.; Dagel, Daryl James; Spahn, Olga Blum; Harper, Jason C.; Pohl, Kenneth Roy; Mickel, Patrick R.; Lohn, Andrew; Marinella, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    The human brain (volume=1200cm3) consumes 20W and is capable of performing>10%5E16 operations/s. Current supercomputer technology has reached 1015 operations/s, yet it requires 1500m%5E3 and 3MW, giving the brain a 10%5E12 advantage in operations/s/W/cm%5E3. Thus, to reach exascale computation, two achievements are required: 1) improved understanding of computation in biological tissue, and 2) a paradigm shift towards neuromorphic computing where hardware circuits mimic properties of neural tissue. To address 1), we will interrogate corticostriatal networks in mouse brain tissue slices, specifically with regard to their frequency filtering capabilities as a function of input stimulus. To address 2), we will instantiate biological computing characteristics such as multi-bit storage into hardware devices with future computational and memory applications. Resistive memory devices will be modeled, designed, and fabricated in the MESA facility in consultation with our internal and external collaborators.

  2. The relationship between medical students’ epistemological beliefs and achievement on a clinical performance examination

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sun-A; Chung, Eun-Kyung; Han, Eui-Ryoung; Woo, Young-Jong; Kevin, Deiter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study was to explore the relationship between clinical performance examination (CPX) achievement and epistemological beliefs to investigate the potentials of epistemological beliefs in ill-structured medical problem solving tasks. Methods: We administered the epistemological beliefs questionnaire (EBQ) to fourth-year medical students and correlated the results with their CPX scores. The EBQ comprised 61 items reflecting five belief systems: certainty of knowledge, source of knowledge, rigidity of learning, ability to learn, and speed of knowledge acquisition. The CPX included scores for history taking, physical examination, and patient-physician interaction. Results: The higher epistemological beliefs group obtained significantly higher scores on the CPX with regard to history taking and patient-physician interaction. The epistemological beliefs scores on certainty of knowledge and source of knowledge were significantly positively correlated with patient-physician interaction. The epistemological beliefs scores for ability to learn were significantly positively correlated with those for history taking, physical examination, and patient-physician interaction. Conclusion: Students with more sophisticated and advanced epistemological beliefs stances used more comprehensive and varied approaches in the patient-physician interaction. Therefore, educational efforts that encourage discussions pertaining to epistemological views should be considered to improve clinical reasoning and problem-solving competence in the clinic setting. PMID:26838566

  3. Performance of Learning Disabled and Low Achieving Secondary Students on Formal Features of a Paragraph-Writing Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Mary Ross

    1981-01-01

    Writing samples were analyzed for syntactic maturity, productivity and word selection; for conventions such as tense and number markers and number agreement; and for spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. Only spelling performance proved significantly different in favor of low achievers. (Author)

  4. Appropriate Teacher Strategies to Increase the Participation of Low-Achieving Youths in Art Activities in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, William B.

    A study was initiated to determine effective teaching strategies for the art education of low achieving students. A review of literature on academic drive yielded five mechanistic models that provided explanations for low-achievement drive. The key factors in these models were avoidance, time gradients, extraneous stimuli, prolonged deprivations,…

  5. The effects of training and competition on achievement goals, motivational responses, and performance in a golf-putting task.

    PubMed

    van de Pol P, K C; Kavussanu, Maria; Ring, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    This study examined whether (a) training and competition influence achievement goals, effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; (b) achievement goals mediate the effects of training and competition on effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; and (c) the context influences the relationships between goals and effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance. Participants (32 males, 28 females; M age = 19.12 years) performed a golf-putting task in a training condition and a competition condition and completed measures of goal involvement, effort, enjoyment, and tension; putting performance was also measured. Both task and ego involvement varied across training and competition, and variation in ego involvement explained variation in effort and enjoyment between these conditions. Ego involvement positively predicted effort in training and performance in competition, and interacted positively with task involvement to predict effort and enjoyment in competition. Our findings suggest that the distinction between training and competition is a valuable one when examining individuals' achievement motivation. PMID:23204359

  6. The CryoSat Interferometer after 6 years in orbit: calibration and achievable performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; De Bartolomei, Maurizio; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku-band pulse width limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter). When commanded in SARIn (synthetic aperture radar interferometry) mode, through coherent along-track processing of the returns received from two antennas, the interferometric phase related to the first arrival of the echo is used to retrieve the angle of arrival of the scattering in the across-track direction. In fact, the across-track echo direction can be derived by exploiting the precise knowledge of the baseline vector (i.e. the vector between the two antennas centers of phase) and simple geometry. The end-to-end calibration strategy for the CryoSat interferometer consists on in-orbit calibration campaigns following the approach described in [1]. From the beginning of the CryoSat mission, about once a year the interferometer calibration campaigns have been periodically performed by rolling left and right the spacecraft of about ±0.4 deg. This abstract is aimed at presenting our analysis of the calibration parameters and of the achievable performance of the CryoSat interferometer over the 6 years of mission. Additionally, some further studies have been performed to assess the accuracy of the roll angle computed on ground as function of the aberration (the apparent displacement of a celestial object from its true position, caused by the relative motion of the observer and the object) correction applied to the attitude quaternions, provided by the Star Tracker mounted on-board. In fact, being the roll information crucial to obtain an accurate estimate of the angle of arrival, the data from interferometer calibration campaigns have been used to verify how the application of the aberration correction affects the roll information and, in turns, the measured angle of arrival. [1] Galin, N.; Wingham, D.J.; Cullen, R.; Fornari, M.; Smith, W.H.F.; Abdalla, S., "Calibration of the CryoSat-2 Interferometer and Measurement of Across

  7. Effects of Visual and Auditory Background on Reading Achievement Test Performance of Brain-Injured and Non Brain-Injured Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, John L.

    Forty-two brain injured boys and 42 non brain injured boys (aged 11-6 to 12-6) were tested to determine the effects of increasing amounts of visual and auditory distraction on reading performance. The Stanford Achievement Reading Comprehension Test was administered with three degrees of distraction. The visual distraction consisted of either very…

  8. The Interactive Effects of Personal Achievement Goals and Performance Feedback in an Undergraduate Science Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Ranellucci, John; Franco, Gina M.; Crippen, Kent J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors explored whether manipulating feedback influenced cognition, motivation, and achievement in an undergraduate chemistry course. They measured students' ("N" = 250) achievement goals, test anxiety, self-efficacy, and metacognitive strategy use at the beginning and end of the semester. After completing the first set of…

  9. Achievement First: Developing a Teacher Performance Management System That Recognizes Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are the single most important school-related factor in students' learning, and improving student learning is the single most important goal at Achievement First (AF), a fast-growing public charter school network in the Northeast. To achieve this goal, the AF team has worked to establish a common understanding of effective instructional…

  10. To Master or Perform? Exploring Relations between Achievement Goals and Conceptual Change Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R.; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. Aims: To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Sample and Method:…

  11. Cohort versus Non-Cohort High School Students' Math Performance: Achievement Test Scores and Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Carol S.; Keener, Dana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare multiple measures of mathematics achievement for 1,378 cohort students who attended the same high school in a district from 9th to 12th grade with non-cohort students in each grade level. Results show that mobility had an impact on math achievement. After accounting for gender, ethnicity, and SES, adjusted…

  12. How Do Relationships Influence Student Achievement? Understanding Student Performance from a General, Social Psychological Standpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspelin, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the influence of relationships on student achievement by examining empirical evidence and by adopting a social psychological theory. Initially, the issue is addressed from a national, Swedish context. Thereafter, two general questions are raised: (1) What is the influence of relationships on student achievement, according to…

  13. Increasing performance of health care services within economic constraints: working towards improved incentive structures.

    PubMed

    Custers, Thomas; Klazinga, Niek S; Brown, Adalsteinn D

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that health care systems can create better value for money by improving performance and setting the right incentives. Worldwide this has led to an emergence of financial and non-financial incentive structures as a strategy to improve performance. The role of incentives is not only to motivate high performance through the alignment of results and rewards (financial/non-financial as well as direct/indirect) but also to enable health care providers to perform better by mitigating financial barriers that typically result from funding schemes. Various incentive structures in health care, identified in the scientific literature, are described in this article and available evidence on effectiveness and side effects is summarized. Literature shows that there is no single best approach to create an incentive yet and that the ability of financial and non-financial incentives to achieve desired results depends on a number of circumstantial elements. Several incentive schemes that can be used by health care insurers or local health authorities are discussed and concrete examples are provided. Decision-making on incentive schemes requires a careful design with the involvement of those targeted by incentives. PMID:17902405

  14. The Relationship Between Achievement and Laboratory Skills to the Number of Experiments Performed by the High School Chemistry Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosmark, Jay Waldo

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of doubling the laboratory experiments and time in the laboratory on student achievement, performance on laboratory skills, and attitude toward high school chemistry. One hundred forty-three students were assigned either of two treatments. All students performed the same basic…

  15. A Comprehensive Review of the Literature on the Effects of Breakfast on Mental Performance and Scholastic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, James P.

    A review of the literature on the effects of breakfast on mental performance and scholastic achievement reveals a dichotomy between the theoretical and the empirical literature. Whereas theoretical considerations maintain that breakfast makes a significant difference in mental performance in the late morning hours, empirical evidence can be…

  16. GUIDELINES FOR INDUSTRIAL BOILER PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT. (BOILER ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURES TO MINIMIZE AIR POLLUTION AND TO ACHIEVE EFFICIENT USE OF FUEL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommended procedures for improving industrial boiler performance to minimize air pollution and to achieve efficient use of fuel are given. It is intended for use by industrial boiler operators to perform an efficiency and emissions tune-up on boilers firing gas, oil, or coal. P...

  17. High performance shape memory effect in nitinol wire for actuators with increased operating temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, Riccardo; Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Vedani, Maurizio; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-07-01

    In this research, the high performance shape memory effect (HP-SME) is experimented on a shape memory NiTi wire, with austenite finish temperature higher than room temperature. The HP-SME consists in the thermal cycling of stress induced martensite and it allows achieving mechanical work higher than that produced by conventional shape memory actuators based on the heating/cooling of detwinned martensite. The Nitinol wire was able to recover about 5.5% of deformation under a stress of 600 MPa and to withstand about 5000 cycles before failure. HP-SME path increased the operating temperature of the shape memory actuator wire. Functioning temperatures higher than 100°C was reached.

  18. Newly Standing Infants Increase Postural Stability When Performing a Supra-Postural Task

    PubMed Central

    Claxton, Laura J.; Haddad, Jeffrey M.; Ponto, Katelyn; Ryu, Joong Hyun; Newcomer, Sean C.

    2013-01-01

    Independent stance is one of the most difficult motor milestones to achieve. Newly standing infants exhibit exaggerated body movements and can only stand for a brief amount of time. Given the difficult nature of bipedal stance, these unstable characteristics are slow to improve. However, we demonstrate that infants can increase their stability when engaged in a standing goal-directed task. Infants' balance was measured while standing and while standing and holding a visually attractive toy. When holding the toy, infants stood for a longer period of time, exhibited less body sway, and more mature postural dynamics. These results demonstrate that even with limited standing experience, infants can stabilize posture to facilitate performance of a concurrent task. PMID:23940736

  19. Achieving enhanced DSSC performance by microwave plasma incorporation of carbon into TiO2 photoelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Binh H. Q.; MacElroy, Don; Dowling, Denis P.

    2013-06-01

    The photoactivity of carbon-incorporated titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been widely reported. This study involves a novel approach to the incorporation of carbon into TiO2 through the use of microwave plasma processing. The process involved thermally treating printed TiO2 nanoparticle coatings in a microwave-induced argon-oxygen plasma containing low concentrations of methane. The resulting deposited carbon layer was characterized using XRD, XPS, Raman, UV-vis, ellipsometry, and optical profilometry. It was found that the methane gas was dissociated in the microwave plasma into its carbon species, which were then deposited as a nm-thick layer onto the TiO2 coatings, most likely in the form of graphite. The photovoltaic performances of both the TiO2 and the carbon-incorporated TiO2 were assessed through J-V and IPCE measurements of the N719-sensitized solar cells using the titania as their photoanodes. Up to a 72% improvement in the maximum power density (Pd-max) was observed for the carbon-incorporated TiO2 samples as compared to the TiO2, onto which no carbon was added. This improvement was found to be mainly associated with an increase in the short-circuit current density (Jsc), but independent from the open-circuit voltage (Voc), the filter factor (FF), and the level of dye adsorption. Possible contributory factors to the improved performance of the carbon-incorporated TiO2 were the enhanced electron conductivity and electron lifetime, both of which were elucidated through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). When the surface layer was examined using XPS, the optimal carbon content on the TiO2 coating surface was found to be 8.4%, beyond which there was a reduction in the DSSC efficiency.

  20. Code RED (Remediation and Enrichment Days): The Complex Journey of a School and University Partnership's Process to Increase Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Patricia S.; Dockery, Kim; Jamieson, Spencer; Ross, Julie

    2007-01-01

    This study examined a focused remediation and enrichment effort among school and university faculty to affect the mathematics achievement of a group of third-grade students in a Title I elementary school. A total of 87 students participated in the Code RED (Remediation and Enrichment Days) Project. During the Code RED Project, student assessment…

  1. LinguaFolio Goal Setting Intervention and Academic Achievement: Increasing Student Capacity for Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Oxana D.

    2013-01-01

    In the last few decades there has been a shift from thinking less about teaching and more about learning. Such a paradigm shift from teacher-centered to student-centered instruction requires students to think about their own learning and to monitor their own learning development and language achievement. Researchers have identified goal setting…

  2. Daily Practices Elementary Principals Utilize to Increase Student Reading Achievement: A Case Study of Successful Michigan Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined three K-5 schools, one 3-5 school, and two K-2 schools that implemented Michigan's Behavior and Learning Support Initiative (MiBLSi) and showed improvement trends in third grade reading achievement as measured by MEAP results over four years. Each of the six schools completed the three years of MiBLSi training and are…

  3. Does Minority Status Increase the Effect of Disability Status on Elementary Schoolchildren's Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Qiong; Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether children's reading and mathematics growth trajectories from kindergarten to fifth grade inter-related, and to what extent disability and minority status interacted to predict their achievement trajectories. We conducted secondary data analysis based on a nationally representative sample of 6,446 U.S. schoolchildren…

  4. Schools and Districts Use Resources Wisely to Increase Achievement and Graduate More Students. High Schools That Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2011

    2011-01-01

    In a time of reduced funding, schools are meeting the challenge to continue improving classroom practices, student achievement and graduation rates. Many schools and teachers are forming networks to exchange information via the Internet as they tap into free electronic resources. Career/technical (CT) instructors are teaching students about…

  5. Achieving high performance polymer optoelectronic devices for high efficiency, long lifetime and low fabrication cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinsong

    This thesis described three types of organic optoelectronic devices: polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), polymer photovoltaic solar cell, and organic photo detector. The research in this work focuses improving their performance including device efficiency, operation lifetime simplifying fabrication process. With further understanding in PLED device physics, we come up new device operation model and improved device architecture design. This new method is closely related to understanding of the science and physics at organic/metal oxide and metal oxide/metal interface. In our new device design, both material and interface are considered in order to confine and balance all injected carriers, which has been demonstrated very be successful in increasing device efficiency. We created two world records in device efficiency: 18 lm/W for white emission fluorescence PLED, 22 lm/W for red emission phosphorescence PLED. Slow solvent drying process has been demonstrated to significantly increase device efficiency in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixture polymer solar cell. From the mobility study by time of flight, the increase of efficiency can be well correlated to the improved carrier transport property due to P3HT crystallization during slow solvent drying. And it is found that, similar to PLED, balanced carrier mobility is essential in high efficient polymer solar cell. There is also a revolution in our device fabrication method. A unique device fabrication method is presented by an electronic glue based lamination process combined with interface modification as a one-step polymer solar cell fabrication process. It can completely skip the thermal evaporation process, and benefit device lifetime by several merits: no air reactive. The device obtained is metal free, semi-transparent, flexible, self-encapsulated, and comparable efficiency with that by regular method. We found the photomultiplication (PM) phenomenon in C

  6. Do Children in Montessori Schools Perform Better in the Achievement Test? A Taiwanese Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Hsin-Hui; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah

    2014-01-01

    The study examines whether elementary school students in Taiwan who had received Montessori education achieved significantly higher scores on tests of language arts, math, and social studies than students who attended non-Montessori elementary programs. One hundred ninety six children in first, second, and third grade participated in the study.…

  7. Improving Low Achievers' Academic Performance at University by Changing the Social Value of Mastery Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Meier, Emanuele; Brandner, Catherine; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, in a university context, mastery goals are highly valued and that students may endorse these goals either because they believe in their utility (i.e., social utility), in which case mastery goals are positively linked to achievement, or to create a positive image of themselves (i.e., social desirability), in which…

  8. Performance Report for Project CLASS (Chinese Language Achievement through Sequential Study), 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xue-mei

    Project CLASS (Chinese Language Achievement through Sequential Study), a federally-funded program, introduced the study of Chinese language and culture at Queen Ka'ahumanu Elementary School (Hawaii), forming the foundation of an instructional program to be continued through middle and high school, to meet state foreign language standards. In its…

  9. The Relationship between Victimization at School and Achievement: The Cusp Catastrophe Model for Reading Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Antoniou, Faye; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Morgan, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between victimization and academic achievement from a nonlinear perspective using a cusp catastrophe model. Participants were 62 students with identified learning disabilities (LD) using statewide criteria in Greece. Students participated in a 2-year cohort-sequential design. Reading assessments involved measures of…

  10. The Relationship between Performance on the Wepman Auditory Discrimination Test and Reading Achievement among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Robert G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between auditory discrimination, as measured by the Wepman Auditory Discrimination Test, and reading achievement, as measured by the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests. After controlling for intelligence, there was little more than a random relationship between auditory discrimination and…

  11. Differentiating Low Performance of the Gifted Learner: Achieving, Underachieving, and Selective Consuming Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figg, Stephanie D.; Rogers, Karen B.; McCormick, John; Low, Renae

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to empirically verify findings from qualitative studies that showed selective consumers could be distinguished from underachievers with regard to academic self-perception and thinking style preference. Participants, gifted males from an independent secondary boys' school in Sydney, Australia, were categorized as achieving,…

  12. High Achievement on Advanced Placement Exams: The Relationship of School-Level Contextual Factors to Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Virginia H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify school- and district-level variables that relate to advanced academic achievement, as defined by the ratio of number of scores of 3, 4, or 5 on Advanced Placement exams to school enrollment. The study initially included 46 variables for 339 public high schools in one Midwestern state. Hierarchical linear…

  13. Understanding Student Goal Orientation Tendencies to Predict Student Performance: A 2x2 Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark Alan

    2013-01-01

    The study tested the 2X2 model of the Achievement Goal Orientation (AGO) theory in a military technical training environment while using the Air Force Officers Qualifying Test's academic aptitude score to control for the differences in the students' academic aptitude. The study method was quantitative and the design was correlational.…

  14. Standard Errors of Proportions Used in Reporting Changes in School Performance with Achievement Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro; Frisbie, David A.; Kolen, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Studies of the achievement test results for about 490 school districts at grade 4 and about 420 districts at grade 5 show that the error variance of estimates of change at the school level is large enough to interfere with interpretations of annual change estimates. (SLD)

  15. Predicting End-of-Year Achievement Test Performance: A Comparison of Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kurz, Alexander; Zigmond, Naomi; Lemons, Christopher J.; Kloo, Amanda; Shrago, Jacqueline; Beddow, Peter A.; Williams, Leila; Bruen, Charles; Lupp, Lynda; Farmer, Jeanie; Mosiman, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the multiple-measures clause of recent federal policy regarding student eligibility for alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MASs), this study examined how scores or combinations of scores from a diverse set of assessments predicted students' end-of-year proficiency status on statewide…

  16. Quality After-School Programming and Its Relationship to Achievement-Related Behaviors and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassi, Annemarie M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between quality social support networks developed through high quality afterschool programming and achievement amongst middle school and high school aged youth. This study seeks to develop a deeper understanding of how quality after-school programs influence a youth's developmental…

  17. Associations between Achievement Goal Orientations and Academic Performance Among Students at a UK Pharmacy School

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Hanna, Alan; Hall, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To ascertain goal orientations of pharmacy students and establish whether associations exist between academic performance, gender, or year of study. Methods. Goal orientations were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Respondents were categorized as high or low performers based on university grades. Associations and statistical significance were ascertained using parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression, as appropriate. Results. A response rate of 60.7% was obtained. High performers were more likely to be female than male. The highest mean score was for mastery approach; the lowest for work avoidance. The mean score for work avoidance was significantly greater for low performers than for high performers and for males than for females. First-year students were most likely to have top scores in mastery and performance approaches. Conclusion. It is encouraging that the highest mean score was for mastery approach orientation, as goal orientation may play a role in academic performance of pharmacy students. PMID:26396273

  18. Increasing Functional Variability in the Preparatory Phase of the Takeoff Improves Elite Springboard Diving Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barris, Sian; Farrow, Damian; Davids, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research demonstrating that specific performance outcome goals can be achieved in different ways is functionally significant for springboard divers whose performance environment can vary extensively. This body of work raises questions about the traditional approach of balking (terminating the takeoff) by elite divers aiming to…

  19. Nursing to achieve organizational performance: Consider the role of nursing intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    The success and performance of healthcare organizations relies on the strategic management of knowledge. Nursing Intellectual Capital (NIC) has emerged as a concept involving nursing knowledge resources that create value in healthcare organizations. This article aims to discuss the importance of considering knowledge resources in the context of healthcare performance, with specific reference to NIC. Reflections are then provided on how leaders can look to advance NIC for improved performance. PMID:27060807

  20. Patterns and predictors of adolescent academic achievement and performance in a sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Langberg, Joshua M; Molina, Brooke S G; Arnold, L Eugene; Epstein, Jeffery N; Altaye, Mekibib; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Swanson, James M; Wigal, Timothy; Hechtman, Lily

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined predictors of academic achievement, measured by standardized test scores, and performance, measured by school grades, in adolescents (Mn age = 16.8) who met diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Combined type in early childhood (Mn age = 8.5; N = 579). Several mediation models were also tested to determine whether ADHD medication use, receipt of special education services, classroom performance, homework completion, or homework management mediated the relationship between symptoms of ADHD and academic outcomes. Childhood predictors of adolescent achievement differed from those for performance. Classroom performance and homework management mediated the relationship between symptoms of inattention and academic outcomes. PMID:21722025

  1. Examining Relationships between Achievement Goals, Study Strategies, and Class Performance in Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Li; Nietfeld, John L.

    2007-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the relationships between students' learning goals, performance goals, study strategies, and test performances over a 14-week undergraduate course in educational psychology. Sixty undergraduate students provided goals at the beginning of the semester and reflected on their goals, study strategies, and test…

  2. Relationship between High School and College Performance by Maryland Students. Student Outcome and Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Higher Education Commission, Annapolis.

    This study examined the relationship between students' academic performance in high school vis-a-vis their performance in the first year at college. The study analyzed data on students who graduated from Maryland high schools in the 1994-95 academic year and who were enrolled in 2- and 4-year Maryland public institutions or in one of 11…

  3. The Role of Citizenship Performance in Academic Achievement and Graduate Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poropat, Arthur E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Employability is a major educational goal, but employability programmes emphasise skill development, while employers value performance. Education acts as a model for employment, so educational performance assessment should be aligned with employment models. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between…

  4. Task Goal Attributes, n Achievement, and Supervisory Performance. Technical Report No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steers, Richard M.

    A review of the research literature on goal-setting in organizational settings reveals that goal-setting on an individual job results in better task performance. However, the processes behind their effectiveness is unclear. For example, how are various job attributes of task goals related to performance, and how do various individual differences…

  5. The Effect of Performance Pay in Little Rock, Arkansas on Student Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Marcus; Greene, Jay; Ritter, Gary; Marsh, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines evidence from a performance-pay program implemented in five Little Rock, Arkansas elementary schools between 2004 and 2007. Using a differences-in-differences approach, the evidence shows that students whose teachers were eligible for performance pay made substantially larger test score gains in math, reading, and language than…

  6. Use of Rasch Rating Scale Modeling to Develop and Validate a Measure of District-Level Characteristics and Practices Identified to Improve Instruction and Increase Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soska, Paul J., III

    2012-01-01

    Increasing qualitative evidence in the literature supports specific characteristics and practices, presented from a distributed leadership perspective, to be prevalent in school districts that demonstrate significant increases in student achievement. Quantitative evidence linking these identified district-level characteristics and practices to…

  7. High-Performance and Omnidirectional Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell Modules Achieved by 3D Geometry Design.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dongliang; Yin, Min; Lu, Linfeng; Zhang, Hanzhong; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Zhu, Xufei; Che, Jianfei; Li, Dongdong

    2015-11-01

    High-performance thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells are achieved by combining macroscale 3D tubular substrates and nanoscaled 3D cone-like antireflective films. The tubular geometry delivers a series of advantages for large-scale deployment of photovoltaics, such as omnidirectional performance, easier encapsulation, decreased wind resistance, and easy integration with a second device inside the glass tube. PMID:26418573

  8. Relationships of Cognitive and Metacognitive Learning Strategies to Mathematics Achievement in Four High-Performing East Asian Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education…

  9. Pilot Study: EatFit Impacts Sixth Graders' Academic Performance on Achievement of Mathematics and English Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilts, Mical Kay; Lamp, Cathi; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Investigate the impact of a nutrition education program on student academic performance as measured by achievement of education standards. Design: Quasi-experimental crossover-controlled study. Setting: California Central Valley suburban elementary school (58% qualified for free or reduced-priced lunch). Participants: All sixth-grade…

  10. The Relationship of Selected Measures of Proprioception to Physical Growth, Motor Performance, and Academic Achievement in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haubenstricker, John L.; Milne, D. Conrad

    This study investigates the relationship of selected measures of proprioception to measures of physical growth, motor performance, and academic achievement in young children. Measures were obtained from 321 boys and girls attending kindergarten and first and second grade. Sample correlation matrices were computed on all variables at each grade…

  11. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma I.

    This study examined the assumption that language expression and reading performance are related processes. Subjects included a total of 676 nine-year-old children of heterogeneous socioeconomic status, intelligence, and achievement levels. Verbal fluency was defined as being a measure of associative verbal encoding (a/v/e), wherein children give…

  12. Instructional Resources as Determinants of English Language Performance of Secondary School High-Achieving Students in Ibadan, Oyo State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelodun, Gboyega Adelowo; Asiru, Abdulahi Babatunde

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role played by instructional resources in enhancing performance of students, especially that of high-achievers, in English Language. The study is descriptive in nature and it adopted a survey design. Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of fifty (50) SSI-SSIII students from five schools in Ibadan…

  13. An Investigation of World Language Teachers' Use of Student Performance Data to Inform Teaching and to Help Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffi, Bruno N.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the types of content-based student performance data World Language teachers used to improve instruction and student academic achievement, the purposes for which they used data, the issues they encountered, and the suggestions they made for more effective use of data. The Standards for Foreign Language Learning…

  14. The Role of Moral and Performance Character Strengths in Predicting Achievement and Conduct among Urban Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Novick, Sarah; Gomez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Performance character consists of the qualities that allow individuals to regulate their thoughts and actions in ways that support achievement in a particular endeavor. Moral character consists of the qualities relevant to striving for ethical behavior in one's relationships with other individuals and communities. A…

  15. Conscientiousness, Achievement Striving, and Intelligence as Performance Predictors in a Sample of German Psychology Students: Always a Linear Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Matthias; Knogler, Maximilian; Buhner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the interface between cognitive ability (intelligence) and personality in the prediction of academic performance have yielded mixed results so far. Especially an interaction between conscientiousness (and its facet achievement striving) and intelligence has been investigated. The hypothesis is that conscientiousness enhances the impact…

  16. Judgments of Self-Perceived Academic Competence and Their Differential Impact on Students' Achievement Motivation, Learning Approach, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferla, Johan; Valcke, Martin; Schuyten, Gilberte

    2010-01-01

    Using path analysis, the present study focuses on the development of a model describing the impact of four judgments of self-perceived academic competence on higher education students' achievement goals, learning approach, and academic performance. Results demonstrate that academic self-efficacy, self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, academic…

  17. Patterns and Predictors of Adolescent Academic Achievement and Performance in a Sample of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Altaye, Mekibib; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy; Hechtman, Lily

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined predictors of academic achievement, measured by standardized test scores, and performance, measured by school grades, in adolescents (Mn = 16.8) who met diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Combined type in early childhood (Mn age = 8.5; N = 579). Several mediation models were also…

  18. A University Engagement Model for Achieving Technology Adoption and Performance Improvement Impacts in Healthcare, Manufacturing, and Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnis, David R.; Sloan, Mary Anne; Snow, L. David; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2014-01-01

    The Purdue Technical Assistance Program (TAP) offers a model of university engagement and service that is achieving technology adoption and performance improvement impacts in healthcare, manufacturing, government, and other sectors. The TAP model focuses on understanding and meeting the changing and challenging needs of those served, always…

  19. Prior Mathematics Achievement, Cognitive Appraisals and Anxiety as Predictors of Finnish Students' Later Mathematics Performance and Career Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyttala, Minna; Bjorn, Piia Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this two-year longitudinal study was to investigate the role and impact of prior mathematics performance, cognitive appraisals and mathematics-specific, affective anxiety in determining later mathematics achievement and future career orientation among Finnish adolescents. The basic ideas of the control-value theory, assumed to be…

  20. Why IEP Teams Assign Low Performers with Mild Disabilities to the Alternate Assessment Based on Alternate Achievement Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Kingston, Neal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to determine teachers' rationales for assigning students with mild disabilities to alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS). In interviews, special educators stated that their primary considerations in making the assignments were low academic performance, student use of extended…

  1. Participation and Performance Reporting for the Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS). Technical Report 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, Deb; Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines publicly reported participation and performance data for the alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). The authors' analysis of these data included all states publicly reporting AA-MAS data, regardless of whether they had received approval to use the results for Title I accountability calculations.…

  2. Performance in Solving Arithmetic Problems: A Comparison of Children with Different Levels of Achievement in Mathematics and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikeras, Elin K. L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the performance in arithmetic related to achievement levels in reading and mathematics. Basic arithmetical facts and multi-step calculations were examined. The participants were 941 pupils aged 8 (N = 415), 10 (N = 274) and 13 (N = 252) years. The pupils were divided into four groups by standardized…

  3. Relationships between Learning Styles and Academic Achievement and Brain Hemispheric Dominance and Academic Performance in Business and Accounting Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carthey, Joseph H.

    A study determined if relationships exist between learning styles and academic achievement and brain hemispheric dominance and academic performance in the courses of principles of management, business law, intermediate accounting, and principles of economics. All second-year accounting students (64 students) at Northeast Iowa Community College…

  4. Key Strategies Used by Title I Elementary School Principals to Increase Student Achievement in Six San Bernardino County Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marcie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to determine key strategies in the areas of instructional leadership, communication, and empowerment used by the principals of selected high-poverty elementary schools in two high-poverty San Bernardino County school districts that exceeded their Academic Performance Index growth target score by forty or…

  5. The potential influence of perception of achievement on performance in volitional time-to-exhaustion cycle ergometer trials.

    PubMed

    Lorimer, Ross; Babraj, John

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this short communication was to report the findings of an investigation of the potential influence of spontaneous goal setting on subjects undertaking maximal fitness testing. Subjects were asked to complete a single incremental volitional time-to-exhaustion cycle ergometer trial. The final minute of the trial, after the last increase in increment in resistance, was broken down into six 10-second intervals and a frequency count made of how many subjects stopped within each interval. A chi-square test was used to determine that there was a significant difference between the expected and the observed frequencies (p < 0.05), with 45% of subjects stopping in the first interval (0-10 seconds) and 0% within the last interval (51-60 seconds). Reflections of the subjects revealed that those who were close to exhaustion but near to reaching the next increment of resistance were more likely to "push on." However, despite having been told to keep going as long as they could, subjects upon reaching that increment stopped almost immediately as they believed they could not manage to reach the next increment. This suggests a potential psychological element related to goal achievement that influences performance in incremental volitional time-to-exhaustion cycle ergometer trials. Practically, this means that the information participants have available on which to base goals (level of increment, time, etc.) needs to be minimized to prevent spontaneous goal setting. PMID:23037613

  6. Assessing Medicare's hospital pay-for-performance programs and whether they are achieving their goals.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Charles N; Ault, Thomas; Potetz, Lisa; Walke, Thomas; Chambers, Jayne Hart; Burch, Samantha

    2015-08-01

    Three separate pay-for-performance programs affect the amount of Medicare payment for inpatient services to about 3,400 US hospitals. These payments are based on hospital performance on specified measures of quality of care. A growing share of Medicare hospital payments (6 percent by 2017) are dependent upon how hospitals perform under the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, the Value-Based Purchasing Program, and the Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program. In 2015 four of five hospitals subject to these programs will be penalized under one or more of them, and more than one in three major teaching hospitals will be penalized under all three. Interactions among these programs should be considered going forward, including overlap among measures and differences in scoring performance. PMID:26240240

  7. Striving for Excellence Sometimes Hinders High Achievers: Performance-Approach Goals Deplete Arithmetical Performance in Students with High Working Memory Capacity.

    PubMed

    Crouzevialle, Marie; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the goal to attain normative superiority over other students, referred to as performance-approach goals, is particularly distractive for high-Working Memory Capacity (WMC) students-that is, those who are used to being high achievers. Indeed, WMC is positively related to high-order cognitive performance and academic success, a record of success that confers benefits on high-WMC as compared to low-WMC students. We tested whether such benefits may turn out to be a burden under performance-approach goal pursuit. Indeed, for high achievers, aiming to rise above others may represent an opportunity to reaffirm their positive status-a stake susceptible to trigger disruptive outcome concerns that interfere with task processing. Results revealed that with performance-approach goals-as compared to goals with no emphasis on social comparison-the higher the students' WMC, the lower their performance at a complex arithmetic task (Experiment 1). Crucially, this pattern appeared to be driven by uncertainty regarding the chances to outclass others (Experiment 2). Moreover, an accessibility measure suggested the mediational role played by status-related concerns in the observed disruption of performance. We discuss why high-stake situations can paradoxically lead high-achievers to sub-optimally perform when high-order cognitive performance is at play. PMID:26407097

  8. Striving for Excellence Sometimes Hinders High Achievers: Performance-Approach Goals Deplete Arithmetical Performance in Students with High Working Memory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Crouzevialle, Marie; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the goal to attain normative superiority over other students, referred to as performance-approach goals, is particularly distractive for high-Working Memory Capacity (WMC) students—that is, those who are used to being high achievers. Indeed, WMC is positively related to high-order cognitive performance and academic success, a record of success that confers benefits on high-WMC as compared to low-WMC students. We tested whether such benefits may turn out to be a burden under performance-approach goal pursuit. Indeed, for high achievers, aiming to rise above others may represent an opportunity to reaffirm their positive status—a stake susceptible to trigger disruptive outcome concerns that interfere with task processing. Results revealed that with performance-approach goals—as compared to goals with no emphasis on social comparison—the higher the students’ WMC, the lower their performance at a complex arithmetic task (Experiment 1). Crucially, this pattern appeared to be driven by uncertainty regarding the chances to outclass others (Experiment 2). Moreover, an accessibility measure suggested the mediational role played by status-related concerns in the observed disruption of performance. We discuss why high-stake situations can paradoxically lead high-achievers to sub-optimally perform when high-order cognitive performance is at play. PMID:26407097

  9. Cost/Performance Ratio Achieved by Using a Commodity-Based Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Isaac

    2001-01-01

    Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center acquired a commodity cluster based on Intel Corporation processors to compare its performance with a traditional UNIX cluster in the execution of aeropropulsion applications. Since the cost differential of the clusters was significant, a cost/performance ratio was calculated. After executing a propulsion application on both clusters, the researchers demonstrated a 9.4 cost/performance ratio in favor of the Intel-based cluster. These researchers utilize the Aeroshark cluster as one of the primary testbeds for developing NPSS parallel application codes and system software. The Aero-shark cluster provides 64 Intel Pentium II 400-MHz processors, housed in 32 nodes. Recently, APNASA - a code developed by a Government/industry team for the design and analysis of turbomachinery systems was used for a simulation on Glenn's Aeroshark cluster.

  10. Closing the Achievement Gap: A Summer School Program to Accelerate the Academic Performance of Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Ramon Michael

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing disparity in educational outcomes among economically and racially different groups of students, summer school has received attention from school reformers as a means to close the achievement gap. Given the interest in this topic by educators, researchers, and policymakers, there is little research on the impact of summer school…

  11. The Relationship between Student Achievement of At-Risk Students and the Georgia Performance Standards in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Loralee Ann

    2012-01-01

    Educational leaders continue to be challenged in terms of accountability measures for increased student achievement, as mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). In particular, schools must show adequate yearly progress (AYP) reaching 100% proficiency levels for all students in the areas of English language arts and mathematics by…

  12. Initial Teacher Education: Does Self-Efficacy Influence Candidate Teacher Academic Achievement and Future Career Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad F.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative investigation examined the influence of low and high self-efficacy on candidate teacher academic performance in a foreign language teaching methodology course through testing the speculation that high self-efficacy levels would improve pedagogical-content knowledge (PCK). Positivism guided the research design at the levels of…

  13. Mayoral Governance and Student Achievement: How Mayor-Led Districts Are Improving School and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kenneth K.; Shen, Francis X.

    2013-01-01

    Mayoral control and accountability is one of very few major education reforms that aim at governance coherence in this nation's highly fragmented urban school systems. A primary feature of mayoral governance is that it holds the office of the mayor accountable for school performance. As an institutional redesign, mayoral governance integrates…

  14. Aural Dictation Affects High Achievement in Sight Singing, Performance and Composition Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The nature of skill acquisition has long been of interest to music educators. This study considers the research context for relationships between aural dictation, sight singing, performance and composition skills. Then, relationships between these skill areas are quantitatively investigated using data from the Australian New South Wales Music 2…

  15. "High" Achievers? Cannabis Access and Student Performance. CEP Discussion Paper No. 1340

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marie, Olivier; Zölitz, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how legal cannabis access affects student performance. Identification comes from an exceptional policy introduced in the city of Maastricht which discriminated legal access based on individuals' nationality. We apply a difference-in-difference approach using administrative panel data on over 54,000 course grades of local…

  16. Short Circuits or Superconductors? Effects of Group Composition on High-Achieving Students' Science Assessment Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Noreen M.; Nemer, Kariane Mari; Zuniga, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Studied the effects of group ability composition (homogeneous versus heterogeneous) on group processes and outcomes for high-ability students completing science assessments. Results for 83 high ability students show the quality of group functioning serves as the strongest predictor of high-ability students' performance and explained much of the…

  17. Teacher Performance Pay Signals and Student Achievement: Are Signals Accurate, and How well Do They Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzeske, David; Garland, Marshall; Williams, Ryan; West, Benjamin; Kistner, Alexandra Manzella; Rapaport, Amie

    2016-01-01

    High-performing teachers tend to seek out positions at more affluent or academically challenging schools, which tend to hire more experienced, effective educators. Consequently, low-income and minority students are more likely to attend schools with less experienced and less effective educators (see, for example, DeMonte & Hanna, 2014; Office…

  18. The Mental Aspect of Athletics: The Effects of the Mind's Influence on Athletic Achievement and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollough, David D.

    This study of athletes seeks to determine that a relationship exists between the mind and the body. It presents negative psychological factors that may arise and shows possible ways to enhance athletic performance through psychological techniques. The central part of the study is an annotated bibliography covering selected literature on these…

  19. Effects of Audio- and Videotape Models on Performance Achievement of Beginning Clarinetists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linklater, Fraser

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the effects on home practice of three different types of cassette tapes (a videotape, a modeling audiotape, and a nonmodeling audiotape) on the performance of beginning clarinet students. Finds no significant impact on amount of weekly practice, of practice using tapes, or of parental help based on tape type. (DSK)

  20. Comparing the performance of English mental health providers in achieving patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Moran, Valerie; Jacobs, Rowena

    2015-09-01

    Evidence on provider payment systems that incorporate patient outcomes is limited for mental health care. In England, funding for mental health care services is changing to a prospective payment system with a future objective of linking some part of provider payment to outcomes. This research examines performance of mental health providers offering hospital and community services, in order to investigate if some are delivering better outcomes. Outcomes are measured using the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) - a clinician-rated routine outcome measure (CROM) mandated for national use. We use data from the Mental Health Minimum Data Set (MHMDS) - a dataset on specialist mental health care with national coverage - for the years 2011/12 and 2012/13 with a final estimation sample of 305,960 observations with follow-up HoNOS scores. A hierarchical ordered probit model is used and outcomes are risk adjusted with independent variables reflecting demographic, need, severity and social indicators. A hierarchical linear model is also estimated with the follow-up total HoNOS score as the dependent variable and the baseline total HoNOS score included as a risk-adjuster. Provider performance is captured by a random effect that is quantified using Empirical Bayes methods. We find that worse outcomes are associated with severity and better outcomes with older age and social support. After adjusting outcomes for various risk factors, variations in performance are still evident across providers. This suggests that if the intention to link some element of provider payment to outcomes becomes a reality, some providers may gain financially whilst others may lose. The paper contributes to the limited literature on risk adjustment of outcomes and performance assessment of providers in mental health in the context of prospective activity-based payment systems. PMID:26218853

  1. Achieving supercomputer performance for neural net simulation with an array of digital signal processors

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, U.A.; Baumle, B.; Kohler, P.; Gunzinger, A.; Guggenbuhl, W.

    1992-10-01

    Music, a DSP-based system with a parallel distributed-memory architecture, provides enormous computing power yet retains the flexibility of a general-purpose computer. Reaching a peak performance of 2.7 Gflops at a significantly lower cost, power consumption, and space requirement than conventional supercomputers, Music is well suited to computationally intensive applications such as neural network simulation. 12 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Athlete Atypicity on the Edge of Human Achievement: Performances Stagnate after the Last Peak, in 1988

    PubMed Central

    Berthelot, Geoffroy; Tafflet, Muriel; El Helou, Nour; Len, Stéphane; Escolano, Sylvie; Guillaume, Marion; Nassif, Hala; Tolaïni, Julien; Thibault, Valérie; Desgorces, François Denis; Hermine, Olivier; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    The growth law for the development of top athletes performances remains unknown in quantifiable sport events. Here we present a growth model for 41351 best performers from 70 track and field (T&F) and swimming events and detail their characteristics over the modern Olympic era. We show that 64% of T&F events no longer improved since 1993, while 47% of swimming events stagnated after 1990, prior to a second progression step starting in 2000. Since then, 100% of swimming events continued to progress. We also provide a measurement of the atypicity for the 3919 best performances (BP) of each year in every event. The secular evolution of this parameter for T&F reveals four peaks; the most recent (1988) followed by a major stagnation. This last peak may correspond to the most recent successful attempt to push forward human physiological limits. No atypicity trend is detected in swimming. The upcoming rarefaction of new records in sport may be delayed by technological innovations, themselves depending upon economical constraints. PMID:20098706

  3. Tailoring the structure of thin film nanocomposite membranes to achieve seawater RO membrane performance.

    PubMed

    Lind, Mary Laura; Eumine Suk, Daniel; Nguyen, The-Vinh; Hoek, Eric M V

    2010-11-01

    Herein we report on the formation and characterization of pure polyamide thin film composite (TFC) and zeolite-polyamide thin film nanocomposite (TFN) reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Four different physical-chemical post-treatment combinations were applied after the interfacial polymerization reaction to change the molecular structure of polyamide and zeolite-polyamide thin films. Both TFC and TFN hand-cast membranes were more permeable, hydrophilic, and rough than a commercial seawater RO membrane. Salt rejection by TFN membranes was consistently below that of hand-cast TFC membranes; however, two TFN membranes exhibited 32 g/L NaCl rejections above 99.4%, which was better than the commercial membrane under the test conditions employed. The nearly defect-free TFN films that produced such high rejections were achieved only with wet curing, regardless of other post-treatments. Polyamide films formed in the presence of zeolite nanoparticles were less cross-linked than similarly cast pure polyamide films. At the very low nanoparticle loadings evaluated, differences between pure polyamide and zeolite-polyamide membrane water and salt permeability correlated weakly with extent of cross-linking of the polyamide film, which suggests that defects and molecular-sieving largely govern transport through zeolite-polyamide thin film nanocomposite membranes. PMID:20942398

  4. Achieving superior MEBES performance through the use of SPC programs and state-of-the-art facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braz, Linda A.

    1993-06-01

    A MEBES III system can perform at levels that far exceed those published by the manufacturer. To achieve this, the photomask facility must be capable of maintaining extremely tight temperature controls. In addition, noise free power must be utilized and Class 10 cleanliness maintained. Through the use of a statistical process control (SPC) program generated at Etec, the MEBES performance can be monitored. Anomalies in system performance can be immediately identified and corrected without losing production masks. Impending system problems such as needed gun changes, gun centering, aperture changes, and charging of plates can be recognized and corrected before MEBES system performance would exceed our specifications. This paper also describes some of the unique facility designs/controls and demonstrated, through results, how these contribute to the MEBES performance.

  5. Achieving Peak Flow and Sediment Loading Reductions through Increased Water Storage in the Le Sueur Watershed, Minnesota: A Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, N. A.; Gran, K. B.; Cho, S. J.; Dalzell, B. J.; Kumarasamy, K.

    2015-12-01

    A combination of factors including climate change, land clearing, and artificial drainage have increased many agricultural regions' stream flows and rates at which channel banks and bluffs are eroded. Increasing erosion rates within the Minnesota River Basin have contributed to higher sediment-loading rates, excess turbidity levels, and increases in sedimentation rates in Lake Pepin further downstream. Water storage sites (e.g., wetlands) have been discussed as a means to address these issues. This study uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess a range of water retention site (WRS) implementation scenarios in the Le Sueur watershed in south-central Minnesota, a subwatershed of the Minnesota River Basin. Sediment loading from bluffs was assessed through an empirical relationship developed from gauging data. Sites were delineated as topographic depressions with specific land uses, minimum areas (3000 m2), and high compound topographic index values. Contributing areas for the WRS were manually measured and used with different site characteristics to create 210 initial WRS scenarios. A generalized relationship between WRS area and contributing area was identified from measurements, and this relationship was used with different site characteristics (e.g., depth, hydraulic conductivity (K), and placement) to create 225 generalized WRS scenarios. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates are generally maximized by placing site with high K values in the upper half of the watershed. High K values allow sites to lose more water through seepage, emptying their storages between precipitation events and preventing frequent overflowing. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates also level off at high WRS extents due to the decreasing frequencies of high-magnitude events. The generalized WRS scenarios were also used to create a simplified empirical model capable of generating peak flows and sediment-loading rates from near

  6. Achieving Equivalent Academic Performance Between Campuses Using a Distributed Education Model

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Kenneth L.; Raehl, Cynthia L.; Smith, Quentin R.; Lockman, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate that students in competency-based anatomy and pharmaceutical calculations courses performed similarly whether enrolled in the classes through distance education or face-to-face lectures. Methods Student outcomes data including module examination scores, final course grades, and student demographics data were collected, merged, and analyzed. Results Mean module examination final scores and final course grades did not significantly differ between students at the lecture site and students at the remote site. Conclusions The competency-based anatomy and pharmaceutical calculations courses, whether remote or at the lecture site, provided equitable learning opportunities and roughly equivalent learning outcomes for students. PMID:19777103

  7. Uncooled amorphous-silicon technology: high-performance achievement and future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottin, Eric; Bain, Astrid; Martin, Jean-Luc; Ouvrier-Buffet, Jean-Louis; Yon, Jean-Jacques; Chatard, Jean-Pierre; Tissot, Jean-Luc

    2002-08-01

    The emergence of uncooled infrared detectors has opened new opportunities for IR imaging both for military and civil applications. Infrared imaging sensors that operate without cryogenic cooling have the potential to provide the military or civilian users with infrared vision capabilities packaged in a camera of extremely small size, weight and power. Uncooled infrared sensor technology has advanced rapidly in the past few years. Higher performance sensors, electronics integration at the sensor, and new concepts for signal processing are generating advanced infrared focal plane arrays. This would significantly reduce the cost and accelerate the implementation of sensors for applications such as surveillance or predictive maintenance. We present the uncooled infrared detector operation principle and the development at CEA/LETI from the 256 x 64 with a pitch of 50 micrometers to the 320 x 240 with a pitch of 35 micrometers . LETI has been involved in Amorphous Silicon uncooled microbolometer development since 1992. This silicon IR detection is now well mastered and matured so that industrial transfer of LETI technology was performed in 2000 towards Sofradir. Industrial production of 320 x 240 microbolometer array with 45micrometers pitch is then started., we present the readout circuit architectures designs and its evolution from the 256 x 64 array to the different version of 320 x 240 arrays. Electro-optical results obtained from these IRCMOS are presented. NEDT close to 30 mK is now obtained with our standard microbolometer amorphous silicon technology.

  8. Education Reform in the Trenches: Increased Academic Course Taking in High Schools with Lower Achieving Students in States with Higher Graduation Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clune, William H.; White, Paula A.

    1992-01-01

    Transcript data were analyzed to determine changes in course taking among graduates of high schools including mostly lower achieving students in California, Florida, Missouri, and Pennsylvania, which adopted high graduation requirements in the 1980s. Average credits per student increased in all academic subjects, as did the courses' difficulty…

  9. Influence of College Clubs in Increasing Students' Interest and Achievement in Nigerian Post-Primary Schools as Perceived by Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwankwo, Madeleine C.; Okoye, K. R. E.

    2015-01-01

    The perceived influence of college club in increasing students' interest and achievement in Nigerian post-primary schools in Anambra State was studied using a survey research design. The population of the study comprised all senior secondary school science students in Anambra State totaling 9322 as at 2007. From this population, a sample of 140…

  10. Increasing the Academic Achievement of Middle School Students Exposed to Domestic Violence through Interpersonal-Cognitive Group Counseling and Parenting Education (Project REAL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Deborah

    Project REAL (Relationship skills, Education on violence prevention, Academics, Leadership and decision-making skills) was a practicum designed to increase the academic achievement of middle school students exposed to domestic violence. Eleven students and their parents participated in a 12-week interpersonal-cognitive counseling group and its…

  11. Balance the Carrier Mobility To Achieve High Performance Exciplex OLED Using a Triazine-Based Acceptor.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Chiang, Pin-Yi; Lin, Shih-Wei; Tang, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hung; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hung, Yi-Tzu; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2016-02-01

    A star-shaped 1,3,5-triazine/cyano hybrid molecule CN-T2T was designed and synthesized as a new electron acceptor for efficient exciplex-based OLED emitter by mixing with a suitable electron donor (Tris-PCz). The CN-T2T/Tris-PCz exciplex emission shows a high ΦPL of 0.53 and a small ΔET-S = -0.59 kcal/mol, affording intrinsically efficient fluorescence and highly efficient exciton up-conversion. The large energy level offsets between Tris-PCz and CN-T2T and the balanced hole and electron mobility of Tris-PCz and CN-T2T, respectively, ensuring sufficient carrier density accumulated in the interface for efficient generation of exciplex excitons. Employing a facile device structure composed as ITO/4% ReO3:Tris-PCz (60 nm)/Tris-PCz (15 nm)/Tris-PCz:CN-T2T(1:1) (25 nm)/CN-T2T (50 nm)/Liq (0.5 nm)/Al (100 nm), in which the electron-hole capture is efficient without additional carrier injection barrier from donor (or acceptor) molecule and carriers mobilities are balanced in the emitting layer, leads to a highly efficient green exciplex OLED with external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11.9%. The obtained EQE is 18% higher than that of a comparison device using an exciplex exhibiting a comparable ΦPL (0.50), in which TCTA shows similar energy levels but higher hole mobility as compared with Tris-PCz. Our results clearly indicate the significance of mobility balance in governing the efficiency of exciplex-based OLED. Exploiting the Tris-PCz:CN-T2T exciplex as the host, we further demonstrated highly efficient yellow and red fluorescent OLEDs by doping 1 wt % Rubrene and DCJTB as emitter, achieving high EQE of 6.9 and 9.7%, respectively. PMID:26820247

  12. The Rapid Transit System That Achieves Higher Performance with Lower Life-Cycle Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Satoru; Takagi, Ryo

    In the age of traction system made of inverter and ac traction motors, distributed traction system with pure electric brake of regenerative mode has been recognised very advantageous. This paper proposes a new system as the lowest life-cycle cost system for high performance rapid transit, a new architecture and optimum parameters of power feeding system, and a new running method of trains. In Japan, these components of this proposal, i.e. pure electric brake and various countermeasures of reducing loss of regeneration have been already popular but not as yet the new running method for better utilisation of the equipment and for lower life-cycle cost. One example of what are proposed in this paper will be made as Tsukuba Express, which is under construction as the most modern commuter railway in Greater Tokyo area.

  13. Using Guided Notes, Choral Responding, and Response Cards to Increase Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Ann J.; McLaughlin, T. F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents and selectively reviews the data-based literature regarding guided notes, choral responding, and response cards (ASR). These ASR procedures as designed to increase the opportunities for students to respond and improve their academic performance. Each of these procedures were effective in increasing student performance in…

  14. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352

  15. Tuning interactions between zeolite and supported metal by physical-sputtering to achieve higher catalytic performances

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Gang; Liu, Cheng; Sun, Jian; Xian, Hui; Tan, Yi-Sheng; Jiang, Zheng; Taguchi, Akira; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Yoneyama, Yoshiharu; Abe, Takayuki; Tsubaki, Noritatsu

    2013-01-01

    To substitute for petroleum, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is an environmentally benign process to produce synthetic diesel (n-paraffin) from syngas. Industrially, the synthetic gasoline (iso-paraffin) can be produced with a FTS process followed by isomerization and hydrocracking processes over solid-acid catalysts. Herein, we demonstrate a cobalt nano-catalyst synthesized by physical-sputtering method that the metallic cobalt nano-particles homogeneously disperse on the H-ZSM5 zeolite support with weak Metal-Support Interactions (MSI). This catalyst performed the high gasoline-range iso-paraffin productivity through the combined FTS, isomerization and hydrocracking reactions. The weak MSI results in the easy reducibility of the cobalt nano-particles; the high cobalt dispersion accelerates n-paraffin diffusion to the neighboring acidic sites on the H-ZSM5 support for isomerization and hydrocracking. Both factors guarantee its high CO conversion and iso-paraffin selectivity. This physical-sputtering technique to synthesize the supported metallic nano-catalyst is a promising way to solve the critical problems caused by strong MSI for various processes. PMID:24085106

  16. Tuning interactions between zeolite and supported metal by physical-sputtering to achieve higher catalytic performances.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Gang; Liu, Cheng; Sun, Jian; Xian, Hui; Tan, Yi-Sheng; Jiang, Zheng; Taguchi, Akira; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Yoneyama, Yoshiharu; Abe, Takayuki; Tsubaki, Noritatsu

    2013-01-01

    To substitute for petroleum, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is an environmentally benign process to produce synthetic diesel (n-paraffin) from syngas. Industrially, the synthetic gasoline (iso-paraffin) can be produced with a FTS process followed by isomerization and hydrocracking processes over solid-acid catalysts. Herein, we demonstrate a cobalt nano-catalyst synthesized by physical-sputtering method that the metallic cobalt nano-particles homogeneously disperse on the H-ZSM5 zeolite support with weak Metal-Support Interactions (MSI). This catalyst performed the high gasoline-range iso-paraffin productivity through the combined FTS, isomerization and hydrocracking reactions. The weak MSI results in the easy reducibility of the cobalt nano-particles; the high cobalt dispersion accelerates n-paraffin diffusion to the neighboring acidic sites on the H-ZSM5 support for isomerization and hydrocracking. Both factors guarantee its high CO conversion and iso-paraffin selectivity. This physical-sputtering technique to synthesize the supported metallic nano-catalyst is a promising way to solve the critical problems caused by strong MSI for various processes. PMID:24085106

  17. Achieving health, safety, and performance improvements through enhanced cost visibility and workplace partnerships.

    PubMed

    Grant, Katharyn A; Garland, John G; Joachim, Todd C; Wallen, Andrew; Vital, Twyla

    2003-01-01

    Reduction in the environment, safety, and occupational health (ESOH) component of operational costs requires not only a better understanding of ESOH costs and requirements, but also the formation of effective partnerships between ESOH professionals, financial analysts, and shop workers to identify viable improvements to current practices. This article presents two case studies of efforts to enhance productivity and ESOH in corrosion control facilities at Randolph Air Force Base (AFB), Texas, and Robins AFB, Ga. At each site, activity-based cost models were created to increase the visibility of ESOH-related costs and target improvement opportunities. Analysis of the strip-and-paint processes for the T-38 aircraft at Randolph and the F-15 radome and C-141 aft cowl at Robins revealed that a large proportion of operating costs were tied to ESOH requirements and practices (22 and 39%, respectively). In each case ESOH professionals teamed with shop personnel to identify potential improvements in personal protective equipment use, waste disposal, tool selection, and work methods. This approach yielded alternatives projected to reduce total shop costs by 5 to 7%. This case study demonstrates how workplaces can identify cost-saving and efficiency-enhancing practices by partnering with ESOH professionals in planning and decision-making activities. PMID:14521429

  18. Achieving high performance in numerical computations on RISC workstations and parallel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goedecker, S.; Hoisie, A.

    1997-08-20

    The nominal peak speeds of both serial and parallel computers is raising rapidly. At the same time however it is becoming increasingly difficult to get out a significant fraction of this high peak speed from modern computer architectures. In this tutorial the authors give the scientists and engineers involved in numerically demanding calculations and simulations the necessary basic knowledge to write reasonably efficient programs. The basic principles are rather simple and the possible rewards large. Writing a program by taking into account optimization techniques related to the computer architecture can significantly speedup your program, often by factors of 10--100. As such, optimizing a program can for instance be a much better solution than buying a faster computer. If a few basic optimization principles are applied during program development, the additional time needed for obtaining an efficient program is practically negligible. In-depth optimization is usually only needed for a few subroutines or kernels and the effort involved is therefore also acceptable.

  19. The Classroom Performance System (CPS): Effects on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural anatomy and physiology classes at South Texas College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termos, Mohamad Hani

    2011-12-01

    The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology tool that increases student performance and addresses different learning styles. Instructional technologies are used to promote active learning; however, student embarrassment issue in a multicultural setting is not addressed. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes at South Texas College, where the first spoken language is not English. Quantitative method and quasi-experimental design were employed and comparative statistic methods and pre-post tests were used to collect the data. Participants were college students and sections of study were selected by convenient sampling. Participation was 100% during most of the lectures held and participation rate did not strike above 68% in control group. Attendance was significantly higher in CPS sections than the control group as shown by t-tests. Experimental sections had a higher increase in the pre-post test scores and student averages on lecture exams increased at a higher rate as compared to the control group. Therefore, the CPS increased student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural anatomy and physiology classes. The CPS can be studied in other settings where the first spoken language is English or in other programs, such as special education programs. Additionally, other variables can be studied and other methodologies can be employed.

  20. Metrics, Dollars, and Systems Change: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative to Design Effective Postsecondary Performance Funding Policies. A State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Shulock, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), adopted by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges in 2007, is one of a growing number of performance funding programs that have been dubbed "performance funding 2.0." Unlike previous performance funding models, the SAI rewards colleges for students' intermediate achievements along…

  1. Test Scores, School Performance and Parenting Issues: Assuring Academic Achievement. The Connection between Family Life and School Achievement: Given a Supportive Family, Black Children Can Succeed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Wanda A.

    Two things in particular could change the status of students of color in our elementary and secondary education system and make improved academic achievement possible. One is providing role models that students can relate to in the classrooms, and the other is getting families involved in their children's education. A study on family life and…

  2. 5 CFR 531.504 - Level of performance required for quality step increase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... summary level used by the program; and (2) Demonstrates sustained performance of high quality... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Level of performance required for quality... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Quality Step Increases § 531.504 Level of...

  3. 5 CFR 531.504 - Level of performance required for quality step increase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... summary level used by the program; and (2) Demonstrates sustained performance of high quality... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Level of performance required for quality... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Quality Step Increases § 531.504 Level of...

  4. Multimedia OC12 parallel interface using VCSEL array to achieve high-performance cost-effective optical interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Edward S.

    1996-09-01

    ribbon cable, and MT connectors to achieve a high-performance, low-cost parallel link. A logical model of a multimedia server with parallel connections to an ATM switch, and to clients is presented. The design of the parallel optical link is analyzed. Furthermore, the link configured for testing, the test method, and test results are presented to confirm the analysis and to assure reliable link performance.

  5. Enhanced ATAMM for increased throughput performance of multicomputer data flow architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. L.; Hayes, P. J.; Andrews, A. M.; Som, S.; Stoughton, J. W.; Mielke, R. R.

    1991-01-01

    The Algorithm To Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) is a Petri-net-based model which provides a strategy for periodic execution of a class of real-time algorithms on multicomputer dataflow architectures. The problem domain of particular interest is the execution of large-grained, decision-free algorithms on homogeneous processing elements. Design techniques are discussed and performance measurements are defined. A multiple-graph execution strategy is shown to increase throughput performance. It is shown that the same increase in performance is attainable with minor modifications to the existing ATAMM.

  6. The Effect of Retesting on End-of-Semester Performance in High School Chemistry at Three Levels of Previous Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboer, George E.

    1981-01-01

    Examines whether retesting: (1) affects achievement of students (N=95) grouped according to previous achievement in science; and (2) influences students to delay studying and perform at a low level on initial tests. Also examines whether procrastination of retested students is affected by their achievement level. (DS)

  7. Dissolution performance of binary amorphous drug combinations--Impact of a second drug on the maximum achievable supersaturation.

    PubMed

    Trasi, Niraj S; Taylor, Lynne S

    2015-12-30

    An increased number of amorphous formulations of poorly water soluble drugs are being introduced into the market due to their higher transient solubility and thus faster absorption and higher bioavailability. While most amorphous drug products contain a single drug substance, there is a growing trend towards co-formulating compounds in the same dosage form to improve patient compliance. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the dissolution behavior and maximum achievable solution concentrations of amorphous solid dispersions of co-formulated ritonavir and lopinavir, and to compare the results with individual amorphous solid dispersion formulations. Dispersions of ritonavir and lopinavir were prepared in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) at a 20% (w/w) total drug loading, both alone and in combination, at three different lopinavir:ritonavir weight ratios. Amorphous films containing both drugs, but no polymer, were also prepared. The dissolution behavior of the dispersions and the amorphous films in non-sink conditions was evaluated, using ultracentrifugation to separate any colloidal material from molecularly dissolved drug. Nanoparticle tracking analysis was used to characterize colloidal material formed during the dissolution process. Results from the dissolution study revealed that, although supersaturated solutions resulted following dissolution, the maximum achievable concentration of each drug, when present in combination, was dramatically lower than when the individual dispersions were dissolved. The maximum achievable solution concentration for systems containing both drugs was found to decrease as the mole fraction of the drug in the amorphous phase decreased. The type of polymer used to formulate the dispersion also appeared to influence the dissolution behavior whereby the HPMCAS dispersions dissolved rapidly, resulting in the generation of a nanodroplets, while the PVP dispersions did not

  8. A Descriptive-Comparative Study of Teacher Performance Evaluation on Student Achievement in a Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, William Howard

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the federal government increased accountability expectations by placing more emphasis on monitoring teacher performance. Using a model that focuses on the New York State teacher evaluation system, that is comprised of a rubric for observation, local student assessment scores, and student state assessment scores, this…

  9. Case study: Comparison of motivation for achieving higher performance between self-directed and manager-directed aerospace engineering teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlick, Katherine

    "The stereotype of engineers is that they are not people oriented; the stereotype implies that engineers would not work well in teams---that their task emphasis is a solo venture and does not encourage social aspects of collaboration" (Miner & Beyerlein, 1999, p. 16). The problem is determining the best method of providing a motivating environment where design engineers may contribute within a team in order to achieve higher performance in the organization. Theoretically, self-directed work teams perform at higher levels. But, allowing a design engineer to contribute to the team while still maintaining his or her anonymity is the key to success. Therefore, a motivating environment must be established to encourage greater self-actualization in design engineers. The purpose of this study is to determine the favorable motivational environment for design engineers and describe the comparison between two aerospace design-engineering teams: one self-directed and the other manager directed. Following the comparison, this study identified whether self-direction or manager-direction provides the favorable motivational environment for operating as a team in pursuit of achieving higher performance. The methodology used in this research was the case study focusing on the team's levels of job satisfaction and potential for higher performance. The collection of data came from three sources, (a) surveys, (b) researcher observer journal and (c) collection of artifacts. The surveys provided information regarding personal behavior characteristics, potentiality for higher performance and motivational attributes. The researcher journal provided information regarding team dynamics, individual interaction, conflict and conflict resolution. The milestone for performance was based on the collection of artifacts from the two teams. The findings from this study illustrated that whether the team was manager-directed or self-directed does not appear to influence the needs and wants of the

  10. Functional Organosulfide Electrolyte Promotes an Alternate Reaction Pathway to Achieve High Performance in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuru; Dai, Fang; Gordin, Mikhail L; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gao, Yue; Song, Jiangxuan; Wang, Donghai

    2016-03-18

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have recently received great attention because they promise to provide energy density far beyond current lithium ion batteries. Typically, Li-S batteries operate by conversion of sulfur to reversibly form different soluble lithium polysulfide intermediates and insoluble lithium sulfides through multistep redox reactions. Herein, we report a functional electrolyte system incorporating dimethyl disulfide as a co-solvent that enables a new electrochemical reduction pathway for sulfur cathodes. This pathway uses soluble dimethyl polysulfides and lithium organosulfides as intermediates and products, which can boost cell capacity and lead to improved discharge-charge reversibility and cycling performance of sulfur cathodes. This electrolyte system can potentially enable Li-S batteries to achieve high energy density. PMID:26918660

  11. Medicare program; physician performance standard rates of increase for federal fiscal year 1991--HCFA. Notice.

    PubMed

    1990-12-28

    This notice announces the Federal fiscal year (FY) 1991 physician performance standard rates of increase for expenditures and volume of physician services under the Medicare Supplementary Medical Insurance (part B) Program as required by section 1848(f)(2)(C) of the Social Security Act as added by section 4105(d) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990. The physician performance standard rates of increase for FY 1991 are the following: 7.3 percent for all physician services, 3.3 percent for surgical services, and 8.6 percent for nonsurgical services. PMID:10108587

  12. Significant alterations in reported clinical practice associated with increased oversight of organ transplant center performance.

    PubMed

    Schold, Jesse D; Arrington, Charlotte J; Levine, Greg

    2010-09-01

    In the past several years, emphasis on quality metrics in the field of organ transplantation has increased significantly, largely because of the new conditions of participation issued by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These regulations directly associate patients' outcomes and measured performance of centers with the distribution of public funding to institutions. Moreover, insurers and marketing ventures have used publicly available outcomes data from transplant centers for business decision making and advertisement purposes. We gave a 10-question survey to attendees of the Transplant Management Forum at the 2009 meeting of the United Network for Organ Sharing to ascertain how centers have responded to the increased oversight of performance. Of 63 responses, 55% indicated a low or near low performance rating at their center in the past 3 years. Respondents from low-performing centers were significantly more likely to indicate increased selection criteria for candidates (81% vs 38%, P = .001) and donors (77% vs 31%, P < .001) as well as alterations in clinical protocols (84% vs 52%, P = .007). Among respondents indicating lost insurance contracts (31%), these differences were also highly significant. Based on respondents' perceptions, outcomes of performance evaluations are associated with significant changes in clinical practice at transplant centers. The transplant community and policy makers should practice vigilance that performance evaluations and regulatory oversight do not inadvertently lead to diminished access to care among viable candidates or decreased transplant volume. PMID:20929114

  13. Enhancing visuospatial performance through video game training to increase learning in visuospatial science domains.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Christopher A

    2012-02-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated that performance on visuospatial assessments can be enhanced through relevant experience, an unaddressed question is whether such experience also produces a similar increase in target domains (such as science learning) where visuospatial abilities are directly relevant for performance. In the present study, participants completed either spatial or nonspatial training via interaction with video games and were then asked to read and learn about the geologic topic of plate tectonics. Results replicate the benefit of playing appropriate video games in enhancing visuospatial performance and demonstrate that this facilitation also manifests itself in learning science topics that are visuospatial in nature. This novel result suggests that visuospatial training not only can impact performance on measures of spatial functioning, but also can affect performance in content areas in which these abilities are utilized. PMID:22037919

  14. Final LDRD report : science-based solutions to achieve high-performance deep-UV laser diodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Alessi, Leonard J.; Smith, Michael L.; Henry, Tanya A.; Westlake, Karl R.; Cross, Karen Charlene; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Lee, Stephen Roger

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project that has focused on overcoming major materials roadblocks to achieving AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes. We describe our growth approach to achieving AlGaN templates with greater than ten times reduction of threading dislocations which resulted in greater than seven times enhancement of AlGaN quantum well photoluminescence and 15 times increase in electroluminescence from LED test structures. We describe the application of deep-level optical spectroscopy to AlGaN epilayers to quantify deep level energies and densities and further correlate defect properties with AlGaN luminescence efficiency. We further review our development of p-type short period superlattice structures as an approach to mitigate the high acceptor activation energies in AlGaN alloys. Finally, we describe our laser diode fabrication process, highlighting the development of highly vertical and smooth etched laser facets, as well as characterization of resulting laser heterostructures.

  15. Employing low-temperature barriers to achieve strain-relaxed and high-performance GaN-based LEDs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhiting; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Wenliang; Lin, Yunhao; Yang, Meijuan; Chen, Shuqi; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-05-30

    The epitaxial structure design of low-temperature barriers has been adopted to promote strain relaxation in multiple quantum well (MQWs) and achieve high-efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). With these barriers, the relaxation value of wells increases from 0 to 4.59%. The strain-relaxed mechanism of low-temperature barriers is also discussed. The LED chip with the barriers grown at the TMIn flow of 75 sccm and the growth temperature of 830 °C has an optimal strain relaxation value of 1.53% in wells, and exhibits the largest light output power of 63.83 mW at the injection current of 65 mA, which is higher than that of conventional LED (51.89 mW) by 23%. In-depth studies reveal that the optimal low-temperature barriers remarkably promote the strain relaxation in wells without forming large density of crystalline defects. This achievement of high-efficiency LEDs sheds light on the future solid-state lighting applications. PMID:27410111

  16. No evidence for increased performance of a specialist psyllid on invasive French broom

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some invasive plants perform better in their area of introduction than in their native region. This may be a consequence of rapid evolutionary change due to different selection pressures encountered in introduced regions. The Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability hypothesis (EICA) suggests th...

  17. Combining Workstation Design and Performance Management to Increase Ergonomically Correct Computer Typing Postures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culig, Kathryn M.; Dickinson, Alyce M.; Lindstrom-Hazel, Debra; Austin, John

    2008-01-01

    The effects of workstation changes and a performance management (PM) package on seven typing postures were examined for seven office workers. Workstation adjustments were implemented first. Two participants increased five safe postures by 50% or more. The effects of a PM package on postures that did not improve by 50% were then examined using a…

  18. Increasing within-School Competition: A Case for Department Level Performance Indicators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telhaj, Shqiponja; Adnett, Nick; Davies, Peter; Hutton, David; Coe, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigate the size and stability of departmental effects in English secondary schooling during a period in which extensions to parental choice and annual publication of school performance tables had significantly increased competitive pressures on schools. Their database of nearly 450 English secondary schools enables them to…

  19. Effects of thermal increase on aerobic capacity and swim performance in a tropical inland fish.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Laura H; Chapman, Lauren J

    2016-09-01

    Rising water temperature associated with climate change is increasingly recognized as a potential stressor for aquatic organisms, particularly for tropical ectotherms that are predicted to have narrow thermal windows relative to temperate ectotherms. We used intermittent flow resting and swimming respirometry to test for effects of temperature increase on aerobic capacity and swim performance in the widespread African cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae, acclimated for a week to a range of temperatures (2°C increments) between 24 and 34°C. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) increased between 24 and 32°C, but fell sharply at 34°C, suggesting either an acclimatory reorganization of metabolism or metabolic rate depression. Maximum metabolic rate (MMR) was elevated at 28 and 30°C relative to 24°C. Aerobic scope (AS) increased between 24 and 28°C, then declined to a level comparable to 24°C, but increased dramatically 34°C, the latter driven by the drop in SMR in the warmest treatment. Critical swim speed (Ucrit) was highest at intermediate temperature treatments, and was positively related to AS between 24 and 32°C; however, at 34°C, the increase in AS did not correspond to an increase in Ucrit, suggesting a performance cost at the highest temperature. PMID:27215345

  20. Evolution of increased phenotypic diversity enhances population performance by reducing sexual harassment in damselflies.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuma; Kagawa, Kotaro; Svensson, Erik I; Kawata, Masakado

    2014-01-01

    The effect of evolutionary changes in traits and phenotypic/genetic diversity on ecological dynamics has received much theoretical attention; however, the mechanisms and ecological consequences are usually unknown. Female-limited colour polymorphism in damselflies is a counter-adaptation to male mating harassment, and thus, is expected to alter population dynamics through relaxing sexual conflict. Here we show the side effect of the evolution of female morph diversity on population performance (for example, population productivity and sustainability) in damselflies. Our theoretical model incorporating key features of the sexual interaction predicts that the evolution of increased phenotypic diversity will reduce overall fitness costs to females from sexual conflict, which in turn will increase productivity, density and stability of a population. Field data and mesocosm experiments support these model predictions. Our study suggests that increased phenotypic diversity can enhance population performance that can potentially reduce extinction rates and thereby influence macroevolutionary processes. PMID:25034518

  1. An Examination of Teachers' Effects on High, Middle, and Low Aptitude Students' Performance on a Standardized Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Thomas L.; Beckerman, Terrill M.

    1978-01-01

    Teacher effectiveness was defined by students' mathematics score on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills while achievement was measured by the Cognitive Abilities Test. Relatively effective teachers generally produced achievement gains from all aptitude levels. Similarly, relatively ineffective teachers did not disproportionately depress achievement for…

  2. Predictive Indicators of High Performing Schools: A Study of Evaluative Inquiry and the Effective Use of Achievement Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kathryn L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing research suggests a link between evaluative inquiry (EI) and student achievement, where EI is defined as the practice of analyzing student achievement data to identify ways to improve instruction. However, researchers lacked empirical evidence regarding the relationship between specific EI indicators and student achievement. The purpose…

  3. The drive-wise project: driving simulator training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    PubMed Central

    Casutt, Gianclaudio; Theill, Nathan; Martin, Mike; Keller, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training. Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62–87 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) a driving simulator training group, (2) an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention), or (3) a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85%) completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned orthogonal comparisons. Results: The driving simulator-training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention-training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers' safety on the road. PMID:24860497

  4. Prolonged administration of recombinant human erythropoietin increases submaximal performance more than maximal aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, J J; Rentsch, R L; Robach, P; Calbet, J A L; Boushel, R; Rasmussen, P; Juel, C; Lundby, C

    2007-11-01

    The effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) treatment on aerobic power (VO2max) are well documented, but little is known about the effects of rHuEpo on submaximal exercise performance. The present study investigated the effect on performance (ergometer cycling, 20-30 min at 80% of maximal attainable workload), and for this purpose eight subjects received either 5,000 IU rHuEpo or placebo every second day for 14 days, and subsequently a single dose of 5,000 IU/placebo weekly/10 weeks. Exercise performance was evaluated before treatment and after 4 and 11 weeks of treatment. With rHuEpo treatment VO2max increased (P<0.05) by 12.6 and 11.6% in week 4 and 11, respectively, and time-to-exhaustion (80% VO2max) was increased by 54.0 and 54.3% (P<0.05) after 4 and 11 weeks of treatment, respectively. However, when normalizing the workload to the same relative intensity (only done at time point week 11), TTE was decreased by 26.8% as compared to pre rHuEpo administration. In conclusion, in healthy non-athlete subjects rHuEpo administration prolongs submaximal exercise performance by about 54% independently of the approximately 12% increase in VO2max. PMID:17668232

  5. A performance improvement plan to increase nurse adherence to use of medication safety software.

    PubMed

    Gavriloff, Carrie

    2012-08-01

    Nurses can protect patients receiving intravenous (IV) medication by using medication safety software to program "smart" pumps to administer IV medications. After a patient safety event identified inconsistent use of medication safety software by nurses, a performance improvement team implemented the Deming Cycle performance improvement methodology. The combined use of improved direct care nurse communication, programming strategies, staff education, medication safety champions, adherence monitoring, and technology acquisition resulted in a statistically significant (p < .001) increase in nurse adherence to using medication safety software from 28% to above 85%, exceeding national benchmark adherence rates (Cohen, Cooke, Husch & Woodley, 2007; Carefusion, 2011). PMID:22703685

  6. ACHIEVING NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (NSPS) EMISSION STANDARDS THROUGH INTEGRATION OF LOW-NOx BURNERS WITH AN OPTIMIZATION PLAN FOR BOILER COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod; David Moyeda

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub x} emissions levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project consists of the integration of low-NO{sub x} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The project includes the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software that can optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub x} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program is being performed in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler is being equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler will be equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler will be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub x} emissions to be achieved. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II will permit optimization of the boiler performance, output, and emissions. During this reporting period, efforts were focused on Phase I and Phase II activities. The furnace sensors were procured and installed in February 2003. Baseline testing was performed following the sensor installation. The low-NO{sub x} burner modifications, the coal flow dampers, and the coal flow monitoring system were procured and installed during a boiler outage in March 2003. Process design activities were performed to support design of the equipment installed and to develop specifications for the overfire air system. The overfire air system preliminary engineering design was initiated.

  7. Numerical study of improving aerodynamic performance of low solidity LPT cascade through increasing trailing edge thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Yan, Peigang; Wang, Xiangfeng; Han, Wanjin; Wang, Qingchao

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a new idea to reduce the solidity of low-pressure turbine (LPT) blade cascades, while remain the structural integrity of LPT blade. Aerodynamic performance of a low solidity LPT cascade was improved by increasing blade trailing edge thickness (TET). The solidity of the LPT cascade blade can be reduced by about 12.5% through increasing the TET of the blade without a significant drop in energy efficiency. For the low solidity LPT cascade, increasing the TET can decrease energy loss by 23.30% and increase the flow turning angle by 1.86% for Reynolds number (Re) of 25,000 and freestream turbulence intensities (FSTI) of 2.35%. The flow control mechanism governing behavior around the trailing edge of an LPT cascade is also presented. The results show that appropriate TET is important for the optimal design of high-lift load LPT blade cascades.

  8. Sex Differences in Performance Attributions, Self-Efficacy, and Achievement in Mathematics: If I'm So Smart, Why Don't I Know It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Jennifer E. V.; Walsh, John; Yailagh, Manizheh Shehni

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we tested the claim that sex differences in mathematics achievement are related to boys' and girls' differing achievement-related beliefs. We compared the mathematics report card grades, 2001 Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA) Numeracy subtest scores, performance attributions, and self-efficacy of 161 British Columbian public school…

  9. Achievement Gaps: How Hispanic and White Students in Public Schools Perform in Mathematics and Reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Highlights. NCES 2011-485

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides a detailed portrait of Hispanic and White academic achievement gaps and how students' performance has changed over time at both the national and state levels. The report presents achievement gaps using reading and mathematics assessment data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for the 4th- and 8th-grade…

  10. Increased Performance Variability as a Marker of Implicit/Explicit Interactions in Knowledge Awareness.

    PubMed

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kirov, Roumen; Kolev, Vasil

    2015-01-01

    Only some, but not all, individuals who practice tasks with dual structure, overt and covert, are able to comprehend consciously a hidden regularity. The formation of implicit representations of regularity has been proposed to be critical for subsequent awareness. However, explicit knowledge also has been predicted by the activation of executive control systems during task encoding. The present study analyzed performance patterns in participants who could comprehend task regularity and those who could not at delayed recall. Specifically, the role of practice-based knowledge of sequence for individual awareness was focused on. A lateralized variant of the visual serial response time task (SRTT) comprising structured and random blocks was practiced in implicit conditions by 109 participants before and after 10-h retention, with explicit knowledge about covert sequence tested thereafter. Sequence learning was quantified using the normalized difference between response speed in regular and subsequent random blocks. Patterns of performance dynamics were evaluated using response speed, response variability, and error rate. Major results demonstrate that (1) All participants who became aware of the sequence (solvers), gained practice-based sequence knowledge at learning or after retention, (2) Such knowledge also was accumulated during learning by participants who remained fully unaware about covert task structure, (3) Only in explicit solvers, however, was sequence-specific learning accompanied by a prominent increase in performance variability. (4) Specific features and dynamics of performance patterns distinguished different cognitive modes of SRTT processing, each of which supported subsequent knowledge awareness. It is concluded that a behavioral precursor of sequence awareness is the combination of speeded sequence processing and increased performance variability, pointing to an interaction between implicit and explicit processing systems. These results may

  11. The improvement of exercise performance by physical training is related to increased hypothalamic neuronal activation.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Henrique P; Leite, Laura H R; Lima, Paulo Marcelo A; Rodovalho, Gisele V; Szawka, Raphael E; Coimbra, Cândido C

    2016-01-01

    The effects of physical training on hypothalamic activation after exercise and their relationship with heat dissipation were investigated. Following 8 weeks of physical training, trained (TR, n = 9) and untrained (UN, n = 8) Wistar rats were submitted to a regimen of incremental running until fatigue while body and tail temperatures were recorded. After exercise, hypothalamic c-Fos immunohistochemistry analysis was performed. The workload, body-heating rate, heat storage and body temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation were calculated. Physical training increased the number of c-Fos immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular, medial preoptic and median preoptic nucleus by 112%, 90% and 65% (P < 0.01) after exercise, respectively. In these hypothalamic regions, increased neuronal activation was directly associated with the increased workload performed by TR animals (P < 0.01). Moreover, a reduction of 0.6°C in the body temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was shown by TR animals (P < 0.01). This reduction was possibly responsible for the lower body-heating rate (0.019 ± 0.002°C/min, TR vs 0.030 ± 0.005°C/min, UN, P < 0.05) and the decreased ratio between heat storage and the workload performed by TR animals (18.18 ± 1.65 cal/kg, TR vs 31.38 ± 5.35 cal/kg, UN, P < 0.05). The data indicate that physical training enhances hypothalamic neuronal activation during exercise. This enhancement is the central adaptation relating to better physical performance, characterized by a lower ratio of heat stored to workload performed, due to improved heat dissipation. PMID:26475529

  12. The Effect of Increased Carburetor Pressure on Engine Performance at Several Compression Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Rollin, Vern G

    1933-01-01

    The object of this investigation was to determine the effect of increasing the carburetor pressures from 30 to 40 inches of mercury, at compression ratios from 3.5 to 7.5, on the power, on the maximum cylinder pressures, on the fuel consumption, and on the other performance characteristics of an engine. A roots-type aircraft-engine supercharger was used to maintain the desired carburetor pressure.

  13. Increased energy and nutrient intake during training and competition improves elite triathletes' endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Frentsos, J A; Baer, J T

    1997-03-01

    Dietary habits were evaluated in 6 elite triathletes (4 male, 2 female). Analysis of 7-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements. Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except zinc chromium, which did not meet 66% of recommended amounts. Individualized nutrition intervention using the Diabetic Food Exchange System to support performance during training and competition was provided. To improve dietary intake, subjects consumed fortified nutrition supplements (Reliv, Inc.) before and after daily training. Follow-up 7-day diet records showed that average energy intake and percentage of energy from carbohydrate increased, as did intakes of zinc and chromium. Triathletes' performance in a short course triathlon was improved compared to a similar competition completed prior to the nutrition intervention. Following the intervention, triathletes were able to meet recommended daily energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes and improve endurance performance. PMID:9063765

  14. Increasing stimulus duration improves attention and memory performance in elderly with cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Lavner, Yizhar; Rabinowitz, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we investigated whether increasing stimulus duration could improve performance on a test of attention and short-term memory in cognitively impaired individuals. Methods: A computer-generated forward digit span test was administered to 65 patients with mild cognitive impairment or dementia (28 intervention and 37 controls). After point of failure, testing in the intervention group was continued at the same rate, but with an average 150% digit lengthening to 800 ms. Testing of controls was continued using the standard digit span test. Results: In the intervention group, 13/28 (46.4%) improved their digit span test performance, compared to 2/37 (5.4%) in the control group (p = 0.00005). Conclusion: Cognitively impaired elderly participants improved performance on a test of attention and short-term memory, when stimulus duration was increased in proportion to elongation of the finger tap touch-phase previously found in a similar cohort. A possible mechanism for the effect of increased stimulus duration on attention and short-term memory is discussed. PMID:27081485

  15. Black ginger extract increases physical fitness performance and muscular endurance by improving inflammation and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Toda, Kazuya; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Takeda, Shogo; Shimoda, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported that polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) in black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora) extract (KPE) increased energy production by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in C2C12 myoblasts. We herein evaluated the effects of KPE on physical fitness performance and muscular endurance in mice. Male mice were orally administered KPE for 4 weeks, and then forced swimming test, open-field test, inclined plane test, and wire hanging test were performed. KPE significantly increased the swimming time, motility after swimming, and grip strength. IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression levels were decreased in the soleus muscle, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α and glycogen synthase mRNA expression levels, mitochondrial number, and glycogen content were increased. These results were in agreement with those obtained for KPE and PMFs in C2C12. Therefore, the activation of AMPK by PMFs may be one of the mechanisms by which KPE improves physical fitness performance and muscular endurance. PMID:27441286

  16. Effect of increasing distillers grains inclusion on performance and carcass characteristics of early-weaned steers.

    PubMed

    Schoonmaker, J P; Claeys, M C; Lemenager, R P

    2013-04-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) contain elevated concentrations of CP, oil, and S, which can negatively impact performance and carcass characteristics in steers weaned at 205 d of age. Early weaned (EW) cattle, however, consume less DM and require increased CP. Furthermore, the energy required to dispose of excess N may actually decrease excessive fat accumulation, which can occur in EW cattle. Thus, we hypothesized that feeding diets with increased concentrations of DDGS to EW steers for the first 99 d would decrease fat thickness and increase harvest weights, and would not inhibit performance or marbling deposition. To test this hypothesis, 90 Angus × Simmental steers (199.7 ± 12.2 kg) were weaned at 134 d of age (EW) and allotted to 3 high concentrate diets (20% corn silage) containing either 0%, 30%, or 60% DDGS (15.7%, 15.8% and 21.7% CP, respectively). Dietary treatments were fed for 99 d, after which steers were placed on a common diet containing no DDGS (12.9% CP) until harvest at a common weight of 599 kg. Concentration of dietary DDGS did not affect ADG, DMI, or G:F during the growing phase (P > 0.41), did not produce any carryover effects on ADG, DMI, or G:F during the finishing phase (P > 0.26), and resulted in similar overall performance (P > 0.52). Dressing percentage (P < 0.05), HCW (P = 0.06), fat thickness (P = 0.10), and % KPH (P = 0.08) responded quadratically to early DDGS supplementation, increasing from 0 to 30% DDGS inclusion and decreasing from 30 to 60% DDGS inclusion, respectively. Marbling score was not affected (P > 0.46) by DDGS inclusion, but there was a tendency (P = 0.08) for the ratio of subcutaneous (SC) to intramuscular (IM) fat to be altered by DDGS inclusion. The ratio of IM to SC fat decreased from 0 to 30% DDGS inclusion and increased from 30 to 60% DDGS inclusion. These data suggest that inclusion of increased concentrations of dietary DDGS early in the feedlot phase does not negatively impact growth and

  17. Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10 Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Increases Muscle Mass in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Wei, Li; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Wang, Ming-Fu; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) is a well-known probiotic among the ingested-microorganism probiotics (i.e., ingested microorganisms associated with beneficial effects for the host). However, few studies have examined the effects of L. plantarum TWK10 (LP10) supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue, and gut microbial profile. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) strain mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) for oral administration of LP10 for six weeks at 0, 2.05 × 10⁸, or 1.03 × 10⁹ colony-forming units/kg/day, designated the vehicle, LP10-1X and LP10-5X groups, respectively. LP10 significantly decreased final body weight and increased relative muscle weight (%). LP10 supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength (p < 0.0001) and endurance swimming time (p < 0.001) and decreased levels of serum lactate (p < 0.0001), ammonia (p < 0.0001), creatine kinase (p = 0.0118), and glucose (p = 0.0151) after acute exercise challenge. The number of type I fibers (slow muscle) in gastrocnemius muscle significantly increased with LP10 treatment. In addition, serum levels of albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and triacylglycerol significantly decreased with LP10 treatment. Long-term supplementation with LP10 may increase muscle mass, enhance energy harvesting, and have health-promotion, performance-improvement, and anti-fatigue effects. PMID:27070637

  18. Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10 Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Increases Muscle Mass in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Wei, Li; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Wang, Ming-Fu; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) is a well-known probiotic among the ingested-microorganism probiotics (i.e., ingested microorganisms associated with beneficial effects for the host). However, few studies have examined the effects of L. plantarum TWK10 (LP10) supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue, and gut microbial profile. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) strain mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) for oral administration of LP10 for six weeks at 0, 2.05 × 108, or 1.03 × 109 colony-forming units/kg/day, designated the vehicle, LP10-1X and LP10-5X groups, respectively. LP10 significantly decreased final body weight and increased relative muscle weight (%). LP10 supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength (p < 0.0001) and endurance swimming time (p < 0.001) and decreased levels of serum lactate (p < 0.0001), ammonia (p < 0.0001), creatine kinase (p = 0.0118), and glucose (p = 0.0151) after acute exercise challenge. The number of type I fibers (slow muscle) in gastrocnemius muscle significantly increased with LP10 treatment. In addition, serum levels of albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and triacylglycerol significantly decreased with LP10 treatment. Long-term supplementation with LP10 may increase muscle mass, enhance energy harvesting, and have health-promotion, performance-improvement, and anti-fatigue effects. PMID:27070637

  19. Therapeutic hypothermia achieves neuroprotection via a decrease in acetylcholine with a concurrent increase in carnitine in the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Takenouchi, Toshiki; Sugiura, Yuki; Morikawa, Takayuki; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Nagahata, Yoshiko; Sugioka, Tadao; Honda, Kurara; Kubo, Akiko; Hishiki, Takako; Matsuura, Tomomi; Hoshino, Takao; Takahashi, Takao; Suematsu, Makoto; Kajimura, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Although therapeutic hypothermia is known to improve neurologic outcomes after perinatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, etiology remains unknown. To decipher the mechanisms whereby hypothermia regulates metabolic dynamics in different brain regions, we used a two-step approach: a metabolomics to target metabolic pathways responding to cooling, and a quantitative imaging mass spectrometry to reveal spatial alterations in targeted metabolites in the brain. Seven-day postnatal rats underwent the permanent ligation of the left common carotid artery followed by exposure to 8% O2 for 2.5 hours. The pups were returned to normoxic conditions at either 38°C or 30°C for 3 hours. The brain metabolic states were rapidly fixed using in situ freezing. The profiling of 107 metabolites showed that hypothermia diminishes the carbon biomass related to acetyl moieties, such as pyruvate and acetyl-CoA; conversely, it increases deacetylated metabolites, such as carnitine and choline. Quantitative imaging mass spectrometry demarcated that hypothermia diminishes the acetylcholine contents specifically in hippocampus and amygdala. Such decreases were associated with an inverse increase in carnitine in the same anatomic regions. These findings imply that hypothermia achieves its neuroprotective effects by mediating the cellular acetylation status through a coordinated suppression of acetyl-CoA, which resides in metabolic junctions of glycolysis, amino-acid catabolism, and ketolysis. PMID:25586144

  20. Ensembles of adaptive spatial filters increase BCI performance: an online evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannelli, Claudia; Vidaurre, Carmen; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Objective: In electroencephalographic (EEG) data, signals from distinct sources within the brain are widely spread by volume conduction and superimposed such that sensors receive mixtures of a multitude of signals. This reduction of spatial information strongly hampers single-trial analysis of EEG data as, for example, required for brain–computer interfacing (BCI) when using features from spontaneous brain rhythms. Spatial filtering techniques are therefore greatly needed to extract meaningful information from EEG. Our goal is to show, in online operation, that common spatial pattern patches (CSPP) are valuable to counteract this problem. Approach: Even though the effect of spatial mixing can be encountered by spatial filters, there is a trade-off between performance and the requirement of calibration data. Laplacian derivations do not require calibration data at all, but their performance for single-trial classification is limited. Conversely, data-driven spatial filters, such as common spatial patterns (CSP), can lead to highly distinctive features; however they require a considerable amount of training data. Recently, we showed in an offline analysis that CSPP can establish a valuable compromise. In this paper, we confirm these results in an online BCI study. In order to demonstrate the paramount feature that CSPP requires little training data, we used them in an adaptive setting with 20 participants and focused on users who did not have success with previous BCI approaches. Main results: The results of the study show that CSPP adapts faster and thereby allows users to achieve better feedback within a shorter time than previous approaches performed with Laplacian derivations and CSP filters. The success of the experiment highlights that CSPP has the potential to further reduce BCI inefficiency. Significance: CSPP are a valuable compromise between CSP and Laplacian filters. They allow users to attain better feedback within a shorter time and thus reduce BCI

  1. Trailing edge devices to improve performance and increase lifetime of wind-electric water pumping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vick, B.D.; Clark, R.N.

    1996-12-31

    Trailing edge flaps were applied to the blades of a 10 kW wind turbine used for water pumping to try to improve the performance and decrease the structural fatigue on the wind turbine. Most small wind turbines (10 kW and below) use furling (rotor turns out of wind similar to a mechanical windmill) to protect the wind turbine from overspeed during high winds. Some small wind turbines, however, do not furl soon enough to keep the wind turbine from being off line part of the time in moderately high wind speeds (10 - 16 m/s). As a result, the load is disconnected and no water is pumped at moderately high wind speeds. When the turbine is offline, the frequency increases rapidly often causing excessive vibration of the wind turbine and tower components. The furling wind speed could possibly be decreased by increasing the offset between the tower centerline and the rotor centerline, but would be a major and potentially expensive retrofit. Trailing edge flaps (TEF) were used as a quick inexpensive method to try to reduce the furling wind speed and increase the on time by reducing the rotor RPM. One TEF configuration improved the water pumping performance at moderately high wind speeds, but degraded the pumping performance at low wind speeds which resulted in little change in daily water volume. The other TEF configuration differed very little from the no flap configuration. Both TEF configurations however, reduced the rotor RPM in high wind conditions. The TEF, did not reduce the rotor RPM by lowering the furling wind speed as hoped, but apparently did so by increasing the drag which also reduced the volume of water pumped at the lower wind speeds. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma Irene

    After establishing reliability for an associative verbal encoding (a/v/e) test, the relationship between children's a/v/e and their reading achievement was investigated. Two hypotheses were examined: (1) a/v/e will improve with training, and (2) associated with improved a/v/e will be concomitant improvement in reading achievement. The subjects…

  3. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  4. Development and Validation of a Physics Achievement Test to Identify Instructor Variables Associated with Students' Physics Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacambra, Wilfredo T.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common ways of detecting whether an improvement is achieved by an education institution is through measuring the students' achievement in a test. Testing is generally thought of as a means of assessing the knowledge and skills students have acquired through learning (Du-chastel and Nungester, 1998). Test results, besides assisting…

  5. The Pilates Method increases respiratory muscle strength and performance as well as abdominal muscle thickness.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Mateus Beltrame; da Silva, Antônio Marcos Vargas; Weber, Laura Menezes; Monteiro, Mariane Borba

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the Pilates Method (PM) training program on the thickness of the abdominal wall muscles, respiratory muscle strength and performance, and lung function. This uncontrolled clinical trial involved 16 sedentary women who were assessed before and after eight weeks of PM training. The thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) muscles was assessed. The respiratory muscle strength was assessed by measuring the maximum inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressure. The lung function and respiratory muscle performance were assessed by spirometry. An increase was found in MIP (p = 0.001), MEP (p = 0.031), maximum voluntary ventilation (p = 0.020) and the TrA (p < 0.001), IO (p = 0.002) and EO (p < 0.001) thickness after the PM program. No alterations in lung function were found. These findings suggest that the PM program promotes abdominal wall muscle hypertrophy and an increase in respiratory muscle strength and performance, preventing weakness in abdominal muscles and dysfunction in ventilatory mechanics, which could favor the appearance of illnesses. PMID:27210841

  6. No evidence for increased performance of a specialist psyllid on invasive French broom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Angelica M.; Carruthers, Raymond I.; Mills, Nicholas J.

    2011-03-01

    Some invasive plants perform better in their area of introduction than in their native region. This may be a consequence of rapid evolutionary change due to different selection pressures encountered in introduced regions. The Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability hypothesis (EICA) suggests that release from natural enemies results in selection of more vigorous plant genotypes as a result of plants allocating resources away from costly herbivore-resistance traits and toward increased growth. We tested the prediction that introduced plant genotypes of Genista monspessulana (Fabaceae) are less resistant to herbivory by a specialist psyllid, Arytinnis hakani (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) by measuring and comparing A. hakani performance on plants from native (southern France) and introduced (California, U.S.) populations. A. hakani performed equally well on plants from the native and introduced regions; there were no significant differences in psyllid egg and nymphal development, nymphal survival rates, female longevity or fecundity between the test plants. Egg survival rates were significantly higher on native populations, but the difference was minimal. These results provide preliminary evidence that native and introduced G. monspessulana populations are equally resistant to A. hakani and do not support the EICA hypothesis prediction of reduced investment in defense in introduced plant populations. Possible explanations for the lack of effects found in this study include the type of parameters measured and the feeding ecology of the herbivore used to test EICA, and finally, that evolutionary changes in plant defense in introduced G. monspessulana populations may not have occurred.

  7. Inoculation of tannin-degrading bacteria into novel hosts increases performance on tannin-rich diets.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Kevin D; Stengel, Ashley; Dearing, M Denise

    2016-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that herbivores host tannin-degrading bacteria (TDB) to overcome the toxic challenges posed by plant tannins. While TDB have been isolated from the guts of numerous mammals, their functional significance to their hosts has never been explicitly tested. We introduced TDB into lab rats, which do not host TDB, and measured host performance on tannin-rich diets. We first isolated three species of TDB, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis, from the guts of the desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida), which regularly feeds on tannin-rich plants. Then, we inoculated isolated TDB, as well as full woodrat microbial communities into laboratory rats. A control group was inoculated with sterilized woodrat faeces. Recipient lab rats were fed increasing concentrations of tannic acid, and we monitored tannic acid intake, body mass and liver damage as measured by serum alanine aminotransferase activity. Lab rats given TDB as isolates or full communities exhibited increased tannic acid intake, higher maintenance of body mass and lower indicators of liver damage compared with control animals. These differences were maintained when the trial was repeated after 6 weeks of feeding on tannin-free diets. Our results are the first to demonstrate that TDB significantly increase host performance on tannin-rich diets. PMID:25753857

  8. Learning-oriented assessment increases performance and written skills in a second year metabolic biochemistry course.

    PubMed

    Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Alexander, Heather G

    2016-07-01

    Assessment plays a critical role in learning and teaching and its power to enhance engagement and student outcomes is still underestimated in tertiary education. The current project considers the impact of a staged redesign of an assessment strategy that emphasized relevance of learning, formative assessment, student engagement, and feedback on student performance, failure rates and overall engagement in the course. Significant improvements in final grades (p < 0.0001) and written performance (p < 0.0001) in the final examination were noted that coincided with increased lecture attendance and overall engagement in the course. This study reinforces the importance of an integrated approach to assessment that includes well developed formative tasks and a continuous summative assessment strategy. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):412-420, 2016. PMID:27006292

  9. Window performance and building energy use: Some technical options for increasing energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    1985-11-01

    Window system design and operation has a major impact on energy use in buildings as well as on occupants' thermal and visual comfort. Window performance will be a function of optical and thermal properties, window management strategies, climate and orientation, and building type and occupancy. In residences, heat loss control is a primary concern, followed by sun control in more southerly climates. In commercial buildings, the daylight provided by windows may be the major energy benefits but solar gain must be controlled so that increased cooling loads do not exceed daylighting savings. Reductions in peak electrical demand and HVAC system size may also be possible in well-designed daylighted buildings.

  10. Correlations among Six Learner Variables and the Performance of a Sample of Jamaican Eleventh-Graders on an Achievement Test on Respiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Pinnock, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at establishing if the level of performance of 500 Jamaican Grade 11 students on an achievement test on the concept of respiration was satisfactory (mean = 28 or 70% and above) or not (less than 70%); if there were statistically significant differences in their performance on the concept linked to their gender, cognitive abilities…

  11. WWC Review of the Report "Daily Online Testing in Large Classes: Boosting College Performance While Reducing Achievement Gaps." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 study, "Daily Online Testing in Large Classes: Boosting College Performance While Reducing Achievement Gaps," examined the impact of frequent online testing and immediate feedback on the academic performance of college students. The study was conducted at the University of Texas in the fall of 2008 and 2011. Researchers found…

  12. Learning to improve: using writing to increase critical thinking performance in general education biology.

    PubMed

    Quitadamo, Ian J; Kurtz, Martha J

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, national stakeholders express concern that U.S. college graduates cannot adequately solve problems and think critically. As a set of cognitive abilities, critical thinking skills provide students with tangible academic, personal, and professional benefits that may ultimately address these concerns. As an instructional method, writing has long been perceived as a way to improve critical thinking. In the current study, the researchers compared critical thinking performance of students who experienced a laboratory writing treatment with those who experienced traditional quiz-based laboratory in a general education biology course. The effects of writing were determined within the context of multiple covariables. Results indicated that the writing group significantly improved critical thinking skills whereas the non-writing group did not. Specifically, analysis and inference skills increased significantly in the writing group but not the non-writing group. Writing students also showed greater gains in evaluation skills; however, these were not significant. In addition to writing, prior critical thinking skill and instructor significantly affected critical thinking performance, whereas other covariables such as gender, ethnicity, and age were not significant. With improved critical thinking skill, general education biology students will be better prepared to solve problems as engaged and productive citizens. PMID:17548876

  13. Developments to Increase the Performance, Operational Versatility and Automation of a Lunar Surface Manipulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; Doggett, William R.; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; King, Bruce D.; Mikulas, Marting M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe and summarize the results of the development efforts for the Lunar Surface Manipulation System (LSMS) with respect to increasing the performance, operational versatility, and automation. Three primary areas of development are covered, including; the expansion of the operational envelope and versatility of the current LSMS test-bed, the design of a second generation LSMS, and the development of automation and remote control capability. The first generation LSMS, which has been designed, built, and tested both in lab and field settings, is shown to have increased range of motion and operational versatility. Features such as fork lift mode, side grappling of payloads, digging and positioning of lunar regolith, and a variety of special end effectors are described. LSMS operational viability depends on bei nagble to reposition its base from an initial position on the lander to a mobility chassis or fixed locations around the lunar outpost. Preliminary concepts are presented for the second generation LSMS design, which will perform this self-offload capability. Incorporating design improvements, the second generation will have longer reach and three times the payload capability, yet it will have approximately equivalent mass to the first generation. Lastly, this paper covers improvements being made to the control system of the LSMS test-bed, which is currently operated using joint velocity control with visual cues. These improvements include joint angle sensors, inverse kinematics, and automated controls.

  14. Direct alcohol fuel cells: Increasing platinum performance by modification with sp-group metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Marta C.; Sorsa, Olli; Doan, Nguyet; Pohjalainen, Elina; Hildebrand, Helga; Schmuki, Patrik; Wilson, Benjamin P.; Kallio, Tanja

    2015-02-01

    By using sp group metals as modifiers, the catalytic properties of Pt can be improved toward alcohols oxidation. In this work we report the performance increase of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC) fuelled with ethanol or 2-propanol with platinum based anode electrodes modified with Bi and Sb adatoms. For example, by simply adding Sb to the Pt/C based anode ink during membrane electrode assembly fabrication of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) its performance is improved three-fold, with more than 100 mV increase in the open circuit potential. For the fuel cell fuelled with 2-propanol high power densities are obtained at very high potentials with these catalyst materials suggesting a great improvement for practical applications. Particularly in the case of Pt/C-Bi, the improvement is such that within 0.6 V (from 0.7 to 0.1 V) the power densities are between 7 and 9 mW/cm2. The results obtained with these catalysts are in the same range as those obtained with other bimetallic catalysts comprising of PtRu and PtSn, which are currently considered to be the best for these type of fuel cells and that are obtained by more complicated (and consequently more expensive) methods.

  15. Genotypic diversity effects on the performance of Taraxacum officinale populations increase with time and environmental favorability.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Emily B M; Vellend, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass) clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects), whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture). Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations. PMID:22348004

  16. Increased Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Impaired Executive Performance Capacity in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Goya, Thiago T.; Silva, Rosyvaldo F.; Guerra, Renan S.; Lima, Marta F.; Barbosa, Eline R.F.; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Lobo, Denise M.L.; Buchpiguel, Carlos A.; Busatto-Filho, Geraldo; Negrão, Carlos E.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Ueno-Pardi, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) response and executive performance during mental stress in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Individuals with no other comorbidities (age = 52 ± 1 y, body mass index = 29 ± 0.4, kg/m2) were divided into two groups: (1) control (n = 15) and (2) untreated OSA (n = 20) defined by polysomnography. Mini-Mental State of Examination (MMSE) and Inteligence quocient (IQ) were assessed. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and MSNA (microneurography) were measured at baseline and during 3 min of the Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT). Sustained attention and inhibitory control were assessed by the number of correct answers and errors during SCWT. Results: Control and OSA groups (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI = 8 ± 1 and 47 ± 1 events/h, respectively) were similar in age, MMSE, and IQ. Baseline HR and BP were similar and increased similarly during SCWT in control and OSA groups. In contrast, baseline MSNA was higher in OSA compared to controls. Moreover, MSNA significantly increased in the third minute of SCWT in OSA, but remained unchanged in controls (P < 0.05). The number of correct answers was lower and the number of errors was significantly higher during the second and third minutes of SCWT in the OSA group (P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation (P < 0.01) between the number of errors in the third minute of SCWT with AHI (r = 0.59), arousal index (r = 0.55), and minimum O2 saturation (r = −0.57). Conclusions: As compared to controls, MSNA is increased in patients with OSA at rest, and further significant MSNA increments and worse executive performance are seen during mental stress. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, registration number: NCT002289625. Citation: Goya TT, Silva RF, Guerra RS, Lima MF, Barbosa ER, Cunha PJ, Lobo DM, Buchpiguel CA, Busatto-Filho G, Negrão CE, Lorenzi-Filho G, Ueno-Pardi LM. Increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity and

  17. Increased hippocampal head diffusivity predicts impaired episodic memory performance in early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, Igor; Müller, Matthias J; Lorscheider, Markus; Schermuly, Ingrid; Weibrich, Carsten; Dellani, Paulo R; Hammers, Alexander; Stoeter, Peter; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Recent neuroanatomical and functional neuroimaging studies indicate that the anterior part of the hippocampus, rather than the whole structure, may be specifically involved in episodic memory. In the present work, we examined whether anterior structural measurements are superior to other regional or global measurements in mapping functionally relevant degenerative alterations of the hippocampus in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Twenty patients with early AD (MMSE 25.7+/-1.7) and 18 healthy controls were studied using magnetic resonance and diffusion-tensor imaging. Using a regions-of-interest analysis, we obtained volumetric and diffusivity measures of the hippocampal head and body-tail-section as well as of the whole hippocampus. Detailed cognitive evaluation was based on the CERAD battery. All volumetric measures as well as diffusivity of the hippocampus head were significantly (p<0.01) altered in patients as compared to controls. In patients, increased left head diffusivity significantly (p<0.01) correlated with performance on free delayed verbal recall test (DVR) (r=-0.74, p=0.0002) and with the CERAD global score. Reduced volume of the left body-tail was also associated with performance on DVR (r=0.62, p=0.004). Stepwise regression analyses revealed that increased left head diffusivity was the only predictor for performance on DVR (R(2)=52%, p<0.0005). These findings suggest that anterior hippocampus diffusivity is more closely related to verbal episodic memory impairment than other regional or global structural measures. Our data support the hypothesis of functional differentiation in general and the specific role of the anterior hippocampus in episodic memory in particular. Diffusivity measurements might be highly sensitive to functionally relevant degenerative alterations of the hippocampus. PMID:20109475

  18. Acute Response of Well-Trained Sprinters to a 100-m Race: Higher Sprinting Velocity Achieved With Increased Step Rate Compared With Speed Training.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Mitsuo; Kawahara, Taisuke; Isaka, Tadao

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the contribution of differences in step length and step rate to sprinting velocity in an athletic race compared with speed training. Nineteen well-trained male and female sprinters volunteered to participate in this study. Sprinting motions were recorded for each sprinter during both 100-m races and speed training (60-, 80-, and 100-m dash from a block start) for 14 days before the race. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance was used to compare the step characteristics and sprinting velocity between race and speed training, adjusted for covariates including race-training differences in the coefficients of restitution of the all-weather track, wind speed, air temperature, and sex. The average sprinting velocity to the 50-m mark was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (8.26 ± 0.22 m·s vs. 8.00 ± 0.70 m·s, p < 0.01). Although no significant difference was seen in the average step length to the 50-m mark between the race and speed training (1.81 ± 0.09 m vs. 1.80 ± 0.09 m, p = 0.065), the average step rate was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (4.56 ± 0.17 Hz vs. 4.46 ± 0.13 Hz, p < 0.01). These findings suggest that sprinters achieve higher sprinting velocity and can run with higher exercise intensity and more rapid motion during a race than during speed training, even if speed training was performed at perceived high intensity. PMID:26907837

  19. An investigation of signal performance enhancements achieved through innovative pixel design across several generations of indirect detection, active matrix, flat-panel arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Du Hong; Wang Yi; Street, Robert A.; Ho, Jackson; Weisfield, Richard; Yao, William

    2009-07-15

    Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particularly beneficial effect on performance in applications involving low exposures and/or high spatial frequencies, where detective quantum efficiency is strongly reduced due to the relatively high level of additive electronic noise compared to signal levels of AMFPI devices. In this article, an examination of various signal properties, as determined through measurements and calculations related to novel array designs, is reported in the context of the evolution of AMFPI pixel design. For these studies, dark, optical, and radiation signal measurements were performed on prototype imagers incorporating a variety of increasingly sophisticated array designs, with pixel pitches ranging from 75 to 127 {mu}m. For each design, detailed measurements of fundamental pixel-level properties conducted under radiographic and fluoroscopic operating conditions are reported and the results are compared. A series of 127 {mu}m pitch arrays employing discrete photodiodes culminated in a novel design providing an optical fill factor of {approx}80% (thereby assuring improved x-ray sensitivity), and demonstrating low dark current, very low charge trapping and charge release, and a large range of linear signal response. In two of the designs having 75 and 90 {mu}m pitches, a novel continuous photodiode structure was found to provide fill factors that approach the theoretical maximum of 100%. Both sets of novel designs achieved large fill factors by employing architectures in which some, or all of the photodiode structure was elevated above the plane of the pixel addressing transistor. Generally, enhancement of the fill factor in either discrete or

  20. An investigation of signal performance enhancements achieved through innovative pixel design across several generations of indirect detection, active matrix, flat-panel arrays

    PubMed Central

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao, Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Du, Hong; Wang, Yi; Street, Robert A.; Ho, Jackson; Weisfield, Richard; Yao, William

    2009-01-01

    Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particularly beneficial effect on performance in applications involving low exposures and∕or high spatial frequencies, where detective quantum efficiency is strongly reduced due to the relatively high level of additive electronic noise compared to signal levels of AMFPI devices. In this article, an examination of various signal properties, as determined through measurements and calculations related to novel array designs, is reported in the context of the evolution of AMFPI pixel design. For these studies, dark, optical, and radiation signal measurements were performed on prototype imagers incorporating a variety of increasingly sophisticated array designs, with pixel pitches ranging from 75 to 127 μm. For each design, detailed measurements of fundamental pixel-level properties conducted under radiographic and fluoroscopic operating conditions are reported and the results are compared. A series of 127 μm pitch arrays employing discrete photodiodes culminated in a novel design providing an optical fill factor of ∼80% (thereby assuring improved x-ray sensitivity), and demonstrating low dark current, very low charge trapping and charge release, and a large range of linear signal response. In two of the designs having 75 and 90 μm pitches, a novel continuous photodiode structure was found to provide fill factors that approach the theoretical maximum of 100%. Both sets of novel designs achieved large fill factors by employing architectures in which some, or all of the photodiode structure was elevated above the plane of the pixel addressing transistor. Generally, enhancement of the fill factor in either discrete or continuous

  1. Multimodal high-intensity interval training increases muscle function and metabolic performance in females.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Stephanie; Knapp, Kelly; Lackie, Amy; Lewry, Colin; Horvey, Karla; Benko, Chad; Trinh, Jason; Butcher, Scotty

    2015-11-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient method of improving aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity. In most individuals, however, HIIT using modalities such as cycling, running, and rowing does not typically result in increased muscle strength, power, or endurance. The purpose of this study is to compare the physiological outcomes of traditional HIIT using rowing (Row-HIIT) with a novel multimodal HIIT (MM-HIIT) circuit incorporating multiple modalities, including strength exercises, within an interval. Twenty-eight recreationally active women (age 24.7 ± 5.4 years) completed 6 weeks of either Row-HIIT or MM-HIIT and were tested on multiple fitness parameters. MM-HIIT and Row-HIIT resulted in similar improvements (p < 0.05 for post hoc pre- vs. post-training increases for each group) in maximal aerobic power (7% vs. 5%), anaerobic threshold (13% vs. 12%), respiratory compensation threshold (7% vs. 5%), anaerobic power (15% vs. 12%), and anaerobic capacity (18% vs. 14%). The MM-HIIT group had significant (p < 0.01 for all) increases in squat (39%), press (27%), and deadlift (18%) strength, broad jump distance (6%), and squat endurance (280%), whereas the Row-HIIT group had no increase in any muscle performance variable (p values 0.33-0.90). Post-training, 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat (64.2 ± 13.6 vs. 45.8 ± 16.2 kg, p = 0.02), 1RM press (33.2 ± 3.8 vs. 26.0 ± 9.6 kg, p = 0.01), and squat endurance (23.9 ± 12.3 vs. 10.2 ± 5.6 reps, p < 0.01) were greater in the MM-HIIT group than in the Row-HIIT group. MM-HIIT resulted in similar aerobic and anaerobic adaptations but greater muscle performance increases than Row-HIIT in recreationally active women. PMID:26513008

  2. Assessing the performance of multi-purpose channel management measures at increasing scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Addy, Steve

    2016-04-01

    In addition to hydroclimatic drivers, sediment deposition from high energy river systems can reduce channel conveyance capacity and lead to significant increases in flood risk. There is an increasing recognition that we need to work with the interplay of natural hydrological and morphological processes in order to attenuate flood flows and manage sediment (both coarse and fine). This typically includes both catchment (e.g. woodland planting, wetlands) and river (e.g. wood placement, floodplain reconnection) restoration approaches. The aim of this work was to assess at which scales channel management measures (notably wood placement and flood embankment removal) are most appropriate for flood and sediment management in high energy upland river systems. We present research findings from two densely instrumented research sites in Scotland which regularly experience flood events and have associated coarse sediment problems. We assessed the performance of a range of novel trial measures for three different scales: wooded flow restrictors and gully tree planting at the small scale (<1 km2), floodplain tree planting and engineered log jams at the intermediate scale (5-60 km2), and flood embankment lowering at the large scale (350 km2). Our results suggest that at the smallest scale, care is needed in the installation of flow restrictors. It was found for some restrictors that vertical erosion can occur if the tributary channel bed is disturbed. Preliminary model evidence suggested they have a very limited impact on channel discharge and flood peak delay owing to the small storage areas behind the structures. At intermediate scales, the ability to trap sediment by engineered log jams was limited. Of the 45 engineered log jams installed, around half created a small geomorphic response and only 5 captured a significant amount of coarse material (during one large flood event). As scale increases, the chance of damage or loss of wood placement is greatest. Monitoring

  3. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M.; Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery, Shelly; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farritor, Shane; Joyce, James; Rebrovich, Barb

    2003-01-01

    Condensing five years of significant work into a brief narrative fitting PPR requirements gave the affiliates of the Nebraska Space Grant a valuable chance for reflection. Achievements of Space Grant in Nebraska were judiciously chosen for this document that best illustrate the resultant synergism of this consortium, keeping in mind that these examples are only a representation of greater activity throughout the state. Following are highlights of many of the finer and personal achievements for Nebraska Space Grant. The Consortium welcomes inquiries to elaborate on any of these accomplishments.

  4. Improving Cycling Performance: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Increases Time to Exhaustion in Cycling.

    PubMed

    Vitor-Costa, Marcelo; Okuno, Nilo Massaru; Bortolotti, Henrique; Bertollo, Maurizio; Boggio, Paulo Sergio; Fregni, Felipe; Altimari, Leandro Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    during the test accross the different conditions. We conclude that anodal tDCS increases exercise tolerance in a cycling-based, constant-load exercise test, performed at 80% of peak power. Performance was enhanced in the absence of changes in physiological and perceptual variables. PMID:26674200

  5. Improving Cycling Performance: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Increases Time to Exhaustion in Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Bertollo, Maurizio; Boggio, Paulo Sergio; Fregni, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    during the test accross the different conditions. We conclude that anodal tDCS increases exercise tolerance in a cycling-based, constant-load exercise test, performed at 80% of peak power. Performance was enhanced in the absence of changes in physiological and perceptual variables. PMID:26674200

  6. Method to Increase Performance of Foil Bearings Through Passive Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a new approach to designing foil bearings to increase their load capacity and improve their reliability through passive thermal management. In the present case, the bearing is designed in such a way as to prevent the carryover of lubricant from the exit of one sector to the inlet of the ensuing sector of the foil bearing. When such passive thermal management techniques are used, bearing load capacity is improved by multiples, and reliability is enhanced when compared to current foil bearings. This concept has recently been tested and validated, and shows that load capacity performance of foil bearings can be improved by a factor of two at relatively low speeds with potentially greater relative improvements at higher speeds. Such improvements in performance with respect to speed are typical of foil bearings. Additionally, operation of these newly conceived bearings shows much more reliability and repeatable performance. This trait can be exploited in machine design to enhance safety, reliability, and overall performance. Finally, lower frictional torque has been demonstrated when operating at lower (non-load capacity) loads, thus providing another improvement above the current state of the art. The objective of the invention is to incorporate features into a foil bearing that both enhance passive thermal management and temperature control, while at the same time improve the hydrodynamic (load capacity) performance of the foil bearing. Foil bearings are unique antifriction devices that can utilize the working fluid of a machine as a lubricant (typically air for turbines and motors, liquids for pumps), and as a coolant to remove excess energy due to frictional heating. The current state of the art of foil bearings utilizes forced cooling of the bearing and shaft, which represents poor efficiency and poor reliability. This invention embodies features that utilize the bearing geometry in such a manner as to both support load and provide an inherent and

  7. Use of Student Achievement Information in the Performance Evaluation of Teachers in the Tennessee Career Ladder Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furtwengler, Carol B.

    Tennessee initiated a Career Ladder Program for teachers in July 1984. The program is designed to recruit, retain, and reward outstanding teachers. Teachers who obtain upper career ladder status receive financial rewards ranging from 2,000 to 7,000 dollars per year. This status is achieved by participation in a comprehensive evaluation process.…

  8. Comparing the Reading Performance of High-Achieving Adolescents: Computer-Based Testing versus Paper/Pencil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eno, Linda Peet

    2011-01-01

    Literacy is moving into the digital context. Many of the literacy tasks associated with higher education, the workplace, and civic life now take place in the digital world. Literacy in high school, however, languishes in the text world. This study compared the text literacy of a group of high-achieving 10th-grade students, to their digital…

  9. Expecting and Achieving Gains in Student Performance: EVAAS Value-Added Report 2002-2004 for the Archdiocese of Indianapolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Ronald W.; Shuey, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The Archdiocese of Indianapolis has been using the Sander's value-added model to determine if they have had gains in student achievement in language arts, mathematics and reading. The article summarizes the method to make this determination and the results from three years of testing using the CTB McGraw-Hill Terre Nova test. The archdiocese has…

  10. The Impact of AP® Achievement Institute I on Students' AP Performance. Research Report No. 2012-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausmith, Jennifer Merriman; Laitusis, Vytas

    2012-01-01

    The AP Achievement Institute I (APAI I) is a four-day professional development program offered to teachers and administrators by EXCELerator™, a district reform program operated by the College Board. The APAI I program is designed to help teachers develop effective AP instructional strategies for a diverse student body and to help district,…

  11. Technology-Enhanced Assessment of Math Fact Automaticity: Patterns of Performance for Low- and Typically Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickney, Eric M.; Sharp, Lindsay B.; Kenyon, Amanda S.

    2012-01-01

    Because math fact automaticity has been identified as a key barrier for students struggling with mathematics, we examined how initial math achievement levels influenced the path to automaticity (e.g., variation in number of attempts, speed of retrieval, and skill maintenance over time) and the relation between attainment of automaticity and gains…

  12. A Study on the Impact of Military Parent Deployment on Student Performance; Academic Achievement, Absenteeism, Discipline, and Counselor Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Hilda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if parents' military deployment had an impact on the academic achievement of their children. The study examined if there were a parallel between parental military deployment and absenteeism, parental deployment and discipline, and parental deployment and counselor visits. The study also examined if…

  13. Surmounting the Challenges of Improving Academic Performance: Closing the Achievement Gap through Social-Emotional and Character Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J.; White, Gwyne; Stepney, Cesalie

    2014-01-01

    While educators and policy makers have an intuitive understanding of the influence of socioeconomic factors and race on student achievement, these factors make the current emphasis on standardized test scores as a primary criterion for evaluating schools and teachers indefensible and ineffective. The research presented illustrates the limits of…

  14. Five Social Disadvantages That Depress Student Performance: Why Schools Alone Can't Close Achievement Gaps. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Leila; Rothstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    That students' social and economic characteristics shape their cognitive and behavioral outcomes is well established, yet policymakers typically resist accepting that non-school disadvantages necessarily depress outcomes. Rather, they look to better schools and teachers to close achievement gaps, and consistently come up short. This report…

  15. A Comparison of Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-9) Performance across Grade, Gender, Ethnicity, and Educational Program Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Kathryn; Kellow, Tom; Ye, Renmin

    This study compared Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-9) academic subtest scores by students' grade, gender, and ethnicity and across different educational programs (e.g., Title I and special education). The study sample consisted of 144,701 students from public schools in a large city in the Southwest United States (grades 1-11). Raw data were taken…

  16. What Educational Initiatives Contribute to Higher than Expected Achievement in Student Performance for Public Schools in the State of Indiana?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Thomas Allen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the areas of teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school structure, school-community partnerships or school leadership were significantly embedded in practice and acted as a change agent among school systems that achieve higher than expected results on their state standardized testing…

  17. Faculty Sense of Academic Optimism and Its Relationship to Students' Achievement in Well Performing High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, Michael Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the organizational characteristics and behaviors that contribute to sustaining a culture of academic optimism as a mechanism of student achievement. While there is a developing research base identifying both the individual elements of academic optimism as well as the academic optimism construct itself as…

  18. Predicting Performance on State Achievement Tests Using Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading: A Multilevel Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Seungsoo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the relationship between Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) and statewide achievement tests in reading. A multilevel meta-analysis was used to calculate the correlation coefficient of the population for 27 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Results showed an overall large correlation coefficient…

  19. Reducing job insecurity and increasing performance ratings: does impression management matter?

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-hua; Zhao, Helen Hailin; Niu, Xiong-ying; Ashford, Susan J; Lee, Cynthia

    2013-09-01

    Prior research on job insecurity has demonstrated its detrimental effects on both employees and the organization, yet no research has detailed how people actively deal with it. Drawing from proactivity research, this article argues that job insecurity prompts a proactive use of impression management tactics in the workplace. The effectiveness of these tactics depends on the level of supervisory liking for the employee and the attributions supervisors make regarding the employee's motives for the impression management behaviors (i.e., for the good of the organization or for self-interest). A 3-wave survey study of 271 Chinese employees and their supervisors showed that employees experiencing job insecurity in Time 1 reported using a variety of tactics to impress their supervisors at Time 2 and that these tactics curbed the affect associated with job insecurity and enhanced supervisor rated performance, through supervisor's liking and attributed motives. The relationship between impression management and increased supervisor-rated performance was moderated by supervisor attributions; the relationship between impression management and reduced affective job insecurity depended on supervisor liking. PMID:23731028

  20. Increasing the performance of pooled CRISPR-Cas9 drop-out screening.

    PubMed

    Cross, Benedict C S; Lawo, Steffen; Archer, Caroline R; Hunt, Jessica R; Yarker, Joanne L; Riccombeni, Alessandro; Little, Annette S; McCarthy, Nicola J; Moore, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    Components of the type II CRISPR-Cas complex in bacteria have been used successfully in eukaryotic cells to facilitate rapid and accurate cell line engineering, animal model generation and functional genomic screens. Such developments are providing new opportunities for drug target identification and validation, particularly with the application of pooled genetic screening. As CRISPR-Cas is a relatively new genetic screening tool, it is important to assess its functionality in a number of different cell lines and to analyse potential improvements that might increase the sensitivity of a given screen. To examine critical aspects of screening quality, we constructed ultra-complex libraries containing sgRNA sequences targeting a collection of essential genes. We examined the performance of screening in both haploid and hypotriploid cell lines, using two alternative guide design algorithms and two tracrRNA variants in a time-resolved analysis. Our data indicate that a simple adaptation of the tracrRNA substantially improves the robustness of guide loss during a screen. This modification minimises the requirement for high numbers of sgRNAs targeting each gene, increasing hit scoring and creating a powerful new platform for successful screening. PMID:27545104

  1. Randomness increases self-reported anxiety and neurophysiological correlates of performance monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tullett, Alexa M; Kay, Aaron C; Inzlicht, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Several prominent theories spanning clinical, social and developmental psychology suggest that people are motivated to see the world as a sensible orderly place. These theories presuppose that randomness is aversive because it is associated with unpredictability. If this is the case, thinking that the world is random should lead to increased anxiety and heightened monitoring of one's actions and their consequences. Here, we conduct experimental tests of both of these ideas. Participants read one of three passages: (i) comprehensible order, (ii) incomprehensible order and (iii) randomness. In Study 1, we examined the effects of these passages on self-reported anxiety. In Study 2, we examined the effects of the same manipulation on the error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related brain potential associated with performance monitoring. We found that messages about randomness increased self-reported anxiety and ERN amplitude relative to comprehensible order, whereas incomprehensible order had intermediate effects. These results lend support to the theoretically important idea that randomness is unsettling because it implies that the world is unpredictable. PMID:25062840

  2. Increasing the performance of pooled CRISPR–Cas9 drop-out screening

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Benedict C. S.; Lawo, Steffen; Archer, Caroline R.; Hunt, Jessica R.; Yarker, Joanne L.; Riccombeni, Alessandro; Little, Annette S.; McCarthy, Nicola J.; Moore, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Components of the type II CRISPR–Cas complex in bacteria have been used successfully in eukaryotic cells to facilitate rapid and accurate cell line engineering, animal model generation and functional genomic screens. Such developments are providing new opportunities for drug target identification and validation, particularly with the application of pooled genetic screening. As CRISPR–Cas is a relatively new genetic screening tool, it is important to assess its functionality in a number of different cell lines and to analyse potential improvements that might increase the sensitivity of a given screen. To examine critical aspects of screening quality, we constructed ultra-complex libraries containing sgRNA sequences targeting a collection of essential genes. We examined the performance of screening in both haploid and hypotriploid cell lines, using two alternative guide design algorithms and two tracrRNA variants in a time-resolved analysis. Our data indicate that a simple adaptation of the tracrRNA substantially improves the robustness of guide loss during a screen. This modification minimises the requirement for high numbers of sgRNAs targeting each gene, increasing hit scoring and creating a powerful new platform for successful screening. PMID:27545104

  3. Randomness increases self-reported anxiety and neurophysiological correlates of performance monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Aaron C.; Inzlicht, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Several prominent theories spanning clinical, social and developmental psychology suggest that people are motivated to see the world as a sensible orderly place. These theories presuppose that randomness is aversive because it is associated with unpredictability. If this is the case, thinking that the world is random should lead to increased anxiety and heightened monitoring of one’s actions and their consequences. Here, we conduct experimental tests of both of these ideas. Participants read one of three passages: (i) comprehensible order, (ii) incomprehensible order and (iii) randomness. In Study 1, we examined the effects of these passages on self-reported anxiety. In Study 2, we examined the effects of the same manipulation on the error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related brain potential associated with performance monitoring. We found that messages about randomness increased self-reported anxiety and ERN amplitude relative to comprehensible order, whereas incomprehensible order had intermediate effects. These results lend support to the theoretically important idea that randomness is unsettling because it implies that the world is unpredictable. PMID:25062840

  4. Effect of added salt and increase in ionic strength on skim milk electroacidification performances.

    PubMed

    Bazinet, L; Ippersiel, D; Gendron, C; Mahdavi, B; Amiot, J; Lamarche, F

    2001-05-01

    Bipolar-memibrane electroacidification (BMEA) technology which uses the property of bipolar membranes to split water and the demineralization action of cation-exchange membranes (CEM), was tested for the production of acid casein. BMEA has numerous advantages in comparison with conventional isoelectric precipitation processes of proteins used in the dairy industry. BMEA uses electricity to generate the desired ionic species to acidify the treated solutions. The process can be precisely controlled, as electro-acidification rate is regulated by the effective current density in the cell. Water dissociation at the bipolar membrane interface is continuous and avoids local excess of acid. In-situ generation of dangerous chemicals (acids and bases) reduces the risks associated with the handling, transportation, use and elimination of these products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BMEA in different conditions of added ionic strength (p(added) = 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 M) and added salt (CaCl2, NaCl and KCl). The combination of KCl and p(added) = 0.5 M gave the best results with a 45% decrease in energy consumption. The increased energy efficiency was the result of a decrease in the anode/cathode voltage difference. This was due to an increase of conductivity, produced by addition of salt, necessary to compensate for the lack of sufficiently mobile ions in the skim milk. However, the addition of salts, irrespective of type or ionic strength, increased the required operation time. The protein profile of isolates were similar under all experimental conditions, except at 1.0 M-CaCl2. PMID:11504388

  5. The effect of retesting on end-of-semester performance in high school chemistry at three levels of previous science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deboer, George E.

    To determine the effect of retesting on student learning in chemistry, three questions were addressed by means of a 3 × 2 (achievement level X treatment) factorial design: (1) Does retesting affect differently the end-of-semester mastery of course objectives of students who are grouped according to their previous achievement in science? (2) Do students who are given an opportunity to take retests merely delay their studying and perform at a lower level on initial tests than nonretested students? (3) Is the procrastination of retested students (if it exists) affected by their achievement level? The results showed that for one of four units low ability students who were retested demonstrated greater learning gains than low ability students who were not retested, and that procrastination, if it was present, did not have significant effects on student learning at any achievement level. Results were discussed in terms of the students' room for improvement, motivation to improve, and ability to improve.

  6. Patterns and Predictors of Adolescent Academic Achievement and Performance in a Sample of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Altaye, Mekibib; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy; Hechtman, Lily

    2011-01-01

    Examined predictors of academic achievement, measured by standardized test scores, and performance, measured by school grades, in adolescents (Mage=16.8 yr) who met diagnostic criteria for ADHD-Combined type in early childhood (Mage = 8.5; N = 579). Several mediation models were also tested to determine whether ADHD medication use, receipt of special education, classroom performance, homework completion, or homework management mediated the relationship between symptoms of ADHD and academic outcomes. Childhood predictors of adolescent achievement differed from those for performance. Classroom performance and homework management mediated the relationship between symptoms of inattention and academic outcomes. Implications for understanding the relationship between symptoms of ADHD and academic functioning are discussed. PMID:21722025

  7. Striatal Volume Increases in Active Methamphetamine-Dependent Individuals and Correlation with Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Reem K.; Lin, Joanne C.; Miles, Sylvester W.; Kydd, Rob R.; Russell, Bruce R.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of methamphetamine (MA) dependence on the structure of the human brain has not been extensively studied, especially in active users. Previous studies reported cortical deficits and striatal gains in grey matter (GM) volume of abstinent MA abusers compared with control participants. This study aimed to investigate structural GM changes in the brains of 17 active MA-dependent participants compared with 20 control participants aged 18–46 years using voxel-based morphometry and region of interest volumetric analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging data, and whether these changes might be associated with cognitive performance. Significant volume increases were observed in the right and left putamen and left nucleus accumbens of MA-dependent compared to control participants. The volumetric gain in the right putamen remained significant after Bonferroni correction, and was inversely correlated with the number of errors (standardised z-scores) on the Go/No-go task. MA-dependent participants exhibited cortical GM deficits in the left superior frontal and precentral gyri in comparison to control participants, although these findings did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. In conclusion, consistent with findings from previous studies of abstinent users, active chronic MA-dependent participants showed significant striatal enlargement which was associated with improved performance on the Go/No-go, a cognitive task of response inhibition and impulsivity. Striatal enlargement may reflect the involvement of neurotrophic effects, inflammation or microgliosis. However, since it was associated with improved cognitive function, it is likely to reflect a compensatory response to MA-induced neurotoxicity in the striatum, in order to maintain cognitive function. Follow-up studies are recommended to ascertain whether this effect continues to be present following abstinence. Several factors may have contributed to the lack of more substantial cortical and

  8. The Effects of Intercollegiate Athletic Participation on Student Academic Achievement and Leadership Performance in a Selective Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunker, Craig Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of various intensity levels of athletic participation on academic and leadership performance in a selective institution. For the purpose of this study a retrospective analysis of existing admissions and student performance data was conducted. The continuous dependent variables were academic…

  9. Caffeine increases psychomotor performance on the effort expenditure for rewards task

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, Margaret C.; Treadway, Michael T.; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that cost/benefit decision-making involves interactions between adenosine and dopamine (DA). In rats, DA depletion decreases willingness to incur effort costs, while adenosine antagonism reverses these effects, likely by increasing DA transmission. Caffeine is a non-selective adenosine antagonist commonly used to facilitate effortful tasks, and thus may affect decisions involving effort costs in humans. The current study examined acute effects of 200 mg of caffeine on willingness to exert effort for monetary rewards at varying levels of reward value and reward probability, in young adult light caffeine users. Based on previous findings with amphetamine, we predicted that caffeine would increase willingness to exert effort. At separate sessions, 23 healthy normal adults received placebo or 200 mg caffeine under counterbalanced double-blind conditions, then completed the effort expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT). Measures of subjective and cardiovascular effects were obtained at regular intervals. Caffeine produced small but significant subjective and cardiovascular effects, and sped psychomotor performance on the EEfRT. Caffeine did not alter willingness to exert effort, except in high cardiovascular responders to caffeine, in whom it decreased willingness to exert effort. These results were contrary to our predictions, but consistent with rodent studies suggesting that moderate doses of caffeine alone do not affect effort, but rather only influence effort in the context of DA antagonism. Our results demonstrate that psychomotor speeding and decisional effects on the EEfRT are dissociable, providing additional evidence for the EEfRT as a specific measure of effort-based decision-making. This study provides a starting point for exploring contributions of the adenosine system to motivation in humans. PMID:22750066

  10. Feeding of Whitefly on Tobacco Decreases Aphid Performance via Increased Salicylate Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Ming; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Background The feeding of Bemisia tabaci nymphs trigger the SA pathway in some plant species. A previous study showed that B. tabaci nymphs induced defense against aphids (Myzus persicae) in tobacco. However, the mechanism underlying this defense response is not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, the effect of activating the SA signaling pathway in tobacco plants through B. tabaci nymph infestation on subsequent M. persicae colonization is investigated. Performance assays showed that B. tabaci nymphs pre-infestation significantly reduced M. persicae survival and fecundity systemically in wild-type (WT) but not salicylate-deficient (NahG) plants compared with respective control. However, pre-infestation had no obvious local effects on subsequent M. persicae in either WT or NahG tobacco. SA quantification results indicated that the highest accumulation of SA was induced by B. tabaci nymphs in WT plants after 15 days of infestation. These levels were 8.45- and 6.14-fold higher in the local and systemic leaves, respectively, than in controls. Meanwhile, no significant changes of SA levels were detected in NahG plants. Further, biochemical analysis of defense enzymes polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), β-1,3-glucanase, and chitinase demonstrated that B. tabaci nymph infestation increased these enzymes’ activity locally and systemically in WT plants, and there was more chitinase and β-1, 3-glucanase activity systemically than locally, which was opposite to the changing trends of PPO. However, B. tabaci nymph infestation caused no obvious increase in enzyme activity in any NahG plants except POD. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, these results underscore the important role that induction of the SA signaling pathway by B. tabaci nymphs plays in defeating aphids. It also indicates that the activity of β-1, 3-glucanase and chitinase may be positively correlated with resistance to aphids. PMID:26381273

  11. Does Title I Increase Spending and Improve Performance? Evidence from New York City. Working Paper #09-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Meryle G.; Stiefel, Leanna; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Chalico, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Since its inception as part of the 1965 "Elementary and Secondary Education Act" (ESEA), Title I has provided the largest amount of federal funding aimed at improving the academic achievement of poor children. In this paper, we examine the impact of Title I on school spending and school performance, using New York City public school…

  12. Expanding School Resources and Increasing Time on Task: Effects of a Policy Experiment in Israel on Student Academic Achievement and Behavior. NBER Working Paper No. 18369

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Victor

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I examine how student academic achievements and behavior were affected by a school finance policy experiment undertaken in elementary schools in Israel. Begun in 2004, the funding formula changed from a budget set per class to a budget set per student, with more weight given to students from lower socioeconomic and lower educational…

  13. The Use of Goal Setting and Progress Self-Monitoring with Formative Assessment in Community College to Increase Academic Achievement and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Tiffany L.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effects of formative assessment on community college students' content-specific vocabulary skills, academic achievement and academic self-efficacy. Sixty-one community college students who were enrolled in Developmental Psychology took part in formative assessment only (N = 24), formative assessment in conjunction with goal…

  14. A Quest for Increasing Student Math Achievement and Promoting Rigorous Evaluation in Italy: Evidence from the M@t.abel Teacher Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argentin, Gianluca; Pennisi, Aline; Vidoni, Daniele; Abbiati, Giovanni; Caputo, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Research has proven that teachers have a fundamental influence on student results. Moreover, effective teacher professional development is one of the key mechanisms for improving student achievement. By the most recent OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) definition, "Professional development is defined as activities that…

  15. What Counts in How the Game is Played: Increasing Achievement in Learning Mathematics by Changing the Scoring in an Instructional Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Layman E.; And Others

    In this study, two experiments indicate that modification of the method of scoring in the EQUATIONS game enhances achievement in learning specific mathematical ideas. The experimental scoring method (4+ scoring) which allows learners to obtain bonus points for constructing more complex solutions was introduced into year-long instructional gaming…

  16. Community Engagement through Collective Efficacy: Building Partnerships in an Urban Community to Encourage Collective Action to Increase Student Achievement in a Neighborhood School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Mullen, Vickie

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of ensuring educational equity, closing the achievement gap between African American students and White students attending public schools has gone on for half a century. As we enter the twenty-first century, neither educational reforms enacted by the public school system nor legislative actions, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of…

  17. The Impact of Prior Mathematics Achievement on the Relationship between High School Mathematics Curricula and Postsecondary Mathematics Performance, Course-Taking, and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Thomas R.; Medhanie, Amanuel; Harwell, Michael; Norman, Ke Wu; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Muchlinski, Thomas; Andersen, Edwin; Monson, Debra

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study examined the impact of prior mathematics achievement on the relationship between high school mathematics curricula and student postsecondary mathematics performance. The sample (N = 4,144 from 266 high schools) was partitioned into 3 strata by ACT mathematics scores. Students completing 3 or more years of a commercially…

  18. A Comparative Case Study of Factors Distinguishing between High and Low-Performance on Reading Achievement in Elementary Rural Appalachian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jennifer; Hausman, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative comparative case study identified factors that distinguish between high and low-performance on reading achievement in elementary rural Appalachian schools. This study determined the most effective instructional reading strategies, as well as other influential factors, implemented by school districts in the rural Appalachia area…

  19. A Comparative Case Study of Factors Distinguishing between High and Low-Performance on Reading Achievement in Elementary Rural Appalachian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative comparative case study identified factors that distinguish between high and low-performance on reading achievement in elementary rural Appalachian schools. This study determined the most effective instructional reading strategies, as well as other influential factors, implemented by school districts in the rural Appalachia area…

  20. Test-Based Accountability and Student Achievement: An Investigation of Differential Performance on NAEP and State Assessments. NBER Working Paper No. 12817

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Brian A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon referred to as test score inflation, which occurs when achievement gains on "high-stakes" exams outpace improvements on "low-stakes" tests. The first part of the paper documents the extent to which student performance trends on state assessments differ from those on the National Assessment of Educational Progress…

  1. How Does the Science Writing Heuristic Approach Affect Students' Performances of Different Academic Achievement Levels? A Case for High School Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingir, Sevgi; Geban, Omer; Gunel, Murat

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH), known as an argumentation-based science inquiry approach, on Grade 9 students' performance on a post-test in relation to their academic achievement levels. Four intact classes taught by 2 chemistry teachers from a Turkish public high school were selected for the study; one…

  2. The Impact of a State Takeover on Academic Achievement, School Performance, and School Leadership in a Rural South Carolina School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Janice Zissette

    2009-01-01

    This case study on the impact of a state takeover in one of South Carolina's most rural school districts ("referred to as the County School District") was completed using a quasi-experimental mixed methods design to examine the impact on academic achievement, school performance, and school leadership as a result of the South Carolina Department of…

  3. The Effect of Performance Assessment-Driven Instruction on the Attitude and Achievement of Senior High School Students in Mathematics in Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arhin, Ato Kwamina

    2015-01-01

    The study was a quasi-experimental research project conducted to investigate the effect of performance assessment-driven instructions on the attitude and achievement in mathematics of senior high school students in Ghana at Ghana National College in Cape Coast. Two Form 1 science classes were used for the study and were assigned as experimental…

  4. The Relationship between Students' Performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the Fourth and Fifth Grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnimont, Chad S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between students' performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the fourth and fifth grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio. The sample utilized students from a suburban school district in Northwest Ohio. Third grade CogAT scores (2006-2007 school year), 4th…

  5. Training for Telecommunications: Examining the Effects of Video- and Computer-Based Instruction on Preservice Teachers' Achievement, Near-Transfer Performance, and Perception of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivers, Karen S.; Barron, Ann E.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the results of two different delivery methods (video and computer-based instruction) for teaching preservice educators how to use an electronic mail system. Analysis of student questionnaires and achievement found significant differences between the methods on students' perceptions of instruction and near-transfer performance (favoring…

  6. The tougher the better: an economic analysis of increased payment thresholds on the performance of general practices.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Ma, Ada; Farrar, Shelley; Sutton, Matt

    2015-03-01

    We investigate whether and how a change in performance-related payment motivated General Practitioners (GPs) in Scotland. We evaluate the effect of increases in the performance thresholds required for maximum payment under the Quality and Outcomes Framework in April 2006. A difference-in-differences estimator with fixed effects was employed to examine the number of patients treated under clinical indicators whose payment schedules were revised and to compare these with the figures for those indicators whose schedules remained unchanged. The results suggest that the increase in the maximum performance thresholds increased GPs' performance by 1.77% on average. Low-performing GPs improved significantly more (13.22%) than their high-performing counterparts (0.24%). Changes to maximum performance thresholds are differentially effective in incentivising GPs and could be used further to raise GPs' performance across all indicators. PMID:24391074

  7. Building trust through promises and performance. Can your organization achieve the stellar results and employee loyalty found at Southwest Airlines?

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Edward J; Annison, Michael H

    2002-01-01

    Establishing a trusting relationship with your employees can help you transform your organization into a top performer. Examine how well-defined visions and goals are some of the keys to building that trust. PMID:11806234

  8. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery Shelly; Calamaio, Caprice; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farr, Lynne; Farritor, Shane

    2003-01-01

    This 15-year evaluation serves as a summary document highlighting the numerous and complete successes of the Nebraska Space Grant Program. Innovation has been highlighted through significant new endeavors during this 5-year period, such as placement of students and faculty at NASA Centers and the expansion of NSGC Native American Outreach Programs. While the last national program evaluation resulted in Nebraska s ranking as the top Capability Enhancement Consortium, and 5th best overall, Nebraska felt there was room for significant growth and development. This has been validated through the recent competitive attainment of Designated Grant status and has allowed for the exploration of new initiatives, as well as the expansion of already successful programs. A comprehensive strategic planning effort has involved all Nebraska representative entities and has guided Nebraska Space Grant through the evaluation period, providing a basis for continual advancement. Nebraska rigorously employs evaluation techniques to ensure that stated outcomes and metrics are achieved and that weaknesses are identified and corrected. With this coordinated approach, Nebraska expects that the next 5 years will yield new opportunities for significant achievement. Nebraska Space Grant will embrace new national endeavors, including the integration of Pender Public Schools -Nebraska s NASA Explorer School, geospatial initiatives, and the National Student Satellite Program.

  9. Distress and academic achievement among adolescents of affluence: a study of externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors and school performance.

    PubMed

    Ansary, Nadia S; Luthar, Suniya S

    2009-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to prospectively examine the relationship between externalizing (substance use and delinquency) and internalizing (depression and anxiety) dimensions and academic achievement (grades and classroom adjustment), as well as continuity over time in these domains, within a sample of wealthy adolescents followed from 10th to 12th grades (n = 256). In both parts of the study, cluster analyses were used to group participants at 10th grade and then group differences were evaluated on adjustment outcomes over time. In Part 1, problem behavior clusters revealed differences on academic indices with the two marijuana using groups--marijuana users and multiproblem youth--exhibiting the worst academic outcomes at all three waves. For Part 2, the two lowest achieving groups reported the highest distress across all externalizing dimensions over time. Stability across the three waves was found for both personal and academic competence as well as the associations between these two domains. Results are discussed in relation to intervention efforts targeting wealthy students at risk. PMID:19144236

  10. Collaborative Projects Increase Student Learning Outcome Performance in Nonmajors Environmental Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chace, Jameson F.

    2014-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2010, three types of semester research projects were assigned in BIO 140 Humans and Their Environment, a nonmajors introductory course at Salve Regina University. Specific environmental impact-type assessments were used to foster scientific inquiry and achieve higher scientific literacy. Quantitative and qualitative measurements…

  11. Both Patient and Facility Contribute to Achieving the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Pay-for-Performance Target for Dialysis Adequacy

    PubMed Central

    Tighiouart, Hocine; Meyer, Klemens B.; Miskulin, Dana C.

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) designated the achieved urea reduction ratio (URR) as a pay-for-performance measure, but to what extent this measure reflects patient characteristics and adherence instead of its intent to reflect facility performance is unknown. Here, we quantified the contributions of patient case-mix and adherence to the variability in achieving URR targets across dialysis facilities. We found that 92% of 10,069 hemodialysis patients treated at 173 facilities during the last quarter of 2004 achieved the target URR ≥65%. Mixed-effect models with random intercept for dialysis facility revealed a significant facility effect: 11.5% of the variation in achievement of target URR was attributable to the facility level. Adjusting for patient case-mix reduced the proportion of variation attributable to the facility level to 6.7%. Patient gender, body surface area, dialysis access, and adherence with treatment strongly associated with achievement of the URR target. We could not identify specific facility characteristics that explained the remaining variation between facilities. These data suggest that if adherence is not a modifiable patient characteristic, providers could be unfairly penalized for caring for these patients under current CMS policy. These penalties may have unintended consequences. PMID:22025629

  12. Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub X} emission levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project plan consisted of the integration of low-NO{sub X} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The plan included the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software to optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub X} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program was set up in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler was equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler was equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub X} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler was to be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub X} emissions. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II would permit optimization of boiler performance, output, and emissions. This report summarizes the overall results from Phases I and II of the project. A significant amount of data was collected from the combustion sensors, coal flow monitoring equipment, and other existing boiler instrumentation to monitor performance of the burner modifications and the coal flow balancing equipment.

  13. We're All in This Together Now: Group Performance Feedback to Increase Classroom Team Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E.; Eisenhart, Donald; Kane, Meghan; Schoener, Christine; Turkel, Kimberly; Riley, Megan; Mandell, David S.

    2011-01-01

    This study's primary goal was to evaluate the use of performance feedback procedures delivered to a classroom team to increase daily data collection. Performance feedback (PFB) was delivered to four classroom teams responsible for the daily collection of data representing student performance during prescribed instructional activities. Using a…

  14. Optimizing Performance on Linux Clusters Using Advanced Communication Protocols: Achieving Over 10 Teraflops on a 8.6 Teraflops Linpack-Rated Linux Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Nieplocha, Jarek

    2005-04-26

    Advancements in high-performance networks (Quadrics, Infiniband or Myrinet) continue to improve the efficiency of modern clusters. However, the average application efficiency is as small fraction of the peak as the system’s efficiency. This paper describes techniques for optimizing application performance on Linux clusters using Remote Memory Access communication protocols. The effectiveness of these optimizations is presented in the context of an application kernel, dense matrix multiplication. The result was achieving over 10 teraflops on HP Linux cluster on which LINPACK performance is measured as 8.6 teraflops.

  15. Supervised, Multivariate, Whole-Brain Reduction Did Not Help to Achieve High Classification Performance in Schizophrenia Research

    PubMed Central

    Janousova, Eva; Montana, Giovanni; Kasparek, Tomas; Schwarz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We examined how penalized linear discriminant analysis with resampling, which is a supervised, multivariate, whole-brain reduction technique, can help schizophrenia diagnostics and research. In an experiment with magnetic resonance brain images of 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 52 healthy controls, this method allowed us to select brain areas relevant to schizophrenia, such as the left prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulum, the right anterior insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. Nevertheless, the classification performance based on such reduced data was not significantly better than the classification of data reduced by mass univariate selection using a t-test or unsupervised multivariate reduction using principal component analysis. Moreover, we found no important influence of the type of imaging features, namely local deformations or gray matter volumes, and the classification method, specifically linear discriminant analysis or linear support vector machines, on the classification results. However, we ascertained significant effect of a cross-validation setting on classification performance as classification results were overestimated even though the resampling was performed during the selection of brain imaging features. Therefore, it is critically important to perform cross-validation in all steps of the analysis (not only during classification) in case there is no external validation set to avoid optimistically biasing the results of classification studies. PMID:27610072

  16. Supervised, Multivariate, Whole-Brain Reduction Did Not Help to Achieve High Classification Performance in Schizophrenia Research.

    PubMed

    Janousova, Eva; Montana, Giovanni; Kasparek, Tomas; Schwarz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We examined how penalized linear discriminant analysis with resampling, which is a supervised, multivariate, whole-brain reduction technique, can help schizophrenia diagnostics and research. In an experiment with magnetic resonance brain images of 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 52 healthy controls, this method allowed us to select brain areas relevant to schizophrenia, such as the left prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulum, the right anterior insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. Nevertheless, the classification performance based on such reduced data was not significantly better than the classification of data reduced by mass univariate selection using a t-test or unsupervised multivariate reduction using principal component analysis. Moreover, we found no important influence of the type of imaging features, namely local deformations or gray matter volumes, and the classification method, specifically linear discriminant analysis or linear support vector machines, on the classification results. However, we ascertained significant effect of a cross-validation setting on classification performance as classification results were overestimated even though the resampling was performed during the selection of brain imaging features. Therefore, it is critically important to perform cross-validation in all steps of the analysis (not only during classification) in case there is no external validation set to avoid optimistically biasing the results of classification studies. PMID:27610072

  17. Failure Is Not an Option (TM). Six Principles That Guide Student Achievement in High-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankstein, Alan M.

    2004-01-01

    The author builds upon a foundation which identifies courageous school leadership and the professional learning community as the center of effective school reform. The author offers six guiding principles steps for creating and sustaining a high-performing school: (1) Common mission, vision, values, and goals: (2) Systems for prevention and…

  18. Teacher Discourse and Sixth Graders' Reported Affect and Achievement Behaviors in Two High-Mastery/High-Performance Mathematics Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Julianne C.; Meyer, Debra K.; Midgley, Carol; Patrick, Helen

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relation between the nature of teacher discourse and sixth-grade students' reports of affect and behavior in mathematics classrooms students perceived as emphasizing both mastery and performance goals. Found that students in the classroom in which there was constant and explicit support for autonomy and intrinsic motivation, positive…

  19. Performing History: The Effects of a Dramatic Art-Based History Program on Student Achievement and Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otten, Mark; Stigler, James W.; Woodward, J. Arthur; Staley, Lisle

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the influence of a dramatic art-based history program for fifth-grade students on both their learning and enjoyment of history. The program, called "Performing History," reflects theories of effective use of drama in the classroom as well as successful ways to teach history. The program presents historical information as part…

  20. The Influence of Parenting Styles, Achievement Motivation, and Self-Efficacy on Academic Performance in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Erlanger A.; Chandler, Megan; Heffer, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Parenting styles have consistently been shown to relate to various outcomes such as youth psychopathology, behavior problems, and academic performance. Building on the research in the parenting style literature, along with examining components of self-determination theory, the present study examined the relations among authoritative parenting…

  1. Inverse modeling of surface-water discharge to achieve restoration salinity performance measures in Florida Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, E.D.; James, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    The use of numerical modeling to evaluate regional water-management practices involves the simulation of various alternative water-delivery scenarios, which typically are designed intuitively rather than analytically. These scenario simulations are used to analyze how specific water-management practices affect factors such as water levels, flows, and salinities. In lieu of testing a variety of scenario simulations in a trial-and-error manner, an optimization technique may be used to more precisely and directly define good water-management alternatives. A numerical model application in the coastal regions of Florida Bay and Everglades National Park (ENP), representing the surface- and ground-water hydrology for the region, is a good example of a tool used to evaluate restoration scenarios. The Southern Inland and Coastal System (SICS) model simulates this area with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic surface-water model and a three-dimensional ground-water model, linked to represent the interaction of the two systems with salinity transport. This coastal wetland environment is of great interest in restoration efforts, and the SICS model is used to analyze the effects of alternative water-management scenarios. The SICS model is run within an inverse modeling program called UCODE. In this application, UCODE adjusts the regulated inflows to ENP while SICS is run iteratively. UCODE creates parameters that define inflow within an allowable range for the SICS model based on SICS model output statistics, with the objective of matching user-defined target salinities that meet ecosystem restoration criteria. Preliminary results obtained using two different parameterization methods illustrate the ability of the model to achieve the goals of adjusting the range and reducing the variance of salinity values in the target area. The salinity variance in the primary zone of interest was reduced from an original value of 0.509 psu2 to values 0.418 psu2 and 0.342 psu2 using different

  2. Increasing Teacher Treatment Integrity through Performance Feedback Provided by School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagermoser Sanetti, Lisa M.; Fallon, Lindsay M.; Collier-Meek, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    When implementing behavioral interventions in educational settings, some implementers need support to maintain high levels of treatment integrity. Performance feedback has a large body of research supporting it as a strategy for improving teachers' implementation of classroom interventions. However, in most prior studies, performance feedback has…

  3. Targeting, Segmenting and Positioning the Market for College Students to Increase Customer Satisfaction and Overall Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have explored the relationship between marketing efforts and firm financial performance. Studies have looked at potential lifetime value of customers, to demonstrate the value of keeping customers. Various other studies have looked at the relationship between customer satisfaction and firm performance. However, few studies have…

  4. Job Behaviour Sampling: A Method to Increase the Information Content of Performance Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwind, Hermann F.

    Although the use of personality traits as criteria for performance appraisal is still dominant, behavior-oriented measures of job performance have become more and more popular. One such test used, Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS), seems to have two shortcomings. The individual scales are multidimensional, making it difficult for a rater…

  5. Performance Incentives to Improve Community College Completion: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative. A State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulock, Nancy; Jenkins, Davis

    2011-01-01

    Amid growing signs of America's weakening position in the global economy, federal and state policymakers and major foundations have set ambitious goals for increasing postsecondary attainment in the United States. Given changing U.S. demographics, it has become clear that these national goals are attainable only with vastly improved outcomes among…

  6. Some Suggested Techniques for Achieving Required Main Ring Low Level RF Performance for the Tevatron I Program

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.E.; MacLachlan, J.

    1984-05-01

    These techniques are derived from experience with the existing low level rf system and from the results of accelerator experiments directed at the Tev I requirements which were performed using a specially modified low level rf system. The techniques suggested here are not necessarily unique and other techniques may be acceptable. It is important to realize that certain performance requirements on the Booster and Main Ring are substantially different in the Tev I program from those which have been acceptable in the fixed target program. For example, the longitudinal emittance of the bunches has been routinely and intentionally blown up by the 'bunch spreader' during acceleration to improve the smoothness of the spill. In the Tev I case, the 'bunch narrowing' procedure preceding {bar p} production and in bunch coalescing is facilitated by maintaining the smallest possible longitudinal emittance (i.e. the largest possible longitudinal phase space density). Also, during fixed target physics the Main Ring is essentially full (i.e. approx. 1090 of 1113 buckets occupied) so transient beam loading of the rf system is negligible except during injection, whereas for {bar p} production a single high intensity Booster batch (approx. 83 bunches) is to be accelerated causing substantial transient beam induced phase shift of the rf voltage during each passage. The low level phase and position error signals are normally derived from an essentially full ring during fixed target operation whereas in the Tev I program the systems must perform adequately with as few as ten adjacent buckets occupied. Because of the differences in emphasis between fixed target operation and Tevatron I operation is seems sensible to use separate low level rf systems for these two modes of operation. If a single low level system were to be used for both modes of operation some compromises may be necessary which might cause performance in either mode to be less than adequate. Because of the severe demands

  7. System impact research - increasing public health and health care system performance.

    PubMed

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-06-01

    Background Interventions directed to system features of public health and health care should increase health and welfare of patients and population. Aims To build a new framework for studies aiming to assess the impact of public health or health care system, and to consider the role of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and of Benchmarking Controlled Trials (BCTs). Methods The new concept is partly based on the author's previous paper on the Benchmarking Controlled Trial. The validity and generalizability considerations were based on previous methodological studies on RCTs and BCTs. Results The new concept System Impact Research (SIR) covers all the studies which aim to assess the impact of the public health system or of the health care system on patients or on population. There are two kinds of studies in System Impact Research: Benchmarking Controlled Trials (observational) and Randomized Controlled Trials (experimental). The term impact covers in particular accessibility, quality, effectiveness, safety, efficiency, and equality. Conclusions System Impact Research - creating the scientific basis for policy decision making - should be given a high priority in medical, public health and health economic research, and should also be used for improving performance. Leaders at all levels of health and social care can use the evidence from System Impact Research for the benefit of patients and population. Key messages The new concept of SIR is defined as a research field aiming at assessing the impacts on patients and on populations of features of public health and health and social care systems or of interventions trying to change these features. SIR covers all features of public health and health and social care system, and actions upon these features. The term impact refers to all effects caused by the public health and health and social care system or parts of it, with particular emphasis on accessibility, quality, effectiveness, adverse effects, efficiency, and

  8. System impact research – increasing public health and health care system performance

    PubMed Central

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Interventions directed to system features of public health and health care should increase health and welfare of patients and population. Aims To build a new framework for studies aiming to assess the impact of public health or health care system, and to consider the role of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and of Benchmarking Controlled Trials (BCTs). Methods The new concept is partly based on the author's previous paper on the Benchmarking Controlled Trial. The validity and generalizability considerations were based on previous methodological studies on RCTs and BCTs. Results The new concept System Impact Research (SIR) covers all the studies which aim to assess the impact of the public health system or of the health care system on patients or on population. There are two kinds of studies in System Impact Research: Benchmarking Controlled Trials (observational) and Randomized Controlled Trials (experimental). The term impact covers in particular accessibility, quality, effectiveness, safety, efficiency, and equality. Conclusions System Impact Research – creating the scientific basis for policy decision making - should be given a high priority in medical, public health and health economic research, and should also be used for improving performance. Leaders at all levels of health and social care can use the evidence from System Impact Research for the benefit of patients and population.Key messagesThe new concept of SIR is defined as a research field aiming at assessing the impacts on patients and on populations of features of public health and health and social care systems or of interventions trying to change these features.SIR covers all features of public health and health and social care system, and actions upon these features. The term impact refers to all effects caused by the public health and health and social care system or parts of it, with particular emphasis on accessibility, quality, effectiveness, adverse effects, efficiency

  9. Adopting Novel Strategies in Achieving High-Performance Single-Layer Network Structured ZnO Nanorods Thin Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Hyeon; Park, Jee Ho; Biswas, Pranab; Kwon, Do Kyun; Han, Sun Woong; Baik, Hong Koo; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2016-05-11

    High-performance, solution-processed transparent and flexible zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs)-based single layer network structured thin film transistors (TFTs) were developed on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate at 100 °C. Keeping the process-temperature under 100 °C, we have improved the device performance by introducing three low temperature-based techniques; regrowing ZnO to fill the void spaces in a single layer network of ZnO NRs, passivating the back channel with polymer, and adopting ZrO2 as the high-k dielectric. Notably, high-k amorphous ZrO2 was synthesized and deposited using a novel method at an unprecedented temperature of 100 °C. Using these methods, the TFTs exhibited a high mobility of 1.77 cm(2)/V·s. An insignificant reduction of 2.18% in mobility value after 3000 cycles of dynamic bending at a radius of curvature of 20 mm indicated the robust mechanical nature of the flexible ZnO NRs SLNS TFTs. PMID:27096706

  10. Increasing the information rates of optical communications via coded modulation: a study of transceiver performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Robert; Alvarado, Alex; Lavery, Domaniç; Bayvel, Polina

    2016-02-01

    Optical fibre underpins the global communications infrastructure and has experienced an astonishing evolution over the past four decades, with current commercial systems transmitting data rates in excess of 10 Tb/s over a single fibre core. The continuation of this dramatic growth in throughput has become constrained due to a power dependent nonlinear distortion arising from a phenomenon known as the Kerr effect. The mitigation of fibre nonlinearities is an area of intense research. However, even in the absence of nonlinear distortion, the practical limit on the transmission throughput of a single fibre core is dominated by the finite signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) afforded by current state-of-the-art coherent optical transceivers. Therefore, the key to maximising the number of information bits that can be reliably transmitted over a fibre channel hinges on the simultaneous optimisation of the modulation format and code rate, based on the SNR achieved at the receiver. In this work, we use an information theoretic approach based on the mutual information and the generalised mutual information to characterise a state-of-the-art dual polarisation m-ary quadrature amplitude modulation transceiver and subsequently apply this methodology to a 15-carrier super-channel to achieve the highest throughput (1.125 Tb/s) ever recorded using a single coherent receiver.

  11. Increasing the information rates of optical communications via coded modulation: a study of transceiver performance

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Robert; Alvarado, Alex; Lavery, Domaniç; Bayvel, Polina

    2016-01-01

    Optical fibre underpins the global communications infrastructure and has experienced an astonishing evolution over the past four decades, with current commercial systems transmitting data rates in excess of 10 Tb/s over a single fibre core. The continuation of this dramatic growth in throughput has become constrained due to a power dependent nonlinear distortion arising from a phenomenon known as the Kerr effect. The mitigation of fibre nonlinearities is an area of intense research. However, even in the absence of nonlinear distortion, the practical limit on the transmission throughput of a single fibre core is dominated by the finite signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) afforded by current state-of-the-art coherent optical transceivers. Therefore, the key to maximising the number of information bits that can be reliably transmitted over a fibre channel hinges on the simultaneous optimisation of the modulation format and code rate, based on the SNR achieved at the receiver. In this work, we use an information theoretic approach based on the mutual information and the generalised mutual information to characterise a state-of-the-art dual polarisation m-ary quadrature amplitude modulation transceiver and subsequently apply this methodology to a 15-carrier super-channel to achieve the highest throughput (1.125 Tb/s) ever recorded using a single coherent receiver. PMID:26864633

  12. The Development and Testing of Laboratory Performance Tasks for the Assessment of Achievement in High School Physics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boorman, Joan Marie

    The quest to stem "the rising tide of mediocrity" described in A Nation at Risk has prompted a myriad of changes in secondary science instruction. Appropriate assessments of these changes in curriculum are crucial to a meaningful evaluation of their effectiveness. Because the nature of many of the improvements has been to engage students in higher order thinking skills, simple paper and pencil tests are often inconclusive evaluation measures. Research has shown a more definitive assessment of a student's ability to apply higher order thinking skills is possible with tests of performance in problem-solving tasks in a science laboratory. The Physics Laboratory Skills Test (PLST) was developed as a prototype assessment instrument for evaluation of student ability to perform a range of process skills in the high school physics laboratory setting. The PLST included seven different items based on topics presented in a typical high school physics course. Each item constituted a separate laboratory performance test and was completed by individual students in a 40 minute class period. A sample of 219 physics students from rural, urban, public, and private schools in NY and PA were tested with the PLST in May 1990. Results of this study show that the PLST has usability, validity, and reliability as an assessment of basic skills (measuring and reporting) and higher order skills (planning and analysis). Participating teachers determined the PLST to be an appropriate and useful tool in evaluating individual student abilities. Content validity was established via evaluation by 'expert' high school physics teachers. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to verify construct validity (r =.49) and inter-rater reliability (r =.81). The Cronbach Coefficient Alpha, which was used to determine internal consistency of each item, yielded strong positive results for the PLST. The outcomes of this study will be of particular interest to curriculum developers and classroom teachers

  13. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Platts, S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  14. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's culture as…

  15. Effect of increasing oil from distillers grains or corn oil on lactation performance.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, C; Bertics, S; Armentano, L E

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate production response and more specifically percentage and yield of fat in milk from dairy cows fed distillers grains with added solubles (DGS). It was hypothesized that the oil present in DGS would decrease milk fat yield. Four dietary treatments consisted of dried DGS replacing soybean meal and soybean hulls. The DGS inclusion rates as a percentage of dry matter (DM) were 0, 5, 10, and 15% DGS. To determine the role of oil in DGS, a fifth diet similar to 0% DGS with added corn oil (OIL) was included. Twenty multiparous Holsteins were assigned to a replicated, 5 x 5 Latin Square design with periods of 21 d. Diets were formulated to have similar crude protein and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration. Feeding OIL or 15% DGS resulted in similar production of milk, milk protein, and milk fat. Increasing dietary DGS linearly increased milk production and milk true protein yield. Adding corn oil increased milk yield and, although milk true protein yield also tended to increase with oil, milk true protein concentration decreased. The addition of DGS or OIL did not significantly change fat yield from 0% DGS; however, fat concentration in milk was significantly decreased by DGS due to increased fluid milk production. In diets containing approximately 28% NDF, cottonseed, blood and fish meal, feeding DGS to bring total dietary fatty acids to 5% of diet DM increased milk and milk protein yield without decreasing milk fat yield. Reduced proportions of shorter chain fatty acids and increased proportions of longer chain fatty acids in milk as dietary fatty acid content increased suggests that de novo fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland was inhibited but this was offset by increased secretion of long-chain fatty acids, presumably absorbed from the diet. Therefore, our hypothesis that feeding corn oil either as DGS or as pure corn oil would decrease milk fat yield was not correct. PMID:16027196

  16. Enhanced neuroendocrine response to insulin tolerance test performed under increased ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Jezová, D; Kvetnanský, R; Nazar, K; Vigas, M

    1998-01-01

    The hypothesis that an increase in ambient temperature modulates neuroendocrine response in clinically used provocative pituitary function tests was verified. Healthy male volunteers were subjected to insulin tolerance tests in two randomized trials. In the first trial hypoglycemia was induced by a bolus injection of insulin (0.1 U per kg of BW, i.v.) at room temperature. In the second trial, the subjects were exposed to increased ambient temperature for 45 min before insulin injection and for 45 min thereafter. The environmental temperature was selected to increase body temperature less than 1C. Under conditions of increased temperature basal hormone levels as measured in antecubital venous blood samples failed to be modified and the hypoglycemia was less severe. Nevertheless, the responses of most (beta-endorphin, ACTH, prolactin, catecholamines), but not all (growth hormone, cortisol), hormones to hypoglycemia were exaggerated. The remarkable increase in ACTH and beta-endorphin release was not accompanied by concomitant increase of plasma cortisol response. The sympathetic-adrenomedullary system was significantly activated, which was manifested particularly by enhanced norepinephrine release. Growth hormone response to hypoglycemia was not modified, while that of prolactin was enhanced. Thus during evaluation of neuroendocrine function under clinical conditions, changes in ambient and body temperature should not be underestimated. PMID:9766253

  17. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  18. Practice (Rather than Graded) Quizzes, with Answers, May Increase Introductory Psychology Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickline, Virginia B.; Spektor, Valeriya G.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated whether practice (or graded) quizzes, with or without provision of correct answers, would be more beneficial for introductory psychology exam performance. In six sections (N = 249) of an introductory psychology class, taught by the same professor, different approaches to quizzes were applied across sections to measure…

  19. Performance Measurement: A Proposal to Increase Use of SBIRT and Decrease Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Peggy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol consumption during pregnancy has negative implications for maternal and child health. Appropriate early universal Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) for pregnant women is necessary to identify women at risk and reduce the likelihood of continued drinking. Because SBIRT is not consistently used, the development and use of performance measures to assure implementation of SBIRT are key steps towards intervention and reduction of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Methods Practice guidelines provide ample support for specific instruments designed for SBIRT in prenatal care. An examination of existing performance measures related to alcohol consumption during pregnancy, however, reveals no comprehensive published performance measure designed to quantify the use of SBIRT for alcohol use in prenatal care. Results Process performance measures were developed that can determine the proportion of pregnant women who are screened during the course of prenatal care and the proportion of women requiring either brief intervention or referral to substance use disorder treatment who received those interventions. The measures require use of screening instruments validated for use with pregnant women. Conclusions The two proposed measures would represent a significant step in efforts to assure appropriate intervention for women who drink during pregnancy, hold accountable providers who do not employ SBIRT, and provide a basis from which necessary systemic changes might occur. Pregnancy is a time when many women are motivated to stop drinking. That opportunity should be seized, with timely intervention offering assistance for pregnant women who have not stopped drinking of their own accord. PMID:23483413

  20. Curriculum-Based Measurement, Program Development, Graphing Performance and Increasing Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deno, Stanley L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Four brief articles look at aspects of curriculum based measurement (CBM) for academically handicapped students including procedures of CBM with examples, different approaches to graphing student performance, and solutions to the problem of making time to measure student progress frequently. (DB)

  1. Increasing Student Performance on the Independent School Entrance Exam (ISEE) Using the Gap Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarshar, Shanon Etty

    2013-01-01

    Using the Gap Analysis problem-solving framework (Clark & Estes, 2008), this study examined the performance gap experienced by 6th grade students on the math sections of the ISEE (Independent School Entrance Exam). The purpose of the study was to identify and validate the knowledge, motivation, and organization causes of the students' low…

  2. Deep Thinking Increases Task-Set Shielding and Reduces Shifting Flexibility in Dual-Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Rico; Hommel, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Performing two tasks concurrently is difficult, which has been taken to imply the existence of a structural processing bottleneck. Here we sought to assess whether and to what degree one's multitasking abilities depend on the cognitive-control style one engages in. Participants were primed with creativity tasks that either called for divergent…

  3. Increasing Performance by Differentiated Teaching? Experimental Evidence of the Student Benefits of Digital Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haelermans, Carla; Ghysels, Joris; Prince, Fernao

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of digital differentiation on student performance using a randomized experiment. The experiment is conducted in a second year biology class among 115 prevocational students in the Netherlands. Differentiation allowed students in the treatment group to work at three different levels. The results show that there is a…

  4. Investigating the Robustness of School-Performance Ratings to Three Factors Affecting the Underlying Student-Level Academic-Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Hui Leng

    2012-01-01

    Standardized-test scores are increasingly important indicators of school success. But how robust are school-performance ratings when they are based on measures derived from these scores? In my thesis, using data from Houston Independent School District (HISD) and New York State (NYS), I examined the robustness of school-performance ratings across…

  5. Association between the increase in brain temperature and physical performance at different exercise intensities and protocols in a temperate environment

    PubMed Central

    Kunstetter, A.C.; Wanner, S.P.; Madeira, L.G.; Wilke, C.F.; Rodrigues, L.O.C.; Lima, N.R.V.

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that brain temperature (Tbrain) provides a more sensitive index than other core body temperatures in determining physical performance. However, no study has addressed whether the association between performance and increases in Tbrain in a temperate environment is dependent upon exercise intensity, and this was the primary aim of the present study. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to constant exercise at three different speeds (18, 21, and 24 m/min) until the onset of volitional fatigue. Tbrain was continuously measured by a thermistor inserted through a brain guide cannula. Exercise induced a speed-dependent increase in Tbrain, with the fastest speed associated with a higher rate of Tbrain increase. Rats subjected to constant exercise had similar Tbrain values at the time of fatigue, although a pronounced individual variability was observed (38.7-41.7°C). There were negative correlations between the rate of Tbrain increase and performance for all speeds that were studied. These results indicate that performance during constant exercise is negatively associated with the increase in Tbrain, particularly with its rate of increase. We then investigated how an incremental-speed protocol affected the association between the increase in Tbrain and performance. At volitional fatigue, Tbrain was lower during incremental exercise compared with the Tbrain resulting from constant exercise (39.3±0.3 vs 40.3±0.1°C; P<0.05), and no association between the rate of Tbrain increase and performance was observed. These findings suggest that the influence of Tbrain on performance under temperate conditions is dependent on exercise protocol. PMID:25003543

  6. Strategies to optimize lithium-ion supercapacitors achieving high-performance: Cathode configurations, lithium loadings on anode, and types of separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wanjun; Li, Yangxing; Fitch, Brian; Shih, Jonathan; Doung, Tien; Zheng, Jim

    2014-12-01

    The Li-ion capacitor (LIC) is composed of a lithium-doped carbon anode and an activated carbon cathode, which is a half Li-ion battery (LIB) and a half electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC). LICs can achieve much more energy density than EDLC without sacrificing the high power performance advantage of capacitors over batteries. LIC pouch cells were assembled using activated carbon (AC) cathode and hard carbon (HC) + stabilized lithium metal power (SLMP®) anode. Different cathode configurations, various SLMP loadings on HC anode, and two types of separators were investigated to achieve the optimal electrochemical performance of the LIC. Firstly, the cathode binders study suggests that the PTFE binder offers improved energy and power performances for LIC in comparison to PVDF. Secondly, the mass ratio of SLMP to HC is at 1:7 to obtain the optimized electrochemical performance for LIC among all the various studied mass ratios between lithium loading amounts and active anode material. Finally, compared to the separator Celgard PP 3501, cellulose based TF40-30 is proven to be a preferred separator for LIC.

  7. Acute moderate exercise elicits increased dorsolateral prefrontal activation and improves cognitive performance with Stroop test.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Hiroki; Dan, Ippeita; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Kato, Morimasa; Okamoto, Masako; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Soya, Hideaki

    2010-05-01

    A growing number of human studies have reported the beneficial influences of acute as well as chronic exercise on cognitive functions. However, neuroimaging investigations into the neural substrates of the effects of acute exercise have yet to be performed. Using multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we sought cortical activation related to changes in the Stroop interference test, elicited by an acute bout of moderate exercise, in healthy volunteers (N=20). The compactness and portability of fNIRS allowed on-site cortical examination in a laboratory with a cycle ergometer, enabling strict control of the exercise intensity of each subject by assessing their peak oxygen intake (VO2peak). We defined moderate exercise intensity as 50% of a subject's peak oxygen uptake (50%VO2peak). An acute bout of moderate exercise caused significant improvement of cognitive performance reflecting Stroop interference as measured by reaction time. Consistent with previous functional neuroimaging studies, we detected brain activation due to Stroop interference (incongruent minus neutral) in the lateral prefrontal cortices in both hemispheres. This Stroop-interference-related activation was significantly enhanced in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex due to the acute bout of moderate exercise. The enhanced activation significantly coincided with the improved cognitive performance. This suggests that the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is likely the neural substrate for the improved Stroop performance elicited by an acute bout of moderate exercise. fNIRS, which allows physiological monitoring and functional neuroimaging to be combined, proved to be an effective tool for examining the cognitive effects of exercise. PMID:20006719

  8. Discrete carbon nanotubes increase lead acid battery charge acceptance and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swogger, Steven W.; Everill, Paul; Dubey, D. P.; Sugumaran, Nanjan

    2014-09-01

    Performance demands placed upon lead acid batteries have outgrown the technology's ability to deliver. These demands, typically leading to Negative Active Material (NAM) failure, include: short, high-current surges; prolonged, minimal, overvoltage charging; repeated, Ah deficit charging; and frequent deep discharges. Research shows these failure mechanisms are attenuated by inclusion of carbon allotropes into the NAM. Addition of significant quantities of carbon, however, produces detrimental changes in paste rheology, leading to lowered industrial throughput. Additionally, capacity, cold-cranking performance, and other battery metrics are negatively affected at high carbon loads. Presented here is Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative, a new battery additive comprising discrete carbon nanotubes (dCNT) which uniformly disperse within battery pastes during mixing. NS40ZL batteries containing dCNT show enhanced charge acceptance, reserve capacity, and cold-cranking performance, decreased risk of polarization, and no detrimental changes to paste properties, when compared to dCNT-free controls. This work focuses on the dCNT as NAM additives only, but early-stage research is underway to test their functionality as a PAM additive. Batteries infused with Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative address the needs of modern lead acid battery applications, produce none of the detrimental side effects associated with carbon additives, and require no change to existing production lines.

  9. Using Adaptive Automation to Increase Operator Performance and Decrease Stress in a Satellite Operations Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, David C.

    2014-01-01

    As advancements in automation continue to alter the systemic behavior of computer systems in a wide variety of industrial applications, human-machine interactions are increasingly becoming supervisory in nature, with less hands-on human involvement. This maturing of the human role within the human-computer relationship is relegating operations…

  10. Increasing Skill Performances of Problem Solving in Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Debra; Pierce, Tom; Higgins, Kyle; Miller, Susan; Tandy, Richard; Sparks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Problem-solving instruction facilitates children in becoming successful real-world problem solvers. Research that incorporates problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities. However, this population of students needs increased opportunities to learn the skills of problem solving. Using a…

  11. Increasing hippocampal acetylcholine levels enhance behavioral performance in an animal model of diencephalic amnesia.

    PubMed

    Roland, Jessica J; Mark, Katherine; Vetreno, Ryan P; Savage, Lisa M

    2008-10-01

    Pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) was used to produce a rodent model of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome that results in acute neurological disturbances, thalamic lesions, and learning and memory impairments. There is also cholinergic septohippocampal dysfunction in the PTD model. Systemic (Experiment 1) and intrahippocampal (Experiment 2) injections of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine were administered to determine if increasing acetylcholine levels would eliminate the behavioral impairment produced by PTD. Prior to spontaneous alternation testing, rats received injections of either physostigmine (systemic=0.075 mg/kg; intrahippocampal=20, 40 ng/muL) or saline. In Experiment 2, intrahippocampal injections of physostigmine significantly enhanced alternation rates in the PTD-treated rats. In addition, although intrahippocampal infusions of 40 ng of physostigmine increased the available amount of ACh in both pair-fed (PF) and PTD rats, it did so to a greater extent in PF rats. The increase in ACh levels induced by the direct hippocampal application of physostigmine in the PTD model likely increased activation of the extended limbic system, which was dysfunctional, and therefore led to recovery of function on the spontaneous alternation task. In contrast, the lack of behavioral improvement by intrahippocampal physostigmine infusion in the PF rats, despite a greater rise in hippocampal ACh levels, supports the theory that there is an optimal range of cholinergic tone for optimal behavioral and hippocampal function. PMID:18706897

  12. Forage kochia (Kochia Prostrata) increases nutritional value, carrying capacity, and livestock performance on semiarid rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extending the grazing season into the fall and winter increases the sustainability of livestock production by reducing winter feed costs. However, without exception, stockpiled range grasses do not meet nutritional requirements for ruminant livestock. This study compared fall/winter grazing of tra...

  13. Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quitadamo, Ian J.; Kurtz, Martha J.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, national stakeholders express concern that U.S. college graduates cannot adequately solve problems and think critically. As a set of cognitive abilities, critical thinking skills provide students with tangible academic, personal, and professional benefits that may ultimately address these concerns. As an instructional method, writing…

  14. Physical and Perceptual Cooling with Beverages to Increase Cycle Performance in a Tropical Climate

    PubMed Central

    Riera, Florence; Trong, Than Tran; Sinnapah, Stéphane; Hue, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study compares the effects of neutral temperature, cold and ice-slush beverages, with and without 0.5% menthol on cycling performance, core temperature (Tco) and stress responses in a tropical climate (hot and humid conditions). Methods Twelve trained male cyclists/triathletes completed six 20-km exercise trials against the clock in 30.7°C±0.8°C and 78%±0.03% relative humidity. Before and after warm-up, and before exercise and every 5 km during exercise, athletes drank 190 mL of either aromatized (i.e., with 0.5 mL of menthol (5 gr/L)) or a non-aromatized beverage (neutral temperature: 23°C±0.1°C, cold: 3°C±0.1°C, or ice-slush: −1°C±0.7°C). During the trials, heart rate (HR) was continuously monitored, whereas core temperature (Tco), thermal comfort (TC), thermal sensation (TS) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured before and after warm-up, every 5 km of exercise, and at the end of exercise and after recovery. Results Both the beverage aroma (P<0.02) and beverage temperature (P<0.02) had significant and positive effects on performance, which was considerably better with ice-slush than with a neutral temperature beverage, whatever the aroma (P<0.002), and with menthol vs non-menthol (P<0.02). The best performances were obtained with ice-slush/menthol and cold/menthol, as opposed to neutral/menthol. No differences were noted in HR and Tco between trials. Conclusion Cold water or ice-slush with menthol aroma seems to be the most effective beverage for endurance exercise in a tropical climate. Further studies are needed to explore its effects in field competition. PMID:25084009

  15. MR-Guided Near-Infrared Spectral Tomography Increases Diagnostic Performance of Breast MRI

    PubMed Central

    Mastanduno, Michael A.; Xu, Junqing; El-Ghussein, Fadi; Jiang, Shudong; Yin, Hong; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Ke; Ren, Fang; Gui, Jiang; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostically most important molecular biomarkers quantified by magnetic resonance-guided (MR) near-infrared spectral tomography (NIRST) that distinguish malignant breast lesions from benign abnormalities when combined with outcomes from clinical breast MRI. Experimental Design The study was HIPAA compliant and approved by the Dartmouth Institutional Review Board, the NIH, the United States State Department, and Xijing Hospital. MR-guided NIRST evaluated hemoglobin, water, and lipid content in regions of interest defined by concurrent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) in the breast. MRI plus NIRST was performed in 44 subjects (median age, 46, age range, 20–81 years), 28 of whom had subsequent malignant pathologic diagnoses, and 16 had benign conditions. A subset of 30 subject examinations yielded optical data that met minimum sensitivity requirements to the suspicious lesion and were included in the analyses of diagnostic performance. Results In the subset of 30 subject examinations meeting minimum optical data sensitivity criterion, the MR-guided NIRST separated malignant from benign lesions using total hemoglobin (HbT; P < 0.01) and tissue optical index (TOI; P < 0.001). Combined MRI plus TOI data caused one false positive and 1 false negative, and produced the best diagnostic performance, yielding an AUC of 0.95, sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 89%, positive predictive value of 95%, and negative predictive value of 89%, respectively. Conclusions MRI plus NIRST results correlated well with histopathologic diagnoses and could provide additional information to reduce the number of MRI-directed biopsies. PMID:26019171

  16. SNS Emittance Scanner, Increasing Sensitivity and Performance through Noise Mitigation ,Design, Implementation and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pogge, J.

    2006-11-20

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The SNS MEBT Emittance Harp consists of 16 X and 16 Y wires, located in close proximity to the RFQ, Source, and MEBT Choppers. Beam Studies for source and LINAC commissioning required an overall increase in sensitivity for halo monitoring and measurement, and at the same time several severe noise sources had to be effectively removed from the harp signals. This paper is an overview of the design approach and techniques used in increasing gain and sensitivity while maintaining a large signal to noise ratio for the emittance scanner device. A brief discussion of the identification of the noise sources, the mechanism for transmission and pick up, how the signals were improved and a summary of results.

  17. [A workplace intervention aimed at increasing awareness in nursing personnel performing manual handling activities].

    PubMed

    Scorpiniti, A; Lorusso, A; L'Abbate, N

    2007-01-01

    Here we describe a workplace intervention aimed at reducing the risk of low back pain in nursing personnel. The intervention we carried out included a specific ergonomic training and an exercise program according to the Feldenkrais Method. After the intervention, we evaluated its effect on the execution of manual handling activities in nurses. We found an increased rate of correct manual handling in the post-intervention period. PMID:18410001

  18. Apple Pomace Extract Improves Endurance in Exercise Performance by Increasing Strength and Weight of Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji-Woong; Shim, Jae-Jung; Choi, Il-Dong; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Ra, Jehyeon; Ku, Hyung Keun; Lee, Dong Eun; Kim, Tae-Youl; Jeung, Woonhee; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Ki Won; Huh, Chul-Sung; Sim, Jae-Hun; Ahn, Young-Tae

    2015-12-01

    Ursolic acid is a lipophilic pentacyclic triterpenoid found in many fruits and herbs and is used in several herbal folk medicines for diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the effects of apple pomace extract (APE; ursolic acid content, 183 mg/g) on skeletal muscle atrophy. To examine APE therapeutic potential in muscle atrophy, we investigated APE effects on the expression of biomarkers associated with muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. We found that APE inhibited atrophy, while inducing hypertrophy in C2C12 myotubes by decreasing the expression of atrophy-related genes and increasing the expression of hypertrophy-associated genes. The in vivo experiments using mice fed a diet with or without APE showed that APE intake increased skeletal muscle mass, as well as grip strength and exercise capacity. In addition, APE significantly improved endurance in the mice, as evidenced by increased exhaustive running time and muscle weight, and reduced the expression of the genes involved in the development of muscle atrophy. APE also decreased the concentration of serum lactate and lactate dehydrogenase, inorganic phosphate, and creatinine, the indicators of accumulated fatigue and exercise-induced stress. These results suggest that APE may be useful as an ergogenic functional food or dietary supplement. PMID:26331671

  19. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Presentación, M Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers' performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents' and teachers' ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25972833

  20. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Presentación, M. Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers’ performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents’ and teachers’ ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25972833